García-Moya, Irene; Suominen, Sakari; Moreno, Carmen
Background: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization and its impact on physical and psychological complaints in a representative sample of adolescents and to explore the role of sense of coherence (SOC) in victimization prevalence and consequences. Methods: A representative sample of Spanish adolescents (N =…
Full Text Available Women are at lower risk of stroke, and appear to benefit less from carotid endarterectomy (CEA than men. We hypothesised that this is due to more benign carotid disease in women mediating a lower risk of recurrent cerebrovascular events. To test this, we investigated sex differences in the prevalence of MRI detectable plaque hemorrhage (MRI PH as an index of plaque instability, and secondly whether MRI PH mediates sex differences in the rate of cerebrovascular recurrence.Prevalence of PH between sexes was analysed in a single centre pooled cohort of 176 patients with recently symptomatic, significant carotid stenosis (106 severe [≥70%], 70 moderate [50-69%] who underwent prospective carotid MRI scanning for identification of MRI PH. Further, a meta-analysis of published evidence was undertaken. Recurrent events were noted during clinical follow up for survival analysis.Women with symptomatic carotid stenosis (50%≥ were less likely to have plaque hemorrhage (PH than men (46% vs. 70% with an adjusted OR of 0.23 [95% CI 0.10-0.50, P<0.0001] controlling for other known vascular risk factors. This negative association was only significant for the severe stenosis subgroup (adjusted OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.067-0.50 not the moderate degree stenosis. Female sex in this subgroup also predicted a longer time to recurrent cerebral ischemic events (HR 0.38 95% CI 0.15-0.98, P = 0.045. Further addition of MRI PH or smoking abolished the sex effects with only MRI PH exerting a direct effect. Meta-analysis confirmed a protective effect of female sex on development of PH: unadjusted OR for presence of PH = 0.54 (95% CI 0.45-0.67, p<0.00001.MRI PH is significantly less prevalent in women. Women with MRI PH and severe stenosis have a similar risk as men for recurrent cerebrovascular events. MRI PH thus allows overcoming the sex bias in selection for CEA.
Álvarez-García, David; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Núñez, José-Carlos
The objective of the present work is to analyse the prevalence of cyber-aggression and cyber-victimization among adolescents in Asturias (Spain) and to identify possible gender differences. To this end, 3,175 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years were randomly selected from the student population attending compulsory secondary education in Asturias and…
Full Text Available Shawn D Aaron,1 Andrea S Gershon,2 Yuan Gao,1 Jenna Yang,1 GA Whitmore1,3 On behalf of the Canadian Respiratory Research Network 1Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, 2Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, ON, 3Desautels Faculty of Management, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada Purpose: Studies suggest that COPD prevalence may vary between countries. We conducted an ecological study of data from COPD prevalence articles to assess the influence of differences in country-level risk factors on COPD prevalence. Patients and methods: Our study covered English language articles published during 2003–2014. Qualified articles used spirometry to assess COPD prevalence and used representative samples from national or subnational populations. Stepwise binomial regression was used to analyze associations between study- and country-level factors and COPD prevalence. Results: Eighty articles provided 1,583 measures of COPD prevalence for subjects in different sex, age, and smoking categories for 112 districts in 41 countries. Adjusted prevalence rates for COPD were significantly lower for Australia/New Zealand and the Mediterranean and significantly higher for Latin America, compared to North America, Southeast Asia, and Northern Europe. Country-level socioeconomic development variables had an uneven and mixed association with COPD prevalence. High elevation above sea level was shown to be a protective factor for COPD. Study-level variables for the established risk factors of sex, age, and smoking explained 64% of variability in COPD prevalence. Country-level risk factors raised the explanatory power to 72%. Approximately 28% of worldwide variability in COPD prevalence remained unexplained. Conclusion: Our study suggests that COPD prevalence varies across world regions, even after adjustment for established risk factors. Major country-level risk factors contributing to the worldwide epidemic of COPD remain
Full Text Available Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.
Richardson, David B; Kinlaw, Alan C; MacLehose, Richard F; Cole, Stephen R
Epidemiologists often analyse binary outcomes in cohort and cross-sectional studies using multivariable logistic regression models, yielding estimates of adjusted odds ratios. It is widely known that the odds ratio closely approximates the risk or prevalence ratio when the outcome is rare, and it does not do so when the outcome is common. Consequently, investigators may decide to directly estimate the risk or prevalence ratio using a log binomial regression model. We describe the use of a marginal structural binomial regression model to estimate standardized risk or prevalence ratios and differences. We illustrate the proposed approach using data from a cohort study of coronary heart disease status in Evans County, Georgia, USA. The approach reduces problems with model convergence typical of log binomial regression by shifting all explanatory variables except the exposures of primary interest from the linear predictor of the outcome regression model to a model for the standardization weights. The approach also facilitates evaluation of departures from additivity in the joint effects of two exposures. Epidemiologists should consider reporting standardized risk or prevalence ratios and differences in cohort and cross-sectional studies. These are readily-obtained using the SAS, Stata and R statistical software packages. The proposed approach estimates the exposure effect in the total population. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
Waziri, Salisu Ibrahim; Mohamed Nor, Norashidah; Raja Abdullah, Nik Mustapha; Adamu, Peter
The productivity of countries around the globe is adversely affected by the health-related problems of their labour force. This study examined the effect of the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and life expectancy on the economic growth of 33 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries over a period of 11 years (2002-2012). The study employed a dynamic panel approach as opposed to the static traditional approach utilised in the literature. The dynamic approach became eminent because of the fact that HIV/AIDS is a dynamic variable as its prevalence today depends on the previous years. The result revealed that HIV/AIDS is negatively correlated with economic growth in the region, with a coefficient of 0.014, and significant at the 1% level. That is, a 10% increase in HIV/AIDS prevalence leads to a 0.14% decrease in the GDP of the region. Tackling HIV/AIDS is therefore imperative to the developing Sub-Saharan African region and all hands must be on deck to end the menace globally.
O'Connor, Maja; Lasgaard, Mathias; Spindler, Helle
The diagnostic criteria for PTSD have undergone several changes in the last two decades. This may in part explain the great variance in PTSD prevalence found in existing research. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of different diagnostic criteria and different combinations...... of criteria on PTSD prevalence. A sample of 242 Danish social work students (M =29.2 years) completed a list of potentially traumatizing events, major life events and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. A considerable difference in PTSD prevalence as a result of different diagnostic criteria of PTSD was found...
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Rosselli, Francine; Perrin, Nancy; DeBar, Lynn; Wilson, G Terence; May, Alexis; Kraemer, Helena C
This study examined gender differences in prevalence of eating disorder symptoms including body image concerns (body checking or avoidance), binge eating, and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. A random sample of members (ages 18-35 years) of a health maintenance organization was recruited to complete a survey by mail or on-line. Items were drawn from the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Body Shape Questionnaire. Among the 3,714 women and 1,808 men who responded, men were more likely to report overeating, whereas women were more likely to endorse loss of control while eating. Although statistically significant gender differences were observed, with women significantly more likely than men to report body checking and avoidance, binge eating, fasting, and vomiting, effect sizes ("Number Needed to Treat") were small to moderate. Few studies of eating disorders include men, yet our findings suggest that a substantial minority of men also report eating disorder symptoms.
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Rosselli, Francine; Perrin, Nancy; DeBar, Lynn; Wilson, G. Terence; May, Alexis; Kraemer, Helena C.
Objective This study examined gender differences in prevalence of eating disorder symptoms including body image concerns (body checking or avoidance), binge eating, and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. Method A random sample of members (ages 18 to 35) of a health maintenance organization was recruited to complete a survey by mail or on-line. Items were drawn from the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results Among the 3,714 women and 1,808 men who responded, men were more likely to report overeating whereas women were more likely to endorse loss of control while eating. Although statistically significant gender differences were observe, with women significantly more likely than men to report body checking and avoidance, binge eating, fasting, and vomiting, effect sizes (“Number Needed to Treat”) were small to moderate. Conclusions Few studies of eating disorders include men, yet our findings suggest that a substantial minority of men also report eating disorder symptoms. PMID:19107833
Umeh, Kanayo; Mackay, Michael; Le-Brun, Stephanie Davis
Uptake of information and communication technology (ICT) by individuals with diabetes can assist nursing care delivery, and improve patient outcomes. However, it is unclear how such uptake relates to ethnic differences in diabetes risk. To assess the moderating effects of ICT uptake on South Asian excess diabetes prevalence over a specific elapsed timeframe, accounting for selected environmental, socio-economic, and behavioural risk factors. Archived data from a UK Office for National Statistics household survey 2006-2011 (120 621 partly non-orthogonal participant records) were analysed using hierarchical binary logistic regression analyses. ICT uptake qualified ethnic differences in diabetes prevalence. Non-smoking diabetes cases living in terraced housing with a home computer were more likely to be South Asian than Caucasian. By contrast, such cases were more likely to be Caucasian if a computer was unavailable (OR: 0.61; CI: 0.43-0.86; P=0.005). Furthermore, diabetes cases from low-income, mobile-dependent homes were probably South Asian (OR: 0.05; CI: 0.00-0.50; P=0.012). Home computing was linked to better tobacco control among South Asians with diabetes living in terraced properties. Mobile phone dependence was pronounced in those that received income support. Implications for nursing care are considered.
Sánchez-Chaparro, Miguel-Angel; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva; González-Quintela, Arturo; Fernández-Labandera, Carlos; Cabrera, Martha; Sáinz, Juan-Carlos; Fernández-Meseguer, Ana; Banegas, José R.; Ruilope, Luis-Miguel; Valdivielso, Pedro; Román-García, Javier
OBJECTIVE—To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Spanish working population and determine how the prevalence varies according to occupation and sex. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cross-sectional study of 259,014 workers (mean age 36.4 years, range [16–74]; 72.9% male) who underwent a routine medical checkup. The Adult Treatment Panel III (2001) definition for metabolic syndrome was used. RESULTS—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 11.6% (95% CI 11.5–11.7) in male subjects and 4.1% (4.0–4.2) in female subjects and increased with age. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varied in the different categories of occupational activity depending on the sex considered. Among female subjects, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in blue-collar than in white-collar workers, but this difference was not evident among male workers. CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varies in the different categories of occupational activity in the Spanish working population. This variation also depends on sex. PMID:18753667
Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Grønli, Janne; Pallesen, Ståle
To estimate lifetime and current prevalence (defined as having experienced the specific parasomnia at least once during the last 3 months) of different parasomnias in the general population. In addition, to study the relationship between the different parasomnias and gender, depressive mood, and symptoms of sleep apnea, insomnia and restless legs, as well as estimating the prevalence of having multiple parasomnias. Population based cross-sectional study. One thousand randomly selected adults (51% female), 18years and above, participated in a telephone interview in Norway. Lifetime prevalence of the different parasomnias varied from about 4% to 67%. For sleep walking lifetime prevalence was 22.4% and current prevalence 1.7%. For the other parasomnias, lifetime and current prevalence were as follows: sleep talking 66.8% and 17.7%, confusional arousal 18.5% and 6.9%, sleep terror 10.4% and 2.7%, injured yourself during sleep 4.3% and 0.9%, injured somebody else during sleep 3.8% and 0.4%, sexual acts during sleep 7.1% and 2.7%, nightmare 66.2% and 19.4%, dream enactment 15.0% and 5.0%, sleep related groaning 31.3% and 13.5%, and sleep-related eating 4.5% and 2.2%. Depressive mood was associated with confusional arousal, sleep terror, sleep-related injury, and nightmare. There were few associations between the parasomnias and gender and symptoms of sleep apnea, insomnia, and restless legs, respectively. About 12% reported having five or more parasomnias. This is one of few population based studies investigating the prevalence of parasomnias. Several parasomnias were highly prevalent in the general population. The data need to be interpreted with caution due to methodological issues, i.e., low response rate and single questions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gartner, Danielle R; Taber, Daniel R; Hirsch, Jana A; Robinson, Whitney R
Although obesity disparities between racial and socioeconomic groups have been well characterized, those based on gender and geography have not been as thoroughly documented. This study describes obesity prevalence by state, gender, and race and/or ethnicity to (1) characterize obesity gender inequality, (2) determine if the geographic distribution of inequality is spatially clustered, and (3) contrast the spatial clustering patterns of obesity gender inequality with overall obesity prevalence. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to calculate state-specific obesity prevalence and gender inequality measures. Global and local Moran's indices were calculated to determine spatial autocorrelation. Age-adjusted, state-specific obesity prevalence difference and ratio measures show spatial autocorrelation (z-score = 4.89, P-value obesity prevalence and obesity gender inequalities are not the same. High and low values of obesity prevalence and gender inequalities cluster in different areas of the United States. Clustering of gender inequality suggests that spatial processes operating at the state level, such as occupational or physical activity policies or social norms, are involved in the etiology of the inequality and necessitate further attention to the determinates of obesity gender inequality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prevalence and awareness of obesity among people of different age groups in educational institutions in Morogoro, Tanzania. ... The four institutions included a primary and a secondary school, a teacher's training college and a university. ... Employed subjects had higher rate of obesity (22.2%) than pupils or students.
Sassen, Monika; Kraus, Ludwig; Bühringer, Gerhard
The paper aims at investigating whether survey methodology has recently converged to justify the common practice of comparing prevalence estimates and interpreting differences within and between countries. To this end, prevalence studies of problem (PrG) and pathological gambling (PG) published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010 were critically reviewed. A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted within various databases and major gambling journals. In a two-step search process, a total of 39 studies reporting current prevalence data of non-clinical national samples from different countries were identified. Analyses revealed wide ranges in estimated PrG/PG rates for adults, adolescents, and college students, whereas similar estimates were reported in two studies on PrG/PG in seniors. Despite the discussion on methodological consistency in the field of gambling research, comparability of the reported estimates was found to be still highly limited by major variation between studies with regard to survey description, administration format, exclusion criteria, assessment instrument, cut-off scores, sample frame, and reference period. The interpretation of differences in PrG and PG prevalence estimates within and between countries may be improved by using valid and reliable instruments and by applying comparable survey methodology in well-defined populations. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cilantro, the leaf of the Coriandrum sativum plant, is an herb that is widely consumed globally and has purported health benefits ranging from antibacterial to anticancer activities. Some individuals report an extreme dislike for cilantro, and this may explain the different cilantro consumption habits between populations. However, the prevalence of cilantro dislike has not previously been reported in any population. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of cilantro dislike among different ethnocultural groups from a population of young adults living in Canada. Subjects (n = 1,639 between the ages of 20 and 29 years were participants of the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Individuals rated their preference for cilantro on a 9-point scale from ‘dislike extremely’ to ‘like extremely’. Subjects also had the option to select ‘have not tried’ or ‘would not try’. Subjects who selected 1 to 4 were classified as disliking cilantro. Results The prevalence of dislike ranged from 3 to 21%. The proportion of subjects classified as disliking cilantro was 21% for East Asians, 17% for Caucasians, 14% for those of African descent, 7% for South Asians, 4% for Hispanics, and 3% for Middle Eastern subjects. Conclusions These findings show that the prevalence of cilantro dislike differs widely between various ethnocultural groups.
Sun, Jing; Huang, Jian; Li, Wenxian; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Anxu; Huo, Junsheng; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Chunming
To compare the effects of wheat flours fortified with NaFeEDTA, FeSO4 and elemental iron (electrolytic iron), in improving iron status in anemic students. Four hundreds anemic students (11 to 18 years old) were divided into four groups and given wheat flour fortified with different iron fortificants at different concentrations: control group (no added iron); NaFeEDTA group (20 mg Fe/kg); FeSO4 group (30 mg Fe/kg); and elemental iron group (60 mg Fe/kg). The trial lasted for 6 months and the following parameters were examined every 2 months: whole blood hemoglobin, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin receptor. The flour consumption in the 4 groups was 300-400 g/person/day, accounted for 70% of total cereal consumption in the diets. There were no significant differences in flour consumption among the 4 groups. Blood hemoglobin level increased in all the 3 intervened groups, but the increment in the NaFeEDTA group was significantly higher and earlier than the other 2 groups; and only 1% of the subjected remained anemic at the end of the trial in the NaFeEDTA group, while 40% and 60% of the subjects in the FeSO4 and electrolytic iron group remained anemic, respectively. The order of improvements in free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum ferritin and transferring receptor levels were: NaFeEDTA > FeSO4 > electrolytic iron. No significant changes were found in the control group on all the tested parameters during the trial. The results indicated that even NaFeEDTA was added at a lower level, it has better effects than FeSO4 and elemental iron on controlling iron deficiency anemia and improving iron status in anemic children; while elemental iron was the least effective.
Sastry, Narayan; Gregory, Jesse
We examined the effects of Hurricane Katrina on disability-related measures of health among adults from New Orleans, U.S.A., in the year after the hurricane, with a focus on differences by age, race, and sex. Our analysis used data from the American Community Survey to compare disability rates between the pre-Katrina population of New Orleans with the same population in the year after Katrina (individuals were interviewed for the study even if they relocated away from the city). The comparability between the pre-and post-Katrina samples was enhanced by using propensity weights. We found a significant decline in health for the adult population from New Orleans in the year after the hurricane, with the disability rate rising from 20.6% to 24.6%. This increase in disability reflected a large rise in mental impairments and, to a lesser extent, in physical impairments. These increases were, in turn, concentrated among young and middle-aged black females. Stress-related factors likely explain why young and middle-aged black women experienced worse health outcomes, including living in dwellings and communities that suffered the most damage from the hurricane, household breakup, adverse outcomes for their children, and higher susceptibility. PMID:23321678
Nazir, Muhammad Mudasser; Maqbool, Azhar; Akhtar, Masood; Ayaz, Mazhar; Ahmad, Atif Nisar; Ashraf, Kamran; Ali, Asif; Alam, Muhammad Azhar; Ali, Muhammad Amjad; Khalid, Abdur Rauf; Lindsay, David S
Neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of N. caninum because they act as definitive hosts shedding oocysts in the environment. Vertical transmission of the parasite is well recognized as an important aspect of the epidemiology of the parasite but the importance of horizontal transmission has been less studied. A N. caninum competitive ELISA was used to examine serum samples from 600 dogs that were raised under 4 different living conditions. Samples from 138 dogs living on 24 dairies with a prevalence (0-70%) of anti-N. caninum antibodies in the cattle, 294 pet dogs without neurological signs, 76 from pet dogs exhibiting neurological signs, and 92 stray dogs were examined. The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum was 23.5% (95% CI = ± 2.99) in the 600 dogs. Significant (P 0.05). The prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was not significantly (P>0.05) different in dogs based on breed. These findings suggest a relationship between N. caninum infection of dogs from dairies and cattle on these dairies. However, further research is required to determine what is the most important way dogs acquire infection and how to prevent dogs from shedding oocysts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Carvalho, Taiana Silva; Pellanda, Lucia Campos; Doyle, Pat
Brazil is a large, heterogeneous, and diverse country, marked by social, economic, and regional inequalities. Stillbirth is a global concern, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This study investigated the prevalence and possible determinants of stillbirth in different regions of Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study including all women of reproductive age who had had a pregnancy in the last five years, enrolled in the most recent Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS/PNDS-2006/07). Logistic regression was used to assess the association between region and other maternal characteristics and stillbirth risk. The prevalence of stillbirth in Brazil was 14.82 per 1000 births, with great variation by region of the country, and a higher prevalence among the most deprived. The North and Northeast regions had the highest odds of stillbirth compared to the Center-West, which persisted after adjustment for multiple confounders - including deprivation level and ethnicity. Low maternal age and maternal obesity were also related to higher odds of stillbirth. In Brazil, the region influences stillbirth risk, with much higher risk in the North and Northeast. Variation in socioeconomic level does not explain this finding. Further research on the subject should explore other possible explanations, such as antenatal care and type of delivery, as well as the role of the private and public health systems in determining stillbirth. Preventive strategies should be directed to these historically disadvantaged regions, such as guaranteeing access and quality of care during pregnancy and around the time of birth. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Demmer, David H; Hooley, Merrilyn; Sheen, Jade; McGillivray, Jane A; Lum, Jarrad A G
This review provides a meta-analysed male:female prevalence ratio of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) during middle childhood in non-referred children. It also analyses sex differences in prevalence across cultures and over time. A systematic search for studies via the following sources was conducted: PsycInfo, Web of Knowledge, Medline Complete, Scopus, EMBASE, InfoRMIT, Psychological and Behavioural Sciences Collection, Cochrane Library, PubMed and ProQuest Health. The studies presented in two previous systematic reviews were also added to the search results. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were then applied and final studies were appraised for their methodological quality. Nineteen independent effect sizes met full inclusion criteria (aggregated sample N = 44,107). Overall, the prevalence of ODD was significantly higher in boys than girls (RR = 1.59, 95 % CI [1.36, 1.86], p 0.05). Sex differences in prevalence were significant in studies published prior to and post the year 2000 (RR = 1.57, 95 % CI [1.22, 2.02], p 0.05). The sex differences in ODD prevalence are discussed within the context of (i) predominant theories of sex differences in externalising behaviours, and (ii) departure from the sex-differences pattern found for other disruptive behavioural disorders.
SoonBok E. Park, RN, PhD
Conclusion: These results highlight the differences of smoking prevalence and risk factors between Korean-Chinese students and Korean students. The findings may help health educators and researchers to better understand adolescent smoking and risk factors cross culturally and aid in the development of more effective education programs, which could lead to preventing tobacco use among these populations.
Bresin, Konrad; Schoenleber, Michelle
Epidemiological research on the prevalence of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has found inconsistent results in terms of gender differences, with some studies showing a higher prevalence for women compared to men and other studies showing no difference. The goal of the current study was to use meta-analytic techniques to better conceptualize the presence and size of gender differences in the prevalence of NSSI. We also examined two factors proposed to explain gender differences in NSSI prevalence: the gender difference would be larger for clinical samples relative to community samples, and the gender difference would be larger for younger (versus older) samples. The results showed that across studies women were significantly more likely to report a history of NSSI than men. Moderator analyses showed that the gender difference was larger for clinical samples, compared to college/community samples. However, there was not a significant relation between age and effect size. Women were more likely to use some methods of NSSI (e.g., cutting) compared to men, but for other methods there was no significant difference (e.g., punching). These results increase our knowledge of NSSI and fit with a larger literature examining gender, emotion regulation, and psychopathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Depressive disorders are the most typical disease affecting many different factors of humanity. University students may be at increased risk of depression owing to the pressure and stress they encounter. Therefore, the purpose of this study is comparing the level of depression among male and female athletes and non-athletes undergraduate student of private university in Esfahan, Iran. The participants in this research are composed of 400 male and female athletes as well as no-athletes Iranian undergraduate students. The Beck depression test (BDI was employed to measure the degree of depression. T-test was used to evaluate the distinction between athletes and non-athletes at P≤0.05. The ANOVA was conducted to examine whether there was a relationship between level of depression among non-athletes and athletes. The result showed that the prevalence rate of depression among non-athlete male undergraduate students is significantly higher than that of athlete male students. The results also presented that level of depression among female students is much more frequent compared to males. This can be due to the fatigue and lack of energy that are more frequent among female in comparison to the male students. Physical activity was negatively related to the level of depression by severity among male and female undergraduate students. However, there is no distinct relationship between physical activity and level of depression according to the age of athlete and nonathlete male and female undergraduate students. This study has essential implications for clinical psychology due to the relationship between physical activity and prevalence of depression.
Pichler, Judith; Watson, Tom; McHugh, Kieran; Hill, Susan
The aetiology of biliary liver disease in children with intestinal failure treated with long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) is multifactorial. Risks include the lipid component of PN. The aim of the study was to compare prevalence and outcome of gallstones with different types of intravenous lipids. Liver and biliary tract imaging and relevant clinical details were reviewed in 71 patients (37, 52% boys) treated with PN for >3 months. Types of lipid infused were compared with regard to hepatobiliary abnormalities. In total 369 abdominal ultrasounds were performed in 71 patients of age between 3 months and 17 years. Underlying diagnoses were short bowel syndrome in 20 (28%), small intestinal enteropathy in 34 (48%), and motility disorder in 17 (24%). A total of 67 (94%) children had 362/369 scans on lipid-containing PN. Of the total, 15 (21%) patients had gallstones, 8 (11%) had sludge, and both were detected in 7 (10%) children. The gallstones/sludge resolved in 7 patients (10%) and persisted in 10 (13%). In 6 patients, sludge progressed to form discrete gallstones, and in 9 children, gallstones led to biliary duct dilatation. Four (6%) patients underwent cholecystectomy. Fewer children had abnormalities with the newer mixed lipid emulsion (P = 0.005). There was a higher prevalence of sludge (P = 0.01) on pure soya lipid. Predictors for sludge were young age at PN (P = 0.001), lack of enteral feed (P children on PN. The use of mixed lipid was associated with less biliary complications and should be the first choice of treatment in children.
Carr-Gregg, Michael; Manocha, Ramesh
The mental, physical, social and academic consequences of bullying have an enormous impact on human and social capital. This article describes the effects and prevalence of bullying on young people and presents strategies for its detection. Strategies for the facilitation of a multidisciplinary approach to bullying in adolescents are also presented. Given the existing high rate of bullying, assessment should be incorporated into a standard psychosocial screening routine in the general practitioner's clinic. Effective management is a multidisciplinary effort, involving parents, teachers and school officials, the GP, and mental health professionals. Given the variable effectiveness of schools in tackling bullying, GPs play an important role in identifying at risk patients, screening for psychiatric comorbidities, counselling families about the problem, and advocating for bullying prevention in their communities.
Au, Bonnie; Dale-McGrath, Sydney; Tierney, Mary C
More women have Alzheimer's disease (AD) than men. Understanding sex differences in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may further knowledge of AD etiology and prevention. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine sex differences in the prevalence and incidence of MCI, which included amnestic and non-amnestic subtypes. Systematic searches were performed in July 2015 using MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO for population-or community-based studies with MCI data for men and women. Random-effects model were used. Fifty-six studies were included. There were no statistically significant sex differences in prevalence or incidence of amnestic MCI. There was a significantly higher prevalence (p=0.038), but not incidence, of non-amnestic MCI among women. There were no sex differences in studies that combined both subtypes of MCI. The only statistically significant finding emerging from this study was that women have a higher prevalence of non-amnestic MCI. To better understand sex differences in the preclinical stages of dementia, studies must better characterize the etiology of the cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Conclusion: Different research was studied on the prevalence of MTB T family in various countries. In this study, Spain with 80% in 2009 had more prevalence compared with other countries. The presence of MTB T family in studies indicate effective programs and management are required to control and prevent the spread of MTB, especially the T family.
Thomsen, H.S.; Marckmann, P.; Thomsen, Henrik S.
of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a generalized fibrotic disorder, in renal failure patients. As no prospective studies can be performed we must rely on retrospective data. From those data it is obvious that the prevalence of NSF is significantly higher after the unstable agent gadodiamide than after any other...... gadolinium-based agent (3-7% versus 0-1% per injection) in patients with reduced renal function. Prevalence after exposure to two gadodiamide injections is as high as 36% in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5. No report of NSF after the most stable agents has been reported in the peer...
Encounter with depressive symptoms is one of the reasons why university students visit university counselling centres. This study sought to examine the present prevalence of depression among university students as well as gender dissimilarity in self-reported depression. 550 (male-46; female-306) randomly selected ...
The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence rate for postural deviations and body composition status among two racial groups in South Africa. The sample (n = 216) consisted of 89 African girls and 127 Caucasian girls. Anthropometric (BMI and percentage body fat) and body posture measurements were performed.
Two questionnaires were used to elicit prevalence figures and attitudes towards eating. Results: The study population (n = 418) consisted of black and white schoolgirls in various educational phases. Black students were found to experience a significant increase in reported bulimia-associated behaviours in grades seven ...
Jung, Ki Jin; Chung, Chin Youb; Park, Moon Seok; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Moon, Sang Young; Lee, In Hyeok; Kim, Ka Hyun; Lee, Kyoung Min
The T score represents the degree of deviation from the peak bone mineral density (BMD) (reference standard) in a population. Little has been investigated concerning the age at which the BMD reaches the peak value and how we should define the reference standard BMD in terms of age ranges. BMDs of 9,800 participants were analyzed from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database. Five reference standards were defined: (1) the reference standard of Japanese young adults provided by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry machine manufacturer, (2) peak BMD of the Korean population evaluated by statistical analysis (second-order polynomial regression models), (3) BMD of subjects aged 20-29 years, (4) BMD of subjects aged 20-39 years, and (5) BMD of subjects aged 30-39 years. T-scores from the five reference standards were calculated, and the prevalence of osteoporosis was evaluated and compared for males and females separately. The peak BMD in the polynomial regression model was achieved at 26 years in males and 36 years in females in the total hip, at 20 years in males and 27 years in females in the femoral neck, and at 20 years in males and 30 years in females in the lumbar spine. The prevalence of osteoporosis over the age of 50 years showed significant variation of up to two fold depending on the reference standards adopted. The age at which peak BMD was achieved was variable according to the gender and body sites. A consistent definition of peak BMD needs to be established in terms of age ranges because this could affect the prevalence of osteoporosis and healthcare policies.
This study investigated the prevalence, causes and effects of academic corruption in Rivers State universities, Nigeria. Data were collected from 400 respondents using a 'Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Academic Corruption Questionnaire' (PCEACQ). The data were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages.
H. S. Al-Bakry
Full Text Available The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul city during 2005-2007. In addition, the work aimed to investigate the effects of possible relationships between age, sex, season of the year, weight and health status on the incidence of the disease. Three species of pigeons were included viz, stock dove (Columba oenas, rock mountain dove (C. livia, and collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto.Examination of 250, 200 and 40 doves of the three fore–mentioned groups of birds indicated prevalence rates of 22%, 17.5% and 10%, for the three species, respectively. High infection rates were reported in squabs of all birds of the three groups. Regarding the effect of sex on the infection rate, the results revealed high percentage of infection were seen in male stock doves and female rock doves in comparison with their counterparts, however similar rates were observed in both sexes of collared doves. Also, it was found that there was an impact of season of the year on the prevalence rates of the parasite, so the infection was increased in spring and winter more than other seasons, for all birds studied. Depending upon our findings, factors such as body weight and health status have no effects on incidence of the disease.
Estimates of the incidence of major classes of parental care by birds are drawn from classical studies that preceded both the publication of a massive secondary literature and the revolution driven by molecular approaches to avian phylogeny. Here, I review this literature in the light of new phylogenetic hypotheses and estimate the prevalence of six distinct modes of care: use of geothermal heat to incubate eggs, brood parasitism, male only care, female only care, biparental care and cooperative breeding. Female only care and cooperative breeding are more common than has previously been recognized, occurring in 8 and 9% of species, respectively. Biparental care by a pair bonded male and female is the most common pattern of care but at 81% of species, the pattern is less common than once believed. I identify several problems with existing hypotheses for the evolution of parental care and highlight a number of poorly understood contrasts which, once resolved, should help elucidate avian social evolution. PMID:16777726
Hiwa Mohamadi; Reza Nilipour; Fariba Yadegari
Objectives: It has been noted that stuttering is more prevalent in bilinguals than in monolinguals. The similarities of the languages involved have been mentioned to justify the difference between stuttering prevalence among bilingual and monolingual speakers. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of language similarities on prevalence of stuttering among Kurdish-Farsi bilingual students. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive analytic study, we examined all of Javanrou...
Zwerver, Johannes; Bredeweg, Steven W.; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge
Background: The prevalence of jumper's knee among nonelite athletes from different sports is unknown. Purpose: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of jumper's knee in nonelite athletes from different sports and to determine potential risk factors for jumper's knee. Design: Cohort
Ahmed E. Mansour
Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.
Khazaeli, Payam; Mehrabani, Mitra; Heidari, Mahmoud Reza; Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Lari Najafi, Moslem
Mycotoxins are natural toxins, produced by several fungal species and are associated with morbidity or even mortality in animals, plants, and humans. In this study, 120 samples of herbs and spices in both bulk and packaged forms were prepared in order to measure aflatoxin level in different regions of Iran. The aflatoxin was extracted during Mar to May 2015, using 80% methanol and then purified via immunoaffinity column. Measurements were performed, using high-performance liquid chromatography, equipped with a fluorescence detection system at excitation and emission wavelengths of 365 and 435 nm, respectively. The highest prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in food products was attributed to aflatoxin B1 (30.8%). In addition, the highest prevalence of aflatoxin contamination was reported in red pepper (100%). Examination of effective factors indicated the substantial impact of moisture on aflatoxin level ( P =0.046). Even at low levels of aflatoxin, contamination could be a serious threat, given the prevalent use of spices (either raw or not) as ingredients in food preparation. Therefore, regular monitoring of spices, especially chili pepper, is highly recommended.
Pantaleo, Nicholas P; Hening, Wayne A; Allen, Richard P; Earley, Christopher J
This study was designed to evaluate the associated risk of RLS with pregnancy in relation to the family history and the age of symptom onset of RLS. Data from a prior RLS family history study in which 1019 subjects (527 males, 492 females) were interviewed, provided a diagnosis and characterization of RLS and determination of pregnancy status on which the current study analysis was undertaken. In the family members of RLS probands, the prevalence of RLS was significantly higher for parous women than for nulliparous women (49.5% vs. 33.7%, OR=1.92, 95% CI=1.16-3.19) or for men (49.5% vs. 30.0%, OR 2.29, 1.69-3.10), but no different for nulliparous women compared to men (33.7% vs. 30.0%, OR 1.19, 0.72-1.96). When only those whose RLS started at or after age 30 were considered, similar differences occurred. These differences were not observed among family members of control probands. These data indicate pregnancy has a major impact on the risk of developing RLS for those with a family history of RLS. This pregnancy effect appears to account for most of the gender differences often reported in overall RLS prevalence data. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nov 3, 2010 ... Gluck ME, Geliebter A. Racial/ethnic differences in body image and eating behaviours. Eat Behav. 2002;3:143–151. 9. O'Dea JA, Abraham S. Improving the body image, eating attitudes and behaviours of young male and female adolescents: a new educational approach that focuses on self-esteem.
Blumenschine, Michelle; Adams, Marc; Bruening, Meg
Rural children consume more calories per day on average than urban children, and they are less likely to consume fruit. Self-service salad bars have been proposed as an effective approach to better meet the National School Lunch Program's fruit and vegetable recommendations. No studies have examined how rural and urban schools differ in the implementation of school salad bars. To compare the prevalence of school-lunch salad bars and differences in implementation between urban and rural Arizona schools. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional web-based survey. School nutrition managers (N=596) in the state of Arizona. National Center for Education Statistics locale codes defined rural and urban classifications. Barriers to salad bar implementation were examined among schools that have never had, once had, and currently have a school salad bar. Promotional practices were examined among schools that once had and currently have a school salad bar. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare urban and rural differences in presence and implementation of salad bars, adjusting for school-level demographics and the clustering of schools within districts. After adjustment, the prevalence of salad bars did not differ between urban and rural schools (46.9%±4.3% vs 46.8%±8.5%, respectively). Rural schools without salad bars more often reported perceived food waste and cost of produce as barriers to implementing salad bars, and funding was a necessary resource for offering a salad bar in the future, as compared with urban schools (Pbar promotion, challenges, or resources among schools that currently have or once had a salad bar. After adjustment, salad bar prevalence, implementation practices, and concerns are similar across geographic settings. Future research is needed to investigate methods to address cost and food waste concerns in rural areas. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martel, Michelle M
Despite the well-established sex difference in prevalence of many childhood and adolescent psychopathological conditions, no integrative metatheory of sex differences in psychopathology exists. This review attempts to provide a metatheoretical framework to guide empirical examination of sex differences in prevalence of childhood-onset "externalizing" and adolescent-onset "internalizing" disorders, based on sexual selection evolutionary theory. Sexual selection theory suggests important between-sex differences in markers, mechanisms, etiology, and developmental timing of risk and resilience relevant to psychopathology. Namely, sexual selection theory hypothesizes that disinhibition and sensation-seeking may be important proximate risk markers for childhood-onset externalizing disorders in males. The theory suggests that these male-biased markers may be a product of their higher exposure to prenatal testosterone, which makes them more susceptible to prenatal stressors with downstream effects on dopaminergic neurotransmission, especially for those with genetic alleles associated with lower dopaminergic function. In contrast, sexual selection theory hypothesizes that negative emotionality, empathy, and cognitive rumination may be important proximate risk markers for adolescent-onset internalizing disorders in females. The theory suggests that these markers are propagated by rapidly rising levels of estradiol at puberty that interact with cortisol and oxytocin. These hormones exert downstream effects on the serotonergic system in such a way as to increase females' sensitivity to interpersonal stressors particularly at puberty and especially for those with lower functional serotonergic activity. Such a metatheory can help integrate prior ideas about sex differences and can also generate new predictions of sex differences in markers, etiology, mechanisms, and developmental timing of common forms of psychopathology. © 2013 American Psychological Association
Torchalla, Iris; Strehlau, Verena; Li, Kathy; Aube Linden, Isabelle; Noel, Francois; Krausz, Michael
Substance use disorders (SUDs) are highly prevalent in homeless populations, and rates are typically greater among males. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common co-occurring condition among individuals with SUDs; however, little attention has been directed to examining this comorbidity in homeless populations. Although some studies indicate considerable sex differences among individuals with PTSD, it has also been suggested that sex differences in PTSD rates diminish in populations with severe SUDs. This cross-sectional study investigated SUD-PTSD comorbidity and its associations with indicators of psychosocial functioning in a sample of 500 homeless individuals from Canada. Sex-related patterns of SUD, PTSD, and their comorbidity were also examined. Males and females had similar SUD prevalence rates, but the rates of PTSD and PTSD-SUD comorbidity were higher in females. PTSD and sex were found to have significant main effects on suicidality, psychological distress, somatic symptoms, and incarceration among individuals with SUD. Sex also moderated the association of PTSD with suicide risk and psychological distress. Our results contradict assumptions that sex differences in PTSD rates attenuate in samples with severe SUDs. Organizations providing SUD treatment for homeless people should address PTSD as an integrated part of their services. SUD and integrated treatment programs may benefit from sex-specific components.
Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.
Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Malta is one of the countries with the highest MRSA prevalence in Europe, as identified from hospital blood cultures . However, community prevalence of MRSA has never previously been investigated. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of community MRSA nasal colonization in Maltese individuals and identifying the clonal characteristics of the detected isolates. Nasal swabs were collected from 329 healthy individuals who were also asked to complete a brief questionnaire about risk factors commonly associated with MRSA carriage and infection. The swabs were transported and enriched in a nutrient broth supplemented with NaCl. The presence of MRSA was then determined by culturing on MRSA Select chromogenic agar and then confirming by several assays, including catalase, coagulase and PBP2a agglutination tests. The isolates were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities and typed by microarray analysis to determine the clonal characteristics of each strain. The prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in the healthy Maltese population was found to be 8.81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.75–11.87%, much higher than that found in other studies carried out in several countries. No statistical association was found between MRSA carriage and demographics or risk factors; however, this was hindered by the small sample size. Almost all the isolates were fusidic-acid resistant. The majority were found to belong to a local endemic clone (CC5 which seems to be replacing the previously prevalent European clone UK-EMRSA-15 in the country. A new clone (CC50-MRSA-V was also characterized. The presence of such a significant community reservoir of MRSA increases the burdens already faced by the local healthcare system to control the MRSA epidemic. Colonization of MRSA in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a risk for endogenous infection and transmission to
Choi, Hayon Michelle; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kang, Dae Ryong
Although not fully understood, sex may affect both the prevalence and control rate of hypertension. The present study was designed to investigate factors associated with hypertension prevalence and control among Korean adults. We analyzed 27,887 individuals (12,089 males and 15,798 females) aged 30 years or older who participated in the fifth (2010-2012) and sixth (2013-2014) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to delineate factors associated with the prevalence and control of hypertension separately for men and women. Overall, the prevalence of hypertension was higher in men (34.6%) than in women (30.8%). However, after the age of 60 years, hypertension was more prevalent in females than in males. Regardless of sex, the older the participants were, the more likely they were to have hypertension. Factors positively associated with hypertension prevalence were old age, low education, and high BMI in women (pFactors decreasing hypertension control were white-collared women and young age, alcohol consumption in men. Sex differences in hypertension prevalence and control were discovered among Korean adults. After the age of 60, females were more likely to have hypertension and less likely to maintain hypertension control than males of the same age range. Accordingly, sex-specific approaches are recommended for effective blood pressure management.
Hosanna A. Asfaw
Full Text Available Prior studies show that perceived smoking prevalence is a significant predictor of smoking initiation. In this study, we examine racial/ethnic differences in perceived smoking prevalence and racial/ethnic differences in exposure to contextual factors associated with perceived smoking prevalence. We used cross-sectional time series data from the Legacy Media Tracking Surveys (LMTS, a national sample of 35,000 12- to 17-year-olds in the United States. Perceived smoking prevalence was the primary outcome variable, measured using an LMTS question: “Out of every 10 people your age, how many do you think smoke?” Multivariable models were estimated to assess the association between perceived smoking prevalence; race/ethnicity; and exposure to social contextual factors. Findings indicate that African American, Hispanic, and American Indian youth exhibit the highest rates of perceived smoking prevalence, while white and Asian youth exhibit the lowest. Minority youth are also disproportionately exposed to social contextual factors that are correlated with high perceived smoking prevalence. These findings suggest that disproportionate exposure to social contextual factors may partially explain why minority youth exhibit such high levels of perceived smoking prevalence.
Full Text Available Lameness in dairy cattle is the third most expensive outbreak after mastitis and reproductive disorders. 25 Holstein-Friesian herds in Hungary were observed for two years to estimate the impact of different trimming methods and managements for the controll of the incidence of lameness. Professional trimming was found to be more effective on farms with no nutritional disorders and where refurnishment works were carried out. The greatest decrease in the prevalence of lameness was observed on farms which provided professional trimming, effective footbathing, improved walking and resting surfaces and which treated severely lame cows between regular trimmings. The greatest increase in occurrence of lameness was reported on farms with on-farm trimmers and where building projects were carried out and nutritional disorders found.
Hamood Ur-Rehman Malik BSc, MD
Full Text Available Multiple risk factors can be modified to decrease asthma incidence. It is important to understand early risks to decrease exposure to harmful conditions in the environment that can trigger asthma which may not be clinically evident in children until they reach adulthood. A retrospective literature review of articles on the prevalence of asthma in the urban versus rural environment was initiated in order to understand the effect of the environment on asthma. The urban-living effect is a global problem in the face of growing population, industrialization and pollution. The socioeconomic dichotomy in the urban versus rural environment also affects access and quality of health care. Articles reviewed had differences in the urban versus rural prevalence of asthma. However, further analysis of specific risk factors and socioeconomic trends that increased susceptibility to asthma was the same in these studies. Some rural areas may have similar environmental and socioeconomic issues that place them at the same risk for the development of asthma as their urban counterparts. Urban locations generally tend to have the prototype environment that can lead to the predisposition of asthma. Ultimately, the incidence of asthma can be decreased if these environmental and socioeconomic issues are addressed. However, every effort is needed from the level of the individual to the community at large.
Sjöberg, Linnea; Karlsson, Björn; Atti, Anna-Rita; Skoog, Ingmar; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin
Depression prevalence in older adults varies largely across studies, which probably reflects methodological rather than true differences. This study aims to explore whether and to what extent the prevalence of depression varies when using different diagnostic criteria and rating scales, and various samples of older adults. A population-based sample of 3353 individuals aged 60-104 years from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) were examined in 2001-2004. Point prevalence of depression was estimated by: 1) diagnostic criteria, ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR/DSM-5; 2) rating scales, MADRS and GDS-15; and 3) self-report. Depression prevalence in sub-samples by dementia status, living place, and socio-demographics were compared. The prevalence of any depression (including all severity grades) was 4.2% (moderate/severe: 1.6%) for ICD-10 and 9.3% (major: 2.1%) for DSM-IV-TR; 10.6% for MADRS and 9.2% for GDS-15; and 9.1% for self-report. Depression prevalence was lower in the dementia-free sample as compared to the total population. Furthermore, having poor physical function, or not having a partner were independently associated with higher depression prevalence, across most of the depression definitions. The response rate was 73.3% and this may have resulted in an underestimation of depression. Depression prevalence was similar across all depression definitions except for ICD-10, showing much lower figures. However, independent of the definition used, depression prevalence varies greatly by dementia status, physical functioning, and marital status. These findings may be useful for clinicians when assessing depression in older adults and for researchers when exploring and comparing depression prevalence across studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Großschädl, Franziska; Stolz, Erwin; Mayerl, Hannes; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald
Back pain (BP) represents a widespread public health problem in Europe. The morbidity depends on several indicators, which must be investigated to discover risk groups. The examination of trends in socioeconomic developments should ensure a better understanding of the complex link between socioeconomic-status and BP. Therefore, the role of social inequalities for BP has been investigated among Austrian subpopulations over a 24-year period. Self-reported data from nationally representative health surveys (1983-2007) were analyzed and adjusted for self-report bias (N=121 486). Absolute changes (ACs) and aetiologic fractions (AF) were calculated to measure trends. To quantify the extent of social inequality, the relative index of inequality was computed based on educational levels. The prevalence of BP nearly doubled between 1983 and 2007. When investigating educational groups, subjects with low educational level were most prevalent. Obese persons generally showed higher rates of BP than non-obese subjects. Continuously rising trends across the different educational groups were more evident in men. The AC was highest in obese men with high education (+32.9%). Education-related inequalities for BP were more evident in men than women. Educational level is an important social indicator for BP. A gradient for low to high educational level in the trends of BP prevalence was clearly identified and stable only among men. We presume that the association 'education' and 'physical workload leading to BP' is more relevant for men than for women. The implementation of effective approaches to BP, in combination with target group-specific interventions focusing on educational status, is recommended. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Lebedeva, Elena R; Kobzeva, Natalia R; Gilev, Denis
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to estimate the one-year prevalence of primary headache disorders in three different social groups using the third edition beta of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population included a total.......5% in blood donors. Age-adjusted prevalence of tension-type headache (TTH) among females was almost the same in students and blood donors (68.8% and 66.7%) but female workers had a lower prevalence of TTH (57%). Age-adjusted prevalence of TTH among males did not differ significantly between students and blood...... donors (55.8% and 58.1%) but male workers had a significantly lower (p headache in students (TTH and/or migraine) was 3% and of probable medication-overuse headache 3%, significantly more than in workers and blood donors. CONCLUSION: Headache...
Bibiseyedeh Rezaeian; Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Rahmatollah Hafezi; Seyed-Jalil Mirmohammadi; Hamed Akbari
Objective Malnutrition, overweight and obesity are major health concerns in modern societies and especially among children. Overweight and obesity affect children's current and future health. It is known that the prevalence of overweight differs by race, sex, and geographic location. Methods In a cross-sectional study 30092 Iranian children aged 7-18 years in six ethnic groups were selected by a cluster sampling. Prevalence of obesity and overweight and distribution of body mass index (BMI) b...
García-Álvarez, Lara; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Blanco, José Ramón; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José Antonio
Tropheryma whipplei is the causative agent of Whipple disease. T. whipplei has also been detected in asymptomatic carriers with a very different prevalence. To date, in Spain, there are no data regarding the prevalence of T. whipplei in a healthy population or in HIV-positive patients, or in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Therefore, the aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of T. whipplei in stools in those populations. Stools from 21 HIV-negative subjects, 65 HIV-infected, and 12 CFS patients were analysed using real time-PCR. HIV-negative and positive subjects were divided into two groups, depending on the presence/absence of metabolic syndrome (MS). Positive samples were sequenced. The prevalence of T. whipplei was 25.51% in 98 stool samples analysed. Prevalence in HIV-positive patients was significantly higher than in HIV-negative (33.8% vs. 9.09%, p=0.008). Prevalence in the control group with no associated diseases was 20%, whereas no positive samples were observed in HIV-negative patients with MS, or in those diagnosed with CFS. The prevalence observed in HIV-positive patients without MS was 30.35%, and with MS it was 55.5%. The number of positive samples varies depending on the primers used, although no statistically significant differences were observed. There is a high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of T. whipplei among healthy and in HIV-infected people from Spain. The role of T. whipplei in HIV patients with MS is unclear, but the prevalence is higher than in other populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
João Paulo Schwartz
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at carrying out a radiographic analysis on the prevalence of dental anomalies of number (agenesis and supernumerary teeth in permanent dentition, in different subphenotypes of isolated cleft palate pre-adolescent patients. METHODS: Panoramic radiographs of 300 patients aged between 9 and 12 years, with cleft palate and enrolled in a single treatment center, were retrospectively analyzed. The sample was divided into two groups according to the extension/severity of the cleft palate: complete and incomplete . The chi-square test was used for intergroup comparison regarding the prevalence of the investigated dental anomalies (P < 0.05. RESULTS: Agenesis was found in 34.14% of patients with complete cleft palate and in 30.27% of patients with incomplete cleft palate. Supernumerary teeth were found in 2.43% of patients with complete cleft palate and in 0.91% of patients with incomplete cleft palate. No statistically significant difference was found between groups with regard to the prevalence of agenesis and supernumerary teeth. There was no difference in cleft prevalence between genders within each study group. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dental anomalies of number in pre-adolescents with cleft palate was higher than that reported for the general population. The severity of cleft palate did not seem to be associated with the prevalence of dental anomalies of number.
Schwartz, João Paulo; Somensi, Daniele Salazar; Yoshizaki, Priscila; Reis, Luciana Laís Savero; Lauris, Rita de Cássia Moura Carvalho; da Silva Filho, Omar Gabriel; Dalbén, Gisele; Garib, Daniela Gamba
Objective This study aimed at carrying out a radiographic analysis on the prevalence of dental anomalies of number (agenesis and supernumerary teeth) in permanent dentition, in different subphenotypes of isolated cleft palate pre-adolescent patients. Methods Panoramic radiographs of 300 patients aged between 9 and 12 years, with cleft palate and enrolled in a single treatment center, were retrospectively analyzed. The sample was divided into two groups according to the extension/severity of the cleft palate: complete and incomplete . The chi-square test was used for intergroup comparison regarding the prevalence of the investigated dental anomalies (P < 0.05). Results Agenesis was found in 34.14% of patients with complete cleft palate and in 30.27% of patients with incomplete cleft palate. Supernumerary teeth were found in 2.43% of patients with complete cleft palate and in 0.91% of patients with incomplete cleft palate. No statistically significant difference was found between groups with regard to the prevalence of agenesis and supernumerary teeth. There was no difference in cleft prevalence between genders within each study group. Conclusion The prevalence of dental anomalies of number in pre-adolescents with cleft palate was higher than that reported for the general population. The severity of cleft palate did not seem to be associated with the prevalence of dental anomalies of number. PMID:24713560
Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to measure income differences in smoking prevalence at the district level and to investigate correlations among area deprivation, smoking prevalence, and income differences in smoking prevalence, stratified by urbanity. Methods Data were pooled from the Community Health Survey data of South Korea between 2008 and 2014. The age-standardized prevalence of smoking and its interquintile income differences were calculated. We conducted correlation analyses to investigate the association of the deprivation index with smoking prevalence and interquintile differences in smoking prevalence. Results Across 245 districts, the median prevalence of smoking in men was 45.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.4 to 48.5%, with an interquartile range (IQR of 4.6% points. In women, the median prevalence was 3.0% (95% CI, 2.4 to 3.6% and IQR was 1.6% points. The median interquintile difference in smoking prevalence was 7.4% points (95% CI, 1.6 to 13.2% points in men and 2.7% points (95% CI, 0.5 to 4.9% points in women. The correlation coefficients for the association between the deprivation index and smoking prevalence was 0.58, 0.15, -0.22 in metropolitan, urban, and rural areas, respectively, among men, and 0.54, -0.33, -0.43 among women. No meaningful correlation was found between area deprivation and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence. The correlation between smoking prevalence and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence was more evident in women than in men. Conclusions This study provides evidence of geographical variations in smoking prevalence and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence. Neither smoking prevalence nor the deprivation index was closely correlated with interquintile income difference in smoking prevalence. Measuring inequalities in smoking prevalence is crucial to developing policies aimed at reducing inequalities in smoking.
Kim, Ikhan; Bahk, Jinwook; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Khang, Young-Ho
The aim of this study was to measure income differences in smoking prevalence at the district level and to investigate correlations among area deprivation, smoking prevalence, and income differences in smoking prevalence, stratified by urbanity. Data were pooled from the Community Health Survey data of South Korea between 2008 and 2014. The age-standardized prevalence of smoking and its interquintile income differences were calculated. We conducted correlation analyses to investigate the association of the deprivation index with smoking prevalence and interquintile differences in smoking prevalence. Across 245 districts, the median prevalence of smoking in men was 45.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.4 to 48.5%), with an interquartile range (IQR) of 4.6% points. In women, the median prevalence was 3.0% (95% CI, 2.4 to 3.6%) and IQR was 1.6% points. The median interquintile difference in smoking prevalence was 7.4% points (95% CI, 1.6 to 13.2% points) in men and 2.7% points (95% CI, 0.5 to 4.9% points) in women. The correlation coefficients for the association between the deprivation index and smoking prevalence was 0.58, 0.15, -0.22 in metropolitan, urban, and rural areas, respectively, among men, and 0.54, -0.33, -0.43 among women. No meaningful correlation was found between area deprivation and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence. The correlation between smoking prevalence and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence was more evident in women than in men. This study provides evidence of geographical variations in smoking prevalence and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence. Neither smoking prevalence nor the deprivation index was closely correlated with interquintile income difference in smoking prevalence. Measuring inequalities in smoking prevalence is crucial to developing policies aimed at reducing inequalities in smoking.
Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Shu-Rong
There are wide-ranging differences in human growth, not only between ethnic groups but also between regions. Shandong is one of the most populous provinces in China, with inequalities of regional economic status. However, no studies on the differences in development among children and adolescents in different districts have been reported. This study assessed the differences in height, weight and prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents of different socioeconomic status (SES) districts in Shandong, China. Data for this study were obtained from a large cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren. A total of 42 286 students (21 222 boys and 21 064 girls) aged 7-18 years from 16 districts participated in this study. Height and weight of all subjects were measured and BMI was calculated from their height and weight. Prevalence rates of obesity and overweight were determined by comparing calculated BMIs (kg/m(2)) to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs. Each of the 16 districts was assigned an SES ranking (low, moderate, high) based on per capita GDP and income in urban and rural areas. Comparisons of height, weight and the prevalence of overweight and obesity among different groups were made. Significant differences between SES groups were observed for height, weight and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Boys and girls from high SES group were taller, heavier and more likely to be obese than their peers from moderate and low SES groups. The prevalences of combined overweight and obesity in the three SES groups were 18.46%, 21.08% and 27.31% in boys and 10.43%, 12.42% and 15.18% in girls, respectively. There have been obvious regional variations in development and the prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents in Shandong, China, These variations in development and prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents among different SES districts being related to the local SES, process of urbanization, living environments, nutritional
Baker, Emma; Lester, Laurence H; Bentley, Rebecca; Beer, Andrew
Housing is a central component of productive, healthy, and meaningful lives, and a principle social determinant of health and well-being. Surprisingly, though, evidence on the ways that housing influences health in Australia is poorly developed. This stems largely from the fact that the majority of the population are accommodated in good quality housing. The dominance of a "good housing paradigm" means that households living in poor quality and unhealthy housing are doubly disadvantaged-by the quality of their housing and because policy makers in Australia do not acknowledge the health effects of housing. In this article, we examine the relationship between health outcomes and quality of housing. We base our analysis on data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, a panel dataset that is representative across Australia. We find a sizeable, policy-important, and to date under-acknowledged cohort of Australians whose health is influenced by poor-condition dwellings.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV genotype 3 and 4 can cause liver disease in human and has its main reservoir in pigs. HEV investigations in pigs worldwide have been performed but there is still a lack of information on the infection dynamics in pig populations. Findings The HEV transmission dynamics in commercial pig farms in six different European countries was studied. The data collected show prevalence in weaners ranging from 8% to 30%. The average HEV prevalence in growers was between 20% and 44%. The fatteners prevalence ranged between 8% and 73%. Sows prevalence was similar in all countries. Boar faeces were tested for HEV only in Spain and Czech Republic, and the prevalence was 4.3% and 3.5% respectively. The collected data sets were analyzed using a recently developed model to estimate the transmission dynamics of HEV in the different countries confirming that HEV is endemic in pig farms. Conclusions This study has been performed using similar detection methods (real time RT-PCR for all samples and the same model (SIR model to analyse the data. Furthermore, it describes HEV prevalence and within-herd transmission dynamics in European Countries (EU: Czech Republic, Italy, Portugal, Spain, The Netherlands and United Kingdom, confirming that HEV is circulating in pig farms from weaners to fatteners and that the reproductive number mathematical defined as R0 is in the same range for all countries studied.
Zwerver, Johannes; Bredeweg, Steven W; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge
The prevalence of jumper's knee among nonelite athletes from different sports is unknown. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of jumper's knee in nonelite athletes from different sports and to determine potential risk factors for jumper's knee. Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 2. The authors interviewed 891 male and female nonelite athletes from 7 popular sports in The Netherlands: basketball, volleyball, handball, korfball, soccer, field hockey, and track and field. Using a specially developed questionnaire, information was obtained about individual characteristics (age, height, and weight), training background, previous and actual knee problems, and the VISA-P (Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella) score. The overall prevalence of current jumper's knee was 8.5% (78 of 891 athletes), showing a significant difference between sports with different loading characteristics. Prevalence was highest among volleyball players (14.4%) and lowest among soccer players (2.5%); it was significantly higher among male athletes (51 of 502 [10.2%]) than female athletes (25 of 389 [6.4%]) (χ(2) = 3.91, P = .048). The mean duration of symptoms was 18.9 months (standard deviation [SD], 21.6; median value, 12.0; range, 2.0-59.8). The mean VISA-P score of the athletes with jumper's knee was 71.4 (SD, 13.8). Athletes with jumper's knee were significantly younger, taller, and heavier than those without jumper's knee. Prevalence of jumper's knee is high among nonelite athletes and varies between 14.4% and 2.5% for different sports. Jumper's knee is almost twice as common among male nonelite athletes compared with female athletes. Different sport-specific loading characteristics of the knee extensor apparatus, a younger age, a taller body stature, and higher body weight seem to be risk factors associated with patellar tendinopathy.
Scarpa, Angela; Hurley, Jimmy D.; Shumate, Howard W.; Haden, Sara Chiara
This study extends findings on community violence (CV) exposure in young adults by examining the prevalence, characteristics, and socioemotional effects related to hearing about violence. Surveys of lifetime CV exposure and socioemotional outcomes were completed by 518 male and female undergraduates completed and were divided into groups with…
Objective: This study was intended to assess the prevalence, determinants, and effect of khat use on academic performance of high school students in Sidama Ethiopia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2015. We used a stratified sampling technique to draw a total of 1,577students.
Prevalence, perceived benefits and effectiveness of herbal medicine in the management of symptoms of opportunistic fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients in the Eastern ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... More than one-third (39.6%, 40/101) was reported to be using herbal medicine for treating signs/symptoms of OFIs.
Krom, Hilde; van Zundert, Suzanne M. C.; Otten, Marie-Anne G. M.; van der Sluijs Veer, Liesbeth; Benninga, Marc Alexander; Kindermann, Angelika
Tube feeding ensures growth, but can have negative effects on health and psychosocial functioning, resulting in health related costs. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of pediatric home tube feeding in the Netherlands and to assess the clinical characteristics of tube fed
Prevalence, Reasons, and Perceived Effects of Khat Chewing Among Students of a College in Gondar Town, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Cross‑sectional Study. ... Among chewers, 83.1% (108/130) reported they faced problem associated to sleep disturbance, 82.3% (107/130) loss of appetite, and 80.8% (105/130) ...
Effects of weed management on the prevalence of pink pineapple mealybugs in Ghana. JW Tachie-Menson, J Sarkodie-Addo, AG Carlson. Abstract. An on-farm experiment was conducted in August 2010 to evaluate the efficacy of various weed management methods used in pineapple cultivation in Ghana in limiting the ...
Prevalence, types, causes and effects. Dr Muhammad Ilyas, Specialist Registrar Acute Medicine, St Mary's Hospital Isle of Wight, UK*. * muhammad_ilyas73 AT yahoo.com. Introduction. Arterial hypertension is a common and preventable cardiovascular risk factor, leading to about 1.7 million deaths/year worldwide.
Prevalence of Malnutrition and Effects of Maternal Age, Education and Occupation Amongst Preschool Children Attending Health Centres in a Semi Urban Area of South Western Nigeria. ... Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine ... Children between the ages of 6-11 months had the highest risk for malnutrition.
This study assessed prevalence of mastitis and effectiveness of mastitis control in dairy cattle in Mathira constituency. Data regarding occurrence of mastitis, farmers' current practices in mastitis control, and administering a questionnaire to 76 smallholder farmers collected their knowledge about dairy cow mastitis. Quarter ...
Raña, P; Pérez-Ríos, M; Santiago-Pérez, M I; Crujeiras, R M
Since 2011, smoking legislation was hardened in Spain, banning tobacco consumption in all hospitality venues. Law 42/2010 was the first comprehensive tobacco control policy enacted in Spain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect that this intervention has had in reducing the prevalence of tobacco consumption, setting up three scenarios on the basis of different theoretical levels of effect of the law. A predictive model based on Markov Chains was developed to distinguish the effect of tobacco control policies in different scenarios. The model developed uses population, smoking rates and smoking characteristics from a non-transmissible disease surveillance system developed in Galicia (namely SICRI). Results show that tobacco control policies hardly affect the predicted trend in a temporal frame of 10 years, with relative reduction in the predicted male smoking prevalence of 20.4% with no intervention, reaching a reduction of 26.1% under the maximum effect of the policies. In the global population the effects of the law in the predicted prevalence have been barely perceived. For people under 25 years of age, interventions have had an important and positive effect, which proves that policies affecting this age group should be hardened. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: It has been noted that stuttering is more prevalent in bilinguals than in monolinguals. The similarities of the languages involved have been mentioned to justify the difference between stuttering prevalence among bilingual and monolingual speakers. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of language similarities on prevalence of stuttering among Kurdish-Farsi bilingual students. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive analytic study, we examined all of Javanroud’s schools’ bilingual students. We used teacher referral method for the primary screening of speech disorders. Essential information about speech disorders, specifically stuttering, had been given to teachers before this primary step. The bilingual researcher then diagnosed stuttering students based on DSM-IV criteria through personal interview, text reading, and spontaneous speech in Kurdish and Farsi. Results: Among 11425 bilingual students of Javanroud’s schools, 129 students were identified as stutterers. These findings indicated that overall prevalence of stuttering in this population is 1.13%. Among elementary, guidance and high school students the prevalence of stuttering was 2.06%, 0.87% and 0.5% respectively. Prevalence of stuttering among boys was 1.35% and 0.88% among girls. An overall male/female ratio was 1.5/1. Prevalence of stuttering in elementary, guidance and high school differed significantly (P=0.000. Prevalence of stuttering in males was significantly higher than females (P=0.034. Discussion: Prevalence of stuttering among Javanroud’s bilingual students was higher than the universal accepted prevalence in monolinguals (1% but lower than other studies in bilingual population. The similarities of Kurdish and Farsi languages play an important role in this and are discussed in the paper.
Hansen, B R; Petersen, J; Haugaard, S B
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a subject of debate. We investigated the prevalence of MS in a cohort of Danish HIV-infected patients and estimated the effect of the various classes of antiretroviral...... Education Programme (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: Five hundred and sixty-six patients were included in the study, of whom 27% were diagnosed with MS. In univariate analysis, the duration of treatment with different drug classes was associated with the prevalence of MS......% confidence interval (CI) 1.73-6.74; and OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.19-3.22, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: MS is prevalent in HIV-infected Danes. However, treatment with specific drug classes does not seem to confer an elevated risk for MS, other than the risk conferred by known acute effects on triglycerides....
Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, V P; Prakash, H; Sarna, Mukesh; Sharma, A K
Differences in coronary risk factors and coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence between the Hindus and the Muslims have not been adequately studied. This study aims to determine the prevalence of certain socio-economic and biological coronary risk factors in urban communities and to compare the findings found in the Hindus and the Muslims. The study employed a cross-sectional survey design and stratified random sampling technique consisting of 1,415 males and 797 females. Among males there were 1,092 Hindus (77.2%) and 272 Muslims (19.2%) while in females there were 685 Hindus (85.9%) and 91 Muslims (11.4%). Prevalence of illiteracy and sedentary lifestyle were significantly more in Muslims (pHindu males and in 1.2% Hindu females. No Muslim reported diabetes. Hindu males were significantly taller than Muslims (163.9 +/- 8.3 versus 160.9 +/- 8.9 cm; p Hindu males the diastolic BP was significantly greater than in Muslims (81.2 +/- 9.2 versus 79.0 +/- 8.6 mm Hg; p Hindu females the mean systolic BP was significantly more and there was also difference in hypertension prevalence (35.2% versus 25.3%). CHD prevalence was significantly greater in Hindu males as compared to the Muslims when determined by the presence of either ECG changes alone (4.3% versus 0.7%; p = 0.008) or ECG changes combined with clinical history (7.1% versus 1.8%; p = 0.002). A similar, though not significant, trend was seen in females (ECG changes: 8.9% versus 6.6%, clinical and ECG changes: 10.4% versus 6.6%). The prevalence of CHD is significantly more in Hindu males as compared to the Muslims and is associated with a greater prevalence of diabetes and hypertension.
Neelam Sachan and V.P.Singh
Full Text Available Combustion of fossil fuels and human activities has led to sharp increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These climate changes have tremendous effect on prevalence of zoonotic diseases. The changes in climate may increase the insect vectors, prolong transmission cycles or increase the importation of vectors or animal reservoirs. It may also have an adverse effect on biodiversity, distribution of animals and microflora which may lead to emergence of zoonotic disease outbreaks. A historical perspective on major vector-borne diseases such as arboviral encephalitides, dengue fever and Rift Valley fever, Lyme disease, West Nile virus, malaria, plague, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and dengue fever have been shown to have a distinct seasonal pattern and in some instances their frequency has been shown to be weather sensitive. Because of the sensitivities of the vectors and animal hosts of these diseases to climactic factors, climate change-driven ecological changes such as variations in rainfall and temperature could significantly alter the range, seasonality and human incidence of many zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. The evolution of emerging zoonotic diseases globally during the period 1996 to 2007 was Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever, avian influenza H5N1, plague and Nipah virus. Whereas, bird flu and swine flu like diseases are still creating havoc for human and animal health worldwide. It is a today’s and tomorrow’s demand that interdisciplinary communication between health professionals, veterinarians, environmental scientists, ecologists, geographers and economists seeking to understand climate change will be key to protecting people in India and worldwide against these threats. Rigorous cross-disciplinary studies using a variety of methodological tools will enable us to predict the transmission dynamics of diseases under different climate scenarios and estimate the cost-effectiveness of mitigation strategies. In this
Huh, David; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Boutelle, Kerri
Despite substantial increases in the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity documented in recent decades, few studies have prospectively tracked their development during the entire adolescent period. The aims of this study were to characterize developmental trends in prevalence, incidence, and remission of overweight and obesity using annual data collected from ages 12 to 19 for 496 adolescent females. Ethnic differences between African American (n = 37), Latina (n = 96), and European American (n = 348) adolescents were also compared. The prevalence of overweight decreased slightly across adolescence and remission rates exceeded incidence (onset). Obesity was more chronic, with increasing incidence accompanied by decreasing remission rates. Middle through late adolescence was the period of greatest risk for the transition from overweight to obesity. African American and Latina females had higher overweight and obesity prevalence than European American females throughout adolescence. Differences in prevalence were driven by higher onset rates for African American and Latina females, whereas remission rates were comparable across ethnic groups. Results suggest that adolescence is not a high-risk period for onset of obesity for European American adolescent females, but is for African American and Latina adolescent females. PMID:21499888
Ghafir, Yasmine; China, Bernard; Korsak, Nicolas; Dierick, Katelijne; Collard, Jean-Marc; Godard, Claudine; De Zutter, Lieven; Daube, Georges
From 1997 to 1999, the prevalence of Salmonella was assessed at different stages through the pork, poultry, and beef meat production chains. Different dilutions of the initial sample suspension were analyzed to provide a semiquantitative evaluation of Salmonella contamination and to determine the most representative dilution necessary to detect a reduction in prevalence. An average of 300 samples for each type of meat were analyzed. According to Fisher's exact test, the dilution to be used to detect a reduction in prevalence was chosen based on an initial prevalence of 20 to 26%. Based on this introductory study, a new sampling plan representative of the nationwide Belgian meat production process was used from 2000 through to 2003. This study confirmed the consistently high rate and level of contamination of poultry meat: broiler and layer carcasses were the most contaminated samples followed by broiler fillets and poultry meat preparations. A constant and significant decrease in Salmonella prevalence was observed for pork carcasses, trimmings, and minced meat and for beef minced meat. Less than 3% of beef carcasses and trimming samples were positive for Salmonella. The Belgian plan, as utilized from 2000 to 2003, was suitable for monitoring of zoonoses because the sampling plan was representative of nationwide production processes, covered all periods of the year, and was executed by trained samplers and the analyses were carried out by recognized laboratories using an identical analytical method.
The purpose of the present investigation was to explore the potentials for motor learning in a special state of consciousness – so called lucid dreams (dreams in which the dreamers are aware that they are dreaming): its prevalence among athletes, facilitating methods and effectiveness. The contents of this dissertation are structured in the following way. The first chapter introduces the concept of mental practice in sports, reviews the evidence for its effectiveness and presents main theorie...
Onukwufor, Jonathan N.; Iruloh, Betty-Ruth Ngozi
This study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence, gender and level of schooling differences in secondary school students' level of shyness in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State. Population of the study comprised all the senior secondary school class two (SSS II) and all the Junior Secondary school class two (JSS II) students in the…
Joens-Matre, Roxane R.; Welk, Gregory J.; Calabro, Miguel A.; Russell, Daniel W.; Nicklay, Elizabeth; Hensley, Larry D.
Context: The increasing prevalence of overweight in youth has been well chronicled, but less is known about the unique patterns and risks that may exist in rural and urban environments. A better understanding of possible rural-urban differences in physical activity profiles may facilitate the development of more targeted physical activity…
Nicholson, T T
Sarcoidosis is a common multisystem disease of unknown cause and Ireland is among the countries with the highest reported prevalence of disease worldwide. Despite this, reports on the geographical distribution of disease and differences in mortality due to sarcoidosis within Northern Ireland (NI) and the Republic of Ireland (ROI) are currently lacking.
Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; Larsen, Pia V
OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence estimates of gynecological alarm symptoms in different age groups and to describe common patterns of gynecological symptoms. DESIGN: Web-based cross-sectional survey study. SETTING: Nationwide in Denmark. POPULATION: A random sample of 51 090 women aged 20 years...
Diepgen, T. L.; Ofenloch, R. F.; Bruze, M.; Bertuccio, P.; Cazzaniga, S.; Coenraads, P. -J.; Elsner, P.; Goncalo, M.; Svensson, A.; Naldi, L.
Background Population/based studies about contact allergy are scarce. Objectives To obtain reliable estimates of the prevalence of contact allergy in the general population in Europe. Methods A cross-sectional study of a random sample from the general population, aged 18-74 years, in five different
Yuan, R; Cheng, H; Chen, L-S; Zhang, X; Wang, B
Sexual transmission has become the primary route of HIV transmission in China. Therefore, a comprehensive overview of HIV-1 subtype distribution is necessary for the prevention and control of the HIV epidemic. The present study aimed to provide a comprehensive prevalence estimate of different HIV-1 subtypes in sexual transmission in China. We conducted a systematic literature review for studies of HIV-1 subtypes in English and Chinese through several databases. Eligible articles were screened and selected by two authors independently. Random-effects model were applied to calculate the pooled prevalence of different HIV-1 subtypes, and subgroup analyses examined prevalence estimates across time, locations, and populations. A total of 130 eligible studies were identified, including 18 752 successfully genotyped samples. The pooled prevalence of CRF01_AE, subtype B, CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC, and subtype C were 44·54% (95% CI 40·81-48·30), 18·31% (95% CI 14·71-22·17), 16·45% (95% CI 13·82-19·25), 2·55% (95% CI 1·56-3·73), 0·37% (95% CI 0·11-0·72), respectively. The prevalence of subtype B in sexual transmission decreased, while the prevalence of CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC in sexual transmission, and CRF08_BC in heterosexual transmission increased. There is significant variation in HIV-1 subtype distribution between regions. The distribution of HIV-1 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms have changed significantly. The high genetic variability of HIV-1 poses a significant challenge for disease control and surveillance in China.
Deng, Danqi; Hang, Yuntao; Chen, Hao; Li, Hanying
Idiopathic photodermatoses are common diseases in dermatology clinics that are associated with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The group includes a few dermatoses such as polymorphous light eruption (PLE) and chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD). The prevalence of PLE and CAD in China has not been previously reported. To investigate the population-based prevalence of polymorphous light eruption (PLE) and chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD) in six minority groups living in four regions with significantly different altitudes in the Yunnan province, a questionnaire survey was administered to 4899 residents of random villages in Yuanjiang county (Dai and Hani minorities), Kunming city (Han people and Yi minority), Lijiang county (Naxi minority), and Shangri-La county (Zang minority). The altitudes of these counties are 380 m, 1870 m, 2410 m and 3280 m a.s.l., respectively. The results showed that, first, there were 2400 males (49.0%) and 2499 females (51.0%). The prevalence of PLE was 0.65% (32/4899), and the prevalence of CAD was 0.18% (9/4899). PLE was higher among females than males (3.8 vs 1, P 0.05). Second, the prevalence of PLE was increased in higher elevations regions compared to lower elevations (P 0.05). Third, the mean times of sun exposure for PLE and CAD were 6.0 and 6.5 h/day, respectively. The mean durations of PLE and CAD were 5.8 years, and 6.6 years, respectively. The study demonstrated that the prevalence of PLE is higher than that of CAD in Yunnan, and that the prevalence of PLE is correlated with altitude.
McLean, Carmen P.; Asnaani, Anu; Litz, Brett T.; Hofmann, Stefan G.
Women have consistently higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders, but less is known about how gender affects age of onset, chronicity, comorbidity, and burden of illness. Gender differences in DSM-IV anxiety disorders were examined in a large sample of adults (N = 20,013) in the United States using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES). The lifetime and 12-month male:female prevalence ratios of any anxiety disorder were 1:1.7 and 1:1.79, respectively. Women h...
Wolanin, Andrew; Hong, Eugene; Marks, Donald; Panchoo, Kelly; Gross, Michael
There are approximately 400,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and 5-7 million high school student athletes competing each year. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, the depression prevalence rate for young adults, which ranges from 10% to 85% across studies, is higher than that of other age groups. Given the relatively high prevalence of depression in individuals of collegiate age in the general population, the prevalence of depression among athletes in this age group warrants further study. This multiyear study examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms in college athletes, as well as demographic factors related to increased or decreased rates of depressive symptoms by gender and sport. To describe the prevalence of depression symptoms among NCAA division I student athletes at a single institution over 3 consecutive years. Participants (n=465) completed a battery of measures during their yearly spring sports medicine physical across 3 consecutive years. The battery included the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and a demographic questionnaire, administered during the course of routine sports medicine physical examinations. Differences in depressive symptoms prevalence and relative risk ratios were calculated by gender and sport. The prevalence rate for a clinically relevant level of depressive symptoms, as measured on the CES-D (CES-D ≥16), was 23.7%. A moderate to severe level of depressive symptoms was reported by 6.3%. There was a significant gender difference in prevalence of depressive symptoms, χ(2) (1)=7.459, p=0.006, with female athletes exhibiting 1.844 times the risk of male athletes for endorsing clinically relevant symptoms. The CES-D identified clinically relevant levels of depressive symptoms in nearly one-quarter of college student athletes in this large cross-sectional sample. Female college athletes reported significantly more depressive symptoms than males
Lapidot-Lefler, Noam; Dolev-Cohen, Michal
Recent technological developments have added cyberspace as part of adolescents' social milieu. Bullying, which is prevalent in adolescents' social environment, also takes place in cyberspace, although it is believed to have a more potent and harmful effect. A study of cyberbullying and FtF bullying could elucidate critical implications for…
Bistra T. Galunska
Full Text Available Purpose: To determine and compare the vitamin D status of different groups CKD patients on hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or no renal replacement therapy and to evaluate the effect of vitamin D therapy. Patients and Methods: This pilot study enrolled 40 consecutive CKD patients (21 men, 19 women divided into three groups: 15 CKD patients in 1,2,3,4 stage of the disease without renal replacement therapy (RRT; 10CKD patients on hemodialysis (HD and 15 CKD patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD, ten of which were on vitamin D therapy. Vitamin D status was determined by serum 25-xydroxyvitamin D (25OHD. Results: Ninety percent of patients were in vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency; and only 4 patients (10.0% reached 25OHD levels above 75nmol/L. The median 25OHD level was 31.15nmol/L (interquartile range: 16.67-48.33nmol/L.Tendency of worse vitamin D status in women than in men was observed. Higher 25OHD levels were found in pre-dialysis patients (median 44.81nmol/L, 25%-75% percentile 16.24-52.21nmol/L and lower in HD (median 31.15nmol/L, 25%-75% percentile 13.04-64.45nmol/L and PD patients (median 33.38nmol/L, 25%-75% percentile 23.15-48.49nmol/L, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Better vitamin D status was found in the PD group of patients receiving vitamin D preparations (p<0.05. Conclusions: 25OHD deficiency/insufficiency is prevalent in renal failure patients with or without renal replacement therapy. It seems that vitamin D therapy improves the vitamin D status of PD patients. Further larger studies are needed to clarify the effect of specific type vitamin D therapy on serum 25OHD levels and clinical outcome in different groups of CKD patients.
McLean, Carmen P.; Asnaani, Anu; Litz, Brett T.; Hofmann, Stefan G.
Women have consistently higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders, but less is known about how gender affects age of onset, chronicity, comorbidity, and burden of illness. Gender differences in DSM-IV anxiety disorders were examined in a large sample of adults (N = 20,013) in the United States using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES). The lifetime and 12-month male:female prevalence ratios of any anxiety disorder were 1:1.7 and 1:1.79, respectively. Women had higher rates of lifetime diagnosis for each of the anxiety disorders examined, except for social anxiety disorder which showed no gender difference in prevalence. No gender differences were observed in the age of onset and chronicity of the illness. However, women with a lifetime diagnosis of an anxiety disorder were more likely than men to also be diagnosed with another anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, and major depressive disorder. Furthermore, anxiety disorders were associated with a greater illness burden in women than in men, particularly among European American women and to some extend also among Hispanic women. These results suggest that anxiety disorders are not only more prevalent but also more disabling in women than in men. PMID:21439576
Poh, Bee Koon; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Norimah, A Karim; Deurenberg, Paul
The prevalence of stunting, thinness, overweight, and obesity among children differs by ethnicity. It is not known whether differences in body build across the ethnic groups influence the interpretation of nutritional parameters. To explore the differences in body build across the 5 main ethnic groups in Malaysia and to determine whether differences in body build have an impact on the interpretation of nutrition indicators. A total of 3227 children aged 2.0 to 12.9 years who participated in the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia were included in this analysis. Body weight, height, sitting height, wrist and knee breadths, and biceps and subscapular skinfolds were measured, and relative leg length, slenderness index, and sum of skinfolds were calculated. Z scores for height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index-for-age (BAZ) were calculated using the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007 growth standards. Differences in relative leg length and slenderness across the ethnic groups were correlated with HAZ and BAZ. Correction for differences in body build did, in some ethnic groups, have significant impact on the prevalence of stunting, thinness, overweight, and obesity, and the pattern of prevalence across ethnic groups changed. At the population level, corrections for body build had only minor and mostly nonsignificant effects on prevalence, but at an individual level, corrections for body build placed a substantial number of children in different height or weight categories. Whether these misclassifications warrant additional assessment of body build in clinical practice will need further investigation. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available The range and infestation intensities of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode species depend on the type of swine production system. The present study focused mainly on nematodes of veterinary importance in scavenging pigs in Burkina Faso, and aimed at determining the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites by means of faecal egg per gram (EPG counts. Between November 2001 and October 2002, faecal samples from 383 pigs of different sexes and ages ( 12 months were collected from the rectum and examined for gastrointestinal nematodes parasites using the Mc Master method. Of the 383 pigs examined, 91 % were infected by one or more para sites. Ascaris suum (40 %; 100-1 400 EPG was the most prevalent parasite followed by Strongyloides ransomi (21 %; 100-4 200 EPG, Oesophagostomum spp. (18 %; 100-1 000 EPG, Hyostrongylus rubidus (11 %; 100-1 800 EPG, Globocephalus spp. 10 %; 100-400 EPG and Trichuris suis (1 %; 100-200 EPG. The prevalence was significantly higher in female pigs (n = 239 than in males. In addition, females excreted significantly (P < 0.05 more eggs in their faeces than males, except in the case of Globocephalus spp. The age of the animal had no effect on the prevalence of A. suum whereas there were significant differences in age categories concerning S. ransomi, H. rubidus, Oesophagostumum spp. and Globocephalus spp. Unexpectedly, the high prevalence of these common parasites was not accompanied by elevated EPG values, which suggests the existence of moderate infestations. The present work indicates that the common nematode infestations in pigs do not necessarily need a systematic herd anthelmintic treatment, as only a small number of worms is required to induce immunity. A further study is needed to formulate appropriate and cost-effective strategies for the control of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in pigs in Burkina Faso.
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS), its co-occurrence with asthma and fragrance sensitivity, and effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products. A nationally representative cross-sectional population-based sample of adult Americans (n = 1137) was surveyed in June 2016. Among the population, 12.8% report medically diagnosed MCS and 25.9% report chemical sensitivity. Of those with MCS, 86.2% experience health problems, such as migraine headaches, when exposed to fragranced consumer products; 71.0% are asthmatic; 70.3% cannot access places that use fragranced products such as air fresheners; and 60.7% lost workdays or a job in the past year due to fragranced products in the workplace. Prevalence of diagnosed MCS has increased over 300%, and self-reported chemical sensitivity over 200%, in the past decade. Reducing exposure to fragranced products could help reduce adverse health and societal effects.
Topè Avinash M
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited data on the prevalence rate of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS among college students attending any Historically Black College and University (HBCU, which are mostly attended by young African Americans (AA. We report the prevalence and gender differences in the components of MetS in a sample population from an HBCU campus. Methods Three hundred and seventy six (218 females and 158 males first year college students (average age 19.8 years, attending Kentucky State University, Frankfort with no prior diagnosis of illness participated in the cross sectional study. Anthropometric screenings included measurement of height, weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI. The clinical screenings included measurement of blood pressure and determination of fasting lipid and glucose concentrations. The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III and International Diabetes Federation (IDF definitions for MetS were applied. Statistics: Analysis of variance (ANOVA scores on the Means procedure were used to examine differences between genders for all anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters. Fisher’s exact chi-square tests were used to analyze the prevalence of MetS criteria per gender, the number of MetS criteria per BMI category and the prevalence of MetS criteria. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05 for all tests. Results Prevalence rates for MetS criteria varied depending on the definition used. According to the NCEP ATP definition, 31.4% of the sample population had at least 1 criterion for MetS, while 20.7% had 2 criteria. When IDF definition was applied, 21.3% sample population had 1 criterion and 17.5% had at least two criteria. Prevalence was highest for low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (37.3% and elevated fasting glucose (22.1%. On the basis of the NCEP ATP and IDF definitions, overall prevalence of MetS in the total sample was 12%, and 9
Sabah, Ahmed Ali; Gneidy, Morsy Rateb; Saleh, Naglaa Mostafa Kamel
This study determined the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with different gastrointestinal symptoms. Two hundred and six patients were collected from outpatient clinic of medical department from March to June 2014. The age was ranged between 15 years old up to 60 years old. 76 males with mean age (33.2 ± 13.5) and 130 females with mean age (32.8 ± 14.9). All patients were submitted to full clinical examination and stool examination was performed to detect Helicobacter pylori antigen and other intestinal parasites. After getting a full history, the patient was asked specifically for history of taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, presence of heart burn, epigastric pain, flatulence, nausea or vomiting passing black stool hematemesis and presence of other diseases. The results showed that 69.4% of the patients were positive for Helicobacter pylori antigen (143/206). The prevalence among males and females was the same (69.7%-69.2%). The prevalence among different age groups was not significant but; some-how high among age group of 15 up to 25 years old (70%). 72 patients out of 140 were associated with Co-infection with Entamaeba histolytica mainly or Giardia lamblia (51.4%). Epigastric pain and heart burn were representing about 90% of symptoms in patients with positive Helicobacter pylori antigen. Consequently, the prevalence of H. pylori infection is high in and around Tanta City in the Nile Delta (about 70%).
Full Text Available Aim: Mastitis is recognized as one of the most costly health disorder affecting dairy cows. An epidemiological study was carried out at some selected farms in Chittagong district of Bangladesh to determine the prevalence and risk factors of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: For conducting the study, some dairy farms of Chittagong were selected from urban and periurban areas by stratified random sampling. A total of 444 quarter samples of 111 (56 from commercial dairy farms and 55 from backyards lactating dairy cows were considered. Sub-clinical mastitis (SCM was determined using three different indirect screening tests: California Mastitis Test (CMT, White Slide Test (WST and Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT. Sensitivity and specificity were also determined to measure the accuracy of those tests. Results: The prevalence of SCM by CMT, WST and SFMT were 32.43% (n=144, 33.56% (n=149 and 31.53% (n=140, respectively. Distribution of SCM in relation to different variables at quarter level and animal level was also recorded. The prevalence of SCM was significantly (P4 than others at quarter level. No significant difference (P>0.05 was found in relation to breed. Using CMT as a gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of WST and SFMT were also calculated at 95% confidence interval. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and disease prevalence by WST and SFMT were comparable. Conclusion: This study recommends that regular screening of sub-clinical mastitis will reduce the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. The most effective way to control sub-clinical mastitis is to take preventive measures such as regular cleaning of the floor, keeping the udder clean, milkman's cleanliness, dry cow therapy specially in high yielding dairy cows.
Full Text Available This study explores whether gender, age and race differences in oral sexual behavior account for the demographic distribution of oral human papillomavirus infection (HPV and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OSCC.This analysis included 2,116 men and 2,140 women from NHANES (2009-10 who answered a behavioral questionnaire and provided an oral-rinse sample for HPV detection. Weighted prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios (PR were calculated for sexual behaviors and oral HPV infection by gender, age-cohort (20-29, 30-44, 45-59, 60-69, and race, and contrasted with incidence rate ratios (IRR of OSCC from SEER 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of oral sexual behavior and oral HPV16 infection.Differences in oral sexual behavior were observed by gender, age-cohort and race. Most men (85.4% and women (83.2% had ever performed oral sex, but men had more lifetime oral and vaginal sexual partners and higher oral HPV16 prevalence than women (each p<0.001. 60-69 year olds (yo were less likely than 45-59 or 30-44 (yo to have performed oral sex (72.7%, 84.8%, and 90.3%, p<0.001, although oral HPV16 prevalence was similar. Prevalence ratios (PR of ever oral sex in men vs. women (PR = 1.03, and 45-59 vs. 30-44 year-old men (PR = 0.96 were modest relative to ratios for oral HPV16 infection (PRs = 1.3-6.8 and OSCC (IRR = 4.7-8.1. In multivariate analysis, gender, age-cohort, and race were significant predictors of oral sexual behavior. Oral sexual behavior was the primary predictor of oral HPV16 infection; once this behavior was adjusted for, age-cohort and race were no longer associated with oral HPV16.There are differences in oral sexual behaviors when considering gender, age-cohort and race which explain observed epidemiologic differences in oral HPV16 infection across these groups.
Mustafayev, R; Civelek, E; Orhan, F; Yüksel, H; Boz, A B; Sekerel, B E
Scarcity of reliable data on food allergy prevalence exists in Turkey. We aimed to assess reported and confirmed IgE-mediated food allergy prevalence, and define the spectrum of allergenic food. We prospectively evaluated the ISAAC Phase II study population for food allergy. Participants that reported experiencing food allergy symptom in the last year and/or were skin prick test positive for a predefined list of food allergens, were interviewed via telephone, and those considered as having food allergy were invited to undergo clinical investigation, including challenge tests. A total of 6963 questionnaires were available. Parental reported food allergy prevalence and skin prick sensitisation rate were 20.2 ± 0.9% and 5.9 ± 0.6%. According to the above-defined criteria, 1162 children (symptom positive n=909, skin prick test positive n=301, both positive n=48) were selected and 813 (70.0%) were interviewed via telephone. Out of 152 adolescents reporting a current complaint, 87 accepted clinical investigation. There were 12 food allergies diagnosed in nine adolescents, with food allergy prevalence of 0.16 ± 0.11%. The most common foods involved in allergic reactions were walnut (n=3) and beef meat (n=2), followed by hen's egg (n=1), peanut (n=1), spinach (n=1), kiwi (n=1), cheese (n=1), hazelnut (n=1) and peach (n=1). While parental reported food allergy prevalence was within the range reported previously, confirmed IgE-mediated food allergy prevalence among adolescents was at least 0.16%, and the spectrum of foods involved in allergy differed from Western countries, implying environmental factors may play a role. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in sheep farming during the grazing season along the coast of south-western Norway is tick-borne fever (TBF caused by the bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus. Methods A study was carried out in 2007 and 2008 to examine the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum infection and effect on weaning weight in lambs. The study included 1208 lambs from farms in Sunndal Ram Circle in Møre and Romsdal County in Mid-Norway, where ticks are frequently observed. All lambs were blood sampled and serum was analyzed by an indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IFA to determine an antibody status (positive or negative to A. phagocytophilum infection. Weight and weight gain and possible effect of infection were analyzed using ANOVA and the MIXED procedure in SAS. Results The overall prevalence of infection with A. phagocytophilum was 55%. A lower weaning weight of 3% (1.34 kg, p A. phagocytophilum infection compared to seronegative lambs at an average age of 137 days. Conclusions The results show that A. phagocytophilum infection has an effect on lamb weight gain. The study also support previous findings that A. phagocytophilum infection is widespread in areas where ticks are prevalent, even in flocks treated prophylactic with acaricides.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect which causes significant distress or impairment in functioning. Few studies have assessed gender differences in BDD in a non clinical population. Also no study assessed BDD in medical students. This study was designed to determine the point prevalence of BDD in Pakistani medical students and the gender differences in prevalence of BDD, body foci of concern and symptoms of BDD. Methods The medical students enrolled in a medical university in Karachi, Pakistan filled out a self-report questionnaire which assessed clinical features of BDD. BDD was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria. Results Out of the 156 students, 57.1% were female. A total of 78.8% of the students reported dissatisfaction with some aspect of their appearance and 5.8% met the DSM-IV criteria for BDD. The male to female ratio for BDD was 1.7. Regarding gender differences in body foci of concern, the top three reported foci of concern in male students were head hair (34.3%, being fat (32.8%, skin (14.9% and nose(14.9%, whereas in females they were being fat (40.4%, skin (24.7% and teeth (18%. Females were significantly more concerned about being fat (p = 0.005. Male students were significantly more concerned about being thin (p = 0.01 and about head hair (p = 0.012. Conclusion BDD is fairly common in our medical student population, with a higher prevalence in males. Important gender differences in BDD symptomatology and reported body foci of concern were identified which reflected the influence of media on body image perception. The impact of cultural factors on the prevalence as well as gender differences in BDD symptomatology was also established.
Payab, Moloud; Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Merati, Yaser; Esteghamati, Alireza; Qorbani, Mostafa; Hematabadi, Mahboobeh; Rashidian, Hoda; Shirzad, Nooshin
Obesity, especially when concentrated in the abdominal area, is often associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Stress, particularly occupational stress, is one of the most important factors contributing to the increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome components among different populations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity as well as the criteria for metabolic syndrome and its risk factors and different obesity phenotype in a population of military personnel aged 20 to 65 years. This study is a retrospective cross-sectional study in which data are extracted from the database of a military hospital (2,200 participants). The records of participants contained information such as age, marital status, educational level, weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, history of drug use and smoking, as well as the results of tests including lipid profile and fasting blood glucose. The Adult Treatment Panel III criteria as well as two national criteria were used to identify metabolic syndrome among participants. Data analysis was p1erformed using SPSS version 16. The average age of participants was 33.37 (7.75) years. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to Iranian cutoff was 26.6% for the waist circumference >90 cm (585 persons) and 19.6% for the waist circumference >95 cm (432 persons). The rate of metabolic syndrome was identified as 11.1% (432 cases) according to Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results of the current study identified that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among military individuals is less than other populations, but the prevalence of the syndrome is higher than other military personnel in other countries.
Baumann, Lukas; Cina, Manuel; Egli-Gany, Dianne; Goutaki, Myrofora; Halbeisen, Florian S; Lohrer, Gian-Reto; Ali, Hammad; Scott, Pippa; Low, Nicola
Mycoplasma genitalium is a common cause of non-gonococcal non-chlamydial urethritis and cervicitis. Testing of asymptomatic populations has been proposed, but prevalence in asymptomatic populations is not well established. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of M. genitalium in the general population, pregnant women, men who have sex with men (MSM), commercial sex workers (CSWs) and clinic-based samples, METHODS: We searched Embase, Medline, IndMED, African Index Medicus and LILACS from 1 January 1991 to 12 July 2016 without language restrictions. We included studies with 500 participants or more. Two reviewers independently screened and selected studies and extracted data. We examined forest plots and conducted random-effects meta-analysis to estimate prevalence, if appropriate. Between-study heterogeneity was examined using the I 2 statistic and meta-regression. Of 3316 screened records, 63 were included. In randomly selected samples from the general population, the summary prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI 1.0% to 1.8%, I 2 41.5%, three studies, 9091 people) in countries with higher levels of development and 3.9% (95% CI 2.2 to 6.7, I 2 89.2%, three studies, 3809 people) in countries with lower levels. Prevalence was similar in women and men (P=0.47). In clinic based samples, prevalence estimates were higher, except in asymptomatic patients (0.8%, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.4, I 2 0.0%, three studies, 2889 people). Summary prevalence estimates were, in the following groups: pregnant women 0.9% (95% CI 0.6% to 1.4%, I 2 0%, four studies, 3472 people), MSM in the community 3.2% (95% CI 2.1 to 5.1, I 2 78.3%, five studies, 3012 people) and female CSWs in the community 15.9% (95% CI 13.5 to 18.9, I 2 79.9%, four studies, 4006 people). This systematic review can inform testing guidelines for M. genitalium . The low estimated prevalence of M. genitalium in the general population, pregnant women and asymptomatic attenders at clinics does not support expansion of testing to these
Hoertel, Nicolas; McMahon, Kibby; Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie M; Rodríguez-Fernández, Jorge Mario; Lemogne, Cédric; Limosin, Frédéric; Blanco, Carlos
Recent theories have proposed a metastructure that organizes related mental disorders into broad dimensions of psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing dimensions). Prevalence rates of most mental disorders, when examined independently, are substantially lower in older than in younger adults, which may affect this metastructure. Within a nationally representative sample, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; N = 43,093), we developed a dimensional liability model of common psychiatric disorders to clarify whether aging affects specific disorders or general dimensions of psychopathology. Significant age differences existed across age groups (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-75 and 75+), such that older adults showed lower prevalence rates of most disorders compared to younger adults. We next investigated patterns of disorder comorbidity for past-year psychiatric disorders and found that a distress-fear-externalizing liability model fit the data well. This model was age-group invariant and indicated that the observed lower prevalence of mental disorders with advancing age originates from lower average means on externalizing and internalizing liability dimensions. This unifying dimensional liability model of age and mental disorder comorbidity can help inform the role of aging on mental disorder prevalence for research and intervention efforts, and service planning for the impending crisis in geriatric mental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Fen; Adi, Dilare; Xie, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Shan, Chun-Fang; Huang, Ying; Chen, Bang-Dang; Gai, Min-Tao; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning
Little is known about isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) among different ethnicity groups. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for IDH among the major ethnicity population i.e. Han, Uygur and Kazakh in Xinjiang, northwestern part of China. In total, 14,618 adult participants (7,799 males, 6,819 females) were recruited from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey conducted during 2007 and 2010. Blood pressure, body mass index and standard lipid profile and fasting glucose level from plasma were measured. The overall prevalence of IDH was 10.8% in the Han, 4.5% in the Uygur and 8.7% in the Kazakh populations. When stratified by gender, IDH prevalence was 9.8% in men and 6.8% in women (P<0.001). The prevalence of IDH also varied significantly with age and it was highest in those aged 35-44 yrs old (9.7%) and lowest in those over 75 yrs old (4.1%, P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that overweight (OR = 1.179, 95%CI: 1.015-1.369) or obesity (OR = 1.202, 95%CI: 1.015-1.424), smoking (OR = 1.362, 95%CI: 1.156-1.604) and high total cholesterol (TC) hyperlipidemia (OR = 1.237, 95%CI: 1.074-1.423) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of IDH. Identified risk factors for IDH differed among ethnicity groups with male gender, young age (35-44 yrs old), more coffee or tea consumption and high TC hyperlipidemia in the Han; smoking and often coffee or tea consumption in the Uygur and male gender and overweight or obesity in the Kazakh populations. IDH prevalence in the Han population is higher than that in the Uygur and Kazak populations in Xinjiang, northwestern part of China. Male gender, middle age, overweight or obesity, smoking and high TC hyperlipidemia appear to be relevant risk factors of IDH in adults. Different ethnicity background had different sets of risk factors for IDH.
Full Text Available Little is known about isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH among different ethnicity groups. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for IDH among the major ethnicity population i.e. Han, Uygur and Kazakh in Xinjiang, northwestern part of China.In total, 14,618 adult participants (7,799 males, 6,819 females were recruited from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey conducted during 2007 and 2010. Blood pressure, body mass index and standard lipid profile and fasting glucose level from plasma were measured.The overall prevalence of IDH was 10.8% in the Han, 4.5% in the Uygur and 8.7% in the Kazakh populations. When stratified by gender, IDH prevalence was 9.8% in men and 6.8% in women (P<0.001. The prevalence of IDH also varied significantly with age and it was highest in those aged 35-44 yrs old (9.7% and lowest in those over 75 yrs old (4.1%, P<0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that overweight (OR = 1.179, 95%CI: 1.015-1.369 or obesity (OR = 1.202, 95%CI: 1.015-1.424, smoking (OR = 1.362, 95%CI: 1.156-1.604 and high total cholesterol (TC hyperlipidemia (OR = 1.237, 95%CI: 1.074-1.423 were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of IDH. Identified risk factors for IDH differed among ethnicity groups with male gender, young age (35-44 yrs old, more coffee or tea consumption and high TC hyperlipidemia in the Han; smoking and often coffee or tea consumption in the Uygur and male gender and overweight or obesity in the Kazakh populations.IDH prevalence in the Han population is higher than that in the Uygur and Kazak populations in Xinjiang, northwestern part of China. Male gender, middle age, overweight or obesity, smoking and high TC hyperlipidemia appear to be relevant risk factors of IDH in adults. Different ethnicity background had different sets of risk factors for IDH.
Bhagya, B; Sucharitha, S; Avadhani, R
Introduction: Consanguineous marriages are a common practice in the Middle East, Asian and African populations. Many studies have stated an association between first cousin marriages and the incidence of autosomal recessive diseases and congenital malformations. High frequency of consanguinity is reported by researchers among South India. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and type of consanguineous marriages among the different communities of Mangalore. Methods: Th...
Schwartz, Jo?o Paulo; Somensi, Daniele Salazar; Yoshizaki, Priscila; Reis, Luciana La?s Savero; Lauris, Rita de C?ssia Moura Carvalho; da Silva Filho, Omar Gabriel; Dalb?n, Gisele; Garib, Daniela Gamba
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at carrying out a radiographic analysis on the prevalence of dental anomalies of number (agenesis and supernumerary teeth) in permanent dentition, in different subphenotypes of isolated cleft palate pre-adolescent patients. METHODS: Panoramic radiographs of 300 patients aged between 9 and 12 years, with cleft palate and enrolled in a single treatment center, were retrospectively analyzed. The sample was divided into two groups according to the extension/severi...
Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi; Ali Salehi; Hassan Izanloo; Zahra Ghorbani; Vahid Vanaki; Reza Ramazani; Mahdi Asadi-Ghalhari
Background: Nowadays, in most bakeries in order to accelerate bread production process and reduce work pressure on bakers, harmful chemicals like baking soda are in use. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 234 bakeries in Qom, Iran, during 2017. The proportional stratified sampling met...
Renate B. Schnabel
Full Text Available Background-There are marked sex differences in cardiovascular disease [CVD] manifestation. It is largely unknown how the distribution of CVD risk factors or intermediate phenotypes explain sex-specific differences.Methods and Results-In 5000 individuals of the population-based Gutenberg Health Study, mean age 55±11 years, 51% males, we examined sex-specific associations of classical CVD risk factors with intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, flow-mediated dilation, peripheral arterial tonometry, echocardiographic and electrocardiographic variables. Intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes were related to prevalent CVD (coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, myocardial infarction, lower extremity artery disease [LEAD] N=561.We observed differential distributions of CVD risk factors with a higher risk factor burden in men. Manifest coronary artery disease, stroke, myocardial infarction and LEAD were more frequent in men; the proportion of heart failure was higher in women. Intermediate phenotypes showed clear sex differences with more beneficial values in women. Fairly linear changes towards less beneficial values with age were observed in both sexes. In multivariable-adjusted regression analyses age, systolic blood pressure and body mass index were consistently associated with intermediate phenotypes in both sexes with different ranking according to random forests, maximum model R² 0.43. Risk factor-adjusted associations with prevalent CVD showed some differences by sex. No interactions by menopausal status were observed. Conclusions-In a population-based cohort we observed sex differences in risk factors and a broad range of intermediate phenotypes of noninvasive cardiovascular structure and function. Their relation to prevalent CVD differed markedly. Our results indicate the need of future investigations to understand sex differences in CVD manifestation.
van der Maten, Erika; van den Broek, Bryan; de Jonge, Marien I; Rensen, Kim J W; Eleveld, Marc J; Zomer, Aldert L; Cremers, Amelieke J H; Ferwerda, Gerben; de Groot, Ronald; Langereis, Jeroen D; van der Flier, Michiel
The pneumococcal capsular serotype is an important determinant of complement resistance and invasive disease potential, but other virulence factors have also been found to contribute. Pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC), a highly variable virulence protein that binds complement factor H to evade C3 opsonization, is divided into two subgroups: choline-bound subgroup I and LPxTG-anchored subgroup II. The prevalence of different PspC subgroups in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and functional differences in complement evasion are unknown. The prevalence of PspC subgroups in IPD isolates was determined in a collection of 349 sequenced strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from adult patients. pspC deletion mutants and isogenic pspC switch mutants were constructed to study differences in factor H binding and complement evasion in relation to capsule thickness. Subgroup I pspC was far more prevalent in IPD isolates than subgroup II pspC The presence of capsule was associated with a greater ability of bound factor H to reduce complement opsonization. Pneumococcal subgroup I PspC bound significantly more factor H and showed more effective complement evasion than subgroup II PspC in isogenic encapsulated pneumococci. We conclude that variation in the PspC subgroups, independent of capsule serotypes, affects pneumococcal factor H binding and its ability to evade complement deposition. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.
Full Text Available Background The CDC defines a nosocomial infection as a localized or systemic condition caused by an adverse reaction to the presence of an infectious agent(s or its toxin(s. It is an infection that occurs between 48 to 72 hours after admission of patients in the hospital or as soon after the hospital discharge and on the admission time, patients don't have this infection. Objectives This study aimed to characterize the prevalence of nosocomial infection in Ghaem hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Methods This retrospective study was conducted in all wards of the Ghaem hospital, Mashhad during the 1 year period (2013; the data were collected from the wards records and HIS system and analyzed by the SPSS software (version16. Results In the present study, of total 35979 hospitalized patients in different wards of the Ghaem hospital was reported 1.1% of nosocomial infection. In the meantime, overall, the most prevalent organism was Acinetobacter baumannii with a prevalence of 37.2% and the minimum was linked to the Bacillus species with a prevalence 0.3%. The highest and lowest prevalence of the nosocomial infection was in the ICU and CCU with 49.9% and 0.3%, respectively. In general, among all wards of the mentioned hospital, the most frequent nosocomial infection was pneumonia (47.4% and the lowest belonged to CSF (2.3%. Conclusions In our study, the ICU ward was accounted for the highest rate of nosocomial infection, due to the critical importance of this ward. Preventive measures and survivelance system for reduction of nosocomial infections is needed.
Mangatt, Meghana; Wong, Kingsley; Anderson, Barbara; Epstein, Amy; Hodgetts, Stuart; Leonard, Helen; Downs, Jenny
Initially described as an early onset seizure variant of Rett syndrome, the CDKL5 disorder is now considered as an independent entity. However, little is currently known about the full spectrum of comorbidities that affect these patients and available literature is limited to small case series. This study aimed to use a large international sample to examine the prevalence in this disorder of comorbidities of epilepsy, gastrointestinal problems including feeding difficulties, sleep and respiratory problems and scoliosis and their relationships with age and genotype. Prevalence and onset were also compared with those occurring in Rett syndrome. Data for the CDKL5 disorder and Rett syndrome were sourced from the International CDKL5 Disorder Database (ICDD), InterRett and the Australian Rett syndrome Database (ARSD). Logistic regression (multivariate and univariate) was used to analyse the relationships between age group, mutation type and the prevalence of various comorbidities. Binary longitudinal data from the ARSD and the equivalent cross-sectional data from ICDD were examined using generalized linear models with generalized estimating equations. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the failure function for the two disorders and the log-rank test was used to compare the two functions. The likelihood of experiencing epilepsy, GI problems, respiratory problems, and scoliosis in the CDKL5 disorder increased with age and males were more vulnerable to respiratory and sleep problems than females. We did not identify any statistically significant relationships between mutation group and prevalence of comorbidities. Epilepsy, GI problems and sleep abnormalities were more common in the CDKL5 disorder than in Rett syndrome whilst scoliosis and respiratory problems were less prevalent. This study captured a much clearer picture of the CDKL5 disorder than previously possible using the largest sample available to date. There were differences in the presentation of
Celiksöz, Ali; Güler, Nuran; Güler, Güngör; Oztop, A Yasemin; Degerli, Serpil
The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of parasites in three socioeconomically-different regions (Alibaba, Esentepe, and Cayboyu) of Sivas, Turkey, to determine the most accurate method for the diagnosis of taeniasis and enterobiasis, to determine the importance of household visits in primary healthcare to control parasitic diseases, and to treat intestinal parasitic diseases in those regions. Both stool specimens and cellophane tape (CT) samples were taken from 1,864 participants during 641 household visits in the three regions. The age groups included were pre-school [(0-6 year(s)], primary school (7-15 years), and the upper age group (16 years and above). The total prevalence of intestinal parasites in the three regions was 37.2%. Eleven intestinal parasite species were detected in both stool specimens and CT samples. Giardia intestinalis and Enterobius vermicularis were the most frequent species identified in all the three regions. Region I (Alibaba) had a higher prevalence of parasites compared to the other two regions. There was no significant difference between Region II (Esentepe) and Region III (Cayboyu) in isolation of intestinal parasites. There were statistically significant differences between the age groups when the rates of parasitic infection were compared. The highest prevalence of parasitosis was observed among the age group of 7-15 years and in the socioeconomically lowest one of the three regions. While the most accurate way of diagnosis for taeniasis was the combined usage of the CT and direct preparation methods, the CT method was the best method for the diagnosis of enterobiasis. Thus, the local administrators in cities need to pay more attention to the prevention of parasitic infections along with improvements in educational, environmental and sanitary conditions.
Webber, Ann L; Wood, Joanne
Amblyopia, defined as poor vision due to abnormal visual experience early in life, affects approximately three per cent of the population and carries a projected lifetime risk of visual loss of at least 1.2 per cent. The presence of amblyopia or its risk factors, mainly strabismus or refractive error, have been primary conditions targeted in childhood vision screenings. Continued support for such screenings requires evidence-based understanding of the prevalence and natural history of amblyopia and its predisposing conditions, and proof that treatment is effective in the long term with minimal negative impact on the patient and family. This review summarises recent research relevant to the clinical understanding of amblyopia, including prevalence data, risk factors, the functional impact of amblyopia and optimum treatment regimes and their justification from a vision and life skills perspective. Collectively, these studies indicate that treatment for amblyopia is effective in reducing the overall prevalence and severity of visual loss from amblyopia. Correction of refractive error alone has been shown to significantly reduce amblyopia and less frequent occlusion can be just as effective as more extensive occlusion. Occlusion or penalisation in amblyopia treatment can create negative changes in behaviour in children and impact on family life, and these factors should be considered in prescribing treatment, particularly because of their influence on compliance. Ongoing treatment trials are being undertaken to determine both the maximum age at which treatment of amblyopia can still be effective and the importance of near activities during occlusion. This review highlights the expansion of current knowledge regarding amblyopia and its treatment to help clinicians provide the best level of care for their amblyopic patients that current knowledge allows.
Diemer, Elizabeth W.; White Hughto, Jaclyn M.; Gordon, Allegra R.; Guss, Carly; Austin, S. Bryn; Reisner, Sari L.
Abstract Purpose: To investigate whether the prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) differs across diverse gender identity groups in a transgender sample. Methods: Secondary analysis of data from Project VOICE, a cross-sectional study of stress and health among 452 transgender adults (ages 18–75 years) residing in Massachusetts. Age-adjusted logistic regression models were fit to compare the prevalence of self-reported lifetime EDs in female-to-male (FTM), male-to-female (MTF), and gender-nonconforming participants assigned male at birth (MBGNC) to gender-nonconforming participants assigned female at birth (FBGNC; referent). Results: The age-adjusted odds of self-reported ED in MTF participants were 0.14 times the odds of self-reported ED in FBGNC participants (p=0.022). In FTM participants, the age-adjusted odds of self-reported ED were 0.46 times the odds of self-reported ED in FBGNC participants, a marginally significant finding (p=0.068). No statistically significant differences in ED prevalence were found for MBGNC individuals. Conclusions: Gender nonconforming individuals assigned a female sex at birth appear to have heightened lifetime risk of EDs relative to MTF participants. Further research into specific biologic and psychosocial ED risk factors and gender-responsive intervention strategies are urgently needed. Training clinical providers and ensuring competency of treatment services beyond the gender binary will be vital to addressing this disparity. PMID:29359198
Diemer, Elizabeth W; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Gordon, Allegra R; Guss, Carly; Austin, S Bryn; Reisner, Sari L
Purpose: To investigate whether the prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) differs across diverse gender identity groups in a transgender sample. Methods: Secondary analysis of data from Project VOICE, a cross-sectional study of stress and health among 452 transgender adults (ages 18-75 years) residing in Massachusetts. Age-adjusted logistic regression models were fit to compare the prevalence of self-reported lifetime EDs in female-to-male (FTM), male-to-female (MTF), and gender-nonconforming participants assigned male at birth (MBGNC) to gender-nonconforming participants assigned female at birth (FBGNC; referent). Results: The age-adjusted odds of self-reported ED in MTF participants were 0.14 times the odds of self-reported ED in FBGNC participants ( p =0.022). In FTM participants, the age-adjusted odds of self-reported ED were 0.46 times the odds of self-reported ED in FBGNC participants, a marginally significant finding ( p =0.068). No statistically significant differences in ED prevalence were found for MBGNC individuals. Conclusions: Gender nonconforming individuals assigned a female sex at birth appear to have heightened lifetime risk of EDs relative to MTF participants. Further research into specific biologic and psychosocial ED risk factors and gender-responsive intervention strategies are urgently needed. Training clinical providers and ensuring competency of treatment services beyond the gender binary will be vital to addressing this disparity.
Moscovici, Leonardo; de Azevedo-Marques, Joao Mazzoncini; Bolsoni, Lívia Maria; Rodrigues-Junior, Antonio Luiz; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo
Aim To compare the impact of three different approaches to primary care mental health on the prevalence of mental disorders. Millions of people suffer from mental disorders. As entry point into the health service, primary healthcare plays an important role in providing mental health prevention and treatment. Random sample of households in three different areas of the city of Ribeirão Preto (state of São Paulo, Brazil) were selected, and 20 trained medical students conducted interviews using a mental health screening instrument, the Mini-Screening of Mental Disorders, and a socio-demographic datasheet. Primary care mental health was provided in each area through a specific approach. The influence of the area of residence and the socio-demographic variables on the prevalence of mental disorder was explored and analyzed by univariate binary logistic regression and then by a multiple logistic regression model. Findings A total of 1545 subjects were interviewed. Comparison between the three areas showed a significantly higher number of people with mental disorders in the area covered by the primary care team that did not have physicians with specific primary care mental health training, even when this association was adjusted for the influence of age, education, and socio-economic status. Our results suggest that residing in areas with family physicians with mental health training is associated with a lower prevalence of mental disorders.
Chin, Man Pan; Siong, Kar Ho; Chan, Ka Ho; Do, Chi Wai; Chan, Henry Ho Lung; Cheong, Allen Ming Yan
There is currently limited information about ethnic differences in myopia prevalence within mainland China, especially in rural or semi-rural areas. We examined the prevalence of refractive errors, visual impairment and spectacle coverage in school children of varying ethnicity in Turpan, Xinjiang province. A community eye care service was provided for five schools. Presenting monocular distance and near visual acuity (VA), and ocular alignment were assessed. Retinoscopy and cycloplegic subjective refraction were performed for participants with presenting visual impairment (distance VA worse than 0.3 logMAR; Snellen 6/12 or 20/40) or abnormal binocular vision. Questionnaires administered prior to the eye examinations were used to collect information regarding personal lifestyle and parental myopia. A total of 646 out of 690 (94%) subjects aged four to 19 years (11.9 ± 2.6; mean ± S.D.) completed the eye examination. Three hundred and eighty-two (59%) of participants were of Uyghur ethnicity, followed by Han, 176 (27%) and Hui, 74 (12%). The mean age of Uyghur, Han and Hui students was 12.3 ± 2.7, 11.4 ± 2.6 and 11.4 ± 2.3 years respectively, in which the Uyghur students were significantly older than the Han and Hui students (F(3,631) = 5.58 p prevalence of presenting visual impairment was not significantly different among the ethnic groups (p = 0.26). After cycloplegic refraction, most subjects' VA (98%) improved to better than 0.3 logMAR (Snellen 6/12 or 20/40). The prevalence of "clinically-significant myopia" (≤-0.50 dioptres) was 27%, 18% and 13% in Han, Hui and Uyghur children, respectively (p prevalence of astigmatism (Uyghur 12%, Han 5%, Hui 4%). The overall spectacle coverage was 36%, while spectacle coverage among ethnic groups were similar (Han, 41%; Uyghur, 32%; Hui, 41%; χ(2) = 2.23, df = 2, p = 0.33). The prevalence of clinically significant myopia varied markedly with ethnicity in school children sampled from a semi-rural region of mainland
Havens, Jennifer R; Oser, Carrie B; Leukefeld, Carl G; Webster, J Matthew; Martin, Steven S; O'Connell, Daniel J; Surratt, Hilary L; Inciardi, James A
We compared the prevalence of prescription opiate misuse among 2 cohorts of felony probationers (N = 1525). Multiple logistic regression was utilized to determine the independent correlates of prescription opiate misuse among rural (n = 782) and urban (n = 743) probationers participating in an HIV-intervention study. After adjustment for differences in demographic and drug use characteristics, rural participants were almost five times more likely than their urban counterparts to have misused prescription opiates. The prevalence of prescription opiate misuse was significantly higher among the rural probationers; however, given the paucity of illicit opiates and relatively recent emergence of prescription opiates in rural areas, rural substance abuse treatment may be ill-prepared to treat prescription opiate misuse.
Schnee, Christiane; Heller, Martin; Schubert, Evelyn; Sachse, Konrad
Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) has significant economic consequences and a detrimental impact on animal welfare. Although Moraxella (Mor.) bovis is the primary causative agent, the role of other bacteria, such as Mor. ovis, Mor. bovoculi and Mycoplasma (Myc.) bovoculi, is not well understood. To assess the prevalence of infection with these organisms, and to correlate this with outbreaks of IBK, conjunctival samples from four herds of cattle in Germany of differing IBK status were examined. Herds were selected to represent a hypothetical course of IBK ranging from the pre-outbreak stage (herd 1), to the acute disease stage (herd 2), to a stage where treatment had ceased (herd 3). Unaffected animals were also included (herd 4). To facilitate effective, sensitive sample analysis, a new real-time PCR for Myc. bovoculi was developed and used in concert with established real-time PCR protocols for Myc. bovis and Moraxella spp. Herds 1 and 2 showed similarly high rates of detection for Myc. bovoculi (92.5% and 84.0%, respectively), whereas herds 3 and 4 had a lower prevalence (35.5% and 26.2%, respectively). Mor. bovis and Mor. ovis were more prevalent in herd 1 (32.5% and 87.5%, respectively) and herd 2 (38% and 58%, respectively) than herd 3 (10.4% and 1.3%, respectively) and herd 4 (9.8% and 31.1%, respectively). Mor. bovoculi was the only pathogen that correlated with clinical signs of IBK; at 20% prevalence, it was almost exclusively detected in herd 2. The results indicate that herds with high Myc. bovoculi prevalence are more predisposed to outbreaks of IBK, possibly due to a synergistic interaction with Moraxella spp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Geelen, B P; Wertheim, A H
In stimulus displays with or without a single target amid 1,644 identical distractors, target prevalence was varied between 20, 50 and 80 %. Maximum gaze deviation was measured to determine the strength of lateral masking in these arrays. The results show that lateral masking was strongest in the 20 % prevalence condition, which differed significantly from both the 50 and 80 % prevalence conditions. No difference was observed between the latter two. This pattern of results corresponds to that found in the literature on the prevalence effect in visual search (stronger lateral masking corresponding to longer search times). The data add to similar findings reported earlier (Wertheim et al. in Exp Brain Res, 170:387-402, 2006), according to which the effects of many well-known factors in visual search correspond to those on lateral masking. These were the effects of set size, disjunctions versus conjunctions, display area, distractor density, the asymmetry effect (Q vs. O's) and viewing distance. The present data, taken together with those earlier findings, may lend credit to a causal hypothesis that lateral masking could be a more important mechanism in visual search than usually assumed.
Background In Switzerland, health policies are decided at the local level, but little is known regarding their impact on the screening and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). We thus aimed at assessing geographical levels of CVRFs in Switzerland. Methods Swiss Health Survey for 2007 (N = 17,879). Seven administrative regions were defined: West (Leman), West-Central (Mittelland), Zurich, South (Ticino), North-West, East and Central Switzerland. Obesity, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes prevalence, treatment and screening within the last 12 months were assessed by interview. Results After multivariate adjustment for age, gender, educational level, marital status and Swiss citizenship, no significant differences were found between regions regarding prevalence of obesity or current smoking. Similarly, no differences were found regarding hypertension screening and prevalence. Two thirds of subjects who had been told they had high blood pressure were treated, the lowest treatment rates being found in East Switzerland: odds-ratio and [95% confidence interval] 0.65 [0.50-0.85]. Screening for hypercholesterolemia was more frequently reported in French (Leman) and Italian (Ticino) speaking regions. Four out of ten participants who had been told they had high cholesterol levels were treated and the lowest treatment rates were found in German-speaking regions. Screening for diabetes was higher in Ticino (1.24 [1.09 - 1.42]). Six out of ten participants who had been told they had diabetes were treated, the lowest treatment rates were found for German-speaking regions. Conclusions In Switzerland, cardiovascular risk factor screening and management differ between regions and these differences cannot be accounted for by differences in populations' characteristics. Management of most cardiovascular risk factors could be improved. PMID:22452881
Sianou, Argiri; Galyfos, George; Moragianni, Dimitra; Baka, Stavroula
Patients with vaginitis were classified into four groups: Group A (prepubertal under-aged females); Group B (pubertal under-aged females); Group C (reproductive age adult females); Group D (postmenopausal adult females). All vaginal specimens underwent microscopy, amine testing, Gram staining and culturing. Overall, 163 patients were included (33, 14, 81 and 35 patients, respectively). The most common infection was bacterial vaginosis (BV), followed by Ureaplasma infection, aerobic vaginitis (AV) and candidiasis. The most common AV-associated organism was Escherichia coli and the most common BV-associated organism was Gardnerella vaginalis. AV was more frequent in Group A, BV in Group C and Ureaplasma infections in Groups C/D. Decreased lactobacilli concentrations were associated with BV in fertile patients (Groups B-C). Although presentation of vaginitis is similar among females of different age in Greece, type and prevalence of pathogens differ. Normal vaginal flora changes are associated with higher risk of vaginitis in specific age groups. Impact Statement The worldwide incidence of reproductive tract infections has been increasing, with specific pathogens being associated with significant risk of morbidity and complications. However, literature data on the distribution of such infections in different age groups is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence and causes of vaginitis in adult and non-adult females of all ages. This study has shown that although presentation of vaginitis is similar among females of different age groups and menstrual status in Greece, type and prevalence of responsible pathogens are different among groups. Changes in normal vaginal flora seem to be associated with higher risk of vaginitis in specific age-groups as well. These findings could contribute in adjusting diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for each age group according to the prevailing pathogens. Further research on antibiotic
Wajiha; Hasan, Zaigham; Afridi, Rabia; Rahman, Lubna; Qureshi, Naveeda Akhtar; Saeed, Kausar; Afridi, Humera
Present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence and knowledge about different aspects of somnambulism in general population of Buner District, KP, Pakistan, during December 2015-November 2016. Data was collected through convenient sampling technique which was comprised of structured and detailed questionnaire. Collected data regarding different actions performed by sleepwalkers were adjusted through a weighted variable to generalize results. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate association between variables related to somnambulism. Their odds ratios (ORs) were reported with their corresponding 95% CIs. In total, 11,881 individuals were surveyed, of which 448 (4%) suffered with sleep disorder. Females 256/448 (57%) were more prevalent as compared to males 192/448 (43%). Prevalence of somnambulism among children was 38% whereas 94% sufferers reported no effect on their growth. Majority of respondents reported that main cause of sleepwalking is stress and tension. Somnambulism was taken normal and mostly amusing disorder by sufferers and their families. Sleepwalking is not age specific and serious disorder. Sleepwalkers need special care during their episode due to unconsciousness.
Laufer-Perl, Michal; Havakuk, Ofer; Shacham, Yacov; Steinvil, Arie; Letourneau-Shesaf, Sivan; Chorin, Ehud; Keren, Gad; Arbel, Yaron
Sex differences in heart diseases, including acute coronary syndrome, congestive heart failure, and atrial fibrillation, have been studied extensively. However, data are lacking regarding sex differences in pericarditis and myopericarditis patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether there are sex differences in pericarditis and myopericarditis patients as well. We performed a retrospective, single-center observational study that included 200 consecutive patients hospitalized with idiopathic pericarditis or myopericarditis from January 2012 to April 2014. Patients were evaluated for sex differences in prevalence, clinical presentation, laboratory variables, and outcome. We excluded patients with a known cause for pericarditis. Among 200 consecutive patients, 55 (27%) were female. Compared with men, women were significantly older (60±19 years vs 46±19 years, Ppericarditis are male. In addition, men have a higher prevalence of myocardial involvement. Significant sex differences exist in laboratory variables and in hospital management; however, the outcome is similar and favorable in both sexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bullock, Garrett; Kraft, Lynnea; Amsden, Katherine; Gore, Whitney; Prengle, Bobby; Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Ledbetter, Leila; Covington, Kyle; Goode, Adam
Burnout is a growing epidemic among professional healthcare students. Unaddressed burnout has been shown to have psychological and performance related detriments. The purpose of this scoping literature review was to investigate the prevalence of burnout and its effects on the psychological, professional, empathetic ability, and academic acuity of graduate healthcare students. Inclusion criteria included English language papers published within the last 10 years and subjects in graduate healthcare professional programs. This search encompassed 8,214 articles. After title and abstract screening, 127 articles remained and were sorted into five domains of interest: etiology, professionalism, mental health, empathy, and academic performance. After duplicates were removed, 27 articles remained for the scoping review. Graduate level healthcare students had higher levels of burnout than age matched peers and the general population. The high prevalence of burnout within graduate healthcare students can have an effect on their mental health, empathy, and professional conduct. Understanding the occurrence and effects of burnout within graduate healthcare programs allows faculty and administration to plan curriculum, and provide information to students to understand, recognize, and create opportunities to decrease burnout in order to create long lasting quality clinicians.
Bugge, Anna; Grøntved, Anders; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann
prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA1c was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42·8% of age-sex-survey groups and higher in another 41·6%; in the other 15·6%, the two definitions provided similar prevalence estimates. The variation across studies in the relation between glucose-based and HbA1c......BACKGROUND: Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes...... of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA1c (HbA1c ≥6·5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG ≥7·0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT ≥11·1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin...
Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Brambilla, Romeo; Priotto, Bruna; Angelino, Remo; Cuomo, GianLuca; Diecidue, Roberto
This study aimed to measure the prevalence of Problematic Internet Use (PIU) among high school students and to identify factors associated with PIU underlining gender differences. The students filled a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire collecting information on demographic characteristics and patterns of Internet use. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with PIU in the overall sample and by gender. Twenty-five schools and 2022 students participated in the survey. Prevalence of PIU was 14.2% among males and 10.1% among females. Males 15-year-olds and females 14-year-olds had the highest PIU prevalence that progressively lowered with age among females. Only 13.5% of pupils declared parents controlled their Internet use. The sensation of feeling lonely, the frequency of use, the number of hours of connection, and visiting pornographic websites were associated with the risk of PIU in both genders. Attending vocational schools, the activities of chatting and file downloading, and the location of use at Internet point among males, and younger age among females were associated with PIU, whilst information searching was protective among females. PIU could become a public health problem in the next years. The physical and mental health consequences should be studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens is an important pathogen in both human and veterinary medicine. Necrotic enteritis is the most severe clinical bacterial enteric disease of poultry induced by C. perfringens.Study was done on 100 broiler chickens (400 different tissues of chickens in Southwest Iran.C. perfringens was isolated from different tissues of chickens (meats, liver, gizzard and intestine using bacterial culture methods. DNA extraction from grown colonies was carried out by boiling method and finally, PCR assay was used for definitive diagnosis of type AC. perfringens. The results of present study showed that from 400 different tissues of chickens 169(42.25%samples were positive for C. perfringens infection that is a comparatively high prevalence of C. perfringens. The highest rate of C. perfringens infection in tissues was in intestine (55% and meat 42%. The high prevalence of type A C. perfringens in different tissues observed in the present study is very disturbing, as it can cause irreparable damage to the poultry industry and human health.
Full Text Available Introduction: One of the coeliac disease(CD symptoms is infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, we are not cognizant of any CD reports in pregnancy in Iran. Therefore, this study aims to prospectively estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed CD in a population of pregnant women as well as its complications in pregnancy. Methods: 796 pregnant women with mean age of 26 years(SD= 26 and mean pregnancy duration of 5.4 months participated in this descriptive study from 2007 to 2008. Total IgA test and antitissue transglutaminase(tTGA antibodies were measured. Those with positive TGA underwent histological biopsy specimens according to modified Marsh classification. Results: A positive CD serology for tTGA was obderved in 17(2.1% out of 796 pregnant women. Out of the 17 seropositive patients, 10 had abnormal histology compatible with CD(Marsh I-IIIc symptoms. Two pregnant women had already experienced miscarriage. Moreover, 3 patients had born low birth weight babies. Conclusion: In this study, there was no significant relationship between CD and high incidence of adverse outcomes. Overall, 1 out of 66 pregnant women(1.5% rate of prevalence suffered from CD. Celiac disease shows different severity in different individuals. In other words, not every celiac patient is at high risk for its complications. This may propose that gluten free diet could be avoided in the patients who have a normal pregnancy
Full Text Available Introduction: Consanguineous marriages are a common practice in the Middle East, Asian and African populations. Many studies have stated an association between first cousin marriages and the incidence of autosomal recessive diseases and congenital malformations. High frequency of consanguinity is reported by researchers among South India. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and type of consanguineous marriages among the different communities of Mangalore. Methods: This study was conducted on 1164 married women in Mangalore to investigate the prevalence and type of consanguineous marriages. All the women were interviewed personally using a structured questionnaire. Family pedigree was constructed to study the type of consanguineous marriages. Data analysis was done by SPSS Win 13.0. Results: A low percentage of consanguinity (6.53% was observed with a mean inbreeding coefficient of 0.0339. Frequency of consanguinity between religions was highly significant. Of these the most frequent were first cousin marriages (43.42%. Within Hindu religion the highest rate of consanguinity was among the Billavas (47.62% of which the most frequent were distant relative marriages (75% followed by second cousin marriages (57.14%. There was no significant difference in the frequency distribution of the types of consanguinity between the religions and also between the different groups among Hindus. Conclusion: The frequency of consanguinity was found to be low in Mangalore. The findings contradict with the earlier reports of high prevalence of consanguineous marriages in South India. Increased female education, increased socio-economic status and decrease in parental decisions in marriages may be the reasons.
Boisen, K A; Kaleva, M; Main, K M
cryptorchidism. METHODS: 1068 Danish (1997-2001) and 1494 Finnish boys (1997-99) were consecutively recruited prenatally. We also established prevalence data for all newborns at Turku University Central Hospital, Finland (1997-99, n=5798). Testicular position was assessed by a standardised technique. All....... Significant geographic differences were still present after adjustment for confounding factors (birthweight, gestational age, being small for gestational age, maternal age, parity, mode of delivery); odds ratio (Denmark vs Finland) was 4.4 (2.9-6.7, p
Keskin, Nevin; Ay Bektaş, Ayla
In this study, the prevalence of E. vermicularis and its relation with socioeconomic level, age, race, gender, mother's and father's educational level, income status, and housing type were investigated among 1729 students who were between ages 6-12 at 8 different elementary schools (Eryaman Türkkent, Tahsin Şahinkaya, Şahin, Beytepe, Azmi Ertuğrul, Ege, Semiha İsen, Samime Talat Primary School) in Kazan, Etimesgut, Çankaya, Pursaklar, Mamak, and Sincan in Ankara. A questionnaire form and cellophane-taped slides with locked bags were provided for students between November 2010 and May 2011. In total, 874 (50.5%) of students were female and 855 (49.5%) of them were male. According to the questionnaire, 197 (11.4%) of students had low, 986 (57.1%) moderate, and 545 (31.5%) high income levels. Also, 148 students out of 1729 were found to be infected with E. vermicularis, and the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis was found 86%; 81% (9.5%) of the infected were male and 67 (7.7%) was female. As the result of study, a significant difference was found between the presence of E. vermicularis and socio-demographic properties. However, there was no significant difference between presence of E. vermicularis and gender. These results show that the importance of socio-demographic properties on the presence of E. vermicularis.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of the prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR in a population are derived from resistance tests performed on samples from patients thought to be naïve to antiretroviral treatment (ART. Much of the debate over reliability of estimates of the prevalence of TDR has focused on whether the sample population is representative. However estimates of the prevalence of TDR will also be distorted if some ART-experienced patients are misclassified as ART-naïve. Methods The impact of misclassification bias on the rate of TDR was examined. We developed methods to obtain adjusted estimates of the prevalence of TDR for different misclassification rates, and conducted sensitivity analyses of trends in the prevalence of TDR over time using data from the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database. Logistic regression was used to examine trends in the prevalence of TDR over time. Results The observed rate of TDR was higher than true TDR when misclassification was present and increased as the proportion of misclassification increased. As the number of naïve patients with a resistance test relative to the number of experienced patients with a test increased, the difference between true and observed TDR decreased. The observed prevalence of TDR in the UK reached a peak of 11.3% in 2002 (odds of TDR increased by 1.10 (95% CI 1.02, 1.19, p(linear trend = 0.02 per year 1997-2002 before decreasing to 7.0% in 2007 (odds of TDR decreased by 0.90 (95% CI 0.87, 0.94, p(linear trend Conclusion The effect of misclassification of ART on estimates of the prevalence of TDR may be appreciable, and depends on the number of naïve tests relative to the number of experienced tests. Researchers can examine the effect of ART misclassification on their estimates of the prevalence of TDR if such a bias is suspected.
Gallus, Silvano; Ghislandi, Simone; Muttarak, Raya
Scanty and controversial information is available on the impact of macroeconomic fluctuations on smoking behaviour. No study has quantified the effects of fiscal crises on smoking prevalence. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the 2007-2008 economic crisis on smoking prevalence and number of smokers in the USA. Using data from the repeated Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys in pre-crisis (2005-2007) and post-crisis (2009-2010) periods on a total of 1,981,607 US adults, we separated the expected (after allowance for the demographic growth of the US population, secular smoking prevalence trends and changes in sociodemographic characteristics) from the unexpected (assumed attributable to the economic crisis) changes in the number of smokers across different employment statuses. Joinpoint regression analysis revealed no significant changes in smoking prevalence trends over the period 2005-2010. The crisis resulted in an increase in the number of smokers in the US by 0.6 million. This is largely due to an unexpected decrease of 1.7 million smokers among employed and an increase of 2.4 million smokers among unemployed individuals, whose smoking prevalence also remains extremely high in the post-crisis period (32.6%). The 2008 financial crisis had a weak effect on smoking prevalence. The pro-cyclical relationship (ie, the crisis results in a lower number of smokers) found among the employed is offset by the counter-cyclical relationship (ie, the crisis results in a higher number of smokers) found among unemployed individuals. Public health interventions should specifically target those in unemployment, particularly in hard times. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Andrea Pires dos Santos
Full Text Available Three hemoplasma species are recognized in domestic cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’. We report the prevalence and hematological abnormalities of hemoplasma infection in 369 domestic cats from three different populations (blood donors, hospitalized cats and shelter cats from Southern Brazil. Complete blood counts were performed at the time of blood collection, and DNA was extracted and tested by conventional PCR for each hemoplasma species. A total of 79 samples (21.40% were positive for at least one species. The most prevalent hemoplasma was ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’, with 50/369 (13.55% positive cats, followed by ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’, 10/369 (2.71%, and Mycoplasma haemofelis, 8/369 (2.16%. Mycoplasma haemofelis and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ coinfection was observed in 4/369 (1.08%, whereas ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ in 5/369 (1.35%. Three cats (0.81% were infected with all three hemoplasmas. There was no association between infection and the different populations. Anemia was associated with Mycoplasma haemofelis and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’, but not with ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’. Male cats and cats with outdoor access were more likely to be infected. Although ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ is believed to cause minimal or no hematological alterations, the infected cats studied herein were more likely to be anemic.
Buse, Dawn C; Loder, Elizabeth W; Gorman, Jennifer A; Stewart, Walter F; Reed, Michael L; Fanning, Kristina M; Serrano, Daniel; Lipton, Richard B
The strikingly higher prevalence of migraine in females compared with males is one of the hallmarks of migraine. A large global body of evidence exists on the sex differences in the prevalence of migraine with female to male ratios ranging from 2:1 to 3:1 and peaking in midlife. Some data are available on sex differences in associated symptoms, headache-related disability and impairment, and healthcare resource utilization in migraine. Few data are available on corresponding sex differences in probable migraine (PM) and other severe headache (ie, nonmigraine-spectrum severe headache). Gaining a clear understanding of sex differences in a range of severe headache disorders may help differentiate the range of headache types. Herein, we compare sexes on prevalence and a range of clinical variables for migraine, PM, and other severe headache in a large sample from the US population. This study analyzed data from the 2004 American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study. Total and demographic-stratified sex-specific, prevalence estimates of headache subtypes (migraine, PM, and other severe headache) are reported. Log-binomial models are used to calculate sex-specific adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for each across demographic strata. A smoothed sex prevalence ratio (female to male) figure is presented for migraine and PM. One hundred sixty-two thousand seven hundred fifty-six individuals aged 12 and older responded to the 2004 American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study survey (64.9% response rate). Twenty-eight thousand two hundred sixty-one (17.4%) reported "severe headache" in the preceding year (23.5% of females and 10.6% of males), 11.8% met International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 criteria for migraine (17.3% of females and 5.7% of males), 4.6% met criteria for PM (5.3% of females and 3.9% of males), and 1.0% were categorized with other severe headache (0.9% of females and 1.0% of males). Sex differences were observed in
Basanta-Alario, María Luisa; Ferri, Jordi; Civera, Miguel; Martínez-Hervás, Sergio; Ascaso, Juan Francisco; Real, José Tomás
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic, highly prevalent disease that increases with age. Because of this, and due to its chronic complications, T2DM causes high human, social, and financial costs. In addition, the elderly population with T2DM has a marked clinical heterogeneity. Therefore, our main objective was to analyze the relationship of age with the clinical and biological manifestations of the disease and the prevalence of chronic complications in patients with T2DM. A cross-sectional study of a large population with T2DM (n=405) randomly selected from a Diabetes Unit and 2 health care centers (60%). The clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical variables of the subjects were collected using standard methods to assess the effect of age on the clinical and biochemical phenotype of patients with T2DM. We have noted that patients with T2DM > 70 years old have a clinical and biochemical phenotype different from younger subjects (diabetes onset, higher diastolic blood pressure levels, and lower body mass index (BMI) values. As regards to biological variables, these patients have lower triglyceride levels, impaired kidney function, and lower HbA1c values. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is lower in patients with T2DM > 70 years of age. Age was inversely related to parameters associated to metabolic syndrome (BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, and triglyceride levels). We have defined the clinical and biochemical profile of patients with T2DM > 70 years attending health care centers. In addition, the prevalence of stroke, kidney disease, and distal symmetrical polyneuropathy is higher in patients with T2DM >70 years as compared to younger patients (<60 years). Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Bordel-Gómez, Ma T; Miranda-Romero, A; Castrodeza-Sanz, J
In clinical practice, contact dermatitis is a relatively common skin complaint, whose prevalence has increased in recent years. Study by patch testing is essential for diagnosis of contact sensitization. To study the prevalence of sensitization to different allergens in a standard battery and observe the influence of different epidemiological and clinical variables on contact sensitization. A large number of allergens were included in our battery in order to detect new sensitizations whose prevalence might justify further study. This was a retrospective, observational, epidemiological study of 1092 patients, conducted in our skin allergy unit between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2005. All patients were studied with a battery of 51 allergens. We assessed the following variables: sex, age, type of referral, occupation, site and course of skin lesions, personal and family history of atopy, positive patch tests, clinical significance, diagnosis, source of sensitization, and occupational relationship. At least 1 positive result was found in 55% of the patients, and 55.7% presented atopic dermatitis in one of its clinical variants: allergic contact dermatitis (28.2%), irritant contact dermatitis (20.1%), photoallergic contact dermatitis (2.2%), and phototoxic contact dermatitis (1.2%). The most prevalent allergens were nickel sulfate (29.3%), palladium chloride (11.7%), cobalt chloride (10.8%), potassium dichromate (7.5%), fragrance blends (6.3%), and p-phenylenediamine (6.1%). A positive occupational relationship was found in 41.1%, and 21.3% of the patients studied were diagnosed with occupational contact dermatitis. Metal workers, construction workers, and professional hairdressers were the most strongly represented groups. The most common source of sensitization was contact with metallic objects, followed by drugs, cosmetics, and rubber items. Female sex was the only independent variable that had a significant influence on the risk of contact sensitization in
Do, Loan Minh; Tran, Toan Khanh; Eriksson, Bo; Petzold, Max; Nguyen, Chuc T. K.; Ascher, Henry
Background Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9–23.3) in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2–9.2) in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Conclusions Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted. PMID:26452338
Do, Loan Minh; Tran, Toan Khanh; Eriksson, Bo; Petzold, Max; Nguyen, Chuc T K; Ascher, Henry
Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9-23.3) in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2-9.2) in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted.
Loan Minh Do
Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9–23.3 in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2–9.2 in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted.
Wang, Vivian Hc; Min, Jungwon; Xue, Hong; Du, Shufa; Xu, Fei; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Youfa
Previous studies in China showed large sex differences in childhood overweight and obesity (OW/OB) rates. However, limited research has examined the cause of these sex differences. The present study aimed to examine individual and parental/familial factors associated with sex differences in childhood OW/OB rates in China. Variables associated with child weight status, beliefs and behaviours, and obesity-related parenting practices were selected to examine their sex differences and association with a sex difference in child OW/OB outcomes using logistic regression analysis. Cross-sectional data analysis using the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey. Children aged 6-17 years (n 1544) and their parents. Overall child OW/OB prevalence was 16·8 %. Adolescent boys (AB; 12-17 years) were about twice as likely to be overweight/obese as adolescent girls (AG; 15·5 v. 8·4 %, Psex differences in childhood obesity may be related to the sex disparities in weight-related beliefs and behaviours among children and their parents in China.
Emilson, C G
Plaque and saliva samples were obtained twice from 58 children at an interval of 1 year and examined for the prevalence of Streptococcus mutans on Mitis salivarius (MS) and Mitis salivarius bacitracin (MSB) agar. Two types of S. mutans colonies with different colonial morphologies were seen on both media. They were serologically identified as serotypes c/e/f and d/g respectively. The first type, morphogroup c/e/f, had the typical "frosted-glass" appearance. It was the most prevalent and was found in 97% of the children. The second type, morphogroup d/g, had a creamy marzipan consistency with a dull, granular surface, gray to brown in color and often with some liquid around or on top of the colony. Group d/g was detected in 21 children (36%) and then together with colonies of group c/e/f. Children infected with single or multiple morphogroups of S. mutans generally harbored the same groups 1 year later. There was a significant positive correlation between the proportion of S. mutans in plaque and their numbers in saliva.
Full Text Available Introduction: Palatoscopy is the study of palatal rugae pattern and it can be used to establish the identity of a person. The rugae are unique internal structures protected by the lips, buccal pad of fat and teeth that resist decomposition, thus serving an important role in forensic identification. The appearance of palatal rugae is constant, as they do not demonstrate changes after the completion of growth of the individual, thus increasing its utility as a personal identification tool. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of different palatal rugae patterns in a sample of Lucknow, India population. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 100 healthy (50 males and 50 females subjects of age between 18 and 40 years, who were randomly selected. In this study we used the classification of rugae patterns suggested by Kapali et al. (straight, curved, wavy andcircular, and Thomas and Kotze (unification and nonspecific. Results: The mean rugae number in females was slightly more than males. The most prevalent forms in both genders were curved type followed by wavy, straight and diverging types. Straight and curved forms were significantly more in numbers in females than males. Conclusion: This is a preliminary study on a localized Indian population. Scope still exists for further studies to determine gender as well as personal identification. We believe that rugae can be used as a reliable guide in forensic identification.
Carman, Kursat B; Ceran, Omer; Kaya, Cevdet; Nuhoglu, Cagatay; Karaman, M Ihsan
To study the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and the impact of associated familial factors in Turkish children with a different socioeconomic status. A specific questionnaire was distributed to 3,000 parents of primary school children (6-12 years old). Of these children, 1,500 attended primary schools in Umraniye, a suburban region of Istanbul (group 1), and the other 1,500 children visited schools in Suadiye, a well-developed part of Istanbul (group 2). The first part of the survey investigated the familial conditions of the children (financial status, family history of enuresis, and family size). The second part of the questionnaire surveyed the demographic and physical characteristics of the children. The last part was designed to investigate the opinions and beliefs of the parents about nocturnal enuresis and treatment modalities. The prevalence rates of nocturnal enuresis and associated familial factors of these children from two different regions of Istanbul were compared. Of the 3,000 questionnaires distributed, 2,589 (86.3%) were returned and included in the final analysis. The mean age of group 1 and 2 children was 8.88 +/- 1.4 and 8.9 +/- 1.5 years, respectively (p > 0.05). The gender of the subjects was equally distributed (48.6% males and 51.4% females). Enuresis was present in 334 children (25.5%) of group 1 and in 205 children (16%) of group 2. Enuresis was significantly more common in group 1 (p difference between the groups (p > 0.01). The parents of the enuretic children from the suburban region of Istanbul were found to consider the condition a normal developmental entity. They believed that enuresis will resolve spontaneously and that no treatment is necessary. On the contrary, the parents of the enuretic children in the well-developed region of the city believed that enuresis is a psychological problem and that intensive psychological assistance is essential for the management. Our study indicates that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in
Conclusion: Women have a higher prevalence of geriatric depression than men. Our data support the differential exposure hypothesis and the differential vulnerability hypothesis of sex difference in geriatric depression.
Christensen, Dirk L; Witte, Daniel R; Kaduka, Lydia
.K., Australia, Greenland, Kenya, and India were tested for the probability of an A1C > or =6.5% among diabetic case subjects based on an OGTT. The difference in probability between centers was analyzed by logistic regression adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS Diabetes prevalence was lower with the A1C...... A shift to an A1C-based diagnosis for diabetes will have substantially different consequences for diabetes prevalence across ethnic groups and populations....
Tsitaisvili, L; Margvelashvili, M; Kalandadze, M; Margvelasvili, V
.39. In summary behavioral factors (unsatisfactory oral hygiene and less acceptability of dental service due to low medical educational background) play substantial role in occurrence and prevalence of dental caries among adult population of Georgia in all regions, though the financial problem seems to be a considerable contributor in caries prevalence. Reliable statistical data obtained in the study allowed to conclude that in spite of small differences in prevalence in different regions of Georgia dental caries is very widespread throughout the country (96-100%). It represents a major problem in Georgia and needs serious attention and preventive measures to be carried out to enhance peoples' referral to dental service and improve medical educational background of the population.
Rampal, Sanjay; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Guallar, Eliseo; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Rahmat, Ramlee; Arif, Mohamad Taha; Rampal, Lekhraj
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country. METHODS: In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the I...
Knudsen, Per Kristian; Olesen, Hanne V; Hoiby, Niels
BACKGROUND: Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection causes increased morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). This study aimed to answer the following questions: Does the prevalence of chronic infection with PA differ between the CF centres in Scandinavia? Which differences exist......) (p=0.037). The pulmonary function was similar. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to maintain a very low prevalence of chronic PA infection in CF patients
Yngve, Agneta; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Wolf, Alexandra
OBJECTIVES: To assess country differences in prevalence of overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in the Pro Children Survey. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted in a random sample of schools in nine European countries in 2003. The subjects were 8317 11-year-old children from Austria...... of stunted children was highest in Portugal, Spain and Belgium. CONCLUSIONS: The highest levels of overweight, obesity and stunting in the pro children material are found in Portugal and Spain......., Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Parents reported height and weight of the children, and BMI values were analysed using the US Centers of Disease Control and Prevention and the International Obesity Task Force reference populations. Continuous variables were...
Garawi, F; Devries, K; Thorogood, N; Uauy, R
In most populations the prevalence of obesity is greater in women than in men; however, the magnitude of the difference between the sexes varies significantly by country. We considered the role of gender inequality in explaining these disparities. We undertook an ecological analysis of internationally comparable obesity prevalence data to examine the association between indicators of gender inequality and the differences between men and women in obesity prevalence. Gender inequality was assessed using three measures: the Gender Inequality Index, the Global Gender Gap Index and the Social Institutions and Gender Index. We fitted multiple regression models to examine the association. We found that the prevalence of obesity across countries shows gendered patterning with greater prevalence and greater heterogeneity in women than in men (Pgender inequality were significantly associated with the sex differences in obesity prevalence across countries. The patterning of obesity across countries is gendered. However, the association between global measures of gender inequality and the sex gap in obesity is dependent on the measure used. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms that underpin the gendered nature of obesity prevalence.
Yang, Xueyan; Feldman, Marcus W
A reversed gender pattern has been observed in the suicide rate in China compared to elsewhere. Like suicidal behaviour, non-suicidal self-injurious (NSSI) behaviour is a health-risk behaviour. We examined whether a reversed gender pattern existed in the prevalence of NSSI. Online literature databases were searched for English and Chinese articles on NSSI behaviours among the Chinese. A meta-analysis with a random-effects model and a subgroup analysis were used to estimate the odds ratios of gender differences in NSSI prevalence among Chinese adolescents including college students, middle school students, and clinical samples, as well as rural, urban, and Hong Kong middle school students. There was a male bias in NSSI prevalence among college students (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = [1.30, 1.87], p gender difference among clinical samples (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = [0.41, 1.89], p > 0.1). The NSSI prevalence among middle school students had a female bias in the rural (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = [0.47, 0.72], p gender difference in NSSI prevalence in the Hong Kong areas being greater than in rural areas. No gender difference in NSSI prevalence was found in urban areas (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = [0.84, 1.22], p > 0.1) among middle school students. Our analysis indicated the existence of specific gender and age patterns in NSSI prevalence among Chinese adolescents. The sample type, age, and the areas that have different gender norms and culture could partly explain this pattern.
Gdoura-Ben Amor, Maroua; Siala, Mariam; Zayani, Mariem; Grosset, Noël; Smaoui, Salma; Messadi-Akrout, Feriele; Baron, Florence; Jan, Sophie; Gautier, Michel; Gdoura, Radhouane
Bacillus cereus group is widespread in nature and foods. Several members of this group are recognized as causing food spoilage and/or health issues. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of the B. cereus group strains isolated in Tunisia from different foods (cereals, spices, cooked food, fresh-cut vegetables, raw and cooked poultry meats, seafood, canned, pastry, and dairy products). In total, 687 different samples were collected and searched for the presence of the B. cereus group after selective plating on MYP agar and enumeration of each sample. The typical pink-orange uniform colonies surrounded by a zone of precipitate were assumed to belong to the B. cereus group. One typical colony from each sample was subcultured and preserved as cryoculture. Overall, 191 (27.8%) food samples were found positive, giving rise to a collection of 191 B. cereus -like isolates. The concentration of B. cereus -like bacteria were below 10 3 cfu/g or ml in 77.5% of the tested samples. Higher counts (>10 4 cfu/g or ml) were found in 6.8% of samples including fresh-cut vegetables, cooked foods, cereals, and pastry products. To verify whether B. cereus -like isolates belonged to the B. cereus group, a PCR test targeting the sspE gene sequence specific of the group was carried out. Therefore, 174 isolates were found to be positive. Food samples were contaminated as follows: cereals (67.6%), pastry products (46.2%), cooked food (40.8%), cooked poultry meat (32.7%), seafood products (32.3%), spices (28.8%), canned products (16.7%), raw poultry meat (9.4%), fresh-cut vegetables (5.0%), and dairy products (4.8%). The 174 B. cereus isolates were characterized by partial sequencing of the panC gene, using a Sym'Previous software tool to assign them to different phylogenetic groups. Strains were distributed as follows: 61.3, 29.5, 7.5, and 1.7% in the group III, IV, II, and V, respectively. The genetic diversity was further assessed by ERIC-PCR and PFGE
Maroua Gdoura-Ben Amor
Full Text Available Bacillus cereus group is widespread in nature and foods. Several members of this group are recognized as causing food spoilage and/or health issues. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of the B. cereus group strains isolated in Tunisia from different foods (cereals, spices, cooked food, fresh-cut vegetables, raw and cooked poultry meats, seafood, canned, pastry, and dairy products. In total, 687 different samples were collected and searched for the presence of the B. cereus group after selective plating on MYP agar and enumeration of each sample. The typical pink-orange uniform colonies surrounded by a zone of precipitate were assumed to belong to the B. cereus group. One typical colony from each sample was subcultured and preserved as cryoculture. Overall, 191 (27.8% food samples were found positive, giving rise to a collection of 191 B. cereus-like isolates. The concentration of B. cereus-like bacteria were below 103 cfu/g or ml in 77.5% of the tested samples. Higher counts (>104 cfu/g or ml were found in 6.8% of samples including fresh-cut vegetables, cooked foods, cereals, and pastry products. To verify whether B. cereus-like isolates belonged to the B. cereus group, a PCR test targeting the sspE gene sequence specific of the group was carried out. Therefore, 174 isolates were found to be positive. Food samples were contaminated as follows: cereals (67.6%, pastry products (46.2%, cooked food (40.8%, cooked poultry meat (32.7%, seafood products (32.3%, spices (28.8%, canned products (16.7%, raw poultry meat (9.4%, fresh-cut vegetables (5.0%, and dairy products (4.8%. The 174 B. cereus isolates were characterized by partial sequencing of the panC gene, using a Sym'Previous software tool to assign them to different phylogenetic groups. Strains were distributed as follows: 61.3, 29.5, 7.5, and 1.7% in the group III, IV, II, and V, respectively. The genetic diversity was further assessed by ERIC-PCR and PFGE
Khan, Abdul Arif; Jain, Sudhir K.; Shrivastav, Archana
Objectives India is unique in entire world due to variety of dietary habits in population. Many people of India follow totally vegetarian life style through their entire life time due to some religious and cultural reasons. Present study tried to analyze the role of different factors in the occurrence of dental caries including dietary habit. Methods Persons suffering with dental caries were examined for the type of dental caries in relation to different factors. Dental examination was performed and patients were asked a questionnaire and the data was recorded and analyzed. Results Incidence of dental caries was higher in female. High number of dental caries patients was observed among vegetarian population. 21–30 year age group was found to be most infected with dental caries. Conclusions This study can be helpful to analyze respective role of different dietary factors including protein rich diet, age, gender etc. on the prevalence of dental caries, which can be helpful to counteract the potential increase in the cases of dental caries and to design and plan preventive strategies for the persons at greatest risk. PMID:19212515
Ryan, Heather; Trosclair, Angela; Gfroerer, Joe
Objectives. To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Methods. 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen) were used. Results. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Conclusions. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions. PMID:22649464
Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, in most bakeries in order to accelerate bread production process and reduce work pressure on bakers, harmful chemicals like baking soda are in use. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 234 bakeries in Qom, Iran, during 2017. The proportional stratified sampling method was used to select bakeries and bakers in different districts of Qom. Age, bakery experience, education of bakers and bread's pH were collected by a questionnaire and an electrical pH meter. Results: The results showed that seventy bakeries (29.9% of Qom were using baking soda in bread. The highest frequent use of baking soda was observed in Taftoon (38.7% and Lavash bread (31.5%. There was a significant difference between the use of baking soda and demographic variables such as age and literacy level. The attitude and knowledge of bakery employees about the complications of the baking soda were not appropriate. Conclusions: To reduce the use of baking soda and improve their knowledge and attitude, there is a need of strict supervision and monitoring by responsible organisations, especially the Ministry of Health.
Full Text Available Objectives. To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH. Methods. 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen were used. Results. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Conclusions. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions.
Tan, Judy Y; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Pratto, Felicia; Rosenthal, Lisa; Kalichman, Seth
Research emphasises the role that social structures play in shaping national HIV prevalence. This study examined how social, economic, and political contexts that may represent the confluence of individual capabilities and environmental affordances or constraints are associated with national HIV prevalence. Based on social-ecological perspectives, we examined social-structural dimensions in relation to national HIV prevalence. The study identified six publicly available nation-level social, p...
Pacheco, Sâmya Silva; Braga, Cynthia; Souza, Ariani Impieri de; Figueiroa, José Natal
To analyze the effect of folic acid-fortified foods on the prevalence of neural tube defects in live newborns. Longitudinal study with newborns from the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2000 and 2006. Data analyzed were obtained from the Sistema Nacional de Informações de Nascidos Vivos (National Information System on Live Births). Neural tube defects were defined in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10): anencephaly, encephalocele, and spina bifida. Prevalences from the periods before (2000-2004) and after (2005-2006) the mandatory fortification period were compared. Time trend of three-month prevalences of neural tube defects were analyzed using Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope estimator. Tendency towards reduction in the occurrence of outcome (Mann-Kendall test; p= 0.270; Sen's Slope estimator =-0.008) was not identified in the period studied. The difference between prevalences of neural tube defects in the periods before and after food fortification with folic acid was not statistically significant, according to maternal characteristics. Even though reduction in neural tube defects after the period of mandatory food fortification with folic acid was not observed, results found do not enable its benefit to prevent malformations to be ruled out. Studies assessing longer periods and considering the level of consumption of fortified products by women of fertile age are necessary.
Adamus, Grazyna; Chew, Emily Y; Ferris, Frederick L; Klein, Michael L
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central vision loss in older adults. Anti-retinal autoantibodies (AAbs) have been found in individuals with AMD. The goal of the study was to determine the AAb specificity in different stages of AMD, and determine whether there is a prevalent AAb signature. Sera of 134 participants in the Age-related Eye Disease Study were analyzed for anti-retinal AAbs by western blotting. The subjects were classified by diagnostic subgroups based upon their clinical classification: No AMD, Intermediate AMD, and Late AMD - geographic atrophy (GA) and Late AMD - neovascular (NV). The presence of anti-retinal AAb was detected in 58% patients with Intermediate and Late AMD, and 54% of those with no AMD. AAbs bound to fifteen different retinal antigens. Most individuals had 1 specific AAbs (67%), with the remainder having 2 to 4 different AAbs. Over 40% of patients with Intermediate AMD, and 46% of those with GA had anti-enolase AAbs, compared with 29% of individuals with NV and 29% with no AMD. Different AAbs signatures related to NV as compared to GA and/or Intermediate AMD were distinguished. Anti-40-kDa (10%) and 42-kDa (16%) autoantibodies were associated with Intermediate AMD, while anti-30-kDa AAbs (23%) were primarily present in GA. Anti-32-kDa (12%), 35-kDa (21%), and 60-kDa (8%) AAbs were more frequent in NV AMD. A unique AAb pattern for each of the disease subgroups was present when AMD progressed from the intermediate to the late forms of severity. Differences in the frequency of specific AAbs between AMD subgroups suggested that they may participate in pathogenicity of AMD. Further studies are necessary to confirm these observations in the larger cohort and individual AMD patients over time.
Amit Kr. Gorai
Full Text Available Air pollution has been an on-going research focus due to its detrimental impact on human health. However, its specific effects on asthma prevalence in different age groups, genders and races are not well understood. Thus, the present study was designed to examine the association between selected air pollutants and asthma prevalence in different population groups during 2010 in the eastern part of Texas, USA.The pollutants considered were particulate matter (PM2.5 with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers and surface ozone. The population groups were categorized based on age, gender, and race. County-wise asthma hospital discharge data for different age, gender, and racial groups were obtained from Texas Asthma Control Program, Office of Surveillance, Evaluation and Research, Texas Department of State Health Services. The annual means of the air pollutants were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA’s air quality system data mart program. Pearson correlation analyzes were conducted to examine the relationship between the annual mean concentrations of pollutants and asthma discharge rates (ADR for different age groups, genders, and races. The results reveal that there is no significant association or relationship between ADR and exposure of air pollutants (PM2.5, and O3. The study results showed a positive correlation between PM2.5 and ADR and a negative correlation between ADR and ozone in most of the cases. These correlations were not statistically significant, and can be better explained by considering the local weather conditions. The research findings facilitate identification of hotspots for controlling the most affected populations from further environmental exposure to air pollution, and for preventing or reducing the health impacts.
Full Text Available Since Internet has made pornographic materials more available, there is a need for more research on the characteristics and implications of children's and adolescents' exposure to such materials. This study examined the prevalence and extent of minors' exposure to online pornography, the reasons for exposure, the types of images seen and the strong effects of exposure, as reported by college students. We used an online survey to collect retrospective reports of a sample of 494 students of the University of Salamanca. Results show that 63% of boys and 30% of girls were exposed to online pornography during adolescence. Boys are more likely to have ever been exposed for more than 30 minutes. Boys are more likely to report deliberate consumption and sexual excitement seeking, whereas girls are more likely to report involuntary exposure. Both genders remember viewing a variety of images, including contents of bondage, child pornography and rape. One in six of exposed participants remember strong reactions. While more boys report sexual excitement and masturbation, more girls report avoidance, disgust or concern.
Yasufuku-Takano, Junko; Takano, Koji; Morita, Koji; Takakura, Kintomo; Teramoto, Akira; Fujita, Toshiro
The prevalence of gsp mutations in GH-secreting pituitary adenomas was thought to differ geographically or racially, given its exceptionally lower incidence among Japanese patients (4.4-9.3%) compared to other regions (30-50%). However, this notion is now being challenged after a recent paper reported a 53.3% incidence among Japanese with acromegaly. We have since re-evaluated the prevalence of gsp mutations on a larger scale. One hundred Japanese acromegaly patients with surgically confirmed GH-secreting pituitary adenomas were enrolled. mRNAs from primary cultured adenomas were used for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of the Gsalpha subunit. Patient data were reviewed from medical charts. There were 53 gsp mutations (53%), consisting of 42 Arg201Cys, one Arg201His, one Arg201Ser, 8 Gln227Leu, and one Gln227Arg mutation. Age at operation, sex ratio, basal serum GH and IGF-I levels were no different with or without the mutations. In contrast, patients responded differently to most dynamic tests with statistical significance: serum GH levels in gsp-positive patients had blunted response to GHRH, were well suppressed by bromocriptine, and had higher rates of paradoxical response to TRH. Notably, paradoxical response to LHRH was observed exclusively in gsp-negative patients. Octreotide suppressed GH levels strongly regardless of gsp status. These clinical characteristics are similar to those of Caucasian patients. We conclude that the prevalence of gsp mutations in Japanese acromegaly patients is comparable to those of other reports from various regions. Therefore, Japanese patients do not stand as an example for geographical or racial difference in the prevalence of gsp mutations in GH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
Chokkhanchitchai, Surachai; Tangarunsanti, Tanee; Jaovisidha, Suphaneewan; Nantiruj, Kanokrat; Janwityanujit, Suchela
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of religious practice on the prevalence, severity, and patterns of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a Thai elderly population with the same ethnicity and culture but different religions. A house-to-house survey was conducted in two subdistricts of Phranakhon Sri Ayutthaya province where inhabitants are a mixture of Buddhists and Muslims. One hundred fifty-three Buddhists and 150 Muslims aged >or= 50 years were evaluated demographically, physically, and radiographically. Those suffering knee pains were questioned about severity using the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores and examined for their range of knee motion. Radiographic knee OA (ROA) was defined as Kellgren-Lawrence radiographic grade >or=2 while symptomatic knee OA (SOA) was defined as knee symptoms of at least 1 month in a knee with ROA. Muslims had on average a higher number of daily religious practices than their Buddhist neighbors (p SOA, Buddhists showed a trend towards higher prevalence than Muslims (47.71 vs. 37.32, p = 0.068). No significant difference was found when the range of motion and WOMAC scores were compared between the two groups. Muslims had a lower prevalence of OA than their Buddhists counterparts with the same ethnicity but different religious practice. The Muslim way of praying since childhood, forcing the knees into deep flexion, may stretch the soft tissue surrounding the knee and decrease stiffness and contact pressure of the articular cartilage.
Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Soman, Rino Roopak; Sunitha, S
Fluoride intake at optimal level decreases the incidence of dental caries. However, excessive intake, especially during developmental stages can cause adverse effects such as dental and skeletal fluorosis. To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in primary school children born and raised in three villages of Mysore District. The three selected villages have different water fluoride concentrations. Three villages namely, Nerale (water fluoride 2.0 ppm), Belavadi (1.2 ppm) and Naganahally (0.4 ppm) were selected for the study. Then, a total of 405 children, 10-12-year-old (204 [50.4%] males and 201 [49.60%] females) were selected from three schools of the villages. Dean's fluorosis index recommended by World Health Organization was used to evaluate fluorosis among the study population. The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 41.73%. An increase in the community fluorosis index (CFI) was higher among those living in high water fluoride area. A significantly positive correlation was found between CFI and water fluoride concentration in drinking water.
Full Text Available Background: In the last 10 years, different studies have shown interesting geographical variations in the prevalence of different Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor. Aim: Identification of Malassezia species isolated from patients with pityriasis versicolor. Methods: In 100 patients with pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia species were identified by culture in Sabouraud′s dextrose agar containing cycloheximide with olive oil overlay and modified Dixon agar and by doing biochemical tests (catalase reaction, assimilation of glycine, and Tween utilisation tests. Results: In 10 patients, 10% KOH smear was negative, while in 90 patients the smear showed characteristic "spaghetti and meatball" appearance. Of these 90 cases, growth was obtained on modified Dixon′s agar in 87 cases. Fifty of the isolates (57.5% were M. globosa, 15 (17.2% were M. sympodialis, seven (8.0% were suspected M. sympodialis, 6 (6.9% each of the isolates were M. furfur and M. obtusa, and three (3.4% isolates were M. restricta. Conclusion: M. globosa was the most common species, followed by M. sympodialis, M. furfur, M. obtusa, and M. restricta.
Chaudhary, Rahul; Singh, Sanjay; Banerjee, Tuhina; Tilak, Ragini
In the last 10 years, different studies have shown interesting geographical variations in the prevalence of different Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor. Identification of Malassezia species isolated from patients with pityriasis versicolor. In 100 patients with pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia species were identified by culture in Sabouraud's dextrose agar containing cycloheximide with olive oil overlay and modified Dixon agar and by doing biochemical tests (catalase reaction, assimilation of glycine, and Tween utilisation tests). In 10 patients, 10% KOH smear was negative, while in 90 patients the smear showed characteristic "spaghetti and meatball" appearance. Of these 90 cases, growth was obtained on modified Dixon's agar in 87 cases. Fifty of the isolates (57.5%) were M. globosa, 15 (17.2%) were M. sympodialis, seven (8.0%) were suspected M. sympodialis, 6 (6.9%) each of the isolates were M. furfur and M. obtusa, and three (3.4%) isolates were M. restricta. M. globosa was the most common species, followed by M. sympodialis, M. furfur, M. obtusa, and M. restricta.
Badley, Elizabeth M; Canizares, Mayilee; Perruccio, Anthony V
To investigate cohort effects in arthritis prevalence across 4 birth cohorts: World War II (born 1935-1944), older and younger baby boomers (born 1945-1954 and 1955-1964, respectively), and Generation X (born 1965-1974), and to determine whether birth cohort effects in arthritis prevalence were associated with differences in risk factors over time or period effects. Analysis of biannually collected data from the longitudinal Canadian National Population Health Survey, 1994-2011 (n = 8,817 at baseline). Data included self-reported arthritis diagnosed by a health professional, risk factors (years of education, household income, smoking, physical activity, sedentary behavior, body mass index [BMI]), and survey year as an indicator of period. We used hierarchical age-period-cohort analyses to compare the age trajectory of arthritis by birth cohort and to examine the contribution of changes in risk factors and period to cohort differences. More recent cohorts had successively a greater prevalence of arthritis. Risk factors were significantly associated with arthritis prevalence independently of cohort differences. The effects of increasing education and income over time on potentially reducing the arthritis prevalence were almost counter-balanced by effects of increasing BMI. Significant cohort-BMI and age-BMI interactions indicated an earlier age of arthritis onset for obese individuals than those of normal weight. Projections that only take into account the changing age structure of the population may underestimate future trends. Our understanding of the impact of BMI on arthritis is likely an underestimate. Cohort differences focus attention on the need to target arthritis management education to young and middle-aged adults. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.
Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Nauta, Maarten; Rosenquist, Hanne
Before deciding upon interventions to control Campylobacter in broiler flocks, it would be useful to estimate the potential effects of different interventions. Certain previously identified risk factors for colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter may seem to have large impact...... on the broiler flock prevalence. Nevertheless, interventions related to these risk factors may have only limited effect on the overall prevalence estimate, since in practice only a relatively small fraction of farms are actually amenable for an intervention related to a given risk factor.We present a novel...... had shown to have significant impact on Campylobacter flock prevalence, were translated into practical on-farm interventions. Given the implementation of these interventions the population prevalence was predicted by developing and using a statistical method anchored in the ideas behind standardized...
Visser, Marlies A; El Fakiri, Fatima
Previous studies have demonstrated that loneliness is more frequently present in citizens of ethnic minority groups than in natives. The current study investigates whether ethnic differences in emotional and social loneliness between Moroccan, Turkish, Surinamese and Dutch adults living in the Netherlands are due to ethnic differences in the presence and/or impact of an array of possible risk factors, such as partnership, health and socioeconomic status. The data were collected in 2012 as a part of a general health questionnaire of the Public Health Services in the four major cities of the Netherlands, containing 20.047 Dutch, 1.043 Moroccan, 1.197 Turkish and 1.900 Surinamese respondents. Structural equation models showed that ethnic differences in emotional and social loneliness can be ascribed to ethnic differences in the prevalence and impact of several risk factors. Main findings were that all three ethnic minority groups reported feeling less healthy and more discriminated against than the Dutch group, which was related to increased loneliness. Perceived financial difficulties and people in the neighbourhood not getting along had more impact on feelings of loneliness for the Turkish group than loneliness for the other ethnic groups. Furthermore, members of the Turkish group were found more at risk to feel anxious or depressed, which was in turn related to increased loneliness. Policy makers are encouraged to develop multifaceted prevention strategies concerning those risk factors that are most changeable, thereby focusing per risk factor on those ethnic groups for which it is an important contribution to loneliness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.
Nelson, Paul; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Jensen, Tina Kold
Hypospadias birth prevalence may be increasing with maternal exposure to endocrine disrupters. Yet hypospadias registers are hindered by data quality concerns. We compare the birth prevalence per thousand male births (BP) and ascertainment of hypospadias in the South East of England between 1st...
Huh, David; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Boutelle, Kerri
Despite substantial increases in the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity documented in recent decades, few studies have prospectively tracked their development during the entire adolescent period. The aims of this study were to characterize developmental trends in prevalence, incidence, and remission of overweight and obesity using…
Okur, P.; van der Knaap, L.M.; Bogaerts, S.
In most epidemiological prevalence studies of child sexual abuse, the role of ethnicity remains unclear. This study examined the prevalence and nature of child sexual abuse in four non-Western ethnic minority groups and compared them with a native Dutch group. A sample of 3,426 young adults (aged
Rampal, Sanjay; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Guallar, Eliseo; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Rahmat, Ramlee; Arif, Mohamad Taha; Rampal, Lekhraj
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country. In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/American Heart Association (IDF/NHLBI/AHA-2009) criteria. Multivariate models were used to study the independent association between ethnicity and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The overall mean age was 36.9 years, and 50.0% participants were female. The ethnic distribution was 57.0% Malay, 28.5% Chinese, 8.9% Indian and 5.0% Indigenous Sarawakians. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 27.5%, with a prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting glucose of 36.9%, 29.3%, 37.2%, 38.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Among those Malaysia was high, with marked differences across ethnicities. Ethnic Chinese had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while ethnic Indians had the highest. Indigenous Sarawakians showed a marked increase in metabolic syndrome at young ages.
Skedros, John G; Sybrowsky, Christian L; Parry, Todd R; Bloebaum, Roy D
The limb bones of cursorial mammals may exhibit regional structural/material variations for local mechanical requirements. For example, it has been hypothesized that mineral content (%ash) and secondary osteon population density (OPD) progressively change from proximal (e.g., humerus) to distal (e.g., phalanx), in accordance with corresponding progressive changes in stress and mechanical/metabolic cost of functional use (both greatest in the distal limb). We tested this hypothesis in wild-shot Rocky Mountain mule deer by examining transverse segments from mid-diaphyses of medial proximal phalanges, principal metacarpals, radii, and humeri, as well as the lateral aspects of sixth ribs from each of 11 mature males. Quantified structural parameters included the section modulus (Z), polar moment of inertia (J), cortical area/total area ratio (CA/TA), bone girth, and cortical thickness. In addition, %ash and the prevalence of in vivo microcracks were measured in each bone. Thin sections from seven animals were further examined for OPD and population densities of new remodeling events (NREs). Results showed a significant progressive decrease in %ash from the humerus (75.4% +/- 0.9%) to the phalanx (69.4% +/- 1.1%) (P < 0.0001), with general proximal-to-distal increases in OPD and general decreases in J and Z. Thirteen microcracks were identified in the rib sections, and only two were observed in the limb bones. Although the ribs had considerably greater NREs, no significant differences in NREs were found between the limb bones, indicating that they had similar remodeling rates. Equivalent microcrack prevalence, but nonequivalent structural/material organization, suggests that there are regional adaptations that minimize microcrack production in locations with differences in loading conditions. The progressive proximal-to-distal decrease in %ash (up to 6%); moderate-to-high correlations between OPD, %ash, J, and CA/TA; and additional moderate-to-high correlations of these
Guardabassi, L.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dalsgaard, A.
with a genus-specific DNA probe. Independent of the different antibiotics and media used, the total numbers of resistant bacteria in treated sewage were 10-1000 times lower than in raw sewage. Based on linear regression analysis of data on bacteriological counts, the prevalences of antimicrobial-resistant...... by antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Acinetobacter isolates. Based on logistic regression analysis, isolates from treated sewage and digested sludge were generally not significantly more resistant compared with isolates from raw sewage. Based on these evidences, it was concluded that tertiary wastewater......The effects of tertiary wastewater treatment on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria were investigated in two large-scale municipal treatment plants during a period of six months. Total and relative numbers of resistant bacteria were determined in raw sewage, treated sewage...
Ramírez, Erik; Grijalva-Haro, María Isabel; Ponce, José Antonio; Valencia, Mauro E
The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children from northwest of Mexico based on BMI/age and three criteria of growth reference standards. Six hundred and four children, 6 to 10 years of age, from 17 municipalities of the state of Sonora were measured for weight and height and age established from birth certificate school records. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined by the new version of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC/NCHS), the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and the values proposed by The World Health Organization (WHO) that was utilized in the National Nutrition Survey of 1999 in Mexico (ENN). Using the WHO reference, prevalence of overweight and obesity was 39%. This was higher than the CDC/NCHS (20%) and IOTF (17%) references, respectively. Prevalence of overweight and obesity by CDC/NCHS and IOTF criteria, showed the best agreement (Kappa >80); this was not the case when prevalence from CDC/NCHS and IOTF were compared to the WHO criteria (Kappa obesity frequencies, no sex or urban-rural differences were observed (p>0.05). In conclusion, the use of these 3 reference values systems using BMI/ age did not show the same prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity. The use of the WHO method can overestimate the prevalence of obesity in children, therefore the use of these 3 references should be considered for future comparisons.
Dussault, Marie Christine; Hanson, Ian; Smith, Martin J
Court cases at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) have seen questions raised about the recognition and causes of blast-related trauma and the relationship to human rights abuses or combat. During trials, defence teams argued that trauma was combat related and prosecutors argued that trauma was related to executions. We compared a sample of 81 cases (males between 18 and 75) from a Bosnian mass grave investigation linked to the Kravica warehouse killings to published combat-related blast injury data from World War One, Vietnam, Northern Ireland, the first Gulf War, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Afghanistan. We also compared blast fracture injuries from Bosnia to blast fracture injuries sustained in bombings of buildings in two non-combat 'civilian' examples; the Oklahoma City and Birmingham pub bombings. A Chi-squared statistic with a Holm-Bonferroni correction assessed differences between prevalence of blast-related fractures in various body regions, where data were comparable. We found statistically significant differences between the Bosnian and combat contexts. We noted differences in the prevalence of head, torso, vertebral area, and limbs trauma, with a general trend for higher levels of more widespread trauma in the Bosnian sample. We noted that the pattern of trauma in the Bosnian cases resembled the pattern from the bombing in buildings civilian contexts. Variation in trauma patterns can be attributed to the influence of protective armour; the context of the environment; and the type of munition and its injuring mechanism. Blast fracture injuries sustained in the Bosnian sample showed patterns consistent with a lack of body armour, blast effects on people standing in enclosed buildings and the use of explosive munitions. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van Nie-Visser, Noémi C; Meijers, Judith; Schols, Jos; Lohrmann, Christa; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Halfens, Ruud
Prevalence rates of malnutrition vary considerably internationally, partly due to differences in measurement methodology and instruments. In the present study, the same measurement methodology and instruments were used in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether resident characteristics influence possible differences in malnutrition prevalence between countries. The study followed a cross-sectional, multi-centre design that measured malnutrition in nursing home residents from The Netherlands, Germany and Austria. Resident data were gathered using a standardised questionnaire. Malnutrition was operationalised using BMI, unintentional weight loss and nutritional intake. Data were analysed using an association model. The prevalence rates of malnutrition in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria were 18·3, 20·1 and 22·5 %, respectively. The multivariate generalised estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression analysis showed that sex, age, care dependency, the mean number of diseases and some specific diseases were influencing factors for whether the resident was malnourished or not. The OR of malnutrition in the three countries declined after including the influencing factors resulting from the multivariate GEE analysis. The present study reveals that differences in the prevalence rates of malnutrition in nursing homes in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria are influenced by different resident characteristics. Since other country-related factors could also play an important role in influencing differences in the prevalence rates of malnutrition between the countries (structural and process factors of malnutrition care policy). We recommend the investigation of these factors in future studies.
Al-Waleedi, Ali A; El-Nimr, Nessrin A; Hasab, Ali A; Bassiouny, Hassan K; Al-Shibani, Latifa A
Schistosomiasis is one of the most important public health problems in Yemen. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis varies considerably across different parts of Yemen and was estimated to be 10% among schoolchildren in Sana'a. Praziquantel (PZQ) is highly effective against all five major human species of schistosomes. The aim of the present work was to estimate the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis, describe the risk factors associated with its endemicity, and implement and assess a chemotherapeutic intervention using PZQ in a village in Yemen. The sample included 696 schoolchildren from a village in Abyan Governorate. During the baseline school survey, personal, sociodemographic, and environmental data, and data on practices in relation to water contact were collected from each study participant using a predesigned structured questionnaire. Urine samples from each participant were examined for macrohematuria and the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs. The chemotherapeutic intervention was assessed 3 and 6 months after the treatment and certain indicators were calculated. The prevalence of S. haematobium was 18.1%. The main significant risk factors were male sex; proximity of houses to water ponds; and using pond water for swimming, agricultural activities, and for bathing in houses. PZQ treatment reduced the prevalence of infection and decreased the prevalence of high-intensity infection. Survival analysis showed that the probability of residual infection also dropped after the treatment intervention. Male sex and using pond water for various activities were the main significant risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis. PZQ is still a cornerstone drug in reducing or eliminating morbidity associated with schistosomiasis infection. Health education programs tailored for the community are required for the control and prevention of urinary schistosomiasis. To address schoolchildren, school curricula should include lessons about urinary
Osborne, Vicki; Serdarevic, Mirsada; Crooke, Hannah; Striley, Catherine; Cottler, Linda B
Non-medical use (NMU) of prescription opioids in youth is of concern since they may continue this pattern into adulthood and become addicted or divert medications to others. Research into risk factors for NMU can help target interventions to prevent non-medical use of opioids in youth. The National Monitoring of Adolescent Prescription Stimulants Study (N-MAPSS) was conducted from 2008 to 2011. Participants 10-18years of age were recruited from entertainment venues in urban, rural and suburban areas of 10 US cities. Participants completed a survey including questions on their use of prescription opioids. NMU was defined as a non-labeled route of administration or using someone else's prescription. Information on age, gender, alcohol, marijuana and tobacco use was also collected. Summary descriptive, chi-square statistics and logistic regression were conducted using SAS 9.4. Of the 10,965 youth who provided information about past 30day prescription opioid use, prevalence of reported opioid use was 4.8% with 3.2% reported as NMU (n=345) and 1.6% as medical use (MU) only (n=180). More males than females (55.7% vs. 44.4%) reported opioid NMU (pgender differences in opioid NMU is needed; interventions for opioid NMU may need to be gender specific to obtain the best results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The increasing levels of antimicrobial resistance among foodborne bacteria are recognised as an important emerging public health problem. Reduced susceptibility to biocides also appears to be increasing. A potential concern is the possibility that the widespread use of biocides is responsible for the selection and maintenance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Here, we examine the prevalence of erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate, cetylpyridinium chloride, trisodium phosphate and sodium dodecyl sulphate resistance among 27 isolates of Campylobacter coli and 15 isolates of Campylobacter jejuni from food, animal, human and environmental water sources. These antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by the broth microdilution method. In the 42 Campylobacter strains studied, different antibiotic resistance levels were seen. The resistance to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin was observed in 14.3 % of Campylobacter strains. A higher rate of erythromycin resistance and multi-resistance was observed among isolated C. coli than among C. jejuni strains. Similar situations were seen for triclosan. Conversely, the level of benzalkonium chloride resistance was higher in C. jejuni than in C. coli. No correlation between biocide and antibiotic resistance was observed. This study does not provide evidence to confirm that tolerance to biocides is connected to antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter.
Wu, H M; Seet, B; Yap, E P; Saw, S M; Lim, T H; Chia, K S
To study interethnic variation in myopia prevalence and severity in young adult males in Singapore and to determine whether these variations are related to differences in education level. A population-based survey of refractive errors in a cohort of 15,095 military conscripts between July 1996 and June 1997 using noncycloplegic autorefraction and a standard questionnaire. Prevalence rates of myopia (education level. Singapore has one of the highest prevalences of myopia (79.3%) and severe myopia (13.1%), with Chinese having higher rates (82.2%, 95% confidence interval 81.5, 82.9) compared with Indians (68.7%, 95% confidence interval 65.1, 67.1) and Malays (65.0%, 95% confidence interval 62.9, 67.1). Education was strongly associated with prevalence and severity of myopia. However, significant interethnic variation persisted after adjusting for education. There is a high prevalence of myopia in Singapore. Although prevalence and severity of myopia were strongly associated with education, interethnic variation observed was not fully explained by differences in education level.
Liu, Qiang; Van Mieghem, Piet
One of the most important quantities of the exact Markovian SIS epidemic process is the time-dependent prevalence, which is the average fraction of infected nodes. Unfortunately, the Markovian SIS epidemic model features an exponentially increasing computational complexity with growing network size N. In this paper, we evaluate a recently proposed analytic approximate prevalence function introduced in Van Mieghem (2016). We compare the approximate function with the N-Intertwined Mean-Field Approximation (NIMFA) and with simulation of the Markovian SIS epidemic process. The results show that the new analytic prevalence function is comparable with other approximate methods.
Examination of 110 Mink (Mustela vison) carcasses from 1998 through 2007 indicated that the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale, occurred in Pine and Kanabec Counties of eastern Minnesota with annual prevalences of 0-92%. Worm prevalence increased from 20% in 1999 to 92% in 2001 and decreased to 6% in 2005. During 2000 to 2007, no worms were found in Mink from Anoka and Chisago Counties (n = 54), and in 2000, none in 107 Mink from LeSeur, Freeborn, Redwood, Brown and Watonwan Counties. Changes in kidney worm prevalence were positively related to trapping success, considered an index of Mink density.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A reversed gender pattern has been observed in the suicide rate in China compared to elsewhere. Like suicidal behaviour, non-suicidal self-injurious (NSSI behaviour is a health-risk behaviour. We examined whether a reversed gender pattern existed in the prevalence of NSSI. Methods Online literature databases were searched for English and Chinese articles on NSSI behaviours among the Chinese. A meta-analysis with a random-effects model and a subgroup analysis were used to estimate the odds ratios of gender differences in NSSI prevalence among Chinese adolescents including college students, middle school students, and clinical samples, as well as rural, urban, and Hong Kong middle school students. Results There was a male bias in NSSI prevalence among college students (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = [1.30, 1.87], p 0.1. The NSSI prevalence among middle school students had a female bias in the rural (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = [0.47, 0.72], p 0.1 among middle school students. Conclusions Our analysis indicated the existence of specific gender and age patterns in NSSI prevalence among Chinese adolescents. The sample type, age, and the areas that have different gender norms and culture could partly explain this pattern.
Kayeyi, Nkomba; Sandøy, Ingvild F; Fylkesnes, Knut
Investigations of the association between socio-economic position indicators and HIV in East, Central and Southern Africa have chiefly focused on factors that pertain to individual-level characteristics. This study investigated the effect of neighbourhood educational attainment on HIV prevalence among young women in selected urban and rural areas in Zambia. This study re-analysed data from a cross-sectional population survey conducted in Zambia in 2003. The analyses were restricted to women aged 15-24 years (n = 1295). Stratified random cluster sampling was used to select 10 urban and 10 rural clusters. A measure for neighbourhood-level educational attainment was constructed by aggregating individual-level years-in-school. Multi-level mixed effects regression models were run to examine the neighbourhood-level educational effect on HIV prevalence after adjusting for individual-level underlying variables (education, currently a student, marital status) and selected proximate determinants (ever given birth, sexual activity, lifetime sexual partners). HIV prevalence among young women aged 15-24 years was 12.5% in the urban and 6.8% in the rural clusters. Neighbourhood educational attainment was found to be a strong determinant of HIV infection in both urban and rural population, i.e. HIV prevalence decreased substantially by increasing level of neighbourhood education. The likelihood of infection in low vs. high educational attainment of neighbourhoods was 3.4 times among rural women and 1.8 times higher among the urban women after adjusting for age and other individual-level underlying variables, including education. However, the association was not significant for urban young women after this adjustment. After adjusting for level of education in the neighbourhood, the effect of the individual-level education differed by residence, i.e. a strong protective effect among urban women whereas tending to be a risk factor among rural women. The findings suggested structural
Pierantoni, L; Albertini, M; Pirrone, F
The present study examined the prevalence of behaviours in dogs separated from the litter for adoption at different ages. Seventy adult dogs separated from their dam and littermates and adopted between the ages of 30 and 40 days were compared with 70 adult dogs that had been taken from the litter for adoption at two months. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire eliciting information on whether their dog exhibited potentially problematic behaviours when in its usual environment. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether the age at which the dog was separated from the litter might predispose it to developing undesirable behaviours. The odds of displaying destructiveness, excessive barking, fearfulness on walks, reactivity to noises, toy possessiveness, food possessiveness and attention-seeking were significantly greater for the dogs that had been removed from the litter earlier during the socialisation period. In addition, dogs purchased from a pet shop at 30 to 40 days of age were reported to exhibit some of the listed behaviours with a significantly higher frequency than dogs purchased from a pet shop at two months. No significant differences were observed with dogs obtained from other types of sources. The dogs in the youngest age group (18 to 36 months) had a higher probability of displaying destructiveness and tail chasing. These findings indicate that, compared with dogs that remained with their social group for 60 days, dogs that had been separated from the litter earlier were more likely to exhibit potentially problematic behaviours, especially if they came from a pet shop.
Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni/coli are frequent causes of diarrhea in humans worldwide originating in foods of animal origin mainly from meat. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in lamb at different stages of the slaughter line including: after-skinning, after evisceration and the end of slaughter process. A total of 150 lamb samples (50 samples per each stage were collected over a period of 16-month between January 2006 and May 2008, and were analyzed for the presence of Campylobacter spp. According to the results, Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 11.3% (17/150 of the carcasses from the three sampling stages. Among the isolates, 76.5% were identified as C. jejuni and 23.1% as C. coli. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 5%, 8% and 4% of carcasses during the stages of after-skinning, after-evisceration and the end of slaughter process, respectively. Antibiotics susceptibility of 17 isolates were determined for ten different antibiotics using the disk diffusion assay. Results revealed that 58/8% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while 47/1% of the isolates to nalidixic acid, 41/2% to tetracycline, 29/4% to enrofloxacin, 23/5% to ampicillin, 5/9% to amoxicillin, and 5/9% top streptomycine. None of the isolates was resistant to erythromycin, chloramphenicol and gentamicine. This study emphasizes the application of a preventive system such as HACCP (Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points for the control of Campylobacter contamination in slaughterhouse.
Mazzilli, Rossella; Imbrogno, Norina; Elia, Jlenia; Delfino, Michele; Bitterman, Olimpia; Napoli, Angela; Mazzilli, Fernando
The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of diabetes on female sexuality and to highlight any differences between sexuality in the context of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The subjects selected were 49 women with type 1 DM, 24 women with type 2 DM, and 45 healthy women as controls. Each participant was given the nine-item Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire to complete. The metabolic profile was evaluated by body mass index and glycosylated hemoglobin assay. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction (total score ≤30) was significantly higher in the type 1 DM group (25/49, 51%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 18-31) than in the control group (4/45, 9%; 95% CI 3-5; P=0.00006); there were no significant variations in the type 2 DM group (4/24, 17%; 95% CI 3-4) versus the control group (P=0.630, not statistically significant). The mean total score was significantly lower in the type 1 DM group (30.2±6.9) versus the control group (36.5±4.9; P=0.0003), but there was no significant difference between the type 2 DM group and the control group (P=0.773). With regard to specific questionnaire items, the mean values for arousal, lubrication, dyspareunia, and orgasm were significantly lower only in the type 1 DM group versus the control group. The mean values for desire were reduced in type 1 and type 2 DM groups versus control group. Type 1 DM is associated with sexual dysfunction. This may be due to classic neurovascular complications or to the negative impact of the disease on psychosocial factors. Larger and ideally longitudinal studies are necessary to better understand the relationship between DM and sexual dysfunction.
Gender differences in brain activity and the relationship between brain activity and differences in prevalence rates between male and female major depressive disorder patients: a resting-state fMRI study.
Yao, Zhijian; Yan, Rui; Wei, Maobin; Tang, Hao; Qin, Jiaolong; Lu, Qing
We examined the gender-difference effect on abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity of male and female major depressive disorder (MDD) patients using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and the further clarified the relationship between the abnormal ALFF and differences in MDD prevalence rates between male and female patients. Fourteen male MDD patients, 13 female MDD patients and 15 male and 15 female well matched healthy controls (HCs) completed this study. The ALFF approach was used, and Pearson correlation was conducted to observe a possible clinical relevance. There were widespread differences in ALFF values between female and male MDD patients, including some important parts of the frontoparietal network, auditory network, attention network and cerebellum network. In female MDD patients, there was a positive correlation between average ALFF values of the left postcentral gyrus and the severity of weight loss symptom. The gender-difference effect leading to abnormal brain activity is an important underlying pathomechanism for different somatic symptoms in MDD patients of different genders and is likely suggestive of higher MDD prevalence rates in females. The abnormal ALFF resulting from the gender-difference effect might improve our understanding of the differences in prevalence rates between male and female MDD patients from another perspective. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harper, C G; Sheedy, D L; Lara, A I; Garrick, T M; Hilton, J M; Raisanen, J
To determine the prevalence of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) in Australia and compare this with previous studies. Prospective autopsy study at the New South Wales Institute of Forensic Medicine, 1996-1997. Brains of deceased people (aged over 15 years) derived from 2212 sequential autopsies performed between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 1997 were studied macroscopically and microscopically to identify cases of WKS. Standard histological criteria for WKS and any available clinical data. Twenty-five cases of WKS were identified (prevalence, 1.1%), mostly among the 5.9% of the 2212 people who had a history suggestive of alcohol abuse. Only four cases (16%) had been diagnosed during life. There has been a significant reduction in the prevalence of WKS in Australia since the introduction of thiamine enrichment of bread flour. While the prevalence is still higher than in most other Western countries, further research is needed before adding thiamine to alcoholic beverages can be recommended.
Burk, W.J.; Seiffge-Krenke, I.
This study investigated concurrent links between adolescent romantic couples’ reports of aggression (relational and physical) and relationship functioning (e.g., attachment security, conflict prevalence, coping strategies, jealousy, and affiliative and romantic relationship quality) using a
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI is a key epidemiological indicator of the extent of transmission in a community. Several methods have been suggested to estimate the prevalence of tuberculous infection using tuberculin skin test data. This paper explores the implications of using different methods to estimate prevalence of infection and ARTI. The effect of BCG vaccination on these estimates is also investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tuberculin surveys among school children in 16 communities in Zambia and 8 in South Africa (SA were performed in 2005, as part of baseline data collection and for randomisation purposes of the ZAMSTAR study. Infection prevalence and ARTI estimates were calculated using five methods: different cut-offs with or without adjustments for sensitivity, the mirror method, and mixture analysis. A total of 49,835 children were registered for the surveys, of which 25,048 (50% had skin tests done and 22,563 (90% of those tested were read. Infection prevalence was higher in the combined SA than Zambian communities. The mirror method resulted in the least difference of 7.8%, whereas that estimated by the cut-off methods varied from 12.2% to 17.3%. The ARTI in the Zambian and SA communities was between 0.8% and 2.8% and 2.5% and 4.2% respectively, depending on the method used. In the SA communities, the ARTI was higher among the younger children. BCG vaccination had little effect on these estimates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ARTI estimates are dependent on the calculation method used. All methods agreed that there were substantial differences in infection prevalence across the communities, with higher rates in SA. Although TB notification rates have increased over the past decades, the difference in cumulative exposure between younger and older children is less dramatic and a rise in risk of infection in parallel with the estimated incidence of active tuberculosis cannot be excluded.
Christensen, D.; Friis, H.; Mwaniki, D.
Objective: To assess the prevalence of glucose intolerance in rural and urban Kenyan populations and in different ethnic groups. Further, to identify associations between lifestyle risk factors and glucose intolerance. Research design and methods: A cross-sectional study included an opportunity...... intolerance among the rural ethnic groups. High BMI, WC, AFA, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, low fitness and physical activity, frequent alcohol consumption, and urban residence were associated with glucose intolerance. Conclusions: The prevalence of diabetes and IGT among different Kenyan...
Worm, Signe H.Westring; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias
This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time.......This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time....
Monica H. Swahn
Full Text Available Objective. Using nationally representative data, this study examined the prevalence of very frequent physical fighting (≥12 times per year among youth in 27 countries and cities. Frequent physical fighting has rarely been reported in the previous literature despite the implications for research and practice. Methods. Analyses were based on the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2003–2008 and the 2009 US Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Multinomial regression analyses were conducted to determine gender differences in frequent fighting. Countries were categorized into five regions (Sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America, Asia, Eastern Mediterranean, and the United States, and one-way ANOVA tests were used to determine regional differences. Results. The prevalence of frequent fighting was highest in Zambia (7.7% and lowest in Myanmar (0.5%. Gender differences were found in 20 countries, with boys being more likely to report frequent fighting than girls. The prevalence of frequent fighting varied by region (, , with the Eastern Mediterranean having a significantly higher prevalence of frequent fighting than Asia . Conclusion. The prevalence of frequent fighting varies by gender in many countries and varies across world regions. More cross-national research is needed to better understand the sociocultural context of frequent fighting and to inform youth violence prevention efforts.
Koh, Victor; Yang, Adeline; Saw, Seang Mei; Chan, Yiong Huak; Lin, Sheng Tong; Tan, Mellisa Mei Hui; Tey, Frederick; Nah, Gerard; Ikram, M Kamran
To determine the differences in prevalence rates of refractive errors in young Singaporean males over a 13-year period between 1996-1997 and 2009-2010 METHODS: Non-cycloplegic autorefraction data were obtained in a survey of 15,085 young male subjects (mean age 19.5 ± 1.4 years, range 16-25 years) in 1996-1997 using a Nikon NRK-8000 autorefractor. A second survey of 28,908 male subjects (mean age 19.8 ± 1.2 years, range 17-29 years) was conducted in 2009-2010 using a Huvitz MRK-3100 autorefractor. The overall prevalence of myopia (spherical equivalent, SEq, worse than -0.5 diopters, D) was similar in 2009-2010 (81.6%) and 1996-1997 (79.2%; odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.31-1.46; p prevalence of high myopia (SEq worse than -6.0D) increased from 13.1% in 1996-1997 to 14.7% in 2009-2010 (p prevalence of refractive astigmatism increased significantly from 41.4% in 1996-1997 to 50.9% in 2009-2010 (p prevalence of myopia and high myopia remained high and the prevalence of astigmatism increased in young male adults in Singapore over a 13-year period after controlling for age, education and ethnicity.
lifestyle (more television, video and computer games, less use of playgrounds, sporting facilities), longer school hours, etc. (20,21). Studies have shown that physical activity levels are ..... The growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes: increased incidence or improved survival? Curr Diab Rep.2013. ;13(6):786-94. 26.Gureje O ...
Riphagen, Ineke J.; Keyzer, Charlotte A.; Drummen, Nadja E.A.; Borst, de Martin H.; Beulens, Joline W.J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Muskiet, Frits A.J.; Navis, Gerjan; Visser, Sipke T.; Vermeer, Cees; Kema, Ido P.; Bakker, Stephan J.L.
Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) is a strong vitamin K-dependent inhibitor of soft tissue calcification. We assessed the prevalence of functional vitamin K insufficiency, as derived from plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), and investigated whether plasma dp-ucMGP is associated with all-cause
Physically awkward children face a host of difficulties, which include difficulties in the school environment. Therefore, it is important to identify Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) early in a child's life to allow for proper and timely intervention and support. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence ...
Background: The use of Traditional Medicines (TM) is common practice world over. Traditional Eye Medicine (TEM) use may be associated with various ocular complications including blindness. A study on the prevalence of TEM use was carried out at Sekuru Kaguvi Hospital Eye Unit (SKHEU) in Harare, with emphasis on ...
Pereira, D; Peleteiro, B; Araújo, J; Branco, J; Santos, R A; Ramos, E
To understand the differences in prevalence and incidence estimates of osteoarthritis (OA), according to case definition, in knee, hip and hand joints. A systematic review was carried out in PUBMED and SCOPUS databases comprising the date of publication period from January 1995 to February 2011. We attempted to summarise data on the incidence and prevalence of OA according to different methods of assessment: self-reported, radiographic and symptomatic OA (clinical plus radiographic). Prevalence estimates were combined through meta-analysis and between-study heterogeneity was quantified. Seventy-two papers were reviewed (nine on incidence and 63 on prevalence). Higher OA prevalences are seen when radiographic OA definition was used for all age groups. Prevalence meta-analysis showed high heterogeneity between studies even in each specific joint and using the same OA definition. Although the knee is the most studied joint, the highest OA prevalence estimates were found in hand joints. OA of the knee tends to be more prevalent in women than in men independently of the OA definition used, but no gender differences were found in hip and hand OA. Insufficient data for incidence studies didn't allow us to make any comparison according to joint site or OA definition. Radiographic case definition of OA presented the highest prevalences. Within each joint site, self-reported and symptomatic OA definitions appear to present similar estimates. The high heterogeneity found in the studies limited further conclusions. Copyright © 2011 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ximena E. Bernal
Full Text Available Trypanosomes are a diverse group of protozoan parasites of vertebrates transmitted by a variety of hematophagous invertebrate vectors. Anuran trypanosomes and their vectors have received relatively little attention even though these parasites have been reported from frog and toad species worldwide. Blood samples collected from túngara frogs (Engystomops pustulosus, a Neotropical anuran species heavily preyed upon by eavesdropping frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp., were examined for trypanosomes. Our results revealed sexual differences in trypanosome prevalence with female frogs being rarely infected (<1%. This finding suggests this protozoan parasite may be transmitted by frog-biting midges that find their host using the mating calls produced by male frogs. Following previous anuran trypanosome studies, we examined 18S ribosomal RNA gene to characterize and establish the phylogenetic relationship of the trypanosome species found in túngara frogs. A new species of giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma tungarae n. sp., is described in this study. Overall the morphometric data revealed that the trypomastigotes of T. tungarae n. sp. are similar to other giant trypanosomes such as Trypanosoma rotatorium and Trypanosoma ranarum. Despite its slender and long cell shape, however, 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed that T. tungarae n. sp. is sister to the rounded-bodied giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma chattoni. Therefore, morphological convergence explains similar morphology among members of two non-closely related groups of trypanosomes infecting frogs. The results from this study underscore the value of coupling morphological identification with molecular characterization of anuran trypanosomes.
Nov 16, 2011 ... The freshwater cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is potentially toxic and widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions. This species is highly abundant throughout the Anzali. Lagoon during the months of July and August. The effects of four different photoperiods (L/D 12:12,. 10:14 ...
M. H. SALEEM, M. S. KHAN, A. S. CHAUDRY AND H. A. SAMAD
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of trichomoniasis and its effect on some blood parameters in pigeons. A total of 100 samples from the pigeons (50 wild and 50 domestic were collected during the months of March and April 2005. Higher prevalence (P<0.05 was recorded in wild pigeons (60% than in domestic pigeon (26%. The overall prevalence recorded was 43%, being non significantly higher in April (56% than in March (30%. In infected pigeons, there was significant (P<0.05 decrease in hemoglobin concentration number of monocytes packed cell volume, body weight, than healthy birds. Likewise, the values of total leukocyte count, lymphocytes and eosinophils were higher significantly (P<0.05 in infected pigeons than the healthy ones. While, no significant difference was observed for heterophils count when infected and healthy birds were compared. It was concluded that trichomonad infection is quite common in wild, as well as in domestic, pigeons under the prevailing cage system.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis has made a dramatic resurgence in China during the past two decades and become the third most prevalent notifiable infectious disease in China. Female sex workers (FSWs have become one of key populations for the epidemic. In order to investigate syphilis infection among different tiers of FSWs, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 sites in China. Methods Serum specimens (n = 7,118 were collected to test for syphilis and questionnaire interviews were conducted to obtain socio-demographic and behavioral information among FSWs recruited from different types of venues. FSWs were categorized into three tiers (high-, middle- and low-tier FSWs based on the venues where they solicited clients. Serum specimens were screened with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for treponemal antibody followed by confirmation with non-treponemal toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST for positive ELISA specimens to determine syphilis infection. A logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with syphilis infection. Results Overall syphilis prevalence was 5.0% (95%CI, 4.5-5.5%. Low-tier FSWs had the highest prevalence (9.7%; 95%CI, 8.3-11.1%, followed by middle-tier (4.3%; 95%CI, 3.6-5.0%, P P Conclusions This multi-site survey showed a high prevalence of syphilis infection among FSWs and substantial disparities in syphilis prevalence by the tier of FSWs. The difference in syphilis prevalence is substantial between different tiers of FSWs, with the highest rate among low-tier FSWs. Thus, current surveillance and intervention activities, which have low coverage in low-tier FSWs in China, should be further examined.
Espelt, Albert; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Penelo, Eva; Bosque-Prous, Marina
To examine the differences between Prevalence Ratio (PR) and Odds Ratio (OR) in a cross-sectional study and to provide tools to calculate PR using two statistical packages widely used in substance use research (STATA and R). We used cross-sectional data from 41,263 participants of 16 European countries participating in the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The dependent variable, hazardous drinking, was calculated using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C). The main independent variable was gender. Other variables used were: age, educational level and country of residence. PR of hazardous drinking in men with relation to women was estimated using Mantel-Haenszel method, log-binomial regression models and poisson regression models with robust variance. These estimations were compared to the OR calculated using logistic regression models. Prevalence of hazardous drinkers varied among countries. Generally, men have higher prevalence of hazardous drinking than women [PR=1.43 (1.38-1.47)]. Estimated PR was identical independently of the method and the statistical package used. However, OR overestimated PR, depending on the prevalence of hazardous drinking in the country. In cross-sectional studies, where comparisons between countries with differences in the prevalence of the disease or condition are made, it is advisable to use PR instead of OR.
Full Text Available Rossella Mazzilli, Norina Imbrogno, Jlenia Elia, Michele Delfino, Olimpia Bitterman, Angela Napoli, Fernando Mazzilli Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Unit of Diabetology and Endocrinology, University of Rome Sapienza, Rome, Italy Background: The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of diabetes on female sexuality and to highlight any differences between sexuality in the context of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Methods: The subjects selected were 49 women with type 1 DM, 24 women with type 2 DM, and 45 healthy women as controls. Each participant was given the nine-item Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire to complete. The metabolic profile was evaluated by body mass index and glycosylated hemoglobin assay. Results: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction (total score ≤30 was significantly higher in the type 1 DM group (25/49, 51%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 18–31 than in the control group (4/45, 9%; 95% CI 3–5; P=0.00006; there were no significant variations in the type 2 DM group (4/24, 17%; 95% CI 3–4 versus the control group (P=0.630, not statistically significant. The mean total score was significantly lower in the type 1 DM group (30.2±6.9 versus the control group (36.5±4.9; P=0.0003, but there was no significant difference between the type 2 DM group and the control group (P=0.773. With regard to specific questionnaire items, the mean values for arousal, lubrication, dyspareunia, and orgasm were significantly lower only in the type 1 DM group versus the control group. The mean values for desire were reduced in type 1 and type 2 DM groups versus control group. Conclusion: Type 1 DM is associated with sexual dysfunction. This may be due to classic neurovascular complications or to the negative impact of the disease on psychosocial factors. Larger and ideally longitudinal studies are necessary to better understand the relationship between DM and sexual dysfunction. Keywords
Geng, Yifan; Lo, Joan C; Brickner, Leslea; Gordon, Nancy P
Falls are the leading cause of hip fracture in older women, with important public health implications. Fall risk increases with age and other clinical factors, and varies by race/ethnicity. International studies suggest that fall risk is lower in Asians, although data are limited in U.S. This study examines racial/ethnic differences in fall prevalence among older U.S. women within a large integrated healthcare delivery system. This cross-sectional study used data from 6277 women ages 65-90 who responded to the 2008 or 2011 Kaiser Permanente Northern California Member Health Survey (KPNC-MHS). The KPNC-MHS is a mailed questionnaire sent to a random sample of adult members stratified by age, gender, and geographic location, representing a population estimate of >200,000 women age ≥65 years. Age, race/ethnicity, self-reported health status, presence of diabetes, arthritis or prior stroke, mobility limitations and number of falls in the past year were obtained from the KPNC-MHS. The independent association of race/ethnicity and recent falls was examined, adjusting for known risk factors. The weighted sample was 76.7% non-Hispanic white, 6.2% Hispanic, 6.8% black and 10.3% Asian. Over 20% reported having fallen during the past year (28.5% non-Hispanic white, 27.8% Hispanic, 23.4% black and 20.1% Asian). Older age was associated with greater fall risk, as was having diabetes (OR 1.24, CI 1.03-1.48), prior stroke (OR 1.51, CI 1.09-2.07), arthritis (OR 1.61, CI 1.39-1.85) and mobility limitations (OR 2.82, CI 2.34-3.39), adjusted for age. Compared to whites, Asian (OR 0.64, CI 0.50-0.81) and black (OR 0.73, CI 0.55-0.95) women were much less likely to have ≥1 fall in the past year, adjusting for age, comorbidities, mobility limitation and poor health status. Asians were also less likely to have ≥2 falls (OR 0.62, CI 0.43-0.88). Among older women, the risk of having a recent fall was substantially lower for black and Asian women when compared to white women. This may
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the prevalence of bullying experienced by business professionals and to further the understanding of bullying by analyzing to what extent gender aspects and organizational politics may contribute to bullying in knowledge-intensive career-oriented jobs. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional survey study among members of a professional organization for employees with a university degree in business studies. In addition, written stories were collected to increase the understanding of bullying. This article presents data on the prevalence of bullying, gender differences in bullying, and the relationship between bullying and organizational politics. In addition, some implications for both researchers and managers are presented. The article is based on the author’s doctoral thesis.Cet article décrit la prévalence du harcèlement professionnel dans le milieu des affaires et tente de comprendre cette réalité en considérant dans quelle mesure les différences homme-femme et la culture organisationnelle contribuent au harcèlement dans un milieu de travail compétitif où les emplois sont basés sur le savoir. Une étude transversale a été réalisée auprès de membres d’une organisation professionnelle de diplômés universitaires du milieu des affaires. Des comptes rendus écrits d’épisodes de harcèlement ont également été utilisés. Les résultats présentés décrivent la prévalence du harcèlement, les différences de genre à cet égard, ainsi que les liens entre le harcèlement et la culture organisationnelle. Des retombées intéressant les chercheurs et les gestionnaires sont également présentées. L’article est basé sur la thèse de doctorat de l’auteur.El objetivo de este artículo es describir la prevalencia de la intimidación (bullying vivida por profesionales del área de negocios con formación superior y orientación carrierista,así como incrementar la comprensi
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country. METHODS: In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/American Heart Association (IDF/NHLBI/AHA-2009 criteria. Multivariate models were used to study the independent association between ethnicity and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: The overall mean age was 36.9 years, and 50.0% participants were female. The ethnic distribution was 57.0% Malay, 28.5% Chinese, 8.9% Indian and 5.0% Indigenous Sarawakians. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 27.5%, with a prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting glucose of 36.9%, 29.3%, 37.2%, 38.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Among those <40 years, the adjusted prevalence ratios for metabolic syndrome for ethnic Chinese, Indians, and Indigenous Sarawakians compared to ethnic Malay were 0.81 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.96, 1.42 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.69 and 1.37 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.73, respectively. Among those aged ≥40 years, the corresponding prevalence ratios were 0.86 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.92, 1.25 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.36, and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80, 1.11. The P-value for the interaction of ethnicity by age was 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Malaysia was high, with marked differences across ethnicities. Ethnic Chinese had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while ethnic Indians had the highest. Indigenous Sarawakians showed a marked increase in metabolic
Achat, Helen M; Stubbs, Joanne M
To trial the collection of measurements to provide population-based prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children in western Sydney and examine the association between healthy weight and ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES) in a socio-economically and culturally diverse population. A cross-sectional population-based survey of 2341 children in Years 4 and 7 (mean ages 9 and 12 years, respectively) in 2007. Nineteen percent of children were overweight and a further 6% were obese. The prevalence of combined overweight and obesity was similar for boys and girls (26% vs. 24%, P= 0.35). SES was significantly associated with the prevalence of unhealthy weight: the odds of being overweight or obese were 1.79 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 to 2.36) higher for children from the lowest quartile than for children from the highest quartile. Compared to children from an English speaking background, children from a non-English speaking background were significantly more likely to be overweight or obese (21% vs. 31%, P overweight and obesity was significantly higher for children from a Pacific Island (odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% CI 1.63 to 4.33), Middle Eastern (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.17) or European (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.49) background than for English speaking background children. Large jumps in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children observed from the 1980s appear to be diminishing, with comparable prevalence reports in 2004 and 2007. Ethnicity and SES are each independently associated with the prevalence of unhealthy weight in children. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Worm, Signe W; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Rickenbach, Martin; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens; Sabin, Caroline; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.
INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time.
Worm, S.W.; Friis-Moller, N.; Bruyand, M.; D'Arminio-Monforte, A.; Rickenbach, M.; Reiss, P.; El-Sadr, W.; Phillips, A.; Lundgren, J.; Sabin, C.; Gyssens, I.C.J.; et al.,
INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time.
Worm, Signe H.Westring; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias
This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time....
Machiulskiene, Vita; Bælum, Vibeke; Fejerskov, Ole
/teeth of 300 teenagers were examined for dental caries, dental fluorosis, and non-fluoride developmental defects. The caries prevalence of the study population was 100%. The mean number of decayed surfaces (DS) differed only slightly and statistically insignificantly between the '1.1 ppm fluoride' and '0.3 ppm...
Derks, Terry G. J.; Duran, Marinus; Waterham, Hans R.; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; ten Kate, Leo P.; Smit, G. Peter A.
Medium chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase ( MCAD) deficiency is assumed to be the most common inherited disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Few reports mention the difference between the expected and observed prevalence of MCAD deficiency on the basis of the carrier frequency in the
Derks, Terry G J; Duran, Marinus; Waterham, Hans R; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Ten Kate, Leo P; Smit, G Peter A
Medium chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase ( MCAD) deficiency is assumed to be the most common inherited disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Few reports mention the difference between the expected and observed prevalence of MCAD deficiency on the basis of the carrier frequency in the
Kiani, R.; Tyrer, F.; Hodgson, A.; Berkin, N.; Bhaumik, S.
Background: In the general population there are statistically significant urban-rural differences in the rate of common mental disorders. In people with intellectual disability (ID) no study has attempted to address this issue. Aims: To compare the prevalence of mental illness, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and behaviour disorder in people with…
Gokulshankar, S; Ranganathan, S; Ranjith, M S; Ranjithsingh, A J A
A total of 887 pellets of different avifauna were screened for the presence of Cryptococcus neoformans. One hundred and six of 887 samples (12%) yielded Cr. neoformans in culture. The report on the isolation of Cr. neoformans from the pellets of the crow appears to be new and of greater significance because of the ubiquitous prevalence of this bird in India. The prevalence of both MAT a and MAT alpha mating types were recorded. The serotype D was predominant over serotype A. The findings of the present study reveal the growing diverse ecological niche of Cr. neoformans in a the pellets of various avifauna in India.
Chung, Sang-Jin; Han, Young Shin; Lee, Sang-Il; Kang, Seung-ho
The objective of this study was to discuss the residential difference in gender and age specific prevalence of obesity by body mass index (BMI) and obesity related health behaviors in the Republic of Korea. A total of nationally representative 2,583 men and 3,087 women (age: 20-64 yr) was used as subjects from 1998 National Health and Nutrition Survey. All statistics were calculated using SUDAAN to consider a stratified multistage probability sampling design. The prevalence of obesity (BMI≥25...
Yngve, Agneta; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Wolf, Alexandra
Objectives: To assess country differences in prevalence of overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in the Pro Children Survey. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in a random sample of schools in nine European countries in 2003. The subjects were 8317 11-year-old children from Austria...... compared with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Games-Howell post hoc tests. Categorical variables were analysed using chi-square tests. Results: The prevalence of overweight + obesity varied between the countries from 8.6% to 30.6% and 5.9% to 26.5%, respectively, depending on the reference...
Boisen, K A; Kaleva, M; Main, K M
cryptorchidism. METHODS: 1068 Danish (1997-2001) and 1494 Finnish boys (1997-99) were consecutively recruited prenatally. We also established prevalence data for all newborns at Turku University Central Hospital, Finland (1997-99, n=5798). Testicular position was assessed by a standardised technique. All...
Frye, MA; Altshuler, LL; McElroy, SL; Suppes, T; Keck, PE; Denicoff, K; Nolen, WA; Kupka, R; Leverich, GS; Pollio, C; Grunze, H; Walden, J; Post, RM
Objective: The prevalence of lifetime alcohol abuse and/or dependence (alcoholism) in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be higher than in all other axis I psychiatric diagnoses. This study examined gender-specific relationships between alcoholism and bipolar illness, which have
Lee, Sungwha; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yu, Jaemyung; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Kim, Doo-Man; Hong, Eun-Gyung; Park, Kyutae; Choi, Myungjin; Choi, Hyunhee
Since the reference value is the core factor of the T-score calculation, it has a significant impact on the prevalence of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of using the Korean reference value on the prevalence of osteoporosis and on the prediction of fracture risk. We used femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011. The Korean reference was identified by the mean and standard deviation of men and women aged 20-29 years. We compared the prevalence and the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX™) probability obtained from the Korean reference and the NHANES III reference. In men, the prevalence of osteoporosis increased when using the Korean men's reference, and the difference increased up to 9% for those in their 80s. In women, the prevalence increased when using the NHANES III reference, and the difference increased up to 17% for those in their 80s. The reference value also affected the fracture risk probability, and the difference from changing the reference value increased in women and in subjects with more clinical fracture risk factors. In major osteoporotic fractures, the difference of the risk probability was up to 6% in women aged 70-79 years with two clinical risk factors. For femoral neck fractures, the difference was up to 7% in women aged 50-59 years with two clinical risk factors. We confirmed that the reference value had significant effects on the prevalence of osteoporosis and on the fracture risk probability. The KNHANES 2008-2011 BMD data reflected the characteristics of the Korean BMD status well with regard to data size and study design; therefore, these data can be used as reference values.
Pimburage, R M S; Gunatilake, M; Wimalaratne, O; Balasuriya, A; Perera, K A D N
Mass vaccination of dogs is considered fundamental for national rabies control programmes in Sri Lanka, as dog is the main reservoir and transmitter of the disease. Dogs were followed to determine the sero-prevalence of antibodies to the rabies virus. Altogether 510 previously vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs with owners (domestic dogs) and dogs without owners (stray dogs) of the local guard dog breed in different age groups recruited from Kalutara District, Sri Lanka. The dogs were vaccinated with a monovalent inactivated vaccine intramuscularly and serum antibody titres on days 0, 30, 180 and 360 were determined by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT). The results indicated, a single dose of anti-rabies vaccination fails to generate a protective level of immunity (0.5 IU/ml) which lasts until 1 year in 40.42% of dogs without owners and 57.14% of previously unvaccinated juvenile (age: 3 months to 1 year) dogs with owners. More than one vaccination would help to maintain antibody titres above the protective level in the majority of dogs. The pattern of antibody titre development in annually vaccinated and irregularly vaccinated (not annual) adult dogs with owners is closely similar irrespective of regularity in vaccination. Previously vaccinated animals have higher (2 IU/ml) antibody titres to begin with and have a higher antibody titre on day 360 too. They show a very good antibody titre by day 180. Unvaccinated animals start with low antibody titre and return to low titres by day 360, but have a satisfactory antibody titre by day 180. A single dose of anti-rabies vaccination is not sufficient for the maintenance of antibody titres for a period of 1 year in puppies, juvenile dogs with owners and in dogs without owners. Maternal antibodies do not provide adequate protection to puppies of previously vaccinated dams and puppies of previously unvaccinated dams. Immunity development after vaccination seems to be closely similar in both the groups
Mabry, R M; Reeves, M M; Eakin, E G; Owen, N
To systematically review studies documenting the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among men and women in Member States of the Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC; Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates)-countries in which obesity, Type 2 diabetes and related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent. A search was conducted on PubMed and CINAHL using the term 'metabolic syndrome' and the country name of each GCC Member State. The search was limited to studies published in the English language. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and/or International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions. The methodological quality of each study was evaluated based on four criteria: a national-level population sample; equal gender representation; robustness of the sample size; an explicit sampling methodology. PubMed, CINAHL and reference list searches identified nine relevant studies. Only four were considered high quality and found that, for men, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome ranged from 20.7% to 37.2% (ATPIII definition) and from 29.6% to 36.2% (IDF definition); and, for women, from 32.1% to 42.7% (ATPIII definition) and from 36.1% to 45.9% (IDF definition). Overall, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the GCC states is some 10-15% higher than in most developed countries, with generally higher prevalence rates for women. Preventive strategies will require identifying socio-demographic and environmental correlates (particularly those influencing women) and addressing modifiable risk behaviours, including lack of physical activity, prolonged sitting time and dietary intake.
Full Text Available Research has found that contagion-minimizing behavioral tendencies are amplified in pathogen-prevalent regions. We investigated whether reactions to the “swine flu” outbreak of 2009 were stronger among East Asians than Westerners, populations residing in regions that now enjoy comparable advances in healthcare but that are characterized by relatively high and low historical pathogen prevalence, respectively. In a survey, East Asians reported greater concerns about infection, especially from foreigners. Analyses of international air travel data around the time of the outbreak provided corroborating evidence: Immediately following the outbreak, airports in the Asia-Pacific region lost more international traffic relative to their Western counterparts, and East Asian airlines reported greater declines in international traffic compared to Western airlines. These differences are unlikely to reflect objective threat posed by swine flu (whose casualties were concentrated in the Americas; rather, they appear to reflect culturally adapted behavioral patterns forged and sustained by regionally variable levels of pathogen prevalence.
Kuepper-Nybelen, J; Lamerz, A; Bruning, N; Hebebrand, J; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Brenner, H
To investigate the prevalence of overweight according to nationality in preschool children living in Germany, and to establish the determinants responsible for differences in body mass index. The study was performed within the context of the 2001/2002 obligatory health examination before school entry in the city of Aachen, Germany. Of 2020 eligible children 1979 children were recruited (participation rate: 98%). Children's height and weight were measured using a standardised protocol. The parents completed a standardised questionnaire on sociodemographic factors and possible determinants of nutritional status. Being overweight was defined according to age and sex specific reference values for German children as well as according to international reference values. The study population included 452 (22.9%) children with other than German nationality. Among these children the prevalence of overweight was twice as high than among German children (14.8% v 7.2%). Prevalence of most known risk factors for overweight, such as low physical activity, high consumption of soft drinks, and frequent visits to fast-food restaurants was higher in the children with other nationalities than in the German children. Multivariate analyses revealed that most of the difference in prevalence of obesity by nationality is explained by known risk factors of overweight, especially education of mother and watching TV. The apparent ethnic differences could be explained by two non-ethnic but socioeconomic factors. In preventing overweight in children, there is the need to identify and deal with high risk environments rather than high risk ethnic groups.
Erica L Pufall
Full Text Available There are an estimated half-million children living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The predominant source of infection is presumed to be perinatal mother-to-child transmission, but general population data about paediatric HIV are sparse. We characterise the epidemiology of HIV in children in sub-Saharan Africa by describing the prevalence, possible source of infection, and effects of paediatric HIV in a southern African population.From 2009 to 2011, we conducted a household-based survey of 3389 children (aged 2-14 years in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe (response rate: 73.5%. Data about socio-demographic correlates of HIV, risk factors for infection, and effects on child health were analysed using multi-variable logistic regression. To assess the plausibility of mother-to-child transmission, child HIV infection was linked to maternal survival and HIV status using data from a 12-year adult HIV cohort.HIV prevalence was (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.6-2.8% and did not differ significantly by sex, socio-economic status, location, religion, or child age. Infected children were more likely to be underweight (19.6% versus 10.0%, p = 0.03 or stunted (39.1% versus 30.6%, p = 0.04 but did not report poorer physical or psychological ill-health. Where maternal data were available, reported mothers of 61/62 HIV-positive children were deceased or HIV-positive. Risk factors for other sources of infection were not associated with child HIV infection, including blood transfusion, vaccinations, caring for a sick relative, and sexual abuse. The observed flat age-pattern of HIV prevalence was consistent with UNAIDS estimates which assumes perinatal mother-to-child transmission, although modelled prevalence was higher than observed prevalence. Only 19/73 HIV-positive children (26.0% were diagnosed, but, of these, 17 were on antiretroviral therapy.Childhood HIV infection likely arises predominantly from mother-to-child transmission and is associated with poorer physical
Kallwitz, Eric R; Daviglus, Martha L; Allison, Matthew A; Emory, Kristen T; Zhao, Lihui; Kuniholm, Mark H; Chen, Jinsong; Gouskova, Natalia; Pirzada, Amber; Talavera, Gregory A; Youngblood, Marston E; Cotler, Scott J
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was shown to disproportionally affect Hispanic persons. We examined the prevalence of suspected NAFLD in Hispanic/Latino persons with diverse backgrounds. We studied the prevalence of suspected NAFLD among 12,133 persons included in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We collected data on levels of aminotransferase, metabolic syndrome (defined by National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines), demographics, and health behaviors. Suspected NAFLD was defined on the basis of increased level of aminotransferase in the absence of serologic evidence for common causes of liver disease or excessive alcohol consumption. In multivariate analyses, data were adjusted for metabolic syndrome, age, acculturation, diet, physical activity, sleep, and levels of education and income. In multivariate analysis, compared with persons of Mexican heritage, persons of Cuban (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.85), Puerto Rican (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.52-0.87), and Dominican backgrounds (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54-0.93) had lower rates of suspected NAFLD. Persons of Central American and South American heritage had a similar prevalence of suspected NAFLD compared with persons of Mexican heritage. NAFLD was less common in women than in men (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.40-0.60). Suspected NAFLD associated with metabolic syndrome and all 5 of its components. On the basis of an analysis of a large database of health in Latino populations, we found the prevalence of suspected NAFLD among Hispanic/Latino individuals to vary by region of heritage. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, malaria is not uniformly distributed. Chhattisgarh is a highly malarious state where both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are prevalent with a preponderance of P. falciparum. Malaria in pregnancy (MIP, especially when caused by P. falciparum, poses substantial risk to the mother and foetus by increasing the risk of foetal death, prematurity, low birth weight (LBW, and maternal anaemia. These risks vary between areas with stable and unstable transmission. The specific objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malaria, its association with maternal and birth outcomes, and use of anti-malarial preventive measures for development of evidence based interventions to reduce the burden of MIP. Methods A cross-sectional study of pregnant women presenting to antenatal clinics (ANC or delivery units (DU, or hospitalized for non-obstetric illness was conducted over 12 months in high (Bastar and low (Rajnandgaon transmission districts in Chhattisgarh state. Intensity of transmission was defined on the basis of slide positivity rates with a high proportion due to P. falciparum. In each district, a rural and an urban health facility was selected. Results Prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia was low: 1.3% (35/2696 among women at ANCs and 1.9% at DUs (19/1025. Peripheral parasitaemia was significantly more common in Bastar (2.8% than in Rajnandgaon (0.1% (p Conclusions Given the overall low prevalence of malaria, a strategy of enhanced anti-vector measures coupled with intermittent screening and targeted treatment during pregnancy should be considered for preventing malaria-associated morbidity in central India.
Okoli, P.S.O. and Nweke, I.A. (2015), Effect of poultry manure and mineral fertilizer on the growth performance and yield of cucumber fruits (Cucumis sativus L). J. Agric. Ecol. Res. Int. 3: 81-88. Okonmah, L.U. (2011). Effects of different types of staking and their cost effectiveness on the growth, yield and yield components of ...
Oyhenart, Evelia Edith; Orden, Alicia Bibiana
To evaluate if using an international growth reference versus a national growth reference leads to differences in the prevalences of low weight-for-height (wasting) and low height-for-age (stunting) in a sample of children 8 to 14 years old. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1,470 school-children (both boys and girls) in the city of La Plata, in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Based on the data on weight and height, Z-scores were calculated with regard to the reference values from the United States of America's first and second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I and NHANES II), and the reference values for Argentina from the Argentine Pediatric Society. The prevalences of wasting and stunting were calculated, using as the cutoff point two standard deviations below the median of the reference. The prevalences were compared using the chi-squared test with Yates' correction, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. The international reference was positively associated with a higher prevalence of stunting in the entire sample (OR = 5.12; 95% CI: 3.27 to 8.05), in the boys (OR = 4.36; 95% CI: 2.43 to 7.93), and in the girls (OR = 6.32; 95% CI: 3.10 to 13.27). The prevalence of wasting was similar with both references. The distribution of height-for-age was skewed to the left with respect to the international reference and to the right with respect to the Argentine reference, while the distribution of weight-for-height overlapped both references. The differences in the prevalences of stunting calculated according to the two references that were used indicate a different nutritional status for the population studied. The increase in the height of the children with respect to the Argentine reference points to the presence of a positive secular trend, and the increase can explain part of the differences in the prevalence of stunting.
Veale, David; Gledhill, Lucinda J; Christodoulou, Polyxeni; Hodsoll, John
Our aim was to systematically review the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in a variety of settings. Weighted prevalence estimate and 95% confidence intervals in each study were calculated. The weighted prevalence of BDD in adults in the community was estimated to be 1.9%; in adolescents 2.2%; in student populations 3.3%; in adult psychiatric inpatients 7.4%; in adolescent psychiatric inpatients 7.4%; in adult psychiatric outpatients 5.8%; in general cosmetic surgery 13.2%; in rhinoplasty surgery 20.1%; in orthognathic surgery 11.2%; in orthodontics/cosmetic dentistry settings 5.2%; in dermatology outpatients 11.3%; in cosmetic dermatology outpatients 9.2%; and in acne dermatology clinics 11.1%. Women outnumbered men in the majority of settings but not in cosmetic or dermatological settings. BDD is common in some psychiatric and cosmetic settings but is poorly identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Valesca Francisco Pinto Menezes
Full Text Available Intestinal infections caused by protozoa and helminths are considered a major cause of diseases by infectious processes in the world. The present study aims to conduct a survey regarding the recent years of the prevalence of intestinal parasites in school children in various cities in Brazil, identifying which species are most commonly found and the regions that require greater dedication in this area. The analyzed studies showed that the Northern and Northeastern regions presented a higher prevalence of intestinal parasites, however, in the Southeast, results were encouraging with low levels of contamination by parasites compared to all regions in Brazil. As for intestinal parasites, the most common, found in all Brazilian regions, was Ascaris lumbricoides followed by Giardia lamblia. Therefore, one can conclude that the high prevalence of intestinal parasites in children found in some places in Brazil can demonstrate the need for greater care with basic sanitation and personal hygiene, both in households and in the places of study. These data show the importance of conducting educational programs that will develop personal awareness of parents, families and children themselves.
Winkler, Volker; Lan, Yong; Becher, Heiko
The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control was shown to effectively lower smoking prevalence in in high income countries, however knowledge for low and middle income settings is sparse. The objective of this study was to describe WHO MPOWER policy measures in thirteen West-African countries and to investigate their correlation with smoking prevalence. Age-standardized smoking prevalence data and policy measures were collected from various WHO reports. For analysis MPOWER measures from 2008 and 2010, were combined with prevalence data from 2009 and 2011. Multiple linear regression models were set up. In West-Africa mean smoking prevalence was approximately 20% among males and approximately 3% among females. Policy measures were mostly at a middle or low level. Regression analysis showed that tobacco cessation programs, health warnings on cigarettes, and higher price of cigarettes were negatively correlated with smoking prevalence. Significant effects were observed for only one policy measure (tobacco cessation programs) and only within the male population where smoking prevalence is generally higher. Tobacco control policies are enforced at relatively low levels in West-African countries. However, improving tobacco control policy implementation according to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control should assist in the reduction of smoking prevalence in African countries, thereby counteracting pro-smoking initiatives set forth by the tobacco industry.
Dusek, Robert J.; Iko, William M.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Paul, Ellen
To assess the potential impacts of West Nile virus (WNV) on a wild population of free-ranging raptors, we investigated the prevalence and effects of WNV on American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) breeding along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in northern Colorado. We monitored kestrel nesting activity at 131 nest boxes from March to August 2004. Of 81 nest attempts, we obtained samples from 111 adults and 250 young. We did not detect WNV in sera; however, 97.3% (108/111) of adults tested positive for WNV neutralizing antibodies, which possibly represented passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Clutch size, hatching, and fledging success in our study did not differ from that previously reported for this species, suggesting that previous WNV exposure in kestrels did not have an effect on reproductive parameters measured in the breeding populations we studied in 2004.
Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection, according to ethnicity and gender among the people of Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia who undergo endoscopy. Methods: To study the epidemiology of H. pylori infection in Kedah, Malaysia population, we assessed the database of hospital admissions of the patients referred to the Endoscopy Unit at Sungai Petani Hospital for oesophagogastro-duodenoscopy (OGD between January 2000 and December 2007. For statistical analysis, the Fisher’s exact test (2- tailed test was used. H. pylori infection rate was determined in 1 965 consecutive patients. Results: Out of 1 965 patients, 597 (30.4% were positive and 1368 (69.6% were negative for H. pylori infections. Generally, the prevalence rate among males (51.9%; 398/767 was significantly higher (P<0.05 than for females (33.1%; 199/601. In terms of ethnics, the overall prevalence showed H. pylori infection was commonly found among Indians and Chinese with prevalence rate of 35.6% (194/545 and 28.6% (100/350 respectively. These figures are significantly higher (P< 0.05 than the 28.5% (300/1051 for Malays. The prevalence rates for Malay males was lower (P<0.05 than those of Chinese and Indians. Conclusions: In conclusion, there is a significant difference in H. pylori infection prevalence rates among ethnic groups (highest in Indians, then Chinese and unusually low in Malays and gender groups (highest in males in Kedah, Malaysia.
K Ryan Wessells
Full Text Available The prevalence of inadequate zinc intake in a population can be estimated by comparing the zinc content of the food supply with the population's theoretical requirement for zinc. However, assumptions regarding the nutrient composition of foods, zinc requirements, and zinc absorption may affect prevalence estimates. These analyses were conducted to: (1 evaluate the effect of varying methodological assumptions on country-specific estimates of the prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and (2 generate a model considered to provide the best estimates.National food balance data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Zinc and phytate contents of these foods were estimated from three nutrient composition databases. Zinc absorption was predicted using a mathematical model (Miller equation. Theoretical mean daily per capita physiological and dietary requirements for zinc were calculated using recommendations from the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine and the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group. The estimated global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake varied between 12-66%, depending on which methodological assumptions were applied. However, country-specific rank order of the estimated prevalence of inadequate intake was conserved across all models (r = 0.57-0.99, P<0.01. A "best-estimate" model, comprised of zinc and phytate data from a composite nutrient database and IZiNCG physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, estimated the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake to be 17.3%.Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in this method, caution must be taken in the interpretation of the estimated prevalence figures. However, the results of all models indicate that inadequate zinc intake may be fairly common globally. Inferences regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem in different countries can be drawn based on the country
Maini, Anuj Paul; Wangoo, Anuj; Singh, Sukhman; Mehar, Damanpreet Kaur
Abstract Introduction The success of a restoration is dependent on accurate shade matching of teeth leading to studies evaluating the factors affecting the perception of shades. Colour vision anomalies including colour blindness have been found to exist in the population and it has been thought to be a potential factor affecting the colour perception ability. Aim The present study was done to evaluate the prevalence of colour vision anomalies and its effect on matching of shades of teeth. Materials and Methods A total of 147 dental professionals were randomly selected for the study and were first tested for visual acuity using the Snellen’s Eye Chart so as to carry on the study with only those operators who had a vision of 6/6. Then, the Ishihara’s colour charts were used to test the operators for colour vision handicap. In the last stage of the study, test for accuracy of shade selection was done using the Vitapan Classical shade guide. The shade guide tabs were covered to avoid bias. Percentage was used to calculate the prevalence of colour vision handicap and its effect on matching of shades of teeth as compared to normal vision, which was evaluated using Chi square test. Results Nineteen operators had colour vision anomalies out of hundred operators and only two operators presented with colour blindness. Colour vision anomaly was more prevalent than colour blindness and it was also found that it was more prevalent in males than females. The difference between the accuracy of shade matching between the operators with normal vision and colour vision defect and operators with normal vision and colour blindness was statistically not significant. Conclusion Colour blindness and colour vision handicap are rare conditions, with the latter being more common in the population. According to our study, it was concluded that no statistically significant difference existed amongst the operators with normal vision and colour vision anomaly or operators with normal vision
Lakshman rao, K. V.
Integrated Steel Plants contribute significant air pollution, water pollution and solid waste generation. Diverse occupational health hazards present is steel industry pose ill effects to the industrial workers. Occupational health services and research center (OHS and RC) of this plant established in the year 1992 to protect the health and well-being of all the employees working in different occupations. the primary role OHS and RC is to conduct periodical medical examinations, monitoring of the working environments, suggest the suitable personal protective equipment to the workers, evaluate risk factors, work practices, risk management and industrial toxicological studies. Dissemination of information related to occupational health and safety to the working population through regular educational sessions at the workplaces as at training and development center (T and DC) is also part of our services. The proneness for effects of exposure to ionizing radiation is enhanced by various factors related to the family history of chronic diseases, nutritional status of the individuals, the lifestyle factors apart from psycho-social factors like illiteracy, ignorance, negligence and inadequate utilization of personal protective equipment (PPE) at workplace. To evaluate the prevalence of such contributory risk factors, a pilot study has been conducted in Visakhapatnam Steel Plant. The data is obtained through routine periodical medical examination of workers at the Occupational Health Services Center through standard format. The study revealed statistically high prevalence of the risk factors and indicated the necessity of intensifying primary prevention methods in addition to environmental control and usage of PPE. (Author)
Lakshman rao, K. V.
Integrated Steel Plants contribute significant air pollution, water pollution and solid waste generation. Diverse occupational health hazards present is steel industry pose ill effects to the industrial workers. Occupational health services and research center (OHS and RC) of this plant established in the year 1992 to protect the health and well-being of all the employees working in different occupations. the primary role OHS and RC is to conduct periodical medical examinations, monitoring of the working environments, suggest the suitable personal protective equipment to the workers, evaluate risk factors, work practices, risk management and industrial toxicological studies. Dissemination of information related to occupational health and safety to the working population through regular educational sessions at the workplaces as at training and development center (T and DC) is also part of our services. The proneness for effects of exposure to ionizing radiation is enhanced by various factors related to the family history of chronic diseases, nutritional status of the individuals, the lifestyle factors apart from psycho-social factors like illiteracy, ignorance, negligence and inadequate utilization of personal protective equipment (PPE) at workplace. To evaluate the prevalence of such contributory risk factors, a pilot study has been conducted in Visakhapatnam Steel Plant. The data is obtained through routine periodical medical examination of workers at the Occupational Health Services Center through standard format. The study revealed statistically high prevalence of the risk factors and indicated the necessity of intensifying primary prevention methods in addition to environmental control and usage of PPE. (Author)
Alina Coutinho Rodrigues Feitosa
Full Text Available Abstract Background: There is a physiologic elevation of total cholesterol (TC and triglycerides (TG during pregnancy. Some authors define dyslipidemia (DLP in pregnant women when TC, LDL and TG concentrations are above the 95th percentile (p95% and HDL concentration is below the 5th percentile (P5% for gestational age (GA. Objective: To compare the prevalence of DLP in pregnant women using percentiles criteria with the V Brazilian Guidelines on Dyslipidemia and the association with maternal and fetal outcomes. Results: Pregnant women with high-risk conditions, aged 18-50 years, and at least one lipid profile during pregnancy was classified as the presence of DLP by two diagnostic criteria. Clinical and laboratorial data of mothers and newborns were evaluated. Conclusion: 433 pregnant women aged 32.9 ± 6.5 years were studied. Most (54.6% had lipid profile collected during third trimester. The prevalence of any lipid abnormalities according to the criteria of the National Guidelines was 83.8%: TC ≥ 200 mg/dL was found in 49.9%; LDL ≥ 160 mg/dL, in 14.3%, HDL ≤ 50 mg/dL in 44.4% and TG ≥ 150 mg/dL in 65.3%. Any changes of lipid according to percentiles criteria was found in 19.6%: elevation above the P95% for TC was found in 0.7%; for LDL, 1.7%; for TG 6.4% and HDL lower than the P5% in 13%. The frequency of comorbidity: hypertension, diabetes, smoking, obesity and preeclampsia was similar among pregnant women when DLP was compared by both criteria. Conclusion: The prevalence of DLP during pregnancy varies significantly depending on the criteria used, however none demonstrated superiority in association with comorbidities.
Feitosa, Alina Coutinho Rodrigues; Barreto, Luciana Tedgue; da Silva, Isabela Matos; da Silva, Felipe Freire; Feitosa Filho, Gilson Soares
Background There is a physiologic elevation of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) during pregnancy. Some authors define dyslipidemia (DLP) in pregnant women when TC, LDL and TG concentrations are above the 95th percentile (p95%) and HDL concentration is below the 5th percentile (P5%) for gestational age (GA). Objective To compare the prevalence of DLP in pregnant women using percentiles criteria with the V Brazilian Guidelines on Dyslipidemia and the association with maternal and fetal outcomes. Results Pregnant women with high-risk conditions, aged 18-50 years, and at least one lipid profile during pregnancy was classified as the presence of DLP by two diagnostic criteria. Clinical and laboratorial data of mothers and newborns were evaluated. Conclusion 433 pregnant women aged 32.9 ± 6.5 years were studied. Most (54.6%) had lipid profile collected during third trimester. The prevalence of any lipid abnormalities according to the criteria of the National Guidelines was 83.8%: TC ≥ 200 mg/dL was found in 49.9%; LDL ≥ 160 mg/dL, in 14.3%, HDL ≤ 50 mg/dL in 44.4% and TG ≥ 150 mg/dL in 65.3%. Any changes of lipid according to percentiles criteria was found in 19.6%: elevation above the P95% for TC was found in 0.7%; for LDL, 1.7%; for TG 6.4% and HDL lower than the P5% in 13%. The frequency of comorbidity: hypertension, diabetes, smoking, obesity and preeclampsia was similar among pregnant women when DLP was compared by both criteria. Conclusion The prevalence of DLP during pregnancy varies significantly depending on the criteria used, however none demonstrated superiority in association with comorbidities. PMID:28591252
Rahimi, Ebrahim; Yazdi, Farzad; Farzinezhadizadeh, Hussein
Listeria and particularly Listeria monocytogenes are important foodborne pathogens that can cause listeriosis and severe complications in immunocompromised individuals, children, pregnant women, and the elderly. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. in raw meat in Iran. From July 2010 to November 2011, a total of 1,107 samples of various raw meats were obtained from randomly selected retail butcher shops. The results of conventional bacteriologic and PCR methods revealed that 141 samples (12.7%) were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw buffalo meat samples (7 of 24 samples; 29.2%) followed by quail meat (26 of 116 samples; 22.4%), partridge meat (13 of 74 samples; 17.6%), and chicken meat (27 of 160 samples; 16.9%). The most common species recovered was Listeria innocua (98 of 141 strains; 75.9 % ); the remaining isolates were L. monocytogenes (19.1% of strains), Listeria welshimeri (6.4% of strains), Listeria seeligeri (3.5% of strains), and Listeria grayi (1.4% of strains). Susceptibilities of the 141 strains to 11 antimicrobial drugs were determined using the disk diffusion assay. Overall, 104 (73.8%) of the Listeria isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and 17.0% of the isolates were resistant to three or more antimicrobials. The present study provides the first baseline data on the prevalence of Listeria in raw meat derived from sheep, goat, buffalo, quail, partridge, chicken, and ostrich in Iran and the susceptibility of these isolates to antimicrobials.
Garg, Sumit; Said, Bishoy; Farid, Marjan; Steinert, Roger F
To evaluate the prevalence of positive microbiology results (culture and/or Gram stain) in donor cornea tissue with newer transplant methods and to assess if the results subsequently correlate with higher incidence of clinical infection. A retrospective review of the microbiology records of 569 consecutive corneal transplants from July 2006 through July 2010 was performed to evaluate positive microbiology results in routine evaluation of cornea donor tissue. Microbiologic results were available for 544 of 569 transplants. The remaining 25 cases did not have specimens submitted for microbiologic analysis. In cases with results available, 46 (8.5%) positive reports occurred. In 10 of the 46 cases, Gram stain results were positive with subsequent negative cultures. Analysis revealed that the prevalence of positive results was 6 in 137 (4.4%), 14 in 127 (11.0%), and 26 in 271 (9.6%) for femtosecond laser-enabled keratoplasty, Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, and conventional penetrating keratoplasty, respectively; 9 femtosecond deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty had no positive results. There was no significant relationship between the types of transplant procedures and the occurrence of positive microbiologic results (P = 0.08). The overall incidence of clinical infection was found to be 0.4% (2 of 569); however, only 1 case (1 of 569 or 0.2%), which was a Candida albicans infection after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, was attributable to the donor. Of 25 cases in which microbiology studies were not performed, none developed a clinical infection. Prevalence of positive microbiologic results and subsequent infections do not appear to be increased with the method of donor handling used for newer techniques for keratoplasty.
Effects of different culture conditions (photoautotrophic, photomixotrophic) and the auxin indole-butyric acid on the in vitro acclimatization of papaya ( Carica papaya L. var. Red Maradol) plants using zeolite as support.
Ajejas Bazán, María Julia; Jiménez Trujillo, María Isab; Wärnberg, Julia; Domínguez Fernández, Silvia; López de Andrés, Ana; Pérez Farinós, Napoleón
To examine relevant differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children aged 2-15 years according to different sets of criteria (Orbegozo Foundation, International Obesity Task Force and World Health Organization), and how their use affects the trends in obesity recorded for both sexes between 1995 and 2011 in Spain. Cross-sectional study, a population between 2 and 15 years. Three diagnosis criteria of overweight and obesity were be used. The boys according to the three criteria, showed higher values of overweight and obesity compared to the girls. The lowest levels of overweight and obesity were observed using the Orbegozo tables. The prevalence of overweight and obesity varies significantly according to the criteria used to define overweight and obesity. The percentiles of the Foundation Orbegozo gave the lowest estimates and the standards of growth of the World Health Organization were higher. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ruiz Pérez, José Ignacio; Universidad Nacional de Colombia
The aim of this research was to know pathological gambling prevalence in a Colombian people, relationships between pathological gamblingand alcohol drinking problems, and to explore differences between men and women. A university students and adult workers non-randomizedsample (n=150) answered the South Oaks Gambling Screen –sogs– and the Brief Questionnaire on Alcohol Dependence, several questionson gaming patterns and social and demographic background. Results showed that, accor...
Full Text Available Tackling childhood malnutrition is a global health priority. A key indicator is the estimated prevalence of malnutrition, measured by nutrition surveys. Most aspects of survey design are standardised, but data ‘cleaning criteria’ are not. These aim to exclude extreme values which may represent measurement or data-entry errors. The effect of different cleaning criteria on malnutrition prevalence estimates was unknown. We applied five commonly used data cleaning criteria (WHO 2006; EPI-Info; WHO 1995 fixed; WHO 1995 flexible; SMART to 21 national Demographic and Health Survey datasets. These included a total of 163,228 children, aged 6–59 months. We focused on wasting (low weight-for-height, a key indicator for treatment programmes. Choice of cleaning criteria had a marked effect: SMART were least inclusive, resulting in the lowest reported malnutrition prevalence, while WHO 2006 were most inclusive, resulting in the highest. Across the 21 countries, the proportion of records excluded was 3 to 5 times greater when using SMART compared to WHO 2006 criteria, resulting in differences in the estimated prevalence of total wasting of between 0.5 and 3.8%, and differences in severe wasting of 0.4–3.9%. The magnitude of difference was associated with the standard deviation of the survey sample, a statistic that can reflect both population heterogeneity and data quality. Using these results to estimate case-loads for treatment programmes resulted in large differences for all countries. Wasting prevalence and caseload estimations are strongly influenced by choice of cleaning criterion. Because key policy and programming decisions depend on these statistics, variations in analytical practice could lead to inconsistent and potentially inappropriate implementation of malnutrition treatment programmes. We therefore call for mandatory reporting of cleaning criteria use so that results can be compared and interpreted appropriately. International consensus
Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Bennett, Derrick A; Krishnamurthi, Rita V
BACKGROUND: Accurate information on stroke burden in men and women are important for evidence-based healthcare planning and resource allocation. Previously, limited research suggested that the absolute number of deaths from stroke in women was greater than in men, but the incidence and mortality...... incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and healthy years lost due to disability were estimated as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 Study. Data inputs included all available information on stroke incidence, prevalence and death and case fatality rates...... ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) incidence (per 100,000) in men (IS 132.77 (95% UI 125.34-142.77); HS 64.89 (95% UI 59.82-68.85)) exceeded those of women (IS 98.85 (95% UI 92.11-106.62); HS 45.48 (95% UI 42.43-48.53)). IS incidence rates were lower in 2013 compared with 1990 rates for both...
Senra-Varela, A; Lopez-Saez, J B; Gomez-Biondi, V
It is a cross-sectional study, comparing the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection (prevalence of IgG antibodies to H. pylori) in the healthy population of Ubrique and Grazalema (mountain location, mortality from stomach cancer 20/100,000) and in Barbate, (coastal location, mortality from stomach cancer 10/100,000) in the province of Cadiz, southern Spain. The subjects were randomly selected, 163 men and 169 women, 18 years or older; 179 persons were studied in the inland, and 154 in the littoral in January 1997. Of the 332 subjects investigated, 43% were positive, a mean antibody titer of 337 IU/1 (95 % CI: 254-420), and 56% were negative, with a mean titer of 18 IU/1 (95% CI: 15-19). In the coastal population, 30% has positive titers and 54% in the mountain location. By age: 18-40 years, 30% of littoral and 41% of inland population had positive titers; 41-60 years, 35% of those living in the littoral and 58% of inland population had positive titers; > 60 years, 24% of coastal inhabitants and 62% of those living in the inland had positive titers. Living in mountain locations in the province of Cadiz involves a greater ecological risk for H. pylori infection (p < 0.05).
Craig, P G; Bryan, J P; Miller, R E; Reyes, L; Hakre, S; Jaramillo, R; Krieg, R E
Little is known about the prevalence of infection with hepatitis viruses in Belize, Central America. We conducted a serologic survey among members of the Belize Defence Force (BDF), which is composed of the five major ethnic groups in Belize, to estimate prevalence rates of hepatitis A, B, and C among military-aged men and women in Belize. Of approximately 600 men and women in the BDF, 492 (82%) completed a questionnaire and blood collection. Antibody to hepatitis A was found in 94%, with similar rates by age, sex, rank, and ethnicity. Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) was found in 31%. Rates of anti-HBc varied significantly among the ethnic groups with the lowest rates in Mestizo (5%) and Mayan Indians (9%), and significantly higher rates among Creoles (30%) and Garifuna (56%). Rates increased with increasing age from 28% in those 18-24 years old to 35% in those > or = 35 years old (P = 0.07, by chi-square test for trend). Hepatitis B surface antigen was found in 21 (4%) overall. Antibody to hepatitis C was found in two (0.4%). In this young healthy population, exposure to hepatitis A before the age of 18 is almost universal, while exposure to hepatitis B is related to age and ethnic origin.
Ghodratollah SALEHI SANGANI
Full Text Available Background: Cryptosporidium and Isospora are known as one of the main cause of diarrhea in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects, all over the world. Incidence of enteropathogens such as Cryptosporidium spp. and Isospora belli considerably has increased, since immunodeficiency virus (HIV rapidly disseminated. In addition, cancer patients are highly susceptible to opportunistic infections. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis and isosporiasis in immunocompromised patients in Tehran.Methods: This study carried out on patients admitted to Imam Khomeini hospital during 2013-2014. Stool samples collected from 350 immunocompromised patients. Formol-ether concentration was performed for all stool samples. Zeil-Neelsen technique was applied to stain the prepared smears and finally, all slides were examined by light microscope.Results: Out of 350 patients, 195 (55.7% and 155 (44.3% were male and female, respectively. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 3 (0.9% samples including one sample from HIV+/AIDS patients and 2 samples from organ transplant recipients. Isospora oocysts were detected in 4 (1.1% samples consisting 2 HIV+/AIDS patients, one patients suffering from malignancy and one patients with other immunodeficiency diseases.Conclusion: Cryptosporidium sp, and I. belli are the most prevalent gastrointestinal parasitic protozoans that infect a broad range of individuals, particularly those patients who have a suppressed or deficient immunity system.
Full Text Available Background: Much of the vision loss from age-related eye disease can be prevented. The purpose of this study is to determine 5Tthe prevalence5T 5Tof preventable5T 5Tcauses5T 5Tof low5T 5Tvision. Materials and Methods: In this study, files of 204 patients were evaluated5T.5T Low vision was defined as best-corrected visual acuity in the better eye between 20/70 to 20/200. Diagnosis of anterior and posterior segment disease was based on the eye examination that performed with Topcon slit-lamp biomicroscope and direct and indirect ophthalmoscope examination7T. Results: The prevalence of 5Tpreventable5T 5Tcauses of5T 5Tlow 5Twas respectively:5T diabetic retinopathy,5T 5Tin 335T 5Tpatients (5T16.18%, 5Tglaucoma 5Tin 6 5Tpatients (5T2.94%, 5Tand amblyopia5T in 5T2 patients (1%5T. Conclusion: The majority of cases have treatable and/or preventable causes; reduction of low vision or blindness can be achieved by appropriate screening strategies.
Full Text Available The Iberian peninsula is a suitable place to study the effects of migratory condition on the prevalence of blood parasites in avian communities as resident, local populations cohabit with migratory species and with abundant vector populations. In this study we examined the incidence of avian blood parasites in three localities in the Mediterranean region (east Spain, in relation to the migratory status of the species. We analyzed 333 blood smears from 11 avian species, and obtained an overall prevalence of 9.6%. The prevalence of parasites varied among the different species studied, although intensity of infection did not. Our results are discussed in terms of population dynamics and abundance of Diptera vectors able to transmit blood parasites to other birds.
Wolnicka, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Mirosław; Jaczewska-Schuetz, Joanna; Taraszewska, Anna Małgorzata
Overweight adversely affects not only the health and development of children and adolescents but also their health in adulthood, increasing the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases and disabilities. The frequency of nutritional disorders among children and adolescents is increasing in many countries worldwide, including Poland. To demonstrate differences in the nutritional well-being of school-age children depending on the school location: rural and urban areas. The study conducted in 2010 covered a total of 1,255 pupils, 627 girls and 628 boys, aged nine, from the area of five provinces of Poland: Pomorskie, Opolskie, Wielkopolskie, Podkarpackie and Masovian, representing the northern, southern, western, eastern and central regions of the country. Based on the height and weight measurements of children, the body mass index was calculated. The nutritional status was assessed according to the criteria of Cole et al. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in girls and boys in separate regions of the country (villages, cities with less than 100,000 residents and cities with more than 100,000 residents) did not differ significantly. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children from rural and urban areas of Poland is similar. Analysis of regional differences in the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight among children and adolescents may indicate the direction of national and local activities aiming to reduce the inequalities resulting from nutritional well-being.
Nyarko, Kwame A; Wehby, George L
Segregation effects may vary between areas (e.g., counties) of low and high low birth weight (LBW; segregation on county-level LBW and PTB rates for African-American infants vary by the prevalence of these conditions. The study sample includes 368 counties of 100,000 or more residents and at least 50 African-American live births in 2000. Residentially segregated counties are identified alternatively by county-level dissimilarity and isolation indices. Quantile regression is used to assess how residential segregation affects the entire distributions of county-level LBW and PTB rates (i.e. by prevalence). Residential segregation increases LBW and PTB rates significantly in areas of low prevalence, but has no such effects for areas of high prevalence. As a sensitivity analysis, we use metropolitan statistical area level data and obtain similar results. Our findings suggest that residential segregation has adverse effects mainly in areas of low prevalence of LBW and preterm birth, which are expected overall to have fewer risk factors and more resources for infant health, but not in high prevalence areas, which are expected to have more risk factors and fewer resources. Residential policies aimed at area resource improvements may be more effective.
Sonawane, Kalyani; Suk, Ryan; Chiao, Elizabeth Y; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Qiu, Peihua; Wilkin, Timothy; Nyitray, Alan G; Sikora, Andrew G; Deshmukh, Ashish A
The burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is disproportionately high among men, yet empirical evidence regarding the difference in prevalence of oral HPV infection between men and women is limited. Concordance of oral and genital HPV infection among men is unknown. To determine the prevalence of oral HPV infection, as well as the concordance of oral and genital HPV infection, among U.S. men and women. Nationally representative survey. Civilian noninstitutionalized population. Adults aged 18 to 69 years from NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), 2011 to 2014. Oral rinse, penile swab, and vaginal swab specimens were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. The overall prevalence of oral HPV infection was 11.5% (95% CI, 9.8% to 13.1%) in men and 3.2% (CI, 2.7% to 3.8%) in women (equating to 11 million men and 3.2 million women nationwide). High-risk oral HPV infection was more prevalent among men (7.3% [CI, 6.0% to 8.6%]) than women (1.4% [CI, 1.0% to 1.8%]). Oral HPV 16 was 6 times more common in men (1.8% [CI, 1.3% to 2.2%]) than women (0.3% [CI, 0.1% to 0.5%]) (1.7 million men vs. 0.27 million women). Among men and women who reported having same-sex partners, the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was 12.7% (CI, 7.0% to 18.4%) and 3.6% (CI, 1.4% to 5.9%), respectively. Among men who reported having 2 or more same-sex oral sex partners, the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was 22.2% (CI, 9.6% to 34.8%). Oral HPV prevalence among men with concurrent genital HPV infection was 4-fold greater (19.3%) than among those without it (4.4%). Men had 5.4% (CI, 5.1% to 5.8%) greater predicted probability of high-risk oral HPV infection than women. The predicted probability of high-risk oral HPV infection was greatest among black participants, those who smoked more than 20 cigarettes daily, current marijuana users, and those who reported 16 or more lifetime
Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan; Ferrari, Joseph R
The authors examined the prevalence of and reasons, or excuses, for academic procrastination as a function of gender and academic grade level. In Study 1, a factor analysis of responses by 203 Turkish undergraduate students to an academic procrastination measure provided evidence of reliability and validity for the revised scale. In Study 2,784 students (363 women, 421 men; M age = 20.6 years, SD age = 1.74 years) completed the validated Turkish Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students. The results were that 52% of students self-reported frequent academic procrastination, with male students reporting more frequent procrastination on academic tasks than female students. Significantly more female students than male students reported greater academic procrastination because of fear of failure and laziness; male students reported more academic procrastination as a result of risk taking and rebellion against control than did female students.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO group recommended that patients with CKD should be assigned to stages and composite relative risk groups according to GFR (G and proteinuria (A criteria. Asians have among the highest rates of ESRD in the world, but establishing the prevalence and prognosis CKD is a problem for Asian populations since there is no consensus on the best GFR estimating (eGFR equation. We studied the effects of the choice of new Asian and Caucasian eGFR equations on CKD prevalence, stage distribution, and risk categorization using the new KDIGO classification. Methods The prevalence of CKD and composite relative risk groups defined by eGFR from with Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI; standard (S or Chinese(C MDRD; Japanese CKD-EPI (J-EPI, Thai GFR (T-GFR equations were compared in a Thai cohort (n = 5526 Results There was a 7 fold difference in CKD3-5 prevalence between J-EPI and the other Asian eGFR formulae. CKD3-5 prevalence with S-MDRD and CKD-EPI were 2 - 3 folds higher than T-GFR or C-MDRD. The concordance with CKD-EPI to diagnose CKD3-5 was over 90% for T-GFR or C-MDRD, but they only assigned the same CKD stage in 50% of the time. The choice of equation also caused large variations in each composite risk groups especially those with mildly increased risks. Different equations can lead to a reversal of male: female ratios. The variability of different equations is most apparent in older subjects. Stage G3aA1 increased with age and accounted for a large proportion of the differences in CKD3-5 between CKD-EPI, S-MDRD and C-MDRD. Conclusions CKD prevalence, sex ratios, and KDIGO composite risk groupings varied widely depending on the equation used. More studies are needed to define the best equation for Asian populations.
Feitosa, Alina Coutinho Rodrigues; Barreto, Luciana Tedgue; Silva, Isabela Matos da; Silva, Felipe Freire da; Feitosa, Gilson Soares
There is a physiologic elevation of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) during pregnancy. Some authors define dyslipidemia (DLP) in pregnant women when TC, LDL and TG concentrations are above the 95th percentile (p95%) and HDL concentration is below the 5th percentile (P5%) for gestational age (GA). To compare the prevalence of DLP in pregnant women using percentiles criteria with the V Brazilian Guidelines on Dyslipidemia and the association with maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnant women with high-risk conditions, aged 18-50 years, and at least one lipid profile during pregnancy was classified as the presence of DLP by two diagnostic criteria. Clinical and laboratorial data of mothers and newborns were evaluated. 433 pregnant women aged 32.9 ± 6.5 years were studied. Most (54.6%) had lipid profile collected during third trimester. The prevalence of any lipid abnormalities according to the criteria of the National Guidelines was 83.8%: TC ≥ 200 mg/dL was found in 49.9%; LDL ≥ 160 mg/dL, in 14.3%, HDL ≤ 50 mg/dL in 44.4% and TG ≥ 150 mg/dL in 65.3%. Any changes of lipid according to percentiles criteria was found in 19.6%: elevation above the P95% for TC was found in 0.7%; for LDL, 1.7%; for TG 6.4% and HDL lower than the P5% in 13%. The frequency of comorbidity: hypertension, diabetes, smoking, obesity and preeclampsia was similar among pregnant women when DLP was compared by both criteria. The prevalence of DLP during pregnancy varies significantly depending on the criteria used, however none demonstrated superiority in association with comorbidities. Durante a gestação ocorrem, fisiologicamente, elevações do colesterol total (CT) e triglicerídios (TG). Alguns autores definem dislipidemia (DLP) gestacional quando as concentrações de CT, LDL e TG são superiores ao percentil 95 (P95%) e de HDL, inferiores ao percentil 5 (P5%) para a idade gestacional. Comparar a prevalência da DLP em gestantes conforme critério por percentis com o da V
A. RAFIQUE, S. A. RANA, H. A. KHAN AND A. SOHAIL1
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence of zoonotic helminths from human, Rattus rattus (R. rattus, Rattus norvegicus (R. norvegicus and Mus musculus of eight different structures, namely grain shops in grain market, departmental stores, railway godowns, food processing plants (bakeries, poultry farms, houses in kachi-abadies, houses in departmental colonies and posh residences and banglows in Faisalabad city. All the structures were sampled for 2 months each and completed in 16 months. Highest prevalence (70% of Vsmpirolepis spp. was observed in R. rattus sampled from poultry farms, which was significantly higher (P<0.05 than the prevalence of all the helminths recovered from other structures. Hymenolepis nana (H. nana was observed in 60% of the sampled Mus musculus collected from kachi-abadies, which was significantly higher (P<0.05 than all other structures studies for H. nana, except R. rattus from kachi-abadies (55% and R. norvegicus from grain shops in grain market (55%. The rodent’s endo-parasites viz., Hymenolepis nana, Teania taenaeformis, Entrobius spps and Trichuiris spps observed in R. rattus, R. norvegicus and M. musculus at different percentages were also recorded in human stool samples with an incidence of 48, 21, 76 and 10%, respectively.
Host condition had effect on therate of infection and greater effect on intestinal parasite load in Malapterurus electricus . These vary among sex, sizes and weights of conspecific individuals. This was investigated over a period of two years.A total of 340 fishes from the lagoon were caught and dissected for intestinal helminth ...
Madsen, Kristine A; Cotterman, Carolyn; Crawford, Pat; Stevelos, JoAnn; Archibald, Abbie
The Alliance for a Healthier Generation's Healthy Schools Program (HSP) is a national evidence-based obesity-prevention initiative aimed at providing the schools in greatest need with onsite training and technical assistance (TTA) and consultation with national experts (HSP national advisors) to create sustainable healthy change in schools' nutrition and physical activity environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HSP on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in California schools, from HSP's inception in 2006 through 2012. We used statewide body mass index (BMI) data collected annually from 5th-, 7th-, and 9th-grade students to determine whether enrolling in the HSP's onsite intervention reduced the prevalence of overweight and obesity in intervention schools (n = 281) versus propensity-score matched control schools (n = 709) and whether increasing exposure to the program (TTA and contact with HSP national advisors) was associated with reductions in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Analyses showed no difference between HSP schools and control schools in overweight or obesity prevalence. However, program exposure varied widely among participating schools, and each additional contact with TTA or HSP national advisors was associated with a 0.3% decline in overweight and obesity prevalence (P schools in reducing obesity. Although participation in HSP alone was not sufficient to improve weight status in California schools, there was a clear dose-response relationship to the program. HSP serves as an effective model for addressing childhood obesity among engaged schools.
Chan, Philip A; Huang, Austin; Kantor, Rami
Tenofovir-containing regimens have demonstrated potential efficacy as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing HIV-1 infection. Transmitted drug resistance mutations associated with tenofovir, specifically the reverse transcriptase (RT) mutation K65R, may impact the effectiveness of PrEP. The worldwide prevalence of transmitted tenofovir resistance in different HIV-1 subtypes is unknown. Sequences from treatment-naïve studies and databases were aggregated and analyzed by Stanford Database tools and as per the International AIDS Society (IAS-USA) resistance criteria. RT sequences were collected from GenBank, the Stanford HIV Sequence Database and the Los Alamos HIV Sequence Database. Sequences underwent rigorous quality control measures. Tenofovir-associated resistance mutations included K65R, K70E, T69-insertion and ≥3 thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs), inclusive of M41L or L210W. A total of 19,823 sequences were evaluated across diverse HIV-1 subtypes (Subtype A: 1549 sequences, B: 9783, C: 3198, D: 483, F: 372, G: 594, H: 41, J: 69, K: 239, CRF01_AE: 1797 and CRF02_AG: 1698). Overall, tenofovir resistance prevalence was 0.4% (n=77/19,823, 95% confidence interval or CI: 0.3 to 0.5). K65R was found in 20 sequences (0.1%, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.15). Differences in the prevalence of K65R between HIV-1 subtypes were not statistically significant. K70E and ≥3 TAMs were found in 0.015% (95% CI: 0.004 to 0.04) and 0.27% (95% CI: 0.2 to 0.4) of sequences, respectively. Prevalence of transmitted K65R and other tenofovir resistance mutations across diverse HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants is low, suggesting minimal effect on tenofovir-containing PrEP regimens.
de la Sierra, Alejandro; Vinyoles, Ernest; Banegas, José R; Segura, Julián; Gorostidi, Manuel; de la Cruz, Juan J; Ruilope, Luis M
The prevalence and associated risks of white-coat hypertension (WCH) are still a matter of debate. We aimed to assess differences in prevalence and associated conditions of WCH defined on the basis of the normality of all daytime, night-time, and 24-h blood pressure (BP), only daytime, or only 24-h BP. We selected 115 708 patients (45 020 untreated and 70 688 treated) from the Spanish Ambulatory BP Monitoring Registry. WCH was estimated in patients with elevated office BP (≥140 and/or 90 mmHg) by using normal daytime (definition criteria. Only diagnostic criteria which considers the normality of all ambulatory periods identifies patients with cardiovascular risk similar to normotensive patients. These results support using such criteria for a more accurate definition of WCH.
Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Mazaud-Guittot, Sverine; Gaudriault, Pierre
policies, habits, accessibility, disease patterns and the age distribution of each population. Biomonitoring indicates ubiquitous and high human exposure to paracetamol and to salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, evidence suggests that analgesics can have......Paracetamol and NSAIDs, in particular acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and ibuprofen, are among the most used and environmentally released pharmaceutical drugs. The differences in international trends in the sale and consumption of mild analgesics reflect differences in marketing, governmental...
Hannah E Jones
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrauterine infection may play a role in preterm delivery due to spontaneous preterm labor (PTL and preterm prolonged rupture of membranes (PPROM. Because bacteria previously associated with preterm delivery are often difficult to culture, a molecular biology approach was used to identify bacterial DNA in placenta and fetal membranes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used broad-range 16S rDNA PCR and species-specific, real-time assays to amplify bacterial DNA from fetal membranes and placenta. 74 women were recruited to the following groups: PPROM <32 weeks (n = 26; 11 caesarean; PTL with intact membranes <32 weeks (n = 19; all vaginal birth; indicated preterm delivery <32 weeks (n = 8; all caesarean; term (n = 21; 11 caesarean. 50% (5/10 of term vaginal deliveries were positive for bacterial DNA. However, little spread was observed through tissues and species diversity was restricted. Minimal bacteria were detected in term elective section or indicated preterm deliveries. Bacterial prevalence was significantly increased in samples from PTL with intact membranes [89% (17/19 versus 50% (5/10 in term vaginal delivery p = 0.03] and PPROM (CS [55% (6/11 versus 0% (0/11 in term elective CS, p = 0.01]. In addition, bacterial spread and diversity was greater in the preterm groups with 68% (13/19 PTL group having 3 or more positive samples and over 60% (12/19 showing two or more bacterial species (versus 20% (2/10 in term vaginal deliveries. Blood monocytes from women with PTL with intact membranes and PPROM who were 16S bacterial positive showed greater level of immune paresis (p = 0.03. A positive PCR result was associated with histological chorioamnionitis in preterm deliveries. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Bacteria are found in both preterm and term fetal membranes. A greater spread and diversity of bacterial species were found in tissues of women who had very preterm births. It is unclear to what extent the greater bacterial prevalence
Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease in the world and it is rapidly increasing in Iran. In this study the relationship between educational levels and osteoporosis was investigated among Iranian postmenopausal women. Method and subjects Seven hundred and six women aged 50-75 years old were randomly recruited from urban (n = 440 and rural (n = 266 areas in Guilan. Osteoporosis was diagnosed by quantitative ultrasound technique and dual X-ray absorptiometry. Serum 25(OH D3, body weight and height were measured in all subjects. Other data including age, educational level, menopause age, medications and history of illness were also collected. Results We found that the prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly greater among women with low educational level than women with high educational status (18.0% vs 3.8% P P Conclusion This study showed that educational level is associated with bone health in this population of postmenopausal women with significantly higher osteoporosis found in lower social groups. Therefore, we suggest that women with low social level should be carefully evaluated for signs of osteoporosis during routine physical examinations.
Burk, William J; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge
This study investigated concurrent links between adolescent romantic couples' reports of aggression (relational and physical) and relationship functioning (e.g., attachment security, conflict prevalence, coping strategies, jealousy, and affiliative and romantic relationship quality) using a pattern-oriented approach. The sample included 194 romantic partner dyads (Mage=16.99 years for females and Mage=18.41 years for males). A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads based on male and female reports of relational and physical aggression, ranging from nonaggressive couples (42%), to those characterized by aggressive females (18%), aggressive males (14%), physically aggressive females (20%), and mutually aggressive females and males (6%). Clusters in which one partner was perceived as either relationally or physically aggressive were characterized by higher rates of conflict, less adaptive coping, and more jealousy (particularly in males). The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning, with high rates of conflict, a deficit in reflection and emotion regulation in conflict situations, and a lack of affiliative relationship qualities. The discussion focuses on the formative character of aggression in these early romantic relations, the aggravating impact of mutual aggression on relationship functioning, and the gender-specific functions of aggression in relationships characterized by unilateral aggression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vu, Kim-Phuong L; Minakata, Katsumi; Ngo, Mary Kim
compatibility. The right-left prevalence effects obtained with auditory stimuli are typically larger than that obtained with visual stimuli even though less attention should be demanded from the horizontal dimension in auditory processing. In the present study, we examined whether auditory or visual dominance...... vertical coding through use of the spatial-musical association of response codes (SMARC) effect, where pitch is coded in terms of height in space. In Experiment 1, we found a larger right-left prevalence effect for unimodal auditory than visual stimuli. Neutral, non-pitch coded, audiovisual stimuli did......When auditory stimuli are used in two-dimensional spatial compatibility tasks, where the stimulus and response configurations vary along the horizontal and vertical dimensions simultaneously, a right-left prevalence effect occurs in which horizontal compatibility dominates over vertical...
Azócar-Aedo, Lucía; Monti, Gustavo; Jara, Ronald
Simple Summary Although Leptospira infection occurs in domestic cat populations, studies on leptospirosis are very limited in felines and the role of cats in the epidemiology of this zoonosis has not received much attention. The present work is an epidemiologic study intended to determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies and risk factors related with the seropositivity in cats from urban and rural environments. A higher prevalence in rural cats was detected (25.2%) compared with urban animals (1.8%). Characteristics of the habitat of the animals and some agricultural activities performed by cat’s owners were found to be risk factors associated with the seropositivity. Abstract Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution. A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban and rural environments in southern Chile (1) to detect domestic cats with serologic evidence of exposure to Leptospira spp.; (2) to determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies; (3) to describe seroprevalences according to different characteristics of the animals, and (4) to identify risk factors associated with the seropositivity in the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Blood samples were taken from 124 owned cats. A frequentist and Bayesian approach were applied for prevalence estimation. The overall apparent prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies was 8.1% (95% Confident Interval = 3.9–4.3). With the Bayesian approach, the overall True Prevalence (TP) was 5.2% (95% Credibility Interval (CrI) = 0.6–12.4). The TP for urban cats was 1.8% (95% CrI = 0.1–7.2) and the TP for rural felines was 25.2% (95% CrI = 9.3–46.6). Cats that live in a place where agricultural activities are performed with water that flows in streams or backwater and cats that live in places near flooded areas had a higher risk of seropositivity in MAT. The exposure to Leptospira spp. in domestic cats of urban and rural origin in Southern Chile is a public health concern
Beljaars, Daniëlle E A; Valckx, Wilhelmina J A R M; Stepan, Christoph; Donis, Johann; Lavrijsen, Jan C M
Little is known about prevalence of persistent vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and comparisons between countries. The aim of this column was to explore reasons for the comparable count of patients in vegetative state found in prevalence studies in nursing homes in 1 European country (Netherlands) compared with a single European city (Vienna, Austria). The column is based on a literature review of vegetative state in The Netherlands and Vienna in the period 2007-2008, in the context of professional interactions with families and physicians of patients in vegetative state. In addition, in both countries, families and physicians were interviewed to illustrate views. Comparable between the 2 settings are the population characteristics and the definition of, and criteria, for vegetative state. A difference can be found in the development of authoritative policy guidelines in the Netherlands, after public debates and jurisdiction, which did not exist in Vienna at the time. There also seem to be different societal values concerning rehabilitation and end-of-life decisions for patients in vegetative state. The most important explanation for the vegetative state prevalence differences between the Netherlands and Vienna can be found in the different societal values about patients in vegetative state and their treatment and rehabilitation. In the Netherlands, life prolonging medical treatment, including artificial nutrition and hydration, is considered futile and can be withdrawn if there is no prospect of recovery. In Vienna, however, patients in vegetative state are regarded as severely disabled and in need of long-term rehabilitation and social reintegration. There is no end-of-life discussion in this context.
Bai, Y.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Calisher, C.H.; Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.
By studying Bartonella prevalence in rodent communities from 23 geographic sites in the western United States and one site in northern Mexico, the present study focused on the effects of rodent community diversity (measured by richness and Shannon index) and composition on prevalence of Bartonella infections. The analysis showed negative correlations of Bartonella prevalence with rodent richness and Shannon index. Further, Bartonella prevalence varied among rodent genera/species. Three models were applied to explain the observations. (1) Within-species/genus transmission: Bartonella strains usually are host-specific and adding non-host species would decrease Bartonella prevalence in its principal host through reduction of host contact (encounter reduction); (2) Frequency-dependence: Adding hosts would decrease the proportion of all infected individuals in the community, resulting in a reduction in the number of contacts between susceptible and infected individuals that usually leads to transmission (transmission reduction); and (3) Dominant species effect: Dominant species, if not susceptible to Bartonellae, can constrain the abundance of susceptible hosts (susceptible host regulation). These mechanisms work in concert; and the level of Bartonella prevalence is an outcome of regulation of all of these mechanisms on the entire system.
Nandrup, Anne Brink
This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...... size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect...
Background: Psychoactive substances can alter consciousness, mood and behaviour of an individual user. Objectives: To determine the pattern of psychoactive substance use and its mental and behavioural effects on university students in Enugu, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among 422 ...
Dec 21, 2011 ... hospice or palliative care service (Demmer, 2007). In the absence of effective ... most common herbal product used. It was reported that .... Vaginal discharge. 3. 51. 11.16. White spots in the mouth (oral thrush). 4. 51. 11.16. Skin rash. 5. 46. 10.06. Skin itch. 6. 38. 8.2. Respiratory problems. 7. 29. 6.79.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the point prevalence of the risk of malnutrition and the targeting of nutritional interventions in relation to undernutrition risk and hospital volume. Methods A cross-sectional survey performed in nine hospitals including 2 170 (82.8% patients that agreed to participate. The hospitals were divided into large, middle, and small sized hospitals. Undernutrition risk and overweight (including obesity were assessed. Results The point prevalence of moderate/high undernutrition risk was 34%, 26% and 22% in large, middle and small sized hospitals respectively. The corresponding figures for overweight were 38%, 43% and 42%. The targeting of nutritional interventions in relation to moderate/high undernutrition risk was, depending on hospital size, that 7–17% got Protein- and Energy Enriched food (PE-food, 43–54% got oral supplements, 8–22% got artificial nutrition, and 14–20% received eating assistance. Eating assistance was provided to a greater extent and artificial feeding to a lesser extent in small compared to in middle and large sized hospitals. Conclusion The prevalence of malnutrition risk and the precision in provision of nutritional care differed significantly depending on hospital volume, i.e. case mix. It can be recommended that greater efforts should be taken to increase the use of PE-food and oral supplements for patients with eating problems in order to prevent or treat undernutrition. A great effort needs to be taken in order to also decrease the occurrence of overweight.
Jo, Yong Suk; Lee, Jinwoo; Yoon, Ho Il; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Lee, Chang-Hoon
A unified definition of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS) is not available, which makes it difficult to evaluate the prevalence and clinical features of patients with ACOS. To investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of ACOS according to the updated widely accepted diagnostic criteria. Participants were enrolled from a prospective cohort study conducted between April 2013 and November 2016 in South Korea. We adopted 4 criteria of ACOS: modified Spanish, American Thoracic Society (ATS) Roundtable criteria, the Latin American Project for the Investigation of Obstructive Lung Disease (PLATINO), and the Global Initiative for Asthma/Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GINA/GOLD) criteria. The prevalence, clinical characteristics, and exacerbations of ACOS were investigated. Among 301 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 31.3%, 11.9%, 48.3%, and 46.15% were diagnosed with ACOS according to the modified Spanish, ATS Roundtable criteria, PLATINO, and GINA/GOLD criteria, respectively. Compared with other criteria, patients with ACOS diagnosed according to the modified Spanish criteria had better exercise capacity and lung function at baseline but higher risk of moderate to severe (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-3.41; P = .01) and total (adjusted odds ratio, 2.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-3.31; P < .01) exacerbations during at least a 1-year follow-up period than patients without ACOS. The prevalence of ACOS varied according to the diagnostic criteria. Among the different criteria, the modified Spanish criteria could identify patients with more asthmatic features and higher risk of exacerbation. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02527486. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nygaard, Marianne; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Soerensen, Mette
a recessive model, this negative trend is significant in 95+ year old individuals homozygous for the APOE ε4 allele (P=0.026) or for the FOXO3A rs7762395 minor allele (P=0.048). For the APOE ε4 allele, the significance is further strengthened when restricting to women (P=0.006). Supportive, but non......-significant, trends are found for two of the three tested variants in individuals older than 100years. Altogether, this indicates that cohort differences in selection pressure on survival to the highest ages are reflected in the prevalence of longevity gene variants. Although the effect seems to be moderate, our...
Boyland, Emma Jane; Whalen, Rosa
In the context of a global obesity epidemic that has led to an unprecedented burden of non-communicable disease, the role of food and beverage marketing to children has been scrutinised in numerous studies. This article discusses the broader concept of an obesity-promoting food environment, before reviewing key, recent (last 5 yr) international research findings with regard to both the prevalence and effects of food and beverage advertising on children's intake. Evidence relating to the two main avenues of food marketing exposure, television, and the Internet, is explored and consideration is given to the differences in consumer experience of these types of promotion. Despite methodological differences and the varying population samples studied, the outcomes are broadly consistent - food advertising is prevalent, it promotes largely energy dense, nutrient poor foods, and even short-term exposure results in children increasing their food consumption. Policymakers are implored to drive forward meaningful changes in the food environment to support healthier choices and reduce the incidence of obesity and related diseases. This article aims at providing an overview of recent developments in this field. After limiting the search to the last five full years 2009-2014, we searched the following databases: Web of Knowledge and PubMed (keyword search terms used: television, Internet, new media, food advertising, food marketing, children, food intake, energy intake, consumption, and combinations of these terms). In addition we used the references from the articles obtained by this method to check for additional relevant material. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The research on work-life conflict (WLC is largely neglected in occupational medicine and public health and typically limited to white-collar workers and public servants. This study therefore aims to explore possible differences in the prevalence of WLC and its association with health outcomes between white- and blue-collar workers from different work environments in Switzerland. Cross-sectional survey data collected in 2007 in the service sector and in 2010 in the industrial sector were used for statistical analyses. A subsample of university graduates employed by large service companies (N=1,170 from the first survey’s population was taken and compared with a subsample of low or unskilled industrial and construction workers with no or only compulsory education (N=489 from the second survey’s population. The results show almost consistently, and particularly in women, a lower prevalence of time- and strain-based forms and both causal directions of WLC in blue-collar workers. However, associations between different WLC measures and general, physical and mental health outcomes were found to be equally strong or even stronger among blue-collar workers compared to white-collar workers. Low or unskilled industrial and construction workers are less frequently affected by higher degrees of WLC but are then at no lower risk of suffering poor self-rated health or severe backaches and sleep disorders than university graduates working in the service sector with comparable exposure to WLC. In conclusion it can be stated that WLC turned out to be much less prevalent but equally or even more detrimental to health in blue-collar workers, who therefore need to be considered in future studies.
He, Yanyun; Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J
Since Iceland became the first country to impose a ban on point-of-sale (POS) tobacco product displays in 2001, 20 countries have implemented POS display bans as of 2016. This study examined the effect that POS display bans have on smoking prevalence. Data were sourced from Euromonitor International and the WHO MPOWER package for 2007-2014 from 77 countries worldwide. generalised linear models with country and year fixed effects were estimated to analyse the effect of POS display bans on smoking prevalence. Having a POS display ban reduced overall adult daily smoking, male smoking and female smoking by about 7%, 6% and 9%, respectively. Having a POS display ban is likely to reduce smoking prevalence and generate public health benefits. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Removing matrices for locomotor problems in a swine production system is among the main causes of waste. The prevalence of these problems have the effect of reducing the productive life of dies, resulting in decreased longevity of the squad. Considering the longevity of the matrix is important to maintain good herd productivity rates, this study aimed to evaluate what is the prevalence and severity of lesions on the hulls of weaned matrices, being these injuries a major cause of problems locomotores.Foram 471 females evaluated in different lines (a, B and C, in phase maternity and delivery of different orders. The standard used for evaluation of lesions in hooves followed the method provided by the company Zinpro Performance Minerals, which guides the evaluations of the injuries are made on the hulls of the hindlimbs, classifying them into type (growth and erosion of the bead, lug-soled crack white line splitting, horizontal wall crack, vertical wall crack, nail growth and growth of nail accessory and scores (0 without injury, 1-slight, 2-moderate, 3-severe .From these data was calculated per animal hull lesion index. This index is a comparison between the two members, where the highest score of each type of injury is added and this result classifies the animal in normal (result = 0, with the degree of injury (1 result from 1 to 7, degree 2 (results from 8 to 14 or grade 3 (results above 14. It has been shown that the prevalence of the problem is 99.6% of females, or only 0.4% of females had no damage to the hull; 66.9% had grade 1 injury; 32.1% degree of injury 2; and 0.6% grade 3 injury. To evaluate the age of rejection for locomotor problems, it was found that 55.6% of the sows by some change in the system were the third delivery. This work points out the existing importance in providing good management conditions, housing and nutrition for mothers, because the financial returns expected in the production system depends on the productivity
Ratanachu-ek, Suntaree; Moungnoi, Pranee
Childhood obesity is increasing worldwide and becoming an important health problem in both the children's current life and their later years. Providing kindergarten teachers with the knowledge should reduce the severity of obesity and prevent childhood obesity. To monitor the prevalence of over-nutrition and obesity in kindergarten children for 3 years, and to evaluate the effects of teacher education on the prevalence of over-nutrition and obesity. Kindergarten children from 7 schools in Bangkok were enrolled in this cohort study for 3 years (2005-2007). Three school groups were classified according to the number of informed teachers in the school. The children's weight and height were measured yearly using standard instruments. Nutritional status was assessed by% weight for height (%W/H), using the Thai Growth Reference, 1999. After the second measurement, all teachers were informed directly at the schools. The prevalence of over-nutrition and obesity was assessed and compared among the 3 years, and the 3 groups, using Chi-square (chi 2) test. In the year 2005, 1,232 kindergarten children from 7 schools were enrolled. The prevalence of over-nutrition and obesity was 33% and 17.4% in 2005; 32.8% and 17.2% in 2006; 28.8% and 15.3% in 2007. In the 3rd year the prevalence of over-nutrition decreased statistically significantly from the first 2 years. The prevalence of over-nutrition and obesity in 3 years decreased insignificantly in each group. This showed the positive effects of the teacher education. Teacher education has effects in reducing the prevalence of over-nutrition and obesity in the kindergarten children.
Almario, Juliana; Gobbin, Davide; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Rezzonico, Fabio
Functional type III secretion system (T3SS) genes are needed for effective biocontrol of Pythium damping-off of cucumber by Pseudomonas fluorescens KD, but whether biocontrol Pseudomonas strains with T3SS genes display overall a higher plant-protecting activity is unknown. The assessment of 198 biocontrol fluorescent pseudomonads originating from 60 soils worldwide indicated that 32% harbour the ATPase-encoding T3SS gene hrcN, which was most often found in tomato isolates. The hrcN(+) biocontrol strains (and especially those also producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and displaying 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity) displayed higher plant-protecting ability in comparison with hrcN(-) biocontrol strains, both in the Pythium/cucumber and Fusarium/cucumber pathosystems. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Adibi, Atoosa; Karami, Mahdi; Koohi, Kaveh; Shirahmad, Mehran
Background: Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is an anatomical abnormality, which needs early detection and treatment. Ultrasound (US) is a sensitive method to study neonatal hip joint and detection of different types of sonographic hip. This study was aimed to determine relative frequency of different types of DDH ultrasonographically. Materials and Methods: Ultrasound examination was performed on 380 newborns to determine hip joint status according to the Graf ultrasound classification system for infant hips. In addition, hip joint status was compared based on the hip side, gender, and method of delivery. Results: In this study, we observed three sonographic types: Ia (74%), type Ib (20%), and IIa (6%). No significant difference was found in relative frequency of different types of DDH regarding the side of the hip (P = 0.18). Type IIa was found significantly more in the female newborns (P < 0.0001) and in newborns who were born by cesarean section (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: This study supports the role of US detection of different types of DDH; however, the frequency of pathologic types of hip sonography is 6%. PMID:25709988
The effects of radioactive fallout in Lapland differ from those in southern Finland. The subarctic area is poor in vegetation and nutrients, for which reason radioactive substances enter food chains rapidly. As potassium is low in supply in the north, plants use cesium to replace it. Thus cesium is accumulated very effectively in food chain. When in the food chain, cesium is enriched in reindeer and further in Lapp people, who eat reindeer meat frequently. The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety established a regional laboratory in northern Finland in the 1970's to monitor radiation and carry out research an the area.(author)
Seyed Gholamreza Jalali Naini
Full Text Available This paper aims to study the effects of different factors on advertising by examining the simultaneous effects of exposure to the advertisement, type of the media, creativity in advertisements and being informative. Using data collected from one of the chain supermarkets of Tehran called “Shahrvand”; the analysis focuses on the effectiveness of four independent variables and impact of customers’ needs on encouraging consumers to purchase. The results elucidate a relationship among these four variables with encouraging people to purchase. Using creativity in advertisements, however dominate the effects on this issue. The marketing and advertisement environment are dynamic and the paper concentrates only on some of the more effective factors. Producers might be more successful in choosing the best way to promote their goods and services by following the proposed model. This paper puts four effective factors together and investigates their impact on advertisement, which was not done by any other previous papers. Unlike other studies, this paper examines the role of customer needs together with four other elements on advertisement effectiveness.
Kousta, E; Lawrence, N J; Anyaoku, V; Johnston, D G; McCarthy, M I
To assess the prevalence and characteristics of islet cell autoimmunity amongst women with gestational diabetes selected from South Asian and Afro-Caribbean as well as European populations. Cross-sectional retrospective survey of subject cohort. Three hundred and twenty-one women with a recent history of gestational diabetes (173 European, 86 South Asian and 62 Afro-Caribbean), a median (range) of 22 (1-150) months postpartum. Antibodies to Glutamic acid decarboxylase were found in 13 (4%) of these women. There was no difference in the prevalence of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase positivity between the three ethnic groups (European 4.6%, South Asian 3.5%, Afro-Caribbean 3.2%). Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase positive women were leaner than anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase negative women (body mass index, median (upper-lower quartile) 23.9 (22.5-26.7) vs 26.6 (23.4-30.5)kg/m2, P = 0.03, P = 0.049 allowing for ethnicity). There was no difference between glutamic acid decarboxylase-positive and glutamic acid decarboxylase-negative women for age, family history of diabetes, waist/hip ratio, prevalence of insulin treatment during pregnancy, postpartum glucose status, lipid profile and indices of insulin action and beta-cell function. Markers of islet cell autoimmunity are found as frequently in gestational diabetes women of South Asian and Afro-Caribbean origin, as they are in European subjects. Identification of future risk of type 1 diabetes is relevant to the planning of clinical management and intervention strategies in women with gestational diabetes of all major ethnic groups.
Constantino, John N.
In this issue of "Autism," new evidence for the equivalency of symptom burden and structure among males and females affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD) continues to move the spotlight from a notion that the sex ratio in ASD results from the condition being somehow different between the sexes, to the more likely scenario that males…
... in the density of their interconnections and hence potential for HIV spread. These network-level differences offer a potential explanation for the observed generalised HIV epidemic seen among the population of black South Africans. Keywords: concurrency, epidemiology, ethnicity, HIV/AIDS, race, social networks, survey
Background: The emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria has become a major public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance in commensal E. coli from different age-groups of animals on dairy farms. Materials: A total of 444 manur...
The current study addressed some of the methodological shortcomings of previous studies on internet addiction. The main purpose of the study was to determine if two different internet addiction assessments would identify the same individuals as addicted to the internet. A total of 224 undergraduate internet users were surveyed using a stratified…
Mazzilli, Rossella; Imbrogno, Norina; Elia, Jlenia; Delfino, Michele; Bitterman, Olimpia; Napoli, Angela; Mazzilli, Fernando
Rossella Mazzilli, Norina Imbrogno, Jlenia Elia, Michele Delfino, Olimpia Bitterman, Angela Napoli, Fernando Mazzilli Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Unit of Diabetology and Endocrinology, University of Rome Sapienza, Rome, Italy Background: The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of diabetes on female sexuality and to highlight any differences between sexuality in the context of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: The subje...
Abdullah A. Saati; Hani S. Faidah
Water is the most important substance in our daily life. Without it, life would not have been possible. Safe drinking water is essential to humans and other life forms, as water is important to the mechanics of biological metabolisms in the body. Drinking water should be pure and free of contaminants to ensure proper health and wellness. Drinking water from different water resources such as wells and tankers should be free from contamination with waterborne pathogens including bacteria, fungi...
Perumal, Nandita; Roth, Daniel E; Perdrizet, Johnna; Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Bassani, Diego G
Postmenstrual and/or gestational age-corrected age (CA) is required to apply child growth standards to children born preterm (age). Yet, CA is rarely used in epidemiologic studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), which may bias population estimates of childhood undernutrition. To evaluate the effect of accounting for GA in the application of growth standards, we used GA-specific standards at birth (INTERGROWTH-21st newborn size standards) in conjunction with CA for preterm-born children in the application of World Health Organization Child Growth Standards postnatally (referred to as 'CA' strategy) versus postnatal age for all children, to estimate mean length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) z scores at 0, 3, 12, 24, and 48-months of age in the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort. At birth (n = 4066), mean LAZ was higher and the prevalence of stunting (LAZ age (mean ± SD): - 0.36 ± 1.19 versus - 0.67 ± 1.32; and 8.3 versus 11.6%, respectively. Odds ratio (OR) and population attributable risk (PAR) of stunting due to preterm birth were attenuated and changed inferences using CA versus postnatal age at birth [OR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 (95% CI 0.95, 1.82) vs 14.7 (95% CI 11.7, 18.4); PAR 3.1 vs 42.9%]; differences in inferences persisted at 3-months. At 12, 24, and 48-months, preterm birth was associated with stunting, but ORs/PARs remained attenuated using CA compared to postnatal age. Findings were similar for weight-for-age z scores. Population-based epidemiologic studies in LMICs in which GA is unused or unavailable may overestimate the prevalence of early childhood undernutrition and inflate the fraction of undernutrition attributable to preterm birth.
Cho, Hong-Jun; Dutra, Lauren M; Glantz, Stanton A
In the context of different regulatory environments, different patterns of e-cigarette use have emerged among adolescents worldwide. One example is the United States and South Korea, the latter of which has maintained much more extensive regulation of e-cigarettes. This analysis compares the prevalence of e-cigarette and conventional cigarette use between 2011 and 2015 from the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey and the U.S. National Youth Tobacco Survey, both nationally representative samples of middle and high school students that use similar questions. E-cigarette prevalence (past 30 day) among Korean adolescents decreased from 4.7% in 2011 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.4-5.0) to 4.0% in 2015; (3.7-4.3) but increased dramatically among U.S. adolescents from 0.9% (0.7-1.2) to 11.2% (9.9-12.7). Cigarette prevalence (past 30 day) decreased in Korea from 12.1% (11.6-12.7) to 7.8% (CI: 7.3-8.3) and in the United States from 11.1% (9.5-12.6) to 6.1% (5.1-7.3). Combined prevalence of cigarette and e-cigarette use (adjusting for dual users) decreased in Korea from 13.2% (12.7-13.8) to 8.5% (8.0-9.1) but increased in the United States from 11.3% (9.7-12.9) to 14.0% (12.4-15.7). In Korea, where e-cigarettes are extensively regulated, adolescent e-cigarette use remained stable at a low level, whereas in the United States, where e-cigarette regulation has been limited, e-cigarette use increased. Combined e-cigarette plus cigarette use declined in Korea whereas it increased in the US. The restrictive policies in Korea likely contributed to lower overall tobacco product use. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Anelise F Montagner
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of dentin surfaces with different tubule orientation on bond strength of a multimode adhesive system. Materials and Methods: Twenty human molars were selected and prepared in different ways in order to produce different dentin regions. The teeth were randomized (n = 5 according to the application modes of a multimode adhesive system (etch-and-rinse and self-etching and to the dentin region (occlusal and proximal - 1.5 mm depth from dentinoenamel junction. Cylindrical restorations were performed on dentin with a starch tube. The samples remained immersed in distilled water for 24 h and the microshear bond strength (μSBS test was performed. The μSBS values were expressed in MPa and analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey′s test (P < 0.05. Results: There was no significant difference in the bond strength values between the application modes of the adhesive system (P = 0.19; however, the dentin regions (P < 0.05 significantly affected the μSBS. The proximal dentin presented higher bond strength values than occlusal dentin. Conclusion: The dentin surfaces with different tubule orientation influenced the bonding effectiveness of the adhesive system tested.
Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J
BACKGROUND: Women are more often admitted to hospital for asthma than men. A study was undertaken to determine whether this is caused by gender differences in the prevalence or severity of the disease. METHODS: Admissions to hospital for asthma in 13,540 subjects were followed from 1977 to 1993. ...
Danaei, Goodarz; Fahimi, Saman; Lu, Yuan; Zhou, Bin; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Lo, Wei-Cheng; Reis-Santos, Barbara; Cowan, Melanie J.; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Bentham, James; Lin, John K.; Bixby, Honor; Magliano, Dianna; Bovet, Pascal; Miranda, J. Jaime; Khang, Young-Ho; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Riley, Leanne M.; Ali, Mohammed K.; Ezzati, Majid; Abdeen, Ziad A.; Kadir, Khalid Abdul; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Al Nsour, Mohannad; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Amouyel, Philippe; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Andrade, Dolores S.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Aris, Tahir; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Arveiler, Dominique; Assah, Felix K.; Avdicova, Maria; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Bandosz, Piotr; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barcelo, Alberto; Batieha, Anwar M.; Baur, Louise A.; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Bi, Yufang; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bjorkelund, Cecilia; Blake, Margaret; Blokstra, Anneke; Bo, Simona; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boissonnet, Carlos P.; Brajkovich, Imperia; Breckenkamp, Juergen; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Brian, Garry R.; Bruno, Graziella; Bugge, Anna; de Leon, Antonio Cabrera; Can, Gunay; Candido, Ana Paula C.; Capuano, Vincenzo; Carvalho, Maria J.; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Caserta, Carmelo A.; Castetbon, Katia; Chamukuttan, Snehalatha; Chaturvedi, Nishi; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Fangfang; Chen, Shuohua; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chetrit, Angela; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Cho, Yumi; Chudek, Jerzy; Cifkova, Renata; Claessens, Frank; Concin, Hans; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Rachel; Costanzo, Simona; Cottel, Dominique; Cowell, Chris; Crujeiras, Ana B.; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Dallongeville, Jean; Dankner, Rachel; Dauchet, Luc; de Gaetano, Giovanni; de Henauw, Stefaan; Deepa, Mohan; Dehghan, Abbas; Dhana, Klodian; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.; Djalalinia, Shirin; Doua, Kouamelan; Drygas, Wojciech; Du, Yong; Egbagbe, Eruke E.; Eggertsen, Robert; El Ati, Jalila; Elosua, Roberto; Erasmus, Rajiv T.; Erem, Cihangir; Ergor, Gul; Eriksen, Louise; la Penaa, Jorge Escobedo-De; Fall, Caroline H.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.; Ferguson, Trevor S.; Fernandez-Berges, Daniel; Ferrari, Marika; Ferreccio, Catterina; Finn, Joseph D.; Foger, Bernhard; Foo, Leng Huat; Fouad, Heba M.; Francis, Damian K.; Franco, Maria do Carmo; Franco, Oscar H.; Frontera, Guillermo; Furusawa, Takuro; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Garnett, Sarah P.; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Gasull, Magda; Gates, Louise; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Ghasemain, Anoosheh; Giampaoli, Simona; Gianfagna, Francesco; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Gross, Marcela Gonzalez; Rivas, Juan P. Gonzalez; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Gottrand, Frederic; Grant, Janet F.; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Grontved, Anders; Gruden, Grabriella; Gu, Dongfeng; Guan, Ong Peng; Guerrero, Ramiro; Guessous, Idris; Guimaraes, Andre L.; Gutierrez, Laura; Hardy, Rebecca; Kumar, Rachakulla Hari; He, Jiang; Heidemann, Christin; Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani; Ho, Sai Yin; Ho, Suzanne C.; Hofman, Albert; Russo, Andrea R. V.; Hormiga, Claudia M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Houti, Leila; Hussieni, Abdullatif S.; Huybrechts, Inge; Hwalla, Nahla; Iacoviello, Licia; Iannone, Anna G.; Ibrahim, Mohsen M.; Ikeda, Nayu; Ikram, M. Arfan; Irazola, Vilma E.; Islam, Muhammad; Iwasaki, Masanori; Jacobs, Jeremy M.; Jafar, Tazeen; Jasienska, Grazyna; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Jonas, Jost B.; Joshi, Pradeep; Kafatos, Anthony; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Kasaeian, Amir; Katz, Joanne; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Kavousi, Maryam; Kelishadi, Roya; Kengne, Andre P.; Kersting, Mathilde; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Kiechl, Stefan; Kim, Jeongseon; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Kolsteren, Patrick; Korrovits, Paul; Koskinen, Seppo; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Kromhout, Daan; Kula, Krzysztof; Kurjata, Pawel; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Lachat, Carl; Laid, Youcef; Lam, Tai Hing; Landrove, Orlando; Lanska, Vera; Lappas, Georg; Laxmaiah, Avula; Leclercq, Catherine; Lee, Jeannette; Lee, Jeonghee; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lekhraj, Rampal; Leon-Munoz, Luz M.; Li, Yanping; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lima-Costa, M. Fernanda; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lin, Xu; Lissner, Lauren; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lozano, Jose Eugenio; Lundqvist, Annamari; Lytsy, Per; Ma, Guansheng; Machado-Coelho, George L. L.; Machi, Suka; Maggi, Stefania; Makdisse, Marcia; Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna; Manios, Yannis; Manzato, Enzo; Margozzini, Paula; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Martorell, Reynaldo; Masoodi, Shariq R.; Matsha, Tandi E.; Mbanya, Jean Claude N.; McFarlane, Shelly R.; McGarvey, Stephen T.; McLachlan, Stela; McNulty, Breige A.; Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Merat, Shahin; Meshram, Indrapal I.; Mi, Jie; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Mohamed, Mostafa K.; Mohammad, Kazem; Mohan, Viswanathan; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd; Moller, Niels C.; Molnar, Denes; Mondo, Charles K.; Moreno, Luis A.; Morgan, Karen; Moschonis, George; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Mostafa, Aya; Mota, Jorge; Muiesan, Maria L.; Muller-Nurasyid, Martina; Mursu, Jaakko; Nagel, Gabriele; Namesna, Jana; Nang, Ei Ei K.; Nangia, Vinay B.; Navarrete-Munoz, Eva Maria; Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba; Nervi, Flavio; Nguyen, Nguyen D.; Nieto-Martinez, Ramfi S. E.; Ning, Guang; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Noale, Marianna; Noto, Davide; Ochoa-Aviles, Angelica M.; Oh, Kyungwon; Onat, Altan; Osmond, Clive; Otero, Johanna A.; Palmieri, Luigi; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Panza, Francesco; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Peixoto, Sergio Viana; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Peters, Annette; Peykari, Niloofar; Pilav, Aida; Pitakaka, Freda; Piwonska, Aleksandra; Piwonski, Jerzy; Plans-Rubio, Pedro; Porta, Miquel; Portegies, Marileen L. P.; Poustchi, Hossein; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Price, Jacqueline F.; Punab, Margus; Qasrawi, Radwan F.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Raitakari, Olli; Rao, Sudha Ramachandra; Ramachandran, Ambady; Ramos, Rafel; Rampal, Sanjay; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Redon, Josep; Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.; Rigo, Fernando; Robinson, Sian M.; Robitaille, Cynthia; Rodriguez, Laura A.; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Rodriguez-Perez, Maria del Cristo; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Romaguera, Dora; Rosengren, Annika; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Rui, Ornelas; Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca Sandra; Rutkowski, Marcin; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Saidi, Olfa; Sakarya, Sibel; Salanave, Benoit; Salonen, Jukka T.; Salvetti, Massimo; Sanchez-Abanto, Jose; Nunes, Renata; Santos, Rute; Sardinha, Luis B.; Scazufca, Marcia; Schargrodsky, Herman; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Youchan; Shiri, Rahman; Siantar, Rosalynn; Sibai, Abla M.; Simon, Mary; Simons, Judith; Simons, Leon A.; Sjostrom, Michael; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw; Smeeth, Liam; Snijder, Marieke B.; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Sonestedt, Emily; Soumare, Aicha; Staessen, Jan A.; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Stehle, Peter; Stein, Aryeh D.; Stessman, Jochanan; Stockl, Doris; Stokwiszewski, Jakub; Strufaldi, Maria Wany; Sun, Chien-An; Sundstrom, Johan; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Sy, Rody G.; Tai, E. Shyong; Tarawneh, Mohammed; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Topbas, Murat; Torrent, Maties; Traissac, Pierre; Trinh, Oanh T. H.; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Turley, Maria L.; Tzourio, Christophe; Ueda, Peter; Ukoli, Flora M.; Ulmer, Hanno; Valdivia, Gonzalo; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vega, Tomas; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Veronesi, Giovanni; Verschuren, Monique; Vioque, Jesus; Virtanen, Jyrki; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Vollenweider, Peter; Voutilainen, Sari; Wade, Alisha N.; Wagner, Aline; Walton, Janette; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan; Wang, Ming-Dong; Wang, Ya Xing; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Weerasekera, Deepa; Whincup, Peter H.; Widhalm, Kurt; Wiecek, Andrzej; Wilks, Rainford J.; Willeit, Johann; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Wong, Tien Yin; Woo, Jean; Woodward, Mark; Wu, Aleksander Giwercman; Wu, Frederick C.; Wu, Shou Ling; Xu, Haiquan; Yang, Xiaoguang; Ye, Xingwang; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Younger-Coleman, Novie O.; Zambon, Sabina; Zargar, Abdul Hamid; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Zhao, Wenhua; Zheng, Yingfeng
Background Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA(1c). We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and
Smith, Carine; Essop, M Faadiel
We determined selected risk factors for the metabolic syndrome and assessed the metabolic risk status (using IDF criteria) of third-year physiology students at Stellenbosch University (88 males and 178 females). Outcome measures included anthropometry [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio], blood pressure (BP), resting pulse rate, and fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In addition, students completed a lifestyle questionnaire. A number of gender-based differences were found, with male students displaying a greater incidence of risk factors for the metabolic syndrome: 6% of males versus 3% of females displayed a cluster of three risk factors. Twenty-five per cent of female students (but only 14% of males) exhibited waist circumferences above the accepted range, which was positively correlated, for males and females, with both systolic and diastolic BP, and in females only, also with total cholesterol levels. Male students on average exercised more than their female counterparts, but also exhibited poorer eating habits. Average blood triglyceride levels for both male and female students exceeded the accepted threshold (1.85 +/- 1.62 mmol/l and 2.15 +/- 1.79 mmol/l, respectively). We concluded that metabolic risk factors were evident in a much younger population than commonly expected. Moreover, the gender-specific differences observed may impact on future risk assessment and preventative measures adopted.
Full Text Available Maintenance of wild animals in captivity is fraught with numerous challenges, including the control of disease. This study evaluates the effect of season, host demography (age-sex, and differing management systems on the prevalence of intestinal parasites among elephants managed in three captive systems: temple, private, and forest department, in Tamil Nadu. In addition, the study also assessed the availability of veterinary care for elephants in these systems. The parasitic prevalence was evaluated by direct microscopic identification of helminth eggs in faecal samples (n = 115 collected from different age/sex classes of elephants. Of the 115 elephants examined, 37% showed positive results, being infected only with Strongyles sp. The prevalence rate varied significantly across seasons, with the highest rate during summer (49% followed by monsoon (41% and the lowest rate during winter (15%. While males had a significantly lower parasite prevalence compared to females (29% vs. 40%, age classes showed no significant difference. Despite the fact that the proportion of animals receiving veterinary care was higher under the forest department system (100% compared to the private system (26%, parasite prevalence was significantly higher under the former (48% than the latter (31% system. The difference in the proportion of animals with parasitic prevalence among the three systems could be due to differing management practices (i.e. in solitary versus groups and the details are discussed.
In a model where patients face budget constraints that make some treatments unaffordable, we ask which treatments should be covered by universal basic insurance and which by private voluntary insurance. We argue that both cost effectiveness and prevalence are important if the government wants to
Verberk, Willem J.; Kroon, Abraham A.; Thien, Theo; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Smit, Andries J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.
Objective To investigate the prevalence and persistence of the white-coat effect (WCE) and white-coat hypertension (WCH) on multiple blood pressure measurement occasions in hypertensive patients with and without treatment. Design Essential hypertensive patients in whom we took office blood pressure
Verberk, W.J.; Kroon, A.A.; Thien, Th.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Montfrans, G.A. van; Smit, A.J.; Leeuw, P.W. de
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and persistence of the white-coat effect (WCE) and white-coat hypertension (WCH) on multiple blood pressure measurement occasions in hypertensive patients with and without treatment. DESIGN: Essential hypertensive patients in whom we took office blood
Verberk, Willem J.; Kroon, Abraham A.; Thien, Theo; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Smit, Andries J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and persistence of the white-coat effect (WCE) and white-coat hypertension (WCH) on multiple blood pressure measurement occasions in hypertensive patients with and without treatment. DESIGN: Essential hypertensive patients in whom we took office blood
Lorang, Melissa; Callahan, Bryan; Cummins, Kevin M.; Achar, Suraj; Brown, Sandra A.
Multiple risks are associated with early use of anabolic androgenic steroids, yet public understanding is limited and teen use not uncommon. The present study surveyed 4,231 high school students to understand prevalence of use, association with athletics and other substance use and expectations of drug effects. While overall rates of steroid use…
Hoekstra, Johanna; de Vos, Rien; van Duijn, Nico P.; Schadé, Egbert; Bindels, Patrick J. E.
This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of reporting physical symptoms by using a systematic symptom monitoring instrument, the Symptom Monitor, on symptom prevalence and severity among patients with cancer in the palliative phase. The overall objective was to achieve symptom relief
Geels, L.M.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Willemsen, G.; van der Aa, N.; Boomsma, D.I.; Vink, J.M.
Aims To determine the effect of age, sex and cohort on the prevalence and genetic architecture of adolescent alcohol use (AAU). Design Survey study in participants registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Setting Twins from the general population. Participants Two cohorts (data collected in
Uba Nwose, Ezekiel
This study aimed to evaluate the progress in reduction of prevalence of anemia in rural Australia. It also investigates the prevalence of hypoviscosity in anaemia with a view to determine the fraction of anaemic patients at risk of drug-inducible exacerbation of anemia. Archived clinical pathology data (N = 130, 354) for the period of 1999 to 2008 were utilized. The prevalence of anemia and hypoviscosity was evaluated by working out (i) the number that fell within anemia definition as a percentage of the population and (ii) the number that fell within hypoviscosity definition as a percentage of anemic patients. The prevalence in anemic diabetes and dyslipidaemia was further determined. There was progressive reduction in anemia from 6.1% to 3.2% over the ten years period. Prevalence of anemia is statistically significantly higher in males than in females (P < 0.0001), but protein level is lower in anemic females than in anemic males (P < 0.01). The results further show that up to 75% of anemic patients may benefit from NSAID or salicylates. This paper highlights differences between genders. It suggests more concerted effort in men's health and speculates a new factor to investigate in women's health. PMID:22506109
Jo, Hee Bum; Lee, Jun Kyu; Choi, Min Young; Han, In Woong; Choi, Han Seok; Kang, Hyoun Woo; Kim, Jae Hak; Lim, Yun Jeong; Koh, Moon Soo; Lee, Jin Ho
Gallbladder polyps (GBP) are a common clinical finding that can express malignant potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether vegetarianism protects against GBP, together with other putative risk factors. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted with subjects who received a health check-up from July 2005 to December 2011. Korean Buddhist priests, who are obligatory vegetarians by religious belief, were identified as vegetarians (vegetarian group) and compared with a non-vegetarian control group sampled from those coming for health check-ups at the same institution. Out of 18,483 subjects, GBP were found in 810 (4.4%). Al though GBP tended to be less common in the vegetarian group (23 [3.5%] out of 666) than in control group (787 [4.4%] out of 17,817), the difference was insignificant statistically (p=0.233). By logistic regression, old age (OR=1.61, 95% CI=1.1 9-2.26 for 30-39 years; OR=1.47, 95% CI=1.08-1.98 for 40-49 years), male gender (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.31-1.75), high BMI (OR=1.18, 95% CI=1.00-1.39 for ≥ 23.0 kg/m(2) and vegetarianism.
Denise Josino Soares
Full Text Available Brazil is one of the three largest producers of fruits in the world, and among those fruit trees, the cashew tree stands out due to the high nutritional and commercial value of its products. During its fruit processing, there are losses in some compounds and few studies address this issue. Over the last decade the conventional system of food production has been substituted for the organic cultivation system, which is a promising alternative source of income given the global demand for healthy food. Therefore, this research aimed to characterize and quantify the prevalent fatty acids found in cashew nuts obtained from conventional and organic cultivation during various stages of processing. The prevalent fatty acids found were palmitic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic acid. The average of these fatty acids were 6.93 ± 0.55; 16.99 ± 0.61; 67.62 ± 1.00 and 8.42 ± 0.55 g/100 g, respectively. There was no reduction in the palmitic, oleic and stearic fatty acid contents during processing. Very little difference was observed between the nuts obtained from conventional and organic cultivation, indicating that the method of cultivation used has little or no influence on the content of cashew nut fatty acids.
Full Text Available Purpose — to present retrospective study of the morbidity and prevalence of bronchial asthma among children from different age groups and regions according to Ukrainian Ministry of Health official government statistics from 2005 to 2014. Patients and methods. Retrospective study of the morbidity and prevalence of bronchial asthma among children in Ukraine from 2005 to 2014. Results. It was established that from 2012 to 2014 there was a tendency towards a decrease of bronchial asthma indicators — rate of sickness 11.9% and 11.4%, maximum reduction of the indicators was observed in the age group of 0–6 years 19.6% and 17% accordingly. The highest rate of bronchial asthma was registered in the age group 7–14 years (0.7–0.64 per 1000 children population, 15–17 years (9.22–8.66 per 1000 children population. Conclusions. Statistical analysis indicates a problem of hypo;diagnostics of bronchial asthma among children from Ukraine.
Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is more common in the knee compared to the ankle joint. This can not be explained exclusively by anatomical and biomechanical differences. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare the injury pattern (clinically and the cartilage lesions (arthroscopically of knee and ankle joints in a cohort of patients from the same catchment area. A retrospective study of the clinical data of 3122 patients (2139 outpatients and 983 inpatients was performed, who were treated due to an injury of the knee and ankle joint. Statistical analysis was performed using SigmaStat 3.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA. There is a higher prevalence of injuries in the ankle as compared to the knee joint in this population from the same catchment area. In contrast, high-grade cartilage lesions are more prevalent in the knee, whereas low grade cartilage lesions are equally distributed between knee and ankle. From this data it can be concluded that the frequency of injuries and the injury pattern of knee versus ankle joints do not correlate with the severity of cartilage lesions and may therefore have no direct influence on the differential incidence of OA in those two joints.
Hald, B.; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, H. S.
Flies act as vectors in the introduction of Campylobacter from the environment to broiler flocks. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the effect of fly screens on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. Cases were 52 broiler flocks reared in 20 houses on 11 farms between June...... and November 2006, where houses were equipped with fly screens made of glass fibre mesh. The controls consisted of 70 broiler flocks reared in 25 matched houses on 13 farms without screens. Other bio-security and management routines were strictly as before the study. All broiler houses were ventilated through...... wall inlets and roof outlets. The broiler flocks were sampled at days 21, 28, and 35 and at slaughter (on day 35 to 42). Samples were tested for Campylobacter by PCR. Campylobacter prevalence data were analyzed using SAS (SAS Institute). In fly screened houses, the Campylobacter prevalence was 15.4% (8...
Niggemann, Pascal; Kuchta, Johannes; Beyer, Hans-Konrad; Grosskurth, D; Schulze, Thorsten; Delank, Karl-Stefan
Imaging study with an evaluation of incidences and clinical correlation. To evaluate the incidence of 3 different types of instabilities in patients with spondylolysis or isthmic spondylolisthesis. Clinical findings are correlated with imaging findings, and the imaging findings are analyzed with regard to their clinical implications. Spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis are common disorders. An unstable slip is the most well-known form of instability, but other forms also exist. However, the incidence of these instabilities and their clinical implications are yet unclear. A total of 140 patients with 141 levels of spondylolysis identified by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) were included in this study. Using positional MRI, the instability of the slip, an increased angular movement, and movement in the spondylolytic cleft were assessed. On the basis of clinical findings, the patients were classified as presenting with either radicular or nonradicular symptoms. The incidence of the instabilities was recorded and correlated with the incidence of radicular symptoms. Fifteen patients had an unstable slip (anterior instability); 35, an increased angular movement (angular instability); and 34 patients, a movement in the spondylolytic cleft (posterior instability). All forms of instability could be found together. No instability at all was found in 76 patients. Radicular symptoms were found significantly more often in patients with one or more of the described instabilities compared with patients without instability. All 3 described forms of instability are common in spondylolysis or isthmic spondylolisthesis and associated with radicular pain. This finding stresses the value of positional MRI in the evaluation of patients with spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis, especially if radicular symptoms are present.
Nuha H. El-Khalili
Full Text Available E-learning has become one of the powerful supporting tools that expand traditional teaching in higher education. Designers of learning objects (LOs for blended learning higher education face number of challenges; one of them is choosing the right technology to develop learning objects. This study adopts the Bloom-Redeker-Guerra (B-R-G mapping model which guides designers to transform the contents and objectives of a traditional course into a number of suggested LOs for a blended course. The study attempts to empirically validate the first dimension of its evaluation scale which measures the effectiveness of learning objects that targets achieving lower order thinking skills (i.e. Knowledge and Comprehension according to Bloom's Taxonomy. This paper presents the results of the empirical study that validates the students' learning achievement and students' perceived satisfaction differ for receptive learning objects that have been developed with different learning technologies. The empirical study has been implemented using pretest-posttest experiments, in addition to a questionnaire that measures students' satisfaction. Participants were about 100 Information Technology (IT students enrolled in different courses. Results show that students' learning achievement and students' perceived satisfaction improve with learning objects designed with advanced learning technologies (according to Guerra scale, hence better achieve the targeted learning objectives.
Lukacs, J R
This paper presents new data on enamel hypoplasia in the deciduous canine teeth of great apes. The enamel defect under consideration is known as localized hypoplasia of primary canines (LHPC), and is characterized by an area of thin or missing enamel on the labial surface of deciduous canine teeth (Skinner [1986a] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 69:59-69). Goals of this study are: 1) to determine if significant differences in the frequency of LHPC occur among three genera of great apes, and 2) to evaluate variation in LHPC prevalence among great apes as evidence of differential physiological stress. Infant and juvenile apes with deciduous teeth were examined at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History (n = 100) and at the Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History (n = 36). Deciduous teeth were observed under oblique incandescent light, with the naked eye and with a 10x hand lens. Enamel hypoplasia was scored using Federation Dentaire International (FDI)-Defects of Dental Enamel (DDE) standards. Hypoplasias were recorded by drawing defect location and size on a dental chart, and by measuring defect size and location with Helios needlepoint dial calipers. The prevalence of LHPC is reported by genus and sex, using two approaches: 1) the frequency of affected individuals-those having one or more deciduous canine teeth scored positive for LHPC; and 2) the number of canine teeth scored positive for LHPC as a percentage of all canine teeth observed. Variation in defect size and location will be described elsewhere. Localized hypoplasia of primary canine teeth was found in 62.5% of 128 individual apes, and in 45.5% of 398 great ape deciduous canines. As in humans, LHPC is the most common form of enamel hypoplasia in deciduous teeth of great apes, while LEH is rare or absent. The distribution and pattern of expression of LHPC in great apes is similar to that described in humans: side differences are not significant, but mandibular canines exhibit the defect two to
Yngve, Agneta; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Wolf, Alexandra
Objectives: To assess country differences in prevalence of overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in the Pro Children Survey. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in a random sample of schools in nine European countries in 2003. The subjects were 8317 11-year-old children from Austria...... of stunted children was highest in Portugal, Spain and Belgium. Conclusions: The highest levels of overweight, obesity and stunting in the pro children material are found in Portugal and Spain......., Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Parents reported height and weight of the children, and BMI values were analysed using the US Centers of Disease Control and Prevention and the International Obesity Task Force reference populations. Continuous variables were...
Cotterman, Carolyn; Crawford, Pat; Stevelos, JoAnn; Archibald, Abbie
Introduction The Alliance for a Healthier Generation’s Healthy Schools Program (HSP) is a national evidence-based obesity-prevention initiative aimed at providing the schools in greatest need with onsite training and technical assistance (TTA) and consultation with national experts (HSP national advisors) to create sustainable healthy change in schools’ nutrition and physical activity environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HSP on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in California schools, from HSP’s inception in 2006 through 2012. Methods We used statewide body mass index (BMI) data collected annually from 5th-, 7th-, and 9th-grade students to determine whether enrolling in the HSP’s onsite intervention reduced the prevalence of overweight and obesity in intervention schools (n = 281) versus propensity-score matched control schools (n = 709) and whether increasing exposure to the program (TTA and contact with HSP national advisors) was associated with reductions in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Results Analyses showed no difference between HSP schools and control schools in overweight or obesity prevalence. However, program exposure varied widely among participating schools, and each additional contact with TTA or HSP national advisors was associated with a 0.3% decline in overweight and obesity prevalence (P schools in reducing obesity. Although participation in HSP alone was not sufficient to improve weight status in California schools, there was a clear dose–response relationship to the program. HSP serves as an effective model for addressing childhood obesity among engaged schools. PMID:25996984
Zeng, Ping; Wu, Sinan; Han, Yiwen; Liu, Jingmin; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Enyi; Zhang, Yan; Gong, Huan; Pang, Jing; Tang, Zhili; Liu, Hongxing; Zheng, Xiuyuan; Zhang, Tiemei
This study investigates the age-related differences in skeletal muscle mass (SM), muscle strength and physical performance in mainland Chinese. Based on available data, the reference values (criteria) for the definition of sarcopenia in elderly Chinese were explored. Body composition measurements were obtained using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer (BIA); muscle strength was determined by handgrip strength (HS); and physical function was evaluated by the subjects' 6-m gait speed (GS). In this study, HS and GS declined significantly after 55 years and very dramatically after 75 years. Appendicular SM index of <7.61kg/m(2) (males) and <6.43kg/m(2) (females); HS of <27kg (males) and <16kg (females); and GS of <0.98m/s (males) and <0.88m/s (females) were considered as low SM, low HS and low GS. Applying these suggested criteria to the study population, there were 9.55% and 6.63% of the subjects with low SM, 20.10% and 18.46% with low GS, and 14.07% and 15.38% with low HS in elderly males and females, respectively. Utilizing Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria in our population results in a very low prevalence of low SM and low GS. If Western criteria for sarcopenia were adopted, the prevalence of low GS and low HS would be 2-4 times higher in the studied population, also exhibiting significant gender differences. These findings indicate that it is necessary to establish an outcomes-based and ethnic-specific set of reference values for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in elderly Chinese. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ngo, Anh; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J; Shang, Ce
The World Health Organization (WHO) introduced the MPOWER package to support policy implementation under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This study examined the effect of MPOWER policies on smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption in a global context. The MPOWER composite score was constructed by adding up the six MPOWER scores for each country and survey year 2007-2008, 2010, 2012, and 2014, with a possible range between 6 (1 in each of the six score) and 29 (4 in M score and 5 in POWER scores). MPOWER composite scores that measured policy implementation were then linked to cigarette smoking prevalence and consumption data from Euromonitor International. Fractional logit and OLS regressions were employed to examine the effect of the composite MPOWER score on adult smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption, respectively. Results indicate that a 1-unit increase in the composite score reduces smoking prevalence by 0.2 percentage points (p<0.05) among adults and 0.3 percentage points (p<0.01) among adult males; and a reduction of 23 sticks of cigarette (1 pack of cigarettes) in cigarette consumption per capita per year. At this rate, if countries had implemented the MPOWER package to the highest levels during 2007-2014, they would have experienced a reduction in smoking prevalence of 7.26% among adults and 7.87% among adult males and a reduction of 13.80% in cigarette consumption. MPOWER policies were effective in reducing cigarette smoking among adults. Parties should continue to implement MPOWER policies that have been recommended by the WHO FCTC to curb tobacco epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Buyze, J; Vanden Berghe, W; Hens, N; Kenyon, C
There is considerable uncertainty as to the effectiveness of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) screening in men who have sex with men. It is important to ensure that screening has benefits that outweigh the risks of increased antibiotics resistance. We develop a mathematical model to estimate the effectiveness of screening on prevalence. Separable Temporal Exponential family Random Graph Models are used to model the sexual relationships network, both with main and casual partners. Next, the transmission of Gonorrhoea is simulated on this network. The models are implemented using the R package 'statnet', which we adapted among other things to incorporate infection status at the pharynx, urethra and rectum separately and to distinguish between anal sex, oral sex and rimming. The different screening programmes compared are no screening, 3.5% of the population screened, 32% screened and 50% screened. The model simulates day-by-day evolution for 10 years of a population of 10 000. If half of the population would be screened, the prevalence in the pharynx decreases from 11.9% to 10.2%. We conclude that the limited impact of screening on NG prevalence may not outweigh the increased risk of antibiotic resistance.
Full Text Available Laestadianism, a conservative revival movement inside the Lutheran church, has an estimated 100,000 followers in Finland. Laestadians have characteristics differing from the followers of the mainstream state church in areas such as religious activity, regional concentration, fertility and family planning, but these are generally not quantified due to lack of easily accessible data. This study highlights the importance of including location and religiosity, and not only religious affiliation in the study of fertility behaviour. The research uses statistical tools to study the correlations between such variables as religious density and total fertility rate. It is found that on the regional level, the total fertility rate and the increasing number of small children in the family is positively associated with the proportion of Laestadians. The regional variation of religiousness, and the subsequent effects on population structure and socioeconomics are discussed.
Fischer, Kerstin; Lohan, K. S.; Nehaniv, C.
In this paper, we investigate to what extent tutors' behavior is influenced by different kinds of robot feedback. In particular, we study the effects of online robot feedback in which the robot responds either contingently to the tutor's social behavior or by tracking the objects presented. Also......, we investigate the impact of the robot's learning success on tutors' tutoring strategies. Our results show that only in the condition in which the robot's behavior is socially contingent, the human tutors adjust their behavior to the robot. In the developmentally equally plausible object......-driven condition, in which the robot tracked the objects presented, tutors do not change their behavior significantly, even though in both conditions the robot develops from a prelinguistic stage to producing keywords. Socially contingent robot feedback has thus the potential to influence tutors' behavior over...
Luksiene, Dalia Ieva; Baceviciene, Migle; Tamosiūnas, Abdonas; Cerniauskiene, Liucija Rita; Margeviciene, Lilija; Reklaitiene, Regina
The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome diagnosed using three different definitions and to evaluate its associations with ischemic heart disease in Kaunas adult population. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Data of preventive screening carried out in Kaunas in 2001-2002 according to the MONICA study protocol were used for analysis; a total of 1336 persons aged 35-64 years (603 men and 733 women) were recruited. The metabolic syndrome was defined by the World Health Organization, Adult Treatment Panel III, and International Diabetes Federation definitions. Ischemic heart disease was diagnosed based on the following criteria: a documented history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, or ischemic changes on electrocardiogram. RESULTS. The metabolic syndrome was identified for 11.3% of men and for 9.4% of women using the World Health Organization definition, for 19.4% of men and for 26.3% of women using the Adult Treatment Panel III definition, and for 30.0% of men and for 37.7% of women using the International Diabetes Federation definition. In male and female groups, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (irrespective of definition) significantly increased with age (Pmetabolic syndrome using the International Diabetes Federation definition (OR=2.30; P=0.001) and Adult Treatment Panel III definition (OR=1.97; P=0.01) and women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome using the International Diabetes Federation definition (OR=1.50; P=0.039) had a significantly higher risk of having ischemic heart disease as compared with those without the metabolic syndrome by the same definitions. The metabolic syndrome diagnosed using the World Health Organization definition was not associated with a significant risk of ischemic heart disease in men and women. CONCLUSION. In Kaunas population aged 35-64 years, the highest prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was determined according to the International Diabetes Federation definition. Usage of the
Jardim, T; Neiva, T; Rodrigues, R; Arantes, A; Barros, C; Chinem, B; Rocha, R; Euzébio, M; Souza, W; Araújo, Y; Sousa, A; Ressurreição, L; Carneiro, S; Moreira, H; Mendonça, K; Sousa, A; Jardim, P
To compare differences in prevalence rates, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension between male and female workers of a public university in the Midwest region of Brazil. Cross-sectional study with a representative sample of employers from the Federal University of Goias - Brazil. Data were collected in the workplace with individual questionnaire and measurement of casual blood pressure using semi-automatic devices (OMRON HEM model 711). Individuals using anti-hypertensive drugs and/or with blood pressure (BP) greater than or equal to 140/90mmHg (or 130/80mmHg, in the case of diabetics) were considered hypertensive. The knowledge about the disease was identified among those who claimed to be aware of the diagnosis before the measurements, and the treatment rate was calculated with those who reported using antihypertensive drugs. Controlled blood pressure was considered in individuals with values lower than 140/90mmHg (or 130/80mmHg, in the case of diabetics). The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the institution. The study included 1000 individuals with a mean age of 42.3 years (± 12.1); 393 (39.3%) patients were male. The prevalence of hypertension was 30.1% (n = 301), being higher among men (34.6%) than women (27.2%) (p < 0.05), aged over 50 years (p < = 0.001) and among those who have also referred hypertensive parents (p < 0.05). Among the hypertensive men 62.5% knew the diagnosis, 82.4% of those were under treatment, and 60.0% of those had BP under control. Among the hypertensive women 83,6% knew the diagnosis, 90,6% were under treatment and 79,4% were with controlled BP (p < 0,05 for the three variables). Despite the higher prevalence of hypertension in men, women had a greater knowledge of the diagnosis, higher rates of treatment and control of the disease in a population of workers from a Brazilian public university.
López-Bescós, L; Cosín, J; Elosua, R; Cabadés, A; de los Reyes, M; Arós, F; Diago, J L; Asín, E; Castro-Beiras, A; Marrugat, J
The study of angina prevalence has received little attention in the analysis of the dimension of coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of angina and cardiovascular risk factors in the 45- to 74-year-old population of the different autonomous regions of Spain. A sample of 10,248 subjects was recruited. Sampling was stratified by gender and age groups (45-54, 55-64 and 65 to 74 years), and proportional to the population distribution of the different autonomous regions. A multistage sampling was performed, firstly 200 villages were randomly selected, secondly three different socio-economic household were chosen. Sample unit was neighbouring households. Rose questionnaire of angina and a structured questionnaire to collect socio-demographic and risk factor variables were administered. Angina prevalence in the 45- to 74-year-old Spanish population was 7.5%. The autonomous regions with the higher and lower prevalence were Baleares (11.4%) and Basque Country (3.1%), respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient between angina prevalence and ischemic heart disease or cardiovascular disease mortality in men and women was 0.52 and 0.55, and 0.31 and 0.44, respectively. The self reported prevalence of hypertension, dyslipemia, diabetes and smoking was 31.1%, 24.2%, 14.3% and 34.6% respectively. Angina prevalence in Spain is similar to that of developed countries although significant differences were observed among the autonomous regions of Spain. These differences correlate with those observed in ischemic heart disease or cardiovascular mortality among them and are associated with the cardiovascular risk factors prevalence which also varies among communities.
Eslick, Guy D; Talley, Nicholas J
Obesity has been identified as a potential risk factor for gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, although the data from community samples remain sparse. We assess the associations between GI symptoms and obesity in a population-based sample of Australian adults. The prevalence of 26 GI symptoms was determined by a validated postal questionnaire which was sent to 5000 randomly selected residents. The response rate was 60%. GI symptoms were classified into six broader symptom groups based on the Rome II Criteria - abdominal pain, esophageal symptoms, dysmotility symptoms, diarrhea, vomiting, and constipation. Obesity was defined according to body mass index using self-reported height and weight. The prevalence of obesity (BMI≥30kg/m(2)) was 25.1%; 36.1% were overweight. There were significant and positive univariate associations between obesity and abdominal pain (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.39-2.21), esophageal symptoms (OR=1.74; 95% CI: 1.36-2.22), dysmotility symptoms (OR=1.43; 95% CI: 1.16-1.77) and diarrhea (OR=2.01; 95% CI: 1.65-2.45). The adjustment for socioeconomic characteristics and eating behaviors had minimal effect on the associations for abdominal pain (OR=1.34; 95% CI: 1.01-1.79), esophageal symptoms (OR=1.35; 95% CI: 1.03-1.78), and diarrhea (OR=1.86; 95% CI: 1.49-2.31); however, the association between obesity and dysmotility symptoms became non-significant. Obesity was not related to constipation. Obesity is an independent risk factor for abdominal pain, esophageal symptoms and diarrhea, but is not associated with dysmotility symptoms or constipation. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Economou, Marina; Angelopoulos, E; Peppou, Lily Evangelia; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Stefanis, Costas
Rises in unemployment as a corollary to the global economic crisis may impinge on the prevalence of depression disproportionally for the two genders. Therefore, differences in the prevalence of the disorder as a function of gender and age were explored in four nationwide surveys in Greece in 2008, 2009, 2011 and 2013. Results indicate that in 2013, men of productive age had a higher prevalence of major depression than women, in contrast to the epidemiology of the disorder. The psychiatry community should be in tune to future changes in the mental health landscape elicited by the social fermentation processes of the global recession. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Full Text Available Background & Aims: Regarding the increase in the misuse of anabolic steroids among young athletes particularly bodybuilding and power lifting athletes, this study aims to specify the degree of misuse prevalence anabolic steroid and the awareness of the side effects of such drugs among Karaj bodybuilders. Materials and Methods: This study is descriptive. All the bodybuilders of Karaj city was the participants of this research. The measurement instrument of this research was a questionnaire that contained 25 questions (7 questions were for background information, 9 questions were for awareness, 4 questions for attitudes about use of such drugs and the left 5 ones were for misuse prevalence that distributed among 320 bodybuilding athletes of different parts of Karaj. The response rate was 63.75% (240 persons from total 320 persons. At last, the current research output analyzed by the SPSS software and descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The analysis showed that 62.7% of athletes that participated in the research used such drugs. Also, the data analysis showed that there was a meaningful relationship between the sport histories of the involved participants with misuse prevalence (p0.05. In addition to this, data analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between misuse prevalence and wrong attitudes about anabolic steroid (p< 0.05. The comparison of the current study results about the misuse of anabolic steroid with a similar research at 1382 showed 140% increase in the misuse of these drugs. Conclusion: This study indicates the high use of anabolic steroids among bodybuilders. According to this, we understand that the bodybuilders in Karaj don’t consult with specialist in this field get wrong information from unprofessional people. This leads the high misuse of such drugs. So, it is recommended to hold the prevention programs and athletes training about the side effects of anabolic steroids.
Berstein, L M; Vasilyev, D A; Poroshina, T E; Kovalenko, I G
The steady increase in chronic "glycemic load" is characteristic for modern times. Among myriad of glucose functions, two principals can be emphasized: first, endocrine (in particular, ability to induce insulin secretion) and second, DNA-damaging related to formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It was suggested by us earlier that a shift in the ratio of mentioned functions reflects a possible "joker" role of glucose as an important modifier of human pathology. Therefore, we embarked on a study to investigate an individual effect of peroral glucose challenge on serum insulin level and ROS generation by mononuclears (luminol-dependent/latex-induced chemiluminescence) in 20 healthy people aged between 28-75. Concentrations of glucose, blood lipids, carbonylated proteins, malondialdehyde, leptin and TNF-alpha were determined as well. On the basis of received data two separate groups could be distinguished: one (n=8), in which glucose stimulation of ROS generation by mononuclears was increased and relatively prevailed over induction of insulin secretion (state of the so called glucose-induced genotoxicity, GIGT), and another (n=12), in which signs of GIGT were not revealed. People who belonged to the first group were characterized with a tendency to lower body mass index, blood leptin and cholesterol and to higher TNF-alpha concentration. Thus, if joker function of glucose is realized in "genotoxic mode", the phenotype (and probably genotype) of subjects may be rather distinctive to the one discovered in glucose-induced "endocrine prevalence". Whether such changes may serve as a pro-mutagenic or pro-endocrine basis for the rise of different chronic diseases or, rather, different features/aggressiveness of the same disease warrants further study.
Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale
Background: The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. Objectives: This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. Patients and Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged...
Karthik Nagaraj; Arun B Taly; Anupam Gupta; Chandrajit Prasad; Rita Christopher
Objective: This prospective study was carried out to observe the prevalence of fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and its effect on quality-of-life (QoL). Study Design and Setting: Prospective observational study in a University Tertiary Research Hospital in India. Patients and Methods: A total of 31 patients (25 females) with definite MS according to McDonald's criteria presented in out-patient/admitted in the Department of Neurology (between February 2010 and December 2011) we...
Frączek, Barbara; Warzecha, Maja; Tyrała, Florentyna; Pięta, Aleksandra
Athletic performance can be substantially enhanced with supplements and functional food which are considered by scientists as efficient, safe and legal, such as protein, carbohydrate and protein-carbohydrate supplements, isotonic sports drinks, carbohydrate-protein bars, carbohydrate bars, creatine and caffeine. The study is aimed at an analysis and evaluation of the prevalence of using effective ergogenic aids (creatine, caffeine, isotonic drinks, carbohydrates, and proteins) in a group of Polish professional athletes. The research was conducted on 600 athletes (216 women, 384 men) practicing various sports disciplines; the younger group (18-23 years old) consisted of 307 people, while the older one (24-35 years old) was comprised of 293 subjects. A questionnaire was used with questions concerning the frequency and types of consumed supplements. Nearly half of the athletes (48,2%) admitted to taking supplementation, of which 36.7% consumed the supplements occasionally and 11.5% continually. The majority of the group (75.4%) claimed to be consuming isotonic drinks, which were the most commonly chosen nutritional aid enhancing physical performance, most frequently supplementing the diet in a continuous manner (41.2%). The least frequently used supplement was creatine, chosen by only one in three interviewees (34,5%). The ergogenic aids were used more often by men than women (50.5% vs. 44.1%), and so were nutrients based on proteins (51.8% vs. 32.0%), carbohydrates (60.7% vs. 46.8%), protein-carbohydrates (45.6% vs. 32.9%), as well as creatine (39.8% vs. 25.0%). The studies showed the inessential difference in the frequency of taking supplementation based on the interviewees' age (0.4%). Competitors who use supplements over those who choose not to, seems to reflect the continuous lack of the athletes' sufficient awareness of the effectiveness, safety, and health benefits of dietary supplementation that enhances physical performance. supplements, dietary
Masson, A M; Cadot, M; Ansseau, M
perfectionism are described: SOP (Self Oriented Perfectionism) related to high standards and self criticism, SPP (Socially Prescribed Perfectionism) related to the need of approval from others and fear of negative evaluation, OOP (Other-Oriented Perfectionism) reflecting a tendency to set high expectations for others and to evaluate them in a demanding way; this component is related, especially for males, to self-esteem, hostility and authoritarianism. Validity and internal consistency have been established too (30, 31, 35). The Frost and al's Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Hewitt and Flett's scales are closely associated, except concerning the OOP. Because this component could provide new information, we have chosen the second scale, referring to the French translation and validation of Labrecque (45). EMP is the French name of MPS; it is a self-report questionnaire of 45 questions, in fact three subscales of 15 items rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale. MPS was administered to 617 first year students at the university of Liège (table II). Differences are considered according to gender and experience of failure i.e. the fact of repeating an academic year. We realized a component analysis with promax rotation. Among the different possibilities offered by the scree-test the choice of a 4 factor solution stresses the original structure: SOP (14 items), SPP (12 items), OOP (9 items) and anti OOP (10 items); the last one is additional but allows for respecting semantics and saturation of the items. The first aim of confirming validity and internal consistency is satisfactory. In other respects the multidimensional structure of the concept leads to consideration of a positive, adaptive perfectionism and a more negative perfectionism, facilitating psychopathology (59, 60, 61). So it seems interesting to compare the different components of MPS in order to find an eventual sex-failure effect. The evaluation of perfectionism is obvious, considering it as a personality
Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression are common among populations displaced due to large-scale political conflicts and war. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and gender-based differences in symptoms of PTSD and depression among Iraqi Yazidis displaced into Turkey. Method: The study was conducted on 238 individuals who were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I and the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire. Results: Of the participants, 42.9% met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD, 39.5% for major depression, and 26.4% for both disorders. More women than men suffered from PTSD and major depression. More women than men with PTSD or depression reported having experienced or witnessed the death of a spouse or child. Women with PTSD reported flashbacks, hypervigilance, and intense psychological distress due to reminders of trauma more frequently than men. Men with PTSD reported feelings of detachment or estrangement from others more frequently than women. More depressive women than men reported feelings of guilt or worthlessness. Conclusions: PTSD and major depression affected women more frequently than men. While women tended to respond to traumatic stress by undermodulation of emotions and low self-esteem, men tended to respond by overmodulation of emotions. Rather than being a derivative of sex differences, this complementary diversity in response types between genders seems to be shaped by social factors in consideration of survival under extreme threat.
Li, Yan; Lin, Peng; Fu, Xiaobing; Deng, Zhongming; Liu, Yongying; Huang, Guohua; Li, Jie; Tan, Yihe
The major mode of HIV/AIDS transmission in China is now heterosexual activities, but risk for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may differ among different strata of female sex workers (FSWs). Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 320 FSWs in Guangdong Province, China. The respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, and tested for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia. The street-based FSWs had lower education levels, a higher proportion supporting their families, charged less for their services, and had engaged in commercial sex for a longer period of time than establishment-based FSWs. The proportion consistently using condoms with clients and with regular non-paying partners was also lower. The prevalence of syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia was higher among street-based sex workers. Being a street-based sex worker, having regular non-paying sex partners, and having non-regular non-paying partners were independent risk factors for inconsistent condom. Street-based FSWs had more risk behaviors than establishment-based FSWs, and should therefore be specifically targeted for HIV as well as STD intervention programs. PMID:22228068
Maraz, Aniko; Eisinger, Andrea; Hende, Borbála; Urbán, Róbert; Paksi, Borbála; Kun, Bernadette; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Griffiths, Mark D; Demetrovics, Zsolt
Due to the problems of measurement and the lack of nationally representative data, the extent of compulsive buying behaviour (CBB) is relatively unknown. The validity of three different instruments was tested: Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale (ECBS; Edwards, E.A., 1993. Development of a new scale for measuring compulsive buying behaviour. Financial Counseling and Planning. 4, 67-85), Questionnaire About Buying Behavior (QABB; Lejoyeux, M., Ades, J., 1994. Les achats pathologiques: une addiction comportementale. Neuro-Psy. 9, 25-32.) and Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale (RCBS; Ridgway, N.M., Kukar-Kinney, M., Monroe, K.B., 2008. An expanded conceptualization and a new measure of compulsive buying. Journal of Consumer Research. 35, 622-639.) using two independent samples. One was nationally representative of the Hungarian population (N=2710) while the other comprised shopping mall customers (N=1447). As a result, a new, four-factor solution for the ECBS was developed (Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale Revised (ECBS-R)), and confirmed the other two measures. Additionally, cut-off scores were defined for all measures. Results showed that the prevalence of CBB is 1.85% (with QABB) in the general population but significantly higher in shopping mall customers (8.7% with ECBS-R, 13.3% with QABB and 2.5% with RCBS-R). Conclusively, due to the diversity of content, each measure identifies a somewhat different CBB group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thomas, F; Empana, J P; Charles, M A; Boutouyrie, P; Jouven, X; Pannier, B; Danchin, N
In epidemiological studies, recall of weight and height are not readily available at different ages of life. In order to improve the knowledge of the weight history, Sörensen et al. in 1983, developed a tool from silhouettes allowing an individual to evaluate his corpulence at different ages of life. Validity studies showed that measured weight and size were correlated to 80% in the reported silhouette. Studies have also shown that silhouettes are a good way to trace the weight history in an individual's life. Very few epidemiological studies have used this tool. A French study revealed a decrease of the risk of breast cancer in obese girls between the age of 8 and adolescence. Another study showed that a low birth weight or a thin silhouette before adulthood was associated with an increased risk of diabetes. On the basis of these findings, it was interesting to evaluate the relationship between the silhouette at 20years and the risk of hypertension at the age of 60years. It was shown that the prevalence of hypertension at age 60 was higher among obese subjects at 20years than among thin subjects (45.3% vs 36.7% (P<0.05). The classification between slimness and obesity is relevant using this tool. The history of corpulence is an important element to consider in the determinants of pathology, especially in hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Han, E; Powell, L M
To examine the extent to which various food prices were associated with the obesity status of young adults. Retrospective cohort study of 6537 men and 5324 women in the USA using panel data from the Monitoring the Future Surveys (1992-2003), which were merged with two food-at-home and one food-away-from-home price measures from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association. Longitudinal individual random effect and fixed effect models were estimated. This study found that food prices did not have a significant effect on the prevalence of obesity among young female adults. For young adult men, an individual random effect estimator suggested that a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with a 13.2% decrease in the probability of obesity, but this effect lost its economic and statistical significance once individual fixed effects were controlled for in the estimation. Overall, the results imply that observed time-varying individual characteristics, such as working status, marital status and school enrolment status, may over-ride the effect of changes in food prices for young adults. More research employing longitudinal data is necessary to determine if food subsidies or taxes, particularly soft drink and fast food taxes or subsidies for fruit and vegetables, could be effective policy measures to curtail the increasing prevalence of obesity among young adults. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holtz, Kaila A; Lipson, Rachel; Noonan, Vanessa K; Kwon, Brian K; Mills, Patricia B
To evaluate the prevalence and effect of spasticity after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Prospective cohort study of the Rick Hansen Spinal Cord Injury Registry (RHSCIR) and retrospective review of inpatient medical charts. Quaternary trauma center, rehabilitation center, and community settings. Individuals (N=860) with a traumatic SCI between March 1, 2005, and March 31, 2014, prospectively enrolled in the Vancouver site RHSCIR were eligible for inclusion. Not applicable. Questionnaires (Penn Spasm Frequency Scale, Spinal Cord Injury Health Questionnaire) and antispasticity medication use. In 465 patients, the prevalence of spasticity at community discharge was 65%, and the prevalence of problematic spasticity (defined as discharged on antispasticity medication) was 35%. Problematic spasticity was associated with cervicothoracic neurologic level and injury severity (Pspasticity treatment (ie, problematic spasticity) was 35% at 1 year, 41% at 2 years, and 31% at 5 years postinjury. Interference with function caused by spasticity was reported by 27% of patients at 1 year, 25% at 2 years, and 20% at 5 years postinjury. Patients with American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale grade C injuries had the highest prevalence of ongoing spasticity treatment and functional limitation. Spasticity is a highly prevalent secondary consequence of SCI, particularly in patients with severe motor incomplete cervicothoracic injuries. It is problematic in one third of all patients with SCI up to 5 years postinjury. One in 5 patients will have ongoing functional limitations related to spasticity, highlighting the importance of close community follow-up and the need for further research into spasticity management strategies. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tocci, Giuliano; Nati, Giulio; Cricelli, Claudio; Parretti, Damiano; Lapi, Francesco; Ferrucci, Andrea; Borghi, Claudio; Volpe, Massimo
Limited data are available on the impact of hypertension in the different regions or urban areas in Italy. To evaluate hypertension prevalence and control among adult outpatients followed by general practitioners (GPs) in different regions and macro-areas in our Country. We retrospectively analysed data extracted in 2013 from the national GP Health Search-CSD database and stratified into three groups, depending on their own regions (North, Center and South). Hypertension prevalence was estimated within the overall population sample of adult individuals, whereas control was assessed in hypertensive outpatients. Hypertension diagnosis was defined according to International Classification of Diseases 9. Clinic blood pressure (BP) levels were measured according to European guidelines. BP control was defined as BP analysis demonstrates relevant differences in hypertension prevalence and control among different macro-areas and regions in Italy. Such analysis may be useful for promoting strategies aimed at ameliorating hypertension control at local levels.
Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J
BACKGROUND: Women are more often admitted to hospital for asthma than men. A study was undertaken to determine whether this is caused by gender differences in the prevalence or severity of the disease. METHODS: Admissions to hospital for asthma in 13,540 subjects were followed from 1977 to 1993......% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.4). This increased risk was not due to misclassification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as asthma. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate gender-related differences in either the severity, perception, or management of asthma....
Becker, Stephen P; Jarrett, Matthew A; Luebbe, Aaron M; Garner, Annie A; Burns, G Leonard; Kofler, Michael J
To (1) describe sleep problems in a large, multi-university sample of college students; (2) evaluate sex differences; and (3) examine the unique associations of mental health symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention [ADHD-IN], ADHD hyperactivity-impulsivity [ADHD-HI]) in relation to sleep problems. 7,626 students (70% female; 81% White) ages 18-29 years (M=19.14, SD=1.42) from six universities completed measures assessing mental health symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A substantial minority of students endorsed sleep problems across specific sleep components. Specifically, 27% described their sleep quality as poor, 36% reported obtaining less than 7 hours of sleep per night, and 43% reported that it takes >30 minutes to fall asleep at least once per week. 62% of participants met cut-off criteria for poor sleep, though rates differed between females (64%) and males (57%). In structural regression models, both anxiety and depression symptoms were uniquely associated with disruptions in most PSQI sleep component domains. However, anxiety (but not depression) symptoms were uniquely associated with more sleep disturbances and sleep medication use, whereas depression (but not anxiety) symptoms were uniquely associated with increased daytime dysfunction. ADHD-IN symptoms were uniquely associated with poorer sleep quality and increased daytime dysfunction, whereas ADHD-HI symptoms were uniquely associated with more sleep disturbances and less daytime dysfunction. Lastly, ADHD-IN, anxiety, and depression symptoms were each independently associated with poor sleep status. This study documents a high prevalence of poor sleep among college students, some sex differences, and distinct patterns of mental health symptoms in relation to sleep problems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Yang, Mei; Mamy, Jules; Zhou, Liang; Liao, Yan-Hui; Wang, Qiang; Seewoobudul, Vasish; Xiao, Shui-Yuan; Hao, Wei
Little is known about gender difference in correlates of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) among drug users. To detect gender difference in correlates of ASPD in a Chinese heroin dependent sample. Structured interviews were conducted among 882 heroin dependent users in two compulsory isolation settings in Changsha, China. Descriptive statistics were employed to report sample characteristics by gender. Bivariate relationships were examined between co-occurring ASPD and variables measuring demographic, drug use, and psychiatric co-morbidities. Multivariate logistic regressions with stepwise forward method were conducted to determine independent predictors for co-occurring ASPD. All analyses examining correlates of co-occurring ASPD were conducted for the total, the male and the female participants respectively to detect both the common and the unique correlates of ASPD by gender. Of the total participants, 41.4% (54.2% of males and 15.4% of females) met the DSM-IV criteria of ASPD. For male participants, lower educational level, unemployment, unmarried, younger age at first heroin use, previous history of compulsory treatment, larger amounts of heroin used per day and poly-drug abuse during past month before admission, as well as psychiatric co-morbidities of lifetime major depressive disorder and borderline personality disorder were independent predictors for co-occurring ASPD; while for female participants, only three variables: younger age at first heroin use, paranoid personality disorder and borderline personality disorder were independent predictors for co-occurring ASPD. Gender differences in prevalence and correlates of ASPD among heroin dependent users were detected. The findings highlight a need for gender-specific interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Work, T M; Smith, M R
Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 microg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.
Ravinder N.M. Sehgal
Full Text Available Habitats are rapidly changing across the planet and the consequences will have major and long-lasting effects on wildlife and their parasites. Birds harbor many types of blood parasites, but because of their relatively high prevalence and ease of diagnosis, it is the haemosporidians – Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon – that are the best studied in terms of ecology and evolution. For parasite transmission to occur, environmental conditions must be permissive, and given the many constraints on the competency of parasites, vectors and hosts, it is rather remarkable that these parasites are so prevalent and successful. Over the last decade, a rapidly growing body of literature has begun to clarify how environmental factors affect birds and the insects that vector their hematozoan parasites. Moreover, several studies have modeled how anthropogenic effects such as global climate change, deforestation and urbanization will impact the dynamics of parasite transmission. This review highlights recent research that impacts our understanding of how habitat and environmental changes can affect the distribution, diversity, prevalence and parasitemia of these avian blood parasites. Given the importance of environmental factors on transmission, it remains essential that researchers studying avian hematozoa document abiotic factors such as temperature, moisture and landscape elements. Ultimately, this continued research has the potential to inform conservation policies and help avert the loss of bird species and threatened habitats.
Calhoun, Susan L; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O
Our population-based study examined the prevalence of insomnia symptoms and its sociodemographic, subjective, and polysomnographic (PSG) sleep risk factors in young and preadolescent children. We performed a cross-sectional study of 700 children, ages 5-12 years who underwent a 9-h PSG and parent-completed sleep and development questionnaires (Penn State Child Cohort). Insomnia symptoms were defined as parent report of difficulty falling or staying asleep and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) as an apnea hypopnea index of ≥1. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms was 19.3% and did not significantly change (20.2%) when children with SDB were excluded. A significant interaction between gender and age revealed that the prevalence of insomnia symptoms was highest in girls ages 11 to 12 years (30.6%). This gender difference was not associated with significant differences between girls and boys ages 11-12 years in anxiety and depressive symptoms. In contrast girls ages 11-12 years with insomnia symptoms, but not boys of the same group, demonstrated clinically significant PSG sleep disturbances compared to those without insomnia symptoms. These data suggest that one out of five young children and preadolescents of the general population have insomnia symptoms. Importantly, the prevalence of insomnia symptoms peaks in girls ages 11 to 12 years and is associated with objective sleep disturbances which may be related to hormonal changes associated with the onset of puberty rather than anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vukojevič, Mladenka; Antunovič, Andelka; Petrov, Božo
The aim of this study was to determine the difference in the prevalence of burnout syndrome in preclinical and clinical teaching doctors of Mostar School of Medicine in the academic year 2011/2012. Special attention was also focused on finding out the possible difference between the syndrome incidence that was correlated to gender and years of service. The main hypothesis was that the probability of burnout syndrome incidence was higher in the group of female clinical teaching doctors having more years of service. The study involved 62 people with high academic education employed at Mostar School of Medicine who were surveyed during a randomly selected consecutive 3-month period (February to May) of the academic year 2011/2012. The data were prospectively collected through a standardized questionnaire survey. The studied parameters were gender, years of work experience and the engagement in preclinical or clinical departments of the Medical School. The survey showed that 43 out of 62 (69.4%) respondents did not suffer the burnout syndrome, while moderate syndrome was recodred in 19 (30.6%) of them. No person had serious symptoms of the syndrome. The difference between the respondents who suffered the syndrome and those who did not was not statistically significant (P=0.002). Considering the gender of respondents, statistically significant differences were not confirmed (P=0.444). Considering the years of service, the highest incidence of the syndrome was found in people with more work experience (in the group of 21-25 years), but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant (P=0.271). Observing the work in preclinical and clinical departments, because of the limited number of patients we could not confirm the hypothesis. The syndrome had affected 13 (21%) clinical teaching doctors and 6 (9,7%) preclinical doctors, while the differenece between them was not statistically significant (P=0.054). Considering the results of this research, it has
Coloma-Carmona, A; Carballo, J L; Rodríguez-Marín, J; Pérez-Carbonell, A
To analyse the prevalence in the use and dependence on opioid drugs in the Spanish population with chronic pain and evaluate the differences according to sex. The demographic variables, opioid treatment characteristics and use of other substances were assessed in 229 users of opioid drugs. A descriptive bivariate analysis of the data was performed. Forty-six percent of the patients met the criteria of dependence on opioid drugs (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition [DSM-IV-TR]). Alcohol and cannabis consumption was greater in the men. The rates of dependence on the use of opioid drugs were significantly higher in the extended treatments. Planning for treatments with opioids and strategies for preventing inappropriate use should not depend on the patient's sex. We need further studies on the medical and psychological variables related to the use of and dependence on opioids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome (MetSyn places individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Prevalence rates of the population of the MetSyn are still scarce. Moreover, the impact of different definitions of the MetSyn on the prevalence is unclear. Aim here is to assess the prevalence of the MetSyn in primary health care and to investigate the impact of four different definitions of the MetSyn on the determined prevalence with regard to age, gender and socio-economic status. Methods The German-wide cross-sectional study was conducted during two weeks in October 2005 in 1.511 randomly selected general practices. Blood samples were analyzed, blood pressure and waist circumference assessed, data on lifestyle, medication, chronic disorders, and socio-demographic characteristics collected. MetSyn prevalence was estimated according to the definitions of NCEP ATP III (2001, AHA/NHLBI (2004, 2005, and IDF (2005. Descriptive statistics and prevalence rate ratios using the PROG GENMOD procedure, were calculated. Cohen's kappa was used as measure for interreliability between the different prevalence estimates. Results Data of 35,869 patients (age range: 18–99, women 61.1% were included. The prevalence was lowest using the NCEP ATP III- (all: 19.8%, men 22.7%, women: 18.0%, highest according to the IDF-definition (32.7%, 40.3%, 28.0%. The increase in prevalence with recent definitions was more pronounced for men than for women, and was particularly high for men and women aged 60–79 years. The IDF-definition resulted in a higher prevalence especially in those with the highest educational status. Agreement (kappa between the NCEP ATP III- and IDF-definition was 0.68 (men 0.61, women 0.74, between the updated the AHA/NHLBI- (2005 and IDF-definition 0.85 (men 0.79, women 0.89. Conclusion The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is associated with age, gender, and educational status and increases considerably with each
Romei, Cristina; Mariotti, Stefano; Fugazzola, Laura; Taccaliti, Augusto; Pacini, Furio; Opocher, Giuseppe; Mian, Caterina; Castellano, Maurizio; degli Uberti, Ettore; Ceccherini, Isabella; Cremonini, Nadia; Seregni, Ettore; Orlandi, Fabio; Ferolla, Piero; Puxeddu, Efisio; Giorgino, Francesco; Colao, Annamaria; Loli, Paola; Bondi, Fabio; Cosci, Barbara; Bottici, Valeria; Cappai, Antonello; Pinna, Giovanni; Persani, Luca; Verga, Uberta; Uberta, Verga; Boscaro, Marco; Castagna, Maria Grazia; Cappelli, Carlo; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Francia, Giuseppe; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Falchetti, Alberto; Pinchera, Aldo; Elisei, Rossella
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is a genetic disease characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) associated (MEN 2A and 2B) or not familial MTC (FMTC) with other endocrine neoplasia due to germline RET gene mutations. The prevalence of these rare genetic diseases and their corresponding RET mutations are unknown due to the small size of the study population. We collected data on germline RET mutations of 250 families with hereditary MTC followed in 20 different Italian centres. The most frequent RET amino acid substitution was Val804Met (19.6%) followed by Cys634Arg (13.6%). A total of 40 different germline RET mutations were present. Six families (2.4%) were negative for germline RET mutations. The comparison of the prevalence of RET germline mutations in the present study with those published by other European studies showed a higher prevalence of Val804Met and Ser891Ala mutations and a lower prevalence of Leu790Phe and Tyr791Phe (P<0.0001). A statistically significant higher prevalence of mutations affecting non-cysteine codons was also found (P<0.0001). Furthermore, the phenotype data collection showed an unexpected higher prevalence of FMTC (57.6%) with respect to other MEN 2 syndromes (34% MEN 2A and 6.8% of MEN 2B). In conclusion, we observed a statistically significant different pattern of RET mutations in Italian MEN 2 families with respect to other European studies and a higher prevalence of FMTC phenotype. The different ethnic origins of the patients and the particular attention given to analysing apparently sporadic MTC for RET germline mutations may explain these findings.
Yang, Xin; Yu, XiaoDan; Fu, HuanHuan; Li, LuanLuan; Ren, TianHong
Either deficient or excessive of essential nutrients had adverse effects. Effects of different levels of prenatal zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) on fetal neurobehavioral development remain unclear. To determine the effects of different cord serum levels of Zn and Se on neurobehavioral development in neonates and to explore possible threshold level of Zn and Se based on fetal neurodevelopment, we conducted this epidemiological research. In the multi-center study, we investigated these questions in 927 mother-newborn pairs in Shanghai, China, from 2008 through 2009. Umbilical cord serum concentrations of Zn and Se were measured and Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment (NBNA) tests were conducted. The median cord serum Zn and Se concentrations were 794.3 μg/L and 63.1 μg/L, respectively. A nonlinear relationship was observed between cord serum Zn and NBNA after adjusting for potential confounders. NBNA score decreased with increasing Zn levels after 794.3 μg/L (adjusted β=-3.0, 95% CI: -3.6 to -2.4, p<0.001). Additionally, an invert U-shape with a threshold Se of 100 μg/L was observed between cord serum Se and NBNA. The adjusted regression coefficient was 4.4 (95% CI: 3.6-5.2, p<0.001) for Se<100 μg/L while -3.6 (95% CI: -6.1 to -1.1, p<0.01) for Se≥100 μg/L. Of the 927 infants, 50% had a high level Zn (≥794.3 μg/L) and 8.6% had a high level Se (≥100 μg/L). High levels of both Zn and Se mainly had adverse effects on behavior and passive tone (p<0.001). Taken together, our study suggested that a threshold of cord blood Zn and Se was existed for fetal neurodevelopment and the prevalence of excessive Zn was high. Thus, the supplementation of Zn during pregnancy should be considered with caution in Shanghai, China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bakir M Adel; Hammad Kholoud; Mohammad Loreen
The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing globally in both developing and developed countries, especially, those with rapid cultural and social changes. The aims of current study were twofold: (a) to examine, for the first time in Syria, the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity in Syrian women and obesity-related socio-demographic determinants, and (b) to establish a base line data about obesity related determinants needed to develop appropriate treatment and pre...
Palermo, Andrea; Jacques, Richard; Gossiel, Fatma; Reid, David M; Roux, Christian; Felsenberg, Dieter; Glueer, Claus-C; Eastell, Richard
There are no consistent data on the prevalence and bone status of normocalcaemic hypoparathyroidism (NHYPO) as defined by normal adjusted calcium and low PTH level. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and the metabolic bone profile of NHYPO in older women, assessing its evolution over time. The second objective was to evaluate the prevalence of other calcium metabolic disorders. The Osteoporosis and Ultrasound Study (OPUS) is a 6-yr prospective study of fracture-related factors. A total of 2419 older women (age 55-79 yrs) and 258 younger women (age 30-40 yrs) participated. Complete follow-up data were available in 1416 subjects. After calculating the adjusted calcium according to James' formula, we identified 'abnormal' calcium and PTH using Mahalanobis distances and allocated older women into different pathological categories using reference intervals from the healthy young women. We identified 57 subjects with NHYPO (2·4%). These women had lower than expected bone turnover as assessed by bone alkaline phosphatase (-14·5%, 95% CI: -26·2 to -3·0, P = 0·007), CTX (-66·3%, 95% CI: -74·0 to -56·4, P hypoparathyroidism and only 15 (0·6%) subjects had persistent evidence of NHYPO. We also identified 86 subjects (3·6%) affected by hyperparathyroid hypercalcaemia. This is the first large population-based study to investigate NHYPO in older women. NHYPO is fairly common, not always persistent and is characterized by low bone turnover. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Atari, Dominic Odwa
Tobacco use is one of the leading and preventable causes of global morbidities and premature mortalities. The study explores gender differences in the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among school-aged adolescents (11-17 years) in Sudan and South Sudan. The study utilized the national Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data collected in 2005 for Sudan (4,277 unweighted; 131,631 weighted). Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted to examine the associations between the dependent (tobacco use status) and independent variables. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the key factors which influence tobacco consumption among adolescents in the 2 Sudans for ever cigarette users, current cigarette users, and users of noncigarette tobacco products. There were significant gender differences in the prevalence of ever cigarette users (21.8%; male=13.1%, female=6.5%, p<0.05) and current cigarette users (6.9%; male=4.9%, female = 1.3%, p<0.05) but not among users of noncigarette tobacco products (14.7%; male=6.8%, female=6.1%). Adolescent tobacco use was significantly associated with availability of monthly income or allowance, exposure to tobacco industry promotions, and tobacco-use behavior of familial relations. Knowledge about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke was related with decreased likelihood of tobacco use. School programs that focus on health messages alone may not work for the adolescent population. Legislations that ban all types of tobacco advertisements, promotions, and sponsorships among adolescents are needed in the 2 countries.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin – II" (ARBAO-II was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146 for the period 2003–2005, with the aim to establish a continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility among veterinary laboratories in European countries based on validated and harmonised methodologies. Available summary data of the susceptibility testing of the bacterial pathogens from the different laboratories were collected. Method Antimicrobial susceptibility data for several bovine pathogens were obtained over a three year period (2002–2004. Each year the participating laboratories were requested to fill in excel-file templates with national summary data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance from different bacterial species. A proficiency test (EQAS – external quality assurance system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted each year to test the accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the participating laboratories. The data from this testing demonstrated that for the species included in the EQAS the results are comparable between countries. Results Data from 25,241 isolates were collected from 13 European countries. For Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis major differences were apparent in the occurrence of resistance between countries and between the different antimicrobial agents tested. The highest frequency of resistance was observed for penicillin. For Mannheimia haemolytica resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphonamide were observed in France, the Netherlands and Portugal. All isolates of Pasteurella multocida isolated in Finland and most of those from Denmark, England (and Wales, Italy and Sweden were susceptible to the majority of the antimicrobials. Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis isolates from Sweden were fully susceptible. For the other countries some resistance was observed to
Sady, Hany; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lim, Yvonne A L; Mahmud, Rohela; Surin, Johari
Schistosomiasis, one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, is a life-threatening public health problem in Yemen especially in rural communities. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of schistosomiasis among children in rural Yemen. Urine and faecal samples were collected from 400 children. Urine samples were examined using filtration technique for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs while faecal samples were examined using formalin-ether concentration and Kato Katz techniques for the presence of S. mansoni. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information were collected via a validated questionnaire. Overall, 31.8% of the participants were found to be positive for schistosomiasis; 23.8% were infected with S. haematobium and 9.3% were infected with S. mansoni. Moreover, 39.5% of the participants were anaemic whereas 9.5% had hepatosplenomegaly. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was significantly higher among children aged >10 years compared to those aged ≤ 10 years (PYemen. These findings support an urgent need to start an integrated, targeted and effective schistosomiasis control programme with a mission to move towards the elimination phase. Besides periodic drug distribution, health education and community mobilisation, provision of clean and safe drinking water, introduction of proper sanitation are imperative among these communities in order to curtail the transmission and morbidity caused by schistosomiasis. Screening and treating other infected family members should also be adopted by the public health authorities in combating this infection in these communities.
Cao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping; He, Zhiqing; Yang, Jing; Liang, Chun; Ren, Yusheng; Wu, Zonggui
Current study was designed to investigate the effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) combined dyslipidemia on the prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD). This was a cross-sectional study and subjects with documented dyslipidemia and without previous diagnosis of OSA were enrolled. Polysomnography was applied to evaluate apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Based on AHI value, subjects were classified into four groups: without OSA, mild, moderate and severe OSA groups. Clinical characteristics and laboratory examination data were recorded. Relationship between AHI event and lipid profiles was analyzed, and logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of OSA combined dyslipidemia on ASCVD prevalence. Totally 248 subjects with dyslipidemia were enrolled. Compared to the other 3 groups, subjects with severe OSA were older, male predominant and had higher smoking rate. In addition, subjects with severe OSA had higher body mass index, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, and higher rates of overweight and obesity. Serum levels of fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, LDL-C and CRP were all significantly higher. ASCVD prevalence was considerably higher in subjects with severe OSA. AHI event in the severe OSA group was up to 35.4 ± 5.1 events per hour which was significantly higher than the other groups (P dyslipidemia plus no-OSA group (reference group), OSA enhanced ASCVD risk in subjects with dyslipidemia, regardless of OSA severity. After extensively adjusted for confounding variables, the odds of dyslipidemia plus mild-OSA was reduced to insignificance. While the effects of moderate- and severe-OSA on promoting ASCVD risk in subjects with dyslipidemia remained significant, with severe-OSA most prominent (odds ratio: 1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.02). OSA combined dyslipidemia conferred additive adverse effects on cardiovascular system, with severe-OSA most prominent.
Sarici, Hasmet; Ozgur, Berat Cem; Telli, Onur; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Eroglu, Muzaffer; Bozkurt, Selen
To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of overactive bladder syndrome and urinary incontinence in Turkish women; furthermore, to assess the impact on the quality of life. A cross-sectional, epidemiological study was carried out in women of reproductive age to define overactive bladder syndrome, urinary incontinence, ICIQ-SF score and medical care seeking. The women's average age was 34.4 ± 5.26 years. The prevalence of UI was 26.9%. Stress UI was the predominant form. The prevalence of UI increased with age, BMI, number of pregnancies and children delivered. The prevalence of OAB was 20.7%. Women with OAB were older and had greater number of pregnancies than women without OAB. History of nocturnal enuresis was a significant risk factor for OAB and UUI. Women with MUI had more frequent and more abundant leakage of urine. 10.7% of women sought medical care for their condition. Although prevalence estimates differ across studies, the available evidence indicates that UI and OAB are highly prevalent conditions among women. UI had negative effect on QoL, but only severely-affected women sought medical care. Public health and clinical management programs are needed to determine diagnosis and management of these social problems.
Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, is a life-threatening public health problem in Yemen especially in rural communities. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of schistosomiasis among children in rural Yemen.Urine and faecal samples were collected from 400 children. Urine samples were examined using filtration technique for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs while faecal samples were examined using formalin-ether concentration and Kato Katz techniques for the presence of S. mansoni. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information were collected via a validated questionnaire. Overall, 31.8% of the participants were found to be positive for schistosomiasis; 23.8% were infected with S. haematobium and 9.3% were infected with S. mansoni. Moreover, 39.5% of the participants were anaemic whereas 9.5% had hepatosplenomegaly. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was significantly higher among children aged >10 years compared to those aged ≤ 10 years (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis confirmed that presence of other infected family member (P<0.001, low household monthly income (P = 0.003, using unsafe sources for drinking water (P = 0.003, living nearby stream/spring (P = 0.006 and living nearby pool/pond (P = 0.002 were the key factors significantly associated with schistosomiasis among these children.This study reveals that schistosomiasis is still highly prevalent in Yemen. These findings support an urgent need to start an integrated, targeted and effective schistosomiasis control programme with a mission to move towards the elimination phase. Besides periodic drug distribution, health education and community mobilisation, provision of clean and safe drinking water, introduction of proper sanitation are imperative among these communities in order to curtail the transmission and morbidity caused by schistosomiasis. Screening and treating other infected
Full Text Available Background: Assess the prevalence of herpesviruses in healthy subjects, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis patients, to assess the relationship between the prevalence of herpesviruses and periodontal clinical parameters, and to evaluate the effect of phase-I therapy on the level of viral detection. Materials and Methods: Hundred patients consisting of 20 healthy subjects, 40 gingivitis, and 40 chronic periodontitis were included in the study. Clinical parameters recorded included plaque index, gingival index, sulcus bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level. The gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients received phase-I periodontal therapy including oral hygiene instructions, full mouth scaling for gingivitis patients and scaling and root planing for chronic periodontitis patients. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF was collected, and the presence of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1, HSV-2, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Recording of periodontal parameters as well as GCF collection was performed at baseline and 6 weeks postphase-I therapy. Results: At baseline, the levels of HSV-1 and EBV detection were lower in healthy controls as compared to gingivitis (P < 0.05 and chronic periodontitis cases (P < 0.001. Phase-I therapy led to reduction in the amount of HSV-1 and EBV in gingivitis patients (P < 0.05 and for HSV-1, human cytomegalovirus and EBV in chronic periodontitis patients (P < 0.05 in comparison to baseline. The prevalence of EBV in chronic periodontitis patients was positively associated with increased gingival index, probing depth and loss of clinical attachment (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Higher prevalence of HSV-1 and EBV viruses in GCF of gingivitis and chronic periodontitis suggests a strong association between these viruses and periodontal diseases and periodontal therapy can lead to a reduction in herpesviruses at infected sites.
Bjereld, Y; Daneback, K; Petzold, M
Bullying among children is a problem with severe consequences for the victim. The present study examined parent-reported bullying victimization among children in the Nordic countries at two points in time, 1996 and 2011, and studied differences in prevalence of bullying victimization between immigrant and native children. Data came from the parent-reported NordChild, carried out in the Nordic countries in 1996 and 2011. NordChild is a serial cross-sectional comparative study. A total of 7107 children aged 7-13 were included in the analyses. The prevalence of bullying victimization in the total Nordic countries was lower in 2011 (19.2%) than 1996 (21.7%). Difference in prevalence of bullying victimization was found both between native and immigrant children, and between countries. The largest difference in prevalence of bullying victimization was measured in Sweden 2011, where 8.6% of the native children were bullied, to be compared with the 27.8% of the immigrant children. Immigrant children had higher odds to be bullied than native children in Norway, Sweden and in the total Nordic countries at both measurements, also when adjusted for potentially confounding factors. The higher prevalence of bullying victimization among immigrant children should be taken into consideration in the design and development of preventive work against bullying. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Carlos PEÑA SALAZAR
Full Text Available There are a few studies in the literature analyzing the prevalence of mental illness in people with intellectual disabilities (ID. This study explores the prevalence of mental disorders in adults without previous mental disorder and different degrees of ID. We assessed 142 individuals with varying degrees of ID and with unknown previous psychiatric disorder. We applied the diagnostic battery PAS-ADD based on criteria ICD-10 and DSM-IV TR to analyzed the prevalence of mental disorders in people with mild / moderate ID. We applied the Spanish version of the scale DASH-II to analyze the prevalence of mental disorders in people with severe and profound ID. We found a psychiatric disorder previously undiagnosed in 29.57% of our sample. In people with mild/ moderate ID the most common psychiatric disorder was depressive disorder (33.3%, but in people with severe and profound ID was the anxiety disorder. The most prevalent medical comorbidity was epilepsy (22.5% of the total sample and 39.2% in the population with severe / profound intellectual disabilities. Psychiatric disorders seem to be more common in the population with ID than in the general population, increasing their prevalence and medical comorbidity in severe and profound ID.
Agudelo, Gloria M; Bedoya, Gabriel; Estrada, Alejandro; Patiño, Fredy A; Muñoz, Angelica M; Velásquez, Claudia M
Despite the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents, there is no consensus for its diagnosis. A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents by different definitions, evaluate their concordance, and suggest which definition to apply in this population. A total of 851 adolescents between 10 and 18 years of age were evaluated. Anthropometric (weight, height, waist circumference), biochemical (glucose, lipid profile), and blood pressure data were taken. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was determined by the definitions of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and four published studies by Cook et al., de Ferranti et al., Agudelo et al., and Ford et al. Concordance was determined according to the kappa index. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 0.9%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 10.5%, and 11.4%, according to the IDF, Cook et al., Ford et al., Agudelo et al., and de Ferranti et al. definitions, respectively. The most prevalent components were hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, whereas the least prevalent components were abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia. The highest concordance was found between the definitions by Cook et al. and Ford et al. (kappa=0.92), whereas the greatest discordance was between the de Ferranti et al. and IDF definitions (kappa=0.14). Metabolic syndrome and its components were conditions present in the adolescents of this study. In this population, with a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and a lower prevalence of abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia, the recommendation to diagnose metabolic syndrome would be that used by Ford et al.
Nefedchenko, Alexey V; Glotova, Tatyana I; Glotov, Alexander G; Ternovoy, Vladimir A; Sementsova, Alexandra O
Pasteurella multocida is among the most important respiratory pathogens of cattle. Outer-membrane protein (OmpH) constitutes an essential bacterial antigen and is well studied in avian bacterial strains. Studies on isolates from cattle with signs of respiratory disease caused by Pasteurella multocida serotypes A and D have not yet been covered in the literature. The objective of this study was a comparative analysis of the ompH gene sequences from 83 isolates and four Russian reference strains of P. multocida to assign them to the allelic variants of the gene (OmpH-types). In addition, the above P. multocida strains have been characterized on the basis of capsular serotypes and virulence-associated genes. The isolates were classified into the OmpH -types based on allele specific PCR and gene fragment sequencing. The isolates of capsular serotype A have been subdivided into 6 OmpH -types, of which the most common types identified were A1 and A2. All capsular serotype D isolates belong to the same OmpH-type (D1). On 16 of a total of 23 farms all isolates belong to only one OmpH-type, on 4 farms - to 2, and on 3 farms - to three OmpH-types. The tbpA and pfhA genes were found more often in the isolates of capsular group А as compared to capsular group D (p ≤ 0.05). OmpH-types of serogroup А differ significantly (p ≤ 0.05) among themselves by the prevalence of the pfhA and hgbB genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background & Objective: The immune system of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS is weekend because of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, and they become vulnerable to several opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens and different carcinomas. IV drug abuse, sexual contact, occupational transmission, blood transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission are well known transmission routes for HIV infection. This study was under taken to investigate the prevalence of HIV transmission routs in the HIV infected population of Sirjan, and their knowledge about the disease, in order to plan better preventive strategies. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was planned. During a 6-month period in 2010, all of the HIV infected people in Sirjan (old and new cases who had a file at the consultation center for high risk behavior, completed a valid and reliable questionnaire. Results: The definite route of transmission was not clear in any of the patients because they had more than one suspicious route. Injected drug abusers were the most common (88.4% followed by those who got tattoos (79.1%, invasive therapeutic procedures, dentistry, surgery and endoscopy (56.1%, high risk sexual behavior (62.8%, bloodletting (9.3%, injuries in the barbershop (9.3% and blood transfusion (2.3%. Conclusion: All of the HIV infected cases in Sirjan were involved with several high risk behaviors, but the major route of transmission, similar to other parts of the country was injected drug abuse. Educational programs for prevention of AIDS should be followed seriously and special attention should be paid to groups with multiple high risk behaviors.
Jan 1, 2009 ... the urban markets. Cabbage is one of the priority vegetable crops in the diet of the Seychelles people. (Grubben, 1997). Poultry manure, an efficient ... Planting holes measuring 6.0 cm depth were dug at a spacing of 50 cm x 50 cm between and within rows in each treatment plot. DPM at the different rates of ...
Buser, T.; Peter, N.
We examine how multitasking affects performance and check whether women are indeed better at multitasking. Subjects in our experiment perform two different tasks according to three treatments: one where they perform the tasks sequentially, one where they are forced to multitask, and one where they
Walch, Katharina; Kernstock, Tamara; Poschalko-Hammerle, Gunda; Gleiß, Andreas; Staudigl, Christine; Wenzl, René
In addition to dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and subfertility, pain in the lower extremities has been described to be a further complaint in women affected by endometriosis, and lysis of nerve entrapment was thought to be associated with amelioration of leg pain. Therefore, we aimed to compare the prevalence of cyclic leg pain and pain intensity between women with endometriosis and without endometriosis, and to evaluate the effect of laparoscopic surgery. Forty-four women with endometriosis and 58 controls were included in a prospective, controlled clinical trial at a University hospital/tertiary referral center. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires the day before and six to nine weeks after laparoscopy. The prevalence and intensity of leg pain and improvement after laparoscopic surgery, quantified according to a visual analog scale (VAS) score, were evaluated. We also recorded involvement of dermatomes, the presence and intensity of dysmenorrhea, and correlations between age, stage of endometriosis (rAFS-score), and preoperative VAS scores. Before surgery, more women were affected by leg pain in the endometriosis group, compared to the control group (45.5% and 25.9%, respectively). Preoperative VAS scores for leg pain, however, were not significantly different between the two groups. A moderate correlation in the preoperative VAS scores between leg pain and dysmenorrhea was observed. After laparoscopy, we found a significant improvement in leg pain intensity in both groups. The mean difference in the VAS score for pain reduction between the study group and the control group was 0.74 (95% CI: -0.61-2.08), which was not statistically significant. The prevalence of leg pain is increased in endometriosis, while leg pain intensity is not, compared to women without endometriosis. Laparoscopic surgery-even without preparation and decompression of nerve tissue-is associated with an improvement in pain intensity in women with endometriosis, as well as in the
Ploetz, Randy C; Konkol, Joshua L; Narvaez, Teresa; Duncan, Rita E; Saucedo, Ramon J; Campbell, Alina; Mantilla, Julio; Carrillo, Daniel; Kendra, Paul E
We summarize the information available on ambrosia beetle species that have been associated in Florida with Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva, the primary symbiont of Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff and cause of laurel wilt. In total, 14 species in Ambrosiodmus, Euwallacea, Premnobius, Xyleborus, Xyleborinus, and Xylosandrus were either reared from laurel wilt-affected host trees or trapped in laurel wilt-affected stands of the same, and assayed for R. lauricola. In six collections from native species in the southeastern United States [Persea borbonia (L.), Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg., and Persea humilis Nash] and four from avocado (Persea americana Mill.), extracted mycangia or heads (taxa with mandibular mycangia) or intact bodies (taxa with mycangia in other locations) were surface-disinfested before assays on a semi-selective medium for the isolation of Raffaelea (CSMA+). Raffaelea lauricola was identified based on its characteristic phenotype on CSMA+, and the identity of a random subset of isolates was confirmed with taxon-specific microsatellite markers. The pathogen was recovered from 34% (246 of 726) of the individuals that were associated with the native Persea spp., but only 6% (58 of 931) of those that were associated with avocado. Over all studies, R. lauricola was recovered from 10 of the ambrosia beetle species, but it was most prevalent in Xyleborus congeners. This is the first record of R. lauricola in Ambrosiodmus lecontei Hopkins, Xyleborinus andrewesi (Blandford), and Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff. The potential effects of R. lauricola's promiscuity are discussed. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Williams Brian G
Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic has caused a dramatic increase in tuberculosis (TB in East and southern Africa. Several strategies have the potential to reduce the burden of TB in high HIV prevalence settings, and cost and cost-effectiveness analyses can help to prioritize them when budget constraints exist. However, published cost and cost-effectiveness studies are limited. Methods Our objective was to compare the cost, affordability and cost-effectiveness of seven strategies for reducing the burden of TB in countries with high HIV prevalence. A compartmental difference equation model of TB and HIV and recent cost data were used to assess the costs (year 2003 US$ prices and effects (TB cases averted, deaths averted, DALYs gained of these strategies in Kenya during the period 2004–2023. Results The three lowest cost and most cost-effective strategies were improving TB cure rates, improving TB case detection rates, and improving both together. The incremental cost of combined improvements to case detection and cure was below US$15 million per year (7.5% of year 2000 government health expenditure; the mean cost per DALY gained of these three strategies ranged from US$18 to US$34. Antiretroviral therapy (ART had the highest incremental costs, which by 2007 could be as large as total government health expenditures in year 2000. ART could also gain more DALYs than the other strategies, at a cost per DALY gained of around US$260 to US$530. Both the costs and effects of treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (TLTI for HIV+ individuals were low; the cost per DALY gained ranged from about US$85 to US$370. Averting one HIV infection for less than US$250 would be as cost-effective as improving TB case detection and cure rates to WHO target levels. Conclusion To reduce the burden of TB in high HIV prevalence settings, the immediate goal should be to increase TB case detection rates and, to the extent possible, improve TB cure rates, preferably
Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil
sensitization and nickel sensitization. A random sample of adults (n=3460) from the general population of Copenhagen was invited to participate in a general health examination including patch-testing. Alcohol consumption was not associated with nickel sensitization, whereas a significant trend (p......There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...
Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil
There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...... sensitization and nickel sensitization. A random sample of adults (n=3460) from the general population of Copenhagen was invited to participate in a general health examination including patch-testing. Alcohol consumption was not associated with nickel sensitization, whereas a significant trend (p...
The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...
Nandrup, Anne Brink
This paper contributes to the class size literature by analysing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enrolled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class size cap that creates exogenous variation in…
Using stool antigen to screen for Helicobacter pylori in immigrants and refugees from high prevalence countries is relatively cost effective in reducing the burden of gastric cancer and peptic ulceration.
Thomas R Schulz
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Refugees and immigrants from developing countries settling in industrialised countries have a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. Screening these groups for H. pylori and use of eradication therapy to reduce the future burden of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease is not currently recommended in most countries. We investigated whether a screening and eradication approach would be cost effective in high prevalence populations. METHODS: Nine different screening and follow-up strategies for asymptomatic immigrants from high H. pylori prevalence areas were compared with the current approach of no screening. Cost effectiveness comparisons assumed population prevalence's of H. pylori of 25%, 50% or 75%. The main outcome measure was the net cost for each cancer prevented for each strategy. Total costs of each strategy and net costs including savings from reductions in ulcers and gastric cancer were also calculated. RESULTS: Stool antigen testing with repeat testing after treatment was the most cost effective approach relative to others, for each prevalence value. The net cost per cancer prevented with this strategy was US$111,800 (assuming 75% prevalence, $132,300 (50% and $193,900 (25%. A test and treat strategy using stool antigen remained relatively cost effective, even when the prevalence was 25%. CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori screening and eradication can be an effective strategy for reducing rates of gastric cancer and peptic ulcers in high prevalence populations and our data suggest that use of stool antigen testing is the most cost effective approach.
Full Text Available Aims: When facing illness, a person may choose self-treatment as an alternative to hospital (and primary care-based treatment. Despite its important role in healthcare, the study on self-treatment remains limited. The goal is to collectively report the observations in the literature on the prevalence, characteristics, and effects of self-treatment.Methods: Extensive literature search was conducted, and relevant information was extracted.Results: Published studies have reported that in some regions, the prevalence of self-treatment is high and varies across illness conditions and treatment approaches. Self-medication is the most popular self-treatment approach. Multiple regional, demographic, personal, cultural and religious factors have been implicated in the pursuit of self-treatment. In addition, accessibility of healthcare also plays a role. Self-treatment in general has a positive clinical and financial effect. However there have been concerns on abuse and possible negative effects. Conclusions: This article reviews observations made in recent studies on several important aspects of self-treatment. Comprehensive and systematic study is still lacking. Interventions are needed to solve several problems associated with self-treatment.
Thacker, Evan L; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Pulley, LeaVonne; Safford, Monika M; Howard, George; Howard, Virginia J
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is diagnosed more commonly in whites than blacks in the United States. In epidemiologic studies, selection bias could induce a noncausal positive association of white race with prevalent AF if voluntary enrollment was influenced by both race and AF status. We investigated whether nonrandom enrollment biased the association of race with prevalent self-reported AF in the US-based REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke Study (REGARDS). REGARDS had a two-stage enrollment process, allowing us to compare 30,183 fully enrolled REGARDS participants with 12,828 people who completed the first-stage telephone survey but did not complete the second-stage in-home visit to finalize their REGARDS enrollment (telephone-only participants). REGARDS enrollment was higher among whites (77.1%) than among blacks (62.3%) but did not differ by self-reported AF status. The prevalence of AF was 8.45% in whites and 5.86% in blacks adjusted for age, sex, income, education, and perceived general health. The adjusted white/black prevalence ratio of self-reported AF was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.32-1.56) among REGARDS participants and 1.38 (1.22-1.55) among telephone-only participants. These findings suggest that selection bias is not a viable explanation for the higher prevalence of self-reported AF among whites in population studies such as REGARDS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maria K Smatti
Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis. EBV is highly prevalent lymphotropic herpesvirus and has been linked to several malignancies. Transmission is generally by oral secretions, but can be through blood transfusions and organ transplantations. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, viremia rates, and circulating genotypes of EBV in healthy blood donors in Qatar.Blood samples from 673 blood donors of different nationalities residing in Qatar (mainly Qatar, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Pakistan, and India were collected and tested for anti-EBV capsid (VCA; IgG & IgM, nuclear (EBNA; IgG, and early (EA-D; IgG antigens. Avidity testing was determined when active infection was suspected. DNA was extracted from the buffy coat and subjected to EBV-DNA quantification using qRT-PCR. Genotyping was performed using nested-PCR targeting EBV-EBNA2 gene, and phylogeny by sequence analysis of the LMP-1 gene.97.9% (673/659 of the samples were seropositive as indicated by the presence VCA-IgG, while 52.6% (354/673 had detectible EBV-DNA. EBV seroprevalence and viremia rates increased significantly with age. Genotyping of 51 randomly selected samples showed predominance of Genotype 1 (72.5%, 37/51 as compared to genotype 2 (3.5%, and mixed infections were detected in 4% of the samples. Sub-genotyping for these samples revealed that the Mediterranean strain was predominant (65.3%, followed by B95.8 prototype and North Carolina strains (12.2% each, and China1 strain (6%.As a first study to evaluate EBV infection in highly diverse population in Qatar, where expatriates represent more than 85% of the population, our results indicated high seroprevalence and viremia rate of EBV in different nationalities, with genotype 1 and Mediterranean strain being predominant. Clinical significance of these finding have not been investigated and shall be evaluated in future studies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Han and Mongolian populations constitute approximately 96 % of the population of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and the two ethnic groups have different genetic backgrounds and lifestyle. We aim to assess the prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and related risk factors of hypertension among urban adults in Inner Mongolia, with the comparison of the differences between Mongolian and Han populations in this respect. Methods Three thousand two hundred fifty-one individuals aged 20–80 years (2326 Han and 925 Mongolian were selected using a multistage cluster sampling method from Inner Mongolia in 2014. The adjusted prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were evaluated by the Logistic regression. In addition, possible interactions were also tested. When interactions were found significant, strata-specific analysis were performed. Multivariate logistic regression was used for estimating independent associations between risk factors and hypertension. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 27.47 % for Han population, 31.46 % for Mongolian population. The adjusted prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were 26.45, 65.43, 78.24 and 48.28 % in Han, and 31.30, 68.22, 85.57 and 50.55 % in Mongolian, respectively. There was no significant difference in the adjusted awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among Mongolian and Han adult residents (all P >0.05. Lower prevalence of hypertension was associated with younger age and healthy weight in both Mongolian and Han adults. Within Han adults, high education, moderate physical activity and non-alcohol drinkers were additionally associated with lower prevalence of hypertension, whereas within Mongolian adults, lower prevalence was associated with being female. Among residents with medium education level, nondrinkers had 0.60 times lower odds of having hypertension than current drinkers (OR = 0.60, 95 % CI: 0.44–0
Aghilinejad, M; Bahrami-Ahmadi, A; Kabir-Mokamelkhah, E; Sarebanha, S; Hosseini, H R; Sadeghi, Z
Many workers suffer from low-back pain. Type and severity of spinal complaints have relationship with work load. Lack of adherence to ergonomics recommendations among the important causes of low-back pain. To assess the effect of 3 ergonomics training programs on the prevalence of lowback pain among workers of an Iranian automobile factory. In a parallel-design 4-arm randomized clinical trial, 760 active workers of an automobile factory were studied. 503 workers were found eligible and randomized into 3 intervention groups (n=252), and a control group (n=251). The intervention groups consisted of 3 arms: 84 workers were educated by pamphlet, 84 by lectures, and 84 by workshop. Nordic questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of spinal complaint before and 1-year after the interventions. The trial is registered with the Iranian Randomized Clinical Trial Registry, number IRCT2013061213182N2. Out of 503 workers, 52 lost to follow-up leaving 451 workers for analyses. The prevalence of low-back pain at the baseline was not significantly different among the studied arms. 1-year after the interventions, the prevalence did not change significantly from the baseline values for the lecture and pamphlet group. However, the prevalence of LBP experienced during the last year significantly (p=0.036) decreased from 42% to 23% in participant took part in the workshop. Training of automobile factory workers in ergonomics is more effective by running workshop than giving lecture or disseminating pamphlet.
Full Text Available This research compared the cost-effectiveness of a set of HIV/AIDS interventions in a low HIV prevalence area (LPA and in a high HIV prevalence area (HPA in South Africa. The rationale for this analysis was to assess the interaction dynamics between a specific HIV/AIDS intervention and an area of implementation and the effects of these dynamics on the cost-effectiveness of such an HIV/AIDS intervention. A pair of Markov models was evaluated for each intervention; one model for a HPA and another for an LPA and the cost-effectiveness of that intervention was compared across an LPA and a HPA. The baseline costs and health outcomes in each area were collected from the literature. To depict interaction dynamics between an HIV/AIDS intervention and an area of implementation, baseline health outcomes collected in each area, were adjusted over time based on the patterns of the projections observed in the AIDS model of the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008. The study found that the VCT and treatment of STDs were equally cost-effective in an LPA and in a HPA while PMTCT and HAART were more cost-effective in an LPA than in a HPA. As a policy proposal, resources earmarked to non-ARV based interventions (VCT and treatment of STDs should be equally shared across an LPA and a HPA while more of the resources reserved for ARV-based interventions (PMTCT and HAART should go in an LPA in order to increase efficiency.
El Kishawi, Rima Rafiq; Soo, Kah Leng; Abed, Yehia Awad; Muda, Wan Abdul Manan Wan
The increasing number of obesity and overweight cases in developing countries, especially among women, requires serious attention because of its effects on the health care system and the quality of life. Few studies have been conducted in the Gaza Strip to determine obesity and overweight prevalence and the associated factors. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of obesity and overweight cases in relation to socio-demographic factors among mothers aged 18-50 years in the Gaza Strip-Palestine from June 2012 to September 2012. Mothers childbearing age 18-50 years (n = 357) were selected using a cross-sectional multistage sampling methodology from three different geographical locations, namely, El Remal urban area, Jabalia refugee camp, and Al Qarrara rural area. The weight and height of the mothers were measured, and their body mass indexes (BMI) were computed. The mothers were categorized according to the criteria of World Health Organization (WHO) for BMI. The criteria categorize mothers as overweight if they have a BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2) and obese if their BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2). Obesity and overweight rates in urban area, refugee camp, and rural area were found to be 57.0%, 66.8%, and 67.5%, respectively. Moreover, BMI increased with age, adjusted b = 0.39; 95% CI (0.31, 0.48); p = < 0.001, whereas BMI was lower in low-income subjects, adjusted b = -1.59, 95% CI (-2.74,-0.44), p = 0.007. Housewives were more susceptible to obesity than employed woman, adjusted b = -2.76, 95% CI (-5.33,-0.19), p = 0.036. However, the study found no association among BMI level and household size, geographical location, educational level, and family assistance. The results showed that obesity and being overweight are highly prevalent among women in the Gaza Strip. Independent predictors of obesity in the population studied were increasing age, high income, and housewives. This finding is an important baseline for the monitoring of obesity and
A new tool, a better tool? Prevalence and performance of the International Diabetes Federation and the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria for metabolic syndrome in different ethnic groups
Bindraban, N. R.; van Valkengoed, I. G. M.; Mairuhu, G.; Koster, R. W.; Holleman, F.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Koopmans, R. P.; Stronks, K.
We used a population based study in the Netherlands of 330 Hindustani Surinamese, 586 African Surinamese, and 486 ethnic Dutch (Dutch) to describe the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and the association with differences in cardiovascular disease in and between ethnic groups. Fasting blood
Lai, Der-Chung; Tseng, Yen-Cheng; Hou, Yuh-Ming; Guo, How-Ran
The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the world has increased dramatically in the recent decades. However, data at the national level are limited, and geographic differences are seldom evaluated. According to the law, the local governments in Taiwan began to certify disabled residents and provide various services in 1980, and the…
Ou, Qianting; Peng, Yang; Lin, Dongxin; Bai, Chan; Zhang, Ting; Lin, Jialing; Ye, Xiaohua; Yao, Zhenjiang
Previous research has indicated that raw meats are frequently contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus , but data regarding the pooled prevalence rates of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) contamination in different types of raw meat products (beef, chicken, and pork) and across different periods, regions, and purchase locations remain inconsistent. We systematically searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, Web of Science, and HighWire databases to identify studies published up to June 2016. The STROBE guidelines were used to assess the quality of the 39 studies included in this meta-analysis. We observed no significant differences in the pooled prevalence rates of S. aureus and MRSA contamination identified in various raw meat products, with overall pooled prevalence rates of 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.8 to 35.9%) and 3.2% (95% CI, 1.8 to 4.9%) identified for the two contaminants, respectively. In the subgroup analyses, the prevalence of S. aureus contamination in chicken products was highest in Asian studies and significantly decreased over time worldwide. In European studies, the prevalence rates of S. aureus contamination in chicken and pork products were lower than those reported on other continents. The pooled prevalence rates of S. aureus contamination in chicken and pork products and MRSA contamination in beef and pork products were significantly higher in samples collected from retail sources than in samples collected from slaughterhouses and processing plants. These results highlight the need for good hygiene during transportation to and manipulation at retail outlets to reduce the risk of transmission of S. aureus and MRSA from meat products to humans.
Villanueva, Pía; de Barbieri, Zulema; Palomino, Hernán M; Palomino, Hernán
Specific language impairment (SLI) occurs in 2% to 8% of preschool children. Major and candidate genes are probably involved. Genetic drift is a cause for the presence of high frequencies of deleterious alíeles of a specific disease and the founder effect is one of its forms. Robinson Crusoe Island has 633 inhabitants and its actual population began with 8 families that repopulated the island at the end of XIXth century. To assess the frequency of specific language impairment among children living in Robinson Crusoe Island. All 66 children aged between 3 and 9 years living in the island, were studied. Parents were interviewed and in children, non verbal intelligence, audiometric parameters, comprehension and expression of oral language were assessed. Extended genealogies were also performed. Forty children had at least one parent that was descending of founder families. Among these, 35% had SLI. Eighth five percent of SLI affected children came from the same colonizer family. The prevalence of SLI in Robinson Crusoe Island is higher than that reported in mainland Chile and abroad. This high prevalence, associated to a high frequency of consanguinity, supports the influence of genetic mechanisms in SLI transmission, based on a founder effect.
Turkstra, F.; Karemaker, R.; Kuijer, P. M.; Prins, M. H.; Büller, H. R.
Previous investigations have suggested a lower prevalence of the factor V Leiden mutation in patients with pulmonary embolism, as compared to patients with deep leg vein thrombosis. We studied unselected patients with pulmonary embolism, in whom we also assessed the presence of deep vein thrombosis
Meteran, Howraman; Miller, Martin R; Thomsen, Simon Francis
versus fixed ratio on the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and examine the association between respiratory symptoms and airway obstruction defined by LLN and fixed ratio. 12 449 twins aged 40-80 years participated in a nationwide survey using the Danish Twin Registry...
Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Tonghai Zhao; Ruitong Gao; Therese M. Poland
Seasonal abundance and population development of the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and prevalence of its natural enemies were studied on Hankow willow (Salix matsudana Koidz.) at an urban forest site (Anci) and a rural forest site (Tangerli) in Hebei province...
Addo, Juliet; Agyemang, Charles; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Beune, Erik; Schulze, Matthias B.; Danquah, Ina; Galbete, Cecilia; Nicolaou, Mary; Meeks, Karlijn; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Bahendaka, Silver; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Kunst, Anton; Stronks, Karien; Smeeth, Liam
Background The prevalence of diabetes has been shown to be socially patterned but the direction of the association in low-income countries and among migrant populations in Europe has varied in the literature. This study examined the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and diabetes in
Addo, Juliet; Agyemang, Charles; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Beune, Erik; Schulze, Matthias B; Danquah, Ina; Galbete, Cecilia; Nicolaou, Mary; Meeks, Karlijn; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Bahendaka, Silver; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Kunst, Anton; Stronks, Karien; Smeeth, Liam
Background The prevalence of diabetes has been shown to be socially patterned but the direction of the association in low-income countries and among migrant populations in Europe has varied in the literature. This study examined the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and diabetes in
Bijlsma, A. Y.; Meskers, C. G M; Ling, C. H Y; Narici, M.; Kurrle, S. E.; Cameron, I. D.; Westendorp, R. G J; Maier, A. B.
Sarcopenia, low muscle mass, is an increasing problem in our ageing society. The prevalence of sarcopenia varies extremely between elderly cohorts ranging from 7% to over 50%. Without consensus on the definition of sarcopenia, a variety of diagnostic criteria are being used. We assessed the degree
Deng, V.; Macario, E.; Tumey, C.
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is emerging as a major cause of the amphibian extinction. As amphibians serve an important role as indicator species in their ecosystem and play a vital role in the food chain, Bd will not only affect the amphibian population but also the health of the environment. Bd is an aquatic fungus that blocks the porous skin of amphibians which interrupts electrolyte, gas and water transfer. This imbalances the electrolyte system which causes cells and organs to malfunction, therefore killing the amphibian. While frogs are more common for Bd, it is not often found in newts. However, Dr. Vance Vredenburg recently found an outbreak of Bd in Taricha torosa in Marin Headlands, California. This location was used in the research as the sample site with most human impact and was expected to have the highest prevalence according to the proposed hypothesis that more human impact will correspond with a higher prevalence of Bd. Decreasing the level of human impact, Fairfield Osborn Preserve and Galbreath Preserve were picked as the other sample sites. After the samples went through qPCR, all of them came back negative for Bd. These results did not support the hypothesis, however, it contributed data to explaining the dynamics of Bd when combined with Dr. Vance Vredenburg's data from 2 months earlier. Within the two months, there was a huge difference in the prevalence of Bd as it dropped from 88% to 0%. This shows that Taricha torosa does in fact get Bd. However, it is rarely detected because Bd is fast-acting and has high mortality rates. Therefore, it is least likely for current nonspecific surveys to swab the newts during a short but lethal Bd outbreak.
B U Sarvaiya
Full Text Available Aim: To estimate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in relation with different fluoride levels in drinking water among school going children of 6-12 years age group. Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was recorded using Dean′s index in school children of selected villages. The drinking water samples of all the selected villages were collected in polyethylene bottles and the fluoride content of these samples was determined by fluoride ion selective method using Orion microprocessor analyser. Results: The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 69.84%. An increase in the community fluorosis index (CFI with corresponding increase in water fluoride content was found. Conclusion: There was an increase in prevalence of dental fluorosis with a corresponding increase in water fluoride content from 0.8 ppm to 4.1 ppm. A significantly strong positive correlation was found between CFI and fluoride concentration in drinking water.
Sarvaiya, B U; Bhayya, D; Arora, R; Mehta, D N
To estimate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in relation with different fluoride levels in drinking water among school going children of 6-12 years age group. Dental fluorosis was recorded using Dean's index in school children of selected villages. The drinking water samples of all the selected villages were collected in polyethylene bottles and the fluoride content of these samples was determined by fluoride ion selective method using Orion microprocessor analyser. The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 69.84%. An increase in the community fluorosis index (CFI) with corresponding increase in water fluoride content was found. There was an increase in prevalence of dental fluorosis with a corresponding increase in water fluoride content from 0.8 ppm to 4.1 ppm. A significantly strong positive correlation was found between CFI and fluoride concentration in drinking water.
Introduction: Irradiation of dental tissue with laserlight leads to development of high temperatures and in this way to partly important damage. The purpose of this study was to assess development of temperature in dentin illuminated with different types of lasers. Material and methods: human teeth were cut horizontally into slices of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm thickness. They were irradiated for 25 seconds. Every five seconds temperature was measured with a thermo-measuring instrument placed at the bottom of the platelets. Er:YAG-, Nd:YAG-, Dioden- and CO 2 -laser were examined. All together 528 platelets were illuminated. Results: temperatures between 19.3 degree C and 51.1 degree C were measured. There was a rise in temperature with increasing power output of laser. With 1.3 degree C the diodenlaser showed the lowest increase in temperature. There was also a rise in temperature when time of irradiation was extended. At 25 seconds temperature increased about 4.5 degree C working with diodenlaser and 14 degree C with CO 2 -laser. This increment was more evident in thinner platelets, what can be demonstrated most impressive with Er:YAG-laser. At 0.5 mm thickness we found an increase in temperature of 10.8 degree C, at 2.0 mm of 4.7 degree C. Independent of irradiation time all lasers demonstrated a decrease in temperature with growing thickness of dentin. Conclusion: development of temperature in dental tissue irradiated with several types of lasers shows a dependency from the following factors: 1. temperature rises with augmentation of laser output, 2. temperature rises when time of irradiation is extended, 3. temperature falls with growing thickness of platelets. Further the results demonstrate, that carefully treatment of dentin without pulp damage is most likely possible working with Diodenlaser and Er:YAG-laser. (author)
Full Text Available Carola A Huber,1 Peter Diem,2 Matthias Schwenkglenks,3 Roland Rapold,1 Oliver Reich1 1Department of Health Sciences, Helsana Group, Zürich, Switzerland; 2Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 3Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland Background: Estimating the prevalence of comorbidities and their associated costs in patients with diabetes is fundamental to optimizing health care management. This study assesses the prevalence and health care costs of comorbid conditions among patients with diabetes compared with patients without diabetes. Distinguishing potentially diabetes- and nondiabetes-related comorbidities in patients with diabetes, we also determined the most frequent chronic conditions and estimated their effect on costs across different health care settings in Switzerland. Methods: Using health care claims data from 2011, we calculated the prevalence and average health care costs of comorbidities among patients with and without diabetes in inpatient and outpatient settings. Patients with diabetes and comorbid conditions were identified using pharmacy-based cost groups. Generalized linear models with negative binomial distribution were used to analyze the effect of comorbidities on health care costs. Results: A total of 932,612 persons, including 50,751 patients with diabetes, were enrolled. The most frequent potentially diabetes- and nondiabetes-related comorbidities in patients older than 64 years were cardiovascular diseases (91%, rheumatologic conditions (55%, and hyperlipidemia (53%. The mean total health care costs for diabetes patients varied substantially by comorbidity status (US$3,203–$14,223. Patients with diabetes and more than two comorbidities incurred US$10,584 higher total costs than patients without comorbidity. Costs were significantly higher in patients with
Mossige, Svein; Huang, Lihong
This study focuses on poly-victimization, with the aim of providing a realistic estimation of the prevalence of lifetime victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population (ages 18-19 years). Based upon the concept from previous research, we applied measures of child poly-victimization on Norwegian data obtained from a national youth survey in 2015 (N = 4,531) to arrive at an estimation of its prevalence. We used variables that measure individual characteristics such as gender and educational aspiration and socio-economic factors such as parents' education level and home economic situation to derive a social and psychological profile of victimization and poly-victimization among young people. Finally, we estimated the effects of poly-victimization on mental health such as symptoms of depression, anxiety and trauma. Our study identified a poly-victimization prevalence of 8.6% among young people, i.e. they were exposed to three of all four forms of violence investigated by our study: non-physical violence, witnessing violence against parents, physical violence and sexual abuse. Adolescents of poly-victimization are six times more likely to report depression and anxiety and trauma when compared with those without victimization. Poly-victimization is a phenomenon that heavily burdens many young people across many national contexts. Poly-victims clearly tend to develop depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The early detection of sexual abuse, physical violence, and bullying victimization is of critical importance and preventive measures could consider addressing family factors through parental educational programs.
Full Text Available This study focuses on poly-victimization, with the aim of providing a realistic estimation of the prevalence of lifetime victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population (ages 18-19 years.Based upon the concept from previous research, we applied measures of child poly-victimization on Norwegian data obtained from a national youth survey in 2015 (N = 4,531 to arrive at an estimation of its prevalence. We used variables that measure individual characteristics such as gender and educational aspiration and socio-economic factors such as parents' education level and home economic situation to derive a social and psychological profile of victimization and poly-victimization among young people. Finally, we estimated the effects of poly-victimization on mental health such as symptoms of depression, anxiety and trauma.Our study identified a poly-victimization prevalence of 8.6% among young people, i.e. they were exposed to three of all four forms of violence investigated by our study: non-physical violence, witnessing violence against parents, physical violence and sexual abuse. Adolescents of poly-victimization are six times more likely to report depression and anxiety and trauma when compared with those without victimization.Poly-victimization is a phenomenon that heavily burdens many young people across many national contexts. Poly-victims clearly tend to develop depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The early detection of sexual abuse, physical violence, and bullying victimization is of critical importance and preventive measures could consider addressing family factors through parental educational programs.
Full Text Available Objective: This prospective study was carried out to observe the prevalence of fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS and its effect on quality-of-life (QoL. Study Design and Setting: Prospective observational study in a University Tertiary Research Hospital in India. Patients and Methods: A total of 31 patients (25 females with definite MS according to McDonald′s criteria presented in out-patient/admitted in the Department of Neurology (between February 2010 and December 2011 were included in the study. Disease severity was evaluated using the Kurtzke′s expanded disability status scale (EDSS. Fatigue was assessed using Krupp′s fatigue severity scale (FSS. QoL was assessed by the World Health Organization QoL-BREF questionnaire. Results: The mean age of patients was 30.1 ± 9.1 years. The mean age at first symptom was 25.23 ± 6.4 years. The mean number of relapses was 4.7 ± 3.6 in the patients. The mean duration of illness was 4.9 ± 4.4 years. The mean EDSS score was 3.5 ± 2.2. Mean fatigue score was 38.7 ± 18.5 (cut-off value 36 in FSS. The prevalence of fatigue in patients with MS was 58.1% (18/31. MS patients with fatigue were significantly more impaired (P < 0.05 on all QoL domains (i.e., physical, psychosocial, social, and environment than MS patients without fatigue. Conclusion: Prevalence of fatigue was found to be high in the MS patients in the study. All four domains of QoL were significantly more impaired in the group with fatigue than in those without fatigue.
Green, M S; Peled, I
Marked ethnic differences in hypertension prevalence have been described in Jewish immigrants to Israel. The extent to which this phenomenon has persisted after a long period of living in the same country, and whether native-born descendants exhibit similar patterns, is not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in immigrants to Israel and native-born Israelis by region of origin and age at immigration. Complete data were available for 5,146 subjects (3,607 men and 1,539 women) aged 20-64 years who were employed in Israeli industries and were examined during 1985-1987. In both sexes, Jews originating in the West (Europe and the Americas) had higher blood pressures and a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension than those from northern Africa or Asia, particularly in the age group 20-44 years (17% vs. 9% and 8% in men, respectively, and 9% vs. 3% and 5% in women). There was a significant positive association between the prevalence of hypertension and age at immigration (p less than 0.001) in both sexes, and this finding was present in all ethnic groups. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the associations of hypertension with ethnic origin and age at immigration were only partly explained by variations in body mass index, after controlling for other potentially confounding variables. These findings suggest that despite these subjects' having shared a relatively similar physical environment for many years, ethnic differences in the prevalence of hypertension persist. Immigration at an older age was associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension for both subjects originating in industrialized countries and those originating in nonindustrialized countries, suggesting that the process of immigration itself may adversely affect blood pressure.
Pascal A. Diethelm
Our findings suggest a decline of smoking prevalence in minors following the introduction of plain packaging in Australia. They differ substantially from those presented in an industry-funded study on the effects of plain packaging on smoking prevalence in minors in Australia, which used the same data.
Naseribafrouei, Ali; Eliassen, Bent-Martin; Melhus, Marita; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild
The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus in rural populations of Norway, as well as to explore potential ethnic disparities with respect to dysglycaemia in Sami and non-Sami populations. Cross-sectional population-based study. The SAMINOR1 study was performed in 2003-2004. The study took place in regions with both Sami and non-Sami populations and had a response rate of 60.9%. Information in the SAMINOR1 study was collected using two self-administered questionnaires, clinical examination and laboratory tests. The present analysis included 15,208 men and women aged 36-79 years from the SAMINOR1 study. Age-standardised prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus among Sami men was 3.4 and 5.5%, respectively. Corresponding values for non-Sami men were 3.3 and 4.6%. Age-standardised prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus for Sami women was 2.7 and 4.8%, respectively, while corresponding values for non-Sami women were 2.3 and 4.5%. Relative risk ratios for dysglycaemia among Sami participants compared with non-Sami participants were significantly different in different geographical regions, with the southern region having the highest prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus among Sami participants. We observed a heterogeneity in the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus in different geographical regions both within and between different ethnic groups.
Full Text Available Background: Cross-sectional analyses of the relationship between contraceptive prevalence and the total fertility rate of developing countries show the expected strong negative correlation. However, this correlation is much weaker in Sub-Saharan Africa than in the developing world as a whole. Objective: This paper aims to explain the unexpected weak effect of contraceptive use on fertility in sub-Sharan African countries by using different regression models to obtain unbiased effects. Methods: Using DHS survey data from 40 developing countries, the analysis consists of three steps: 1 examine the conventional cross-sectional TFR-CPR relationship by region at the time of the latest available surveys, 2 remove known technical flaws in the comparisons of fertility and contraceptive prevalence and 3 analyze multiple observations of TFR and CPR per country using pooled OLS and fixed effect regressions. Results: The conventional cross-sectional analyses produce biased results in part because technical factors, in particular post-partum overlap, create a downward bias in the effect of prevalence on fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, and more importantly, the cross-sectional regression OLS parameters have a bias due to confounding country fixed effects. Technical adjustments and the use of fixed effect models remove these biases. Conclusions: A rise in contraceptive prevalence among fecund women has the same average effect on fertility in sub-Saharan Africa as in other regions of the developing world. Contribution: This study solves a long-standing demographic puzzle and reassures policymakers and family planning program managers.
Rahamathulla, Mohamudha Parveen
To evaluate the consumption, prevalence, side effects and awareness of energy drinks among female university students in Saudi Arabia. A quantitative research design was implied with sample size of 358 female students, recruited from Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data, gathered through self-administered questionnaire, was analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 with p value energy drink consumers. The reasons for increased consumption of energy drinks mainly include giving company to friends (59.4%), better performance in exams (41.2%), and better concentration in studies (39.4%). The most common side effect was headache (32.3%), and the least was identified as allergy (2%). Only 39.4% and 29.9% of students acquired awareness regarding the harmful effects of energy drink consumption during pregnancy and breast feeding respectively. A significant proportion of female students at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz have reported to consume energy drinks regularly with several adverse effects. The government of Saudi Arabia should take serious initiatives towards organizing effective awareness programs specifically in universities and colleges to control the consumption of energy drinks and educate on the adverse effects.
Vieira, Marcelo C; Sperandei, Sandro; Reis, Arianne C
The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity profile of taxi drivers and its relationship with hypertension prevalence in this group of workers. Cross sectional exploratory study. Between November 2008 and April 2009, 491 taxi drivers from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, answered a questionnaire focusing on previous hypertension diagnosis, occupational characteristics and physical activity habits. Two logistic models were developed to determine risk factors related to hypertension and to find variables associated with a higher probability of sedentarism. Hypertension prevalence was 22.6%. The workload of the group investigated was high. Results indicate that 'age', 'Body Mass Index', 'physical activity', and 'years as a taxi driver' are related to the probability of hypertension. Physical activity was shown to be a protection factor for hypertension, even considering the deleterious effect of time as a taxi driver. Our results also determined that the practice of physical activity is influenced by age, level of education and workload. It is recommended that programs to combat sedentary lifestyles as well as measures to reduce workloads be developed as strategies to prevent hypertension.
Meloni, Antonella; Mandas, Chiara; Jores, Rita Désirée; Congia, Mauro
To study the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) in Sardinian children with celiac disease (CD) and the effects of a gluten-free diet (GFD) on thyroid function. Children with biopsy-proven CD (n = 324; female:male 2:1; mean age, 6.6 years) followed from 1 to 15 years, were retrospectively evaluated for AT at onset of CD and during GFD. Serum thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies (AbTPO, AbTG), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and thyroid ultrasonography were considered. Age-matched Sardinian schoolchildren (n = 8040), previously evaluated for antithyroid antibodies and thyroid function, were used as controls. Thirty-four patients with CD (10.5%) developed AT (female:male 4,5:1; mean age, 10.5 years), 11 at onset of CD and 23 during GFD, with a higher prevalence than controls (P = 2.9(-13)). Twenty-eight patients were euthyroid and 6 hypothyroid. AbTPO and/or AbTG persisted elevated for 2 to 9 years despite the GFD in 9 of 11 patients with AT at onset of CD. AT is strongly associated with CD in Sardinian children, has an age of onset of 10.5 years, and appears to be gluten-independent. In children with CD with AT, the female:male bias reported in adult AT is present before puberty.
Badiel, Marisol; Cepeda, Magda; Ochoa, Julián; Loaiza, John H; Velásquez, Jorge G
The prevalence of major risk factors associated to coronary artery disease has changed over time. Today, the frequency of dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus has increased, while smoking has decreased. The birth cohort effect for coronary artery disease in subjects as an approximation of the true prevalence over time has not been studied in Latin-America. To determine the trends in the prevalence of major risk factors for coronary artery disease by birth cohort effect in a high risk population. We estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia from a prospective institutional registry (DREST registry) of patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary event. Birth cohort effect was defined as a statistical, epidemiological and sociological methodology to identify the influence of the environment in the lifetime from birth by each decade. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed adjusted by gender. Out of 3,056 subjects who were enrolled, 72% were male, with a median age of 61 years (interquartile range=53-69). Hypertension prevalence was 62.3%, for diabetes mellitus it was 48.8%, for smoking it was 18.8% and for dyslipidemia it was 48.8%. We observed an increase in prevalence for diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in each cohort according to birth decade, while there was a reduction in prevalence for hypertension in the same decades. The prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors has changed in time and the presence of time at birth effect is evident, possibly influenced by the environment's social conditions in each decade of life. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and the classification of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in different regions. We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA1c (HbA1c ≥6·5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG ≥7·0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT ≥11·1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated diabetes prevalence, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights. We compared the prevalences of diabetes using different definitions graphically and by regression analyses. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of diabetes diagnosis based on HbA1c compared with diagnosis based on glucose among previously undiagnosed individuals (ie, excluding those with history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated sensitivity and specificity in each survey, and then pooled results using a random-effects model. We assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori. Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r=0·98), but was higher by 2-6 percentage points at different prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA1c was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42·8% of age-sex-survey groups and higher in another 41·6%; in the other 15·6%, the two definitions
Background The aim of this study was to determine the point prevalence of nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs) and to investigate risk factors for pathogen type (E. coli vs. others) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) positivity among nosocomial UTI patients. Methods A questionnaire consisting of 44 questions on demographic data and risk factors of UTI cases was sent to 51 tertiary care hospitals. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results The overall prevalence of UTI was 1.82% (483/26534). The prevalence of UTI was higher in intensive care units (ICUs) with 6.77% versus 1.45% outside ICUs. Hospitals of the Ministry of Health (compared to university hospitals), hospitals in less developed provinces and hospitals with bed capacity urinary catheter were more likely to have received immunosuppressive therapy, current corticosteroid use, renal transplantation and uterine prolapsus and less likely to have another infection outside the urinary tract, as compared to catheterized patients. Among the 422 culture-positive patients, the most common pathogen was E. coli (45.5%). The risk factors increasing the likelihood of E. coli in urine culture were being female, history of urinary tract operation, no use of antibiotics in the preceding three months and infection outside the urinary tract. There were 247 patients with E. coli or Klebsiella spp. positive in culture. Among these, 61% (n=151) were ESBL- positive. Among patients having E. coli/Klebsiella positive in culture, antibiotic use in the preceding three months and history of urinary tract operation were the independent risk factors significantly increasing the risk of ESBL. Conclusions The reasons underlying the high prevalence of nosocomial UTIs, and a better understanding of the risk factors might lead to improved control of these infections. PMID:24188193
Kallwitz, Eric R.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Allison, Matthew A.; Emory, Kristen T.; Zhao, Lihui; Kuniholm, Mark H.; Chen, Jinsong; Gouskova, Natalia; Pirzada, Amber; Talavera, Gregory A.; Youngblood, Marston E.; Cotler, Scott J.
Background & Aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was shown to disproportionally affect Hispanic persons. We examined the prevalence of suspected NAFLD in Hispanic/Latino persons with diverse backgrounds. Methods We studied the prevalence of suspected NAFLD among 12,133 persons included in The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We collected data on levels of aminotransferase, metabolic syndrome (defined by National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines), demographics, and health behaviors. Suspected NAFLD was defined based on increased level of aminotransferase in the absence of serologic evidence for common causes of liver disease or excessive alcohol consumption. In multivariate analyses, data were adjusted for metabolic syndrome, age, acculturation, diet, physical activity, sleep, and levels of education and income. Results In multivariate analysis, compared to persons of Mexican heritage, persons of Cuban (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57–0.85), Puerto Rican (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.52–0.87), and Dominican backgrounds (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54–0.93) had lower rates of suspected NAFLD. Persons of Central American and South American heritage had a similar prevalence of suspected NAFLD compared to persons of Mexican heritage. NAFLD was less common in women than men (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.40–0.60). Suspected NAFLD associated with the metabolic syndrome and all 5 of its components. Conclusion Based on an analysis of a large database of health in Latino populations, we found the prevalence of suspected NAFLD among Hispanic/Latino individuals to vary by region of heritage. PMID:25218670
Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Adler, Chana; Ein-Mor, Eliana; Rosenak, Daniel; Hurwitz, Arye
Religious (halachic*) infertility' results from precoital ovulation prior to immersion in a ritual bath (mikveh) 7 days after menstruation, as mandated by Jewish religious law. Previous authors recommended treatment with estradiol to postpone ovulation and enhance pregnancy rates. To evaluate the prevalence of halachic infertility in an ultra-Orthodox jewish community, and assess the efficacy of estradiol treatment in postponing ovulation and increasing pregnancy rates. We reviewed 88 cycles, of which 23 were control cycles and 65 estradiol-treated cycles, and analyzed the files of 23 women who were treated with 6 mg estradiol/day from day 1 for 5 days of the cycle. The prevalence of precoital ovulation in the infertile population was 21%. Most of the patients (94%) ovulated before day 13 of the cycle. A short follicular phase due to low ovarian reserve orthyroid endocrinopathy was noted in 12% of the patients. While 64% of the women reported consultation with a Rabbinate authority, 68% of the patients sought medical therapy. Estradiol postponed ovulation for at least one day in 89% of the treatment cycles. Ovulation post-mikveh occurred in 73% of estradiol-treated cycles. The pregnancy rate was 12.5% per cycle and the cumulative pregnancy rate 35% per woman. Half the patients reported spotting during estradiol-treated cycles, and this postponed coitus. Precoital ovulation is a major reason for infertility among observant couples attending fertility clinics. Estradiol treatment is effective in delaying ovulation and restoring fecundity; however, it causes some adverse effects that may decrease its effectiveness.
Westmoreland, Lori S H; Stoskopf, Michael K; Maggi, Ricardo G
Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are globally emerging, obligate parasitic, epierythrocytic bacteria that infect many vertebrates, including humans. Hemoplasma infection can cause acute life-threatening symptoms or lead to a chronic sub-clinical carrier state. Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. transmission, prevalence, and host specificity are uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of Mycoplasma species in blood from 68 free-ranging black bears from the eastern coast of North Carolina. DNA amplification of Mycoplasma 16S rRNA gene identified four distinct species infecting 34/68 (50%) of the black bear blood samples, including Candidatus M. haematoparvum. The high prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma infection in this wildlife species highlights the importance of understanding intra and inter species transmission. Black bears may play a role in the transmission of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. between animals, arthropod vectors, and humans. Further studies are needed to elucidate black bears as a potential reservoir for hemotropic Mycoplasma infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meyer, Elena; Carrillo, Rafael; Román, Estela María; Bejarano, Ignacio Felipe; Dipierri, José Edgardo
INTRODUCTION. Prevalences of overweight and obesity in students from different altitudinal zones of Jujuy are compared using the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) references, and the agreement among them. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Weight and height data from 15 541 students were grouped in highlands (HL) (≥2500 MASL) and lowlands (LL) (references. The differences in outcome measures and prevalences were established using the ?2 test and the t test, and agreement among the criteria was calculated using the kappa index. RESULTS. Students from the HL had lower weight, height and body mass index (BMI) values (preference were higher, except for overweight in students of both sexes, from 11 to 12.99 years old, from the HL and the LL. Regardless of the references, gender and age, overweight and obesity prevalences were generally higher in the LL. Agreement between the IOTF and the CDC was good-very good, and agreement among them and the WHO was fair-moderate. CONCLUSIONS. Students from the HL had a lower overweight and obesity prevalence. The greatest agreement was observed between the IOTF and the CDC references.
Full Text Available Despite high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and cervical cancer in Indian women, no study has been done in tribal populations whose socio-sexual lifestyle is different. Therefore, HPV screening has been carried out in pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adult tribal girls using self-collected urine samples.20-35 ml self-collected midstream urine samples were obtained from a total of 2278 healthy tribal girls (9-25 years comprising pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adults from three Indian states: Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. β-globin positive 2034 samples were employed for HPV detection and genotyping.The overall prevalence of HPV infection in tribal girls was 12.9% (262/2034. More than 65% (172/262 of them were infected with HR-HPV types of which HPV16 was the most predominant type (54%. Young adult girls aged 18-25 years showed a significantly higher prevalence of HPV infection (19.2%; OR = 3.36; 95% CI 2.97-6.34, P<0.001 as compared to that in adolescent (11.4%; OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.20-2.76, P<0.01 or pre-adolescent girls (6.6%.This is a first study showing significantly a very high prevalence of HPV infection in adolescent and young adult tribal girls possibly due to different socio-sexual behavior, indicating a serious health concern for Indian tribal women.
Blanco-Aguilera, Antonio; Blanco-Aguilera, Elena; Serrano-del-Rosal, Rafael; Biedma-Velázquez, Lourdes; Rodríguez-Torronteras, Alejandro; Segura-Saint-Gerons, Rafael
Background The main objective of this paper is to analyze the prevalence of each of the different clinical subtypes of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a sample of patients with this pathology. In addition, a second objective was to analyze their distribution according to gender. Material and Methods To this end, the results of 1603 patients who went to the Unit of Temporomandibular Disorders in the Córdoba Healthcare District because they suffered from this pathology were analyzed. In order to diagnose them, the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) were applied, analyzing the different Axis I subtypes (myopathy, discopathy and arthropathy) and obtaining the combined Axis I for each patient and the relation of all these variables according to gender. The null-hypothesis test confirmed the lack of connection between the gender variable and the different subtypes in the clinical analysis, and between the former and the combined Axis I of the RDC/TMD. Results The prevalence was high for the muscle disorders subtype in general, showing an 88.7% prevalence, while the presence of discopathies or arthropathies was much lower. Among discopathies, the most frequent ones were disc displacements with reduction, with 39.7% and 42.8% for the left and right temporomandibular joints (TMJ), respectively, while the prevalence of arthropathies was 26.3% for the right TMJ and 32.9% for the left TMJ. The bivariate analysis on the connection with gender reveals a p≥ 0.05 value for the muscle and arthralgia subtypes. Conclusions The patients seen at the TMD Unit where mostly middle-aged women whose main clinical axis subtype was the muscle disorder subtype. For their part, both discopathies and arthropathies, although present, are much less prevalent. Key words:RDCTMD, axis I, orofacial pain, temporomandibular disorders, gender. PMID:26615508
Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em crianças e adolescentes de diferentes condições socioeconômicas Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents of different socioeconomic conditions
Giselia Alves Pontes da Silva
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: comparar as prevalências de sobrepeso e obesidade em um grupo de pré-escolares, escolares e adolescentes de diferentes condições socioeconômicas na cidade do Recife. MÉTODOS: estudo do tipo transversal envolvendo uma amostra de 1616 crianças e adolescentes, escolhida por conveniência. Os indicadores nutricionais foram definidos conforme as recomendações do National Center of Health Statistics 2000, sendo considerado sobrepeso o índice de massa corporal igual ou superior ao percentil 85 e inferior ao percentil 95 e obesidade, o índice de massa corporal igual ou superior ao percentil 95. RESULTADOS: foi identificado sobrepeso em 234 (14,5% indivíduos e obesidade, em 134 (8,3%. A prevalência de sobrepeso foi maior nos pré-escolares (22,2%, observando-se redução progressiva da freqüência nas faixas etárias de escolar (12,9% e adolescente (10,8%. Constatou-se fato idêntico quanto à obesidade, detectada em 13,8% dos pré-escolares, 8,2% dos escolares e 4,9% dos adolescentes. O sobrepeso e a obesidade foram mais observados entre crianças e adolescentes de melhor condição socioeconômica. CONCLUSÕES: as prevalências de sobrepeso e obesidade diminuíram à medida que ocorreu aumento da faixa etária. Entre os pré-escolares observou-se prevalência de sobrepeso semelhante, independente das condições socioeconômicas. A prevalência da obesidade foi maior entre escolares de boas condições socioeconômicas e adolescentes de baixa condição socioeconômica.OBJECTIVES: to compare overweight and obesity in preschool children, school children and adolescents belonging to different socioeconomic conditions. METHODS: cross-sectional and based on a 1616 children and adolescents sample. Nutritional indicators were defined according to the National Center of Health Statistics 2000 recommendations, overweight being BMI equal to or above 85 percentile and below percentile 95; obesity indicator being defined with BMI equal to
Waisberg, R; Paiker, J E; Crowther, N J
Obesity is more common in African than Asian-Indian populations and yet type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are more common in the latter populations. The main purpose of the current study was therefore to determine whether ethnic differences in body fat distribution, adipokine levels, and socio-economic status may explain population differences in the prevalence of these metabolic disorders. Leptin, IL-6, CRP, visceral fat, education level, and socio-economic status were measured in 50 African and the same number of Indian women residing in Johannesburg, South Africa. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in Indian than African subjects (41.3±2.0 and 34.2±2.9 ng/ml, respectively; pAfrican group, (5.22±0.86 vs. 2.54±0.52 pg/ml; peconomic status (pAfrican subjects, however, adjusting for these variables in ANCOVA did not attenuate differences in adipokine or visceral fat levels. We hypothesise that one of the reasons for the higher prevalence of obesity in the African than Indian population may be related to lower leptin levels, whilst ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic disorders cannot be explained by differences in adipokine levels, but maybe related to higher visceral adiposity in the Indian group. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · NewYork.
Lai, Der-Chung; Tseng, Yen-Cheng; Hou, Yuh-Ming; Guo, How-Ran
The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the world has increased dramatically in the recent decades. However, data at the national level are limited, and geographic differences are seldom evaluated. According to the law, the local governments in Taiwan began to certify disabled residents and provide various services in 1980, and the central government maintains a registry of certified cases. The registry started to enroll cases of ASD in 1990, providing a unique opportunity for studying ASD at the national level. Because the government discourages the certification under 3 years of age, we limited our analyses to those who were at least 3 years old. Using the registry data from 2004 to 2010, we calculated the prevalence of ASD by age, gender, and geographic area and assessed the changes over time. From 2004 to 2010, the registered cases between 3 and 17 years old increased from 3995 to 8072 annually, and the prevalence generally increased every year in all age groups (p<0.01). In each year there were more boy cases than girl cases, and the prevalence rate ratio ranged from 5.64:1 to 6.06:1 (p<0.01 in all years), with an increasing trend over time (p<0.01). A higher prevalence was observed in the urban areas over the years, and the prevalence rate ratio ranged from 2.24:1 to 2.72:1 (p<0.01 in all years), with a decreasing trend over time (p<0.01). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Feedback provision in the process of writing has been believed that it is beneficial. However, different strategies of providing feedback may affect differently on writing quality of students. This study aimed at investigating the effect of different feedback provision on the writing quality of students having different cognitive styles. By…
Kong, Q; Yan, B Y; Lyu, J J; Feng, Y; Liu, J Y; Song, L Z; Xu, Q; Zhang, L; Xu, A Q
Objective: To evaluate prevalence of hepatitis A antibody (anti-HAV IgG) among population covered by different hepatitis A vaccine immunization strategies in Shandong Province in 2015. Methods: In October 2015, according to the geographical location of Shandong Province, the stratified random sampling method was used to stratify the 17 municipal distrcts, and the random number table method was used for sampling, First, two eastern cites (Qingdao, Rizhao), two western cities (Liaocheng, Zaozhuang) and three central cities (Jinan, Zibo and Laiwu) were selected; secondly, one county was drawn from each city. Finally, the participants were divided into five age groups including ≤7 years (age group covered by free hepatitis A vaccination strategy), 8-11 years (age group who receive hepatitis A vaccination at their own charge), 12-24 years (age group covered by catch-up vaccination of hepatitis A), 25-34 years (age group born before hepatitis A vaccine was used) and ≥35 years (age group born before hepatitis A vaccine was used). After all the paticipants or their guardians asked and registered basic information such as age, gender, home address, blood samples were collected from them and anti-HAV IgG was detected by ELISA method. The positive rate of anti-HAV IgG and 95% CI were calculated. Results: A total of 1 654 participants were involved in the final analysis, including 856 males (51.75%) and 798 females (48.25%) whose mean age was (13.44±13.06) years. The crude positive rate of anti-HAV IgG was 91.41% (1 512/1 654, 95% CI: 89.96%-92.72%) and the age-adjusted rate was 90.93% (95% CI: 90.92%-90.94%). The positive rates of anti-HAV IgG was at the highest level in the age group of ≤7 years (95.90%, 95% CI: 95.88%-95.91%) and was at the lowest level in the age group of 25-34 years (83.23%, 95% CI: 83.21%-83.25%). The age-specific positive rates of anti-HAV IgG in eastern areas (96.79%, 95% CI: 96.78%-96.80%) were higher than those in both middle areas (86.66%, 95
van der Put, Claudia E; Creemers, Hanneke E; Hoeve, Machteld
Little is known about the needs of substance-using juveniles in treatment aimed at reducing criminal recidivism. Therefore, we aimed to examine treatment needs of substance-using juvenile offenders. Differences were examined between juvenile offenders who abstain from substance use (ASU; n=1974) and substance-using juvenile offenders without (SU; n=7000) and with substance use problems (SUP; n=3317), in the prevalence of risk/protective factors for criminal recidivism and strength of associations between risk/protective factors and criminal recidivism. We conducted secondary data analysis on recidivism risk assessments, collected with the Washington State Juvenile Court Assessment, and re-offending data. Analyses of variance and Partial correlations, adjusted for age, gender and ethnicity were applied, as well as Fisher's z tests and logistic regression analyses. Results showed that substance-using offenders, especially those with substance use problems, had more risk factors and less protective factors than ASU youths in the domains of school, use of free time, relationships, family, attitude, aggression and skills. The associations between most of the risk/protective factors and recidivism were stronger in the ASU group than in the SUP group. Substance use uniquely predicted recidivism, net of risk factors. These results suggest that general interventions for juvenile offenders addressing risk and protective factors with the aim to reduce recidivism may be less effective for offenders with substance use problems, and that substance use (problems) should be addressed, too. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Materials and methods: A total of 552 patients who visited Outpatient Department of Jaipur Dental College, Jaipur, were studied. Complete information regarding presence of smoking and other forms of tobacco was recorded in case history proforma and any of tobacco-related oral lesions among these patients were examined. Results: In age group of 0.05 in 12.84% subjects, oral cancer was reported in 33 patients (p-value = 0.001 whereas smoker′s palate in 25 patients and OSMF being the most common. Awareness level about ill effects of tobacco was 51.10 %. Conclusion: High incidence of tobacco usage in smokeless form is seen in Jaipur population especially in adolescents. There were no significant findings found between males and females. Of all lesion examined, OSMF was found to be more prevalent. Therefore, it is important to take immediate steps to curb the habit.
Akin, F; Spraker, M; Aly, R; Leyden, J; Raynor, W; Landin, W
Infants wearing breathable disposable diapers experienced significantly less diaper dermatitis (DD) compared to infants wearing standard, nonbreathable disposable diapers in a series of double-blind clinical trials. Severe DD, including confirmed infection with Candida albicans, was reduced by 38-50% among infants wearing highly breathable (HB) diapers. The prevalence of DD was inversely related to the breathability of the garments. The inhibitory effect of breathable diapers on the survival of Candida was further confirmed in controlled experiments with adult volunteers. A suspension of C. albicans cells was applied to delineated sites on the volar forearm. Each site was then covered by a full-thickness patch from either an HB or a standard diaper. Survival of Candida colonies was reduced by almost two-thirds in the breathable diaper-covered sites compared to the control sites.
Full Text Available Objectives: We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. Data and Methods: The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996–2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices’ smoking behavior. Results: It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: −1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and −3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma.
Pieroni, Luca; Muzi, Giacomo; Quercia, Augusto; Lanari, Donatella; Rundo, Carmen; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca; dell'Omo, Marco
We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996-2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices' smoking behavior. It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: -1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and -3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma.
Wang, Cheng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Han, Hepeng; Shi, Yuxia; Yu, Guangqian; Sun, Dianjun
Objective To assess the effects of provided fluoride-safe drinking-water for the prevention and control of endemic fluorosis in China. Design A national cross-sectional study in China. Setting In 1985, randomly selected villages in 27 provinces (or cities and municipalities) in 5 geographic areas all over China. Participants Involved 81 786 children aged from 8 to 12 and 594 698 adults aged over 16. Main outcome measure The prevalence of dental fluorosis and clinical skeletal fluorosis, the fluoride concentrations in the drinking-water in study villages and in the urine of subjects. Results The study showed that in the villages where the drinking-water fluoride concentrations were higher than the government standard of 1.2 mg/l, but no fluoride-safe drinking-water supply scheme was provided (FNB areas), the prevalence rate and index of dental fluorosis in children, and prevalence rate of clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were all significantly higher than those in the historical endemic fluorosis villages after the fluoride-safe drinking-water were provided (FSB areas). Additionally, the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis as well as clinical skeletal fluorosis, and the concentration of fluoride in urine were found increased with the increase of fluoride concentration in drinking-water, with significant positive correlations in the FNB areas. While, the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis and clinical skeletal fluorosis in different age groups and their degrees of prevalence were significantly lower in the FSB areas than those in the FNB areas. Conclusions The provision of fluoride-safe drinking-water supply schemes had significant effects on the prevention and control of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. The study also indicated that the dental and skeletal fluorosis is still prevailing in the high-fluoride drinking-water areas in China. PMID:23015601
Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are etiological agents of cervical cancer. In the absence of Pap smear alterations, high-risk HPV DNA can be detected in cervical samples. The prevalence of papillomavirus infection and their genotype distribution varies greatly across populations. The aims of this study were: i to assess the prevalences of HPV genotypes in people living in Eastern Sicily (Italy and the frequency of HPV multiple infections; ii to evaluate the association between HPV genotypes and cervical lesions in order to improve the epidemiological knowledge useful for monitoring or treating infected women. Nested PCR and reverse dot/blot hybridization were used for the detection and typing of HPV DNA in 315 women who had had an abnormal PAP-smear. HPV DNA test was positive in 70.5% cases; the prevalence was 50% in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 80.8% in low grade-, and 76.2% in high grade-squamous intraepithelial lesion (H-SIL. The genotype distribution showed a predominance of HPV-16 (56.7% followed by HPV-18 (12.2%, HPV-31 (9.5% and HPV-6 (9.5%. Multiple infections were detected in 35.1% of the infected patients. High frequency of positive results for HPV was confirmed and, even in case of ASCUS, patients should be taken into account for genotyping. Our data indicate that multiple infections are consistent in women with low-grade lesions while they are less frequent in women with H-SIL. This could reinforce the theory of the multi-stage cancer model, by which one HPV type becomes predominant along with the progression of cervical lesion severity.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is an increasing concern on cardiometabolic health in young professional athletes at heavy-weight class. OBJECTIVE: Our cross-sectional survey aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clustering of metabolic risk factors in a population of young and active professional athletes of strength sports in China. METHODS: From July 2006 to December 2008, a total of 131 male and 130 female athletes of strength sports were enrolled. We used two criteria provided by the Chinese Diabetes Society (2004 and the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (2002 to define the metabolic syndrome and its individual components, respectively. RESULTS: Regardless of their similar ages (mean: 21 years and exercise levels, athletes in the heaviest-weight-class with unlimited maximum body weight (UBW boundaries (mean weight and BMI: 130 kg and 38 kg/m(2 for men, 110 kg and 37 kg/m(2 for women had significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than did those in all other body-weight-class with limited body weight (LBW boundaries (mean weight and BMI: 105 kg and 32 kg/m(2 for men, 70 kg and 26 kg/m(2 for women. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using CDS criteria (UBW vs. LBW: 89% vs. 18% for men, 47% vs. 0% for women and its individual components, including central obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and impaired fasting glucose, were all significantly higher in athletes at the heaviest weight group with UBW than all other weight groups with LBW. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that professional athletes of strength sports at the heaviest-weight-class are at a significant increased risk of cardiometabolic disease compared with those at all other weight categories. The findings support the importance of developing and implementing the strategy of early screening, awareness, and interventions for weight-related health among young athletes.
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to verify the effect of different probiotic strains applied through a drinking water source to fattening and carcass parameters of broiler ducks. Fattening experiment was realised in half-operating conditions of experimental basis of Department of Poultry Science and Small Animal Husbandry in three-floor cage technology. Totally 90 broiler duck were divided to three groups. Experimental group 1 (n=30 received probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7158 with concentration of 1x109 colony forming units (CFU in drinking water daily addition of 0.90 g day 1 to day 56 of fattening. Experimental group 2 (n=30 received probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium M 74 with concentration of 1x109 colony forming units (CFU in drinking water daily addition of 0.45 g day 1 to day 56 of fattening. The control group of birds (n=30 received water without any probiotics. The supplementation of probiotic strains Lactobacillus fermentum and Enterococcus faecium no significant affected (P≥0.05 final body weight, feed consumption and mortality of broiler ducks. From carcass parameters, we recorded statistically significant (P<0.05 reduction in weight of abdominal fat of broiler ducks for application of tested probiotic strains.
Finkelstein Julia L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban areas in Africa suffer a serious problem with dual burden of infectious diseases and emerging chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes which pose a serious threat to population health and health care resources. However in East Africa, there is limited literature in this research area. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and their correlates among adults in Temeke, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results of this study will help inform future research and potential preventive and therapeutic interventions against such chronic diseases. Methods The study design was a cross sectional epidemiological study. A total of 209 participants aged between 44 and 66 years were included in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to evaluate socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics. Blood samples were collected and analyzed to measure lipid profile and fasting glucose levels. Cardiovascular risk factors were defined using World Health Organization criteria. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 was 13% and 35%, among men and women (p = 0.0003, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 11% and 58% (p 0.9, women: >0.85 was 51% and 73% (p = 0.002 for men and women respectively. Women had 4.3 times greater odds of obesity (95% CI: 1.9–10.1, 14.2–fold increased odds for abdominal adiposity (95% CI: 5.8–34.6, and 2.8 times greater odds of high waist-hip-ratio (95% CI: 1.4–5.7, compared to men. Women had more than three-fold greater odds of having metabolic syndrome (p = 0.001 compared to male counterparts, including abdominal obesity, low HDL-cholesterol, and high fasting blood glucose components. In contrast, female participants had 50% lower odds of having hypertension, compared to men (95%CI: 0.3–1.0. Among men, BMI and waist circumference were significantly correlated with blood pressure, triglycerides
Zago-Gomes, Maria P.; Stantolin, Gustavo C.; Perazzio, Sandro; Aikawa, Kioshi H.; Gonçalves, Carlos S.; Pereira, Fausto E.L.
This report describes the prevalence of anti-HAV antibodies in children from elementary school in the Municipality of Vila Velha, ES, Brazil. Anti-HAV antibodies were investigated by ELISA method in the serum of 606 children (four to fourteen years old) from three elementary schools, located in neighborhoods with varying household monthly income levels: São José School, 200 chidren, household income higher than US$700; São Torquato School, 273 children, US$200 to 300; and Cobi School, 133 chi...
Feb 7, 2011 ... ventilation can promote photosynthesis, metabolites and accumulation of ... artificial ventilation, thereby setting different ventilation frequency .... light conditions. Effects of different rhizosphere ventilation treatment on plant height. Effects of different irrigation on plant height, in conditions of a certain ...
Prolactin is a peptide hormone which is secreted from hypophysis. Prolactin concentration differs in male and female. Even though prolactin has lactotpope effect, it has disturbances effects on pulsatory secretion of gonadotropins as well as on ovulation. In spite of different plasma level of prolactin in different seasons, the ...
Bromberger, Joyce T.; Harlow, Sioban; Avis, Nancy; Kravitz, Howard M.; Cordal, Adriana
Objectives. We examined racial/ethnic differences in significant depressive symptoms among middle-aged women before and after adjustment for socioeconomic, health-related, and psychosocial characteristics. Methods. Racial/ethnic differences in unadjusted and adjusted prevalence of significant depressive symptoms (score ≥ 16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CES-D] Scale) were assessed with univariate and multiple logistic regressions. Results. Twenty-four percent of the sample had a CES-D score of 16 or higher. Unadjusted prevalence varied by race/ethnicity (P women had the highest odds, and Chinese and Japanese women had the lowest odds, for a CES-D score of 16 or higher. This variation is in part because of health-related and psychosocial factors that are linked to socioeconomic status. PMID:15284047
van Brummen, Henriette Jorien; Bruinse, Hein W; van de Pol, Geerte; Heintz, A Peter M; van der Vaart, C Huub
A prospective cohort study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of pregnancy and childbirth in nulliparous pregnant women. The focus of this paper is on the difference in the prevalences and risk factors for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) between woman who delivered vaginally or by cesarean and secondly the effect of LUTS on the quality of life between these two groups was analyzed. Included were 344 nulliparous pregnant women who completed four questionnaires with the Urogenital Distress Inventory and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ). Two groups were formed: vaginal delivery group (VD), which included spontaneous vaginal delivery and an instrumental vaginal delivery and cesarean delivery group (CD). No statistical significant differences were found in the prevalences of LUTS during pregnancy between the two groups. Three months after childbirth, urgency and urge urinary incontinence (UUI) are less prevalent in the CD group, but no statistical difference was found 1 year postpartum. Stress incontinence was significantly more prevalent in the VD group at 3 and 12 months postpartum. The presence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in early pregnancy is predictive for SUI both in the VD as in CD group. A woman who underwent a CD and had SUI in early pregnancy had an 18 times higher risk of having SUI in year postpartum. Women were more embarrassed by urinary frequency after a VD. After a CD, 9% experienced urge urinary incontinence. Urge incontinence affected the emotional functioning more after a cesarean, but the domain scores on the IIQ were low, indicating a minor restriction in lifestyle. In conclusion, after childbirth, SUI was significantly more prevalent in the group who delivered vaginally. Besides a vaginal delivery, we found both in the VD and in the CD group that the presence of SUI in early pregnancy increased the risk for SUI 1 year after childbirth. Further research is necessary to evaluate the effect of SUI in early pregnancy on SUI
The study examined gender differences on the perceived effectiveness of physical punishment among selected secondary school students in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This was with the view of investigating and evaluating gender differences on the effects of physical punishment in encouraging or discouraging effective and ...
De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Haesebrouck, F; De Vliegher, S
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the main cause of bovine intramammary infections (IMI) in many countries. Despite a high prevalence of CNS IMI at parturition, species-specific risk factor studies, relying on accurate identification methods, are lacking. Therefore, this observational study aimed at determining the prevalence and distribution of different CNS species causing IMI in fresh heifers and dairy cows in Flemish dairy herds and identifying associated species- and subgroup-specific risk factors at the herd, cow, and quarter level. The effect on udder health was investigated as well. Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. sciuri, and S. cohnii were the most frequently isolated species. The only CNS species causing IMI in fresh heifers and dairy cows in all herds was Staphylococcus chromogenes, whereas large between-herd differences in distribution were observed for the other species. Quarters from heifers and quarters with an inverted teat end had higher odds of being infected with S. chromogenes, S. simulans, or S. xylosus as well as with S. chromogenes solely. Prepartum teat apex colonization with S. chromogenes increased the likelihood of S. chromogenes IMI in the corresponding quarters at parturition. Quarters with dirty teat apices before calving were more likely to be infected with S. cohnii, S. equorum, S. saprophyticus, or S. sciuri, supporting the environmental nature of these CNS species. Three species (S. chromogenes, S. simulans, and S. xylosus) were associated with a higher quarter somatic cell count at parturition as compared with uninfected quarters. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Onvani, Shokouh; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Azadbakht, Leila
Background: Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) eating plan is a healthy dietary pattern. Our object is to review surveys in the field of major components of DASH diet and different kinds of cancers. Materials and Methods: Our search result from PubMed search engine recruited to find related articles. Results: Adherence to the DASH diet components was significantly related to lower prevalence of various cancers due to their high content of fiber, nutrients, vitamins, mineral, and a...
Álvarez, Cristian; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Izquierdo, Mikel
Our aim was to investigate the effects and prevalence of nonresponders (NR) to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and resistance training (RT) in women with insulin resistance on cardiometabolic health parameters. Sedentary overweight/obese insulin-resistant women (age = 33.5 ± 6.5 yr; body mass index = 29.9 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 ) were randomly assigned to a triweekly HIIT program (HIIT; n = 18) or resistance training (RT; n = 17). Anthropometry (body mass, fat mass, muscle mass, waist circumference, and skinfold thickness), cardiovascular (blood pressure), metabolic [fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], as well as muscle strength, and endurance performance covariables were measured before and after 12 wk in both intervention groups. The interindividual variability to exercise training of the subjects was categorized as responders and NR using as cut points two times the typical error of measurement in mean outcomes. After intervention, significant reduction in waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, fat mass, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR ( P training. A uniqueness of the present study was to examine the NR prevalence in women with insulin resistance after high-intensity interval (HIIT) and resistance training (RT). This study demonstrates that 12 wk of HIIT and RT have similar effects and NR prevalence to improve glucose control variables. However, significantly different NR prevalence were observed in other anthropometric, cardiovascular, strength, and endurance performance measurements. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Allers, Maarten A.; Hoeben, Corine
Using a unique 10-year dataset of all 458 Dutch municipalities, we apply a differences-in-differences approach to estimate the effect of unit-based pricing on household waste quantities and recycling. Community-level studies of unit-based pricing typically do not include fixed effects at the local
Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale
The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged between 13 and 30 years in private and public schools and universities in Lebanon over 5 months. A self-administered questionnaire was used inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, consumption patterns, attitudes and beliefs about energy drinks. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Data was analyzed using SPSS 17. We studied 1500 students (mean age: 18.92 ± 1.85; 51.3% were males). The overall prevalence of energy drinks consumption was 63.6% (60.5% were males), among which 50.5% used alcoholic energy drinks. Respondents indicated that most consumed energy drinks were "Red Bull" and "Boom Boom" (70.9% and 51.5% respectively). In total, 64.5% of participants believed the effect of these drinks in energizing the body, and 72.7% believed that they can stimulate intellectual capacities. In addition, 29.6% of consumers experienced at least one adverse effect, where tachycardia was reported in 21.1% of cases. On the other hand, desired effects felt after consumption were mostly pleasure (33.8%). Males had a 3-time more risk of consuming such drinks compared to females (OR: 0.381, P energy drinks consumption and regions outside Beirut (OR: 1.401, P: 0.006; 95% CI: 1.103-1.781), medical field of work (OR: 0.376, P: 0.010; 95% CI: 0.179-0.790) and higher personal income (OR: 1.317, P energy drinks consumption among youth. The current results highlight the importance of education to prevent the consumption of energy drinks in excessive quantities and modifying some wrong perceptions regarding the benefits
Aydinok, Yesim; Porter, John B; Piga, Antonio; Elalfy, Mohsen; El-Beshlawy, Amal; Kilinç, Yurdanur; Viprakasit, Vip; Yesilipek, Akif; Habr, Dany; Quebe-Fehling, Erhard; Pennell, Dudley J
The randomized comparison of deferasirox to deferoxamine for myocardial iron removal in patients with transfusion-dependent anemias (CORDELIA) gave the opportunity to assess relative prevalence and body distribution of iron overload in screened patients. Patients aged ≥ 10 yr with transfusion-dependent anemias from 11 countries were screened. Data were summarized descriptively, overall and across regions. Among 925 patients (99.1% with β-thalassemia major; 98.5% receiving prior chelation; mean age 19.2 yr), 36.7% had myocardial iron overload (myocardial T2* ≤ 20 ms), 12.1% had low left ventricular ejection fraction. Liver iron concentration (LIC) (mean 25.8 mg Fe/g dw) and serum ferritin (median 3702 ng/mL) were high. Fewer patients in the Middle East (ME; 28.5%) had myocardial T2* ≤ 20 ms vs. patients in the West (45.9%) and Far East (FE, 40.9%). Patients in the West had highest myocardial iron burden, but lowest LIC (26.9% with LIC < 7 mg Fe/g dw) and serum ferritin. Among patients with normal myocardial iron, a higher proportion of patients from the ME and FE had LIC ≥ 15 than < 7 mg Fe/g dw (ME, 56.7% vs. 17.2%; FE, 78.6% vs. 7.8%, respectively), a trend which was less evident in the West (44.6% vs. 33.9%, respectively). Transfusion and chelation practices differed between regions. Evidence of substantial myocardial and liver iron burden across regions revealed a need for optimization of effective, convenient iron chelation regimens. Significant regional variation exists in myocardial and liver iron loading that are not well explained; improved understanding of factors contributing to differences in body iron distribution may be of clinical benefit. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Sand fly saliva compounds are able to elicit specific immune responses that have a significant role in Leishmania parasite establishment and disease outcome. Characterizing anti-saliva immune responses in individuals living in well defined leishmaniasis endemic areas would provide valuable insights regarding their effect on parasite transmission and establishment in humans.We explored the cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus (P. papatasi salivary gland extracts (SGE in individuals living in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL old or emerging foci (OF, EF. OF was characterized by a higher infection prevalence as assessed by higher proportions of leishmanin skin test (LST positive individuals compared to EF. Subjects were further subdivided into healed, asymptomatic or naïve groups. We showed anti-SGE proliferation in less than 30% of the individuals, regardless of the immune status, in both foci. IFN-γ production was higher in OF and only observed in immune individuals from OF and naïve subjects from EF. Although IL-10 was not detected, addition of anti-human IL-10 antibodies revealed an increase in proliferation and IFN-γ production only in individuals from OF. The percentage of seropositive individuals was similar in immune and naïves groups but was significantly higher in OF. No correlation was observed between anti-saliva immune responses and LST response. High anti-SGE-IgG responses were associated with an increased risk of developing ZCL. No differences were observed for anti-SGE humoral or cellular responses among naïve individuals who converted or not their LST response or developed or not ZCL after the transmission season.These data suggest that individuals living in an old focus characterized by a frequent exposure to sand fly bites and a high prevalence of infection, develop higher anti-saliva IgG responses and IFN-γ levels and a skew towards a Th2-type cellular response, probably in favor of parasite establishment
Full Text Available Background: Body builder athletes’ high attention to form of body can result in high prevalence of nutritional disorders and habit to energizer drugs consumption. With notice to abuse problems of these drugs, this research was carried out to estimate prevalence of energizer drugs and supplements consumption in Karaj body builder men in 2011. Method: In cross-sectional (description- analytical research 780 Karaj body builder men were selected randomly. Data were collected through interview with questionnaires containing demographic questions and using information of drugs. Data were analyzed with SPSS software (Ver. 19 and κ² test with meaningful level of P<0.05. Result: Prevalence of consumption in studied sample from different types of supplements and energizer drugs was estimated 88.2%. The most consumption prevalence belonged to food supplements and vitamins group and combination of those (69.9%. About anabolic and energizer compounds and also hormonal drugs and corticosteroids, prevalence was 5.6% and 2.1% respectively and 7.7% totally. There was meaningful relation between experience times of abuse problems, place of drug and supplement supply and attention to being permissible or impermissible of those items with type of drugs or supplement (P = 0.001. Also relation between consumption of supplements and drugs with main goal in using them was meaningful (P = 0.045. Conclusion: Consumption of supplement and energizer drugs in Karaj body builder men has high prevalence.
Saha, Soma; Saini, Savita; Makharia, Govind K; Datta Gupta, Siddhartha; Goswami, Ravinder
Patients with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IH) require variable doses of calcium and 1-α-(OH)D. The reasons for such variability are not clear. As autoimmune mechanisms may play a role in IH, there is a possibility of coexistent coeliac disease with calcium/vitamin D malabsorption. We assessed the prevalence of coeliac disease and antitissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (anti-tTGAbs) in IH and analysed the effect of a gluten-free diet on calcaemic control. A total of 171 patients with IH and 126 healthy controls were screened for anti-tTGAb. IH patients with anti-tTGAb >20 RU/ml underwent duodenoscopy and intestinal biopsy; those with biopsy-proven coeliac disease were followed up on a gluten-free diet. Eleven of 171 (6·4%) patients with IH and seven of 126 (5·6%) controls had anti-tTGAb (P = 0·81). There was no difference in the clinical and biochemical parameters at diagnosis and during long-term follow-up of 7·2 ± 4·8 year (mean serum total calcium = 1·88 ± 0·16 vs 1·82 ± 0·36 mmol/l, P = 0·52; phosphorus = 1·81 ± 0·17 vs 1·87 ± 0·36 mmol/l, P = 0·53) in IH patients with and without anti-tTGAb. Although CaSRAb positivity was comparable in the two groups, IH patients with anti-tTGAb had higher TPOAb positivity (45·5% vs 12·8%, P = 0·02). Coeliac disease was diagnosed in only 2/9 patients with IH on biopsy, both of whom showed improved calcaemic control with a gluten-free diet. The prevalence of coeliac autoimmunity (6·4%) and coeliac disease (1·2%) in patients with IH seems to be similar to that in the general population. Notwithstanding this modest prevalence, it is important to be aware of the potential occurrence of coeliac disease with IH and the beneficial effect of a gluten-free diet on calcium control. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tay, Sun Tee; Mohamed Zan, Hafizatul Anis; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Ngui, Romano
Background Limited data is available on the current status of scrub typhus infection in the aboriginal population in Malaysia. This study was aimed to provide recent data on the degree of exposure of 280 individuals from seven aboriginal subgroups to Orientia tsutsugamushi (causative agent of scrub typhus) in West Malaysia. The environment, socioeconomic and behavioural risk factors associated with the disease were also investigated. Methods/Findings The antibody prevalence to O. tsutsugamushi ranged from 0 to 36.4% in seven subgroups, with high prevalence rates noted in subgroups involved in agricultural activity and the lowest prevalence rates noted in subgroups whose main occupations were associated to fishing. Univariate analysis indicated populations with age above 18 years (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.02–1.30, P = 0.015), working (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.01–3.92, P = 0.044), working at agriculture area (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.98–1.42, P = 0.031), receiving household income less than US$ 166.7 (RM500) per month (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.16–5.11, P = 0.016) and having close contact with animal pets (OR = 4.06, 95% CI = 1.20–13.76, P = 0.016) are significantly associated with exposure to O. tsutsugamushi. Multivariate analysis confirms that participants who are above 18 years old, receiving household income less than US$ 166.7 (RM500) per month and having close contact with animal pets are 3.6 times (95% CI = 1.81–7.03, Ppopulation in Malaysia. Awareness about the disease and education on the preventive measures are important in reducing the risk of acquiring scrub typhus in the population studied. PMID:23936576
Lai, Der-Chung; Tseng, Yen-Cheng; Hou, Yuh-Ming; Guo, How-Ran
Intellectual disability (ID) is not uncommon in children, but data at the national level are limited, especially those on geographic differences. On the basis of the Disabled Welfare Law, Taiwan began to certify disabled residents and provide various services in 1980. All the cases are registered, and the registry provides a rare opportunity for studying ID at the national level. Using the data from 2004 to 2010, we calculated the prevalence of ID in children by age, gender, and geographic area and assessed the changes over time. We limited analyses to children at least 3 years of age, because certification before 3 years old is discouraged by the government. We found that from 2004 to 2010, the registered cases between 3 and 17 years old ranged from 20,531 to 23,547, and the prevalence of ID increased constantly from 4.40/1000 to 5.79/1000 (p<0.01), which generally increased every year in all age groups (p<0.01). In each year there were more boy cases than girl cases, and the boy-to-girl ratio generally decreased with age (p<0.01 for chi-square test for trend in all years). The prevalence rate ratio ranged from 1.33 to 1.37 (p<0.01 in all years), and the changes in the rate ratio were small over the years. We observed a higher prevalence in the rural areas over the years, and the prevalence rate ratio ranged from 1.34 to 1.43 (p<0.01 in all years), with an increasing trend over time (p<0.01). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Horner, C; Wilcox, M; Barr, B; Hall, D; Hodgson, G; Parnell, P; Tompkins, D
Objectives To determine the prevalence and health outcomes of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonisation in elderly care home residents. To measure the effectiveness of improving infection prevention knowledge and practice on MRSA prevalence. Setting Care homes for elderly residents in Leeds, UK. Participants Residents able to give informed consent. Design A controlled intervention study, using a stepped wedge design, comprising 65 homes divided into three groups. Baseline MRSA prevalence was determined by screening the nares of residents (n=2492). An intervention based upon staff education and training on hand hygiene was delivered at three different times according to group number. Scores for three assessment methods, an audit of hand hygiene facilities, staff hand hygiene observations and an educational questionnaire, were collected before and after the intervention. After each group of homes received the intervention, all participants were screened for MRSA nasal colonisation. In total, four surveys took place between November 2006 and February 2009. Results MRSA prevalence was 20%, 19%, 22% and 21% in each survey, respectively. There was a significant improvement in scores for all three assessment methods post-intervention (p≤0.001). The intervention was associated with a small but significant increase in MRSA prevalence (p=0.023). MRSA colonisation was associated with previous and subsequent MRSA infection but was not significantly associated with subsequent hospitalisation or mortality. Conclusions The intervention did not result in a decrease in the prevalence of MRSA colonisation in care home residents. Additional measures will be required to reduce endemic MRSA colonisation in care homes.
Wang, Chunxiu; Wei, Daying; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Konglai; Ma, Mingju; Pan, Li; Yu, Tao; Xue, Fang; Shan, Guangliang
Yi people are the most primitive society in China. Little information on the metabolic syndrome (MS) is available in Yi people. We explored whether differing lifestyle affected the prevalence of MS among farmers and migrants of Yi ethnicity and Han population in one of the Southwestern parts of China. The prevalence of MS among the three populations was described under the same International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. The study populations comprised of 1,535 Yi farmers, 1,306 Yi migrants and 2,130 Han people. The effects of physical activity, obesity and other risk factor on MS were evaluated. Results showed that the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of MS was 9.9 times higher in Yi migrants (23.8%) and 6.3 times higher in Han people (15.2%) than in Yi farmers (2.4%). In addition, the prevalence of MS increased significantly with age in both sexes, except for a slight increase in Yi farmers. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was much lower in Yi farmers (9.3% in men and 16.5% in women) than that in Yi migrants (46.2% in men and 34.8% in women) and Han people (40.6% in men and 31.9% in women). Levels of physical activity were much greater in Yi farmers than in Yi migrants and Han people. These results indicated that lifestyle had strongly influenced the development of MS in Han and Yi Chinese and our study provided one more piece of evidence imputing that high prevalence of MS might be related to a change in lifestyle associated with urbanization.
Zago-Gomes Maria P.
Full Text Available This report describes the prevalence of anti-HAV antibodies in children from elementary school in the Municipality of Vila Velha, ES, Brazil. Anti-HAV antibodies were investigated by ELISA method in the serum of 606 children (four to fourteen years old from three elementary schools, located in neighborhoods with varying household monthly income levels: São José School, 200 chidren, household income higher than US$700; São Torquato School, 273 children, US$200 to 300; and Cobi School, 133 children, less than US$200. From each children data on age, gender, skin color, sanitary conditions, frequency of contact with sea or river water and family history of hepatitis were recorded. Anti-HAV antibodies were present in 38.6% of all children, 9% in São José School, 49.1% in São Torquato School and 61.7% in Cobi School. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated a positive correlation of positive anti-HAV test with age, non white color of the skin, absence of sewage treatment and domestic water filter, and a past history of hepatitis. The prevalence of anti-HAV antibodies in school children in Vila Velha, ES, was lower than that observed in the same age group in North and Northeast Brazil and was significantly higher in children from families with low socioeconomic status. In addition the results indicate a changing epidemiologic pattern of hepatitis A in our country, with an increasing number of children and adolescents with high risk for HAV infection, mainly in high socioeconomic class. A consideration must be given to the feasibility of vaccination programs for children and adolescents in our country.
Al-barwani, Sulayma A; Bayoumi, Riad A; Jaju, Deepali; Al-Yahyaee, Saeed A S; Al-Hadabi, Saleh; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan C; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Hassan, Mohammed O
The aim of this study was to investigate causes of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in multiparous Omani Arab women using the International Diabetes Federation definition (IDF). Of 392 married women (mean age 40 years), 354 (90%) were multiparous with an average parity of 8. They were divided into four parity groups: Para 0, Para 1-3, Para 4-6, and Para >6. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fasting, and 2-hour glucose and insulin, plasma lipids, serum leptin, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured. In the whole cohort, the IDF definition identified 28% women with the metabolic syndrome, whereas it identified 48% in Para >6. In comparison, the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) definition identified 21% and 39%, respectively (kappa = 0.642). Waist circumference was positively associated with the number of live births (beta = 0.78, p = 0.0001). Compared to other individual IDF criteria, only age-adjusted large waist circumference carried the highest risk for having the metabolic syndrome in all groups (odds ratio [OR], 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-5.4, 3.2, CI, 1.3-8 and 4.8, CI, 2.1-11.2). The high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in multiparous Omani Arab women appeared to be influenced by the parity-related large waist circumference. The high dependency of the IDF criteria on waist circumference for the definition of the metabolic syndrome in this population has led to the misclassification of such women.
Coward, Amy; Kenna, Dervla T D; Perry, Claire; Martin, Kate; Doumith, Michel; Turton, Jane F
We aimed to estimate the prevalence of different Achromobacter species among UK Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. nrdA sequence clustering was used to identify 147 Achromobacter isolates from 96 patients from 27 hospitals to species level. Potential cross-infection was investigated by MLST, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole genome sequencing (WGS). Achromobacter xylosoxidans was the most prevalent species affecting 59 of 96 (61%) patients, followed by Achromobacter insuavis and Achromobacter dolens (12.4% and 8%, respectively). Three novel nrdA clusters were identified. One was further characterised by sequencing the intrinsic blaOXA gene, revealing novel variants. WGS of A. insuavis 2a isolates from four patients attending the same paediatric unit revealed that three were ST144, but differed from one another by a minimum of 385 SNPs, suggesting cross-infection was unlikely. nrdA sequence clustering permitted an estimation of UK Achromobacter species prevalence, highlighted additional novel species, and aided cross-infection investigations. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
López Jordi, María del Carmen; Cortese, Silvina G; Álvarez, Licet; Salveraglio, Inés; Ortolani, Andrea M; Biondi, Ana M
The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among children with different health care coverage in Buenos Aires and Montevideo. An observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study was designed, considering children born from 1993-2003 who were seen in the Chairs of Comprehensive Children's Dentistry (Universidad de Buenos Aires) and of Pediatric Dentistry (Universidad de la República) and at five private dental offices between April and December 2010. Two groups were defined: A (Buenos Aires; n=1,090) and B (Montevideo; n=626). The clinical diagnosis was carried out with calibrated examiners (Kappa: 0.94) using the Mathu-Muju and Wright criteria. The prevalence of MIH was found to be 16.1% in A and 12.3% in B (p=0.03), with statistically significant differences between the public and private care sectors in both groups (A p=0.0008; B p=0.0004) and a positive correlation between MIH and year of birth (A p=0.001; B p=0.005). The results show that MIH is an emerging pathology and that MIH prevalence is related to year of birth and access to health care.
Onvani, Shokouh; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Azadbakht, Leila
Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) eating plan is a healthy dietary pattern. Our object is to review surveys in the field of major components of DASH diet and different kinds of cancers. Our search result from PubMed search engine recruited to find related articles. Adherence to the DASH diet components was significantly related to lower prevalence of various cancers due to their high content of fiber, nutrients, vitamins, mineral, and antioxidant capacity. In this review, positive association of DASH diet components and different cancers were observed. However, the exact association of DASH with cancers should be clarified in future longitudinal studies due to potential interaction among foods and nutrients.
Bogado Pascottini, O; Hostens, M; Sys, P; Vercauteren, P; Opsomer, G
The aims of our field study in dairy cows were (1) to consolidate cytotape (CT) as a valid technique to diagnose cytological endometritis (CYTO) during artificial insemination (AI); (2) to establish a cutoff point concerning the polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) proportion to diagnose CYTO at AI; (3) to assess the prevalence of CYTO at AI; and (4) to evaluate the effect of CYTO on the pregnancy outcome of that AI. The investigation was performed using 1,625 AI-CT samples harvested from 873 Holstein-Friesian cows from 18 dairy farms in the Flemish region of Belgium. The CT device consisted of adapting a 1.5-cm piece of paper tape on the top of a conventional AI catheter covered with a double guard sheet, allowing an endometrial cytology sample to be taken when performing an AI. A receiving operator characteristic curve was built to assess the threshold level above which the PMN proportion significantly affected the AI success. Multilevel generalized mixed-effect models were built to identify factors affecting the pregnancy outcome of the AI under investigation. Only 7 samples (0.4%) harvested in 5 cows were discarded because of low-quality parameters. The cutoff point for CYTO at AI was set at ≥1% PMN (sensitivity=33.8%, specificity=88.6%). Prevalence of CYTO at AI was 27.8%. The conception rate for CYTO-positive samples was 32.7%, whereas it was 47% for CYTO-negative samples. A CYTO-negative AI had 1.8 [odds ratio (OR)] more chances to become pregnant than a CYTO-positive one. Other factors identified as detrimental for the pregnancy outcome were body condition score ≤1.5 (OR=0.6), relative 305-d milk yield (OR=0.9), dystocia (OR=0.3), parity ≥2 (OR=0.7), and warm months of the year. In conclusion, CT is a consolidated technique to diagnose CYTO at AI, PMN 1% is the threshold level to diagnose CYTO at AI, around one-quarter of inseminated uteri suffer from CYTO, and affected uteri having a significantly lower chance to become pregnant from that insemination
Full Text Available Abstract Background While Italy has implemented some tobacco control policies over the last few decades, which resulted in a decreased smoking prevalence, there is still considerable scope to strengthen tobacco control policies consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO policy guidelines. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of past and project the effect of future tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality in Italy. Methods To assess, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies, we used the SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy. The model uses population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Italy. Results Significant reductions of smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tobacco price increases, high intensity media campaigns, comprehensive cessation treatment program, strong health warnings, stricter smoke-free air regulations and advertising bans, and youth access laws. With a comprehensive approach, the smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 12% soon after the policies are in place, increasing to a 30% reduction in the next twenty years and a 34% reduction by 30 years in 2040. Without effective tobacco control policies, a total of almost 300 thousand lives will be prematurely lost due to smoking by the year 2040. Conclusion Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model helps identify information gaps in surveillance and evaluation schemes that will promote the effectiveness of future tobacco control policy in Italy.
Full Text Available Introduction: Allergic rhinitis (AR is a common airway disease. In order to study the prevalence of AR in high school students in Kerman, the Score for Allergic Rhinitis (SFAR was used and the quality of life in the students affected by rhinitis was evaluated using the SF-36 questionnaire. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, analytical, descriptive study, based on the SFAR scale. Quality of life in students with AR was evaluated using the SF-36 questionnaire. Results: From 1511 students who