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Sample records for prevalence effects differ

  1. Bullying victimization prevalence and its effects on psychosomatic complaints: can sense of coherence make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moya, Irene; Suominen, Sakari; Moreno, Carmen

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization and its impact on physical and psychological complaints in a representative sample of adolescents and to explore the role of sense of coherence (SOC) in victimization prevalence and consequences. A representative sample of Spanish adolescents (N = 7580, mean age = 15.41) was selected as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Bullying victimization, physical and psychological symptoms, and SOC were measured, and comparisons were made between strong- and weak-SOC adolescents regarding their likelihood of being a victim of bullying and the negative effects of bullying victimization on their health. Weak-SOC adolescents were significantly more likely to suffer from bullying victimization regardless of type (nonphysical vs physical and nonphysical) or means (traditional vs cyberbullying). In addition, bullying victimization showed significant increasing effects on weak-SOC adolescents' physical and psychological symptoms whereas in strong-SOC adolescents it was not significantly associated with increases in physical complaints and its effects on psychological complaints seemed to be weaker. Weak-SOC adolescents seem to be at higher risk of becoming bullying victims and victimization experiences appear to have increased negative effects on them when compared to strong-SOC students. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  2. Bullying Victimization Prevalence and Its Effects on Psychosomatic Complaints: Can Sense of Coherence Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moya, Irene; Suominen, Sakari; Moreno, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization and its impact on physical and psychological complaints in a representative sample of adolescents and to explore the role of sense of coherence (SOC) in victimization prevalence and consequences. Methods: A representative sample of Spanish adolescents (N =…

  3. Cancer screening in Portugal: sex differences in prevalence, awareness of organized programmes and perception of benefits and adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Rute; Silva, Susana; Moura-Ferreira, Pedro; Villaverde-Cabral, Manuel; Santos, Osvaldo; Carmo, Isabel do; Barros, Henrique; Lunet, Nuno

    2017-04-01

    Cancer screening has contributed to downward trends in cancer mortality, but is also associated with adverse effects, which highlights the importance of promoting the participation based on informed decisions. We aimed to describe the use of cancer screening (either in organized programmes or as opportunistic screening), awareness of organized programmes and perception of its potential benefits and adverse effects, depicting possible sex differences. We evaluated 1624 Portuguese-speaking dwellers, aged between 16 and 79 years, through face-to-face interviews. To quantify sex differences, adjusted prevalence ratios and respective 95% confidence intervals were computed using Poisson regression. Among eligible age groups, the lifetime prevalence of screening for breast and cervical cancers was 89.8 and 71.9%, respectively. The prevalence was 23.7% for colorectal cancer and no significant sex differences were observed. Prostate cancer screening was reported by 63.8% of men. Over half of the participants referred that cancers such as prostate, skin, lung and stomach should be screened for, in addition to those for which organized programmes are recommended. Reassurance by negative results was identified as the main potential benefit of screening by nearly one-third of men and women. Anxiety while waiting for results was the most mentioned potential adverse effect (60.4%); men refer less often this and financial costs, although statistical significance of these results was borderline. This study provides a benchmark to plan and monitor the effects of awareness-raising interventions, as well as for international comparisons across countries with different cancer prevention and control structures. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Lower prevalence of carotid plaque hemorrhage in women, and its mediator effect on sex differences in recurrent cerebrovascular events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neghal Kandiyil

    Full Text Available Women are at lower risk of stroke, and appear to benefit less from carotid endarterectomy (CEA than men. We hypothesised that this is due to more benign carotid disease in women mediating a lower risk of recurrent cerebrovascular events. To test this, we investigated sex differences in the prevalence of MRI detectable plaque hemorrhage (MRI PH as an index of plaque instability, and secondly whether MRI PH mediates sex differences in the rate of cerebrovascular recurrence.Prevalence of PH between sexes was analysed in a single centre pooled cohort of 176 patients with recently symptomatic, significant carotid stenosis (106 severe [≥70%], 70 moderate [50-69%] who underwent prospective carotid MRI scanning for identification of MRI PH. Further, a meta-analysis of published evidence was undertaken. Recurrent events were noted during clinical follow up for survival analysis.Women with symptomatic carotid stenosis (50%≥ were less likely to have plaque hemorrhage (PH than men (46% vs. 70% with an adjusted OR of 0.23 [95% CI 0.10-0.50, P<0.0001] controlling for other known vascular risk factors. This negative association was only significant for the severe stenosis subgroup (adjusted OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.067-0.50 not the moderate degree stenosis. Female sex in this subgroup also predicted a longer time to recurrent cerebral ischemic events (HR 0.38 95% CI 0.15-0.98, P = 0.045. Further addition of MRI PH or smoking abolished the sex effects with only MRI PH exerting a direct effect. Meta-analysis confirmed a protective effect of female sex on development of PH: unadjusted OR for presence of PH = 0.54 (95% CI 0.45-0.67, p<0.00001.MRI PH is significantly less prevalent in women. Women with MRI PH and severe stenosis have a similar risk as men for recurrent cerebrovascular events. MRI PH thus allows overcoming the sex bias in selection for CEA.

  5. Influence of country-level differences on COPD prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron SD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Shawn D Aaron,1 Andrea S Gershon,2 Yuan Gao,1 Jenna Yang,1 GA Whitmore1,3 On behalf of the Canadian Respiratory Research Network 1Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, 2Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, ON, 3Desautels Faculty of Management, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada Purpose: Studies suggest that COPD prevalence may vary between countries. We conducted an ecological study of data from COPD prevalence articles to assess the influence of differences in country-level risk factors on COPD prevalence. Patients and methods: Our study covered English language articles published during 2003–2014. Qualified articles used spirometry to assess COPD prevalence and used representative samples from national or subnational populations. Stepwise binomial regression was used to analyze associations between study- and country-level factors and COPD prevalence. Results: Eighty articles provided 1,583 measures of COPD prevalence for subjects in different sex, age, and smoking categories for 112 districts in 41 countries. Adjusted prevalence rates for COPD were significantly lower for Australia/New Zealand and the Mediterranean and significantly higher for Latin America, compared to North America, Southeast Asia, and Northern Europe. Country-level socioeconomic development variables had an uneven and mixed association with COPD prevalence. High elevation above sea level was shown to be a protective factor for COPD. Study-level variables for the established risk factors of sex, age, and smoking explained 64% of variability in COPD prevalence. Country-level risk factors raised the explanatory power to 72%. Approximately 28% of worldwide variability in COPD prevalence remained unexplained. Conclusion: Our study suggests that COPD prevalence varies across world regions, even after adjustment for established risk factors. Major country-level risk factors contributing to the worldwide epidemic of COPD remain

  6. Cross-sectional analysis of the effects of age on the hormonal, metabolic, and ultrasonographic features and the prevalence of the different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panidis, Dimitrios; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Macut, Djuro; Delkos, Dimitrios; Betsas, George; Misichronis, Georgios; Katsikis, Ilias

    2012-02-01

    To assess the effects of age on the hormonal, metabolic, and ultrasonographic features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Observational study. University department of obstetrics and gynecology. Patients with PCOS (n = 1,212) and healthy women (n = 254). None. Differences in the hormonal, metabolic, and ultrasonographic features of PCOS between age groups. A progressive decline in circulating androgens was observed with advancing age. Patients 21-30 years old had lower plasma glucose and insulin levels, lower area under the oral glucose tolerance test curve and lower homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, and higher glucose/insulin and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index than patients 31-39 years old. The prevalence of PCOS phenotypes changed with age. More specifically, the distribution of the phenotypes did not differ substantially between patients ≤ 20 years old and patients 21-30 years old. However, a decline in the prevalence of phenotype 1 (characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenemia, and polycystic ovaries) and an increase in the prevalence of phenotype 4 (characterized by anovulation and polycystic ovaries without hyperandrogenemia) were observed in patients 31-39 years old. In women with PCOS, hyperandrogenemia appears to diminish during reproductive life whereas insulin resistance worsens. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Specific learning disorder: prevalence and gender differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Moll

    Full Text Available Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.

  8. Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in persons 60 years of age and older in the United States: effect of different methods of case classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Elizabeth K; Hirsch, Rosemarie; Paulose-Ram, Ryne; Hochberg, Marc C

    2003-04-01

    To determine prevalence estimates for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in noninstitutionalized older adults in the US. Prevalence estimates were compared using 3 different classification methods based on current classification criteria for RA. Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III) were used to generate prevalence estimates by 3 classification methods in persons 60 years of age and older (n = 5,302). Method 1 applied the "n of k" rule, such that subjects who met 3 of 6 of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1987 criteria were classified as having RA (data from hand radiographs were not available). In method 2, the ACR classification tree algorithm was applied. For method 3, medication data were used to augment case identification via method 2. Population prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were determined using the 3 methods on data stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, age, and education. Overall prevalence estimates using the 3 classification methods were 2.03% (95% CI 1.30-2.76), 2.15% (95% CI 1.43-2.87), and 2.34% (95% CI 1.66-3.02), respectively. The prevalence of RA was generally greater in the following groups: women, Mexican Americans, respondents with less education, and respondents who were 70 years of age and older. The prevalence of RA in persons 60 years of age and older is approximately 2%, representing the proportion of the US elderly population who will most likely require medical intervention because of disease activity. Different classification methods yielded similar prevalence estimates, although detection of RA was enhanced by incorporation of data on use of prescription medications, an important consideration in large population surveys.

  9. Standardized binomial models for risk or prevalence ratios and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Kinlaw, Alan C; MacLehose, Richard F; Cole, Stephen R

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiologists often analyse binary outcomes in cohort and cross-sectional studies using multivariable logistic regression models, yielding estimates of adjusted odds ratios. It is widely known that the odds ratio closely approximates the risk or prevalence ratio when the outcome is rare, and it does not do so when the outcome is common. Consequently, investigators may decide to directly estimate the risk or prevalence ratio using a log binomial regression model. We describe the use of a marginal structural binomial regression model to estimate standardized risk or prevalence ratios and differences. We illustrate the proposed approach using data from a cohort study of coronary heart disease status in Evans County, Georgia, USA. The approach reduces problems with model convergence typical of log binomial regression by shifting all explanatory variables except the exposures of primary interest from the linear predictor of the outcome regression model to a model for the standardization weights. The approach also facilitates evaluation of departures from additivity in the joint effects of two exposures. Epidemiologists should consider reporting standardized risk or prevalence ratios and differences in cohort and cross-sectional studies. These are readily-obtained using the SAS, Stata and R statistical software packages. The proposed approach estimates the exposure effect in the total population. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  10. Culture and crying : Prevalences and gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, D.A. van; Vijver, F.J.R. van de; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Results of a cross-cultural study of adult crying across 37 countries are presented. Analyses focused on country differences in recency of last crying episode and crying proneness and relationships with country characteristics. Three hypotheses on the nature of country differences in crying were

  11. The impact of different diagnostic criteria on PTSD prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja; Lasgaard, Mathias; Spindler, Helle

    2007-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria for PTSD have undergone several changes in the last two decades. This may in part explain the great variance in PTSD prevalence found in existing research. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of different diagnostic criteria and different combinations...... of criteria on PTSD prevalence. A sample of 242 Danish social work students (M =29.2 years) completed a list of potentially traumatizing events, major life events and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. A considerable difference in PTSD prevalence as a result of different diagnostic criteria of PTSD was found....... Future meta-analyses and reviews of PTSD prevalence must take into account the impact of changing criteria on prevalence. Clinicians also need to address this issue when assessing PTSD...

  12. Effect of the Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the Life Expectancy Rate on Economic Growth in SSA Countries: Difference GMM Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waziri, Salisu Ibrahim; Mohamed Nor, Norashidah; Raja Abdullah, Nik Mustapha; Adamu, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The productivity of countries around the globe is adversely affected by the health-related problems of their labour force. This study examined the effect of the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and life expectancy on the economic growth of 33 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries over a period of 11 years (2002-2012). The study employed a dynamic panel approach as opposed to the static traditional approach utilised in the literature. The dynamic approach became eminent because of the fact that HIV/AIDS is a dynamic variable as its prevalence today depends on the previous years. The result revealed that HIV/AIDS is negatively correlated with economic growth in the region, with a coefficient of 0.014, and significant at the 1% level. That is, a 10% increase in HIV/AIDS prevalence leads to a 0.14% decrease in the GDP of the region. Tackling HIV/AIDS is therefore imperative to the developing Sub-Saharan African region and all hands must be on deck to end the menace globally.

  13. Gender Difference in the Prevalence of Eating Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Rosselli, Francine; Perrin, Nancy; DeBar, Lynn; Wilson, G. Terence; May, Alexis; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study examined gender differences in prevalence of eating disorder symptoms including body image concerns (body checking or avoidance), binge eating, and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. Method A random sample of members (ages 18 to 35) of a health maintenance organization was recruited to complete a survey by mail or on-line. Items were drawn from the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results Among the 3,714 women and 1,808 men who responded, men were more likely to report overeating whereas women were more likely to endorse loss of control while eating. Although statistically significant gender differences were observe, with women significantly more likely than men to report body checking and avoidance, binge eating, fasting, and vomiting, effect sizes (“Number Needed to Treat”) were small to moderate. Conclusions Few studies of eating disorders include men, yet our findings suggest that a substantial minority of men also report eating disorder symptoms. PMID:19107833

  14. Ethnic differences in diabetes prevalence and ICT use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Kanayo; Mackay, Michael; Le-Brun, Stephanie Davis

    Uptake of information and communication technology (ICT) by individuals with diabetes can assist nursing care delivery, and improve patient outcomes. However, it is unclear how such uptake relates to ethnic differences in diabetes risk. To assess the moderating effects of ICT uptake on South Asian excess diabetes prevalence over a specific elapsed timeframe, accounting for selected environmental, socio-economic, and behavioural risk factors. Archived data from a UK Office for National Statistics household survey 2006-2011 (120 621 partly non-orthogonal participant records) were analysed using hierarchical binary logistic regression analyses. ICT uptake qualified ethnic differences in diabetes prevalence. Non-smoking diabetes cases living in terraced housing with a home computer were more likely to be South Asian than Caucasian. By contrast, such cases were more likely to be Caucasian if a computer was unavailable (OR: 0.61; CI: 0.43-0.86; P=0.005). Furthermore, diabetes cases from low-income, mobile-dependent homes were probably South Asian (OR: 0.05; CI: 0.00-0.50; P=0.012). Home computing was linked to better tobacco control among South Asians with diabetes living in terraced properties. Mobile phone dependence was pronounced in those that received income support. Implications for nursing care are considered.

  15. Geographical differences in the prevalence of hypospadias in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aho, Martti Olavi; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Juhani Tammela, Teuvo Leo; Auvinen, Anssi-Pekka

    2003-01-01

    Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies but the etiology is not fully understood. There seem to be genetic, endocrinological, and environmental factors involved. Great geographical variation in the prevalence of hypospadias has been reported both between and within countries. We studied the determinants of geographical variation in the prevalence of hypospadias in Finland. All patients treated for hypospadias in 1970-1996 before the age of 9 years among boys born in 1970-1986 were identified in the national hospital discharge registry. Prevalence of hypospadias was calculated for each of the 355 municipalities in Finland. Demographic data were obtained from Statistics Finland. Association of the explanatory factors with prevalence of hypospadias was assessed using Poisson regression methods. The prevalence of operated hypospadias varied between provinces and between university hospital districts, from a ratio of 0.65 to a ratio of 1.01. An association between the prevalence of hypospadias and the remoteness from the closest city was observed. There was no association with level of education, social class, or occupation. The observed differences in the prevalence of operated hypospadias in Finland may have several explanations. Different levels of ascertainment and both genetic and environmental factors can not be ruled out

  16. Gender differences in asthma prevalence: variations with socioeconomic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittleborough, Catherine R; Taylor, Anne W; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Gill, Tiffany K; Grant, Janet F; Adams, Robert J; Wilson, David H; Ruffin, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in health have been shown to vary for different diseases and by gender. This study aimed to examine gender differences in associations between asthma and socioeconomic disadvantage. Socioeconomic variables were assessed among men and women in the North West Adelaide Health Study, a representative population cohort (n = 4060) aged 18 years and over in metropolitan South Australia. Asthma was determined from spirometry and self-reported doctor diagnosis. The prevalence of asthma was 12.0% (95% CI: 11.1-13.1), and was significantly higher among women (13.5%) than men (10.5%). For participants aged 18-64 years a higher prevalence of asthma was associated with an education level of secondary school or lower, or not being in the paid labour force among men, and with a gross annual household income of $20,000 or less among women. Among socioeconomically advantaged groups, the prevalence of asthma was significantly higher among women than men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with higher asthma prevalence, although this varied by gender depending on the indicator of socioeconomic position used. Men with low education or those not employed in the paid labour force had higher asthma prevalence than more socioeconomically advantaged men. Women with low income had higher asthma prevalence than those with higher income. Among all socioeconomically advantaged groups, and also the low-income group, women experienced a higher prevalence of asthma than men.

  17. The spatial distribution of gender differences in obesity prevalence differs from overall obesity prevalence among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Danielle R; Taber, Daniel R; Hirsch, Jana A; Robinson, Whitney R

    2016-04-01

    Although obesity disparities between racial and socioeconomic groups have been well characterized, those based on gender and geography have not been as thoroughly documented. This study describes obesity prevalence by state, gender, and race and/or ethnicity to (1) characterize obesity gender inequality, (2) determine if the geographic distribution of inequality is spatially clustered, and (3) contrast the spatial clustering patterns of obesity gender inequality with overall obesity prevalence. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to calculate state-specific obesity prevalence and gender inequality measures. Global and local Moran's indices were calculated to determine spatial autocorrelation. Age-adjusted, state-specific obesity prevalence difference and ratio measures show spatial autocorrelation (z-score = 4.89, P-value obesity prevalence and obesity gender inequalities are not the same. High and low values of obesity prevalence and gender inequalities cluster in different areas of the United States. Clustering of gender inequality suggests that spatial processes operating at the state level, such as occupational or physical activity policies or social norms, are involved in the etiology of the inequality and necessitate further attention to the determinates of obesity gender inequality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

  19. Prevalence and awareness of obesity among people of different age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and awareness of obesity among people of different age groups in educational institutions in Morogoro, Tanzania. ... The four institutions included a primary and a secondary school, a teacher's training college and a university. ... Employed subjects had higher rate of obesity (22.2%) than pupils or students.

  20. The effect of Hurricane Katrina on the prevalence of health impairments and disability among adults in New Orleans: differences by age, race, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Narayan; Gregory, Jesse

    2013-03-01

    We examined the effects of Hurricane Katrina on disability-related measures of health among adults from New Orleans, U.S.A., in the year after the hurricane, with a focus on differences by age, race, and sex. Our analysis used data from the American Community Survey to compare disability rates between the pre-Katrina population of New Orleans with the same population in the year after Katrina (individuals were interviewed for the study even if they relocated away from the city). The comparability between the pre- and post-Katrina samples was enhanced by using propensity weights. We found a significant decline in health for the adult population from New Orleans in the year after the hurricane, with the disability rate rising from 20.6% to 24.6%. This increase in disability reflected a large rise in mental impairments and, to a lesser extent, in physical impairments. These increases were, in turn, concentrated among young and middle-aged black females. Stress-related factors likely explain why young and middle-aged black women experienced worse health outcomes, including living in dwellings and communities that suffered the most damage from the hurricane, household breakup, adverse outcomes for their children, and higher susceptibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of Hurricane Katrina on the prevalence of health impairments and disability among adults in New Orleans: Differences by age, race, and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Narayan; Gregory, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of Hurricane Katrina on disability-related measures of health among adults from New Orleans, U.S.A., in the year after the hurricane, with a focus on differences by age, race, and sex. Our analysis used data from the American Community Survey to compare disability rates between the pre-Katrina population of New Orleans with the same population in the year after Katrina (individuals were interviewed for the study even if they relocated away from the city). The comparability between the pre-and post-Katrina samples was enhanced by using propensity weights. We found a significant decline in health for the adult population from New Orleans in the year after the hurricane, with the disability rate rising from 20.6% to 24.6%. This increase in disability reflected a large rise in mental impairments and, to a lesser extent, in physical impairments. These increases were, in turn, concentrated among young and middle-aged black females. Stress-related factors likely explain why young and middle-aged black women experienced worse health outcomes, including living in dwellings and communities that suffered the most damage from the hurricane, household breakup, adverse outcomes for their children, and higher susceptibility. PMID:23321678

  2. Stillbirth prevalence in Brazil: an exploration of regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Taiana Silva; Pellanda, Lucia Campos; Doyle, Pat

    Brazil is a large, heterogeneous, and diverse country, marked by social, economic, and regional inequalities. Stillbirth is a global concern, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This study investigated the prevalence and possible determinants of stillbirth in different regions of Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study including all women of reproductive age who had had a pregnancy in the last five years, enrolled in the most recent Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS/PNDS-2006/07). Logistic regression was used to assess the association between region and other maternal characteristics and stillbirth risk. The prevalence of stillbirth in Brazil was 14.82 per 1000 births, with great variation by region of the country, and a higher prevalence among the most deprived. The North and Northeast regions had the highest odds of stillbirth compared to the Center-West, which persisted after adjustment for multiple confounders - including deprivation level and ethnicity. Low maternal age and maternal obesity were also related to higher odds of stillbirth. In Brazil, the region influences stillbirth risk, with much higher risk in the North and Northeast. Variation in socioeconomic level does not explain this finding. Further research on the subject should explore other possible explanations, such as antenatal care and type of delivery, as well as the role of the private and public health systems in determining stillbirth. Preventive strategies should be directed to these historically disadvantaged regions, such as guaranteeing access and quality of care during pregnancy and around the time of birth. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Extracellular Gd-CA: Differences in prevalence of NSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, Henrik S.; Marckmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Until recently it was believed that extracellular gadolinium-based contrast agents were safe for both the kidneys and all other organs within the dose range up to 0.3 mmol/kg body weight. However, in 2006, it was demonstrated that some gadolinium-based contrast agents may trig the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a generalized fibrotic disorder, in renal failure patients. As no prospective studies can be performed we must rely on retrospective data. From those data it is obvious that the prevalence of NSF is significantly higher after the unstable agent gadodiamide than after any other gadolinium-based agent (3-7% versus 0-1% per injection) in patients with reduced renal function. Prevalence after exposure to two gadodiamide injections is as high as 36% in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5. No report of NSF after the most stable agents has been reported in the peer-reviewed literature documenting that there is a difference between the various agents regarding triggering NSF

  4. Sex Differences in the Prevalence of Oppositional Defiant Disorder During Middle Childhood: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, David H; Hooley, Merrilyn; Sheen, Jade; McGillivray, Jane A; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2017-02-01

    This review provides a meta-analysed male:female prevalence ratio of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) during middle childhood in non-referred children. It also analyses sex differences in prevalence across cultures and over time. A systematic search for studies via the following sources was conducted: PsycInfo, Web of Knowledge, Medline Complete, Scopus, EMBASE, InfoRMIT, Psychological and Behavioural Sciences Collection, Cochrane Library, PubMed and ProQuest Health. The studies presented in two previous systematic reviews were also added to the search results. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were then applied and final studies were appraised for their methodological quality. Nineteen independent effect sizes met full inclusion criteria (aggregated sample N = 44,107). Overall, the prevalence of ODD was significantly higher in boys than girls (RR = 1.59, 95 % CI [1.36, 1.86], p  0.05). Sex differences in prevalence were significant in studies published prior to and post the year 2000 (RR = 1.57, 95 % CI [1.22, 2.02], p  0.05). The sex differences in ODD prevalence are discussed within the context of (i) predominant theories of sex differences in externalising behaviours, and (ii) departure from the sex-differences pattern found for other disruptive behavioural disorders.

  5. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Adolescents Smoking: Difference Between Korean and Korean-Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SoonBok E. Park, RN, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: These results highlight the differences of smoking prevalence and risk factors between Korean-Chinese students and Korean students. The findings may help health educators and researchers to better understand adolescent smoking and risk factors cross culturally and aid in the development of more effective education programs, which could lead to preventing tobacco use among these populations.

  6. Prevalence of Depression among Undergraduate Students: Gender and Age Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ghaedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Depressive disorders are the most typical disease affecting many different factors of humanity. University students may be at increased risk of depression owing to the pressure and stress they encounter. Therefore, the purpose of this study is comparing the level of depression among male and female athletes and non-athletes undergraduate student of private university in Esfahan, Iran. The participants in this research are composed of 400 male and female athletes as well as no-athletes Iranian undergraduate students. The Beck depression test (BDI was employed to measure the degree of depression. T-test was used to evaluate the distinction between athletes and non-athletes at P≤0.05. The ANOVA was conducted to examine whether there was a relationship between level of depression among non-athletes and athletes. The result showed that the prevalence rate of depression among non-athlete male undergraduate students is significantly higher than that of athlete male students. The results also presented that level of depression among female students is much more frequent compared to males. This can be due to the fatigue and lack of energy that are more frequent among female in comparison to the male students. Physical activity was negatively related to the level of depression by severity among male and female undergraduate students. However, there is no distinct relationship between physical activity and level of depression according to the age of athlete and nonathlete male and female undergraduate students. This study has essential implications for clinical psychology due to the relationship between physical activity and prevalence of depression.

  7. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among children of different ethnic origin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwirs, B.W.; Burger, H.; Schulpen, T.W.J.; Wiznitzer, M.; Fedder, H.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    The present study assesses the population prevalence of DSM-IV disorders among native and immigrant children living in low socio-economic status (SES) inner-city neighborhoods in the Netherlands. In the first phase of a two-phase epidemiological design, teachers screened an ethnically diverse sample

  8. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among children of different ethnic origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwirs, Barbara W. C.; Burger, Huibert; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; Wiznitzer, Martin; Fedder, Hans; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    The present study assesses the population prevalence of DSM-IV disorders among native and immigrant children living in low socio-economic status (SES) inner-city neighborhoods in the Netherlands. In the first phase of a two-phase epidemiological design, teachers screened an ethnically diverse sample

  9. Ethnic differences in age of onset and prevalence of disordered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study fills the hiatus in the existing South African literature with respect to age of onset and prevalence of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours across ethnic boundaries. Furthermore, it creates a foundation for developing appropriate strategies to address eating disorders in the multicultural South ...

  10. Differences in body composition and prevalence for postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence rate for postural deviations and body composition status among two racial groups in South Africa. The sample (n = 216) consisted of 89 African girls and 127 Caucasian girls. Anthropometric (BMI and percentage body fat) and body posture measurements were performed.

  11. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among children of different ethnic origin.

    OpenAIRE

    Zwirs, B.W.; Burger, H.; Schulpen, T.W.J.; Wiznitzer, M.; Fedder, H.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    The present study assesses the population prevalence of DSM-IV disorders among native and immigrant children living in low socio-economic status (SES) inner-city neighborhoods in the Netherlands. In the first phase of a two-phase epidemiological design, teachers screened an ethnically diverse sample of 2041 children aged 6-10 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In the second phase, a subsample of 253 children was psychiatrically examined, while their parents were i...

  12. Different reference BMDs affect the prevalence of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ki Jin; Chung, Chin Youb; Park, Moon Seok; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Moon, Sang Young; Lee, In Hyeok; Kim, Ka Hyun; Lee, Kyoung Min

    2016-05-01

    The T score represents the degree of deviation from the peak bone mineral density (BMD) (reference standard) in a population. Little has been investigated concerning the age at which the BMD reaches the peak value and how we should define the reference standard BMD in terms of age ranges. BMDs of 9,800 participants were analyzed from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database. Five reference standards were defined: (1) the reference standard of Japanese young adults provided by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry machine manufacturer, (2) peak BMD of the Korean population evaluated by statistical analysis (second-order polynomial regression models), (3) BMD of subjects aged 20-29 years, (4) BMD of subjects aged 20-39 years, and (5) BMD of subjects aged 30-39 years. T-scores from the five reference standards were calculated, and the prevalence of osteoporosis was evaluated and compared for males and females separately. The peak BMD in the polynomial regression model was achieved at 26 years in males and 36 years in females in the total hip, at 20 years in males and 27 years in females in the femoral neck, and at 20 years in males and 30 years in females in the lumbar spine. The prevalence of osteoporosis over the age of 50 years showed significant variation of up to two fold depending on the reference standards adopted. The age at which peak BMD was achieved was variable according to the gender and body sites. A consistent definition of peak BMD needs to be established in terms of age ranges because this could affect the prevalence of osteoporosis and healthcare policies.

  13. Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Academic Corruption in Rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the prevalence, causes and effects of academic corruption in Rivers State universities, Nigeria. Data were collected from 400 respondents using a 'Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Academic Corruption Questionnaire' (PCEACQ). The data were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages.

  14. Prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Al-Bakry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul city during 2005-2007. In addition, the work aimed to investigate the effects of possible relationships between age, sex, season of the year, weight and health status on the incidence of the disease. Three species of pigeons were included viz, stock dove (Columba oenas, rock mountain dove (C. livia, and collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto.Examination of 250, 200 and 40 doves of the three fore–mentioned groups of birds indicated prevalence rates of 22%, 17.5% and 10%, for the three species, respectively. High infection rates were reported in squabs of all birds of the three groups. Regarding the effect of sex on the infection rate, the results revealed high percentage of infection were seen in male stock doves and female rock doves in comparison with their counterparts, however similar rates were observed in both sexes of collared doves. Also, it was found that there was an impact of season of the year on the prevalence rates of the parasite, so the infection was increased in spring and winter more than other seasons, for all birds studied. Depending upon our findings, factors such as body weight and health status have no effects on incidence of the disease.

  15. Prevalence of Jumper's Knee Among Nonelite Athletes From Different Sports A Cross-Sectional Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerver, Johannes; Bredeweg, Steven W.; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    Background: The prevalence of jumper's knee among nonelite athletes from different sports is unknown. Purpose: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of jumper's knee in nonelite athletes from different sports and to determine potential risk factors for jumper's knee. Design: Cohort

  16. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  17. Ocular injury: Prevalence in different rural population of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A K

    2013-12-01

    was 53% with median wage loss being 10 days. The study concludes that point-prevalence of ocular trauma in rural area is around 2% with blunt objects commonly causing the trauma and one in every 16 trauma-hit case undergo blind. Addressing blindness from ocular trauma, should, therefore, be a priority for eye care programs in rural Bangladesh.

  18. International differences in chronic kidney disease prevalence: a key public health and epidemiologic research issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, Vianda S.; Brück, Katharina; Fraser, Simon; Zoccali, Carmine; Massy, Ziad A.; Jager, Kitty J.

    2017-01-01

    In this narrative review, we studied the association of risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and CKD prevalence at an ecological level and describe potential reasons for international differences in estimated CKD prevalence across European countries. We found substantial variation in risk

  19. Differences in the Prevalence of Autism among Black, Hispanic, and White Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Heather; Seay, Penny; Morrison, Janet

    2009-01-01

    While many researchers have studied the etiology of autism, possible racial/ethnic differences in prevalence of the autism diagnosis have received much less attention. Using the Texas Education Agency Public Education Information Management System (PEIMS) data set for 2006, we examined the prevalence of an educational diagnosis of autism among…

  20. Prevalence of and Differences in Salad Bar Implementation in Rural Versus Urban Arizona Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenschine, Michelle; Adams, Marc; Bruening, Meg

    2018-03-01

    Rural children consume more calories per day on average than urban children, and they are less likely to consume fruit. Self-service salad bars have been proposed as an effective approach to better meet the National School Lunch Program's fruit and vegetable recommendations. No studies have examined how rural and urban schools differ in the implementation of school salad bars. To compare the prevalence of school-lunch salad bars and differences in implementation between urban and rural Arizona schools. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional web-based survey. School nutrition managers (N=596) in the state of Arizona. National Center for Education Statistics locale codes defined rural and urban classifications. Barriers to salad bar implementation were examined among schools that have never had, once had, and currently have a school salad bar. Promotional practices were examined among schools that once had and currently have a school salad bar. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare urban and rural differences in presence and implementation of salad bars, adjusting for school-level demographics and the clustering of schools within districts. After adjustment, the prevalence of salad bars did not differ between urban and rural schools (46.9%±4.3% vs 46.8%±8.5%, respectively). Rural schools without salad bars more often reported perceived food waste and cost of produce as barriers to implementing salad bars, and funding was a necessary resource for offering a salad bar in the future, as compared with urban schools (Pbar promotion, challenges, or resources among schools that currently have or once had a salad bar. After adjustment, salad bar prevalence, implementation practices, and concerns are similar across geographic settings. Future research is needed to investigate methods to address cost and food waste concerns in rural areas. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of systolic inter-arm differences in blood pressure for different primary care populations: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher E; Taylor, Rod S; Shore, Angela C; Campbell, John L

    2016-11-01

    Various prevalence figures have been reported for inter-arm differences in blood pressure (IAD); variation may be explained by differing population vascular risk and by measurement method. To review the literature to derive robust estimates of IAD prevalence relevant to community populations. Systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL were searched for cross-sectional studies likely to represent general or primary care populations, reporting prevalence of IAD and employing a simultaneous method of measurement. Using study-level data, pooled estimates of mean prevalence of systolic IADs were calculated and compared using a random effects model. Eighty IAD studies were identified. Sixteen met inclusion criteria: pooled estimates of prevalence for systolic IAD ≥10 mmHg were 11.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.1 to 13.6) in hypertension, 7.4% (95% CI = 5.8 to 9.2) in diabetes, and 3.6% (95% CI = 2.3 to 5.0) for a general adult population (Pdifferences). Differences persisted for higher cut-off values. Prevalences were lower for East Asian than for Western populations and were overestimated by sequential measurement where this could be compared with simultaneous measurement within studies (relative risk for IAD: 2.9 [95% CI = 2.1 to 4.1]). Studies with higher mean absolute systolic pressures had higher prevalences for a systolic IAD ≥10 mmHg (P = 0.04). Prevalences of IADs rise in relation to underlying cardiovascular comorbidities of the population studied, and are overestimated threefold when sequential measurement is used. Population-specific variation in prevalences of IAD should be taken into account in delivering clinical care and in planning future studies. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  2. Sexual selection and sex differences in the prevalence of childhood externalizing and adolescent internalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Despite the well-established sex difference in prevalence of many childhood and adolescent psychopathological conditions, no integrative metatheory of sex differences in psychopathology exists. This review attempts to provide a metatheoretical framework to guide empirical examination of sex differences in prevalence of childhood-onset "externalizing" and adolescent-onset "internalizing" disorders, based on sexual selection evolutionary theory. Sexual selection theory suggests important between-sex differences in markers, mechanisms, etiology, and developmental timing of risk and resilience relevant to psychopathology. Namely, sexual selection theory hypothesizes that disinhibition and sensation-seeking may be important proximate risk markers for childhood-onset externalizing disorders in males. The theory suggests that these male-biased markers may be a product of their higher exposure to prenatal testosterone, which makes them more susceptible to prenatal stressors with downstream effects on dopaminergic neurotransmission, especially for those with genetic alleles associated with lower dopaminergic function. In contrast, sexual selection theory hypothesizes that negative emotionality, empathy, and cognitive rumination may be important proximate risk markers for adolescent-onset internalizing disorders in females. The theory suggests that these markers are propagated by rapidly rising levels of estradiol at puberty that interact with cortisol and oxytocin. These hormones exert downstream effects on the serotonergic system in such a way as to increase females' sensitivity to interpersonal stressors particularly at puberty and especially for those with lower functional serotonergic activity. Such a metatheory can help integrate prior ideas about sex differences and can also generate new predictions of sex differences in markers, etiology, mechanisms, and developmental timing of common forms of psychopathology. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  3. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Perceived Smoking Prevalence: Evidence from a National Survey of Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosanna A. Asfaw

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies show that perceived smoking prevalence is a significant predictor of smoking initiation. In this study, we examine racial/ethnic differences in perceived smoking prevalence and racial/ethnic differences in exposure to contextual factors associated with perceived smoking prevalence. We used cross-sectional time series data from the Legacy Media Tracking Surveys (LMTS, a national sample of 35,000 12- to 17-year-olds in the United States. Perceived smoking prevalence was the primary outcome variable, measured using an LMTS question: “Out of every 10 people your age, how many do you think smoke?” Multivariable models were estimated to assess the association between perceived smoking prevalence; race/ethnicity; and exposure to social contextual factors. Findings indicate that African American, Hispanic, and American Indian youth exhibit the highest rates of perceived smoking prevalence, while white and Asian youth exhibit the lowest. Minority youth are also disproportionately exposed to social contextual factors that are correlated with high perceived smoking prevalence. These findings suggest that disproportionate exposure to social contextual factors may partially explain why minority youth exhibit such high levels of perceived smoking prevalence.

  4. A network-level explanation for the differences in HIV prevalence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A network-level explanation for the differences in HIV prevalence in South Africa's ... or ethnic groups may help explain the differential spread of HIV in South Africa. ... Keywords: concurrency, epidemiology, ethnicity, HIV/AIDS, race, social ...

  5. Prevalence of obesity in Italian adolescents: does the use of different growth charts make the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carli, Luca; Spada, Elena; Milani, Silvano; Ganzit, Gian Pasquale; Ghizzoni, Lucia; Raia, Melissa; Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Bo, Simona

    2018-04-01

    Since populations are becoming increasingly multi-ethnic, the use of local or international charts is a matter of debate. This study aimed to evaluate how the choice of cut-off thresholds affected prevalence of underweight (UW), overweight (OW), obesity (OB) in 1200 11-12-year Italian adolescents, and how their somatic growth depended on parental origin. The height, weight and body mass index were expressed as standard deviation score (SDS) using Italian (ISPED-2006) and UK (UK-1990) charts. The classification of UW/OW/OB was computed with the IOTF international cut-offs, and thresholds were identified as centiles corresponding to BMI values of 18.5/25.0/30.0 kg/m 2 at 18-year in ISPED-2006 or UK-1990 references. About 30% participants had non-Italian parents, above all from North-Africa and Romania. Referring to the UK-1990 charts, all groups showed negative mean SDS for height, and positive SDS for weight and BMI. Referring to the ISPED-2006 charts, all mean SDS were negative. Percentage of UW individuals was higher in accordance with ISPED-2006 than with UK-1990 charts, whereas percentages of OW/OB were higher with UK-1990 than ISPED-2006 charts. The results obtained using IOFT cut-offs were similar to UK-1990 cut-offs. These results were due to the different shape of age-dependent cut-off centiles. Independently by the parental origin, the percentages of adolescents classified as OW/OB were closer to the expected values using the ISPED-2006 then the UK-1990 cut-offs. The results suggested the use of the Italian references for adolescents with immigrant parents. The use of local charts seems more appropriate at least in Italian adolescents in the age range studied.

  6. Evaluating the prevalence and effectiveness of breed-specific legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Trembath, Felicia E

    2016-01-01

    Dog bites pose a persistent public health problem, which some jurisdictions pass breed-specific legislation (BSL) to address. However, very little non-anecdotal evidence regarding the efficacy of BSL has been presented. Currently, BSL research is hampered by the absence of standard terminology, an established prevalence, or a scientific consensus on its effectiveness. The purpose of this study is to propose standardized terminology for BSL, establish the prevalence of each type of BSL in the ...

  7. Different management methods on prevalence of lameness in 25 Holstein-Friesian herds in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudaj R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lameness in dairy cattle is the third most expensive outbreak after mastitis and reproductive disorders. 25 Holstein-Friesian herds in Hungary were observed for two years to estimate the impact of different trimming methods and managements for the controll of the incidence of lameness. Professional trimming was found to be more effective on farms with no nutritional disorders and where refurnishment works were carried out. The greatest decrease in the prevalence of lameness was observed on farms which provided professional trimming, effective footbathing, improved walking and resting surfaces and which treated severely lame cows between regular trimmings. The greatest increase in occurrence of lameness was reported on farms with on-farm trimmers and where building projects were carried out and nutritional disorders found.

  8. Prevalence of depression: Comparisons of different depression definitions in population-based samples of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Linnea; Karlsson, Björn; Atti, Anna-Rita; Skoog, Ingmar; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin

    2017-10-15

    Depression prevalence in older adults varies largely across studies, which probably reflects methodological rather than true differences. This study aims to explore whether and to what extent the prevalence of depression varies when using different diagnostic criteria and rating scales, and various samples of older adults. A population-based sample of 3353 individuals aged 60-104 years from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) were examined in 2001-2004. Point prevalence of depression was estimated by: 1) diagnostic criteria, ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR/DSM-5; 2) rating scales, MADRS and GDS-15; and 3) self-report. Depression prevalence in sub-samples by dementia status, living place, and socio-demographics were compared. The prevalence of any depression (including all severity grades) was 4.2% (moderate/severe: 1.6%) for ICD-10 and 9.3% (major: 2.1%) for DSM-IV-TR; 10.6% for MADRS and 9.2% for GDS-15; and 9.1% for self-report. Depression prevalence was lower in the dementia-free sample as compared to the total population. Furthermore, having poor physical function, or not having a partner were independently associated with higher depression prevalence, across most of the depression definitions. The response rate was 73.3% and this may have resulted in an underestimation of depression. Depression prevalence was similar across all depression definitions except for ICD-10, showing much lower figures. However, independent of the definition used, depression prevalence varies greatly by dementia status, physical functioning, and marital status. These findings may be useful for clinicians when assessing depression in older adults and for researchers when exploring and comparing depression prevalence across studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury: prevalence is affected by the use of different dynamic tests and different normal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokshoorn, Nieke E; Wassenaar, Moniek J E; Biermasz, Nienke R; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Smit, Johannes W A; Romijn, Johannes A; Pereira, Alberto M

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has emerged as an important cause of hypopituitarism. However, considerable variations in the prevalence of hypopituitarism are reported. These can partly be explained by severity of trauma and timing of hormonal evaluation, but may also be dependent on endocrine tests and criteria used for diagnosis of hypopituitarism. Systematic review of studies reporting prevalence of hypopituitarism in adults >or=1 year after TBI focusing on used (dynamic) tests and biochemical criteria. We included data from 14 studies with a total of 931 patients. There was considerable variation in definition of hypopituitarism. Overall, reported prevalences of severe GH deficiency varied between 2 and 39%. Prevalences were 8-20% using the GHRH-arginine test (cutoff hypopituitarism after TBI are in part caused by differences in definitions, endocrine assessments of hypopituitarism, and confounding factors. These methodological issues prohibit simple generalizations of results of original studies on TBI-associated hypopituitarism in the perspective of meta-analyses or reviews.

  10. Educational inequality as a predictor of rising back pain prevalence in Austria-sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großschädl, Franziska; Stolz, Erwin; Mayerl, Hannes; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald

    2016-04-01

    Back pain (BP) represents a widespread public health problem in Europe. The morbidity depends on several indicators, which must be investigated to discover risk groups. The examination of trends in socioeconomic developments should ensure a better understanding of the complex link between socioeconomic-status and BP. Therefore, the role of social inequalities for BP has been investigated among Austrian subpopulations over a 24-year period. Self-reported data from nationally representative health surveys (1983-2007) were analyzed and adjusted for self-report bias (N=121 486). Absolute changes (ACs) and aetiologic fractions (AF) were calculated to measure trends. To quantify the extent of social inequality, the relative index of inequality was computed based on educational levels. The prevalence of BP nearly doubled between 1983 and 2007. When investigating educational groups, subjects with low educational level were most prevalent. Obese persons generally showed higher rates of BP than non-obese subjects. Continuously rising trends across the different educational groups were more evident in men. The AC was highest in obese men with high education (+32.9%). Education-related inequalities for BP were more evident in men than women. Educational level is an important social indicator for BP. A gradient for low to high educational level in the trends of BP prevalence was clearly identified and stable only among men. We presume that the association 'education' and 'physical workload leading to BP' is more relevant for men than for women. The implementation of effective approaches to BP, in combination with target group-specific interventions focusing on educational status, is recommended. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among Iranian School Children in Different Ethnicities

    OpenAIRE

    Bibiseyedeh Rezaeian; Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Rahmatollah Hafezi; Seyed-Jalil Mirmohammadi; Hamed Akbari

    2011-01-01

    Objective Malnutrition, overweight and obesity are major health concerns in modern societies and especially among children. Overweight and obesity affect children's current and future health. It is known that the prevalence of overweight differs by race, sex, and geographic location. Methods In a cross-sectional study 30092 Iranian children aged 7-18 years in six ethnic groups were selected by a cluster sampling. Prevalence of obesity and overweight and distribution of body mass index (BMI) b...

  12. High prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of Tropheryma whipplei in different populations from the North of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Álvarez, Lara; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Blanco, José Ramón; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Tropheryma whipplei is the causative agent of Whipple disease. T. whipplei has also been detected in asymptomatic carriers with a very different prevalence. To date, in Spain, there are no data regarding the prevalence of T. whipplei in a healthy population or in HIV-positive patients, or in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Therefore, the aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of T. whipplei in stools in those populations. Stools from 21 HIV-negative subjects, 65 HIV-infected, and 12 CFS patients were analysed using real time-PCR. HIV-negative and positive subjects were divided into two groups, depending on the presence/absence of metabolic syndrome (MS). Positive samples were sequenced. The prevalence of T. whipplei was 25.51% in 98 stool samples analysed. Prevalence in HIV-positive patients was significantly higher than in HIV-negative (33.8% vs. 9.09%, p=0.008). Prevalence in the control group with no associated diseases was 20%, whereas no positive samples were observed in HIV-negative patients with MS, or in those diagnosed with CFS. The prevalence observed in HIV-positive patients without MS was 30.35%, and with MS it was 55.5%. The number of positive samples varies depending on the primers used, although no statistically significant differences were observed. There is a high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of T. whipplei among healthy and in HIV-infected people from Spain. The role of T. whipplei in HIV patients with MS is unclear, but the prevalence is higher than in other populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of dietary habits on prevalence of anemia in pregnant women of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jai Bhagwan; Soni, Dimple; Murthy, Nandagudi Srinivasa; Malhotra, Monika

    2003-04-01

    To see the effect of various dietary habits, such as a vegetarian diet or various types of meat, on the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women. A study was carried out in Delhi to determine the effect of different dietary habits on prevalence of anemia during pregnancy by questioning the women during pregnancy regarding their dietary habits (vegetarian diet, jhatka or halal meat) and assessing their hemoglobin levels. The data was compiled and chi2 test was employed for understanding the associations between the effect of food habits on prevalence of anemia. Mean age was 26.5 years. Most women were in the second (26%) or third trimester (63.2%) of pregnancy. Prevalence of anemia was found to be very high. Of 1150 women, 96% were anemic (89.8% mildly anemic, 5.3% severely anemic). Anemia was seen in 96.18% cases in vegetarian women, 95.3% in halal meat eaters, and 96.2% in jhatka meat eaters (not significant). Although the percentage of women with halal meat eaters and vegetarians, the difference was not statistically significant. There is very high prevalence of anemia during pregnancy in Delhi, probably due to very low frequency of meat eating in India. Different types of dietary habits had no effect on the prevalence of anemia in pregnant Indian women.

  14. Prevalence of dental anomalies of number in different subphenotypes of isolated cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Schwartz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at carrying out a radiographic analysis on the prevalence of dental anomalies of number (agenesis and supernumerary teeth in permanent dentition, in different subphenotypes of isolated cleft palate pre-adolescent patients. METHODS: Panoramic radiographs of 300 patients aged between 9 and 12 years, with cleft palate and enrolled in a single treatment center, were retrospectively analyzed. The sample was divided into two groups according to the extension/severity of the cleft palate: complete and incomplete . The chi-square test was used for intergroup comparison regarding the prevalence of the investigated dental anomalies (P < 0.05. RESULTS: Agenesis was found in 34.14% of patients with complete cleft palate and in 30.27% of patients with incomplete cleft palate. Supernumerary teeth were found in 2.43% of patients with complete cleft palate and in 0.91% of patients with incomplete cleft palate. No statistically significant difference was found between groups with regard to the prevalence of agenesis and supernumerary teeth. There was no difference in cleft prevalence between genders within each study group. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dental anomalies of number in pre-adolescents with cleft palate was higher than that reported for the general population. The severity of cleft palate did not seem to be associated with the prevalence of dental anomalies of number.

  15. Poor housing quality: Prevalence and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emma; Lester, Laurence H; Bentley, Rebecca; Beer, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Housing is a central component of productive, healthy, and meaningful lives, and a principle social determinant of health and well-being. Surprisingly, though, evidence on the ways that housing influences health in Australia is poorly developed. This stems largely from the fact that the majority of the population are accommodated in good quality housing. The dominance of a "good housing paradigm" means that households living in poor quality and unhealthy housing are doubly disadvantaged-by the quality of their housing and because policy makers in Australia do not acknowledge the health effects of housing. In this article, we examine the relationship between health outcomes and quality of housing. We base our analysis on data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, a panel dataset that is representative across Australia. We find a sizeable, policy-important, and to date under-acknowledged cohort of Australians whose health is influenced by poor-condition dwellings.

  16. Interhospital differences and case-mix in a nationwide prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, M; Ollgren, J; Lyytikäinen, O

    2010-10-01

    A prevalence survey is a time-saving and useful tool for obtaining an overview of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) either in a single hospital or nationally. Direct comparison of prevalence rates is difficult. We evaluated the impact of case-mix adjustment on hospital-specific prevalences. All five tertiary care, all 15 secondary care and 10 (25% of 40) other acute care hospitals took part in the first national prevalence survey in Finland in 2005. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria served to define HCAI. The information collected included demographic characteristics, severity of the underlying disease, use of catheters and a respirator, and previous surgery. Patients with HCAI related to another hospital were excluded. Case-mix-adjusted HCAI prevalences were calculated by using a multivariate logistic regression model for HCAI risk and an indirect standardisation method. Altogether, 587 (7.2%) of 8118 adult patients had at least one infection; hospital-specific prevalences ranged between 1.9% and 12.6%. Risk factors for HCAI that were previously known or identified by univariate analysis (age, male gender, intensive care, high Charlson comorbidity and McCabe indices, respirator, central venous or urinary catheters, and surgery during stay) were included in the multivariate analysis for standardisation. Case-mix-adjusted prevalences varied between 2.6% and 17.0%, and ranked the hospitals differently from the observed rates. In 11 (38%) hospitals, the observed prevalence rank was lower than predicted by the case-mix-adjusted figure. Case-mix should be taken into consideration in the interhospital comparison of prevalence rates. Copyright 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Differences in development and the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents in different socioeconomic status districts in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Shu-Rong

    2012-07-01

    There are wide-ranging differences in human growth, not only between ethnic groups but also between regions. Shandong is one of the most populous provinces in China, with inequalities of regional economic status. However, no studies on the differences in development among children and adolescents in different districts have been reported. This study assessed the differences in height, weight and prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents of different socioeconomic status (SES) districts in Shandong, China. Data for this study were obtained from a large cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren. A total of 42 286 students (21 222 boys and 21 064 girls) aged 7-18 years from 16 districts participated in this study. Height and weight of all subjects were measured and BMI was calculated from their height and weight. Prevalence rates of obesity and overweight were determined by comparing calculated BMIs (kg/m(2)) to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs. Each of the 16 districts was assigned an SES ranking (low, moderate, high) based on per capita GDP and income in urban and rural areas. Comparisons of height, weight and the prevalence of overweight and obesity among different groups were made. Significant differences between SES groups were observed for height, weight and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Boys and girls from high SES group were taller, heavier and more likely to be obese than their peers from moderate and low SES groups. The prevalences of combined overweight and obesity in the three SES groups were 18.46%, 21.08% and 27.31% in boys and 10.43%, 12.42% and 15.18% in girls, respectively. There have been obvious regional variations in development and the prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents in Shandong, China, These variations in development and prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents among different SES districts being related to the local SES, process of urbanization, living environments, nutritional

  18. Prevalence, Reasons, and Perceived Effects of Khat Chewing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, Reasons, and Perceived Effects of Khat Chewing Among Students of a College in Gondar Town, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Cross‑sectional Study. ... Among chewers, 83.1% (108/130) reported they faced problem associated to sleep disturbance, 82.3% (107/130) loss of appetite, and 80.8% (105/130) ...

  19. Lifetime Prevalence and Socioemotional Effects of Hearing about Community Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Angela; Hurley, Jimmy D.; Shumate, Howard W.; Haden, Sara Chiara

    2006-01-01

    This study extends findings on community violence (CV) exposure in young adults by examining the prevalence, characteristics, and socioemotional effects related to hearing about violence. Surveys of lifetime CV exposure and socioemotional outcomes were completed by 518 male and female undergraduates completed and were divided into groups with…

  20. Prevalence of Mastitis and Effectiveness of Mastitis Control in Dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed prevalence of mastitis and effectiveness of mastitis control in dairy cattle in Mathira constituency. Data regarding occurrence of mastitis, farmers' current practices in mastitis control, and administering a questionnaire to 76 smallholder farmers collected their knowledge about dairy cow mastitis. Quarter ...

  1. Prevalence of Jumper's knee among nonelite athletes from different sports: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerver, Johannes; Bredeweg, Steven W; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2011-09-01

    The prevalence of jumper's knee among nonelite athletes from different sports is unknown. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of jumper's knee in nonelite athletes from different sports and to determine potential risk factors for jumper's knee. Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 2. The authors interviewed 891 male and female nonelite athletes from 7 popular sports in The Netherlands: basketball, volleyball, handball, korfball, soccer, field hockey, and track and field. Using a specially developed questionnaire, information was obtained about individual characteristics (age, height, and weight), training background, previous and actual knee problems, and the VISA-P (Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella) score. The overall prevalence of current jumper's knee was 8.5% (78 of 891 athletes), showing a significant difference between sports with different loading characteristics. Prevalence was highest among volleyball players (14.4%) and lowest among soccer players (2.5%); it was significantly higher among male athletes (51 of 502 [10.2%]) than female athletes (25 of 389 [6.4%]) (χ(2) = 3.91, P = .048). The mean duration of symptoms was 18.9 months (standard deviation [SD], 21.6; median value, 12.0; range, 2.0-59.8). The mean VISA-P score of the athletes with jumper's knee was 71.4 (SD, 13.8). Athletes with jumper's knee were significantly younger, taller, and heavier than those without jumper's knee. Prevalence of jumper's knee is high among nonelite athletes and varies between 14.4% and 2.5% for different sports. Jumper's knee is almost twice as common among male nonelite athletes compared with female athletes. Different sport-specific loading characteristics of the knee extensor apparatus, a younger age, a taller body stature, and higher body weight seem to be risk factors associated with patellar tendinopathy.

  2. Regional differences in the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy: a multi center study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Karla Rezende Guerra; Malerbi, Fernando Korn; Morales, Paulo Henrique; Mattos, Tessa Cerqueira Lemos; Pinheiro, André Araújo; Mallmann, Felipe; Perez, Ricardo Vessoni; Leal, Franz Schubert Lopes; de Melo, Laura Gomes Nunes; Gomes, Marília Brito

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy has a significant impact in every healthcare system. Despite that fact, there are few accurate estimates in the prevalence of DR in Brazil's different geographic regions, particularly proliferative DR and diabetic macular edema. This study aims to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Brazil's five continental regions and its determinant factors. This multi center, cross-sectional, observational study, conducted between August 2011 and December 2014, included patients with type 1 diabetes from the 5 Brazilian geographic regions (South, Southeast, North, Northeast and Midwest). During a clinical visit, a structured questionnaire was applied, blood sampling was collected and each patient underwent mydriatic binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy evaluation. Data was obtained from 1644 patients, aged 30.2 ± 12 years (56.1% female, 54.4% Caucasian), with a diabetes duration of 15.5 ± 9.3 years. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 242 (36.1%) in the Southeast, 102 (42.9%) in the South, 183 (29.9%) in the North and Northeast and 54 (41.7%) in the Midwest. Multinomial regression showed no difference in the prevalence of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy in each geographic region, although, prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (p = 0.022), and diabetic macular edema (p = 0.003) was higher in the Midwest. Stepwise analyses reviled duration of diabetes, level of HbA1c and hypertension as independent variables. The prevalence of non proliferative diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes was no different between each geographic region of Brazil. The Midwest presented higher prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. Duration of DM and glycemic control is of central importance to all. Hypertension is another fundamental factor to every region, at special in the South and Southeast. Glycemic control and patients in social and economic vulnerability deserves

  3. Stuttering Prevalence among Kurdish-Farsi Students Effects of the Two Languages Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiwa Mohamadi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It has been noted that stuttering is more prevalent in bilinguals than in monolinguals. The similarities of the languages involved have been mentioned to justify the difference between stuttering prevalence among bilingual and monolingual speakers. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of language similarities on prevalence of stuttering among Kurdish-Farsi bilingual students. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive analytic study, we examined all of Javanroud’s schools’ bilingual students. We used teacher referral method for the primary screening of speech disorders. Essential information about speech disorders, specifically stuttering, had been given to teachers before this primary step. The bilingual researcher then diagnosed stuttering students based on DSM-IV criteria through personal interview, text reading, and spontaneous speech in Kurdish and Farsi. Results: Among 11425 bilingual students of Javanroud’s schools, 129 students were identified as stutterers. These findings indicated that overall prevalence of stuttering in this population is 1.13%. Among elementary, guidance and high school students the prevalence of stuttering was 2.06%, 0.87% and 0.5% respectively. Prevalence of stuttering among boys was 1.35% and 0.88% among girls. An overall male/female ratio was 1.5/1. Prevalence of stuttering in elementary, guidance and high school differed significantly (P=0.000. Prevalence of stuttering in males was significantly higher than females (P=0.034. Discussion: Prevalence of stuttering among Javanroud’s bilingual students was higher than the universal accepted prevalence in monolinguals (1% but lower than other studies in bilingual population. The similarities of Kurdish and Farsi languages play an important role in this and are discussed in the paper.

  4. Residential segregation and the health of African-American infants: does the effect vary by prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Kwame A; Wehby, George L

    2012-10-01

    Segregation effects may vary between areas (e.g., counties) of low and high low birth weight (LBW; birth (PTB; rates due to interactions with area differences in risks and resources. We assess whether the effects of residential segregation on county-level LBW and PTB rates for African-American infants vary by the prevalence of these conditions. The study sample includes 368 counties of 100,000 or more residents and at least 50 African-American live births in 2000. Residentially segregated counties are identified alternatively by county-level dissimilarity and isolation indices. Quantile regression is used to assess how residential segregation affects the entire distributions of county-level LBW and PTB rates (i.e. by prevalence). Residential segregation increases LBW and PTB rates significantly in areas of low prevalence, but has no such effects for areas of high prevalence. As a sensitivity analysis, we use metropolitan statistical area level data and obtain similar results. Our findings suggest that residential segregation has adverse effects mainly in areas of low prevalence of LBW and preterm birth, which are expected overall to have fewer risk factors and more resources for infant health, but not in high prevalence areas, which are expected to have more risk factors and fewer resources. Residential policies aimed at area resource improvements may be more effective.

  5. Effect of climatic changes on the prevalence of zoonotic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Sachan and V.P.Singh

    Full Text Available Combustion of fossil fuels and human activities has led to sharp increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These climate changes have tremendous effect on prevalence of zoonotic diseases. The changes in climate may increase the insect vectors, prolong transmission cycles or increase the importation of vectors or animal reservoirs. It may also have an adverse effect on biodiversity, distribution of animals and microflora which may lead to emergence of zoonotic disease outbreaks. A historical perspective on major vector-borne diseases such as arboviral encephalitides, dengue fever and Rift Valley fever, Lyme disease, West Nile virus, malaria, plague, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and dengue fever have been shown to have a distinct seasonal pattern and in some instances their frequency has been shown to be weather sensitive. Because of the sensitivities of the vectors and animal hosts of these diseases to climactic factors, climate change-driven ecological changes such as variations in rainfall and temperature could significantly alter the range, seasonality and human incidence of many zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. The evolution of emerging zoonotic diseases globally during the period 1996 to 2007 was Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever, avian influenza H5N1, plague and Nipah virus. Whereas, bird flu and swine flu like diseases are still creating havoc for human and animal health worldwide. It is a today’s and tomorrow’s demand that interdisciplinary communication between health professionals, veterinarians, environmental scientists, ecologists, geographers and economists seeking to understand climate change will be key to protecting people in India and worldwide against these threats. Rigorous cross-disciplinary studies using a variety of methodological tools will enable us to predict the transmission dynamics of diseases under different climate scenarios and estimate the cost-effectiveness of mitigation strategies. In this

  6. Prevalence of primary headache disorders diagnosed according to ICHD-3 beta in three different social groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedeva, Elena R; Kobzeva, Natalia R; Gilev, Denis

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to estimate the one-year prevalence of primary headache disorders in three different social groups using the third edition beta of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population included a total...... of 3124 participants: 1042 students (719 females, 323 males, mean age 20.6, age range 17-40), 1075 workers (146 females, 929 males, mean age 40.4, age range 21-67) and 1007 blood donors (484 females, 523 males, mean age 34.1, age range 18-64). We used a semi-structured, validated face-to-face interview....... RESULTS: The age-adjusted one-year prevalence of migraine in females was significantly higher (p Age-adjusted prevalence of migraine among males did not differ among the three groups: 4.5% in students, 4.9% in workers and 4...

  7. Prevalence and clinical implications of the inter-arm blood pressure difference: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E; Campbell, J L; Evans, P H; Millward, A

    2006-12-01

    A blood pressure (BP) difference between arms was first reported over 100 years ago. Knowledge of its prevalence and relevance to the accurate measurement of BP remains poor. Current hypertension guidelines do not emphasise it. The objectives of this study were to establish the best estimate of prevalence of the inter-arm difference (IAD) in the population, to consider its implications for accurate BP measurement and treatment, and to discuss its aetiology and potential as a risk marker for cardiovascular disease. Systematic literature review was carried out. The data sources were Medline EMBASE and CINAHL databases, and Index of Theses. Studies reporting prevalence rates of IAD were retrieved and considered for inclusion against explicit methodological criteria. Point prevalence rates were extracted and weighted mean prevalence rates calculated. The main outcome measures were weighted mean prevalences of systolic IAD > or =10 and > or =20 mm Hg and of diastolic IAD > or =10 mm Hg. Thirty-one studies were identified. Most had methodological weaknesses; only four met the inclusion criteria. Pooled prevalences of the IAD from these four studies were 19.6% systolic > or =10 mm Hg (95% CI 18.0-21.3%), 4.2% systolic > or =20 mm Hg (95% CI 3.4-5.1%) and 8.1% diastolic > or =10 mm Hg (95%CI 6.9-9.2%). In conclusion, an IAD is present in a substantial number of patients and should be looked for whenever diagnosis and treatment depend on accurate measurements of BP. The importance of an IAD should be better emphasised in current hypertension management guidelines. There is evidence associating an IAD with peripheral vascular disease, raising the possibility that its presence may predict cardiovascular events.

  8. Association between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche in different geographic latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihas Constantinos

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age at menarche is considered a reliable prognostic factor for idiopathic scoliosis and varies in different geographic latitudes. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence has also been reported to be different in various latitudes and demonstrates higher values in northern countries. A study on epidemiological reports from the literature was conducted to investigate a possible association between prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche among normal girls in various geographic latitudes. An attempt is also made to implicate a possible role of melatonin in the above association. Material-methods 20 peer-reviewed published papers reporting adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and 33 peer-reviewed papers reporting age at menarche in normal girls from most geographic areas of the northern hemisphere were retrieved from the literature. The geographic latitude of each centre where a particular study was originated was documented. The statistical analysis included regression of the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche by latitude. Results The regression of prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche by latitude is statistically significant (p Conclusion Late age at menarche is parallel with higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Pubarche appears later in girls that live in northern latitudes and thus prolongs the period of spine vulnerability while other pre-existing or aetiological factors are contributing to the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A possible role of geography in the pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis is discussed, as it appears that latitude which differentiates the sunlight influences melatonin secretion and modifies age at menarche, which is associated to the prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis.

  9. Impact of a comprehensive law on the prevalence of tobacco consumption in Spain: evaluation of different scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raña, P; Pérez-Ríos, M; Santiago-Pérez, M I; Crujeiras, R M

    2016-09-01

    Since 2011, smoking legislation was hardened in Spain, banning tobacco consumption in all hospitality venues. Law 42/2010 was the first comprehensive tobacco control policy enacted in Spain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect that this intervention has had in reducing the prevalence of tobacco consumption, setting up three scenarios on the basis of different theoretical levels of effect of the law. A predictive model based on Markov Chains was developed to distinguish the effect of tobacco control policies in different scenarios. The model developed uses population, smoking rates and smoking characteristics from a non-transmissible disease surveillance system developed in Galicia (namely SICRI). Results show that tobacco control policies hardly affect the predicted trend in a temporal frame of 10 years, with relative reduction in the predicted male smoking prevalence of 20.4% with no intervention, reaching a reduction of 26.1% under the maximum effect of the policies. In the global population the effects of the law in the predicted prevalence have been barely perceived. For people under 25 years of age, interventions have had an important and positive effect, which proves that policies affecting this age group should be hardened. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Motor Learning in Lucid Dreams: Prevalence, Induction, and Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Stumbrys, Tadas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to explore the potentials for motor learning in a special state of consciousness – so called lucid dreams (dreams in which the dreamers are aware that they are dreaming): its prevalence among athletes, facilitating methods and effectiveness. The contents of this dissertation are structured in the following way. The first chapter introduces the concept of mental practice in sports, reviews the evidence for its effectiveness and presents main theorie...

  11. Rural-Urban Differences in Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Overweight Prevalence of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joens-Matre, Roxane R.; Welk, Gregory J.; Calabro, Miguel A.; Russell, Daniel W.; Nicklay, Elizabeth; Hensley, Larry D.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The increasing prevalence of overweight in youth has been well chronicled, but less is known about the unique patterns and risks that may exist in rural and urban environments. A better understanding of possible rural-urban differences in physical activity profiles may facilitate the development of more targeted physical activity…

  12. Specific and unspecific gynecological alarm symptoms -prevalence estimates in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; Larsen, Pia V

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence estimates of gynecological alarm symptoms in different age groups and to describe common patterns of gynecological symptoms. DESIGN: Web-based cross-sectional survey study. SETTING: Nationwide in Denmark. POPULATION: A random sample of 51 090 women aged 20 years...

  13. Intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors of Chinese university students: gender differences in prevalence and correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chi, X.; van de Bongardt, D.; Hawk, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate gender differences among university students in contemporary China regarding (1) the prevalence of various types of intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors and (2) their sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors. A total of 1,397

  14. Sarcoidosis in Ireland: regional differences in prevalence and mortality from 1996-2005.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicholson, T T

    2010-07-01

    Sarcoidosis is a common multisystem disease of unknown cause and Ireland is among the countries with the highest reported prevalence of disease worldwide. Despite this, reports on the geographical distribution of disease and differences in mortality due to sarcoidosis within Northern Ireland (NI) and the Republic of Ireland (ROI) are currently lacking.

  15. Supplementation prevalence and adverse effects in physical exercise practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Walkíria Valeriano; de Andrade Gomes Silva, Maria Irene; Tavares Toscano, Luciana; Dantas de Oliveira, Klébya Hellen; de Lacerda, Lavoisiana Mateus; Sérgio Silva, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements is prevalent among physical exercise practitioners and some adverse effects have been reported, however not sufficiently substantial, because they originate from isolated cases. Investigate nutritional supplements consumption prevalence and adverse effects of the use of such products. An epidemiological, representative and transversal study, with 180 physical exercise practitioners in gyms, who answered questionnaires about sports supplementation, associated factors and self-perceived adverse effects. In a subsample of 86 individuals, blood pressure was measured and blood was collected for the evaluation of lipid profile markers, hepatic and renal function. The supplementation prevalence level was 58.3%, whereas the physicians and nutritionists indicated only 21.9%. The reported adverse effects were observed only by supplement users (acne, insomnia, aggressiveness, headaches and tachycardia). Systolic blood pressure was higher in the supplemented group when compared to the control group (p = 0.04), as in the subgroup of thermogenic users (p nutritional supplements without specialized orientation was elevated among physical exercise practitioners, being associated to adverse effects both by the users themselves and by clinical diagnosis.

  16. Prevalence of photodermatosis in four regions at different altitudes in Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Danqi; Hang, Yuntao; Chen, Hao; Li, Hanying

    2006-08-01

    Idiopathic photodermatoses are common diseases in dermatology clinics that are associated with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The group includes a few dermatoses such as polymorphous light eruption (PLE) and chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD). The prevalence of PLE and CAD in China has not been previously reported. To investigate the population-based prevalence of polymorphous light eruption (PLE) and chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD) in six minority groups living in four regions with significantly different altitudes in the Yunnan province, a questionnaire survey was administered to 4899 residents of random villages in Yuanjiang county (Dai and Hani minorities), Kunming city (Han people and Yi minority), Lijiang county (Naxi minority), and Shangri-La county (Zang minority). The altitudes of these counties are 380 m, 1870 m, 2410 m and 3280 m a.s.l., respectively. The results showed that, first, there were 2400 males (49.0%) and 2499 females (51.0%). The prevalence of PLE was 0.65% (32/4899), and the prevalence of CAD was 0.18% (9/4899). PLE was higher among females than males (3.8 vs 1, P 0.05). Second, the prevalence of PLE was increased in higher elevations regions compared to lower elevations (P 0.05). Third, the mean times of sun exposure for PLE and CAD were 6.0 and 6.5 h/day, respectively. The mean durations of PLE and CAD were 5.8 years, and 6.6 years, respectively. The study demonstrated that the prevalence of PLE is higher than that of CAD in Yunnan, and that the prevalence of PLE is correlated with altitude.

  17. Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; Grøntved, Anders; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2015-01-01

    and the classification of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in different regions. METHODS: We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two...... assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori. FINDINGS: Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r=0·98), but was higher by 2-6 percentage points at different......BACKGROUND: Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes...

  18. Gender Differences in Anxiety Disorders: Prevalence, Course of Illness, Comorbidity and Burden of Illness

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Carmen P.; Asnaani, Anu; Litz, Brett T.; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    Women have consistently higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders, but less is known about how gender affects age of onset, chronicity, comorbidity, and burden of illness. Gender differences in DSM-IV anxiety disorders were examined in a large sample of adults (N = 20,013) in the United States using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES). The lifetime and 12-month male:female prevalence ratios of any anxiety disorder were 1:1.7 and 1:1.79, respectively. Women h...

  19. Prevalence of clinically elevated depressive symptoms in college athletes and differences by gender and sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolanin, Andrew; Hong, Eugene; Marks, Donald; Panchoo, Kelly; Gross, Michael

    2016-02-01

    There are approximately 400,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and 5-7 million high school student athletes competing each year. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, the depression prevalence rate for young adults, which ranges from 10% to 85% across studies, is higher than that of other age groups. Given the relatively high prevalence of depression in individuals of collegiate age in the general population, the prevalence of depression among athletes in this age group warrants further study. This multiyear study examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms in college athletes, as well as demographic factors related to increased or decreased rates of depressive symptoms by gender and sport. To describe the prevalence of depression symptoms among NCAA division I student athletes at a single institution over 3 consecutive years. Participants (n=465) completed a battery of measures during their yearly spring sports medicine physical across 3 consecutive years. The battery included the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and a demographic questionnaire, administered during the course of routine sports medicine physical examinations. Differences in depressive symptoms prevalence and relative risk ratios were calculated by gender and sport. The prevalence rate for a clinically relevant level of depressive symptoms, as measured on the CES-D (CES-D ≥16), was 23.7%. A moderate to severe level of depressive symptoms was reported by 6.3%. There was a significant gender difference in prevalence of depressive symptoms, χ(2) (1)=7.459, p=0.006, with female athletes exhibiting 1.844 times the risk of male athletes for endorsing clinically relevant symptoms. The CES-D identified clinically relevant levels of depressive symptoms in nearly one-quarter of college student athletes in this large cross-sectional sample. Female college athletes reported significantly more depressive symptoms than males

  20. Comparing Cyberbullying and School Bullying among School Students: Prevalence, Gender, and Grade Level Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidot-Lefler, Noam; Dolev-Cohen, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological developments have added cyberspace as part of adolescents' social milieu. Bullying, which is prevalent in adolescents' social environment, also takes place in cyberspace, although it is believed to have a more potent and harmful effect. A study of cyberbullying and FtF bullying could elucidate critical implications for…

  1. Depression in Chinese men undergoing different assisted reproductive technique treatments: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Yuanzhen; Zeng, Dan; Li, Fei; Cui, Dan

    2013-09-01

    To explore the prevalence and risk factors for depression in men undergoing different assisted reproductive technique (ART) treatments in Chinese population. This was a prospective study of 844 men undergoing ART treatments. All men were distributed to four groups, according to they received treatments. The treatments included IUI (intrauterine insemination), IVF(in vitro fertilization), ICSI(intra cytoplasmatic sperm injection) and TESA/PESA (percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration/testicular sperm aspiration). Their symptoms of depression were measured with use of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression scale(CES-D). Data were collected about age, BMI, education, duration of marriage, duration of infertility, smoking, type of infertility, infertility causes, history of ejaculation failure, and financial burden of the treatment. We estimated the prevalence of depressive symptom in men undergoing different ART and used logistic regression models to identify risk factors for depression in different groups. The overall prevalence of depression was 13.3 % for men undergoing ART treatments: 14.5 % of IUI group, 12.4 % of IVF group, 19.2 % of ICSI group and 6.2 % of TESA/PESA group. Prevalence of depression among IUI group, IVF group and ICSI group were not significantly different. For IUI group, the factors were found to increase depression risk were treatment financial burden and duration of marriage, to decrease depression risk was age. For IVF group, the risk factors independently associated with depression were both male and female infertility, unexplained infertility, and history of ejaculation failure. In a sample of Chinese men undergoing ART treatments, the prevalence of depression was higher than other country. The risk factors for depression varied in different ART treatments groups. when routine screening to identify the sub-group of vulnerable men which need counselling before ART treatments, we should also consider which pattern of ART

  2. Prevalence of dental anomalies of number in different subphenotypes of isolated cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, João Paulo; Somensi, Daniele Salazar; Yoshizaki, Priscila; Reis, Luciana Laís Savero; de Cássia Moura Carvalho Lauris, Rita; da Silva Filho, Omar Gabriel; Dalbén, Gisele; Garib, Daniela Gamba

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at carrying out a radiographic analysis on the prevalence of dental anomalies of number (agenesis and supernumerary teeth) in permanent dentition, in different subphenotypes of isolated cleft palate preadolescent patients. Panoramic radiographs of 300 patients aged between 9 and 12 years, with cleft palate and enrolled in a single treatment center, were retrospectively analyzed. The sample was divided into two groups according to the extension/severity of the cleft palate: complete and incomplete. The chi-square test was used for intergroup comparison regarding the prevalence of the investigated dental anomalies (Pdental anomalies of number in preadolescents with cleft palate was higher than that reported for the general population. The severity of cleft palate did not seem to be associated with the prevalence of dental anomalies of number.

  3. Gender Differences in Anxiety Disorders: Prevalence, Course of Illness, Comorbidity and Burden of Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Carmen P.; Asnaani, Anu; Litz, Brett T.; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    Women have consistently higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders, but less is known about how gender affects age of onset, chronicity, comorbidity, and burden of illness. Gender differences in DSM-IV anxiety disorders were examined in a large sample of adults (N = 20,013) in the United States using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES). The lifetime and 12-month male:female prevalence ratios of any anxiety disorder were 1:1.7 and 1:1.79, respectively. Women had higher rates of lifetime diagnosis for each of the anxiety disorders examined, except for social anxiety disorder which showed no gender difference in prevalence. No gender differences were observed in the age of onset and chronicity of the illness. However, women with a lifetime diagnosis of an anxiety disorder were more likely than men to also be diagnosed with another anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, and major depressive disorder. Furthermore, anxiety disorders were associated with a greater illness burden in women than in men, particularly among European American women and to some extend also among Hispanic women. These results suggest that anxiety disorders are not only more prevalent but also more disabling in women than in men. PMID:21439576

  4. National Prevalence and Effects of Multiple Chemical Sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Anne

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS), its co-occurrence with asthma and fragrance sensitivity, and effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products. A nationally representative cross-sectional population-based sample of adult Americans (n = 1137) was surveyed in June 2016. Among the population, 12.8% report medically diagnosed MCS and 25.9% report chemical sensitivity. Of those with MCS, 86.2% experience health problems, such as migraine headaches, when exposed to fragranced consumer products; 71.0% are asthmatic; 70.3% cannot access places that use fragranced products such as air fresheners; and 60.7% lost workdays or a job in the past year due to fragranced products in the workplace. Prevalence of diagnosed MCS has increased over 300%, and self-reported chemical sensitivity over 200%, in the past decade. Reducing exposure to fragranced products could help reduce adverse health and societal effects.

  5. Differences in Body Build in Children of Different Ethnic Groups and their Impact on the Prevalence of Stunting, Thinness, Overweight, and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Norimah, A Karim; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of stunting, thinness, overweight, and obesity among children differs by ethnicity. It is not known whether differences in body build across the ethnic groups influence the interpretation of nutritional parameters. To explore the differences in body build across the 5 main ethnic groups in Malaysia and to determine whether differences in body build have an impact on the interpretation of nutrition indicators. A total of 3227 children aged 2.0 to 12.9 years who participated in the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia were included in this analysis. Body weight, height, sitting height, wrist and knee breadths, and biceps and subscapular skinfolds were measured, and relative leg length, slenderness index, and sum of skinfolds were calculated. Z scores for height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index-for-age (BAZ) were calculated using the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007 growth standards. Differences in relative leg length and slenderness across the ethnic groups were correlated with HAZ and BAZ. Correction for differences in body build did, in some ethnic groups, have significant impact on the prevalence of stunting, thinness, overweight, and obesity, and the pattern of prevalence across ethnic groups changed. At the population level, corrections for body build had only minor and mostly nonsignificant effects on prevalence, but at an individual level, corrections for body build placed a substantial number of children in different height or weight categories. Whether these misclassifications warrant additional assessment of body build in clinical practice will need further investigation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and effect on lamb growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinshamn Håvard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in sheep farming during the grazing season along the coast of south-western Norway is tick-borne fever (TBF caused by the bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus. Methods A study was carried out in 2007 and 2008 to examine the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum infection and effect on weaning weight in lambs. The study included 1208 lambs from farms in Sunndal Ram Circle in Møre and Romsdal County in Mid-Norway, where ticks are frequently observed. All lambs were blood sampled and serum was analyzed by an indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IFA to determine an antibody status (positive or negative to A. phagocytophilum infection. Weight and weight gain and possible effect of infection were analyzed using ANOVA and the MIXED procedure in SAS. Results The overall prevalence of infection with A. phagocytophilum was 55%. A lower weaning weight of 3% (1.34 kg, p A. phagocytophilum infection compared to seronegative lambs at an average age of 137 days. Conclusions The results show that A. phagocytophilum infection has an effect on lamb weight gain. The study also support previous findings that A. phagocytophilum infection is widespread in areas where ticks are prevalent, even in flocks treated prophylactic with acaricides.

  7. Prevalence of common gastrointestinal nematode parasites in scavenging pigs of different ages and sexes in Eastern Centre province, Burkina Faso

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    H.H. Tamboura

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The range and infestation intensities of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode species depend on the type of swine production system. The present study focused mainly on nematodes of veterinary importance in scavenging pigs in Burkina Faso, and aimed at determining the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites by means of faecal egg per gram (EPG counts. Between November 2001 and October 2002, faecal samples from 383 pigs of different sexes and ages ( 12 months were collected from the rectum and examined for gastrointestinal nematodes parasites using the Mc Master method. Of the 383 pigs examined, 91 % were infected by one or more para sites. Ascaris suum (40 %; 100-1 400 EPG was the most prevalent parasite followed by Strongyloides ransomi (21 %; 100-4 200 EPG, Oesophagostomum spp. (18 %; 100-1 000 EPG, Hyostrongylus rubidus (11 %; 100-1 800 EPG, Globocephalus spp. 10 %; 100-400 EPG and Trichuris suis (1 %; 100-200 EPG. The prevalence was significantly higher in female pigs (n = 239 than in males. In addition, females excreted significantly (P < 0.05 more eggs in their faeces than males, except in the case of Globocephalus spp. The age of the animal had no effect on the prevalence of A. suum whereas there were significant differences in age categories concerning S. ransomi, H. rubidus, Oesophagostumum spp. and Globocephalus spp. Unexpectedly, the high prevalence of these common parasites was not accompanied by elevated EPG values, which suggests the existence of moderate infestations. The present work indicates that the common nematode infestations in pigs do not necessarily need a systematic herd anthelmintic treatment, as only a small number of worms is required to induce immunity. A further study is needed to formulate appropriate and cost-effective strategies for the control of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in pigs in Burkina Faso.

  8. [Overweight and obesity prevalence estimates in a population from Zaragoza by using different growth references].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasarte-Velillas, J J; Hernández-Aguilar, M T; Martínez-Boyero, T; Soria-Cabeza, G; Soria-Ruiz, D; Bastarós-García, J C; Gil-Hernández, I; Pastor-Arilla, C; Lasarte-Sanz, I

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among our pediatric population and observe whether the use of different growth references for classification produce significant differences. A total of 35824 boys and girls aged between 2 and 14 years were included. Body mass index (BMI) was used to calculate the prevalence of overweight-obesity by age and sex. Prevalence was obtained by using a set of national references (Hernández's standards) and the references of World Health Organization (WHO standards). Prevalences were compared for each age and sex subset, as well as with the percentage of patients who had an overweight-obesity diagnosis in the clinical record. The overall prevalence of overweight-obesity among children aged 2 to 14 years was 17.0% (95% CI; 16.1%-18.0%) according to the Hernández standards vs 30.8% (95% CI; 29.9%-31.7%) according to WHO standards (10.1% vs 12.2% obese, and 6.9% vs 18.6% overweight). It was significantly higher in boys, by both standards, due to the higher prevalence of obesity. By using the Hernández standards the prevalence was significantly lower than by using WHO standards for all ages and for both sexes. A low percentage of patients were found to have an obesity-overweight diagnosis in the clinical record (from 3% to 22% at the ages of 2 and 14 years, respectively). The prevalence of overweight-obesity in our population is high, especially among boys. Using Hernández standards leads to an under-estimation of the problem, especially because it detects less overweight patients, thus we recommend using the WHO standards in our daily practice. The low number of overweight-obesity diagnoses in the clinical records might reflect that there is little awareness of the problem by the professionals. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Sub-clinical mastitis prevalent in dairy cows in Chittagong district of Bangladesh: detection by different screening tests

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    Mukti Barua

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mastitis is recognized as one of the most costly health disorder affecting dairy cows. An epidemiological study was carried out at some selected farms in Chittagong district of Bangladesh to determine the prevalence and risk factors of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: For conducting the study, some dairy farms of Chittagong were selected from urban and periurban areas by stratified random sampling. A total of 444 quarter samples of 111 (56 from commercial dairy farms and 55 from backyards lactating dairy cows were considered. Sub-clinical mastitis (SCM was determined using three different indirect screening tests: California Mastitis Test (CMT, White Slide Test (WST and Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT. Sensitivity and specificity were also determined to measure the accuracy of those tests. Results: The prevalence of SCM by CMT, WST and SFMT were 32.43% (n=144, 33.56% (n=149 and 31.53% (n=140, respectively. Distribution of SCM in relation to different variables at quarter level and animal level was also recorded. The prevalence of SCM was significantly (P4 than others at quarter level. No significant difference (P>0.05 was found in relation to breed. Using CMT as a gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of WST and SFMT were also calculated at 95% confidence interval. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and disease prevalence by WST and SFMT were comparable. Conclusion: This study recommends that regular screening of sub-clinical mastitis will reduce the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. The most effective way to control sub-clinical mastitis is to take preventive measures such as regular cleaning of the floor, keeping the udder clean, milkman's cleanliness, dry cow therapy specially in high yielding dairy cows.

  10. Similar prevalence, different spectrum: IgE-mediated food allergy among Turkish adolescents.

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    Mustafayev, R; Civelek, E; Orhan, F; Yüksel, H; Boz, A B; Sekerel, B E

    2013-01-01

    Scarcity of reliable data on food allergy prevalence exists in Turkey. We aimed to assess reported and confirmed IgE-mediated food allergy prevalence, and define the spectrum of allergenic food. We prospectively evaluated the ISAAC Phase II study population for food allergy. Participants that reported experiencing food allergy symptom in the last year and/or were skin prick test positive for a predefined list of food allergens, were interviewed via telephone, and those considered as having food allergy were invited to undergo clinical investigation, including challenge tests. A total of 6963 questionnaires were available. Parental reported food allergy prevalence and skin prick sensitisation rate were 20.2 ± 0.9% and 5.9 ± 0.6%. According to the above-defined criteria, 1162 children (symptom positive n=909, skin prick test positive n=301, both positive n=48) were selected and 813 (70.0%) were interviewed via telephone. Out of 152 adolescents reporting a current complaint, 87 accepted clinical investigation. There were 12 food allergies diagnosed in nine adolescents, with food allergy prevalence of 0.16 ± 0.11%. The most common foods involved in allergic reactions were walnut (n=3) and beef meat (n=2), followed by hen's egg (n=1), peanut (n=1), spinach (n=1), kiwi (n=1), cheese (n=1), hazelnut (n=1) and peach (n=1). While parental reported food allergy prevalence was within the range reported previously, confirmed IgE-mediated food allergy prevalence among adolescents was at least 0.16%, and the spectrum of foods involved in allergy differed from Western countries, implying environmental factors may play a role. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of inter-arm blood pressure difference among clinical out-patients.

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    Sharma, Balkishan; Ramawat, Pramila

    2016-04-01

    An increased inter-arm blood pressure difference is an easily determined physical finding, may use as an indicator of cardio vascular event and other sever diseases. Authors evaluated 477 patients to determine the prevalence and significance of inter-arm blood pressure difference. 477 routine outdoor patients selected to observe the inter-arm blood pressure difference. Age, height, weight, body mass index, history of disease and blood pressure recorded. The prevalence of ≥10 mmHg systolic inter-arm blood pressure difference was 5.0% was more as compared to 3.8% had diastolic inter-arm blood pressure difference. The prevalence of systolic and diastolic inter-arm difference between 6 to 10 mmHg was 31.4% and 27.9% respectively. Mean systolic inter-arm blood pressure difference was significantly higher among those patients had a multisystem disorder (10.57±0.98 mmHg) and followed by patients with cardiovascular disease (10.22±0.67 mmHg) as compared to healthy patients (2.71±0.96 mmHg). Various diseases highly influenced the increase in blood pressure irrespective of systolic or diastolic was confirmed strongly significant (pdifferent inter arm blood pressure difference levels. This study supports the view of inter-arm blood pressure difference as an alarming stage of increased disease risk that incorporated to investigate potential problems at an early diagnostic stage. A significant mean difference between left and right arm blood pressure recorded for many diseases.

  12. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Gender differences and prevalence in a Pakistani medical student population

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    Vaqar Talha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect which causes significant distress or impairment in functioning. Few studies have assessed gender differences in BDD in a non clinical population. Also no study assessed BDD in medical students. This study was designed to determine the point prevalence of BDD in Pakistani medical students and the gender differences in prevalence of BDD, body foci of concern and symptoms of BDD. Methods The medical students enrolled in a medical university in Karachi, Pakistan filled out a self-report questionnaire which assessed clinical features of BDD. BDD was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria. Results Out of the 156 students, 57.1% were female. A total of 78.8% of the students reported dissatisfaction with some aspect of their appearance and 5.8% met the DSM-IV criteria for BDD. The male to female ratio for BDD was 1.7. Regarding gender differences in body foci of concern, the top three reported foci of concern in male students were head hair (34.3%, being fat (32.8%, skin (14.9% and nose(14.9%, whereas in females they were being fat (40.4%, skin (24.7% and teeth (18%. Females were significantly more concerned about being fat (p = 0.005. Male students were significantly more concerned about being thin (p = 0.01 and about head hair (p = 0.012. Conclusion BDD is fairly common in our medical student population, with a higher prevalence in males. Important gender differences in BDD symptomatology and reported body foci of concern were identified which reflected the influence of media on body image perception. The impact of cultural factors on the prevalence as well as gender differences in BDD symptomatology was also established.

  13. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in different population groups: systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Baumann, Lukas; Cina, Manuel; Egli-Gany, Dianne; Goutaki, Myrofora; Halbeisen, Florian S; Lohrer, Gian-Reto; Ali, Hammad; Scott, Pippa; Low, Nicola

    2018-02-09

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a common cause of non-gonococcal non-chlamydial urethritis and cervicitis. Testing of asymptomatic populations has been proposed, but prevalence in asymptomatic populations is not well established. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of M. genitalium in the general population, pregnant women, men who have sex with men (MSM), commercial sex workers (CSWs) and clinic-based samples, METHODS: We searched Embase, Medline, IndMED, African Index Medicus and LILACS from 1 January 1991 to 12 July 2016 without language restrictions. We included studies with 500 participants or more. Two reviewers independently screened and selected studies and extracted data. We examined forest plots and conducted random-effects meta-analysis to estimate prevalence, if appropriate. Between-study heterogeneity was examined using the I 2 statistic and meta-regression. Of 3316 screened records, 63 were included. In randomly selected samples from the general population, the summary prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI 1.0% to 1.8%, I 2 41.5%, three studies, 9091 people) in countries with higher levels of development and 3.9% (95% CI 2.2 to 6.7, I 2 89.2%, three studies, 3809 people) in countries with lower levels. Prevalence was similar in women and men (P=0.47). In clinic based samples, prevalence estimates were higher, except in asymptomatic patients (0.8%, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.4, I 2 0.0%, three studies, 2889 people). Summary prevalence estimates were, in the following groups: pregnant women 0.9% (95% CI 0.6% to 1.4%, I 2 0%, four studies, 3472 people), MSM in the community 3.2% (95% CI 2.1 to 5.1, I 2 78.3%, five studies, 3012 people) and female CSWs in the community 15.9% (95% CI 13.5 to 18.9, I 2 79.9%, four studies, 4006 people). This systematic review can inform testing guidelines for M. genitalium . The low estimated prevalence of M. genitalium in the general population, pregnant women and asymptomatic attenders at clinics does not support expansion of testing to these

  14. An international comparison of risk factors between two regions with distinct differences in asthma prevalence.

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    Madani, K; Vlaski, E; Rennie, D C; Sears, M; Lawson, J A

    2018-03-24

    Investigation of the geographic variation in asthma prevalence can improve our understanding of asthma etiology and management. The purpose of our investigation was to compare the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among adolescents living in two distinct international regions and to investigate reasons for observed differences. A cross-sectional survey of 13-14 year olds was completed in Saskatoon, Canada (n=1200) and Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (n=3026), as part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase 3 study. Surveys were self-completed by students following the ISAAC protocol. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate associations with reports of asthma and current wheeze. A mediation analysis was then completed. Asthma prevalence was much higher in Saskatoon than Skopje (21.3% vs. 1.7%) as was the prevalence of current wheeze (28.2% vs. 8.8%). Higher paracetamol (acetaminophen) use was a consistent risk factor for asthma and wheeze in both locations and showed dose-response relationships. In both countries, paracetamol use and physical activity mediated some of the association for both asthma and wheeze. In Saskatoon, among those with current wheeze, 42.6% reported ever having a diagnosis of asthma compared to 10.2% among Skopje adolescents. The results suggest that the variation in risk factors between the two locations may explain some of the differences in the prevalence of asthma and wheeze between these two study sites. However, diagnostic labeling patterns should not be ruled out as another potential explanatory factor. Copyright © 2018 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic disease in northeast China.

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    Wang, Shibin; Kou, Changgui; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; D'Arcy, Carl; Shi, Jieping; Wu, Yanhua; Liu, Jianwei; Zhu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin

    2015-05-01

    Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic diseases in the adult population of northeast China are examined. The Jilin Provincial Chronic Disease Survey used personal interviews and physical measures to research the presence of a range of chronic diseases among a large sample of rural and urban provincial residents aged 18 to 79 years (N = 21 435). Logistic regression analyses were used. After adjusting for age and gender, rural residents had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic low back pain, arthritis, chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcer, chronic cholecystitis/gallstones, and chronic lower respiratory disease. Low education, low income, and smoking increased the risk of chronic diseases in rural areas. Reducing rural-urban differences in chronic disease presents a formidable public health challenge for China. The solution requires focusing attention on issues endemic to rural areas such as poverty, lack of chronic disease knowledge, and the inequality in access to primary care. © 2014 APJPH.

  16. The prevalence of ovine herpesvirus-2 in 4 sheep breeds from different regions in South Africa

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    C.W. Bremer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available About 90% of bovine malignant catarrhal fever (BMCF PCR-positive cases in South Africa are caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1 and the other 10 % by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2. The prevalence of OvHV-2 in different sheep breeds in South Africa was determined in order to investigate whether the lower incidence of BMCF caused by OvHV-2 in comparison with AlHV-1 can be ascribed to a low incidence of the virus in sheep. A single-tube hemi-nested PCR was developed, evaluated and applied to detect OvHV-2 DNA. The prevalence of the virus in 4 sheep breeds from various regions in South Africa was shown to be 77 %. No statistically significant difference was found amongst the sheep breeds tested.

  17. Palmaris Longus Muscle's Prevalence in Different Nations and Interesting Anatomical Variations: Review of the Literature.

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    Ioannis, Dimitriou; Anastasios, Katsourakis; Konstantinos, Natsis; Lazaros, Kostretzis; Georgios, Noussios

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of the palmaris longus (PL) muscle varies more than any other muscle in the human body. Its absence across the world ranges between 1.5% and 63.9%. It presents with many different anomalies, discovered either clinically, intraoperatively or after anatomical examination of cadavers. This paper includes recent studies and reports about the presence and variations of the PL muscle, thereby illustrating the differences between ethnic groups, as well as emphasizing the different ways of finding it, during daily clinical and surgical practice.

  18. Prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi; Ali Salehi; Hassan Izanloo; Zahra Ghorbani; Vahid Vanaki; Reza Ramazani; Mahdi Asadi-Ghalhari

    2018-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, in most bakeries in order to accelerate bread production process and reduce work pressure on bakers, harmful chemicals like baking soda are in use. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 234 bakeries in Qom, Iran, during 2017. The proportional stratified sampling met...

  19. Sex differences in correlates of intermediate phenotypes and prevalent cardiovascular disease in the general population

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    Renate B. Schnabel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background-There are marked sex differences in cardiovascular disease [CVD] manifestation. It is largely unknown how the distribution of CVD risk factors or intermediate phenotypes explain sex-specific differences.Methods and Results-In 5000 individuals of the population-based Gutenberg Health Study, mean age 55±11 years, 51% males, we examined sex-specific associations of classical CVD risk factors with intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, flow-mediated dilation, peripheral arterial tonometry, echocardiographic and electrocardiographic variables. Intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes were related to prevalent CVD (coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, myocardial infarction, lower extremity artery disease [LEAD] N=561.We observed differential distributions of CVD risk factors with a higher risk factor burden in men. Manifest coronary artery disease, stroke, myocardial infarction and LEAD were more frequent in men; the proportion of heart failure was higher in women. Intermediate phenotypes showed clear sex differences with more beneficial values in women. Fairly linear changes towards less beneficial values with age were observed in both sexes. In multivariable-adjusted regression analyses age, systolic blood pressure and body mass index were consistently associated with intermediate phenotypes in both sexes with different ranking according to random forests, maximum model R² 0.43. Risk factor-adjusted associations with prevalent CVD showed some differences by sex. No interactions by menopausal status were observed. Conclusions-In a population-based cohort we observed sex differences in risk factors and a broad range of intermediate phenotypes of noninvasive cardiovascular structure and function. Their relation to prevalent CVD differed markedly. Our results indicate the need of future investigations to understand sex differences in CVD manifestation.

  20. Prevalence of chronic atrophic gastritis in different parts of the world.

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    Weck, Melanie Nicole; Brenner, Hermann

    2006-06-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is a well-established precursor of intestinal gastric cancer, but epidemiologic data about its occurrence are sparse. We provide an overview on studies that examined the prevalence of CAG in different parts of the world. Articles containing data about the prevalence of chronic atrophic gastritis in unselected population samples and published until November 2005 were identified by searching the MEDLINE database. Furthermore, the references in the identified publications were screened for additional suitable studies. Studies comprising at least 50 subjects were included. Forty-one studies providing data on the prevalence of CAG in unselected population samples could be identified. CAG was determined by gastroscopy in 15 studies and by pepsinogen serum levels in 26 studies. Although results are difficult to compare due to the various definitions of CAG used, a strong increase with age, the lack of major gender differences, and strong variations between populations and population groups (in particular, relatively high rates in certain Asian populations) could be observed quite consistently. We conclude that CAG is relatively common among older adults in different parts of the world, but large variations exist. Large-scale international comparative studies with standardized methodology to determine CAG are needed to provide a coherent picture of the epidemiology of CAG in various populations. Noninvasive measurements of CAG by pepsinogen levels may be particularly suited for that purpose.

  1. Prevalence and metabolic characteristics of adrenal androgen excess in hyperandrogenic women with different phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmina, E; Lobo, R A

    2007-02-01

    Serum DHEAS has been found to be elevated in some women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We wished to determine whether this prevalence is different in women with androgen excess who have different phenotypes and to correlate these findings with various cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Two hundred and thirty-eight young hyperandrogenic women categorized into various diagnostic groups were evaluated for elevations in serum DHEAS, testosterone, glucose, insulin, quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI), cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and C-reactive protein (CRP). Data were stratified based on elevations in DHEAS. Serum DHEAS was elevated in 39.5% for the entire group [36.7% in PCOS and 48.3% in idiopathic hyperandrogenism (IHA)]. In classic (C)-PCOS, the prevalence was 39.6% and in ovulatory (OV) PCOS it was 29.1%. These differences were not statistically significant. Women with elevated DHEAS had higher testosterone but lower insulin, higher QUICKI, lower total and LDL-cholesterol and higher HDL-cholesterol, pPCOS. The prevalence of adrenal hyperandrogenism, as determined by elevations in DHEAS, appears to be statistically similar in IHA, C-PCOS and compared to OV-PCOS. Metabolic and cardiovascular parameters were noted to be more favorable in those women who have higher DHEAS levels.

  2. Streptococcus pneumoniae PspC Subgroup Prevalence in Invasive Disease and Differences in Contribution to Complement Evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maten, Erika; van den Broek, Bryan; de Jonge, Marien I; Rensen, Kim J W; Eleveld, Marc J; Zomer, Aldert L; Cremers, Amelieke J H; Ferwerda, Gerben; de Groot, Ronald; Langereis, Jeroen D; van der Flier, Michiel

    2018-04-01

    The pneumococcal capsular serotype is an important determinant of complement resistance and invasive disease potential, but other virulence factors have also been found to contribute. Pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC), a highly variable virulence protein that binds complement factor H to evade C3 opsonization, is divided into two subgroups: choline-bound subgroup I and LPxTG-anchored subgroup II. The prevalence of different PspC subgroups in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and functional differences in complement evasion are unknown. The prevalence of PspC subgroups in IPD isolates was determined in a collection of 349 sequenced strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from adult patients. pspC deletion mutants and isogenic pspC switch mutants were constructed to study differences in factor H binding and complement evasion in relation to capsule thickness. Subgroup I pspC was far more prevalent in IPD isolates than subgroup II pspC The presence of capsule was associated with a greater ability of bound factor H to reduce complement opsonization. Pneumococcal subgroup I PspC bound significantly more factor H and showed more effective complement evasion than subgroup II PspC in isogenic encapsulated pneumococci. We conclude that variation in the PspC subgroups, independent of capsule serotypes, affects pneumococcal factor H binding and its ability to evade complement deposition. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Prevalence of Nosocomial Infection in Different Wards of Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad

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    Jamal Falahi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The CDC defines a nosocomial infection as a localized or systemic condition caused by an adverse reaction to the presence of an infectious agent(s or its toxin(s. It is an infection that occurs between 48 to 72 hours after admission of patients in the hospital or as soon after the hospital discharge and on the admission time, patients don't have this infection. Objectives This study aimed to characterize the prevalence of nosocomial infection in Ghaem hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Methods This retrospective study was conducted in all wards of the Ghaem hospital, Mashhad during the 1 year period (2013; the data were collected from the wards records and HIS system and analyzed by the SPSS software (version16. Results In the present study, of total 35979 hospitalized patients in different wards of the Ghaem hospital was reported 1.1% of nosocomial infection. In the meantime, overall, the most prevalent organism was Acinetobacter baumannii with a prevalence of 37.2% and the minimum was linked to the Bacillus species with a prevalence 0.3%. The highest and lowest prevalence of the nosocomial infection was in the ICU and CCU with 49.9% and 0.3%, respectively. In general, among all wards of the mentioned hospital, the most frequent nosocomial infection was pneumonia (47.4% and the lowest belonged to CSF (2.3%. Conclusions In our study, the ICU ward was accounted for the highest rate of nosocomial infection, due to the critical importance of this ward. Preventive measures and survivelance system for reduction of nosocomial infections is needed.

  4. Prevalence and onset of comorbidities in the CDKL5 disorder differ from Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangatt, Meghana; Wong, Kingsley; Anderson, Barbara; Epstein, Amy; Hodgetts, Stuart; Leonard, Helen; Downs, Jenny

    2016-04-14

    Initially described as an early onset seizure variant of Rett syndrome, the CDKL5 disorder is now considered as an independent entity. However, little is currently known about the full spectrum of comorbidities that affect these patients and available literature is limited to small case series. This study aimed to use a large international sample to examine the prevalence in this disorder of comorbidities of epilepsy, gastrointestinal problems including feeding difficulties, sleep and respiratory problems and scoliosis and their relationships with age and genotype. Prevalence and onset were also compared with those occurring in Rett syndrome. Data for the CDKL5 disorder and Rett syndrome were sourced from the International CDKL5 Disorder Database (ICDD), InterRett and the Australian Rett syndrome Database (ARSD). Logistic regression (multivariate and univariate) was used to analyse the relationships between age group, mutation type and the prevalence of various comorbidities. Binary longitudinal data from the ARSD and the equivalent cross-sectional data from ICDD were examined using generalized linear models with generalized estimating equations. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the failure function for the two disorders and the log-rank test was used to compare the two functions. The likelihood of experiencing epilepsy, GI problems, respiratory problems, and scoliosis in the CDKL5 disorder increased with age and males were more vulnerable to respiratory and sleep problems than females. We did not identify any statistically significant relationships between mutation group and prevalence of comorbidities. Epilepsy, GI problems and sleep abnormalities were more common in the CDKL5 disorder than in Rett syndrome whilst scoliosis and respiratory problems were less prevalent. This study captured a much clearer picture of the CDKL5 disorder than previously possible using the largest sample available to date. There were differences in the presentation of

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in three socioeconomically-different regions of Sivas, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiksöz, Ali; Güler, Nuran; Güler, Güngör; Oztop, A Yasemin; Degerli, Serpil

    2005-06-01

    The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of parasites in three socioeconomically-different regions (Alibaba, Esentepe, and Cayboyu) of Sivas, Turkey, to determine the most accurate method for the diagnosis of taeniasis and enterobiasis, to determine the importance of household visits in primary healthcare to control parasitic diseases, and to treat intestinal parasitic diseases in those regions. Both stool specimens and cellophane tape (CT) samples were taken from 1,864 participants during 641 household visits in the three regions. The age groups included were pre-school [(0-6 year(s)], primary school (7-15 years), and the upper age group (16 years and above). The total prevalence of intestinal parasites in the three regions was 37.2%. Eleven intestinal parasite species were detected in both stool specimens and CT samples. Giardia intestinalis and Enterobius vermicularis were the most frequent species identified in all the three regions. Region I (Alibaba) had a higher prevalence of parasites compared to the other two regions. There was no significant difference between Region II (Esentepe) and Region III (Cayboyu) in isolation of intestinal parasites. There were statistically significant differences between the age groups when the rates of parasitic infection were compared. The highest prevalence of parasitosis was observed among the age group of 7-15 years and in the socioeconomically lowest one of the three regions. While the most accurate way of diagnosis for taeniasis was the combined usage of the CT and direct preparation methods, the CT method was the best method for the diagnosis of enterobiasis. Thus, the local administrators in cities need to pay more attention to the prevention of parasitic infections along with improvements in educational, environmental and sanitary conditions.

  6. Beyond the Binary: Differences in Eating Disorder Prevalence by Gender Identity in a Transgender Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Elizabeth W; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Gordon, Allegra R; Guss, Carly; Austin, S Bryn; Reisner, Sari L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) differs across diverse gender identity groups in a transgender sample. Methods: Secondary analysis of data from Project VOICE, a cross-sectional study of stress and health among 452 transgender adults (ages 18-75 years) residing in Massachusetts. Age-adjusted logistic regression models were fit to compare the prevalence of self-reported lifetime EDs in female-to-male (FTM), male-to-female (MTF), and gender-nonconforming participants assigned male at birth (MBGNC) to gender-nonconforming participants assigned female at birth (FBGNC; referent). Results: The age-adjusted odds of self-reported ED in MTF participants were 0.14 times the odds of self-reported ED in FBGNC participants ( p =0.022). In FTM participants, the age-adjusted odds of self-reported ED were 0.46 times the odds of self-reported ED in FBGNC participants, a marginally significant finding ( p =0.068). No statistically significant differences in ED prevalence were found for MBGNC individuals. Conclusions: Gender nonconforming individuals assigned a female sex at birth appear to have heightened lifetime risk of EDs relative to MTF participants. Further research into specific biologic and psychosocial ED risk factors and gender-responsive intervention strategies are urgently needed. Training clinical providers and ensuring competency of treatment services beyond the gender binary will be vital to addressing this disparity.

  7. Beyond the Binary: Differences in Eating Disorder Prevalence by Gender Identity in a Transgender Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Elizabeth W.; White Hughto, Jaclyn M.; Gordon, Allegra R.; Guss, Carly; Austin, S. Bryn; Reisner, Sari L.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate whether the prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) differs across diverse gender identity groups in a transgender sample. Methods: Secondary analysis of data from Project VOICE, a cross-sectional study of stress and health among 452 transgender adults (ages 18–75 years) residing in Massachusetts. Age-adjusted logistic regression models were fit to compare the prevalence of self-reported lifetime EDs in female-to-male (FTM), male-to-female (MTF), and gender-nonconforming participants assigned male at birth (MBGNC) to gender-nonconforming participants assigned female at birth (FBGNC; referent). Results: The age-adjusted odds of self-reported ED in MTF participants were 0.14 times the odds of self-reported ED in FBGNC participants (p=0.022). In FTM participants, the age-adjusted odds of self-reported ED were 0.46 times the odds of self-reported ED in FBGNC participants, a marginally significant finding (p=0.068). No statistically significant differences in ED prevalence were found for MBGNC individuals. Conclusions: Gender nonconforming individuals assigned a female sex at birth appear to have heightened lifetime risk of EDs relative to MTF participants. Further research into specific biologic and psychosocial ED risk factors and gender-responsive intervention strategies are urgently needed. Training clinical providers and ensuring competency of treatment services beyond the gender binary will be vital to addressing this disparity. PMID:29359198

  8. The prevalence effect in lateral masking and its relevance for visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, B P; Wertheim, A H

    2015-04-01

    In stimulus displays with or without a single target amid 1,644 identical distractors, target prevalence was varied between 20, 50 and 80 %. Maximum gaze deviation was measured to determine the strength of lateral masking in these arrays. The results show that lateral masking was strongest in the 20 % prevalence condition, which differed significantly from both the 50 and 80 % prevalence conditions. No difference was observed between the latter two. This pattern of results corresponds to that found in the literature on the prevalence effect in visual search (stronger lateral masking corresponding to longer search times). The data add to similar findings reported earlier (Wertheim et al. in Exp Brain Res, 170:387-402, 2006), according to which the effects of many well-known factors in visual search correspond to those on lateral masking. These were the effects of set size, disjunctions versus conjunctions, display area, distractor density, the asymmetry effect (Q vs. O's) and viewing distance. The present data, taken together with those earlier findings, may lend credit to a causal hypothesis that lateral masking could be a more important mechanism in visual search than usually assumed.

  9. Differences in prevalence of prescription opiate misuse among rural and urban probationers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Jennifer R; Oser, Carrie B; Leukefeld, Carl G; Webster, J Matthew; Martin, Steven S; O'Connell, Daniel J; Surratt, Hilary L; Inciardi, James A

    2007-01-01

    We compared the prevalence of prescription opiate misuse among 2 cohorts of felony probationers (N = 1525). Multiple logistic regression was utilized to determine the independent correlates of prescription opiate misuse among rural (n = 782) and urban (n = 743) probationers participating in an HIV-intervention study. After adjustment for differences in demographic and drug use characteristics, rural participants were almost five times more likely than their urban counterparts to have misused prescription opiates. The prevalence of prescription opiate misuse was significantly higher among the rural probationers; however, given the paucity of illicit opiates and relatively recent emergence of prescription opiates in rural areas, rural substance abuse treatment may be ill-prepared to treat prescription opiate misuse.

  10. The prevalence and effect of burnout on graduate healthcare students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Garrett; Kraft, Lynnea; Amsden, Katherine; Gore, Whitney; Prengle, Bobby; Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Ledbetter, Leila; Covington, Kyle; Goode, Adam

    2017-06-01

    Burnout is a growing epidemic among professional healthcare students. Unaddressed burnout has been shown to have psychological and performance related detriments. The purpose of this scoping literature review was to investigate the prevalence of burnout and its effects on the psychological, professional, empathetic ability, and academic acuity of graduate healthcare students. Inclusion criteria included English language papers published within the last 10 years and subjects in graduate healthcare professional programs. This search encompassed 8,214 articles. After title and abstract screening, 127 articles remained and were sorted into five domains of interest: etiology, professionalism, mental health, empathy, and academic performance. After duplicates were removed, 27 articles remained for the scoping review. Graduate level healthcare students had higher levels of burnout than age matched peers and the general population. The high prevalence of burnout within graduate healthcare students can have an effect on their mental health, empathy, and professional conduct. Understanding the occurrence and effects of burnout within graduate healthcare programs allows faculty and administration to plan curriculum, and provide information to students to understand, recognize, and create opportunities to decrease burnout in order to create long lasting quality clinicians.

  11. Regional differences in self-reported screening, prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In Switzerland, health policies are decided at the local level, but little is known regarding their impact on the screening and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). We thus aimed at assessing geographical levels of CVRFs in Switzerland. Methods Swiss Health Survey for 2007 (N = 17,879). Seven administrative regions were defined: West (Leman), West-Central (Mittelland), Zurich, South (Ticino), North-West, East and Central Switzerland. Obesity, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes prevalence, treatment and screening within the last 12 months were assessed by interview. Results After multivariate adjustment for age, gender, educational level, marital status and Swiss citizenship, no significant differences were found between regions regarding prevalence of obesity or current smoking. Similarly, no differences were found regarding hypertension screening and prevalence. Two thirds of subjects who had been told they had high blood pressure were treated, the lowest treatment rates being found in East Switzerland: odds-ratio and [95% confidence interval] 0.65 [0.50-0.85]. Screening for hypercholesterolemia was more frequently reported in French (Leman) and Italian (Ticino) speaking regions. Four out of ten participants who had been told they had high cholesterol levels were treated and the lowest treatment rates were found in German-speaking regions. Screening for diabetes was higher in Ticino (1.24 [1.09 - 1.42]). Six out of ten participants who had been told they had diabetes were treated, the lowest treatment rates were found for German-speaking regions. Conclusions In Switzerland, cardiovascular risk factor screening and management differ between regions and these differences cannot be accounted for by differences in populations' characteristics. Management of most cardiovascular risk factors could be improved. PMID:22452881

  12. Prevalence of vaginitis in different age groups among females in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianou, Argiri; Galyfos, George; Moragianni, Dimitra; Baka, Stavroula

    2017-08-01

    Patients with vaginitis were classified into four groups: Group A (prepubertal under-aged females); Group B (pubertal under-aged females); Group C (reproductive age adult females); Group D (postmenopausal adult females). All vaginal specimens underwent microscopy, amine testing, Gram staining and culturing. Overall, 163 patients were included (33, 14, 81 and 35 patients, respectively). The most common infection was bacterial vaginosis (BV), followed by Ureaplasma infection, aerobic vaginitis (AV) and candidiasis. The most common AV-associated organism was Escherichia coli and the most common BV-associated organism was Gardnerella vaginalis. AV was more frequent in Group A, BV in Group C and Ureaplasma infections in Groups C/D. Decreased lactobacilli concentrations were associated with BV in fertile patients (Groups B-C). Although presentation of vaginitis is similar among females of different age in Greece, type and prevalence of pathogens differ. Normal vaginal flora changes are associated with higher risk of vaginitis in specific age groups. Impact Statement The worldwide incidence of reproductive tract infections has been increasing, with specific pathogens being associated with significant risk of morbidity and complications. However, literature data on the distribution of such infections in different age groups is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence and causes of vaginitis in adult and non-adult females of all ages. This study has shown that although presentation of vaginitis is similar among females of different age groups and menstrual status in Greece, type and prevalence of responsible pathogens are different among groups. Changes in normal vaginal flora seem to be associated with higher risk of vaginitis in specific age-groups as well. These findings could contribute in adjusting diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for each age group according to the prevailing pathogens. Further research on antibiotic

  13. Prevalence of Celiac Disease and its Effects on Pregnancy

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    E Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the coeliac disease(CD symptoms is infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, we are not cognizant of any CD reports in pregnancy in Iran. Therefore, this study aims to prospectively estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed CD in a population of pregnant women as well as its complications in pregnancy. Methods: 796 pregnant women with mean age of 26 years(SD= 26 and mean pregnancy duration of 5.4 months participated in this descriptive study from 2007 to 2008. Total IgA test and antitissue transglutaminase(tTGA antibodies were measured. Those with positive TGA underwent histological biopsy specimens according to modified Marsh classification. Results: A positive CD serology for tTGA was obderved in 17(2.1% out of 796 pregnant women. Out of the 17 seropositive patients, 10 had abnormal histology compatible with CD(Marsh I-IIIc symptoms. Two pregnant women had already experienced miscarriage. Moreover, 3 patients had born low birth weight babies. Conclusion: In this study, there was no significant relationship between CD and high incidence of adverse outcomes. Overall, 1 out of 66 pregnant women(1.5% rate of prevalence suffered from CD. Celiac disease shows different severity in different individuals. In other words, not every celiac patient is at high risk for its complications. This may propose that gluten free diet could be avoided in the patients who have a normal pregnancy

  14. Prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly maintenance hemodialysis patients: the impact of different diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarca, F; Carrero, J J; Rodrigues, J C D; Bigogno, F G; Fetter, R L; Avesani, C M

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of sarcopenia on elderly maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) has been scarcely investigated. To investigate the prevalence of decreased muscle mass and strength alone or combined (true sarcopenia) in elderly patients on MHD according to different methods and cutoff limits. Additionally, we evaluated the agreement between dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and surrogate methods for the assessment of muscle mass. Observational and cross-sectional study. Non-institutionalized 102 elderly (age > 60 years) patients on MHD. Sarcopenia was considered when the patient fit one criteria for low muscle mass assessed by DXA, bioelectrical impedance (BIA), sum of skinfold thicknesses (SKF), calf circumference and mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) and one for low muscle strength evaluated by handgrip dynamometer. Decreased muscle strength was found in 85% of the patients. The prevalence of decreased muscle mass varied from 4 to 73.5% and of sarcopenia (decreased muscle mass and strength combined) from 4 to 63%, depending on the method and cutoff limit applied. A small percentage of patients (2 to 15%) were classified as sarcopenic by more than one diagnostic criteria. The agreement between DXA and the surrogate methods to assess muscle mass showed better kappa coefficients with BIA (r=0.36; Psarcopenia is observed depending on the method and cutoff limit applied. This may limit extrapolate on to clinical practice. BIA and SKF were the surrogate methods to assess muscle mass with the best concordance with DXA in elderly MHD patients.

  15. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Adolescents: Comparison of Different Anthropometric Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544

  16. Problematic internet use among high school students: Prevalence, associated factors and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Brambilla, Romeo; Priotto, Bruna; Angelino, Remo; Cuomo, GianLuca; Diecidue, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the prevalence of Problematic Internet Use (PIU) among high school students and to identify factors associated with PIU underlining gender differences. The students filled a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire collecting information on demographic characteristics and patterns of Internet use. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with PIU in the overall sample and by gender. Twenty-five schools and 2022 students participated in the survey. Prevalence of PIU was 14.2% among males and 10.1% among females. Males 15-year-olds and females 14-year-olds had the highest PIU prevalence that progressively lowered with age among females. Only 13.5% of pupils declared parents controlled their Internet use. The sensation of feeling lonely, the frequency of use, the number of hours of connection, and visiting pornographic websites were associated with the risk of PIU in both genders. Attending vocational schools, the activities of chatting and file downloading, and the location of use at Internet point among males, and younger age among females were associated with PIU, whilst information searching was protective among females. PIU could become a public health problem in the next years. The physical and mental health consequences should be studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of misclassification of antiretroviral treatment status on the prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance

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    Castro Hannah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of the prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR in a population are derived from resistance tests performed on samples from patients thought to be naïve to antiretroviral treatment (ART. Much of the debate over reliability of estimates of the prevalence of TDR has focused on whether the sample population is representative. However estimates of the prevalence of TDR will also be distorted if some ART-experienced patients are misclassified as ART-naïve. Methods The impact of misclassification bias on the rate of TDR was examined. We developed methods to obtain adjusted estimates of the prevalence of TDR for different misclassification rates, and conducted sensitivity analyses of trends in the prevalence of TDR over time using data from the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database. Logistic regression was used to examine trends in the prevalence of TDR over time. Results The observed rate of TDR was higher than true TDR when misclassification was present and increased as the proportion of misclassification increased. As the number of naïve patients with a resistance test relative to the number of experienced patients with a test increased, the difference between true and observed TDR decreased. The observed prevalence of TDR in the UK reached a peak of 11.3% in 2002 (odds of TDR increased by 1.10 (95% CI 1.02, 1.19, p(linear trend = 0.02 per year 1997-2002 before decreasing to 7.0% in 2007 (odds of TDR decreased by 0.90 (95% CI 0.87, 0.94, p(linear trend Conclusion The effect of misclassification of ART on estimates of the prevalence of TDR may be appreciable, and depends on the number of naïve tests relative to the number of experienced tests. Researchers can examine the effect of ART misclassification on their estimates of the prevalence of TDR if such a bias is suspected.

  18. Prevalence and Pattern of Consanguineous Marriages Among Different Communities in Mangalore

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    Bhagya Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consanguineous marriages are a common practice in the Middle East, Asian and African populations. Many studies have stated an association between first cousin marriages and the incidence of autosomal recessive diseases and congenital malformations. High frequency of consanguinity is reported by researchers among South India. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and type of consanguineous marriages among the different communities of Mangalore. Methods: This study was conducted on 1164 married women in Mangalore to investigate the prevalence and type of consanguineous marriages. All the women were interviewed personally using a structured questionnaire. Family pedigree was constructed to study the type of consanguineous marriages. Data analysis was done by SPSS Win 13.0. Results: A low percentage of consanguinity (6.53% was observed with a mean inbreeding coefficient of 0.0339. Frequency of consanguinity between religions was highly significant. Of these the most frequent were first cousin marriages (43.42%. Within Hindu religion the highest rate of consanguinity was among the Billavas (47.62% of which the most frequent were distant relative marriages (75% followed by second cousin marriages (57.14%. There was no significant difference in the frequency distribution of the types of consanguinity between the religions and also between the different groups among Hindus. Conclusion: The frequency of consanguinity was found to be low in Mangalore. The findings contradict with the earlier reports of high prevalence of consanguineous marriages in South India. Increased female education, increased socio-economic status and decrease in parental decisions in marriages may be the reasons.

  19. Effects of the economic crisis on smoking prevalence and number of smokers in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, Silvano; Ghislandi, Simone; Muttarak, Raya

    2015-01-01

    Scanty and controversial information is available on the impact of macroeconomic fluctuations on smoking behaviour. No study has quantified the effects of fiscal crises on smoking prevalence. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the 2007-2008 economic crisis on smoking prevalence and number of smokers in the USA. Using data from the repeated Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys in pre-crisis (2005-2007) and post-crisis (2009-2010) periods on a total of 1,981,607 US adults, we separated the expected (after allowance for the demographic growth of the US population, secular smoking prevalence trends and changes in sociodemographic characteristics) from the unexpected (assumed attributable to the economic crisis) changes in the number of smokers across different employment statuses. Joinpoint regression analysis revealed no significant changes in smoking prevalence trends over the period 2005-2010. The crisis resulted in an increase in the number of smokers in the US by 0.6 million. This is largely due to an unexpected decrease of 1.7 million smokers among employed and an increase of 2.4 million smokers among unemployed individuals, whose smoking prevalence also remains extremely high in the post-crisis period (32.6%). The 2008 financial crisis had a weak effect on smoking prevalence. The pro-cyclical relationship (ie, the crisis results in a lower number of smokers) found among the employed is offset by the counter-cyclical relationship (ie, the crisis results in a higher number of smokers) found among unemployed individuals. Public health interventions should specifically target those in unemployment, particularly in hard times. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Prevalence of HBV in pregnant women from areas of different endemicity in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, S.; Garcia, B.; Torres, R.; Larrabure, G.; Lucen, A.; Pernaz, G.; Gonzales, L.; Miranda, G.; Davalos, E.; Galarza, C.; Camasca, N.; Jara, R.

    1999-01-01

    The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HBV in pregnant women (mean age among groups 25,0 ± 6,9) who live in areas of different endemicity, and located in the Department of Lima, Junin, Apurimac, and Ayacucho in Peru. All studies were carried out using radioimmunological techniques. In the Instituto Materno Perinatal in Lima, located in a low endemic area, 2086 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 44 years old were evaluated (for laboratory tests) at their first prenatal examination. A prevalence of 0,38% (HBsAg+), 0,38% (Ratio), and 3,18% (HBsAg+, anti-HBsAg+) was found, corresponding to 107 HBsAg+ pregnant women whose treated newborn would prevent the HBV chronic infection of approximate 21 newborn each year. 63% HBsAg+ pregnant women were born in Departments other than Lima. In the Hospital de Apoyo La Merced, located in Chanchamayo, Junin, which is a medium endemic area, 217 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 48 years old were evaluated. T he prevalence found in this hospital was of 1,38% (HBsAg+), 1,2% (Ratio), and 17,*% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+). All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. The projection of results corresponded to a total of 9 HbsAg+ pregnant women and 2 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. In the Guillermo Diaz de la Vega Hospital in Abancay, Apurimac, located in a medium to high endemic area, 221 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 15 and 46 years old were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36% (HBsAg+), 1,0% (Ratio), and 36.16% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) was found. All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. Projected results corresponded to a total of 37 HBsAg+ pregnant carriers and 7 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. The Hospital General de Huanta, in Ayacucho, located in a high endemicity area, presented a prevalence of 3,2% (HBsAg+), 1,9% (Ratio), and 76, 2% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) from 126 pregnant women evaluated with ages between 15 and 48 years old. These results gave a total

  1. Sex differences in the prevalence, symptoms, and associated features of migraine, probable migraine and other severe headache: results of the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Dawn C; Loder, Elizabeth W; Gorman, Jennifer A; Stewart, Walter F; Reed, Michael L; Fanning, Kristina M; Serrano, Daniel; Lipton, Richard B

    2013-09-01

    The strikingly higher prevalence of migraine in females compared with males is one of the hallmarks of migraine. A large global body of evidence exists on the sex differences in the prevalence of migraine with female to male ratios ranging from 2:1 to 3:1 and peaking in midlife. Some data are available on sex differences in associated symptoms, headache-related disability and impairment, and healthcare resource utilization in migraine. Few data are available on corresponding sex differences in probable migraine (PM) and other severe headache (ie, nonmigraine-spectrum severe headache). Gaining a clear understanding of sex differences in a range of severe headache disorders may help differentiate the range of headache types. Herein, we compare sexes on prevalence and a range of clinical variables for migraine, PM, and other severe headache in a large sample from the US population. This study analyzed data from the 2004 American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study. Total and demographic-stratified sex-specific, prevalence estimates of headache subtypes (migraine, PM, and other severe headache) are reported. Log-binomial models are used to calculate sex-specific adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for each across demographic strata. A smoothed sex prevalence ratio (female to male) figure is presented for migraine and PM. One hundred sixty-two thousand seven hundred fifty-six individuals aged 12 and older responded to the 2004 American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study survey (64.9% response rate). Twenty-eight thousand two hundred sixty-one (17.4%) reported "severe headache" in the preceding year (23.5% of females and 10.6% of males), 11.8% met International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 criteria for migraine (17.3% of females and 5.7% of males), 4.6% met criteria for PM (5.3% of females and 3.9% of males), and 1.0% were categorized with other severe headache (0.9% of females and 1.0% of males). Sex differences were observed in

  2. Differences in the prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among children from primary schools in rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wolnicka

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children from rural and urban areas of Poland is similar. Analysis of regional differences in the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight among children and adolescents may indicate the direction of national and local activities aiming to reduce the inequalities resulting from nutritional well-being.

  3. Differences in physical activity prevalence and trends from 3 U.S. surveillance systems: NHIS, NHANES, and BRFSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Susan A; Densmore, Dianna; Fulton, Janet E; Yore, Michelle M; Kohl, Harold W

    2009-01-01

    Three U.S. surveillance systems-National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)--estimate physical activity prevalence. Survey differences were examined qualitatively. Prevalence estimates by sex, age, and race/ethnicity were assessed for comparable survey periods. Trends were examined from NHIS 1998 to 2007, NHANES 1999 to 2006, and BRFSS 2001 to 2007. Age-adjusted prevalence estimates appeared most similar for NHIS 2005 (physically active: 30.2%, inactive: 40.7%) and NHANES 2005 to 2006 (physically active: 33.5%, inactive: 32.4%). In BRFSS 2005, prevalence of being physically active was 48.3% and inactive was 13.9%. Across all systems, men were more likely to be active than women; non-Hispanic whites were most likely to be active; as age increased, overall prevalence of being active decreased. Prevalence of being active exhibited a significant increasing trend only in BRFSS 2001 to 2007 (P < .001), while prevalence of being inactive decreased significantly in NHANES 1999 to 2006 (P < .001) and BRFSS 2001 to 2007 (P < .001). Different ways of assessing physical activity in surveillance systems result in different prevalence estimates. Before comparing estimates from different systems, all aspects of data collection and data analysis should be examined to determine if comparisons are appropriate.

  4. Circumcision in Australia: prevalence and effects on sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richters, Juliet; Smith, Anthony M A; de Visser, Richard O; Grulich, Andrew E; Rissel, Christopher E

    2006-08-01

    The results from a telephone survey in 2001-02 of a probability sample of Australian households including 10,173 men aged 16-59 (response rate 69.4%) are used to assess the prevalence of circumcision across social groups in Australia and examine lifetime history of sexually transmissible infection (STI), sexual difficulties in the last year, sexual practices including masturbation, and sexual attitudes. More than half (59%) of the men were circumcised. Circumcision was less common among younger men (32% aged practices at last sexual encounter with a female partner or in masturbation alone. Circumcised men had somewhat more liberal sexual attitudes. Neonatal circumcision was routine in Australia until the 1970s. It appears not to be associated with significant protective or harmful sexual health outcomes. This study provides no evidence about the effects on sexual sensitivity.

  5. [Epidemiology of contact dermatitis: prevalence of sensitization to different allergens and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordel-Gómez, Ma T; Miranda-Romero, A; Castrodeza-Sanz, J

    2010-01-01

    In clinical practice, contact dermatitis is a relatively common skin complaint, whose prevalence has increased in recent years. Study by patch testing is essential for diagnosis of contact sensitization. To study the prevalence of sensitization to different allergens in a standard battery and observe the influence of different epidemiological and clinical variables on contact sensitization. A large number of allergens were included in our battery in order to detect new sensitizations whose prevalence might justify further study. This was a retrospective, observational, epidemiological study of 1092 patients, conducted in our skin allergy unit between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2005. All patients were studied with a battery of 51 allergens. We assessed the following variables: sex, age, type of referral, occupation, site and course of skin lesions, personal and family history of atopy, positive patch tests, clinical significance, diagnosis, source of sensitization, and occupational relationship. At least 1 positive result was found in 55% of the patients, and 55.7% presented atopic dermatitis in one of its clinical variants: allergic contact dermatitis (28.2%), irritant contact dermatitis (20.1%), photoallergic contact dermatitis (2.2%), and phototoxic contact dermatitis (1.2%). The most prevalent allergens were nickel sulfate (29.3%), palladium chloride (11.7%), cobalt chloride (10.8%), potassium dichromate (7.5%), fragrance blends (6.3%), and p-phenylenediamine (6.1%). A positive occupational relationship was found in 41.1%, and 21.3% of the patients studied were diagnosed with occupational contact dermatitis. Metal workers, construction workers, and professional hairdressers were the most strongly represented groups. The most common source of sensitization was contact with metallic objects, followed by drugs, cosmetics, and rubber items. Female sex was the only independent variable that had a significant influence on the risk of contact sensitization in

  6. Preschool overweight and obesity in urban and rural Vietnam: differences in prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loan Minh; Tran, Toan Khanh; Eriksson, Bo; Petzold, Max; Nguyen, Chuc T K; Ascher, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9-23.3) in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2-9.2) in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted.

  7. Preschool overweight and obesity in urban and rural Vietnam: differences in prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan Minh Do

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9–23.3 in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2–9.2 in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted.

  8. Prevalence and effects of multiple chemical sensitivities in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Steinemann

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS is a medical condition associated with exposure to common chemical pollutants. The aims of this study are to assess the prevalence of MCS, its overlaps with asthma and fragrance sensitivity, and its health and societal effects in Australia. Data were collected in June 2016 using an on-line survey with a representative national sample (N = 1098 of adults (ages 18–65 in Australia. Results found that, across the country, 6.5% report medically diagnosed MCS, 18.9% report chemical sensitivity (being unusually sensitive to everyday chemicals and chemically formulated products, and 19.9% either or both. Among people with MCS, 74.6% also have diagnosed asthma or an asthma-like condition, and 91.5% have fragrance sensitivity, reporting health problems (such as migraine headaches when exposed to fragranced consumer products (such as air fresheners and cleaning supplies. In addition, among people with MCS, 77.5% are prevented from access to places because of fragranced products, 52.1% lost workdays or a job in the past year due to fragranced product exposure in the workplace, and 55.4% report health effects considered potentially disabling. Results indicate that MCS is a widespread disease, affecting an estimated 1 million adult Australians, with chemical sensitivity affecting another 2 million. Reducing chemical exposure to problematic sources, such as fragranced consumer products, is critical to reduce adverse effects. Keywords: MCS, Multiple chemical sensitivities, Chemical sensitivity, Asthma, Fragrance sensitivity, Fragranced consumer products

  9. Prevalence of different palatal rugae patterns in a sample Lucknow population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Asdullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Palatoscopy is the study of palatal rugae pattern and it can be used to establish the identity of a person. The rugae are unique internal structures protected by the lips, buccal pad of fat and teeth that resist decomposition, thus serving an important role in forensic identification. The appearance of palatal rugae is constant, as they do not demonstrate changes after the completion of growth of the individual, thus increasing its utility as a personal identification tool. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of different palatal rugae patterns in a sample of Lucknow, India population. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 100 healthy (50 males and 50 females subjects of age between 18 and 40 years, who were randomly selected. In this study we used the classification of rugae patterns suggested by Kapali et al. (straight, curved, wavy andcircular, and Thomas and Kotze (unification and nonspecific. Results: The mean rugae number in females was slightly more than males. The most prevalent forms in both genders were curved type followed by wavy, straight and diverging types. Straight and curved forms were significantly more in numbers in females than males. Conclusion: This is a preliminary study on a localized Indian population. Scope still exists for further studies to determine gender as well as personal identification. We believe that rugae can be used as a reliable guide in forensic identification.

  10. [Economic factors and gender differences in the prevalence of smoking among adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Nelson Leitão

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study that seeks to identify the relevant economic variables in the prevalence of smoking in a group of 37 countries. The chosen methodology was to estimate multiple linear regression using the least square approach. The econometric exercise is performed by gender, seeking to examine whether there are different motivations for cigarette smoking among the adult population of men and women. The results show that although taxation is a common element in the decision of both sexes, the decision to smoke among women is also sensitive to price and other social and cultural factors. These factors were based on the fact that women who live in countries that are part of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development reveal a significantly higher prevalence of cigarette consumption. The evidence presented in this study, therefore, reinforces the perception that taxation is in fact a crucial tool in the control of smoking, but in the specific case of women, higher prices and the promotion of greater equality with men, are also important.

  11. Differences in prevalence and treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis centres in Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per Kristian; Olesen, Hanne V; Hoiby, Niels

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection causes increased morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). This study aimed to answer the following questions: Does the prevalence of chronic infection with PA differ between the CF centres in Scandinavia? Which differences exist......) (p=0.037). The pulmonary function was similar. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to maintain a very low prevalence of chronic PA infection in CF patients

  12. PREVALENCE OF FOVEOLAR LUCENCY WITH DIFFERENT GAS TAMPONADES IN SURGICALLY CLOSED MACULAR HOLES ASSESSED BY SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarranz-Ventura, Javier; Ellabban, Abdallah A; Sim, Dawn A; Keane, Pearse A; Kirkpatrick, James N; Sallam, Ahmed A B

    2017-07-07

    To evaluate the prevalence of foveolar lucency (FL) in surgically closed macular holes by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. One hundred forty-two eyes of 132 patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane peeling, and gas tamponade in a 60-month time frame. Anatomical success and FL rates assessed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography, mean preoperative, and postoperative best-measured visual acuity and surgical details were retrospectively analyzed. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography confirmed closed holes with FL in 33.7% (34/101) of eyes at 1 month, 7.3% (9/123) at 3 months, 4.6% (6/129) at 6 months, and 3% (4/133) at 12 months. Prevalence of FL in closed holes at Month 1 was lower in C3F8-treated eyes (9.5%, 2/21) compared with C2F6 (40.9%, 18/44, P = 0.03) and SF6-treated eyes (38.9%, 14/36, P = 0.05). No differences were observed at Month 3. No differences in best-measured visual acuity change were observed between closed holes with or without FL at Month 1 (-0.14 ± 0.19 vs. -0.11 ± 0.23, P = 0.48) or any of the other time points. Temporary FL is a highly prevalent feature in successfully closed macular holes. Eyes treated with C3F8 gas had lower rates of FL at Month 1 than C2F6 and SF6-treated eyes. The presence of FL in closed holes does not seem to have any effect on the visual outcomes.

  13. Differences in prevalence of overweight and stunting in 11-year olds across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngve, Agneta; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Wolf, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess country differences in prevalence of overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in the Pro Children Survey. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted in a random sample of schools in nine European countries in 2003. The subjects were 8317 11-year-old children from Austria...... of stunted children was highest in Portugal, Spain and Belgium. CONCLUSIONS: The highest levels of overweight, obesity and stunting in the pro children material are found in Portugal and Spain......., Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Parents reported height and weight of the children, and BMI values were analysed using the US Centers of Disease Control and Prevention and the International Obesity Task Force reference populations. Continuous variables were...

  14. Prevalence of sleep bruxism and awake bruxism in different chronotype profiles: Hypothesis of an association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Negra, J M; Lobbezoo, F; Martins, C C; Stellini, E; Manfredini, D

    2017-04-01

    Sleep (SB) and awake bruxism (AB) recognize a multifactorial etiology and have a relationship with several psychological factors. Psychological disorders have recently been associated also with the chronotype, which is the propensity for an individual to be especially active at a particular time during a 24-h period. Based on the chronotype, the two extreme profiles are morningness and eveningness individuals. Due to the relationship that both the chronotype and bruxism have with psychological factors and the fact that performing tasks not compatible with chronotype can trigger stress, this review presents the hypothesis that the prevalence of SB and AB can differ with the various chronotype profiles. New perspectives for the study of bruxism etiology may emerge from investigations on the topic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Global differences between women and men in the prevalence of obesity: is there an association with gender inequality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garawi, F; Devries, K; Thorogood, N; Uauy, R

    2014-10-01

    In most populations the prevalence of obesity is greater in women than in men; however, the magnitude of the difference between the sexes varies significantly by country. We considered the role of gender inequality in explaining these disparities. We undertook an ecological analysis of internationally comparable obesity prevalence data to examine the association between indicators of gender inequality and the differences between men and women in obesity prevalence. Gender inequality was assessed using three measures: the Gender Inequality Index, the Global Gender Gap Index and the Social Institutions and Gender Index. We fitted multiple regression models to examine the association. We found that the prevalence of obesity across countries shows gendered patterning with greater prevalence and greater heterogeneity in women than in men (P<0.001). We also found that two of three measures of gender inequality were significantly associated with the sex differences in obesity prevalence across countries. The patterning of obesity across countries is gendered. However, the association between global measures of gender inequality and the sex gap in obesity is dependent on the measure used. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms that underpin the gendered nature of obesity prevalence.

  16. A reversed gender pattern? A meta-analysis of gender differences in the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injurious behaviour among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueyan; Feldman, Marcus W

    2017-07-28

    A reversed gender pattern has been observed in the suicide rate in China compared to elsewhere. Like suicidal behaviour, non-suicidal self-injurious (NSSI) behaviour is a health-risk behaviour. We examined whether a reversed gender pattern existed in the prevalence of NSSI. Online literature databases were searched for English and Chinese articles on NSSI behaviours among the Chinese. A meta-analysis with a random-effects model and a subgroup analysis were used to estimate the odds ratios of gender differences in NSSI prevalence among Chinese adolescents including college students, middle school students, and clinical samples, as well as rural, urban, and Hong Kong middle school students. There was a male bias in NSSI prevalence among college students (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = [1.30, 1.87], p gender difference among clinical samples (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = [0.41, 1.89], p > 0.1). The NSSI prevalence among middle school students had a female bias in the rural (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = [0.47, 0.72], p gender difference in NSSI prevalence in the Hong Kong areas being greater than in rural areas. No gender difference in NSSI prevalence was found in urban areas (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = [0.84, 1.22], p > 0.1) among middle school students. Our analysis indicated the existence of specific gender and age patterns in NSSI prevalence among Chinese adolescents. The sample type, age, and the areas that have different gender norms and culture could partly explain this pattern.

  17. The Impact of Different Diagnostic Criteria on the Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Healthy Elderly Participants and Geriatric Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnierse, Esmee M; Trappenburg, Marijke C; Leter, Morena J; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Sipilä, Sarianna; Sillanpää, Elina; Narici, Marco V; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Butler-Browne, Gillian; McPhee, Jamie S; Gapeyeva, Helena; Pääsuke, Mati; de van der Schueren, Marian A E; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B

    2015-01-01

    A consensus on the diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia, a common syndrome in the elderly, has not been reached yet. Prevalence rates vary between studies due to the use of different criteria encompassing different measures, correction factors and cutoff points. This study compared prevalence rates of sarcopenia using nine sets of diagnostic criteria applied in two different elderly populations. The study population encompassed 308 healthy elderly participants (152 males, 156 females; mean age 74 years) and 123 geriatric outpatients (54 males, 69 females; mean age 81 years). Diagnostic criteria included relative muscle mass, absolute muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance. Prevalence rates of sarcopenia varied between 0 and 15% in healthy elderly participants and between 2 and 34% in geriatric outpatients. This study clearly demonstrates the dependency of sarcopenia prevalence rates on the applied diagnostic criteria. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The role played by depression associated with somatic symptomatology in accounting for the gender difference in the prevalence of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, B; Edwards, T; Gamma, A; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Rossler, W; Angst, J

    2013-02-01

    A variety of studies suggest the existence of a distinct phenotype of somatic depression, i.e., depression accompanied by significant somatic symptomatology. Previous research suggests that the gender difference in the prevalence of depression is primarily due to a difference in somatic depression. The aim of this study was to compare the gender difference in the prevalence of somatic depression and of depression not accompanied by significant somatic symptomatology (labelled "pure" depression) in two representative samples, the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R) and the Zurich Study. The gender difference in lifetime somatic depression was compared to that of pure depression based on analyses weighted back to the general population in two representative samples. The NCS-R analyses involved a narrow definition of somatic depression with items from the DSM criteria for depression--appetite, sleep, and fatigue. The analysis of the Zurich study added headaches, body image issues, and breathing difficulties to the criteria and comparison to atypical depression. In both samples, the gender difference in depressive prevalence was due to a large difference in somatic depression with other phenotypes showing little or no gender difference. The gender differences were found to be due to the somatic symptoms rather than the number of symptoms and were much larger for somatic than for atypical depression. The gender difference in the prevalence of depression results from the higher prevalence among women of a specific phenotype, somatic depression.

  19. Isolation, Identification, Prevalence, and Genetic Diversity of Bacillus cereus Group Bacteria From Different Foodstuffs in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdoura-Ben Amor, Maroua; Siala, Mariam; Zayani, Mariem; Grosset, Noël; Smaoui, Salma; Messadi-Akrout, Feriele; Baron, Florence; Jan, Sophie; Gautier, Michel; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2018-01-01

    Bacillus cereus group is widespread in nature and foods. Several members of this group are recognized as causing food spoilage and/or health issues. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of the B. cereus group strains isolated in Tunisia from different foods (cereals, spices, cooked food, fresh-cut vegetables, raw and cooked poultry meats, seafood, canned, pastry, and dairy products). In total, 687 different samples were collected and searched for the presence of the B. cereus group after selective plating on MYP agar and enumeration of each sample. The typical pink-orange uniform colonies surrounded by a zone of precipitate were assumed to belong to the B. cereus group. One typical colony from each sample was subcultured and preserved as cryoculture. Overall, 191 (27.8%) food samples were found positive, giving rise to a collection of 191 B. cereus -like isolates. The concentration of B. cereus -like bacteria were below 10 3 cfu/g or ml in 77.5% of the tested samples. Higher counts (>10 4 cfu/g or ml) were found in 6.8% of samples including fresh-cut vegetables, cooked foods, cereals, and pastry products. To verify whether B. cereus -like isolates belonged to the B. cereus group, a PCR test targeting the sspE gene sequence specific of the group was carried out. Therefore, 174 isolates were found to be positive. Food samples were contaminated as follows: cereals (67.6%), pastry products (46.2%), cooked food (40.8%), cooked poultry meat (32.7%), seafood products (32.3%), spices (28.8%), canned products (16.7%), raw poultry meat (9.4%), fresh-cut vegetables (5.0%), and dairy products (4.8%). The 174 B. cereus isolates were characterized by partial sequencing of the panC gene, using a Sym'Previous software tool to assign them to different phylogenetic groups. Strains were distributed as follows: 61.3, 29.5, 7.5, and 1.7% in the group III, IV, II, and V, respectively. The genetic diversity was further assessed by ERIC-PCR and PFGE

  20. Isolation, Identification, Prevalence, and Genetic Diversity of Bacillus cereus Group Bacteria From Different Foodstuffs in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroua Gdoura-Ben Amor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus group is widespread in nature and foods. Several members of this group are recognized as causing food spoilage and/or health issues. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of the B. cereus group strains isolated in Tunisia from different foods (cereals, spices, cooked food, fresh-cut vegetables, raw and cooked poultry meats, seafood, canned, pastry, and dairy products. In total, 687 different samples were collected and searched for the presence of the B. cereus group after selective plating on MYP agar and enumeration of each sample. The typical pink-orange uniform colonies surrounded by a zone of precipitate were assumed to belong to the B. cereus group. One typical colony from each sample was subcultured and preserved as cryoculture. Overall, 191 (27.8% food samples were found positive, giving rise to a collection of 191 B. cereus-like isolates. The concentration of B. cereus-like bacteria were below 103 cfu/g or ml in 77.5% of the tested samples. Higher counts (>104 cfu/g or ml were found in 6.8% of samples including fresh-cut vegetables, cooked foods, cereals, and pastry products. To verify whether B. cereus-like isolates belonged to the B. cereus group, a PCR test targeting the sspE gene sequence specific of the group was carried out. Therefore, 174 isolates were found to be positive. Food samples were contaminated as follows: cereals (67.6%, pastry products (46.2%, cooked food (40.8%, cooked poultry meat (32.7%, seafood products (32.3%, spices (28.8%, canned products (16.7%, raw poultry meat (9.4%, fresh-cut vegetables (5.0%, and dairy products (4.8%. The 174 B. cereus isolates were characterized by partial sequencing of the panC gene, using a Sym'Previous software tool to assign them to different phylogenetic groups. Strains were distributed as follows: 61.3, 29.5, 7.5, and 1.7% in the group III, IV, II, and V, respectively. The genetic diversity was further assessed by ERIC-PCR and PFGE

  1. Prevalence of Dental Caries among the Population of Gwalior (India) in Relation of Different Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Arif; Jain, Sudhir K.; Shrivastav, Archana

    2008-01-01

    Objectives India is unique in entire world due to variety of dietary habits in population. Many people of India follow totally vegetarian life style through their entire life time due to some religious and cultural reasons. Present study tried to analyze the role of different factors in the occurrence of dental caries including dietary habit. Methods Persons suffering with dental caries were examined for the type of dental caries in relation to different factors. Dental examination was performed and patients were asked a questionnaire and the data was recorded and analyzed. Results Incidence of dental caries was higher in female. High number of dental caries patients was observed among vegetarian population. 21–30 year age group was found to be most infected with dental caries. Conclusions This study can be helpful to analyze respective role of different dietary factors including protein rich diet, age, gender etc. on the prevalence of dental caries, which can be helpful to counteract the potential increase in the cases of dental caries and to design and plan preventive strategies for the persons at greatest risk. PMID:19212515

  2. Prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people

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    Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, in most bakeries in order to accelerate bread production process and reduce work pressure on bakers, harmful chemicals like baking soda are in use. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of using baking soda in different types of most commonly consumed breads by Iranian people. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 234 bakeries in Qom, Iran, during 2017. The proportional stratified sampling method was used to select bakeries and bakers in different districts of Qom. Age, bakery experience, education of bakers and bread's pH were collected by a questionnaire and an electrical pH meter. Results: The results showed that seventy bakeries (29.9% of Qom were using baking soda in bread. The highest frequent use of baking soda was observed in Taftoon (38.7% and Lavash bread (31.5%. There was a significant difference between the use of baking soda and demographic variables such as age and literacy level. The attitude and knowledge of bakery employees about the complications of the baking soda were not appropriate. Conclusions: To reduce the use of baking soda and improve their knowledge and attitude, there is a need of strict supervision and monitoring by responsible organisations, especially the Ministry of Health.

  3. Metabolic syndrome prevalence in different affective temperament profiles in bipolar-I disorder

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    Kursat Altinbas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Temperament originates in the brain structure, and individual differences are attributable to neural and physiological function differences. It has been suggested that temperament is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS markers, which may be partly mediated by lifestyle and socioeconomic status. Therefore, we aim to compare MetS prevalence between different affective temperamental profiles for each season in bipolar patients. Methods: Twenty-six bipolar type-I patients of a specialized outpatient mood disorder unit were evaluated for MetS according to new definition proposed by the International Diabetes Federation in the four seasons of a year. Temperament was assessed using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego - autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A. Results: The proportions of MetS were 19.2, 23.1, 34.6, and 38.5% in the summer, fall, spring, and winter, respectively. Only depressive temperament scores were higher (p = 0.002 during the winter in patients with MetS. Conclusion: These data suggest that depressive temperament profiles may predispose an individual to the development of MetS in the winter.

  4. Adult Current Smoking: Differences in Definitions and Prevalence Estimates—NHIS and NSDUH, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Heather; Trosclair, Angela; Gfroerer, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Methods. 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen) were used. Results. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Conclusions. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions. PMID:22649464

  5. Adult current smoking: differences in definitions and prevalence estimates--NHIS and NSDUH, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Heather; Trosclair, Angela; Gfroerer, Joe

    2012-01-01

    To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen) were used. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions.

  6. Adult Current Smoking: Differences in Definitions and Prevalence Estimates—NHIS and NSDUH, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH. Methods. 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen were used. Results. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Conclusions. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions.

  7. Minors' exposure to online pornography: prevalence, motivations, contents and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva González-Ortega

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since Internet has made pornographic materials more available, there is a need for more research on the characteristics and implications of children's and adolescents' exposure to such materials. This study examined the prevalence and extent of minors' exposure to online pornography, the reasons for exposure, the types of images seen and the strong effects of exposure, as reported by college students. We used an online survey to collect retrospective reports of a sample of 494 students of the University of Salamanca. Results show that 63% of boys and 30% of girls were exposed to online pornography during adolescence. Boys are more likely to have ever been exposed for more than 30 minutes. Boys are more likely to report deliberate consumption and sexual excitement seeking, whereas girls are more likely to report involuntary exposure. Both genders remember viewing a variety of images, including contents of bondage, child pornography and rape. One in six of exposed participants remember strong reactions. While more boys report sexual excitement and masturbation, more girls report avoidance, disgust or concern.

  8. Prevalence and hemodynamic effects of leaning during CPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Dana E.; Sutton, Robert M.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Glatz, Andrew; Zuercher, Mathias; Maltese, Matthew R.; Eilevstjønn, Joar; Abella, Benjamin S.; Becker, Lance B.; Berg, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines recommend complete release between chest compressions (CC). Objective Evaluate the hemodynamic effects of leaning (incomplete chest wall release) during CPR and the prevalence of leaning during CPR. Results In piglet ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrests, 10% and 20% (1.8 kg and 3.6 kg, respectively), leaning during CPR increased right atrial pressures, decreased coronary perfusion pressures, and decreased cardiac index and left ventricular myocardial blood flow by nearly 50%. In contrast, residual leaning of a 260 g accelerometer/ force feedback device did not adversely affect cardiac index or myocardial blood flow. Among 108 adult in-hospital CPR events, leaning ≥2.5 kg was demonstrable in 91% of the events and 12% of the evaluated CC. For 12 children with in-hospital CPR, 28% of CC had residual leaning ≥2.5 kg and 89% had residual leaning ≥0.5 kg. Conclusions Leaning during CPR increases intrathoracic pressure, decreases coronary perfusion pressure, and decreases cardiac output and myocardial blood flow. Leaning is common during CPR. PMID:22208173

  9. Prevalence of context effects: testing with a straightforward question of yesterday happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kitae

    2018-05-03

    Although contexts effects were found in responding to general happiness, it is little known how prevalent the effects can be in other measures of subjective wellbeing. If context effects are still found for a measure of subjective wellbeing that exhibits a host of features minimizing the effects, one can conclude that the effects can be quite prevalent. We aimed to assess this possibility. We analyzed the Indonesian Family Life Survey by exploiting the random assignment of four versions of a list of 12 yesterday affects. The random assignment established causality on firmer ground. We applied ordered probit models by sex (10,162 men and 11,531 women): the dependent variable of interest was a measure of happiness, and the independent variables of interest were four affects that immediately preceded happiness. We found that when sadness immediately preceded happiness, men were 2.4% points more likely to say not at all happy and 2.5% points less likely to say very happy. The corresponding figures for women were 1.5 and 1.8% points. We, however, found no discernible context effects when boredom and anger immediately preceded happiness. Context effects were still found for a measure of subjective wellbeing even when the effects were thought to be minimal. That said, the different influence of sadness versus boredom and anger suggests that there are ways to alleviate context effects.

  10. Gross motor skills in toddlers: Prevalence and socio-demographic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Sanne L C; Jones, Rachel A; Santos, Rute; Sousa-Sá, Eduarda; Okely, Anthony D

    2018-05-19

    Gross motor skills (GMS) are a vital component of a child's development. Monitoring levels and correlates of GMS is important to ensure appropriate strategies are put in place to promote these skills in young children. The aim of this study was to describe the current level of GMS development of children aged 11-29months and how these levels differ by age, sex, BMI and socio-economic status. Cross-sectional study. This study involved children from 30 childcare services in NSW, Australia. GMS were assessed using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition. Prevalence was reported using the gross motor quotient and both raw and standard scores for locomotor, object manipulation and stationary subtests. Socio-demographics were collected via parent questionnaires. Analyses included t-tests, chi-square tests, one-way ANOVA and linear regression models. This study included 335 children (mean age=19.80±4.08months, 53.9% boys). For the gross motor quotient, 23.3% of the children scored below average. For the GMS subtests, 34.3% of children scored below average for locomotion, 10.1% for object manipulation and 0.3% for stationary. Boys were more proficient in object manipulation than girls (p=0.001). GMS were negatively associated with age and a higher socio-economic status (all pstudy to show the prevalence of below average at locomotor skills in toddlers is higher than reported in normative samples. Early commencement of GMS promotion is recommended with a focus on locomotor skills and girls' object manipulation skills. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Differences in prevalence of overweight andstunting in 11-year olds across Europe:The Pro Children Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngve, Agneta; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Wolf, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess country differences in prevalence of overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in the Pro Children Survey. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in a random sample of schools in nine European countries in 2003. The subjects were 8317 11-year-old children from Austria...... and obesity for both genders. The ranking of the countries according to overweight and obesity prevalence was roughly the same, independent of reference population. The prevalence of underweight varied from 2.3% (Swedish boys) to 12.3% (Belgian boys), using the American reference population. The proportion...

  12. Contextualizing gender differences and methamphetamine use with HIV prevalence within a South African community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Myers, Bronwyn; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Emanuel, Andrea; Carney, Tara; Kline, Tracy L; Zule, William A

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted in a large Black African township outside of Cape Town, South Africa, where HIV infection has been endemic at extremely high levels for years. Problems associated with high HIV prevalence are compounded by gender inequality and high rates of gender-based violence exacerbated by heavy alcohol use and increasing methamphetamine use. Informal drinking establishments (known as shebeens) were geocoded and mapped. Based on visual examination, we identified 36 neighbourhoods, each of which contained between three to seven drinking venues clustered together. Neighbourhoods were separated from each other by at least 200m. We randomly selected 30 of the 36 neighbourhoods. Outreach workers screened males in shebeens and screened their female partners. This analysis includes 580 study participants recruited from 30 neighbourhoods between 2010 and 2012. All participants completed a baseline questionnaire that included individual-level, couple-level, and neighbourhood-level measures of alcohol and other drug use, HIV infection, and HIV risk behaviours. Multilevel fixed effects regression analyses stratified by gender were conducted to examine correlates of HIV infection. Women were twice as likely as men to be HIV infected, yet they reported fewer sex partners. Neighbourhood prevalence of HIV was correlated with greater likelihood of HIV infection among women, but not men. Neighbourhood methamphetamine use was marginally associated with HIV among women but not among men. At the individual level, heavy alcohol use was marginally associated with HIV infection among men but not among women. Having an HIV positive partner was the strongest correlate of being HIV positive among both men and women. Findings from this study underscore the need for policy makers to direct scarce resources to the communities, places within communities, and populations, especially vulnerable women, where the impact on HIV prevention and onward transmission will be greatest

  13. Prevalence of anti-retinal autoantibodies in different stages of Age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamus, Grazyna; Chew, Emily Y; Ferris, Frederick L; Klein, Michael L

    2014-12-08

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central vision loss in older adults. Anti-retinal autoantibodies (AAbs) have been found in individuals with AMD. The goal of the study was to determine the AAb specificity in different stages of AMD, and determine whether there is a prevalent AAb signature. Sera of 134 participants in the Age-related Eye Disease Study were analyzed for anti-retinal AAbs by western blotting. The subjects were classified by diagnostic subgroups based upon their clinical classification: No AMD, Intermediate AMD, and Late AMD - geographic atrophy (GA) and Late AMD - neovascular (NV). The presence of anti-retinal AAb was detected in 58% patients with Intermediate and Late AMD, and 54% of those with no AMD. AAbs bound to fifteen different retinal antigens. Most individuals had 1 specific AAbs (67%), with the remainder having 2 to 4 different AAbs. Over 40% of patients with Intermediate AMD, and 46% of those with GA had anti-enolase AAbs, compared with 29% of individuals with NV and 29% with no AMD. Different AAbs signatures related to NV as compared to GA and/or Intermediate AMD were distinguished. Anti-40-kDa (10%) and 42-kDa (16%) autoantibodies were associated with Intermediate AMD, while anti-30-kDa AAbs (23%) were primarily present in GA. Anti-32-kDa (12%), 35-kDa (21%), and 60-kDa (8%) AAbs were more frequent in NV AMD. A unique AAb pattern for each of the disease subgroups was present when AMD progressed from the intermediate to the late forms of severity. Differences in the frequency of specific AAbs between AMD subgroups suggested that they may participate in pathogenicity of AMD. Further studies are necessary to confirm these observations in the larger cohort and individual AMD patients over time.

  14. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Asthma Prevalence in Different Population Groups Residing in Eastern Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Amit Kr.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Tuluri, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution has been an on-going research focus due to its detrimental impact on human health. However, its specific effects on asthma prevalence in different age groups, genders and races are not well understood. Thus, the present study was designed to examine the association between selected air pollutants and asthma prevalence in different population groups during 2010 in the eastern part of Texas, USA.The pollutants considered were particulate matter (PM2.5 with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers) and surface ozone. The population groups were categorized based on age, gender, and race. County-wise asthma hospital discharge data for different age, gender, and racial groups were obtained from Texas Asthma Control Program, Office of Surveillance, Evaluation and Research, Texas Department of State Health Services. The annual means of the air pollutants were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)’s air quality system data mart program. Pearson correlation analyzes were conducted to examine the relationship between the annual mean concentrations of pollutants and asthma discharge rates (ADR) for different age groups, genders, and races. The results reveal that there is no significant association or relationship between ADR and exposure of air pollutants (PM2.5, and O3). The study results showed a positive correlation between PM2.5 and ADR and a negative correlation between ADR and ozone in most of the cases. These correlations were not statistically significant, and can be better explained by considering the local weather conditions. The research findings facilitate identification of hotspots for controlling the most affected populations from further environmental exposure to air pollution, and for preventing or reducing the health impacts. PMID:27043587

  15. Prevalence of different Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Rahul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the last 10 years, different studies have shown interesting geographical variations in the prevalence of different Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor. Aim: Identification of Malassezia species isolated from patients with pityriasis versicolor. Methods: In 100 patients with pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia species were identified by culture in Sabouraud′s dextrose agar containing cycloheximide with olive oil overlay and modified Dixon agar and by doing biochemical tests (catalase reaction, assimilation of glycine, and Tween utilisation tests. Results: In 10 patients, 10% KOH smear was negative, while in 90 patients the smear showed characteristic "spaghetti and meatball" appearance. Of these 90 cases, growth was obtained on modified Dixon′s agar in 87 cases. Fifty of the isolates (57.5% were M. globosa, 15 (17.2% were M. sympodialis, seven (8.0% were suspected M. sympodialis, 6 (6.9% each of the isolates were M. furfur and M. obtusa, and three (3.4% isolates were M. restricta. Conclusion: M. globosa was the most common species, followed by M. sympodialis, M. furfur, M. obtusa, and M. restricta.

  16. Prevalence of different Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Rahul; Singh, Sanjay; Banerjee, Tuhina; Tilak, Ragini

    2010-01-01

    In the last 10 years, different studies have shown interesting geographical variations in the prevalence of different Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor. Identification of Malassezia species isolated from patients with pityriasis versicolor. In 100 patients with pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia species were identified by culture in Sabouraud's dextrose agar containing cycloheximide with olive oil overlay and modified Dixon agar and by doing biochemical tests (catalase reaction, assimilation of glycine, and Tween utilisation tests). In 10 patients, 10% KOH smear was negative, while in 90 patients the smear showed characteristic "spaghetti and meatball" appearance. Of these 90 cases, growth was obtained on modified Dixon's agar in 87 cases. Fifty of the isolates (57.5%) were M. globosa, 15 (17.2%) were M. sympodialis, seven (8.0%) were suspected M. sympodialis, 6 (6.9%) each of the isolates were M. furfur and M. obtusa, and three (3.4%) isolates were M. restricta. M. globosa was the most common species, followed by M. sympodialis, M. furfur, M. obtusa, and M. restricta.

  17. Intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors of Chinese university students: gender differences in prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinli; Bongardt, Daphne van de; Hawk, Skyler T

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate gender differences among university students in contemporary China regarding (1) the prevalence of various types of intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors and (2) their sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors. A total of 1,397 university students (M(age) = 20.3 years) completed related questionnaires. Intrapersonal behaviors (i.e., sexual fantasizing, solitary masturbation, and viewing pornography) were generally reported more frequently than interpersonal behaviors (i.e., petting, oral sex, and intercourse). Gender differences were most evident for intrapersonal sexual behaviors, all of which were reported more frequently by men. Men reported significantly more heterosexual intercourse than women but not petting or oral sex. Several correlates (i.e., age, educational aspiration, family income, urbanity, relationship experience, and Internet use) were significant predictors of various intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors. Gender significantly moderated these correlations in three cases: Family income was a stronger negative predictor of intercourse for women, romantic relationship history was a stronger positive predictor of intercourse for men, and Internet use was a stronger positive predictor of sexual fantasizing for men. We discuss the implications of these findings for sexuality education and sexual health policies and practices in contemporary China.

  18. Serological prevalence of human parvovirus B19 in diseases or disordersrelated to different human body systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Osman; Aydin, Hakan; Uslu, Hakan

    2016-02-17

    Human parvovirus B19 is a pathogen that affects different parts of the body. We planned this study because of the lack of data on B19 seroprevalence based on different body-system diseases. The prevalence of parvovirus B19 antibodies was investigated retrospectively in 1239 patients by review of medical records from 2009-2012, according to their diseases classified under general titles in compliance with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Parvovirus B19-specific antibodies were detected by quantitative enzyme immunoassays. The positivity rate was 27.8% for only IgG, 8.5% for only IgM, and 2.6% for both IgG and IgM. The highest positivity for IgG alone was found in musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases (55.9%), while the highest positivity for IgM was found in neoplasms (16.4%). The highest positivity for IgG was seen in rheumatoid arthritis (72.2%) and pregnancy (52.6%), and the highest positivity for total IgM was found in upper respiratory tract disease (21.0%) and hepatic failure (17.1%). Parvovirus B19 seroprevalence was relatively low in northeastern Anatolia compared to most serological studies conducted in other regions. We think that this study has provided the first wide-ranging information on the seroprevalence of B19 in diseases and disorders of the major human body systems.

  19. Prevalence of hypospadias in the same geographic region as ascertained by three different registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Paul; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2007-01-01

    Hypospadias birth prevalence may be increasing with maternal exposure to endocrine disrupters. Yet hypospadias registers are hindered by data quality concerns. We compare the birth prevalence per thousand male births (BP) and ascertainment of hypospadias in the South East of England between 1st J...

  20. Female Overweight and Obesity in Adolescence: Developmental Trends and Ethnic Differences in Prevalence, Incidence, and Remission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, David; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Boutelle, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial increases in the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity documented in recent decades, few studies have prospectively tracked their development during the entire adolescent period. The aims of this study were to characterize developmental trends in prevalence, incidence, and remission of overweight and obesity using…

  1. Prevalence and nature of child sexual abuse in the Netherlands : Ethnic differences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okur, P.; van der Knaap, L.M.; Bogaerts, S.

    2015-01-01

    In most epidemiological prevalence studies of child sexual abuse, the role of ethnicity remains unclear. This study examined the prevalence and nature of child sexual abuse in four non-Western ethnic minority groups and compared them with a native Dutch group. A sample of 3,426 young adults (aged

  2. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: results from a multi-ethnic population-based survey in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampal, Sanjay; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Guallar, Eliseo; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Rahmat, Ramlee; Arif, Mohamad Taha; Rampal, Lekhraj

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country. In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/American Heart Association (IDF/NHLBI/AHA-2009) criteria. Multivariate models were used to study the independent association between ethnicity and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The overall mean age was 36.9 years, and 50.0% participants were female. The ethnic distribution was 57.0% Malay, 28.5% Chinese, 8.9% Indian and 5.0% Indigenous Sarawakians. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 27.5%, with a prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting glucose of 36.9%, 29.3%, 37.2%, 38.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Among those Malaysia was high, with marked differences across ethnicities. Ethnic Chinese had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while ethnic Indians had the highest. Indigenous Sarawakians showed a marked increase in metabolic syndrome at young ages.

  3. Urinary schistosomiasis among schoolchildren in Yemen: prevalence, risk factors, and the effect of a chemotherapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Waleedi, Ali A; El-Nimr, Nessrin A; Hasab, Ali A; Bassiouny, Hassan K; Al-Shibani, Latifa A

    2013-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important public health problems in Yemen. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis varies considerably across different parts of Yemen and was estimated to be 10% among schoolchildren in Sana'a. Praziquantel (PZQ) is highly effective against all five major human species of schistosomes. The aim of the present work was to estimate the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis, describe the risk factors associated with its endemicity, and implement and assess a chemotherapeutic intervention using PZQ in a village in Yemen. The sample included 696 schoolchildren from a village in Abyan Governorate. During the baseline school survey, personal, sociodemographic, and environmental data, and data on practices in relation to water contact were collected from each study participant using a predesigned structured questionnaire. Urine samples from each participant were examined for macrohematuria and the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs. The chemotherapeutic intervention was assessed 3 and 6 months after the treatment and certain indicators were calculated. The prevalence of S. haematobium was 18.1%. The main significant risk factors were male sex; proximity of houses to water ponds; and using pond water for swimming, agricultural activities, and for bathing in houses. PZQ treatment reduced the prevalence of infection and decreased the prevalence of high-intensity infection. Survival analysis showed that the probability of residual infection also dropped after the treatment intervention. Male sex and using pond water for various activities were the main significant risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis. PZQ is still a cornerstone drug in reducing or eliminating morbidity associated with schistosomiasis infection. Health education programs tailored for the community are required for the control and prevention of urinary schistosomiasis. To address schoolchildren, school curricula should include lessons about urinary

  4. Which characteristics of nursing home residents influence differences in malnutrition prevalence? An international comparison of The Netherlands, Germany and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nie-Visser, Noémi C; Meijers, Judith; Schols, Jos; Lohrmann, Christa; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Halfens, Ruud

    2014-03-28

    Prevalence rates of malnutrition vary considerably internationally, partly due to differences in measurement methodology and instruments. In the present study, the same measurement methodology and instruments were used in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether resident characteristics influence possible differences in malnutrition prevalence between countries. The study followed a cross-sectional, multi-centre design that measured malnutrition in nursing home residents from The Netherlands, Germany and Austria. Resident data were gathered using a standardised questionnaire. Malnutrition was operationalised using BMI, unintentional weight loss and nutritional intake. Data were analysed using an association model. The prevalence rates of malnutrition in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria were 18·3, 20·1 and 22·5 %, respectively. The multivariate generalised estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression analysis showed that sex, age, care dependency, the mean number of diseases and some specific diseases were influencing factors for whether the resident was malnourished or not. The OR of malnutrition in the three countries declined after including the influencing factors resulting from the multivariate GEE analysis. The present study reveals that differences in the prevalence rates of malnutrition in nursing homes in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria are influenced by different resident characteristics. Since other country-related factors could also play an important role in influencing differences in the prevalence rates of malnutrition between the countries (structural and process factors of malnutrition care policy). We recommend the investigation of these factors in future studies.

  5. Blast injury prevalence in skeletal remains: Are there differences between Bosnian war samples and documented combat-related deaths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, Marie Christine; Hanson, Ian; Smith, Martin J

    2017-11-01

    Court cases at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) have seen questions raised about the recognition and causes of blast-related trauma and the relationship to human rights abuses or combat. During trials, defence teams argued that trauma was combat related and prosecutors argued that trauma was related to executions. We compared a sample of 81 cases (males between 18 and 75) from a Bosnian mass grave investigation linked to the Kravica warehouse killings to published combat-related blast injury data from World War One, Vietnam, Northern Ireland, the first Gulf War, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Afghanistan. We also compared blast fracture injuries from Bosnia to blast fracture injuries sustained in bombings of buildings in two non-combat 'civilian' examples; the Oklahoma City and Birmingham pub bombings. A Chi-squared statistic with a Holm-Bonferroni correction assessed differences between prevalence of blast-related fractures in various body regions, where data were comparable. We found statistically significant differences between the Bosnian and combat contexts. We noted differences in the prevalence of head, torso, vertebral area, and limbs trauma, with a general trend for higher levels of more widespread trauma in the Bosnian sample. We noted that the pattern of trauma in the Bosnian cases resembled the pattern from the bombing in buildings civilian contexts. Variation in trauma patterns can be attributed to the influence of protective armour; the context of the environment; and the type of munition and its injuring mechanism. Blast fracture injuries sustained in the Bosnian sample showed patterns consistent with a lack of body armour, blast effects on people standing in enclosed buildings and the use of explosive munitions. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of teenage smoking on the prevalence of periodontal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Kari, Kirsti; Pajukanta, Riitta; Elonheimo, Outi; Koskenvuo, Markku; Meurman, Jukka H

    2012-04-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate how teenage smoking affects the prevalence of periodontal bacteria and periodontal health with the hypothesis that smoking increases the prevalence of the bacteria. Oral health of 264 adolescents (15- to 16-year-olds) was clinically examined, and their smoking history was recorded. The participants also filled in a structured questionnaire recording their general health and health habits. Pooled subgingival plaque samples were taken for polymerase chain reaction analysis of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, and Treponema denticola. The prevalence of P. intermedia (21% vs. 4%, p = 0.01) and T. forsythia and T. denticola (23% vs. 8%, p periodontal bacteria were associated with higher periodontal index scores among all teenage smokers. Smoking girls harbored more frequently certain periodontal bacteria than non-smokers, but this was not seen in boys. Hence, our study hypothesis was only partly confirmed.

  7. Gender and tuberculosis: a comparison of prevalence surveys with notification data to explore sex differences in case detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgdorff, M W; Nagelkerke, N J; Dye, C; Nunn, P

    2000-02-01

    To explore whether lower tuberculosis notification rates among women are due to a reduced access to health care, particularly diagnostic services, for women. Age- and sex-specific tuberculosis prevalence rates of smear-positive tuberculosis were obtained from tuberculosis prevalence surveys reported to the WHO or published in the literature. Age- and sex-specific notification rates from the same countries in 1996 were used. Prevalence data and notifications from 29 surveys in 14 countries were used. Notification rates varied strongly among countries, but the female/male ratio was below 1 and decreased with increasing age in almost all. The female/male (F/M) prevalence ratios were less than 0.5 in surveys in the South-East Asia and Western Pacific Region, and approximately 1 in the African Region. In most countries the F/M sex ratio in prevalent cases was similar or lower than that in notified cases, suggesting that F/M differences in notification rates may be largely due to epidemiological differences and not to differential access to health care. However, available data are limited as the prevalence surveys in Africa were carried out many years ago, and in Asia notification rates may be distorted by a large private sector with deficiencies in notification.

  8. Effects of neighbourhood-level educational attainment on HIV prevalence among young women in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayeyi, Nkomba; Sandøy, Ingvild F; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2009-08-25

    Investigations of the association between socio-economic position indicators and HIV in East, Central and Southern Africa have chiefly focused on factors that pertain to individual-level characteristics. This study investigated the effect of neighbourhood educational attainment on HIV prevalence among young women in selected urban and rural areas in Zambia. This study re-analysed data from a cross-sectional population survey conducted in Zambia in 2003. The analyses were restricted to women aged 15-24 years (n = 1295). Stratified random cluster sampling was used to select 10 urban and 10 rural clusters. A measure for neighbourhood-level educational attainment was constructed by aggregating individual-level years-in-school. Multi-level mixed effects regression models were run to examine the neighbourhood-level educational effect on HIV prevalence after adjusting for individual-level underlying variables (education, currently a student, marital status) and selected proximate determinants (ever given birth, sexual activity, lifetime sexual partners). HIV prevalence among young women aged 15-24 years was 12.5% in the urban and 6.8% in the rural clusters. Neighbourhood educational attainment was found to be a strong determinant of HIV infection in both urban and rural population, i.e. HIV prevalence decreased substantially by increasing level of neighbourhood education. The likelihood of infection in low vs. high educational attainment of neighbourhoods was 3.4 times among rural women and 1.8 times higher among the urban women after adjusting for age and other individual-level underlying variables, including education. However, the association was not significant for urban young women after this adjustment. After adjusting for level of education in the neighbourhood, the effect of the individual-level education differed by residence, i.e. a strong protective effect among urban women whereas tending to be a risk factor among rural women. The findings suggested structural

  9. Spatial and temporal differences in giant kidney worm, dictophyma renale, prevalence in Minnesota Mink, Mustela vison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Examination of 110 Mink (Mustela vison) carcasses from 1998 through 2007 indicated that the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale, occurred in Pine and Kanabec Counties of eastern Minnesota with annual prevalences of 0-92%. Worm prevalence increased from 20% in 1999 to 92% in 2001 and decreased to 6% in 2005. During 2000 to 2007, no worms were found in Mink from Anoka and Chisago Counties (n = 54), and in 2000, none in 107 Mink from LeSeur, Freeborn, Redwood, Brown and Watonwan Counties. Changes in kidney worm prevalence were positively related to trapping success, considered an index of Mink density.

  10. Non-medical opioid use in youth: Gender differences in risk factors and prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Vicki; Serdarevic, Mirsada; Crooke, Hannah; Striley, Catherine; Cottler, Linda B

    2017-09-01

    Non-medical use (NMU) of prescription opioids in youth is of concern since they may continue this pattern into adulthood and become addicted or divert medications to others. Research into risk factors for NMU can help target interventions to prevent non-medical use of opioids in youth. The National Monitoring of Adolescent Prescription Stimulants Study (N-MAPSS) was conducted from 2008 to 2011. Participants 10-18years of age were recruited from entertainment venues in urban, rural and suburban areas of 10 US cities. Participants completed a survey including questions on their use of prescription opioids. NMU was defined as a non-labeled route of administration or using someone else's prescription. Information on age, gender, alcohol, marijuana and tobacco use was also collected. Summary descriptive, chi-square statistics and logistic regression were conducted using SAS 9.4. Of the 10,965 youth who provided information about past 30day prescription opioid use, prevalence of reported opioid use was 4.8% with 3.2% reported as NMU (n=345) and 1.6% as medical use (MU) only (n=180). More males than females (55.7% vs. 44.4%) reported opioid NMU (pgender differences in opioid NMU is needed; interventions for opioid NMU may need to be gender specific to obtain the best results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sexual differences in prevalence of a new species of trypanosome infecting túngara frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Ximena E; Pinto, C Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Trypanosomes are a diverse group of protozoan parasites of vertebrates transmitted by a variety of hematophagous invertebrate vectors. Anuran trypanosomes and their vectors have received relatively little attention even though these parasites have been reported from frog and toad species worldwide. Blood samples collected from túngara frogs (Engystomops pustulosus), a Neotropical anuran species heavily preyed upon by eavesdropping frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp.), were examined for trypanosomes. Our results revealed sexual differences in trypanosome prevalence with female frogs being rarely infected (frog-biting midges that find their host using the mating calls produced by male frogs. Following previous anuran trypanosome studies, we examined 18S ribosomal RNA gene to characterize and establish the phylogenetic relationship of the trypanosome species found in túngara frogs. A new species of giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma tungarae n. sp., is described in this study. Overall the morphometric data revealed that the trypomastigotes of T. tungarae n. sp. are similar to other giant trypanosomes such as Trypanosoma rotatorium and Trypanosoma ranarum. Despite its slender and long cell shape, however, 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed that T. tungarae n. sp. is sister to the rounded-bodied giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma chattoni. Therefore, morphological convergence explains similar morphology among members of two non-closely related groups of trypanosomes infecting frogs. The results from this study underscore the value of coupling morphological identification with molecular characterization of anuran trypanosomes.

  12. The Impact of Different Diagnostic Criteria on the Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Healthy Elderly Participants and Geriatric Outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnierse, E.M.; Trappenburg, M.C.; Leter, M.J.; Blauw, G. J.; Sipila, S.; Sillanpaa, E.; Narici, M.V.; Hogrel, J.Y.; Butler-Browne, G.; McPhee, J.S.; Gapeyeva, H.; Paasuke, M.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.; Meskers, C.G.M.; Maier, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A consensus on the diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia, a common syndrome in the elderly, has not been reached yet. Prevalence rates vary between studies due to the use of different criteria encompassing different measures, correction factors and cutoff points. Objective: This study

  13. A reversed gender pattern? A meta-analysis of gender differences in the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injurious behaviour among Chinese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyan Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A reversed gender pattern has been observed in the suicide rate in China compared to elsewhere. Like suicidal behaviour, non-suicidal self-injurious (NSSI behaviour is a health-risk behaviour. We examined whether a reversed gender pattern existed in the prevalence of NSSI. Methods Online literature databases were searched for English and Chinese articles on NSSI behaviours among the Chinese. A meta-analysis with a random-effects model and a subgroup analysis were used to estimate the odds ratios of gender differences in NSSI prevalence among Chinese adolescents including college students, middle school students, and clinical samples, as well as rural, urban, and Hong Kong middle school students. Results There was a male bias in NSSI prevalence among college students (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = [1.30, 1.87], p  0.1. The NSSI prevalence among middle school students had a female bias in the rural (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = [0.47, 0.72], p  0.1 among middle school students. Conclusions Our analysis indicated the existence of specific gender and age patterns in NSSI prevalence among Chinese adolescents. The sample type, age, and the areas that have different gender norms and culture could partly explain this pattern.

  14. One-sided and mutually aggressive couples: Differences in attachment, conflict prevalence, and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burk, W.J.; Seiffge-Krenke, I.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated concurrent links between adolescent romantic couples’ reports of aggression (relational and physical) and relationship functioning (e.g., attachment security, conflict prevalence, coping strategies, jealousy, and affiliative and romantic relationship quality) using a

  15. Hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury: prevalence is affected by the use of different dynamic tests and different normal values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokshoorn, Nieke E.; Wassenaar, Moniek J. E.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Pereira, Alberto M.

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has emerged as an important cause of hypopituitarism. However, considerable variations in the prevalence of hypopituitarism are reported. These can partly be explained by severity of trauma and timing of hormonal evaluation, but may also be dependent on endocrine tests

  16. Prevalence and effect of developmental coordination disorder on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physically awkward children face a host of difficulties, which include difficulties in the school environment. Therefore, it is important to identify Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) early in a child's life to allow for proper and timely intervention and support. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence ...

  17. Prevalence and effects of functional vitamin K insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen, Ineke J.; Keyzer, Charlotte A.; Drummen, Nadja E.A.; Borst, de Martin H.; Beulens, Joline W.J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Muskiet, Frits A.J.; Navis, Gerjan; Visser, Sipke T.; Vermeer, Cees; Kema, Ido P.; Bakker, Stephan J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) is a strong vitamin K-dependent inhibitor of soft tissue calcification. We assessed the prevalence of functional vitamin K insufficiency, as derived from plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), and investigated whether plasma dp-ucMGP is associated with all-cause

  18. The prevalence, types and effects of traditional eye medicine use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The use of Traditional Medicines (TM) is common practice world over. Traditional Eye Medicine (TEM) use may be associated with various ocular complications including blindness. A study on the prevalence of TEM use was carried out at Sekuru Kaguvi Hospital Eye Unit (SKHEU) in Harare, with emphasis on ...

  19. Annual risk of tuberculous infection using different methods in communities with a high prevalence of TB and HIV in Zambia and South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwame Shanaube

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI is a key epidemiological indicator of the extent of transmission in a community. Several methods have been suggested to estimate the prevalence of tuberculous infection using tuberculin skin test data. This paper explores the implications of using different methods to estimate prevalence of infection and ARTI. The effect of BCG vaccination on these estimates is also investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tuberculin surveys among school children in 16 communities in Zambia and 8 in South Africa (SA were performed in 2005, as part of baseline data collection and for randomisation purposes of the ZAMSTAR study. Infection prevalence and ARTI estimates were calculated using five methods: different cut-offs with or without adjustments for sensitivity, the mirror method, and mixture analysis. A total of 49,835 children were registered for the surveys, of which 25,048 (50% had skin tests done and 22,563 (90% of those tested were read. Infection prevalence was higher in the combined SA than Zambian communities. The mirror method resulted in the least difference of 7.8%, whereas that estimated by the cut-off methods varied from 12.2% to 17.3%. The ARTI in the Zambian and SA communities was between 0.8% and 2.8% and 2.5% and 4.2% respectively, depending on the method used. In the SA communities, the ARTI was higher among the younger children. BCG vaccination had little effect on these estimates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ARTI estimates are dependent on the calculation method used. All methods agreed that there were substantial differences in infection prevalence across the communities, with higher rates in SA. Although TB notification rates have increased over the past decades, the difference in cumulative exposure between younger and older children is less dramatic and a rise in risk of infection in parallel with the estimated incidence of active tuberculosis cannot be excluded.

  20. Prevalence of glucose intolerance and associated risk factors in rural and urban populations of different ethnic groups in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, D.; Friis, H.; Mwaniki, D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of glucose intolerance in rural and urban Kenyan populations and in different ethnic groups. Further, to identify associations between lifestyle risk factors and glucose intolerance. Research design and methods: A cross-sectional study included an opportunity...... intolerance among the rural ethnic groups. High BMI, WC, AFA, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, low fitness and physical activity, frequent alcohol consumption, and urban residence were associated with glucose intolerance. Conclusions: The prevalence of diabetes and IGT among different Kenyan...

  1. Gender differences in brain activity and the relationship between brain activity and differences in prevalence rates between male and female major depressive disorder patients: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhijian; Yan, Rui; Wei, Maobin; Tang, Hao; Qin, Jiaolong; Lu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    We examined the gender-difference effect on abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity of male and female major depressive disorder (MDD) patients using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and the further clarified the relationship between the abnormal ALFF and differences in MDD prevalence rates between male and female patients. Fourteen male MDD patients, 13 female MDD patients and 15 male and 15 female well matched healthy controls (HCs) completed this study. The ALFF approach was used, and Pearson correlation was conducted to observe a possible clinical relevance. There were widespread differences in ALFF values between female and male MDD patients, including some important parts of the frontoparietal network, auditory network, attention network and cerebellum network. In female MDD patients, there was a positive correlation between average ALFF values of the left postcentral gyrus and the severity of weight loss symptom. The gender-difference effect leading to abnormal brain activity is an important underlying pathomechanism for different somatic symptoms in MDD patients of different genders and is likely suggestive of higher MDD prevalence rates in females. The abnormal ALFF resulting from the gender-difference effect might improve our understanding of the differences in prevalence rates between male and female MDD patients from another perspective. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sexual differences in prevalence of a new species of trypanosome infecting túngara frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena E. Bernal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomes are a diverse group of protozoan parasites of vertebrates transmitted by a variety of hematophagous invertebrate vectors. Anuran trypanosomes and their vectors have received relatively little attention even though these parasites have been reported from frog and toad species worldwide. Blood samples collected from túngara frogs (Engystomops pustulosus, a Neotropical anuran species heavily preyed upon by eavesdropping frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp., were examined for trypanosomes. Our results revealed sexual differences in trypanosome prevalence with female frogs being rarely infected (<1%. This finding suggests this protozoan parasite may be transmitted by frog-biting midges that find their host using the mating calls produced by male frogs. Following previous anuran trypanosome studies, we examined 18S ribosomal RNA gene to characterize and establish the phylogenetic relationship of the trypanosome species found in túngara frogs. A new species of giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma tungarae n. sp., is described in this study. Overall the morphometric data revealed that the trypomastigotes of T. tungarae n. sp. are similar to other giant trypanosomes such as Trypanosoma rotatorium and Trypanosoma ranarum. Despite its slender and long cell shape, however, 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed that T. tungarae n. sp. is sister to the rounded-bodied giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma chattoni. Therefore, morphological convergence explains similar morphology among members of two non-closely related groups of trypanosomes infecting frogs. The results from this study underscore the value of coupling morphological identification with molecular characterization of anuran trypanosomes.

  3. Prevalence of syphilis infection in different tiers of female sex workers in China: implications for surveillance and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiang-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis has made a dramatic resurgence in China during the past two decades and become the third most prevalent notifiable infectious disease in China. Female sex workers (FSWs have become one of key populations for the epidemic. In order to investigate syphilis infection among different tiers of FSWs, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 sites in China. Methods Serum specimens (n = 7,118 were collected to test for syphilis and questionnaire interviews were conducted to obtain socio-demographic and behavioral information among FSWs recruited from different types of venues. FSWs were categorized into three tiers (high-, middle- and low-tier FSWs based on the venues where they solicited clients. Serum specimens were screened with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for treponemal antibody followed by confirmation with non-treponemal toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST for positive ELISA specimens to determine syphilis infection. A logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with syphilis infection. Results Overall syphilis prevalence was 5.0% (95%CI, 4.5-5.5%. Low-tier FSWs had the highest prevalence (9.7%; 95%CI, 8.3-11.1%, followed by middle-tier (4.3%; 95%CI, 3.6-5.0%, P P Conclusions This multi-site survey showed a high prevalence of syphilis infection among FSWs and substantial disparities in syphilis prevalence by the tier of FSWs. The difference in syphilis prevalence is substantial between different tiers of FSWs, with the highest rate among low-tier FSWs. Thus, current surveillance and intervention activities, which have low coverage in low-tier FSWs in China, should be further examined.

  4. Applied Prevalence Ratio estimation with different Regression models: An example from a cross-national study on substance use research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelt, Albert; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Penelo, Eva; Bosque-Prous, Marina

    2016-06-14

    To examine the differences between Prevalence Ratio (PR) and Odds Ratio (OR) in a cross-sectional study and to provide tools to calculate PR using two statistical packages widely used in substance use research (STATA and R). We used cross-sectional data from 41,263 participants of 16 European countries participating in the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The dependent variable, hazardous drinking, was calculated using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C). The main independent variable was gender. Other variables used were: age, educational level and country of residence. PR of hazardous drinking in men with relation to women was estimated using Mantel-Haenszel method, log-binomial regression models and poisson regression models with robust variance. These estimations were compared to the OR calculated using logistic regression models. Prevalence of hazardous drinkers varied among countries. Generally, men have higher prevalence of hazardous drinking than women [PR=1.43 (1.38-1.47)]. Estimated PR was identical independently of the method and the statistical package used. However, OR overestimated PR, depending on the prevalence of hazardous drinking in the country. In cross-sectional studies, where comparisons between countries with differences in the prevalence of the disease or condition are made, it is advisable to use PR instead of OR.

  5. Palmaris Longus Muscle’s Prevalence in Different Nations and Interesting Anatomical Variations: Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis, Dimitriou; Anastasios, Katsourakis; Konstantinos, Natsis; Lazaros, Kostretzis; Georgios, Noussios

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of the palmaris longus (PL) muscle varies more than any other muscle in the human body. Its absence across the world ranges between 1.5% and 63.9%. It presents with many different anomalies, discovered either clinically, intraoperatively or after anatomical examination of cadavers. This paper includes recent studies and reports about the presence and variations of the PL muscle, thereby illustrating the differences between ethnic groups, as well as emphasizing the different way...

  6. Prevalence and distribution of Eimeria species in broiler chicken farms of different capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Györke, Adriana; Pop, Loredana; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a survey in broiler farms from Romania to establish prevalence and distribution of Eimeria species using single PCR assay. We found Eimeria spp. in 21 (91%) out of 23 flocks, and in 11 (92%) out of 12 farms. Four species of Eimeria were identified: E. acervulina (21/23; 91%), E. tenella (14/23; 61%), E. maxima (5/23; 22%) and E. praecox (3/23; 13%). Infection with a single species (E. acervulina) was detected in 6 (26%) infected flocks originated from large farms. Mixed infections were found in 15 (65%) flocks and the most prevalent combination was E. acervulina + E. tenella (8/23; 35%). Four flocks (17%) harboured mixed infection with E. acervulina + E. tenella + E. maxima. E. acervulina was significantly more prevalent in flocks that received ionophores as anticoccidial feed additives. PMID:24309007

  7. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: results from a multi-ethnic population-based survey in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Rampal

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country. METHODS: In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/American Heart Association (IDF/NHLBI/AHA-2009 criteria. Multivariate models were used to study the independent association between ethnicity and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: The overall mean age was 36.9 years, and 50.0% participants were female. The ethnic distribution was 57.0% Malay, 28.5% Chinese, 8.9% Indian and 5.0% Indigenous Sarawakians. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 27.5%, with a prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting glucose of 36.9%, 29.3%, 37.2%, 38.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Among those <40 years, the adjusted prevalence ratios for metabolic syndrome for ethnic Chinese, Indians, and Indigenous Sarawakians compared to ethnic Malay were 0.81 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.96, 1.42 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.69 and 1.37 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.73, respectively. Among those aged ≥40 years, the corresponding prevalence ratios were 0.86 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.92, 1.25 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.36, and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80, 1.11. The P-value for the interaction of ethnicity by age was 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Malaysia was high, with marked differences across ethnicities. Ethnic Chinese had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while ethnic Indians had the highest. Indigenous Sarawakians showed a marked increase in metabolic

  8. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Danish patients with HIV infection: the effect of antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B R; Petersen, J; Haugaard, S B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a subject of debate. We investigated the prevalence of MS in a cohort of Danish HIV-infected patients and estimated the effect of the various classes of antiretroviral...

  9. Socio-economic and ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achat, Helen M; Stubbs, Joanne M

    2014-10-01

    To trial the collection of measurements to provide population-based prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children in western Sydney and examine the association between healthy weight and ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES) in a socio-economically and culturally diverse population. A cross-sectional population-based survey of 2341 children in Years 4 and 7 (mean ages 9 and 12 years, respectively) in 2007.   Nineteen percent of children were overweight and a further 6% were obese. The prevalence of combined overweight and obesity was similar for boys and girls (26% vs. 24%, P= 0.35). SES was significantly associated with the prevalence of unhealthy weight: the odds of being overweight or obese were 1.79 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 to 2.36) higher for children from the lowest quartile than for children from the highest quartile. Compared to children from an English speaking background, children from a non-English speaking background were significantly more likely to be overweight or obese (21% vs. 31%, P overweight and obesity was significantly higher for children from a Pacific Island (odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% CI 1.63 to 4.33), Middle Eastern (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.17) or European (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.49) background than for English speaking background children. Large jumps in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children observed from the 1980s appear to be diminishing, with comparable prevalence reports in 2004 and 2007. Ethnicity and SES are each independently associated with the prevalence of unhealthy weight in children. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Workplace Bullying among Business Professionals: Prevalence, Gender Differences and the Role of Organizational Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Salin

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the prevalence of bullying experienced by business professionals and to further the understanding of bullying by analyzing to what extent gender aspects and organizational politics may contribute to bullying in knowledge-intensive career-oriented jobs. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional survey study among members of a professional organization for employees with a university degree in business studies. In addition, written stories were collected to increase the understanding of bullying. This article presents data on the prevalence of bullying, gender differences in bullying, and the relationship between bullying and organizational politics. In addition, some implications for both researchers and managers are presented. The article is based on the author’s doctoral thesis.Cet article décrit la prévalence du harcèlement professionnel dans le milieu des affaires et tente de comprendre cette réalité en considérant dans quelle mesure les différences homme-femme et la culture organisationnelle contribuent au harcèlement dans un milieu de travail compétitif où les emplois sont basés sur le savoir. Une étude transversale a été réalisée auprès de membres d’une organisation professionnelle de diplômés universitaires du milieu des affaires. Des comptes rendus écrits d’épisodes de harcèlement ont également été utilisés. Les résultats présentés décrivent la prévalence du harcèlement, les différences de genre à cet égard, ainsi que les liens entre le harcèlement et la culture organisationnelle. Des retombées intéressant les chercheurs et les gestionnaires sont également présentées. L’article est basé sur la thèse de doctorat de l’auteur.El objetivo de este artículo es describir la prevalencia de la intimidación (bullying vivida por profesionales del área de negocios con formación superior y orientación carrierista,así como incrementar la comprensi

  11. Racial-Ethnic Differences in Fall Prevalence among Older Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yifan; Lo, Joan C; Brickner, Leslea; Gordon, Nancy P

    2017-03-11

    Falls are the leading cause of hip fracture in older women, with important public health implications. Fall risk increases with age and other clinical factors, and varies by race/ethnicity. International studies suggest that fall risk is lower in Asians, although data are limited in U.S. This study examines racial/ethnic differences in fall prevalence among older U.S. women within a large integrated healthcare delivery system. This cross-sectional study used data from 6277 women ages 65-90 who responded to the 2008 or 2011 Kaiser Permanente Northern California Member Health Survey (KPNC-MHS). The KPNC-MHS is a mailed questionnaire sent to a random sample of adult members stratified by age, gender, and geographic location, representing a population estimate of >200,000 women age ≥65 years. Age, race/ethnicity, self-reported health status, presence of diabetes, arthritis or prior stroke, mobility limitations and number of falls in the past year were obtained from the KPNC-MHS. The independent association of race/ethnicity and recent falls was examined, adjusting for known risk factors. The weighted sample was 76.7% non-Hispanic white, 6.2% Hispanic, 6.8% black and 10.3% Asian. Over 20% reported having fallen during the past year (28.5% non-Hispanic white, 27.8% Hispanic, 23.4% black and 20.1% Asian). Older age was associated with greater fall risk, as was having diabetes (OR 1.24, CI 1.03-1.48), prior stroke (OR 1.51, CI 1.09-2.07), arthritis (OR 1.61, CI 1.39-1.85) and mobility limitations (OR 2.82, CI 2.34-3.39), adjusted for age. Compared to whites, Asian (OR 0.64, CI 0.50-0.81) and black (OR 0.73, CI 0.55-0.95) women were much less likely to have ≥1 fall in the past year, adjusting for age, comorbidities, mobility limitation and poor health status. Asians were also less likely to have ≥2 falls (OR 0.62, CI 0.43-0.88). Among older women, the risk of having a recent fall was substantially lower for black and Asian women when compared to white women. This may

  12. Sexual dysfunction in diabetic women: prevalence and differences in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzilli R

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rossella Mazzilli, Norina Imbrogno, Jlenia Elia, Michele Delfino, Olimpia Bitterman, Angela Napoli, Fernando Mazzilli Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Unit of Diabetology and Endocrinology, University of Rome Sapienza, Rome, Italy Background: The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of diabetes on female sexuality and to highlight any differences between sexuality in the context of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Methods: The subjects selected were 49 women with type 1 DM, 24 women with type 2 DM, and 45 healthy women as controls. Each participant was given the nine-item Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire to complete. The metabolic profile was evaluated by body mass index and glycosylated hemoglobin assay. Results: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction (total score ≤30 was significantly higher in the type 1 DM group (25/49, 51%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 18–31 than in the control group (4/45, 9%; 95% CI 3–5; P=0.00006; there were no significant variations in the type 2 DM group (4/24, 17%; 95% CI 3–4 versus the control group (P=0.630, not statistically significant. The mean total score was significantly lower in the type 1 DM group (30.2±6.9 versus the control group (36.5±4.9; P=0.0003, but there was no significant difference between the type 2 DM group and the control group (P=0.773. With regard to specific questionnaire items, the mean values for arousal, lubrication, dyspareunia, and orgasm were significantly lower only in the type 1 DM group versus the control group. The mean values for desire were reduced in type 1 and type 2 DM groups versus control group. Conclusion: Type 1 DM is associated with sexual dysfunction. This may be due to classic neurovascular complications or to the negative impact of the disease on psychosocial factors. Larger and ideally longitudinal studies are necessary to better understand the relationship between DM and sexual dysfunction. Keywords

  13. Prevalence and implications of a difference in systolic blood pressure between one arm and the other in vascular surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrand, J W; Batterham, A M; O'Neill, B R; Danjoux, G R

    2013-12-01

    Inter-arm differences in blood pressure may confound haemodynamic management in vascular surgery. We evaluated 898 patients in the vascular pre-assessment clinic to determine the prevalence of inter-arm differences in systolic and mean arterial pressure, quantify the consequent risk of clinical error in siting monitoring peri-operatively and evaluate systolic inter-arm difference as a predictor of all-cause mortality (median follow-up 49 months). The prevalence of a systolic inter-arm difference ≥ 15 mmHg was 26% (95% CI 23-29%). The prevalence of an inter-arm mean arterial pressure difference ≥ 10 mmHg was 26% (95% CI 23-29%) and 11% (95% CI 9-13%) for a difference ≥ 15 mmHg. Monitoring could be erroneously sited in an arm reading lower for systolic pressure once in every seven to nine patients. The hazard ratio for a systolic inter-arm difference ≥ 15 mmHg vs arm blood pressure differences are common in this population, with a high potential for monitoring errors. Systolic inter-arm difference was not associated with medium-term mortality. [Correction added on 17 October 2013, after first online publication: In the Summary the sentence beginning 'We evaluated 898 patients' was corrected from (median (IQR [range]) follow-up 49 months) to read (median follow up 49 months)]. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients : impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, Signe W; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Rickenbach, Martin; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens; Sabin, Caroline; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time.

  15. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe H.Westring; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time....

  16. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, Signe W.; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Rickenbach, Martin; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens; Sabin, Caroline; de Wolf, F.; Zaheri, S.; Gras, L.; Bronsveld, W.; Hillebrand-Haverkort, M. E.; Prins, J. M.; Bos, J. C.; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, J. K. M.; Geerlings, S. E.; Godfried, M. H.; Lange, J. M. A.; van Leth, F. C.; Lowe, S. H.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Pogány, K.; van der Poll, T.; Ruys, Th A.; Steingrover, R.; van Twillert, G.; van der Valk, M.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; van Vugt, M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; van Eeden, A.; ten Veen, J. H.; van Dam, P. S.; Roos, J. C.; Brinkman, K.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Weigel, H. M.; Mulder, J. W.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Meenhorst, P. L.; Mairuhu, A. T. A.; Veenstra, J.; Danner, S. A.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Claessen, F. A. P.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time.

  17. Conflict between work and nonwork roles of employees in the mining industry: Prevalence and differences between demographic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsie Steyl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: International researchers have increasingly recognised the interaction between work and nonwork roles as an interesting and important topic. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different work–nonwork conflict subscales and differences between demographic groups in work– nonwork conflict. Motivation for the study: Several studies have shown that demographic groups differ in their experiences of the interaction between work and family life. This may also be true of conflict between work and nonwork roles. The prevalence of work–nonwork conflict and nonwork– work conflict is also very important for organisations that may find the results very valuable for developing organisational and individual interventions and performance management in organisations. Research design, approach and method: The researchers chose a random sample of mining employees (n = 245 from a platinum mine in Rustenburg. The researchers used self-developed items similar to items developed in the Work–nonwork Interference Scale of Koekemoer, Mostert and Rothmann (2010 to measure conflict between work and various nonwork roles. The researchers used descriptive statistics, paired-sample t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance and one-way analysis of variance to analyse the data. Main findings: Work–nonwork conflict was more prevalent than nonwork–work conflict. Work–family conflict was more prevalent than work–domestic conflict and work–religion/ spirituality conflict. The researchers found significant differences for marital status and language groups about work–nonwork conflict. Results showed that participants who spoke African languages experienced higher levels of private–work conflict. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations need to recognise the negative interference or conflict between work and nonwork roles for different demographic groups and address the prevalent work

  18. The effects of the Korean reference value on the prevalence of osteoporosis and the prediction of fracture risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwha; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yu, Jaemyung; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Kim, Doo-Man; Hong, Eun-Gyung; Park, Kyutae; Choi, Myungjin; Choi, Hyunhee

    2015-03-27

    Since the reference value is the core factor of the T-score calculation, it has a significant impact on the prevalence of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of using the Korean reference value on the prevalence of osteoporosis and on the prediction of fracture risk. We used femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011. The Korean reference was identified by the mean and standard deviation of men and women aged 20-29 years. We compared the prevalence and the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX™) probability obtained from the Korean reference and the NHANES III reference. In men, the prevalence of osteoporosis increased when using the Korean men's reference, and the difference increased up to 9% for those in their 80s. In women, the prevalence increased when using the NHANES III reference, and the difference increased up to 17% for those in their 80s. The reference value also affected the fracture risk probability, and the difference from changing the reference value increased in women and in subjects with more clinical fracture risk factors. In major osteoporotic fractures, the difference of the risk probability was up to 6% in women aged 70-79 years with two clinical risk factors. For femoral neck fractures, the difference was up to 7% in women aged 50-59 years with two clinical risk factors. We confirmed that the reference value had significant effects on the prevalence of osteoporosis and on the fracture risk probability. The KNHANES 2008-2011 BMD data reflected the characteristics of the Korean BMD status well with regard to data size and study design; therefore, these data can be used as reference values.

  19. Gender differences in prevalence, risk, and clinical correlates of alcoholism comorbidity in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frye, MA; Altshuler, LL; McElroy, SL; Suppes, T; Keck, PE; Denicoff, K; Nolen, WA; Kupka, R; Leverich, GS; Pollio, C; Grunze, H; Walden, J; Post, RM

    Objective: The prevalence of lifetime alcohol abuse and/or dependence (alcoholism) in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be higher than in all other axis I psychiatric diagnoses. This study examined gender-specific relationships between alcoholism and bipolar illness, which have

  20. Prevalence of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in Australia: has thiamine fortification made a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Clive G; Sheedy, Donna L; Lara, Ana I; Garrick, Therese M; Hilton, John M; Raisanen, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) in Australia and compare this with previous studies. Design and setting Prospective autopsy study at the New South Wales Institute of Forensic Medicine, 1996-1997. Methods Brains of deceased people (aged over 15 years) derived from 2212 sequential autopsies performed between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 1997 were studied macroscopically and microscopically to identify cases of WKS. Main outcome measures Standard histological criteria for WKS and any available clinical data. Results Twenty-five cases of WKS were identified (prevalence, 1.1%), mostly among the 5.9% of the 2212 people who had a history suggestive of alcohol abuse. Only four cases (16%) had been diagnosed during life. Conclusions There has been a significant reduction in the prevalence of WKS in Australia since the introduction of thiamine enrichment of bread flour. While the prevalence is still higher than in most other Western countries, further research is needed before adding thiamine to alcoholic beverages can be recommended. PMID:9640303

  1. Geographic differences in overweight and obesity prevalence in Peruvian children, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Roman, J Smith; Urrunaga-Pastor, Diego; Avilez, Jose L; Helguero-Santin, Luis M; Malaga, German

    2018-03-14

    Childhood obesity is emerging as a major public health problem worldwide. To date, most studies of obesity and overweight in Peru are focused on adults, with few of them involving children, a population at a critical stage of development. The trend in overweight and obesity prevalence in Peruvian children under the age of five has not yet been determined. Thus, the objective of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity between 2010 and 2015 in children under the age of five, stratified by geographical areas in Peru. Data were obtained from the Nutritional Status Information System of Peru. The total number of children evaluated was 14,155,914. For the Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the program Geo Da 1.8® was used to ascertain the spatial distribution of prevalence rates and was mapped for children under five. To assess the degree of spatial dependence, exploratory spatial data analysis was performed using the Moran's I statistic and was assessed with the Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) analysis to identify geographic concentrations of high and low of obesity and overweight levels. Between 2010 and 2015, the national prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity ranged from 6.2%- 6.8% and 1.5%-2.7%, respectively. The highest prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity was found in 2014 and 2013, respectively. During these years, we observed that obesity decreased, but overweight remained stable. The highest prevalence of overweight and obesity was found in the departments located on the coast. Significant positive spatial autocorrelation was found for both overweight and obesity. The departments with the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity were concentrated in Lima, Callao, Ica, Moquegua and Tacna. The lowest were found in Loreto, Cusco and San Martin. The decrease in obesity and the stabilisation of overweight are positive results for the Peruvian childhood. However, in comparison

  2. Gender differences in prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, R M; Reeves, M M; Eakin, E G; Owen, N

    2010-05-01

    To systematically review studies documenting the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among men and women in Member States of the Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC; Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates)-countries in which obesity, Type 2 diabetes and related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent. A search was conducted on PubMed and CINAHL using the term 'metabolic syndrome' and the country name of each GCC Member State. The search was limited to studies published in the English language. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and/or International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions. The methodological quality of each study was evaluated based on four criteria: a national-level population sample; equal gender representation; robustness of the sample size; an explicit sampling methodology. PubMed, CINAHL and reference list searches identified nine relevant studies. Only four were considered high quality and found that, for men, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome ranged from 20.7% to 37.2% (ATPIII definition) and from 29.6% to 36.2% (IDF definition); and, for women, from 32.1% to 42.7% (ATPIII definition) and from 36.1% to 45.9% (IDF definition). Overall, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the GCC states is some 10-15% higher than in most developed countries, with generally higher prevalence rates for women. Preventive strategies will require identifying socio-demographic and environmental correlates (particularly those influencing women) and addressing modifiable risk behaviours, including lack of physical activity, prolonged sitting time and dietary intake.

  3. Regional Differences in Pathogen Prevalence and Defensive Reactions to the “Swine Flu” Outbreak among East Asians and Westerners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hamamura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that contagion-minimizing behavioral tendencies are amplified in pathogen-prevalent regions. We investigated whether reactions to the “swine flu” outbreak of 2009 were stronger among East Asians than Westerners, populations residing in regions that now enjoy comparable advances in healthcare but that are characterized by relatively high and low historical pathogen prevalence, respectively. In a survey, East Asians reported greater concerns about infection, especially from foreigners. Analyses of international air travel data around the time of the outbreak provided corroborating evidence: Immediately following the outbreak, airports in the Asia-Pacific region lost more international traffic relative to their Western counterparts, and East Asian airlines reported greater declines in international traffic compared to Western airlines. These differences are unlikely to reflect objective threat posed by swine flu (whose casualties were concentrated in the Americas; rather, they appear to reflect culturally adapted behavioral patterns forged and sustained by regionally variable levels of pathogen prevalence.

  4. Sero-prevalence of virus neutralizing antibodies for rabies in different groups of dogs following vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimburage, R M S; Gunatilake, M; Wimalaratne, O; Balasuriya, A; Perera, K A D N

    2017-05-18

    Mass vaccination of dogs is considered fundamental for national rabies control programmes in Sri Lanka, as dog is the main reservoir and transmitter of the disease. Dogs were followed to determine the sero-prevalence of antibodies to the rabies virus. Altogether 510 previously vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs with owners (domestic dogs) and dogs without owners (stray dogs) of the local guard dog breed in different age groups recruited from Kalutara District, Sri Lanka. The dogs were vaccinated with a monovalent inactivated vaccine intramuscularly and serum antibody titres on days 0, 30, 180 and 360 were determined by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT). The results indicated, a single dose of anti-rabies vaccination fails to generate a protective level of immunity (0.5 IU/ml) which lasts until 1 year in 40.42% of dogs without owners and 57.14% of previously unvaccinated juvenile (age: 3 months to 1 year) dogs with owners. More than one vaccination would help to maintain antibody titres above the protective level in the majority of dogs. The pattern of antibody titre development in annually vaccinated and irregularly vaccinated (not annual) adult dogs with owners is closely similar irrespective of regularity in vaccination. Previously vaccinated animals have higher (2 IU/ml) antibody titres to begin with and have a higher antibody titre on day 360 too. They show a very good antibody titre by day 180. Unvaccinated animals start with low antibody titre and return to low titres by day 360, but have a satisfactory antibody titre by day 180. A single dose of anti-rabies vaccination is not sufficient for the maintenance of antibody titres for a period of 1 year in puppies, juvenile dogs with owners and in dogs without owners. Maternal antibodies do not provide adequate protection to puppies of previously vaccinated dams and puppies of previously unvaccinated dams. Immunity development after vaccination seems to be closely similar in both the groups

  5. Major differences in prevalence of overweight according to nationality in preschool children living in Germany: determinants and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuepper-Nybelen, J; Lamerz, A; Bruning, N; Hebebrand, J; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Brenner, H

    2005-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of overweight according to nationality in preschool children living in Germany, and to establish the determinants responsible for differences in body mass index. The study was performed within the context of the 2001/2002 obligatory health examination before school entry in the city of Aachen, Germany. Of 2020 eligible children 1979 children were recruited (participation rate: 98%). Children's height and weight were measured using a standardised protocol. The parents completed a standardised questionnaire on sociodemographic factors and possible determinants of nutritional status. Being overweight was defined according to age and sex specific reference values for German children as well as according to international reference values. The study population included 452 (22.9%) children with other than German nationality. Among these children the prevalence of overweight was twice as high than among German children (14.8% v 7.2%). Prevalence of most known risk factors for overweight, such as low physical activity, high consumption of soft drinks, and frequent visits to fast-food restaurants was higher in the children with other nationalities than in the German children. Multivariate analyses revealed that most of the difference in prevalence of obesity by nationality is explained by known risk factors of overweight, especially education of mother and watching TV. The apparent ethnic differences could be explained by two non-ethnic but socioeconomic factors. In preventing overweight in children, there is the need to identify and deal with high risk environments rather than high risk ethnic groups.

  6. Prevalence and causes of blindness, visual impairment among different ethnical minority groups in Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanping; Huang, Wenyong; Qiqige, Aoyun; Zhang, Hongwei; Jin, Ling; Ti, Pula; Yip, Jennifer; Xiao, Baixiang

    2018-02-13

    The aim of this cross-sectional study is to ascertain the prevalence and causes of blindness, visual impairment, uptake of cataract surgery among different ethnic groups in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Four thousand one hundred fifty people at 50 years and above from different minority ethnic groups were randomly selected for an eye examination. The four trained eye teams collected data using tumbling E visual chart, torch, portable slit lamp and direct ophthalmoscope in 2015. The World Health Organization's definition of blindness and visual impairment (VI) was used to classify patients in each ethnic group. Data were analyzed by different minority groups and were compared with Han Chinese. 3977 (95.8%) out of 4150 people were examined. The prevalence of blindness from the study population was 1.7% (95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.2%).There was no significant difference in prevalence of blindness between Han Chinese and people of Khazak and other minority ethnic groups, nor, between male and female. Cataract was the leading course (65.5%) of blindness and uncorrected refractive error was the most common cause of VI (36.3%) followed by myopic retinopathy. The most common barrier to cataract surgery was lack of awareness of service availability. This study documented a low blindness prevalence among people aged 50 years and over comparing to prevalence identified through studies of other regions in China. It still indicates blindness and un-operated cataract as the significant public health issue, with no evidence of eye health inequalities, but some inequities in accessing to cataract surgery amongst ethnic minority groups in Xinjiang.

  7. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects according to different criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Sharmin; Fatema, Kaniz; Ahmed, Kazi R; Akter, Jesmin; Chowdhury, Hasina A; Shahjahan, Md; Acharyya, Amitava; Rahim, M A; Ali, Liaquat

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is becoming a serious global public health problem. The prevalence of MS differs in different population by using different definitions. Present study aimed to find out the prevalence and determinants of MS among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (NDT2D) according to different criteria. This cross-sectional analytic study was conducted among 281 subjects selected purposively from the OPD of BIRDEM. Information on lifestyle factors and disease history were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire by face to face interview. The three definitions of MS used in this study are from the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), a modified version of the ATP III criteria for Asian populations (modified ATP III) and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Adjusted odds ratio and confidence limit were generated through logistic regression. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the study subjects according to modified ATPIII, WHO and IDF criteria were 79% (95% CI: 74.2-83.8), 81% (95% CI: 76.4-85.6) and 68% (95% CI: 62.6-73.5) respectively. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among female were higher compared to males in all the criteria's. Female gender (OR=5.93), family history of diabetes (OR=1.92), overweight (OR=6.2), and obesity (OR=5.13) were found as important confounders associated with metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among NDT2D is considerably higher in our population which may indicate considerable risk of cardiovascular diseases in future. Female gender, family history of diabetes, overweight and obesity are important confounders of MS in this population. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimating the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake from national food balance sheets: effects of methodological assumptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ryan Wessells

    Full Text Available The prevalence of inadequate zinc intake in a population can be estimated by comparing the zinc content of the food supply with the population's theoretical requirement for zinc. However, assumptions regarding the nutrient composition of foods, zinc requirements, and zinc absorption may affect prevalence estimates. These analyses were conducted to: (1 evaluate the effect of varying methodological assumptions on country-specific estimates of the prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and (2 generate a model considered to provide the best estimates.National food balance data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Zinc and phytate contents of these foods were estimated from three nutrient composition databases. Zinc absorption was predicted using a mathematical model (Miller equation. Theoretical mean daily per capita physiological and dietary requirements for zinc were calculated using recommendations from the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine and the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group. The estimated global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake varied between 12-66%, depending on which methodological assumptions were applied. However, country-specific rank order of the estimated prevalence of inadequate intake was conserved across all models (r = 0.57-0.99, P<0.01. A "best-estimate" model, comprised of zinc and phytate data from a composite nutrient database and IZiNCG physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, estimated the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake to be 17.3%.Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in this method, caution must be taken in the interpretation of the estimated prevalence figures. However, the results of all models indicate that inadequate zinc intake may be fairly common globally. Inferences regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem in different countries can be drawn based on the country

  9. Effect of different planting time on different varieties of strawberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yue; Luo, Ya; Ge, Cong; Mo, Qin; Lin, Yajie; Luo, Shu; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    The experiment chose two strawberry varieties which planted in two periods of September 10 and September 20, in order to identify the optimum planting time of strawberries by exploring the effects of different planting time on strawberry quality and flowering initially. The results showed that different planting time will affect the growth and quality of strawberry, and the quality of September 10 planting strawberries is better than September 20 planting strawberries while there do exist some differences between strawberry varieties. In summary, the preliminary determination is that in Hanyuan area, the Hong Yan and Zhang Ji's optimum planting time is 10 September.

  10. Malaria prevalence among pregnant women in two districts with differing endemicity in Chhattisgarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Neeru

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, malaria is not uniformly distributed. Chhattisgarh is a highly malarious state where both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are prevalent with a preponderance of P. falciparum. Malaria in pregnancy (MIP, especially when caused by P. falciparum, poses substantial risk to the mother and foetus by increasing the risk of foetal death, prematurity, low birth weight (LBW, and maternal anaemia. These risks vary between areas with stable and unstable transmission. The specific objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malaria, its association with maternal and birth outcomes, and use of anti-malarial preventive measures for development of evidence based interventions to reduce the burden of MIP. Methods A cross-sectional study of pregnant women presenting to antenatal clinics (ANC or delivery units (DU, or hospitalized for non-obstetric illness was conducted over 12 months in high (Bastar and low (Rajnandgaon transmission districts in Chhattisgarh state. Intensity of transmission was defined on the basis of slide positivity rates with a high proportion due to P. falciparum. In each district, a rural and an urban health facility was selected. Results Prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia was low: 1.3% (35/2696 among women at ANCs and 1.9% at DUs (19/1025. Peripheral parasitaemia was significantly more common in Bastar (2.8% than in Rajnandgaon (0.1% (p  Conclusions Given the overall low prevalence of malaria, a strategy of enhanced anti-vector measures coupled with intermittent screening and targeted treatment during pregnancy should be considered for preventing malaria-associated morbidity in central India.

  11. Chlamydia prevalence in the general population: is there a sex difference? a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dielissen, Patrick W; Teunissen, Doreth AM; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine LM

    2013-01-01

    Background The focus of Chlamydia trachomatis screening and testing lies more on women than on men. The study aim was to establish by systematic review the prevalence of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and women in the general population. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists were searched from 2000 to 2013 using the key words “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “population-based study” and “disease prevalence”. Reference lists were checked. Studies were included in the anal...

  12. Workplace Bullying among Business Professionals - Prevalence, Organisational Antecedents and Gender Differences (summary section only)

    OpenAIRE

    Salin, Denise

    2003-01-01

    Workplace bullying can be defined as repeated and persistent negative acts that involve a power imbalance and create a hostile work environment. Partly because of the many negative consequences associated with the phenomenon, bullying has recently become the focus of many studies by contemporary organisational researchers. Drawing on a survey, this thesis provides information on the prevalence and forms of bullying among business professionals, a group of employees neglected in previous b...

  13. Body dysmorphic disorder in different settings: A systematic review and estimated weighted prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Gledhill, Lucinda J; Christodoulou, Polyxeni; Hodsoll, John

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to systematically review the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in a variety of settings. Weighted prevalence estimate and 95% confidence intervals in each study were calculated. The weighted prevalence of BDD in adults in the community was estimated to be 1.9%; in adolescents 2.2%; in student populations 3.3%; in adult psychiatric inpatients 7.4%; in adolescent psychiatric inpatients 7.4%; in adult psychiatric outpatients 5.8%; in general cosmetic surgery 13.2%; in rhinoplasty surgery 20.1%; in orthognathic surgery 11.2%; in orthodontics/cosmetic dentistry settings 5.2%; in dermatology outpatients 11.3%; in cosmetic dermatology outpatients 9.2%; and in acne dermatology clinics 11.1%. Women outnumbered men in the majority of settings but not in cosmetic or dermatological settings. BDD is common in some psychiatric and cosmetic settings but is poorly identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in School: a Review Profile Found in the Different Regions From Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valesca Francisco Pinto Menezes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal infections caused by protozoa and helminths are considered a major cause of diseases by infectious processes in the world. The present study aims to conduct a survey regarding the recent years of the prevalence of intestinal parasites in school children in various cities in Brazil, identifying which species are most commonly found and the regions that require greater dedication in this area. The analyzed studies showed that the Northern and Northeastern regions presented a higher prevalence of intestinal parasites, however, in the Southeast, results were encouraging with low levels of contamination by parasites compared to all regions in Brazil. As for intestinal parasites, the most common, found in all Brazilian regions, was Ascaris lumbricoides followed by Giardia lamblia. Therefore, one can conclude that the high prevalence of intestinal parasites in children found in some places in Brazil can demonstrate the need for greater care with basic sanitation and personal hygiene, both in households and in the places of study. These data show the importance of conducting educational programs that will develop personal awareness of parents, families and children themselves.

  15. Effect of a Brazilian regional basic diet on the prevalence of caries in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, J T; Couto, G B L; Vasconcelos, M M V B; Melo, M M D C; Guedes, R C A; Cordeiro, M A C

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a regional basic diet (RBD) on the prevalence of caries in the molar teeth of rats of both sexes aged 23 days. The animals were divided into six groups of 10 rats each receiving the following diets for 30 and 60 days after weaning: RBD, a cariogenic diet, and a commercial diet. The prevalence and penetration of caries in the molar teeth of the rats was then analyzed. The RBD produced caries in 37.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 days, and in 83.4% of animals fed 60 days, while the cariogenic diet produced caries in 72.5% and 77.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 and 60 days, respectively. Rats fed the RBD for 30 days had caries in the enamel in 38% of their teeth, 48% had superficial dentin caries, and 7.5% moderate dentin caries. The effect of the RBD did not differ significantly from that of the cariogenic diet in terms of the presence of caries in rats fed 60 days. The penetration depth of the caries produced by the RBD was the same as that produced by the cariogenic diet. Our results show that the RBD has the same cariogenic potential as the cariogenic diet. Since the RBD is the only option for the low-income population, there should be a study of how to compensate for the cariogenicity of this diet.

  16. Effect of a Brazilian regional basic diet on the prevalence of caries in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. Pinheiro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a regional basic diet (RBD on the prevalence of caries in the molar teeth of rats of both sexes aged 23 days. The animals were divided into six groups of 10 rats each receiving the following diets for 30 and 60 days after weaning: RBD, a cariogenic diet, and a commercial diet. The prevalence and penetration of caries in the molar teeth of the rats was then analyzed. The RBD produced caries in 37.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 days, and in 83.4% of animals fed 60 days, while the cariogenic diet produced caries in 72.5% and 77.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 and 60 days, respectively. Rats fed the RBD for 30 days had caries in the enamel in 38% of their teeth, 48% had superficial dentin caries, and 7.5% moderate dentin caries. The effect of the RBD did not differ significantly from that of the cariogenic diet in terms of the presence of caries in rats fed 60 days. The penetration depth of the caries produced by the RBD was the same as that produced by the cariogenic diet. Our results show that the RBD has the same cariogenic potential as the cariogenic diet. Since the RBD is the only option for the low-income population, there should be a study of how to compensate for the cariogenicity of this diet.

  17. Radiation effects-prevalence of contributory risk factors a pilot study in Visakhapthnam steel plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshman rao, K. V.

    2004-01-01

    Integrated Steel Plants contribute significant air pollution, water pollution and solid waste generation. Diverse occupational health hazards present is steel industry pose ill effects to the industrial workers. Occupational health services and research center (OHS and RC) of this plant established in the year 1992 to protect the health and well-being of all the employees working in different occupations. the primary role OHS and RC is to conduct periodical medical examinations, monitoring of the working environments, suggest the suitable personal protective equipment to the workers, evaluate risk factors, work practices, risk management and industrial toxicological studies. Dissemination of information related to occupational health and safety to the working population through regular educational sessions at the workplaces as at training and development center (T and DC) is also part of our services. The proneness for effects of exposure to ionizing radiation is enhanced by various factors related to the family history of chronic diseases, nutritional status of the individuals, the lifestyle factors apart from psycho-social factors like illiteracy, ignorance, negligence and inadequate utilization of personal protective equipment (PPE) at workplace. To evaluate the prevalence of such contributory risk factors, a pilot study has been conducted in Visakhapatnam Steel Plant. The data is obtained through routine periodical medical examination of workers at the Occupational Health Services Center through standard format. The study revealed statistically high prevalence of the risk factors and indicated the necessity of intensifying primary prevention methods in addition to environmental control and usage of PPE. (Author)

  18. Radiation effects-prevalence of contributory risk factors a pilot study in Visakhapthnam steel plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshman rao, K. V.

    2004-07-01

    Integrated Steel Plants contribute significant air pollution, water pollution and solid waste generation. Diverse occupational health hazards present is steel industry pose ill effects to the industrial workers. Occupational health services and research center (OHS and RC) of this plant established in the year 1992 to protect the health and well-being of all the employees working in different occupations. the primary role OHS and RC is to conduct periodical medical examinations, monitoring of the working environments, suggest the suitable personal protective equipment to the workers, evaluate risk factors, work practices, risk management and industrial toxicological studies. Dissemination of information related to occupational health and safety to the working population through regular educational sessions at the workplaces as at training and development center (T and DC) is also part of our services. The proneness for effects of exposure to ionizing radiation is enhanced by various factors related to the family history of chronic diseases, nutritional status of the individuals, the lifestyle factors apart from psycho-social factors like illiteracy, ignorance, negligence and inadequate utilization of personal protective equipment (PPE) at workplace. To evaluate the prevalence of such contributory risk factors, a pilot study has been conducted in Visakhapatnam Steel Plant. The data is obtained through routine periodical medical examination of workers at the Occupational Health Services Center through standard format. The study revealed statistically high prevalence of the risk factors and indicated the necessity of intensifying primary prevention methods in addition to environmental control and usage of PPE. (Author)

  19. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among patients referred for endoscopy: Gender and ethnic differences in Kedah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection, according to ethnicity and gender among the people of Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia who undergo endoscopy. Methods: To study the epidemiology of H. pylori infection in Kedah, Malaysia population, we assessed the database of hospital admissions of the patients referred to the Endoscopy Unit at Sungai Petani Hospital for oesophagogastro-duodenoscopy (OGD between January 2000 and December 2007. For statistical analysis, the Fisher’s exact test (2- tailed test was used. H. pylori infection rate was determined in 1 965 consecutive patients. Results: Out of 1 965 patients, 597 (30.4% were positive and 1368 (69.6% were negative for H. pylori infections. Generally, the prevalence rate among males (51.9%; 398/767 was significantly higher (P<0.05 than for females (33.1%; 199/601. In terms of ethnics, the overall prevalence showed H. pylori infection was commonly found among Indians and Chinese with prevalence rate of 35.6% (194/545 and 28.6% (100/350 respectively. These figures are significantly higher (P< 0.05 than the 28.5% (300/1051 for Malays. The prevalence rates for Malay males was lower (P<0.05 than those of Chinese and Indians. Conclusions: In conclusion, there is a significant difference in H. pylori infection prevalence rates among ethnic groups (highest in Indians, then Chinese and unusually low in Malays and gender groups (highest in males in Kedah, Malaysia.

  20. Impact of the Use of Different Diagnostic Criteria in the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Pregnant Women

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    Alina Coutinho Rodrigues Feitosa

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: There is a physiologic elevation of total cholesterol (TC and triglycerides (TG during pregnancy. Some authors define dyslipidemia (DLP in pregnant women when TC, LDL and TG concentrations are above the 95th percentile (p95% and HDL concentration is below the 5th percentile (P5% for gestational age (GA. Objective: To compare the prevalence of DLP in pregnant women using percentiles criteria with the V Brazilian Guidelines on Dyslipidemia and the association with maternal and fetal outcomes. Results: Pregnant women with high-risk conditions, aged 18-50 years, and at least one lipid profile during pregnancy was classified as the presence of DLP by two diagnostic criteria. Clinical and laboratorial data of mothers and newborns were evaluated. Conclusion: 433 pregnant women aged 32.9 ± 6.5 years were studied. Most (54.6% had lipid profile collected during third trimester. The prevalence of any lipid abnormalities according to the criteria of the National Guidelines was 83.8%: TC ≥ 200 mg/dL was found in 49.9%; LDL ≥ 160 mg/dL, in 14.3%, HDL ≤ 50 mg/dL in 44.4% and TG ≥ 150 mg/dL in 65.3%. Any changes of lipid according to percentiles criteria was found in 19.6%: elevation above the P95% for TC was found in 0.7%; for LDL, 1.7%; for TG 6.4% and HDL lower than the P5% in 13%. The frequency of comorbidity: hypertension, diabetes, smoking, obesity and preeclampsia was similar among pregnant women when DLP was compared by both criteria. Conclusion: The prevalence of DLP during pregnancy varies significantly depending on the criteria used, however none demonstrated superiority in association with comorbidities.

  1. Prevalence of different comorbidities in COPD patients by gender and GOLD stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Negro, R W; Bonadiman, L; Turco, P

    2015-01-01

    Several comorbidities frequently affect COPD progression. Aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of main comorbidities by gender and disease severity in a cohort of COPD patients referring for the first time to a specialist institution. The study was a non-interventional, cross-sectional investigation carried out via automatic and anonymous selection from the institutional data base over the period 2012-2015. Inclusion criteria were: subjects of both sex aged ≥40 years; diagnosis of COPD according to GOLD guidelines 2014; the availability of a complete clinical record file. Variables collected were: lung function; smoking history; BMI; the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI); number and kind of comorbidities for each patient. At least one comorbidity of clinical relevance was found in 78.6 % of patients, but at least two in 68.8 %, and three or more were found in 47.9 % of subjects. Mean CCI was 3.4 ± 1.6sd. The overall prevalence was 2.6 comorbidities per patient, but 2.5 in males, and 3.0 in females, respectively (p Cognition disorders, dementia and signs of degenerative brain disorders were more frequently found in men, while depression in females. Finally, lung cancer was at the first place in men, but at the second in females. All comorbidities increased their prevalence progressively up to the last stage of COPD severity, except the cardio-vascular and the metabolic ones which dropped in the IV GOLD stage, presumably due to the high mortality rate in this severe COPD stage. The gender-dependency of comorbidities was confirmed in general terms, even if lung cancer proved a dramatic increase almost independently of sex.

  2. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of listeria species isolated from different types of raw meat in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Yazdi, Farzad; Farzinezhadizadeh, Hussein

    2012-12-01

    Listeria and particularly Listeria monocytogenes are important foodborne pathogens that can cause listeriosis and severe complications in immunocompromised individuals, children, pregnant women, and the elderly. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. in raw meat in Iran. From July 2010 to November 2011, a total of 1,107 samples of various raw meats were obtained from randomly selected retail butcher shops. The results of conventional bacteriologic and PCR methods revealed that 141 samples (12.7%) were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw buffalo meat samples (7 of 24 samples; 29.2%) followed by quail meat (26 of 116 samples; 22.4%), partridge meat (13 of 74 samples; 17.6%), and chicken meat (27 of 160 samples; 16.9%). The most common species recovered was Listeria innocua (98 of 141 strains; 75.9 % ); the remaining isolates were L. monocytogenes (19.1% of strains), Listeria welshimeri (6.4% of strains), Listeria seeligeri (3.5% of strains), and Listeria grayi (1.4% of strains). Susceptibilities of the 141 strains to 11 antimicrobial drugs were determined using the disk diffusion assay. Overall, 104 (73.8%) of the Listeria isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and 17.0% of the isolates were resistant to three or more antimicrobials. The present study provides the first baseline data on the prevalence of Listeria in raw meat derived from sheep, goat, buffalo, quail, partridge, chicken, and ostrich in Iran and the susceptibility of these isolates to antimicrobials.

  3. Impact of the Use of Different Diagnostic Criteria in the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Alina Coutinho Rodrigues; Barreto, Luciana Tedgue; da Silva, Isabela Matos; da Silva, Felipe Freire; Feitosa Filho, Gilson Soares

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a physiologic elevation of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) during pregnancy. Some authors define dyslipidemia (DLP) in pregnant women when TC, LDL and TG concentrations are above the 95th percentile (p95%) and HDL concentration is below the 5th percentile (P5%) for gestational age (GA). Objective To compare the prevalence of DLP in pregnant women using percentiles criteria with the V Brazilian Guidelines on Dyslipidemia and the association with maternal and fetal outcomes. Results Pregnant women with high-risk conditions, aged 18-50 years, and at least one lipid profile during pregnancy was classified as the presence of DLP by two diagnostic criteria. Clinical and laboratorial data of mothers and newborns were evaluated. Conclusion 433 pregnant women aged 32.9 ± 6.5 years were studied. Most (54.6%) had lipid profile collected during third trimester. The prevalence of any lipid abnormalities according to the criteria of the National Guidelines was 83.8%: TC ≥ 200 mg/dL was found in 49.9%; LDL ≥ 160 mg/dL, in 14.3%, HDL ≤ 50 mg/dL in 44.4% and TG ≥ 150 mg/dL in 65.3%. Any changes of lipid according to percentiles criteria was found in 19.6%: elevation above the P95% for TC was found in 0.7%; for LDL, 1.7%; for TG 6.4% and HDL lower than the P5% in 13%. The frequency of comorbidity: hypertension, diabetes, smoking, obesity and preeclampsia was similar among pregnant women when DLP was compared by both criteria. Conclusion The prevalence of DLP during pregnancy varies significantly depending on the criteria used, however none demonstrated superiority in association with comorbidities. PMID:28591252

  4. Effects of migratory status and habitat on the prevalence and intensity of infection by haemoparasites in passerines in eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian peninsula is a suitable place to study the effects of migratory condition on the prevalence of blood parasites in avian communities as resident, local populations cohabit with migratory species and with abundant vector populations. In this study we examined the incidence of avian blood parasites in three localities in the Mediterranean region (east Spain, in relation to the migratory status of the species. We analyzed 333 blood smears from 11 avian species, and obtained an overall prevalence of 9.6%. The prevalence of parasites varied among the different species studied, although intensity of infection did not. Our results are discussed in terms of population dynamics and abundance of Diptera vectors able to transmit blood parasites to other birds.

  5. Rural-Urban Differences in Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Diagnostic Prevalence in Kentucky and West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abner, Erin L; Jicha, Gregory A; Christian, W Jay; Schreurs, Bernard G

    2016-06-01

    Older adults living in rural areas may face barriers to obtaining a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD). We sought to examine rural-urban differences in prevalence of ADRD among Medicare beneficiaries in Kentucky and West Virginia, 2 contiguous, geographically similar states with large rural areas and aged populations. We used Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Public Use Files data from 2007 to 2013 to assess prevalence of ADRD at the county level among all Medicare beneficiaries in each state. Rural-Urban Continuum Codes were used to classify counties as rural or urban. We used Poisson regression to estimate unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios. Primary analyses focused on 2013 data and were repeated for 2007 to 2012. This study was completely ecologic. After adjusting for state, average beneficiary age, percent of female beneficiaries, percent of beneficiaries eligible for Medicaid in each county, Central Appalachian county, percent of age-eligible residents enrolled in Medicare, and percent of residents under age 65 enrolled in Medicare in our adjusted models, we found that 2013 ADRD diagnostic prevalence was 11% lower in rural counties (95% CI: 9%-13%). Medicare beneficiaries in rural counties in Kentucky and West Virginia may be underdiagnosed with respect to ADRD. However, due to the ecologic design, and evidence of a younger, more heavily male beneficiary population in some rural areas, further studies using individual-level data are needed to confirm the results. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  6. Prevalence of Preventable Causes of Low Vision in Different Ages and Genders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Akhgary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Much of the vision loss from age-related eye disease can be prevented. The purpose of this study is to determine 5Tthe prevalence5T 5Tof preventable5T 5Tcauses5T 5Tof low5T 5Tvision. Materials and Methods: In this study, files of 204 patients were evaluated5T.5T Low vision was defined as best-corrected visual acuity in the better eye between 20/70 to 20/200. Diagnosis of anterior and posterior segment disease was based on the eye examination that performed with Topcon slit-lamp biomicroscope and direct and indirect ophthalmoscope examination7T. Results: The prevalence of 5Tpreventable5T 5Tcauses of5T 5Tlow 5Twas respectively:5T diabetic retinopathy,5T 5Tin 335T 5Tpatients (5T16.18%, 5Tglaucoma 5Tin 6 5Tpatients (5T2.94%, 5Tand amblyopia5T in 5T2 patients (1%5T. Conclusion: The majority of cases have treatable and/or preventable causes; reduction of low vision or blindness can be achieved by appropriate screening strategies.

  7. Prevalence of Intestinal Coccidial Infections among Different Groups of Immunocompromised Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodratollah SALEHI SANGANI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cryptosporidium and Isospora are known as one of the main cause of diarrhea in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects, all over the world. Incidence of enteropathogens such as Cryptosporidium spp. and Isospora belli considerably has increased, since immunodeficiency virus (HIV rapidly disseminated. In addition, cancer patients are highly susceptible to opportunistic infections. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis and isosporiasis in immunocompromised patients in Tehran.Methods: This study carried out on patients admitted to Imam Khomeini hospital during 2013-2014. Stool samples collected from 350 immunocompromised patients. Formol-ether concentration was performed for all stool samples. Zeil-Neelsen technique was applied to stain the prepared smears and finally, all slides were examined by light microscope.Results: Out of 350 patients, 195 (55.7% and 155 (44.3% were male and female, respectively. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 3 (0.9% samples including one sample from HIV+/AIDS patients and 2 samples from organ transplant recipients. Isospora oocysts were detected in 4 (1.1% samples consisting 2 HIV+/AIDS patients, one patients suffering from malignancy and one patients with other immunodeficiency diseases.Conclusion: Cryptosporidium sp, and I. belli are the most prevalent gastrointestinal parasitic protozoans that infect a broad range of individuals, particularly those patients who have a suppressed or deficient immunity system.

  8. Prevalence of different forms of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Chang, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Fetzer, Susan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2015-04-01

    Reported cases of child maltreatment are increasing in Taiwan. Yet, comprehensive epidemiological characteristics of adolescents' exposure over the wide spectrum of violence are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and magnitude of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents. A population-based study was conducted with 5,276 adolescents aged 12-18 from 35 schools in 17 cities and townships to determine the prevalence of five forms of child maltreatment in Taiwan. A total of 5,236 adolescents completed anonymous, self-report, structured questionnaires. Most adolescents (91%, n=4,788) experienced at least one form of maltreatment with 83% (n=4,347) exposed during the previous year. Violence exposure was the most common type of child maltreatment experienced, followed by psychological abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse. Adolescents reported an average of 7.4 (SD=5.87) victimizations over their lifetime and 4.8 (SD=4.82) victimizations during the past year. Females reported a higher rate of neglect, while males reported a higher rate of sexual abuse. Most of the sexual abuse perpetrators were known by their victims. Adolescents' victimization and polyvictimization from child maltreatment in Taiwan deserves a review and modification of national control and prevention policies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. The prevalence of hepatitis A, B and C infection among different ethnic groups in Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, P G; Bryan, J P; Miller, R E; Reyes, L; Hakre, S; Jaramillo, R; Krieg, R E

    1993-10-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of infection with hepatitis viruses in Belize, Central America. We conducted a serologic survey among members of the Belize Defence Force (BDF), which is composed of the five major ethnic groups in Belize, to estimate prevalence rates of hepatitis A, B, and C among military-aged men and women in Belize. Of approximately 600 men and women in the BDF, 492 (82%) completed a questionnaire and blood collection. Antibody to hepatitis A was found in 94%, with similar rates by age, sex, rank, and ethnicity. Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) was found in 31%. Rates of anti-HBc varied significantly among the ethnic groups with the lowest rates in Mestizo (5%) and Mayan Indians (9%), and significantly higher rates among Creoles (30%) and Garifuna (56%). Rates increased with increasing age from 28% in those 18-24 years old to 35% in those > or = 35 years old (P = 0.07, by chi-square test for trend). Hepatitis B surface antigen was found in 21 (4%) overall. Antibody to hepatitis C was found in two (0.4%). In this young healthy population, exposure to hepatitis A before the age of 18 is almost universal, while exposure to hepatitis B is related to age and ethnic origin.

  10. Sex Differences in Stroke Incidence, Prevalence, Mortality and Disability-Adjusted Life Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Bennett, Derrick A; Krishnamurthi, Rita V

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accurate information on stroke burden in men and women are important for evidence-based healthcare planning and resource allocation. Previously, limited research suggested that the absolute number of deaths from stroke in women was greater than in men, but the incidence and mortality...... incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and healthy years lost due to disability were estimated as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 Study. Data inputs included all available information on stroke incidence, prevalence and death and case fatality rates...... ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) incidence (per 100,000) in men (IS 132.77 (95% UI 125.34-142.77); HS 64.89 (95% UI 59.82-68.85)) exceeded those of women (IS 98.85 (95% UI 92.11-106.62); HS 45.48 (95% UI 42.43-48.53)). IS incidence rates were lower in 2013 compared with 1990 rates for both...

  11. Differences in the prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among children from primary schools in rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolnicka, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Mirosław; Jaczewska-Schuetz, Joanna; Taraszewska, Anna Małgorzata

    2016-06-02

    Overweight adversely affects not only the health and development of children and adolescents but also their health in adulthood, increasing the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases and disabilities. The frequency of nutritional disorders among children and adolescents is increasing in many countries worldwide, including Poland. To demonstrate differences in the nutritional well-being of school-age children depending on the school location: rural and urban areas. The study conducted in 2010 covered a total of 1,255 pupils, 627 girls and 628 boys, aged nine, from the area of five provinces of Poland: Pomorskie, Opolskie, Wielkopolskie, Podkarpackie and Masovian, representing the northern, southern, western, eastern and central regions of the country. Based on the height and weight measurements of children, the body mass index was calculated. The nutritional status was assessed according to the criteria of Cole et al. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in girls and boys in separate regions of the country (villages, cities with less than 100,000 residents and cities with more than 100,000 residents) did not differ significantly. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children from rural and urban areas of Poland is similar. Analysis of regional differences in the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight among children and adolescents may indicate the direction of national and local activities aiming to reduce the inequalities resulting from nutritional well-being.

  12. Effect of the Healthy Schools Program on prevalence of overweight and obesity in California schools, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine A; Cotterman, Carolyn; Crawford, Pat; Stevelos, JoAnn; Archibald, Abbie

    2015-05-21

    The Alliance for a Healthier Generation's Healthy Schools Program (HSP) is a national evidence-based obesity-prevention initiative aimed at providing the schools in greatest need with onsite training and technical assistance (TTA) and consultation with national experts (HSP national advisors) to create sustainable healthy change in schools' nutrition and physical activity environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HSP on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in California schools, from HSP's inception in 2006 through 2012. We used statewide body mass index (BMI) data collected annually from 5th-, 7th-, and 9th-grade students to determine whether enrolling in the HSP's onsite intervention reduced the prevalence of overweight and obesity in intervention schools (n = 281) versus propensity-score matched control schools (n = 709) and whether increasing exposure to the program (TTA and contact with HSP national advisors) was associated with reductions in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Analyses showed no difference between HSP schools and control schools in overweight or obesity prevalence. However, program exposure varied widely among participating schools, and each additional contact with TTA or HSP national advisors was associated with a 0.3% decline in overweight and obesity prevalence (P schools in reducing obesity. Although participation in HSP alone was not sufficient to improve weight status in California schools, there was a clear dose-response relationship to the program. HSP serves as an effective model for addressing childhood obesity among engaged schools.

  13. Exploring academic procrastination among Turkish students: possible gender differences in prevalence and reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan; Ferrari, Joseph R

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined the prevalence of and reasons, or excuses, for academic procrastination as a function of gender and academic grade level. In Study 1, a factor analysis of responses by 203 Turkish undergraduate students to an academic procrastination measure provided evidence of reliability and validity for the revised scale. In Study 2,784 students (363 women, 421 men; M age = 20.6 years, SD age = 1.74 years) completed the validated Turkish Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students. The results were that 52% of students self-reported frequent academic procrastination, with male students reporting more frequent procrastination on academic tasks than female students. Significantly more female students than male students reported greater academic procrastination because of fear of failure and laziness; male students reported more academic procrastination as a result of risk taking and rebellion against control than did female students.

  14. Impact of the Use of Different Diagnostic Criteria in the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Alina Coutinho Rodrigues; Barreto, Luciana Tedgue; Silva, Isabela Matos da; Silva, Felipe Freire da; Feitosa, Gilson Soares

    2017-07-01

    There is a physiologic elevation of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) during pregnancy. Some authors define dyslipidemia (DLP) in pregnant women when TC, LDL and TG concentrations are above the 95th percentile (p95%) and HDL concentration is below the 5th percentile (P5%) for gestational age (GA). To compare the prevalence of DLP in pregnant women using percentiles criteria with the V Brazilian Guidelines on Dyslipidemia and the association with maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnant women with high-risk conditions, aged 18-50 years, and at least one lipid profile during pregnancy was classified as the presence of DLP by two diagnostic criteria. Clinical and laboratorial data of mothers and newborns were evaluated. 433 pregnant women aged 32.9 ± 6.5 years were studied. Most (54.6%) had lipid profile collected during third trimester. The prevalence of any lipid abnormalities according to the criteria of the National Guidelines was 83.8%: TC ≥ 200 mg/dL was found in 49.9%; LDL ≥ 160 mg/dL, in 14.3%, HDL ≤ 50 mg/dL in 44.4% and TG ≥ 150 mg/dL in 65.3%. Any changes of lipid according to percentiles criteria was found in 19.6%: elevation above the P95% for TC was found in 0.7%; for LDL, 1.7%; for TG 6.4% and HDL lower than the P5% in 13%. The frequency of comorbidity: hypertension, diabetes, smoking, obesity and preeclampsia was similar among pregnant women when DLP was compared by both criteria. The prevalence of DLP during pregnancy varies significantly depending on the criteria used, however none demonstrated superiority in association with comorbidities. Durante a gestação ocorrem, fisiologicamente, elevações do colesterol total (CT) e triglicerídios (TG). Alguns autores definem dislipidemia (DLP) gestacional quando as concentrações de CT, LDL e TG são superiores ao percentil 95 (P95%) e de HDL, inferiores ao percentil 5 (P5%) para a idade gestacional. Comparar a prevalência da DLP em gestantes conforme critério por percentis com o da V

  15. Analgesic use - prevalence, biomonitoring and endocrine and reproductive effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Mazaud-Guittot, Sverine; Gaudriault, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    policies, habits, accessibility, disease patterns and the age distribution of each population. Biomonitoring indicates ubiquitous and high human exposure to paracetamol and to salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, evidence suggests that analgesics can have......Paracetamol and NSAIDs, in particular acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and ibuprofen, are among the most used and environmentally released pharmaceutical drugs. The differences in international trends in the sale and consumption of mild analgesics reflect differences in marketing, governmental...

  16. PREVALENCE OF SOME HELMINTHS IN RODENTS CAPTURED FROM DIFFERENT CITY STRUCTURES INCLUDING POULTRY FARMS AND HUMAN POPULATION OF FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. RAFIQUE, S. A. RANA, H. A. KHAN AND A. SOHAIL1

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence of zoonotic helminths from human, Rattus rattus (R. rattus, Rattus norvegicus (R. norvegicus and Mus musculus of eight different structures, namely grain shops in grain market, departmental stores, railway godowns, food processing plants (bakeries, poultry farms, houses in kachi-abadies, houses in departmental colonies and posh residences and banglows in Faisalabad city. All the structures were sampled for 2 months each and completed in 16 months. Highest prevalence (70% of Vsmpirolepis spp. was observed in R. rattus sampled from poultry farms, which was significantly higher (P<0.05 than the prevalence of all the helminths recovered from other structures. Hymenolepis nana (H. nana was observed in 60% of the sampled Mus musculus collected from kachi-abadies, which was significantly higher (P<0.05 than all other structures studies for H. nana, except R. rattus from kachi-abadies (55% and R. norvegicus from grain shops in grain market (55%. The rodent’s endo-parasites viz., Hymenolepis nana, Teania taenaeformis, Entrobius spps and Trichuiris spps observed in R. rattus, R. norvegicus and M. musculus at different percentages were also recorded in human stool samples with an incidence of 48, 21, 76 and 10%, respectively.

  17. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of white-coat hypertension based on different definition criteria in untreated and treated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Sierra, Alejandro; Vinyoles, Ernest; Banegas, José R; Segura, Julián; Gorostidi, Manuel; de la Cruz, Juan J; Ruilope, Luis M

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence and associated risks of white-coat hypertension (WCH) are still a matter of debate. We aimed to assess differences in prevalence and associated conditions of WCH defined on the basis of the normality of all daytime, night-time, and 24-h blood pressure (BP), only daytime, or only 24-h BP. We selected 115 708 patients (45 020 untreated and 70 688 treated) from the Spanish Ambulatory BP Monitoring Registry. WCH was estimated in patients with elevated office BP (≥140 and/or 90 mmHg) by using normal daytime (definition criteria. Only diagnostic criteria which considers the normality of all ambulatory periods identifies patients with cardiovascular risk similar to normotensive patients. These results support using such criteria for a more accurate definition of WCH.

  18. Low prevalence of transmitted K65R and other tenofovir resistance mutations across different HIV-1 subtypes: implications for pre-exposure prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Philip A; Huang, Austin; Kantor, Rami

    2012-10-15

    Tenofovir-containing regimens have demonstrated potential efficacy as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing HIV-1 infection. Transmitted drug resistance mutations associated with tenofovir, specifically the reverse transcriptase (RT) mutation K65R, may impact the effectiveness of PrEP. The worldwide prevalence of transmitted tenofovir resistance in different HIV-1 subtypes is unknown. Sequences from treatment-naïve studies and databases were aggregated and analyzed by Stanford Database tools and as per the International AIDS Society (IAS-USA) resistance criteria. RT sequences were collected from GenBank, the Stanford HIV Sequence Database and the Los Alamos HIV Sequence Database. Sequences underwent rigorous quality control measures. Tenofovir-associated resistance mutations included K65R, K70E, T69-insertion and ≥3 thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs), inclusive of M41L or L210W. A total of 19,823 sequences were evaluated across diverse HIV-1 subtypes (Subtype A: 1549 sequences, B: 9783, C: 3198, D: 483, F: 372, G: 594, H: 41, J: 69, K: 239, CRF01_AE: 1797 and CRF02_AG: 1698). Overall, tenofovir resistance prevalence was 0.4% (n=77/19,823, 95% confidence interval or CI: 0.3 to 0.5). K65R was found in 20 sequences (0.1%, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.15). Differences in the prevalence of K65R between HIV-1 subtypes were not statistically significant. K70E and ≥3 TAMs were found in 0.015% (95% CI: 0.004 to 0.04) and 0.27% (95% CI: 0.2 to 0.4) of sequences, respectively. Prevalence of transmitted K65R and other tenofovir resistance mutations across diverse HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants is low, suggesting minimal effect on tenofovir-containing PrEP regimens.

  19. Effects of rodent community diversity and composition on prevalence of an endemic bacterial pathogen - Bartonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Calisher, C.H.; Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    By studying Bartonella prevalence in rodent communities from 23 geographic sites in the western United States and one site in northern Mexico, the present study focused on the effects of rodent community diversity (measured by richness and Shannon index) and composition on prevalence of Bartonella infections. The analysis showed negative correlations of Bartonella prevalence with rodent richness and Shannon index. Further, Bartonella prevalence varied among rodent genera/species. Three models were applied to explain the observations. (1) Within-species/genus transmission: Bartonella strains usually are host-specific and adding non-host species would decrease Bartonella prevalence in its principal host through reduction of host contact (encounter reduction); (2) Frequency-dependence: Adding hosts would decrease the proportion of all infected individuals in the community, resulting in a reduction in the number of contacts between susceptible and infected individuals that usually leads to transmission (transmission reduction); and (3) Dominant species effect: Dominant species, if not susceptible to Bartonellae, can constrain the abundance of susceptible hosts (susceptible host regulation). These mechanisms work in concert; and the level of Bartonella prevalence is an outcome of regulation of all of these mechanisms on the entire system.

  20. Prevalence, perceived benefits and effectiveness of herbal medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... hospice or palliative care service (Demmer, 2007). In the absence of effective ... most common herbal product used. It was reported that .... Vaginal discharge. 3. 51. 11.16. White spots in the mouth (oral thrush). 4. 51. 11.16. Skin rash. 5. 46. 10.06. Skin itch. 6. 38. 8.2. Respiratory problems. 7. 29. 6.79.

  1. Energy Absorbing EffectivenessDifferent Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotełko Maria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the study of different crashworthiness indicators used to evaluate energy absorbing effectiveness of thin-walled energy absorbers is presented. Several different indicators are used to assess an effectiveness of two types of absorbing structures, namely thin-walled prismatic column with flaws and thin-walled prismatic frustum (hollow or foam filled in both cases subjected to axial compressive impact load. The indicators are calculated for different materials and different geometrical parameters. The problem of selection of the most appropriate and general indicators is discussed.

  2. Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnain, Syed M.; Fatima, K.; Al-Frayh, A.

    2007-01-01

    Amaranthus pollen grains are known to have highly allergenic and potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A.viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samples were operated continuously for one year at each location. The data revealed A.viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%), Jeddah (87%), Qassim (85%), Taif (84%), Dammam (83%) and Jizan (61%). These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. virdis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000 mt. cube of air in October and 1827 mt. cube of air in September. The data also exhibited, a seasonal pattern, in their maximum appearance. Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  3. Absolute pitch among American and Chinese conservatory students: prevalence differences, and evidence for a speech-related critical period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Diana; Henthorn, Trevor; Marvin, Elizabeth; Xu, HongShuai

    2006-02-01

    Absolute pitch is extremely rare in the U.S. and Europe; this rarity has so far been unexplained. This paper reports a substantial difference in the prevalence of absolute pitch in two normal populations, in a large-scale study employing an on-site test, without self-selection from within the target populations. Music conservatory students in the U.S. and China were tested. The Chinese subjects spoke the tone language Mandarin, in which pitch is involved in conveying the meaning of words. The American subjects were nontone language speakers. The earlier the age of onset of musical training, the greater the prevalence of absolute pitch; however, its prevalence was far greater among the Chinese than the U.S. students for each level of age of onset of musical training. The findings suggest that the potential for acquiring absolute pitch may be universal, and may be realized by enabling infants to associate pitches with verbal labels during the critical period for acquisition of features of their native language.

  4. Food advertising to children and its effects on diet: review of recent prevalence and impact data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyland, Emma Jane; Whalen, Rosa

    2015-08-01

    In the context of a global obesity epidemic that has led to an unprecedented burden of non-communicable disease, the role of food and beverage marketing to children has been scrutinised in numerous studies. This article discusses the broader concept of an obesity-promoting food environment, before reviewing key, recent (last 5 yr) international research findings with regard to both the prevalence and effects of food and beverage advertising on children's intake. Evidence relating to the two main avenues of food marketing exposure, television, and the Internet, is explored and consideration is given to the differences in consumer experience of these types of promotion. Despite methodological differences and the varying population samples studied, the outcomes are broadly consistent - food advertising is prevalent, it promotes largely energy dense, nutrient poor foods, and even short-term exposure results in children increasing their food consumption. Policymakers are implored to drive forward meaningful changes in the food environment to support healthier choices and reduce the incidence of obesity and related diseases. This article aims at providing an overview of recent developments in this field. After limiting the search to the last five full years 2009-2014, we searched the following databases: Web of Knowledge and PubMed (keyword search terms used: television, Internet, new media, food advertising, food marketing, children, food intake, energy intake, consumption, and combinations of these terms). In addition we used the references from the articles obtained by this method to check for additional relevant material. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effects of different culture conditions (photoautotrophic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different culture conditions (photoautotrophic, photomixotrophic) and the auxin indole-butyric acid on the in vitro acclimatization of papaya ( Carica papaya L. var. Red Maradol) plants using zeolite as support.

  6. Global evidence on the effect of point-of-sale display bans on smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanyun; Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2018-01-13

    Since Iceland became the first country to impose a ban on point-of-sale (POS) tobacco product displays in 2001, 20 countries have implemented POS display bans as of 2016. This study examined the effect that POS display bans have on smoking prevalence. Data were sourced from Euromonitor International and the WHO MPOWER package for 2007-2014 from 77 countries worldwide. generalised linear models with country and year fixed effects were estimated to analyse the effect of POS display bans on smoking prevalence. Having a POS display ban reduced overall adult daily smoking, male smoking and female smoking by about 7%, 6% and 9%, respectively. Having a POS display ban is likely to reduce smoking prevalence and generate public health benefits. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Regional differences of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes and prediabetes prevalence are not explained by known risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tamayo

    Full Text Available We have previously found regional differences in the prevalence of known type 2 diabetes between northeastern and southern Germany. We aim to also provide prevalence estimates for prediabetes (isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG, isolated glucose intolerance (i-IGT, combined IFG and IGT and unknown type 2 diabetes for both regions.Prevalence (95%CI of prediabetes (i-IFG: fasting glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/l; i-IGT: 2 h postchallenge glucose 7.8-11.0 mmol/l, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, ≥ 8 h overnight fasting and unknown diabetes were analyzed in two regional population-based surveys (age group 35-79 years: SHIP-TREND (Study of Health in Pomerania (northeast, 2008-2012 and KORA F4 (Cooperative Health Research in the region of Augsburg (south, 2006-2008. Both studies used similar methods, questionnaires, and identical protocols for OGTT. Overall, 1,980 participants from SHIP-TREND and 2,617 participants from KORA F4 were included.Age-sex-standardized prevalence estimates (95%CI of prediabetes and unknown diabetes were considerably higher in the northeast (SHIP-TREND: 43.1%; 40.9-45.3% and 7.1%; 5.9-8.2% than in the south of Germany (KORA F4: 30.1%; 28.4-31.7% and 3.9%; 3.2-4.6%, respectively. In particular, i-IFG (26.4%; 24.5-28.3% vs. 17.2%; 15.7-18.6% and IFG+IGT (11.2%; 9.8-12.6% vs. 6.6%; 5.7-7.5% were more frequent in SHIP-TREND than in KORA. In comparison to normal glucose tolerance, the odds of having unknown diabetes (OR, 95%CI: 2.59; 1.84-3.65 or prediabetes (1.98; 1.70-2.31 was higher in the northeast than in the south after adjustment for known risk factors (obesity, lifestyle.The regional differences of prediabetes and unknown diabetes are in line with the geographical pattern of known diabetes in Germany. The higher prevalences in the northeast were not explained by traditional risk factors.

  8. Birth cohort differences in the prevalence of longevity-associated variants in APOE and FOXO3A in Danish long-lived individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Marianne; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Soerensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    a recessive model, this negative trend is significant in 95+ year old individuals homozygous for the APOE ε4 allele (P=0.026) or for the FOXO3A rs7762395 minor allele (P=0.048). For the APOE ε4 allele, the significance is further strengthened when restricting to women (P=0.006). Supportive, but non......-significant, trends are found for two of the three tested variants in individuals older than 100years. Altogether, this indicates that cohort differences in selection pressure on survival to the highest ages are reflected in the prevalence of longevity gene variants. Although the effect seems to be moderate, our...

  9. Evaluation of the Prevalence of Different Treatment Failure Modes after Crown Lengthening Surgical Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Babaloo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preservation of the health of periodontium is very important for the long-term success of restored teeth and a balance should always be created between the patients’ esthetic requirements and the periodontal health. Failures of crown lengthening procedures are classified into early and late failures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of early failures of crown leathering surgical procedures. Materials and methods: In this descriptive/cross-sectional study, 96 patients were selected from those referring to the Department of Periodontitis, Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry, who required crown lengthening procedures. The particulars of these patients were recorded in special forms and the reasons for the failure of surgical procedures were separately determined at 2- and 6-week intervals. In addition, the frequencies of the reasons for failures were determined in percentages and absolute frequencies. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages using SPSS 21. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results: Evaluation of patients 6 weeks after surgery showed a failure rate of 14.5% for crown lengthening procedures in patients referring to the Department of Periodontics, Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry. The most common reasons for such early failures in the 6th week, in descending order, were a lack of sufficient keratinized gingiva around in tooth in question, fracture of the tooth structure after surgery, inadequate surgery (not creating a proper distance between the healthy margin and the crest and the coronal returning of the gingival tissue on the tooth. A lack of sufficient keratinized gingiva around the tooth was the most frequent reason for the early failure of crown lengthening procedure at both study intervals. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the results of the present study that during the 6th postoperative week the crown lengthening procedures exhibited a 14.5% failure rate

  10. Prevalence of diabetes treatment effect modifiers: the external validity of trials to older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Carlos O; Boyd, Cynthia M; Wolff, Jennifer L; Leff, Bruce

    2012-08-01

    Potential treatment effect modifiers (TEMs) are specific diseases or conditions with a well-described mechanism for treatment effect modification. The prevalence of TEMs in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is unknown. Objectives were to 1) determine the prevalence of pre-specified potential TEMs; 2) demonstrate the potential impact of TEMs in the older adult population using a simulated trial; 3) identify TEM combinations associated with number of hospitalizations to test construct validity. Data are from the nationally-representative United States National Health and Examination Survey, 1999-2004: 8646 Civilian, non-institutionalized adults aged 45-64 or 65+ years, including 1443 with DM. TEMs were anemia, congestive heart failure, liver inflammation, polypharmacy, renal insufficiency, cognitive impairment, dizziness, frequent mental distress, mobility difficulty, and visual impairment. A trial was simulated to examine prevalence of potential TEM impact. The cross-sectional association between TEM patterns and number of hospitalizations was estimated to assess construct validity. The prevalence of TEMs was substantial such that 19.0% (95% CI 14.8-23.2) of middle-aged adults and 38.0% (95% CI 33.4-42.5) of older adults had any two. A simulated trial with modest levels of interaction suggested the prevalence of TEMs could nullify treatment benefit in 3.9-27.2% of older adults with DM. Compared to having DM alone, hospitalization rate was increased by several combinations of TEMs with substantial prevalence. We provide national benchmarks that can be used to evaluate TEM prevalence reported by clinical trials of DM, and correspondingly their external validity to older adults.

  11. Prevalence of oral lesions and measurement of salivary pH in the different trimesters of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kanu; Kaur, Harshaminder

    2015-01-01

    Oral changes observed during pregnancy have been studied for many years, but their magnitude and frequency have not been stressed upon. This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of oral lesions during different trimesters of pregnancy and their correlation with salivary pH change. The gingival, simplified oral hygiene, community periodontal and decayed-missing-filled teeth indices were used to assess a total of 120 pregnant women (40 in each trimester group) and 40 nonpregnant women (control group). Salivary pH was measured using a digital pH meter. Presence of any oral lesions was determined via oral examination. Scores for all indices increased while salivary pH decreased from the control group to the first trimester group, through to the third. Oral lesions were seen in 44.2% of pregnant women. Lesions were seen in 27.5%, 52.5% and 52.5% of women in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. The percentage of pregnant women with one oral lesion was highest in the second trimester (47.5%), whereas the third trimester had the highest prevalence (17.5%) of two concurrent oral lesions. The incidence of fissured tongue was highest in the first trimester group, and that of gingival enlargement was highest in the third trimester group. In the second trimester group, there was an almost equal incidence of fissured tongue and gingival/mucosal enlargement. Most changes in oral tissues during pregnancy can be avoided with good oral hygiene. Salivary pH could be used to assess the prevalence of oral lesions in the different trimesters of pregnancy.

  12. Effect of the Epicardial Adipose Tissue Volume on the Prevalence of Paroxysmal and Persistent Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Kageyuki; Maeda, Minetaka; Maimaituxun, Gulinu; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Arasaki, Osamu; Fukuda, Daiju; Yagi, Shusuke; Hirata, Yukina; Nishio, Susumu; Iwase, Takashi; Takao, Shoichiro; Kusunose, Kenya; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Harada, Masafumi; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Sata, Masataka; Shimabukuro, Michio

    2018-05-25

    Although increasing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), it is controversial whether there is a dose-response relationship of increasing EATV along the continuum of AF. We evaluated the effect of the EATV on the prevalence of paroxysmal AF (PAF) and persistent AF (PeAF) and the relationships with cardiac structure and functional remodeling.Methods and Results:Subjects who underwent multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography because of symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease were divided into sinus rhythm (SR) (n=112), PAF (n=133), and PeAF (n=71) groups. The EATV index (EATV/body surface area, mL/m 2 ) was strongly associated with the prevalence of PAF and PeAF on the model adjusted for known AF risk factors. The effect of the EATV index on the prevalence of PeAF, but not on that of PAF, was modified by the left atrial (LA) dimension, suggesting that extension of the LA dimension is related to EATV expansion in PeAF. The cutoff value of the EATV index for the prevalence was higher in PeAF than in PAF (64 vs. 55 mL/m 2 , PEATV index is associated with the prevalence of PAF and PeAF, and its cutoff values are predictive for PAF and PeAF development independently of other AF risk factors.

  13. Prevalence of multidrug-resistant E. coli in different age groups of dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria has become a major public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance in commensal E. coli from different age-groups of animals on dairy farms. Materials: A total of 444 manur...

  14. Taking Stock of Critical Clues to Understanding Sex Differences in the Prevalence and Recurrence of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, John N.

    2017-01-01

    In this issue of "Autism," new evidence for the equivalency of symptom burden and structure among males and females affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD) continues to move the spotlight from a notion that the sex ratio in ASD results from the condition being somehow different between the sexes, to the more likely scenario that males…

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Internet Addiction in Undergraduate Students as Assessed by Two Different Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The current study addressed some of the methodological shortcomings of previous studies on internet addiction. The main purpose of the study was to determine if two different internet addiction assessments would identify the same individuals as addicted to the internet. A total of 224 undergraduate internet users were surveyed using a stratified…

  16. Differences in body composition and physical functions associated with sarcopenia in Chinese elderly: reference values and prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ping; Wu, Sinan; Han, Yiwen; Liu, Jingmin; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Enyi; Zhang, Yan; Gong, Huan; Pang, Jing; Tang, Zhili; Liu, Hongxing; Zheng, Xiuyuan; Zhang, Tiemei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the age-related differences in skeletal muscle mass (SM), muscle strength and physical performance in mainland Chinese. Based on available data, the reference values (criteria) for the definition of sarcopenia in elderly Chinese were explored. Body composition measurements were obtained using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer (BIA); muscle strength was determined by handgrip strength (HS); and physical function was evaluated by the subjects' 6-m gait speed (GS). In this study, HS and GS declined significantly after 55 years and very dramatically after 75 years. Appendicular SM index of elderly males and females, respectively. Utilizing Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria in our population results in a very low prevalence of low SM and low GS. If Western criteria for sarcopenia were adopted, the prevalence of low GS and low HS would be 2-4 times higher in the studied population, also exhibiting significant gender differences. These findings indicate that it is necessary to establish an outcomes-based and ethnic-specific set of reference values for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in elderly Chinese. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Disassortative Age-Mixing Does Not Explain Differences in HIV Prevalence between Young White and Black MSM: Findings from Four Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Alexander Grey

    Full Text Available Age disassortativity is one hypothesis for HIV disparities between Black and White MSM. We examined differences in age mixing by race and the effect of partner age difference on the association between race and HIV status.We used data from four studies of MSM. Participants reported information about recent sexual partners, including age, race, and sexual behavior. Two studies were online with a US sample and two focused on MSM in Atlanta.We computed concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs by race across strata of partner type, participant HIV status, condom use, and number of partners. We used Wilcoxon rank-sum tests to compare Black and White MSM on partner age differences across five age groups. Finally, we used logistic regression models using race, age, and partner age difference to determine the odds ratio of HIV-positive serostatus.Of 48 CCC comparisons, Black MSM were more age-disassortative than White MSM in only two. Furthermore, of 20 comparisons of median partner age, Black and White MSM differed in two age groups. One indicated larger age gaps among the Black MSM (18-19. Prevalent HIV infection was associated with race and age. Including partner age difference in the model resulted in a 2% change in the relative odds of infection among Black MSM.Partner age disassortativity and partner age differences do not differ by race. Partner age difference offers little predictive value in understanding prevalent HIV infection among Black and White MSM, including diagnosis of HIV-positive status among self-reported HIV-negative individuals.

  18. Differences in adolescent e-cigarette and cigarette prevalence in two policy environments: South Korea and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hong-Jun; Dutra, Lauren M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-09-05

    In the context of different regulatory environments, different patterns of e-cigarette use have emerged among adolescents worldwide. One example is the United States and South Korea, the latter of which has maintained much more extensive regulation of e-cigarettes. This analysis compares the prevalence of e-cigarette and conventional cigarette use between 2011 and 2015 from the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey and the U.S. National Youth Tobacco Survey, both nationally representative samples of middle and high school students that use similar questions. E-cigarette prevalence (past 30 day) among Korean adolescents decreased from 4.7% in 2011 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.4-5.0) to 4.0% in 2015; (3.7-4.3) but increased dramatically among U.S. adolescents from 0.9% (0.7-1.2) to 11.2% (9.9-12.7). Cigarette prevalence (past 30 day) decreased in Korea from 12.1% (11.6-12.7) to 7.8% (CI: 7.3-8.3) and in the United States from 11.1% (9.5-12.6) to 6.1% (5.1-7.3). Combined prevalence of cigarette and e-cigarette use (adjusting for dual users) decreased in Korea from 13.2% (12.7-13.8) to 8.5% (8.0-9.1) but increased in the United States from 11.3% (9.7-12.9) to 14.0% (12.4-15.7). In Korea, where e-cigarettes are extensively regulated, adolescent e-cigarette use remained stable at a low level, whereas in the United States, where e-cigarette regulation has been limited, e-cigarette use increased. Combined e-cigarette plus cigarette use declined in Korea whereas it increased in the US. The restrictive policies in Korea likely contributed to lower overall tobacco product use. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The effect of sampling, diagnostic criteria and assessment procedures on the observed prevalence of DSM-III-R personality disorders among treated alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, R; Hartgers, C; Van den Brink, W; Koeter, M W

    1998-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. In a recent review of empirical studies on the prevalence of DSM-III-R personality disorders among substance abusers, wide ranges of prevalence rates for overall Axis II, antisocial personality disorder (APD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) were shown. Utilizing subsamples from within a single study population, the current report explores the effect of sampling, diagnostic criteria and assessment procedures on the observed prevalence of DSM-III-R personality disorders among treated alcoholics. Personality disorders were assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire Revised (PDQR) at two times of measurement (Time 1 n = 459; Time 2 n = 90). In addition, APD was measured with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI; n = 587). Finally, an unselected subgroup (n = 136) was interviewed with the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE). There were few differences between inpatients or outpatients or between males and females. Using the IPDE, the exclusion of substance-related pathology did not affect the prevalence estimate. However, the prevalence rates according to the PDQR varied greatly across age groups. In a representative subsample (n = 109), the prevalence rates also varied greatly across assessment methods (PDQR, 52% vs IPDE, 31%). The prevalence estimate of APD according to the CIDI was related to setting, gender, age group and the applied time-frame. These findings indicate the examined factors to be necessary qualifiers of prevalence estimates and, consequently, support the use of a multiple-criteria/multimethod assessment battery in research as well as in clinical work.

  20. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...

  1. Prevalence of the white-coat effect at multiple visits before and during treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, Willem J.; Kroon, Abraham A.; Thien, Theo; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Smit, Andries J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and persistence of the white-coat effect (WCE) and white-coat hypertension (WCH) on multiple blood pressure measurement occasions in hypertensive patients with and without treatment. Design Essential hypertensive patients in whom we took office blood pressure

  2. Prevalence of the white-coat effect at multiple visits before and during treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, W.J.; Kroon, A.A.; Thien, Th.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Montfrans, G.A. van; Smit, A.J.; Leeuw, P.W. de

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and persistence of the white-coat effect (WCE) and white-coat hypertension (WCH) on multiple blood pressure measurement occasions in hypertensive patients with and without treatment. DESIGN: Essential hypertensive patients in whom we took office blood

  3. Prevalence of the white-coat effect at multiple visits before and during treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, Willem J.; Kroon, Abraham A.; Thien, Theo; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Smit, Andries J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and persistence of the white-coat effect (WCE) and white-coat hypertension (WCH) on multiple blood pressure measurement occasions in hypertensive patients with and without treatment. DESIGN: Essential hypertensive patients in whom we took office blood

  4. Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Use in Teens: Prevalence, Demographics, and Perception of Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa; Callahan, Bryan; Cummins, Kevin M.; Achar, Suraj; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple risks are associated with early use of anabolic androgenic steroids, yet public understanding is limited and teen use not uncommon. The present study surveyed 4,231 high school students to understand prevalence of use, association with athletics and other substance use and expectations of drug effects. While overall rates of steroid use…

  5. Trends in adolescent alcohol use: Effects of age, sex and cohort on prevalence and heritability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geels, L.M.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Willemsen, G.; van der Aa, N.; Boomsma, D.I.; Vink, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To determine the effect of age, sex and cohort on the prevalence and genetic architecture of adolescent alcohol use (AAU). Design Survey study in participants registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Setting Twins from the general population. Participants Two cohorts (data collected in

  6. Using the symptom monitor in a randomized controlled trial: the effect on symptom prevalence and severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Johanna; de Vos, Rien; van Duijn, Nico P.; Schadé, Egbert; Bindels, Patrick J. E.

    2006-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of reporting physical symptoms by using a systematic symptom monitoring instrument, the Symptom Monitor, on symptom prevalence and severity among patients with cancer in the palliative phase. The overall objective was to achieve symptom relief

  7. Basic versus Supplementary Health Insurance : The Role of Cost Effectiveness and Prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2014-01-01

    In a model where patients face budget constraints that make some treatments unaffordable, we ask which treatments should be covered by universal basic insurance and which by private voluntary insurance. We argue that both cost effectiveness and prevalence are important if the government wants to

  8. Relations between effective potentials in different dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Using dimensional regularization, the one-loop approximation for the effective potential (finite temperature) is computed as an analytic function of the number of dimensions. It is shown that a simple relation exists between potentials for different dimensions. This relation reduces to a simple derivative when these numbers differ by two units. The limit of zero temperature is calculated and also the finite temperature corrections are given. (Author) [pt

  9. Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331288 participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaei, Goodarz; Fahimi, Saman; Lu, Yuan; Zhou, Bin; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Lo, Wei-Cheng; Reis-Santos, Barbara; Cowan, Melanie J.; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Bentham, James; Lin, John K.; Bixby, Honor; Magliano, Dianna; Bovet, Pascal; Miranda, J. Jaime; Khang, Young-Ho; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Riley, Leanne M.; Ali, Mohammed K.; Ezzati, Majid; Abdeen, Ziad A.; Kadir, Khalid Abdul; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Al Nsour, Mohannad; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Amouyel, Philippe; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Andrade, Dolores S.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Aris, Tahir; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Arveiler, Dominique; Assah, Felix K.; Avdicova, Maria; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Bandosz, Piotr; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barcelo, Alberto; Batieha, Anwar M.; Baur, Louise A.; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Bi, Yufang; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bjorkelund, Cecilia; Blake, Margaret; Blokstra, Anneke; Bo, Simona; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boissonnet, Carlos P.; Brajkovich, Imperia; Breckenkamp, Juergen; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Brian, Garry R.; Bruno, Graziella; Bugge, Anna; de Leon, Antonio Cabrera; Can, Gunay; Candido, Ana Paula C.; Capuano, Vincenzo; Carvalho, Maria J.; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Caserta, Carmelo A.; Castetbon, Katia; Chamukuttan, Snehalatha; Chaturvedi, Nishi; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Fangfang; Chen, Shuohua; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chetrit, Angela; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Cho, Yumi; Chudek, Jerzy; Cifkova, Renata; Claessens, Frank; Concin, Hans; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Rachel; Costanzo, Simona; Cottel, Dominique; Cowell, Chris; Crujeiras, Ana B.; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Dallongeville, Jean; Dankner, Rachel; Dauchet, Luc; de Gaetano, Giovanni; de Henauw, Stefaan; Deepa, Mohan; Dehghan, Abbas; Dhana, Klodian; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.; Djalalinia, Shirin; Doua, Kouamelan; Drygas, Wojciech; Du, Yong; Egbagbe, Eruke E.; Eggertsen, Robert; El Ati, Jalila; Elosua, Roberto; Erasmus, Rajiv T.; Erem, Cihangir; Ergor, Gul; Eriksen, Louise; la Penaa, Jorge Escobedo-De; Fall, Caroline H.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.; Ferguson, Trevor S.; Fernandez-Berges, Daniel; Ferrari, Marika; Ferreccio, Catterina; Finn, Joseph D.; Foger, Bernhard; Foo, Leng Huat; Fouad, Heba M.; Francis, Damian K.; Franco, Maria do Carmo; Franco, Oscar H.; Frontera, Guillermo; Furusawa, Takuro; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Garnett, Sarah P.; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Gasull, Magda; Gates, Louise; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Ghasemain, Anoosheh; Giampaoli, Simona; Gianfagna, Francesco; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Gross, Marcela Gonzalez; Rivas, Juan P. Gonzalez; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Gottrand, Frederic; Grant, Janet F.; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Grontved, Anders; Gruden, Grabriella; Gu, Dongfeng; Guan, Ong Peng; Guerrero, Ramiro; Guessous, Idris; Guimaraes, Andre L.; Gutierrez, Laura; Hardy, Rebecca; Kumar, Rachakulla Hari; He, Jiang; Heidemann, Christin; Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani; Ho, Sai Yin; Ho, Suzanne C.; Hofman, Albert; Russo, Andrea R. V.; Hormiga, Claudia M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Houti, Leila; Hussieni, Abdullatif S.; Huybrechts, Inge; Hwalla, Nahla; Iacoviello, Licia; Iannone, Anna G.; Ibrahim, Mohsen M.; Ikeda, Nayu; Ikram, M. Arfan; Irazola, Vilma E.; Islam, Muhammad; Iwasaki, Masanori; Jacobs, Jeremy M.; Jafar, Tazeen; Jasienska, Grazyna; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Jonas, Jost B.; Joshi, Pradeep; Kafatos, Anthony; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Kasaeian, Amir; Katz, Joanne; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Kavousi, Maryam; Kelishadi, Roya; Kengne, Andre P.; Kersting, Mathilde; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Kiechl, Stefan; Kim, Jeongseon; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Kolsteren, Patrick; Korrovits, Paul; Koskinen, Seppo; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Kromhout, Daan; Kula, Krzysztof; Kurjata, Pawel; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Lachat, Carl; Laid, Youcef; Lam, Tai Hing; Landrove, Orlando; Lanska, Vera; Lappas, Georg; Laxmaiah, Avula; Leclercq, Catherine; Lee, Jeannette; Lee, Jeonghee; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lekhraj, Rampal; Leon-Munoz, Luz M.; Li, Yanping; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lima-Costa, M. Fernanda; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lin, Xu; Lissner, Lauren; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lozano, Jose Eugenio; Lundqvist, Annamari; Lytsy, Per; Ma, Guansheng; Machado-Coelho, George L. L.; Machi, Suka; Maggi, Stefania; Makdisse, Marcia; Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna; Manios, Yannis; Manzato, Enzo; Margozzini, Paula; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Martorell, Reynaldo; Masoodi, Shariq R.; Matsha, Tandi E.; Mbanya, Jean Claude N.; McFarlane, Shelly R.; McGarvey, Stephen T.; McLachlan, Stela; McNulty, Breige A.; Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Merat, Shahin; Meshram, Indrapal I.; Mi, Jie; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Mohamed, Mostafa K.; Mohammad, Kazem; Mohan, Viswanathan; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd; Moller, Niels C.; Molnar, Denes; Mondo, Charles K.; Moreno, Luis A.; Morgan, Karen; Moschonis, George; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Mostafa, Aya; Mota, Jorge; Muiesan, Maria L.; Muller-Nurasyid, Martina; Mursu, Jaakko; Nagel, Gabriele; Namesna, Jana; Nang, Ei Ei K.; Nangia, Vinay B.; Navarrete-Munoz, Eva Maria; Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba; Nervi, Flavio; Nguyen, Nguyen D.; Nieto-Martinez, Ramfi S. E.; Ning, Guang; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Noale, Marianna; Noto, Davide; Ochoa-Aviles, Angelica M.; Oh, Kyungwon; Onat, Altan; Osmond, Clive; Otero, Johanna A.; Palmieri, Luigi; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Panza, Francesco; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Peixoto, Sergio Viana; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Peters, Annette; Peykari, Niloofar; Pilav, Aida; Pitakaka, Freda; Piwonska, Aleksandra; Piwonski, Jerzy; Plans-Rubio, Pedro; Porta, Miquel; Portegies, Marileen L. P.; Poustchi, Hossein; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Price, Jacqueline F.; Punab, Margus; Qasrawi, Radwan F.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Raitakari, Olli; Rao, Sudha Ramachandra; Ramachandran, Ambady; Ramos, Rafel; Rampal, Sanjay; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Redon, Josep; Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.; Rigo, Fernando; Robinson, Sian M.; Robitaille, Cynthia; Rodriguez, Laura A.; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Rodriguez-Perez, Maria del Cristo; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Romaguera, Dora; Rosengren, Annika; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Rui, Ornelas; Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca Sandra; Rutkowski, Marcin; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Saidi, Olfa; Sakarya, Sibel; Salanave, Benoit; Salonen, Jukka T.; Salvetti, Massimo; Sanchez-Abanto, Jose; Nunes, Renata; Santos, Rute; Sardinha, Luis B.; Scazufca, Marcia; Schargrodsky, Herman; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Youchan; Shiri, Rahman; Siantar, Rosalynn; Sibai, Abla M.; Simon, Mary; Simons, Judith; Simons, Leon A.; Sjostrom, Michael; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw; Smeeth, Liam; Snijder, Marieke B.; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Sonestedt, Emily; Soumare, Aicha; Staessen, Jan A.; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Stehle, Peter; Stein, Aryeh D.; Stessman, Jochanan; Stockl, Doris; Stokwiszewski, Jakub; Strufaldi, Maria Wany; Sun, Chien-An; Sundstrom, Johan; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Sy, Rody G.; Tai, E. Shyong; Tarawneh, Mohammed; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Topbas, Murat; Torrent, Maties; Traissac, Pierre; Trinh, Oanh T. H.; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Turley, Maria L.; Tzourio, Christophe; Ueda, Peter; Ukoli, Flora M.; Ulmer, Hanno; Valdivia, Gonzalo; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vega, Tomas; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Veronesi, Giovanni; Verschuren, Monique; Vioque, Jesus; Virtanen, Jyrki; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Vollenweider, Peter; Voutilainen, Sari; Wade, Alisha N.; Wagner, Aline; Walton, Janette; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan; Wang, Ming-Dong; Wang, Ya Xing; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Weerasekera, Deepa; Whincup, Peter H.; Widhalm, Kurt; Wiecek, Andrzej; Wilks, Rainford J.; Willeit, Johann; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Wong, Tien Yin; Woo, Jean; Woodward, Mark; Wu, Aleksander Giwercman; Wu, Frederick C.; Wu, Shou Ling; Xu, Haiquan; Yang, Xiaoguang; Ye, Xingwang; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Younger-Coleman, Novie O.; Zambon, Sabina; Zargar, Abdul Hamid; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Zhao, Wenhua; Zheng, Yingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA(1c). We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and

  10. Risk Profiles for Barrett's Esophagus Differ between New and Prevalent, and Long- and Short-Segment Cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi C Tan

    Full Text Available Previous studies on Barrett's esophagus (BE risk factors have had differing case definitions and control groups. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in risk factors between newly diagnosed vs. prevalent BE, long- vs. short-segment BE, and endoscopy-only BE without specialized intestinal metaplasia (SIM.We conducted a cross-sectional study among eligible patients scheduled for elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD and patients eligible for screening colonoscopy, recruited from primary care clinics at a Veterans Affairs center. All participants completed a survey on demographics, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD symptoms and medication use prior to undergoing study EGD. We compared BE cases separately to two control groups: 503 primary care controls and 1353 endoscopy controls. Associations between risk factors and differing BE case definitions were evaluated with multivariate logistic regression models.For comparisons with primary care controls, early onset frequent GERD symptoms were more strongly associated with risk of long-segment BE (OR 19.9; 95% CI 7.96-49.7 than short-segment BE (OR 8.54; 95% CI 3.85-18.9. Likewise, the inverse association with H. pylori infection was stronger for long-segment BE (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.26-0.79 than short-segment BE (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.48-1.05. GERD symptoms and H. pylori infection was also more strongly associated with prevalent BE than newly diagnosed BE. Few differences were observed between BE cases and endoscopy controls. Endoscopy-only BE was associated with GERD symptoms (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.32-3.85 and PPI/H2RA use (OR 4.44; 95% CI 2.61-7.54 but to a smaller degree than BE with SIM.We found differences in the strength and profiles of risk factors for BE. The findings support that epidemiological studies of BE should make a distinction between long and short, new and prevalent, endoscopy-only and BE with SIM as well as type of controls.

  11. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among captive Asian Elephants Elephas maximus: effect of season, host demography, and management systems in Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vanitha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of wild animals in captivity is fraught with numerous challenges, including the control of disease. This study evaluates the effect of season, host demography (age-sex, and differing management systems on the prevalence of intestinal parasites among elephants managed in three captive systems: temple, private, and forest department, in Tamil Nadu. In addition, the study also assessed the availability of veterinary care for elephants in these systems. The parasitic prevalence was evaluated by direct microscopic identification of helminth eggs in faecal samples (n = 115 collected from different age/sex classes of elephants. Of the 115 elephants examined, 37% showed positive results, being infected only with Strongyles sp. The prevalence rate varied significantly across seasons, with the highest rate during summer (49% followed by monsoon (41% and the lowest rate during winter (15%. While males had a significantly lower parasite prevalence compared to females (29% vs. 40%, age classes showed no significant difference. Despite the fact that the proportion of animals receiving veterinary care was higher under the forest department system (100% compared to the private system (26%, parasite prevalence was significantly higher under the former (48% than the latter (31% system. The difference in the proportion of animals with parasitic prevalence among the three systems could be due to differing management practices (i.e. in solitary versus groups and the details are discussed.

  12. Effect of a Brazilian regional basic diet on the prevalence of caries in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, J.T.; Couto, G.B.L.; Vasconcelos, M.M.V.B.; Melo, M.M.D.C.; Guedes, R.C.A.; Cordeiro, M.A.C.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a regional basic diet (RBD) on the prevalence of caries in the molar teeth of rats of both sexes aged 23 days. The animals were divided into six groups of 10 rats each receiving the following diets for 30 and 60 days after weaning: RBD, a cariogenic diet, and a commercial diet. The prevalence and penetration of caries in the molar teeth of the rats was then analyzed. The RBD produced caries in 37.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 day...

  13. Differences in Ichthyophonus prevalence and infection severity between upper Yukon River and Tanana River chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R; Hershberger, P

    2006-08-01

    Two genetically distinct populations of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), were simultaneously sampled at the confluence of the Yukon and Tanana rivers in 2003. Upper Yukon-Canadian fish had significantly higher infection prevalence as well as more severe infections (higher parasite density in heart tissue) than the lower Yukon-Tanana River fish. Both populations had migrated the same distance from the mouth of the Yukon River at the time of sampling but had significantly different distances remaining to swim before reaching their respective spawning grounds. Multiple working hypotheses are proposed to explain the differences between the two stocks: (1) the two genetically distinct populations have different inherent resistance to infection, (2) genetically influenced differences in feeding behaviour resulted in temporal and/or spatial differences in exposure, (3) physiological differences resulting from different degrees of sexual maturity influenced the course of disease, and (4) the most severely infected Tanana River fish either died en route or fatigued and were unable to complete their migration to the Tanana River, thus leaving a population of apparently healthier fish.

  14. Prevalence and extent of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental enamel defects in Lithuanian teenage populations with different fluoride exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machiulskiene, Vita; Bælum, Vibeke; Fejerskov, Ole

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental defects of non-fluoride origin in Lithuanian children born and raised in regions with 1.1 ppm (1.1 mg/l F) and 0.3 ppm (0.3 mg/l F) water fluoride levels, respectively. All permanent surfaces/t...... difference, 3.43). The results lend support to the hypothesis that the presence of fluoride in the oral environment promotes lesion arrest rather than inhibiting the initiation of new lesions......./teeth of 300 teenagers were examined for dental caries, dental fluorosis, and non-fluoride developmental defects. The caries prevalence of the study population was 100%. The mean number of decayed surfaces (DS) differed only slightly and statistically insignificantly between the '1.1 ppm fluoride' and '0.3 ppm...

  15. Gender differences in metabolic risk factor prevalence in a South African student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carine; Essop, M Faadiel

    2009-01-01

    We determined selected risk factors for the metabolic syndrome and assessed the metabolic risk status (using IDF criteria) of third-year physiology students at Stellenbosch University (88 males and 178 females). Outcome measures included anthropometry [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio], blood pressure (BP), resting pulse rate, and fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In addition, students completed a lifestyle questionnaire. A number of gender-based differences were found, with male students displaying a greater incidence of risk factors for the metabolic syndrome: 6% of males versus 3% of females displayed a cluster of three risk factors. Twenty-five per cent of female students (but only 14% of males) exhibited waist circumferences above the accepted range, which was positively correlated, for males and females, with both systolic and diastolic BP, and in females only, also with total cholesterol levels. Male students on average exercised more than their female counterparts, but also exhibited poorer eating habits. Average blood triglyceride levels for both male and female students exceeded the accepted threshold (1.85 +/- 1.62 mmol/l and 2.15 +/- 1.79 mmol/l, respectively). We concluded that metabolic risk factors were evident in a much younger population than commonly expected. Moreover, the gender-specific differences observed may impact on future risk assessment and preventative measures adopted.

  16. Effects of education of the head of the household on the prevalence of malnutrition in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mouzan, Mohammad I; Al-Salloum, Abdullah A; Al-Herbish, Abdullah S; Qurachi, Mansour M; Al-Omar, Ahmad A

    2010-03-01

    To explore the effect of the educational level of the head of household on the prevalence of malnutrition in Saudi children. The study was conducted over 2 years in 2004 and 2005 in all regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The design consisted of a stratified multistage probability random sampling of the population of the KSA. The educational level of the heads of the household, and measurements of weight and height of the children were obtained during house visits. Nutritional indicators in the form of weight for age, height for age, and weight for height for children below 5 years of age were determined, and the prevalence of each indicator below -2 standard deviations (SD) was calculated for each level of education. The sample size was 7390 in the weight for age, 7275 height for age, and 7335 for weight for height. The prevalence of underweight (weight for age below -2 SD) increased from 7.4% for the university level to 15.2% in the children of illiterate heads of household. Similar patterns were found for the prevalence of stunting (height for age below -2 SD) and wasting (weight for height below -2 SD). This study demonstrates that the higher the education level of the heads of the household, the lower the prevalence of malnutrition in their children, suggesting that completing at least 9-12 years of education (intermediate and secondary school) is needed for better improvement in the nutritional status of the children.

  17. Prevalence of Children's Mental Health Problems and the Effectiveness of Population-Level Family Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Noriko; Yanagawa, Toshihiko; Fujiwara, Takeo; Morawska, Alina

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents is of growing importance. Intervening in children's mental health early in life has been shown to be more effective than trying to resolve these problems when children are older. With respect to prevention activities in community settings, the prevalence of problems should be estimated, and the required level of services should be delivered. The prevalence of children's mental health disorders has been reported for many countries. Preventive intervention has emphasized optimizing the environment. Because parents are the primary influence on their children's development, considerable attention has been placed on the development of parent training to strengthen parenting skills. However, a public-health approach is necessary to confirm that the benefits of parent-training interventions lead to an impact at the societal level. This literature review clarifies that the prevalence of mental health problems is measured at the national level in many countries and that population-level parenting interventions can lower the prevalence of mental health problems among children in the community.

  18. Reductive Effect of Fly Screens on the Campylobacter Prevalence of Broiler Flocks in Summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, B.; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, H. S.

    Flies act as vectors in the introduction of Campylobacter from the environment to broiler flocks. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the effect of fly screens on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. Cases were 52 broiler flocks reared in 20 houses on 11 farms between June...... and November 2006, where houses were equipped with fly screens made of glass fibre mesh. The controls consisted of 70 broiler flocks reared in 25 matched houses on 13 farms without screens. Other bio-security and management routines were strictly as before the study. All broiler houses were ventilated through...... wall inlets and roof outlets. The broiler flocks were sampled at days 21, 28, and 35 and at slaughter (on day 35 to 42). Samples were tested for Campylobacter by PCR. Campylobacter prevalence data were analyzed using SAS (SAS Institute). In fly screened houses, the Campylobacter prevalence was 15.4% (8...

  19. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect......This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...

  20. Variation in immune parameters and disease prevalence among Lesser Black-backed Gulls (Larus fuscus sp. with different migratory strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Arriero

    Full Text Available The ability to control infections is a key trait for migrants that must be balanced against other costly features of the migratory life. In this study we explored the links between migration and disease ecology by examining natural variation in parasite exposure and immunity in several populations of Lesser Black-backed Gulls (Larus fuscus with different migratory strategies. We found higher activity of natural antibodies in long distance migrants from the nominate subspecies L.f.fuscus. Circulating levels of IgY showed large variation at the population level, while immune parameters associated with antimicrobial activity showed extensive variation at the individual level irrespective of population or migratory strategy. Pathogen prevalence showed large geographical variation. However, the seroprevalence of one of the gull-specific subtypes of avian influenza (H16 was associated to the migratory strategy, with lower prevalence among the long-distance migrants, suggesting that migration may play a role in disease dynamics of certain pathogens at the population level.

  1. Differences in injury pattern and prevalence of cartilage lesions in knee and ankle joints: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Aurich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is more common in the knee compared to the ankle joint. This can not be explained exclusively by anatomical and biomechanical differences. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare the injury pattern (clinically and the cartilage lesions (arthroscopically of knee and ankle joints in a cohort of patients from the same catchment area. A retrospective study of the clinical data of 3122 patients (2139 outpatients and 983 inpatients was performed, who were treated due to an injury of the knee and ankle joint. Statistical analysis was performed using SigmaStat 3.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA. There is a higher prevalence of injuries in the ankle as compared to the knee joint in this population from the same catchment area. In contrast, high-grade cartilage lesions are more prevalent in the knee, whereas low grade cartilage lesions are equally distributed between knee and ankle. From this data it can be concluded that the frequency of injuries and the injury pattern of knee versus ankle joints do not correlate with the severity of cartilage lesions and may therefore have no direct influence on the differential incidence of OA in those two joints.

  2. Prevalent fatty acids in cashew nuts obtained from conventional and organic cultivation in different stages of processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Josino Soares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the three largest producers of fruits in the world, and among those fruit trees, the cashew tree stands out due to the high nutritional and commercial value of its products. During its fruit processing, there are losses in some compounds and few studies address this issue. Over the last decade the conventional system of food production has been substituted for the organic cultivation system, which is a promising alternative source of income given the global demand for healthy food. Therefore, this research aimed to characterize and quantify the prevalent fatty acids found in cashew nuts obtained from conventional and organic cultivation during various stages of processing. The prevalent fatty acids found were palmitic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic acid. The average of these fatty acids were 6.93 ± 0.55; 16.99 ± 0.61; 67.62 ± 1.00 and 8.42 ± 0.55 g/100 g, respectively. There was no reduction in the palmitic, oleic and stearic fatty acid contents during processing. Very little difference was observed between the nuts obtained from conventional and organic cultivation, indicating that the method of cultivation used has little or no influence on the content of cashew nut fatty acids.

  3. Analysis of morbidity and prevalence of bronchial asthma among children from different age groups and regions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antypkin Yu.G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — to present retrospective study of the morbidity and prevalence of bronchial asthma among children from different age groups and regions according to Ukrainian Ministry of Health official government statistics from 2005 to 2014. Patients and methods. Retrospective study of the morbidity and prevalence of bronchial asthma among children in Ukraine from 2005 to 2014. Results. It was established that from 2012 to 2014 there was a tendency towards a decrease of bronchial asthma indicators — rate of sickness 11.9% and 11.4%, maximum reduction of the indicators was observed in the age group of 0–6 years 19.6% and 17% accordingly. The highest rate of bronchial asthma was registered in the age group 7–14 years (0.7–0.64 per 1000 children population, 15–17 years (9.22–8.66 per 1000 children population. Conclusions. Statistical analysis indicates a problem of hypo;diagnostics of bronchial asthma among children from Ukraine.

  4. Influence of auditory and audiovisual stimuli on the right-left prevalence effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L; Minakata, Katsumi; Ngo, Mary Kim

    2014-01-01

    occurs when the two-dimensional stimuli are audiovisual, as well as whether there will be cross-modal facilitation of response selection for the horizontal and vertical dimensions. We also examined whether there is an additional benefit of adding a pitch dimension to the auditory stimulus to facilitate...... vertical coding through use of the spatial-musical association of response codes (SMARC) effect, where pitch is coded in terms of height in space. In Experiment 1, we found a larger right-left prevalence effect for unimodal auditory than visual stimuli. Neutral, non-pitch coded, audiovisual stimuli did...... not result in cross-modal facilitation, but did show evidence of visual dominance. The right-left prevalence effect was eliminated in the presence of SMARC audiovisual stimuli, but the effect influenced horizontal rather than vertical coding. Experiment 2 showed that the influence of the pitch dimension...

  5. Is the Prevalence of Gallbladder Polyp Different between Vegetarians and General Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hee Bum; Lee, Jun Kyu; Choi, Min Young; Han, In Woong; Choi, Han Seok; Kang, Hyoun Woo; Kim, Jae Hak; Lim, Yun Jeong; Koh, Moon Soo; Lee, Jin Ho

    2015-11-01

    Gallbladder polyps (GBP) are a common clinical finding that can express malignant potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether vegetarianism protects against GBP, together with other putative risk factors. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted with subjects who received a health check-up from July 2005 to December 2011. Korean Buddhist priests, who are obligatory vegetarians by religious belief, were identified as vegetarians (vegetarian group) and compared with a non-vegetarian control group sampled from those coming for health check-ups at the same institution. Out of 18,483 subjects, GBP were found in 810 (4.4%). Al though GBP tended to be less common in the vegetarian group (23 [3.5%] out of 666) than in control group (787 [4.4%] out of 17,817), the difference was insignificant statistically (p=0.233). By logistic regression, old age (OR=1.61, 95% CI=1.1 9-2.26 for 30-39 years; OR=1.47, 95% CI=1.08-1.98 for 40-49 years), male gender (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.31-1.75), high BMI (OR=1.18, 95% CI=1.00-1.39 for ≥ 23.0 kg/m(2) and vegetarianism.

  6. Effects of emotion on different phoneme classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul Min; Yildirim, Serdar; Bulut, Murtaza; Busso, Carlos; Kazemzadeh, Abe; Lee, Sungbok; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2004-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of emotion on different phoneme classes using short-term spectral features. In the research on emotion in speech, most studies have focused on prosodic features of speech. In this study, based on the hypothesis that different emotions have varying effects on the properties of the different speech sounds, we investigate the usefulness of phoneme-class level acoustic modeling for automatic emotion classification. Hidden Markov models (HMM) based on short-term spectral features for five broad phonetic classes are used for this purpose using data obtained from recordings of two actresses. Each speaker produces 211 sentences with four different emotions (neutral, sad, angry, happy). Using the speech material we trained and compared the performances of two sets of HMM classifiers: a generic set of ``emotional speech'' HMMs (one for each emotion) and a set of broad phonetic-class based HMMs (vowel, glide, nasal, stop, fricative) for each emotion type considered. Comparison of classification results indicates that different phoneme classes were affected differently by emotional change and that the vowel sounds are the most important indicator of emotions in speech. Detailed results and their implications on the underlying speech articulation will be discussed.

  7. Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis: prevalence of different forms of instability and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggemann, Pascal; Kuchta, Johannes; Beyer, Hans-Konrad; Grosskurth, D; Schulze, Thorsten; Delank, Karl-Stefan

    2011-10-15

    Imaging study with an evaluation of incidences and clinical correlation. To evaluate the incidence of 3 different types of instabilities in patients with spondylolysis or isthmic spondylolisthesis. Clinical findings are correlated with imaging findings, and the imaging findings are analyzed with regard to their clinical implications. Spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis are common disorders. An unstable slip is the most well-known form of instability, but other forms also exist. However, the incidence of these instabilities and their clinical implications are yet unclear. A total of 140 patients with 141 levels of spondylolysis identified by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) were included in this study. Using positional MRI, the instability of the slip, an increased angular movement, and movement in the spondylolytic cleft were assessed. On the basis of clinical findings, the patients were classified as presenting with either radicular or nonradicular symptoms. The incidence of the instabilities was recorded and correlated with the incidence of radicular symptoms. Fifteen patients had an unstable slip (anterior instability); 35, an increased angular movement (angular instability); and 34 patients, a movement in the spondylolytic cleft (posterior instability). All forms of instability could be found together. No instability at all was found in 76 patients. Radicular symptoms were found significantly more often in patients with one or more of the described instabilities compared with patients without instability. All 3 described forms of instability are common in spondylolysis or isthmic spondylolisthesis and associated with radicular pain. This finding stresses the value of positional MRI in the evaluation of patients with spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis, especially if radicular symptoms are present.

  8. Cerebral microbleeds: different prevalence, topography, and risk factors depending on dementia diagnosis—the Karolinska Imaging Dementia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, S; Martola, J; Granberg, T; Li, X; Shams, M; Fereshtehnejad, S M; Cavallin, L; Aspelin, P; Kristoffersen-Wiberg, M; Wahlund, L O

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral microbleeds are thought to represent cerebral amyloid angiopathy when in lobar regions of the brain and hypertensive arteriopathy when in deep and infratentorial locations. By studying cerebral microbleeds, their topography, and risk factors, we aimed to gain an insight into the vascular and amyloid pathology of dementia diagnoses and increase the understanding of cerebral microbleeds in dementia. We analyzed 1504 patients (53% women; mean age, 63 ± 10 years; 10 different dementia diagnoses) in this study. All patients underwent MR imaging as part of the dementia investigation, and all their clinical parameters were recorded. Among the 1504 patients with dementia, 22% had cerebral microbleeds. Cerebral microbleed topography was predominantly lobar (P = .01) and occipital (P = .007) in Alzheimer disease. Patients with cerebral microbleeds were significantly older (P < .001), were more frequently male (P < .001), had lower cognitive scores (P = .006), and more often had hypertension (P < .001). Risk factors for cerebral microbleeds varied depending on the dementia diagnosis. Odds ratios for having cerebral microbleeds increased with the number of risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, male sex, and age 65 and older) in the whole patient group and increased differently in the separate dementia diagnoses. Prevalence, topography, and risk factors of cerebral microbleeds vary depending on the dementia diagnosis and reflect the inherent pathology of different dementia diagnoses. Because cerebral microbleeds are seen as possible predictors of intracerebral hemorrhage, their increasing prevalence with an increasing number of risk factors, as shown in our study, may require taking the number of risk factors into account when deciding on anticoagulant therapy in dementia. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  9. Chimera states: Effects of different coupling topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Bidesh K.; Majhi, Soumen; Ghosh, Dibakar; Perc, Matjaž

    2017-04-01

    Collective behavior among coupled dynamical units can emerge in various forms as a result of different coupling topologies as well as different types of coupling functions. Chimera states have recently received ample attention as a fascinating manifestation of collective behavior, in particular describing a symmetry breaking spatiotemporal pattern where synchronized and desynchronized states coexist in a network of coupled oscillators. In this perspective, we review the emergence of different chimera states, focusing on the effects of different coupling topologies that describe the interaction network connecting the oscillators. We cover chimera states that emerge in local, nonlocal and global coupling topologies, as well as in modular, temporal and multilayer networks. We also provide an outline of challenges and directions for future research.

  10. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ghisleni

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women. Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  11. Effect of the Healthy Schools Program on Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in California Schools, 2006–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterman, Carolyn; Crawford, Pat; Stevelos, JoAnn; Archibald, Abbie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Alliance for a Healthier Generation’s Healthy Schools Program (HSP) is a national evidence-based obesity-prevention initiative aimed at providing the schools in greatest need with onsite training and technical assistance (TTA) and consultation with national experts (HSP national advisors) to create sustainable healthy change in schools’ nutrition and physical activity environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HSP on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in California schools, from HSP’s inception in 2006 through 2012. Methods We used statewide body mass index (BMI) data collected annually from 5th-, 7th-, and 9th-grade students to determine whether enrolling in the HSP’s onsite intervention reduced the prevalence of overweight and obesity in intervention schools (n = 281) versus propensity-score matched control schools (n = 709) and whether increasing exposure to the program (TTA and contact with HSP national advisors) was associated with reductions in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Results Analyses showed no difference between HSP schools and control schools in overweight or obesity prevalence. However, program exposure varied widely among participating schools, and each additional contact with TTA or HSP national advisors was associated with a 0.3% decline in overweight and obesity prevalence (P schools in reducing obesity. Although participation in HSP alone was not sufficient to improve weight status in California schools, there was a clear dose–response relationship to the program. HSP serves as an effective model for addressing childhood obesity among engaged schools. PMID:25996984

  12. Prevalence of khat chewing and its effect on academic performance in Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Andargachew; Loha, Eskindir; Esaiyas, Atkilt

    2017-03-01

    Khat use is a well-established public health problem in Yemen, Arabian Peninsula, and Ethiopia. Along with its large scale production, the magnitude of khat use is increasing among students. This study was intended to assess the prevalence, determinants, and effect of khat use on academic performance of high school students in Sidama Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2015. We used a stratified sampling technique to draw a total of 1,577 students. The data was collected using self-administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to determine the prevalence, effects, and predictors of khat use. The life time and current prevalence of khat use were 14.6% and 13%, respectively. Smoking cigarette (AOR=5.1, 95% C.I: 2.3-14.3), drinking alcohol (AOR=3.0, 95% C.I: 1.4-6.3), having a family growing khat (AOR=2.0, 95% C.I: 1.1-2.5), having friend chewing khat (AOR=3. 95% C.I: 2.0-4.6), were some of factors that increased the odds of students' khat use. Student's khat use increased the odds of student's poor academic performance (AOR=2.1, 95% C.I: 1.1-3.9). The prevalence of khat use in high khat producing districts of Sidama and its contribution to poor academic performance demand prompt intervention.

  13. Enamel hypoplasia in deciduous teeth of great apes: do differences in defect prevalence imply differential levels of physiological stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, J R

    1999-11-01

    This paper presents new data on enamel hypoplasia in the deciduous canine teeth of great apes. The enamel defect under consideration is known as localized hypoplasia of primary canines (LHPC), and is characterized by an area of thin or missing enamel on the labial surface of deciduous canine teeth (Skinner [1986a] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 69:59-69). Goals of this study are: 1) to determine if significant differences in the frequency of LHPC occur among three genera of great apes, and 2) to evaluate variation in LHPC prevalence among great apes as evidence of differential physiological stress. Infant and juvenile apes with deciduous teeth were examined at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History (n = 100) and at the Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History (n = 36). Deciduous teeth were observed under oblique incandescent light, with the naked eye and with a 10x hand lens. Enamel hypoplasia was scored using Federation Dentaire International (FDI)-Defects of Dental Enamel (DDE) standards. Hypoplasias were recorded by drawing defect location and size on a dental chart, and by measuring defect size and location with Helios needlepoint dial calipers. The prevalence of LHPC is reported by genus and sex, using two approaches: 1) the frequency of affected individuals-those having one or more deciduous canine teeth scored positive for LHPC; and 2) the number of canine teeth scored positive for LHPC as a percentage of all canine teeth observed. Variation in defect size and location will be described elsewhere. Localized hypoplasia of primary canine teeth was found in 62.5% of 128 individual apes, and in 45.5% of 398 great ape deciduous canines. As in humans, LHPC is the most common form of enamel hypoplasia in deciduous teeth of great apes, while LEH is rare or absent. The distribution and pattern of expression of LHPC in great apes is similar to that described in humans: side differences are not significant, but mandibular canines exhibit the defect two to

  14. Prevalence of rotavirus, adenovirus, hepatitis A virus and enterovirus in water samples collected from different region of Peshawar, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tahir; Arshad, Najma; Adnan, Fazal; Sadaf Zaidi, Najam-Us-Sahar; Shahid, Muhammad Talha; Zahoor, Usman; Afzal, Muhammad S; Anjum, Sadia

    2016-12-23

    Viral gastroenteritis and other water-borne diseases are the most neglected areas of research in Pakistan. To determine the quality of water, 4 enteric viruses were studied from different localities of Peshawar, Pakistan. The study validates the viral detection method for Rotavirus (RV), Human adenovirus (HAdV), Enterovirus (EV) and Hepatitis A virus (HAV), directly from water sources of rural areas of Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan. Overall, 95 five water samples were tested; among them, 9.47% were positive for RV, 38.94% for HAdV, 48.42% for EV and 12.63% for HAV. The presence of these viruses in water was directly correlated with meteorological data. High prevalence of EV and HAdV was detected frequently in the wet season from May - September, which can be the potential cause of spreading of gastroenteritis in the population. Environmental surveillance is an additional tool to evaluate the epidemiology of enteric viruses circulating in a given community.

  15. Prevalence of Adverse Effects Post-Brachytherapy on Women with Uterine Cervix Cancer in Durango, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, Higmar; Yanez, Elvia; Deras, Diana C.; Reyes, Francianella

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed at determining the local prevalence of adverse effects on women with CaCu that recieved LDR brachytherapy treatment at CECAN. The data was extracted from the patient's and medical physics' departement records. Non Gaussian statistics was used due to dose distribution characteristics. A total of 103 patients were studied with average age of 55±13 years and Ia-IV FIGO clinical clasification. The observed prevalence is higher than that reported by other studies. It was observed that patients with proctitis were prescribed a slightly higher dose than those without adverse effects (90% confidence). Patients with proctitis also presented higher age (95% confidence) when compared with the mean of the studied population. The inverse applies to the group with other adverse effects, its average age is lower than the mean (90% confidence).

  16. Radioactive fallout has different effects in Lapland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissanen, K.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of radioactive fallout in Lapland differ from those in southern Finland. The subarctic area is poor in vegetation and nutrients, for which reason radioactive substances enter food chains rapidly. As potassium is low in supply in the north, plants use cesium to replace it. Thus cesium is accumulated very effectively in food chain. When in the food chain, cesium is enriched in reindeer and further in Lapp people, who eat reindeer meat frequently. The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety established a regional laboratory in northern Finland in the 1970's to monitor radiation and carry out research an the area.(author)

  17. Examining different factors in effectiveness of advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Gholamreza Jalali Naini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the effects of different factors on advertising by examining the simultaneous effects of exposure to the advertisement, type of the media, creativity in advertisements and being informative. Using data collected from one of the chain supermarkets of Tehran called “Shahrvand”; the analysis focuses on the effectiveness of four independent variables and impact of customers’ needs on encouraging consumers to purchase. The results elucidate a relationship among these four variables with encouraging people to purchase. Using creativity in advertisements, however dominate the effects on this issue. The marketing and advertisement environment are dynamic and the paper concentrates only on some of the more effective factors. Producers might be more successful in choosing the best way to promote their goods and services by following the proposed model. This paper puts four effective factors together and investigates their impact on advertisement, which was not done by any other previous papers. Unlike other studies, this paper examines the role of customer needs together with four other elements on advertisement effectiveness.

  18. Current levels of gonorrhoea screening in MSM in Belgium may have little effect on prevalence: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyze, J; Vanden Berghe, W; Hens, N; Kenyon, C

    2018-02-01

    There is considerable uncertainty as to the effectiveness of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) screening in men who have sex with men. It is important to ensure that screening has benefits that outweigh the risks of increased antibiotics resistance. We develop a mathematical model to estimate the effectiveness of screening on prevalence. Separable Temporal Exponential family Random Graph Models are used to model the sexual relationships network, both with main and casual partners. Next, the transmission of Gonorrhoea is simulated on this network. The models are implemented using the R package 'statnet', which we adapted among other things to incorporate infection status at the pharynx, urethra and rectum separately and to distinguish between anal sex, oral sex and rimming. The different screening programmes compared are no screening, 3.5% of the population screened, 32% screened and 50% screened. The model simulates day-by-day evolution for 10 years of a population of 10 000. If half of the population would be screened, the prevalence in the pharynx decreases from 11.9% to 10.2%. We conclude that the limited impact of screening on NG prevalence may not outweigh the increased risk of antibiotic resistance.

  19. Calibrated prevalence of infertility in 30- to 49-year-old women according to different approaches: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-León, A; Lopez-Villaverde, V; Rueda, M; Moya-Garrido, M N

    2015-11-01

    How does the estimated prevalence of infertility among 30- to 49-year-old women vary when using different approaches to its measurement? The prevalence of women with difficulties in conceiving differed widely according to the measurement approach adopted. Establishing the true magnitude of infertility as a public health problem is challenging, given that it is not categorized as a disability or chronic condition and may be largely unreported. The time required to conceive is an increasingly frequent concern among couples of reproductive age. Population-based studies do not consider multiple approaches to infertility measurement in the same sample. A face-to-face cross-sectional population-based survey of 443 women aged between 30 and 49 years residing in Huelva, southern Spain, was carried out. The sample size estimation was based on an assumed prevalence of infertility of 19%, a sampling error of ±4.84 percentage points, a design effect of 1.8 and a 95% confidence level. The information was collected in 2011. Self-reported information was gathered on socio-demographic data, pregnancy history, time required to become pregnant and perception of difficulties in becoming pregnant. Eight approaches to the estimation of infertility prevalence were considered: diagnosed infertility, subjective infertility, 1-year infertility, primary infertility, secondary infertility and subfertility based on the time taken to conceive (6, 12 or 24 months). Calibration estimators (indirect estimation techniques) were used to extrapolate the infertility prevalences to the whole of Spain. The response rate was 61.05%. Among 30- to 49-year-old Spanish women, 1.26% had a clinical diagnosis of infertility, 17.58% did not achieve pregnancy in 1 year (1-year infertility), 8.22% perceived difficulties in procreation (subjective infertility), 6.12% had not succeeded in having biological children (primary infertility) and 11.33% had not been able to have another biological child (secondary

  20. Differences in diabetes prevalence and inequalities in disease management and glycaemic control by immigrant status: a population-based study (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballotari, Paola; Caroli, Stefania; Ferrari, Francesca; Romani, Gabriele; Marina, Greci; Chiarenza, Antonio; Manicardi, Valeria; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2015-02-06

    The diabetes prevalence increases at an alarming rate around the world and understanding disparities in occurrence, care management, and health outcomes may be a starting point towards achieving more effective strategies to prevent and manage it. The aims of this study are to compare immigrants and Italians in terms of the differences in diabetes prevalence and to evaluate inequalities in disease management and glycaemic control by using information included in Reggio Emilia diabetes register. We retrieved from the diabetes register subjects aged 20-74 on December 31(st), 2009. Using citizenship, we created three main groups: Italy, High Developed Countries (HDC), and High Migration Pressure Countries (HMPC). These were split into sub-regions of origin. We calculated age-adjusted prevalence by gender and sub-region. Using logistic regression model, we analyzed the association between area of origin and following indicators: 1) not being in care of diabetes clinics; 2) not having glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) test in 2010; 3) among those tested, having a HbA1c value > = 9% (75 mmol/mol). We found 15,889 Italian and 1,295 HMPC citizens with diabetes. HMPC citizens had higher age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes than Italians (females 5.0% vs 3.6%; males 6.5% vs 5.5%). The excess was mostly due to a strong excess in immigrants from Southern Asia (females 9.7%, males 10.2%) and Northern Africa (females 9.3%, males 5.9%). HMPC citizens were cared for by diabetes clinics in a similar proportion than Italians (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.93-1.25), but had a greater odds of not being tested for HbA1c (OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.34-1.71), as well as of having HbA1c values equal to or over 9% (OR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.80-3.14). The outcomes were poorer in HMPC females for the first two outcomes, while there was no difference for the HbA1c values (Wald test for heterogeneity p = 0.0850; p = 0.0156; p = 0.6635, respectively). Our findings highlight the need for gender-oriented actions for

  1. Microshear bonding effectiveness of different dentin regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise F Montagner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of dentin surfaces with different tubule orientation on bond strength of a multimode adhesive system. Materials and Methods: Twenty human molars were selected and prepared in different ways in order to produce different dentin regions. The teeth were randomized (n = 5 according to the application modes of a multimode adhesive system (etch-and-rinse and self-etching and to the dentin region (occlusal and proximal - 1.5 mm depth from dentinoenamel junction. Cylindrical restorations were performed on dentin with a starch tube. The samples remained immersed in distilled water for 24 h and the microshear bond strength (μSBS test was performed. The μSBS values were expressed in MPa and analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey′s test (P < 0.05. Results: There was no significant difference in the bond strength values between the application modes of the adhesive system (P = 0.19; however, the dentin regions (P < 0.05 significantly affected the μSBS. The proximal dentin presented higher bond strength values than occlusal dentin. Conclusion: The dentin surfaces with different tubule orientation influenced the bonding effectiveness of the adhesive system tested.

  2. the effect of difference photoperiod and different concentration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PIRAIESHFAR

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... this species has a permanent effect on mice and also infect and destroy liver tissue. ... cyanobacter C.raciborskii blooms lead to animal fatalities and human ..... reduction in nitrate, (2) Ability of high phosphate absorption even ...

  3. HPV prevalence and genotypes in different histological subtypes of cervical adenocarcinoma, a worldwide analysis of 760 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirog, Edyta C; Lloveras, Belen; Molijn, Anco; Tous, Sara; Guimerà, Núria; Alejo, Maria; Clavero, Omar; Klaustermeier, Joellen; Jenkins, David; Quint, Wim Gv; Xavier Bosch, Francesc; Alemany, Laia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-12-01

    The goal of our study was to provide comprehensive data on the worldwide human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in patients with invasive cervical adenocarcinoma in correlation with histologic tumor subtypes, geographical location, patients' age, and duration of sample storage. Paraffin-embedded samples of 760 cervical adenocarcinoma cases were collected worldwide. A three-level pathology review of cases was performed to obtain consensus histologic diagnoses and 682 cases were determined to be eligible for further analysis. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA(25) system (version 1). Classic cervical adenocarcinoma accounted for 83.1% of cases, while rare histological variants accounted for a few percent of cases individually. HPV positivity varied significantly between the different histologic tumor subtypes. Classic cervical adenocarcinoma showed high HPV positivity (71.8%), while other adenocarcinoma types had significantly lower HPV prevalence (endometrioid 27.3%, serous 25%, clear cell 20%, not otherwise specified 13.9%, and minimal deviation 8.3%). In all, 91.8% of HPV-positive tumors showed the presence of a single viral type and in 7% of cases multiple viral types were detected. Three HPV genotypes, HPV 16, 18, and 45, dominated in all adenocarcinomas and together accounted for 94.1% of HPV-positive tumors. HPV16 was the most common and found in 50.9% of HPV-positive cases, followed by HPV18 (31.6%) and HPV45 (11.6%). HPV prevalence varied depending on geographical region, patient age, and sample storage time. Tumors from older patients and tumor samples with longer storage time showed lower HPV prevalence. Our results indicate that HPV vaccines may prevent up to 82.5% (HPV16/18) and up to 95.3% (9-valent vaccine) of HPV-positive cervical adenocarcinomas, mostly the classic type. HPV testing and vaccination will not provide full coverage for a very small subset of classical adenocarcinomas and most of the rare

  4. The Prevalence of Anabolic Steroid Misuse and the Awareness about Its Negative Effects among Bodybuilders in Karaj City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Arazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Regarding the increase in the misuse of anabolic steroids among young athletes particularly bodybuilding and power lifting athletes, this study aims to specify the degree of misuse prevalence anabolic steroid and the awareness of the side effects of such drugs among Karaj bodybuilders. Materials and Methods: This study is descriptive. All the bodybuilders of Karaj city was the participants of this research. The measurement instrument of this research was a questionnaire that contained 25 questions (7 questions were for background information, 9 questions were for awareness, 4 questions for attitudes about use of such drugs and the left 5 ones were for misuse prevalence that distributed among 320 bodybuilding athletes of different parts of Karaj. The response rate was 63.75% (240 persons from total 320 persons. At last, the current research output analyzed by the SPSS software and descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The analysis showed that 62.7% of athletes that participated in the research used such drugs. Also, the data analysis showed that there was a meaningful relationship between the sport histories of the involved participants with misuse prevalence (p0.05. In addition to this, data analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between misuse prevalence and wrong attitudes about anabolic steroid (p< 0.05. The comparison of the current study results about the misuse of anabolic steroid with a similar research at 1382 showed 140% increase in the misuse of these drugs. Conclusion: This study indicates the high use of anabolic steroids among bodybuilders. According to this, we understand that the bodybuilders in Karaj don’t consult with specialist in this field get wrong information from unprofessional people. This leads the high misuse of such drugs. So, it is recommended to hold the prevention programs and athletes training about the side effects of anabolic steroids.

  5. Effects of exercise intensity on hypertension prevalence in Korean men with high sodium intake

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Hee; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of present study was to investigate the effects of exercise intensity on hypertension prevalence in Korean men with high sodium intake. [Subjects and Methods] This study was based on the data collected from 2007 to 2013 in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. A total of 8853 male adults were included in the analysis. The odds ratios for hypertension according to exercise groups were assessed by using logistic regression of each sodium intake gro...

  6. [Effect of litter type on prevalence and severity of pododermatitis in male broilers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Jutta

    2009-01-01

    During the course of two trial periods on broilers (Ross 308), the effects of 5 different types of litter (chopped straw, wood shavings, spelt glumes, Pelletinos, HygieneWood-Shavings) on the development of pododermatitis and animal performance (body weight, feed conversion, mortality) were investigated. Pelletinos are for sale under the name Pelletino Strohstreugranulat G. HygieneWood-Shavings are a special product that currently is not available on the market. Male broilers were kept under practical conditions (feeding, light program) for 35 days. Foot pad lesions could already be observed at the first assessment on their 7th day after hatching. Broilers kept on chopped straw showed in both trials the highest score (trial 1: 1.50; trial 2: 1.58). Animals reared on Pelletinos (trial 1: 0.59; trial 2: 0.17) followed by HygieneWood-Shavings (trial 1: 0.63; trial 2: 0.47), wood shavings (trial 1: 1.30; trial 2: 0.71) and spelt glumes (trial 1: 1.13, trial 2:0.93) showed significant lower lesions. During the second trial, the average body weights were significantly higher while feed conversion was lower.The mortality on the other hand showed no significant differences between the trials. Groups kept on Pelletinos showed the best foot pads and the highest body weights in both trials at the end of experiments. The investigation showed that the prevalence and the severity of pododermatitis as well as the performance could be influenced by various types of litter. Chopped straw which is standard for the broiler industry in Germany, seems to be the least suitable variant in our study.

  7. Glucose-induced effects and joker function of glucose: endocrine or genotoxic prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, L M; Vasilyev, D A; Poroshina, T E; Kovalenko, I G

    2006-10-01

    The steady increase in chronic "glycemic load" is characteristic for modern times. Among myriad of glucose functions, two principals can be emphasized: first, endocrine (in particular, ability to induce insulin secretion) and second, DNA-damaging related to formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It was suggested by us earlier that a shift in the ratio of mentioned functions reflects a possible "joker" role of glucose as an important modifier of human pathology. Therefore, we embarked on a study to investigate an individual effect of peroral glucose challenge on serum insulin level and ROS generation by mononuclears (luminol-dependent/latex-induced chemiluminescence) in 20 healthy people aged between 28-75. Concentrations of glucose, blood lipids, carbonylated proteins, malondialdehyde, leptin and TNF-alpha were determined as well. On the basis of received data two separate groups could be distinguished: one (n=8), in which glucose stimulation of ROS generation by mononuclears was increased and relatively prevailed over induction of insulin secretion (state of the so called glucose-induced genotoxicity, GIGT), and another (n=12), in which signs of GIGT were not revealed. People who belonged to the first group were characterized with a tendency to lower body mass index, blood leptin and cholesterol and to higher TNF-alpha concentration. Thus, if joker function of glucose is realized in "genotoxic mode", the phenotype (and probably genotype) of subjects may be rather distinctive to the one discovered in glucose-induced "endocrine prevalence". Whether such changes may serve as a pro-mutagenic or pro-endocrine basis for the rise of different chronic diseases or, rather, different features/aggressiveness of the same disease warrants further study.

  8. Little genetic variability in resilience among cattle exists for a range of performance traits across herds in Ireland differing in Fasciola hepatica prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Alan J; Graham, David A; Doherty, Michael L; Blom, Astrid; Berry, Donagh P

    2018-06-04

    It is anticipated that in the future, livestock will be exposed to a greater risk of infection from parasitic diseases. Therefore, future breeding strategies for livestock, which are generally long-term strategies for change, should target animals adaptable to environments with a high parasitic load. Covariance components were estimated in the present study for a selection of dairy and beef performance traits over herd-years differing in Fasciola hepatica load using random regression sire models. Herd-year prevalence of F. hepatica was determined by using F. hepatica-damaged liver phenotypes which were recorded in abattoirs nationally. The data analyzed consisted up to 83,821 lactation records from dairy cows for a range of milk production and fertility traits, as well as 105,054 young animals with carcass-related information obtained at slaughter. Reaction norms for individual sires were derived from the random regression coefficients. The heritability and additive genetic standard deviations for all traits analyzed remained relatively constant as herd-year F. hepatica prevalence gradient increased up to a prevalence level of 0.7; although there was a large increase in heritability and additive genetic standard deviation for milk and fertility traits in the observed F. hepatica prevalence levels >0.7, only 5% of the data existed in herd-year prevalence levels >0.7. Very little rescaling, therefore, exists across differing herd-year F. hepatica prevalence levels. Within-trait genetic correlations among the performance traits across different herd-year F. hepatica prevalence levels were less than unity for all traits. Nevertheless, within-trait genetic correlations for milk production and carcass traits were all >0.8 for F. hepatica prevalence levels between 0.2 and 0.8. The lowest estimate of within-trait genetic correlations for the different fertility traits ranged from -0.03 (SE = 1.09) in age of first calving to 0.54 (SE = 0.22) for calving to first service

  9. Effect of Exceptional Parental Longevity and Lifestyle Factors on Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbi, Sriram; Schwartz, Elianna; Crandall, Jill; Verghese, Joe; Holtzer, Roee; Atzmon, Gil; Braunstein, Rebecca; Barzilai, Nir; Milman, Sofiya

    2017-12-15

    Offspring of parents with exceptional longevity (OPEL) manifest lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the role of lifestyle factors in this unique cohort is not known. Our study tested whether OPEL have lesser prevalence of CVD independent of lifestyle factors. Prevalence of CVD and CVD risk factors was assessed in a population of community-dwelling Ashkenazi Jewish adults aged 65 to 94 years. Participants included OPEL (n = 395), defined as having at least 1 parent living past the age of 95 years, and offspring of parents with usual survival (OPUS, n = 450), defined as having neither parent survive to 95 years. Medical and lifestyle information was obtained using standardized questionnaires. Socioeconomic status was defined based on validated classification scores. Dietary intake was evaluated with the Block Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (2000) in a subgroup of the study population (n = 234). Our study found no significant differences in the prevalence of obesity, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, social strata scores, and dietary intake between the 2 groups. After adjustment for age and gender, the OPEL demonstrated 29% lower odds of having hypertension (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53 to 0.95), 65% lower odds of having had a stroke (95% CI 0.14 to 0.88), and 35% lower odds of having CVD (95% CI 0.43 to 0.98), compared with OPUS. In conclusion, exceptional parental longevity is associated with lower prevalence of CVD independent of lifestyle, socioeconomic status, and nutrition, thus highlighting the potential role of genetics in disease-free survival among individuals with exceptional parental longevity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of the use of effective ergogenic aids among professional athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frączek, Barbara; Warzecha, Maja; Tyrała, Florentyna; Pięta, Aleksandra

    Athletic performance can be substantially enhanced with supplements and functional food which are considered by scientists as efficient, safe and legal, such as protein, carbohydrate and protein-carbohydrate supplements, isotonic sports drinks, carbohydrate-protein bars, carbohydrate bars, creatine and caffeine. The study is aimed at an analysis and evaluation of the prevalence of using effective ergogenic aids (creatine, caffeine, isotonic drinks, carbohydrates, and proteins) in a group of Polish professional athletes. The research was conducted on 600 athletes (216 women, 384 men) practicing various sports disciplines; the younger group (18-23 years old) consisted of 307 people, while the older one (24-35 years old) was comprised of 293 subjects. A questionnaire was used with questions concerning the frequency and types of consumed supplements. Nearly half of the athletes (48,2%) admitted to taking supplementation, of which 36.7% consumed the supplements occasionally and 11.5% continually. The majority of the group (75.4%) claimed to be consuming isotonic drinks, which were the most commonly chosen nutritional aid enhancing physical performance, most frequently supplementing the diet in a continuous manner (41.2%). The least frequently used supplement was creatine, chosen by only one in three interviewees (34,5%). The ergogenic aids were used more often by men than women (50.5% vs. 44.1%), and so were nutrients based on proteins (51.8% vs. 32.0%), carbohydrates (60.7% vs. 46.8%), protein-carbohydrates (45.6% vs. 32.9%), as well as creatine (39.8% vs. 25.0%). The studies showed the inessential difference in the frequency of taking supplementation based on the interviewees' age (0.4%). Competitors who use supplements over those who choose not to, seems to reflect the continuous lack of the athletes' sufficient awareness of the effectiveness, safety, and health benefits of dietary supplementation that enhances physical performance. supplements, dietary

  11. Effectiveness of psychotherapy in personality disorders not otherwise specified : A comparison of different treatment modalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, E.K.; Bartak, A.; Meerman, A.M.M.A.; Rossum, B.V.; Ziegler, U.M.; Thunissen, M.A.G.; Soons, M.; Andrea, H.; Hamers, E.F.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Stijnen, T.; Busschbach, J.J.V.; Verheul, R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although personality disorder not otherwise specified (PDNOS) is highly prevalent and associated with a high burden of disease, only a few treatment studies in this patient group exist. This study is the first to investigate the effectiveness of different modalities of psychotherapy in

  12. What is common becomes normal: the effect of obesity prevalence on maternal perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkin, N; Spinelli, A; Baglio, G; Lamberti, A

    2013-05-01

    This analysis investigates the poorly-known effect of local prevalence of childhood obesity on mothers' perception of their children's weight status. In 2008, a national nutritional survey of children attending the third grade of elementary school was conducted in Italy. Children were measured and classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese, using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs for body mass index (BMI). A parental questionnaire included parental perception of their child's weight status (underweight, normal, a little overweight and a lot overweight). Regions were classified by childhood obesity prevalence (maternal perception and regional obesity prevalence, and maternal and child characteristics were examined using bivariate and logistic regression analyses. Complete data were available for 37 590 children, of whom 24% were overweight and 12% obese. Mothers correctly identified the status of 84% of normal weight, 52% of overweight and 14% of obese children. Among overweight children, factors associated with underestimation of the child's weight included lower maternal education (adjusted odds ratio, aOR, 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-2.4), residence in a high-obesity region (aOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.9-2.6), male gender (aOR 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.6) and child's BMI. Higher regional obesity prevalence is associated with lower maternal perception, suggesting that what is common has a greater likelihood of being perceived as normal. As perception is a first step to change, it may be harder to intervene in areas with high-obesity prevalence where intervention is most urgent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of food prices on the prevalence of obesity among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, E; Powell, L M

    2011-03-01

    To examine the extent to which various food prices were associated with the obesity status of young adults. Retrospective cohort study of 6537 men and 5324 women in the USA using panel data from the Monitoring the Future Surveys (1992-2003), which were merged with two food-at-home and one food-away-from-home price measures from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association. Longitudinal individual random effect and fixed effect models were estimated. This study found that food prices did not have a significant effect on the prevalence of obesity among young female adults. For young adult men, an individual random effect estimator suggested that a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with a 13.2% decrease in the probability of obesity, but this effect lost its economic and statistical significance once individual fixed effects were controlled for in the estimation. Overall, the results imply that observed time-varying individual characteristics, such as working status, marital status and school enrolment status, may over-ride the effect of changes in food prices for young adults. More research employing longitudinal data is necessary to determine if food subsidies or taxes, particularly soft drink and fast food taxes or subsidies for fruit and vegetables, could be effective policy measures to curtail the increasing prevalence of obesity among young adults. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of different definitions and reference groups on the prevalence of cognitive impairment: a study in postmenopausal breast cancer patients before the start of adjuvant systemic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Christina M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Linn, Sabine C; Boogerd, Willem; Gundy, Chad M; Beex, Louk V; van Dam, Frits S; Schagen, Sanne B

    2010-04-01

    Several prospective studies into the effects of adjuvant systemic therapy on cognitive functioning suggest that a proportion of breast cancer patients show cognitive deficits already before the start of systemic therapy. Owing to, among others, methodological inconsistency, studies report different rates of this pre-treatment cognitive impairment. We examined the impact of four different criteria of cognitive impairment and two types of reference groups (a study-specific healthy reference group versus published normative data) on the prevalence of cognitive impairment. Two hundred and five postmenopausal breast cancer patients underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests before the start of endocrine therapy, 124 healthy subjects underwent the same tests. Proportions of cognitive impaired patients were calculated for each of four criteria for cognitive impairment, using (1) study-specific healthy controls and (2) published norms of healthy controls as reference groups. The prevalence of cognitive impairment varied greatly with the strictness of the criterion, as expected, but also was dependent on the reference group used. Cognitive impairment, relative to published norms, ranged from 1% for the strictest to 36.6% for the less strict criterion, cognitive impairment relative to study-specific healthy controls, ranged from 13.7 to 45.4% for the same criteria. This study highlights contrasting proportions of cognitive impairment by using different criteria for cognitive impairment and different reference groups. (Dis)advantages of the methods using a criterion for cognitive impairment, and of the use of published norms versus a study-specific reference group are discussed. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Prevalence and gender differences in symptomatology of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among Iraqi Yazidis displaced into Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Tekin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression are common among populations displaced due to large-scale political conflicts and war. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and gender-based differences in symptoms of PTSD and depression among Iraqi Yazidis displaced into Turkey. Method: The study was conducted on 238 individuals who were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I and the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire. Results: Of the participants, 42.9% met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD, 39.5% for major depression, and 26.4% for both disorders. More women than men suffered from PTSD and major depression. More women than men with PTSD or depression reported having experienced or witnessed the death of a spouse or child. Women with PTSD reported flashbacks, hypervigilance, and intense psychological distress due to reminders of trauma more frequently than men. Men with PTSD reported feelings of detachment or estrangement from others more frequently than women. More depressive women than men reported feelings of guilt or worthlessness. Conclusions: PTSD and major depression affected women more frequently than men. While women tended to respond to traumatic stress by undermodulation of emotions and low self-esteem, men tended to respond by overmodulation of emotions. Rather than being a derivative of sex differences, this complementary diversity in response types between genders seems to be shaped by social factors in consideration of survival under extreme threat.

  16. [Silhouettes at different age of life: Retrospective appreciation of corpulence and his impact on prevalence of hypertension at 60years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, F; Empana, J P; Charles, M A; Boutouyrie, P; Jouven, X; Pannier, B; Danchin, N

    2017-06-01

    In epidemiological studies, recall of weight and height are not readily available at different ages of life. In order to improve the knowledge of the weight history, Sörensen et al. in 1983, developed a tool from silhouettes allowing an individual to evaluate his corpulence at different ages of life. Validity studies showed that measured weight and size were correlated to 80% in the reported silhouette. Studies have also shown that silhouettes are a good way to trace the weight history in an individual's life. Very few epidemiological studies have used this tool. A French study revealed a decrease of the risk of breast cancer in obese girls between the age of 8 and adolescence. Another study showed that a low birth weight or a thin silhouette before adulthood was associated with an increased risk of diabetes. On the basis of these findings, it was interesting to evaluate the relationship between the silhouette at 20years and the risk of hypertension at the age of 60years. It was shown that the prevalence of hypertension at age 60 was higher among obese subjects at 20years than among thin subjects (45.3% vs 36.7% (P<0.05). The classification between slimness and obesity is relevant using this tool. The history of corpulence is an important element to consider in the determinants of pathology, especially in hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring compulsive buying behaviour: psychometric validity of three different scales and prevalence in the general population and in shopping centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraz, Aniko; Eisinger, Andrea; Hende, Borbála; Urbán, Róbert; Paksi, Borbála; Kun, Bernadette; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Griffiths, Mark D; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-02-28

    Due to the problems of measurement and the lack of nationally representative data, the extent of compulsive buying behaviour (CBB) is relatively unknown. The validity of three different instruments was tested: Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale (ECBS; Edwards, E.A., 1993. Development of a new scale for measuring compulsive buying behaviour. Financial Counseling and Planning. 4, 67-85), Questionnaire About Buying Behavior (QABB; Lejoyeux, M., Ades, J., 1994. Les achats pathologiques: une addiction comportementale. Neuro-Psy. 9, 25-32.) and Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale (RCBS; Ridgway, N.M., Kukar-Kinney, M., Monroe, K.B., 2008. An expanded conceptualization and a new measure of compulsive buying. Journal of Consumer Research. 35, 622-639.) using two independent samples. One was nationally representative of the Hungarian population (N=2710) while the other comprised shopping mall customers (N=1447). As a result, a new, four-factor solution for the ECBS was developed (Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale Revised (ECBS-R)), and confirmed the other two measures. Additionally, cut-off scores were defined for all measures. Results showed that the prevalence of CBB is 1.85% (with QABB) in the general population but significantly higher in shopping mall customers (8.7% with ECBS-R, 13.3% with QABB and 2.5% with RCBS-R). Conclusively, due to the diversity of content, each measure identifies a somewhat different CBB group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Race/ethnicity and marijuana use in the United States: Diminishing differences in the prevalence of use, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M; Wall, Melanie; Feng, Tianshu; Cerdá, Magdalena; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-10-01

    Marijuana use has been decreasing in the past several years among adolescents, though variation in the extent and rate of decrease across racial/ethnic groups is inadequately understood. The present study utilized nationally-representative data in Monitoring the Future from 2006 to 2015 to examine trends over time in past 30-day marijuana use. We examine whether differences in trends over time by race and ethnicity also differ by individual-level, school-level, and state-level factors. Sample included 131,351 8th grade students, 137,249 10th grade students, and 123,293 12th grade students; multi-level models and difference-in-differences tests were used. In 10th grade, Black students had a positive linear increase in marijuana use (est=0.04, SE=0.01, p<0.001), and the magnitude of the increase was significantly greater than among non-Hispanic White students (est=0.38, SE=0.009, p<0.001). The increase trend among Black students was greater among those in large class sizes. In 12th grade, all racial ethnic groups except non-Hispanic Whites demonstrated a linear increase in prevalence across time. The magnitude of the increase among Hispanic students was greater among those in urban areas and large class sizes. The magnitude of the increase among Black students was greater in states with a medical marijuana law before 2006 (est=0.06, SE=0.03, p=0.02), among other state-level covariates. Together these results suggest that the next stage of public health approaches to reducing the harms associated with adolescent drug use should attend to shifting demographic patterns of use among adolescents and ensure that services and programmatic approaches to adolescent prevention are applied equitably. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects and prevalence of nonresponders after 12 weeks of high-intensity interval or resistance training in women with insulin resistance: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Cristian; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects and prevalence of nonresponders (NR) to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and resistance training (RT) in women with insulin resistance on cardiometabolic health parameters. Sedentary overweight/obese insulin-resistant women (age = 33.5 ± 6.5 yr; body mass index = 29.9 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 ) were randomly assigned to a triweekly HIIT program (HIIT; n = 18) or resistance training (RT; n = 17). Anthropometry (body mass, fat mass, muscle mass, waist circumference, and skinfold thickness), cardiovascular (blood pressure), metabolic [fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], as well as muscle strength, and endurance performance covariables were measured before and after 12 wk in both intervention groups. The interindividual variability to exercise training of the subjects was categorized as responders and NR using as cut points two times the typical error of measurement in mean outcomes. After intervention, significant reduction in waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, fat mass, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR ( P HIIT and RT group, respectively. Both HIIT and RT groups exhibited a significant decrease in the endurance performance, whereas only RT exhibited increased muscle strength. Significant differences in the NR prevalence between the HIIT and RT groups were identified for a decrease in fat mass (HIIT 33.3% vs. RT 70.5%; P = 0.028), muscle mass (HIIT 100% vs. RT 52.9%; P = 0.001), and tricipital skinfold (HIIT 5.5% vs. RT 29.4%; P HIIT and RT groups (55.5% vs. 94.1; P = 0.009). However, there were no differences in the NR prevalence between HIIT and RT for decreasing fasting glucose. Twelve weeks of HIIT and RT have similar effects and NR prevalence to improve glucose control variables; however, there is different NR prevalence in other anthropometric, cardiovascular, strength, and endurance performance measurements in insulin-resistant women. These

  20. Obesity and Atrial Fibrillation Prevalence, Pathogenesis, and Prognosis: Effects of Weight Loss and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Carl J; Pandey, Ambarish; Lau, Dennis H; Alpert, Martin A; Sanders, Prashanthan

    2017-10-17

    Both obesity and atrial fibrillation (AF) are increasing in epidemic proportions, and both increase the prevalence of cardiovascular disease events. Obesity has adverse effects on cardiovascular hemodynamics and cardiac structure and function, and increases the prevalence of AF, partly related to electroanatomic remodeling in obese patients. However, numerous studies, including in AF, have demonstrated an obesity paradox, where overweight and obese patients with these disorders have a better prognosis than do leaner patients with the same degree of severity of cardiovascular disease/AF. In this paper, the authors discuss special issues regarding AF in obesity, as well as the evidence that despite the presence of an obesity paradox, there are benefits of weight loss, physical activity/exercise training, and increases in cardiorespiratory fitness on the prognosis of obese patients with AF. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Regional differences in the development of hospitalizations : An effect of different demographic trends?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowossadeck, Enno; Prütz, Franziska

    2018-03-01

    Population aging and population decline in many regions of the Federal Republic of Germany are key elements of demographic change. In the regions concerned there is a rising number of older people and, simultaneously, a declining population. So far, the consequences of regional shrinkage and growth for inpatient care don't seem to have been analysed very well. This paper analyses the influence of population aging and declining/increasing population (demographic factors) as well as other, non-demographic factors on the number of hospitalizations in Germany and the Federal States since 2000.One result of the analysis is that there are major differences between the Federal States. The analysis shows, for example, an increase of hospitalizations in Berlin while in Saxony-Anhalt the number of hospitalizations declines. The increase in Berlin was the result of population aging and, to a lower extent, an increase in population. In Saxony-Anhalt the declining population resulted in a decreasing number of hospitalizations. Population aging and non-demographic factors were not able to compensate this trend.Overall, the effect of demographic factors on the number of hospitalizations remains constant over time. Short-term changes of hospitalizations are due to non-demographic factors, such as epidemiological trends, (for example trends of incidence or prevalence), or structural changes of health care service (for example patients shifting between different sectors of health care or the introduction of new reimbursement systems).

  2. Gender differences in prevalence and correlates of antisocial personality disorder among heroin dependent users in compulsory isolation treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Mamy, Jules; Zhou, Liang; Liao, Yan-Hui; Wang, Qiang; Seewoobudul, Vasish; Xiao, Shui-Yuan; Hao, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about gender difference in correlates of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) among drug users. To detect gender difference in correlates of ASPD in a Chinese heroin dependent sample. Structured interviews were conducted among 882 heroin dependent users in two compulsory isolation settings in Changsha, China. Descriptive statistics were employed to report sample characteristics by gender. Bivariate relationships were examined between co-occurring ASPD and variables measuring demographic, drug use, and psychiatric co-morbidities. Multivariate logistic regressions with stepwise forward method were conducted to determine independent predictors for co-occurring ASPD. All analyses examining correlates of co-occurring ASPD were conducted for the total, the male and the female participants respectively to detect both the common and the unique correlates of ASPD by gender. Of the total participants, 41.4% (54.2% of males and 15.4% of females) met the DSM-IV criteria of ASPD. For male participants, lower educational level, unemployment, unmarried, younger age at first heroin use, previous history of compulsory treatment, larger amounts of heroin used per day and poly-drug abuse during past month before admission, as well as psychiatric co-morbidities of lifetime major depressive disorder and borderline personality disorder were independent predictors for co-occurring ASPD; while for female participants, only three variables: younger age at first heroin use, paranoid personality disorder and borderline personality disorder were independent predictors for co-occurring ASPD. Gender differences in prevalence and correlates of ASPD among heroin dependent users were detected. The findings highlight a need for gender-specific interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sleep in a large, multi-university sample of college students: sleep problem prevalence, sex differences, and mental health correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Jarrett, Matthew A; Luebbe, Aaron M; Garner, Annie A; Burns, G Leonard; Kofler, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    To (1) describe sleep problems in a large, multi-university sample of college students; (2) evaluate sex differences; and (3) examine the unique associations of mental health symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention [ADHD-IN], ADHD hyperactivity-impulsivity [ADHD-HI]) in relation to sleep problems. 7,626 students (70% female; 81% White) ages 18-29 years (M=19.14, SD=1.42) from six universities completed measures assessing mental health symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A substantial minority of students endorsed sleep problems across specific sleep components. Specifically, 27% described their sleep quality as poor, 36% reported obtaining less than 7 hours of sleep per night, and 43% reported that it takes >30 minutes to fall asleep at least once per week. 62% of participants met cut-off criteria for poor sleep, though rates differed between females (64%) and males (57%). In structural regression models, both anxiety and depression symptoms were uniquely associated with disruptions in most PSQI sleep component domains. However, anxiety (but not depression) symptoms were uniquely associated with more sleep disturbances and sleep medication use, whereas depression (but not anxiety) symptoms were uniquely associated with increased daytime dysfunction. ADHD-IN symptoms were uniquely associated with poorer sleep quality and increased daytime dysfunction, whereas ADHD-HI symptoms were uniquely associated with more sleep disturbances and less daytime dysfunction. Lastly, ADHD-IN, anxiety, and depression symptoms were each independently associated with poor sleep status. This study documents a high prevalence of poor sleep among college students, some sex differences, and distinct patterns of mental health symptoms in relation to sleep problems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Impact of 4 different definitions used for the assessment of the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in primary healthcare:The German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Project (GEMCAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasem Jürgen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome (MetSyn places individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Prevalence rates of the population of the MetSyn are still scarce. Moreover, the impact of different definitions of the MetSyn on the prevalence is unclear. Aim here is to assess the prevalence of the MetSyn in primary health care and to investigate the impact of four different definitions of the MetSyn on the determined prevalence with regard to age, gender and socio-economic status. Methods The German-wide cross-sectional study was conducted during two weeks in October 2005 in 1.511 randomly selected general practices. Blood samples were analyzed, blood pressure and waist circumference assessed, data on lifestyle, medication, chronic disorders, and socio-demographic characteristics collected. MetSyn prevalence was estimated according to the definitions of NCEP ATP III (2001, AHA/NHLBI (2004, 2005, and IDF (2005. Descriptive statistics and prevalence rate ratios using the PROG GENMOD procedure, were calculated. Cohen's kappa was used as measure for interreliability between the different prevalence estimates. Results Data of 35,869 patients (age range: 18–99, women 61.1% were included. The prevalence was lowest using the NCEP ATP III- (all: 19.8%, men 22.7%, women: 18.0%, highest according to the IDF-definition (32.7%, 40.3%, 28.0%. The increase in prevalence with recent definitions was more pronounced for men than for women, and was particularly high for men and women aged 60–79 years. The IDF-definition resulted in a higher prevalence especially in those with the highest educational status. Agreement (kappa between the NCEP ATP III- and IDF-definition was 0.68 (men 0.61, women 0.74, between the updated the AHA/NHLBI- (2005 and IDF-definition 0.85 (men 0.79, women 0.89. Conclusion The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is associated with age, gender, and educational status and increases considerably with each

  5. Regional Demographic Differences: The Effect of Laestadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Terämä

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laestadianism, a conservative revival movement inside the Lutheran church, has an estimated 100,000 followers in Finland. Laestadians have characteristics differing from the followers of the mainstream state church in areas such as religious activity, regional concentration, fertility and family planning, but these are generally not quantified due to lack of easily accessible data. This study highlights the importance of including location and religiosity, and not only religious affiliation in the study of fertility behaviour. The research uses statistical tools to study the correlations between such variables as religious density and total fertility rate. It is found that on the regional level, the total fertility rate and the increasing number of small children in the family is positively associated with the proportion of Laestadians. The regional variation of religiousness, and the subsequent effects on population structure and socioeconomics are discussed.

  6. Effects of different kinds of robot feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Kerstin; Lohan, K. S.; Nehaniv, C.

    2013-01-01

    , we investigate the impact of the robot's learning success on tutors' tutoring strategies. Our results show that only in the condition in which the robot's behavior is socially contingent, the human tutors adjust their behavior to the robot. In the developmentally equally plausible object......In this paper, we investigate to what extent tutors' behavior is influenced by different kinds of robot feedback. In particular, we study the effects of online robot feedback in which the robot responds either contingently to the tutor's social behavior or by tracking the objects presented. Also......-driven condition, in which the robot tracked the objects presented, tutors do not change their behavior significantly, even though in both conditions the robot develops from a prelinguistic stage to producing keywords. Socially contingent robot feedback has thus the potential to influence tutors' behavior over...

  7. [DIFFERENCE IN THE PREVALENCE OF BURNOUT SYNDROME IN PRECLINICAL AND CLINICAL TEACHING DOCTORS OF MOSTAR SCHOOL OF MEDICINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukojevič, Mladenka; Antunovič, Andelka; Petrov, Božo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the difference in the prevalence of burnout syndrome in preclinical and clinical teaching doctors of Mostar School of Medicine in the academic year 2011/2012. Special attention was also focused on finding out the possible difference between the syndrome incidence that was correlated to gender and years of service. The main hypothesis was that the probability of burnout syndrome incidence was higher in the group of female clinical teaching doctors having more years of service. The study involved 62 people with high academic education employed at Mostar School of Medicine who were surveyed during a randomly selected consecutive 3-month period (February to May) of the academic year 2011/2012. The data were prospectively collected through a standardized questionnaire survey. The studied parameters were gender, years of work experience and the engagement in preclinical or clinical departments of the Medical School. The survey showed that 43 out of 62 (69.4%) respondents did not suffer the burnout syndrome, while moderate syndrome was recodred in 19 (30.6%) of them. No person had serious symptoms of the syndrome. The difference between the respondents who suffered the syndrome and those who did not was not statistically significant (P=0.002). Considering the gender of respondents, statistically significant differences were not confirmed (P=0.444). Considering the years of service, the highest incidence of the syndrome was found in people with more work experience (in the group of 21-25 years), but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant (P=0.271). Observing the work in preclinical and clinical departments, because of the limited number of patients we could not confirm the hypothesis. The syndrome had affected 13 (21%) clinical teaching doctors and 6 (9,7%) preclinical doctors, while the differenece between them was not statistically significant (P=0.054). Considering the results of this research, it has

  8. Effects of Different Fertilizing Formulae on Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Trials conducted on potato fertilization at different rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium have shown that the elements able to influence the marketable tuber yield are nitrogen and phosphorus. The potato dry matter, which reflects other quality aspects such as the specific gravity and the starch content, increases with nitrogen fertilization till 150-200 kg ha-1 of nitrogen; beyond those rates values remain nearly unchanged. Dry matter increases also with the application of phosphorus and at low potassium rates. The objective of the research was to test the effect of different rates of N P K fertilizer on yield and some quality traits of potato. The test was conducted at the Campus of the Agricultural Faculty, Bari University, Italy. It involved the comparison of 6 fertilizing formulae N1 P1 K1, N1 P2 K1, N2 P1 K1, N2 P2 K1, N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, obtained from the factorial combination of three nitrogen levels (N = 100-200-300 kg ha-1 and two phosphorus rates (P2O5 = 50-100 kg ha-1 against an unfertilized control N0P0K0. The dose of potassium was constant for all fertilizing formulae (K2O = 300 kg ha-1. The highest total and marketable yields of tubers per plant have been observed at the two highest fertilizing levels (N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, which are not statistically different so that the best treatments is shown to be N3 P1 K1; the trend was similar for the mean weight of tubers. With the various treatments, no difference was observed in terms of yield of tubers belonging to the two first size classes (< 35mm and 35-55mm; what has increased with the fertilizing levels is the yield of tubers greater than 55 mm. Tuber specific gravity show, as expected, a positive correlation with the dry matter percentage. Both parameters increased shifting from the control to the N2 P2 K1 and decreased at the highest N level, without any difference being observed with the change in the P rate. The highest starch percentage (20.5% was also observed in the

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea combined dyslipidemia render additive effect on increasing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping; He, Zhiqing; Yang, Jing; Liang, Chun; Ren, Yusheng; Wu, Zonggui

    2016-05-26

    Current study was designed to investigate the effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) combined dyslipidemia on the prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD). This was a cross-sectional study and subjects with documented dyslipidemia and without previous diagnosis of OSA were enrolled. Polysomnography was applied to evaluate apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Based on AHI value, subjects were classified into four groups: without OSA, mild, moderate and severe OSA groups. Clinical characteristics and laboratory examination data were recorded. Relationship between AHI event and lipid profiles was analyzed, and logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of OSA combined dyslipidemia on ASCVD prevalence. Totally 248 subjects with dyslipidemia were enrolled. Compared to the other 3 groups, subjects with severe OSA were older, male predominant and had higher smoking rate. In addition, subjects with severe OSA had higher body mass index, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, and higher rates of overweight and obesity. Serum levels of fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, LDL-C and CRP were all significantly higher. ASCVD prevalence was considerably higher in subjects with severe OSA. AHI event in the severe OSA group was up to 35.4 ± 5.1 events per hour which was significantly higher than the other groups (P dyslipidemia plus no-OSA group (reference group), OSA enhanced ASCVD risk in subjects with dyslipidemia, regardless of OSA severity. After extensively adjusted for confounding variables, the odds of dyslipidemia plus mild-OSA was reduced to insignificance. While the effects of moderate- and severe-OSA on promoting ASCVD risk in subjects with dyslipidemia remained significant, with severe-OSA most prominent (odds ratio: 1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.02). OSA combined dyslipidemia conferred additive adverse effects on cardiovascular system, with severe-OSA most prominent.

  10. Prevalence and associated factors of Schistosomiasis among children in Yemen: implications for an effective control programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Sady

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, is a life-threatening public health problem in Yemen especially in rural communities. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of schistosomiasis among children in rural Yemen.Urine and faecal samples were collected from 400 children. Urine samples were examined using filtration technique for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs while faecal samples were examined using formalin-ether concentration and Kato Katz techniques for the presence of S. mansoni. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information were collected via a validated questionnaire. Overall, 31.8% of the participants were found to be positive for schistosomiasis; 23.8% were infected with S. haematobium and 9.3% were infected with S. mansoni. Moreover, 39.5% of the participants were anaemic whereas 9.5% had hepatosplenomegaly. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was significantly higher among children aged >10 years compared to those aged ≤ 10 years (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis confirmed that presence of other infected family member (P<0.001, low household monthly income (P = 0.003, using unsafe sources for drinking water (P = 0.003, living nearby stream/spring (P = 0.006 and living nearby pool/pond (P = 0.002 were the key factors significantly associated with schistosomiasis among these children.This study reveals that schistosomiasis is still highly prevalent in Yemen. These findings support an urgent need to start an integrated, targeted and effective schistosomiasis control programme with a mission to move towards the elimination phase. Besides periodic drug distribution, health education and community mobilisation, provision of clean and safe drinking water, introduction of proper sanitation are imperative among these communities in order to curtail the transmission and morbidity caused by schistosomiasis. Screening and treating other infected

  11. Prevalence of herpesviruses in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: relationship to clinical parameters and effect of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assess the prevalence of herpesviruses in healthy subjects, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis patients, to assess the relationship between the prevalence of herpesviruses and periodontal clinical parameters, and to evaluate the effect of phase-I therapy on the level of viral detection. Materials and Methods: Hundred patients consisting of 20 healthy subjects, 40 gingivitis, and 40 chronic periodontitis were included in the study. Clinical parameters recorded included plaque index, gingival index, sulcus bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level. The gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients received phase-I periodontal therapy including oral hygiene instructions, full mouth scaling for gingivitis patients and scaling and root planing for chronic periodontitis patients. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF was collected, and the presence of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1, HSV-2, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Recording of periodontal parameters as well as GCF collection was performed at baseline and 6 weeks postphase-I therapy. Results: At baseline, the levels of HSV-1 and EBV detection were lower in healthy controls as compared to gingivitis (P < 0.05 and chronic periodontitis cases (P < 0.001. Phase-I therapy led to reduction in the amount of HSV-1 and EBV in gingivitis patients (P < 0.05 and for HSV-1, human cytomegalovirus and EBV in chronic periodontitis patients (P < 0.05 in comparison to baseline. The prevalence of EBV in chronic periodontitis patients was positively associated with increased gingival index, probing depth and loss of clinical attachment (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Higher prevalence of HSV-1 and EBV viruses in GCF of gingivitis and chronic periodontitis suggests a strong association between these viruses and periodontal diseases and periodontal therapy can lead to a reduction in herpesviruses at infected sites.

  12. Prevalence and molecular profiling of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) among healthy blood donors from different nationalities in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smatti, Maria K; Yassine, Hadi M; AbuOdeh, Raed; AlMarawani, Asmaa; Taleb, Sara A; Althani, Asmaa A; Nasrallah, Gheyath K

    2017-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis. EBV is highly prevalent lymphotropic herpesvirus and has been linked to several malignancies. Transmission is generally by oral secretions, but can be through blood transfusions and organ transplantations. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, viremia rates, and circulating genotypes of EBV in healthy blood donors in Qatar. Blood samples from 673 blood donors of different nationalities residing in Qatar (mainly Qatar, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Pakistan, and India) were collected and tested for anti-EBV capsid (VCA; IgG & IgM), nuclear (EBNA; IgG), and early (EA-D; IgG) antigens. Avidity testing was determined when active infection was suspected. DNA was extracted from the buffy coat and subjected to EBV-DNA quantification using qRT-PCR. Genotyping was performed using nested-PCR targeting EBV-EBNA2 gene, and phylogeny by sequence analysis of the LMP-1 gene. 97.9% (673/659) of the samples were seropositive as indicated by the presence VCA-IgG, while 52.6% (354/673) had detectible EBV-DNA. EBV seroprevalence and viremia rates increased significantly with age. Genotyping of 51 randomly selected samples showed predominance of Genotype 1 (72.5%, 37/51) as compared to genotype 2 (3.5%), and mixed infections were detected in 4% of the samples. Sub-genotyping for these samples revealed that the Mediterranean strain was predominant (65.3%), followed by B95.8 prototype and North Carolina strains (12.2% each), and China1 strain (6%). As a first study to evaluate EBV infection in highly diverse population in Qatar, where expatriates represent more than 85% of the population, our results indicated high seroprevalence and viremia rate of EBV in different nationalities, with genotype 1 and Mediterranean strain being predominant. Clinical significance of these finding have not been investigated and shall be evaluated in future studies.

  13. Prevalence of obesity, central obesity, and associated socio-demographic variables in Syrian women using different anthropometric indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Bakir M Adel; Hammad Kholoud; Mohammad Loreen

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing globally in both developing and developed countries, especially, those with rapid cultural and social changes. The aims of current study were twofold: (a) to examine, for the first time in Syria, the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity in Syrian women and obesity-related socio-demographic determinants, and (b) to establish a base line data about obesity related determinants needed to develop appropriate treatment and pre...

  14. Differences in gay men's AIDS risk knowledge and behavior patterns in high and low AIDS prevalence cities.

    OpenAIRE

    St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T; Kelly, J A

    1989-01-01

    Several studies have found reductions in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk practices among gay men in high AIDS-prevalence cities since the start of the AIDS crisis. Much less is known about risk behavior patterns among gay men in smaller cities, where AIDS cases are less common and the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection is relatively lower. In the study, men entering gay bars in three cities, one large and two small, completed anonymous surveys of sexual practi...

  15. Effect of gender on hospital admissions for asthma and prevalence of self-reported asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women are more often admitted to hospital for asthma than men. A study was undertaken to determine whether this is caused by gender differences in the prevalence or severity of the disease. METHODS: Admissions to hospital for asthma in 13,540 subjects were followed from 1977 to 1993....... RESULTS: At baseline 315 subjects (2.3%) reported asthma, 2.2% of women and 2.5% of men. During follow up 160 subjects were admitted to hospital for asthma. After controlling for self-reported asthma and smoking, women had a higher risk of being admitted to hospital than men (relative risk 1.7, 95...

  16. Under-diagnosis of mental disorder in people with intellectual disabilities: study of prevalence in population with different degrees of intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos PEÑA SALAZAR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are a few studies in the literature analyzing the prevalence of mental illness in people with intellectual disabilities (ID. This study explores the prevalence of mental disorders in adults without previous mental disorder and different degrees of ID. We assessed 142 individuals with varying degrees of ID and with unknown previous psychiatric disorder. We applied the diagnostic battery PAS-ADD based on criteria ICD-10 and DSM-IV TR to analyzed the prevalence of mental disorders in people with mild / moderate ID. We applied the Spanish version of the scale DASH-II to analyze the prevalence of mental disorders in people with severe and profound ID. We found a psychiatric disorder previously undiagnosed in 29.57% of our sample. In people with mild/ moderate ID the most common psychiatric disorder was depressive disorder (33.3%, but in people with severe and profound ID was the anxiety disorder. The most prevalent medical comorbidity was epilepsy (22.5% of the total sample and 39.2% in the population with severe / profound intellectual disabilities. Psychiatric disorders seem to be more common in the population with ID than in the general population, increasing their prevalence and medical comorbidity in severe and profound ID.

  17. [Failure effects and gender differences in perfectionism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, A M; Cadot, M; Ansseau, M

    2003-01-01

    perfectionism are described: SOP (Self Oriented Perfectionism) related to high standards and self criticism, SPP (Socially Prescribed Perfectionism) related to the need of approval from others and fear of negative evaluation, OOP (Other-Oriented Perfectionism) reflecting a tendency to set high expectations for others and to evaluate them in a demanding way; this component is related, especially for males, to self-esteem, hostility and authoritarianism. Validity and internal consistency have been established too (30, 31, 35). The Frost and al's Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Hewitt and Flett's scales are closely associated, except concerning the OOP. Because this component could provide new information, we have chosen the second scale, referring to the French translation and validation of Labrecque (45). EMP is the French name of MPS; it is a self-report questionnaire of 45 questions, in fact three subscales of 15 items rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale. MPS was administered to 617 first year students at the university of Liège (table II). Differences are considered according to gender and experience of failure i.e. the fact of repeating an academic year. We realized a component analysis with promax rotation. Among the different possibilities offered by the scree-test the choice of a 4 factor solution stresses the original structure: SOP (14 items), SPP (12 items), OOP (9 items) and anti OOP (10 items); the last one is additional but allows for respecting semantics and saturation of the items. The first aim of confirming validity and internal consistency is satisfactory. In other respects the multidimensional structure of the concept leads to consideration of a positive, adaptive perfectionism and a more negative perfectionism, facilitating psychopathology (59, 60, 61). So it seems interesting to compare the different components of MPS in order to find an eventual sex-failure effect. The evaluation of perfectionism is obvious, considering it as a personality

  18. Diabetes mellitus: razão de prevalências nas diferentes regiões geográficas no Brasil, 2002 2007 Diabetes mellitus: reasons for prevalence in different geographic regions of Brazil, 2002 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Chioda Ribeiro Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando o Diabetes mellitus (DM como um relevante problema de saúde no Brasil e a importância das estimativas de prevalência para planejamento e estratégias em saúde pública, propôs-se este trabalho com o objetivo de estimar a razão de prevalências do DM nos diferentes estados brasileiros nos períodos de 2002 a 2004 e 2005 a 2007. Trata-se de estudo descritivo, baseado em dados da população brasileira com diagnóstico de DM cadastrada no Sistema de Informação da Atenção Básica (SIAB junto ao Ministério da Saúde. As taxas de prevalência foram calculadas para o período de 2002 a 2004 e para 2005 a 2007, e posteriormente estimou-se a Razão de Prevalências (R por ponto e por intervalo de 95% de confiança (IC95%. Observou-se alta prevalência de DM nos estados brasileiros com aumento significativo (R>1; IC95%>1 entre os períodos em todos os estados brasileiros, com destaque para o Distrito Federal (R=1,9800; IC95%=1,97241,9876 e o estado do Maranhão (R=1,5217; IC95%=1,51981,5235. Pode-se concluir que houve aumento significativo na prevalência de DM no Brasil de 2002 a 2007, sinalizando para a necessidade de formulação de estratégias de prevenção e controle da doença.Awareness of Diabetes Mellitus (DM as a relevant health problem in Brazil and realizing the importance of estimates of prevalence for public health planning and strategies, gave rise to this work seeking to estimate the reason for the prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM in different Brazilian states in the periods from 2002 to 2004 and 2005 to 2007. It involves a descriptive study based on Brazilian population data with a diagnosis of DM recorded in the Basic Care Information System (SIAB of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The prevalence rates were calculated for the periods from 2002 to 2004 and 2005 to 2007 and the Prevalence Ratios were then estimated per location and per reliability interval of 95% (RI95%. A high prevalence of DM was observed in

  19. Observations on the Prevalence, Characteristics, and Effects of Self-Treatment

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    Shuangge eMa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: When facing illness, a person may choose self-treatment as an alternative to hospital (and primary care-based treatment. Despite its important role in healthcare, the study on self-treatment remains limited. The goal is to collectively report the observations in the literature on the prevalence, characteristics, and effects of self-treatment.Methods: Extensive literature search was conducted, and relevant information was extracted.Results: Published studies have reported that in some regions, the prevalence of self-treatment is high and varies across illness conditions and treatment approaches. Self-medication is the most popular self-treatment approach. Multiple regional, demographic, personal, cultural and religious factors have been implicated in the pursuit of self-treatment. In addition, accessibility of healthcare also plays a role. Self-treatment in general has a positive clinical and financial effect. However there have been concerns on abuse and possible negative effects. Conclusions: This article reviews observations made in recent studies on several important aspects of self-treatment. Comprehensive and systematic study is still lacking. Interventions are needed to solve several problems associated with self-treatment.

  20. Cost, affordability and cost-effectiveness of strategies to control tuberculosis in countries with high HIV prevalence

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    Williams Brian G

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic has caused a dramatic increase in tuberculosis (TB in East and southern Africa. Several strategies have the potential to reduce the burden of TB in high HIV prevalence settings, and cost and cost-effectiveness analyses can help to prioritize them when budget constraints exist. However, published cost and cost-effectiveness studies are limited. Methods Our objective was to compare the cost, affordability and cost-effectiveness of seven strategies for reducing the burden of TB in countries with high HIV prevalence. A compartmental difference equation model of TB and HIV and recent cost data were used to assess the costs (year 2003 US$ prices and effects (TB cases averted, deaths averted, DALYs gained of these strategies in Kenya during the period 2004–2023. Results The three lowest cost and most cost-effective strategies were improving TB cure rates, improving TB case detection rates, and improving both together. The incremental cost of combined improvements to case detection and cure was below US$15 million per year (7.5% of year 2000 government health expenditure; the mean cost per DALY gained of these three strategies ranged from US$18 to US$34. Antiretroviral therapy (ART had the highest incremental costs, which by 2007 could be as large as total government health expenditures in year 2000. ART could also gain more DALYs than the other strategies, at a cost per DALY gained of around US$260 to US$530. Both the costs and effects of treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (TLTI for HIV+ individuals were low; the cost per DALY gained ranged from about US$85 to US$370. Averting one HIV infection for less than US$250 would be as cost-effective as improving TB case detection and cure rates to WHO target levels. Conclusion To reduce the burden of TB in high HIV prevalence settings, the immediate goal should be to increase TB case detection rates and, to the extent possible, improve TB cure rates, preferably

  1. Using stool antigen to screen for Helicobacter pylori in immigrants and refugees from high prevalence countries is relatively cost effective in reducing the burden of gastric cancer and peptic ulceration.

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    Thomas R Schulz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Refugees and immigrants from developing countries settling in industrialised countries have a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. Screening these groups for H. pylori and use of eradication therapy to reduce the future burden of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease is not currently recommended in most countries. We investigated whether a screening and eradication approach would be cost effective in high prevalence populations. METHODS: Nine different screening and follow-up strategies for asymptomatic immigrants from high H. pylori prevalence areas were compared with the current approach of no screening. Cost effectiveness comparisons assumed population prevalence's of H. pylori of 25%, 50% or 75%. The main outcome measure was the net cost for each cancer prevented for each strategy. Total costs of each strategy and net costs including savings from reductions in ulcers and gastric cancer were also calculated. RESULTS: Stool antigen testing with repeat testing after treatment was the most cost effective approach relative to others, for each prevalence value. The net cost per cancer prevented with this strategy was US$111,800 (assuming 75% prevalence, $132,300 (50% and $193,900 (25%. A test and treat strategy using stool antigen remained relatively cost effective, even when the prevalence was 25%. CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori screening and eradication can be an effective strategy for reducing rates of gastric cancer and peptic ulcers in high prevalence populations and our data suggest that use of stool antigen testing is the most cost effective approach.

  2. The Prevalence of Different Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission Routes and Knowledge about AIDS in Infected People with HIV in Sirjan

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    Mahin Behzadpour

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The immune system of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS is weekend because of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, and they become vulnerable to several opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens and different carcinomas. IV drug abuse, sexual contact, occupational transmission, blood transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission are well known transmission routes for HIV infection. This study was under taken to investigate the prevalence of HIV transmission routs in the HIV infected population of Sirjan, and their knowledge about the disease, in order to plan better preventive strategies. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was planned. During a 6-month period in 2010, all of the HIV infected people in Sirjan (old and new cases who had a file at the consultation center for high risk behavior, completed a valid and reliable questionnaire. Results: The definite route of transmission was not clear in any of the patients because they had more than one suspicious route. Injected drug abusers were the most common (88.4% followed by those who got tattoos (79.1%, invasive therapeutic procedures, dentistry, surgery and endoscopy (56.1%, high risk sexual behavior (62.8%, bloodletting (9.3%, injuries in the barbershop (9.3% and blood transfusion (2.3%. Conclusion: All of the HIV infected cases in Sirjan were involved with several high risk behaviors, but the major route of transmission, similar to other parts of the country was injected drug abuse. Educational programs for prevention of AIDS should be followed seriously and special attention should be paid to groups with multiple high risk behaviors.

  3. Sex and Geographic Differences in the Prevalence of Reported Childhood Motor Disability and Their Trends in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yen-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Motor disability (MD) is not uncommon in children, but data at the national level are scarce. As the Taiwan government certifies and registers disabled residents for providing services on a routine basis, the registry provides a unique opportunity for studying MD. Using data from the registry, we calculated the prevalence of MD by age, sex, and geographic area and assessed the changes from 2004 to 2010. We excluded cases under 3 years old because the government discourages the certification at this age. We found that cases between 3 and 17 years old decreased from 8187 to 6022 per year from 2004 to 2010 and the prevalence generally decreased every year in all age groups. There were more boy cases than girl cases every year, and the prevalence rate ratios ranged from 1.26 to 1.39 (p < 0.05 in all years), with a decreasing trend over time (p < 0.01). Rural areas had higher prevalence in all the years, and the prevalence rate ratio decreased from 1.31 to 1.23 (p < 0.05 in all years), with a decreasing trend over time (p < 0.05). Further studies identifying the risk factors contributing to the decreases might help in the prevention of MD in the future. PMID:29850547

  4. Sex and Geographic Differences in the Prevalence of Reported Childhood Motor Disability and Their Trends in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Tsai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor disability (MD is not uncommon in children, but data at the national level are scarce. As the Taiwan government certifies and registers disabled residents for providing services on a routine basis, the registry provides a unique opportunity for studying MD. Using data from the registry, we calculated the prevalence of MD by age, sex, and geographic area and assessed the changes from 2004 to 2010. We excluded cases under 3 years old because the government discourages the certification at this age. We found that cases between 3 and 17 years old decreased from 8187 to 6022 per year from 2004 to 2010 and the prevalence generally decreased every year in all age groups. There were more boy cases than girl cases every year, and the prevalence rate ratios ranged from 1.26 to 1.39 (p<0.05 in all years, with a decreasing trend over time (p<0.01. Rural areas had higher prevalence in all the years, and the prevalence rate ratio decreased from 1.31 to 1.23 (p<0.05 in all years, with a decreasing trend over time (p<0.05. Further studies identifying the risk factors contributing to the decreases might help in the prevention of MD in the future.

  5. Presence and Prevalence of Raffaelea lauricola, Cause of Laurel Wilt, in Different Species of Ambrosia Beetle in Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C; Konkol, Joshua L; Narvaez, Teresa; Duncan, Rita E; Saucedo, Ramon J; Campbell, Alina; Mantilla, Julio; Carrillo, Daniel; Kendra, Paul E

    2017-04-01

    We summarize the information available on ambrosia beetle species that have been associated in Florida with Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva, the primary symbiont of Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff and cause of laurel wilt. In total, 14 species in Ambrosiodmus, Euwallacea, Premnobius, Xyleborus, Xyleborinus, and Xylosandrus were either reared from laurel wilt-affected host trees or trapped in laurel wilt-affected stands of the same, and assayed for R. lauricola. In six collections from native species in the southeastern United States [Persea borbonia (L.), Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg., and Persea humilis Nash] and four from avocado (Persea americana Mill.), extracted mycangia or heads (taxa with mandibular mycangia) or intact bodies (taxa with mycangia in other locations) were surface-disinfested before assays on a semi-selective medium for the isolation of Raffaelea (CSMA+). Raffaelea lauricola was identified based on its characteristic phenotype on CSMA+, and the identity of a random subset of isolates was confirmed with taxon-specific microsatellite markers. The pathogen was recovered from 34% (246 of 726) of the individuals that were associated with the native Persea spp., but only 6% (58 of 931) of those that were associated with avocado. Over all studies, R. lauricola was recovered from 10 of the ambrosia beetle species, but it was most prevalent in Xyleborus congeners. This is the first record of R. lauricola in Ambrosiodmus lecontei Hopkins, Xyleborinus andrewesi (Blandford), and Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff. The potential effects of R. lauricola's promiscuity are discussed. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The prevalence and effects of aspiration among neonates at the time of discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsch, Emily; Irving, Sharon Y; Aylward, Brandon S; Mahle, William T

    2017-09-01

    Neonates undergoing heart surgery for CHD are at risk for postoperative gastrointestinal complications and aspiration events. There are limited data regarding the prevalence of aspiration after neonatal cardiothoracic surgery; thus, the effects of aspiration events on this patient population are not well understood. This retrospective chart review examined the prevalence and effects of aspiration among neonates who had undergone cardiac surgery at the time of their discharge. Introduction This study examined the prevalence of aspiration among neonates who had undergone cardiac surgery. Demographic data regarding these patients were analysed in order to determine risk factors for postoperative aspiration. Post-discharge feeding routes and therapeutic interventions were extracted to examine the time spent using alternate feeding routes because of aspiration risk or poor caloric intake. Modified barium swallow study results were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the test as a diagnostic tool. Materials and methods A retrospective study was undertaken of neonates who had undergone heart surgery from July, 2013 to January, 2014. Data describing patient demographics, feeding methods, and follow-up visits were recorded and compared using a χ2 test for goodness of fit and a Kaplan-Meier graph. The patient population included 62 infants - 36 of whom were male, and 10 who were born with single-ventricle circulation. The median age at surgery was 6 days (interquartile range=4 to 10 days). Modified barium swallow study results showed that 46% of patients (n=29) aspirated or were at risk for aspiration, as indicated by laryngeal penetration. In addition, 48% (n=10) of subjects with a negative barium swallow or no swallow study demonstrated clinical aspiration events. Tube feedings were required by 66% (n=41) of the participants. The median time spent on tube feeds, whether in combination with oral feeds or exclusive use of a nasogastric or gastric tube, was 54 days; 44% (n

  7. Perceived Effects of Prevalent Errors in Contract Documents on Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun Sunday Dosumu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the highly rated causes of poor performance is errors in contract documents. The objectives of this study are to investigate the prevalent errors in contract documents and their effects on construction projects. Questionnaire survey and 51 case study projects (mixed method were adopted for the study. The study also involved the use of Delphi technique to extract the possible errors that may be contained in contract documents; it did not however constitute the empirical data for the study. The sample of the study consists of 985 consulting and 275 contracting firms that engaged in the construction of building projects that were completed between 2013 and 2016 and were above the ground floor. The two-stage stratified random sampling technique was adopted for the study. The data for the study were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics (based on Shapiro-Wilk’s test. The results of the study indicate that errors in contract documents were moderately prevalent. However, overmeasurement in bill of quantities was prevalent in private, institutional and management procured projects. Traditionally procured projects contain 68% of the errors in contract documents among the procurement methods. Drawings contain the highest number of errors, followed by bill of quantities and specifications. The severe effects of errors in contract documents were structural collapse, deterioration of buildings and contractors’ claims among others. The result of the study implies that, management procurement method is the route to error minimization in developing countries, but it may need to be backed by law and guarded against overmeasurement.

  8. Anaemia among pregnant women in northern Tanzania: prevalence, risk factors and effect on perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msuya, Sia E; Hussein, Tamara H; Uriyo, Jacqueline; Sam, Noel E; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2011-01-01

    Anaemia during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal and neonatal outcomes. However, there is limited data regarding prevalence and effects of anaemia during pregnancy in northern Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors for anaemia and its effect on perinatal outcomes among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Moshi Municipality in northern Tanzania. A cohort of pregnant women aged 14-43 years and in their 3rd trimester, was recruited from two primary health care clinics between June 2002 and March 2004. Interviews, anthropometric measurements and haematological examinations were conducted on 2654 consenting women. Perinatal outcomes were recorded during delivery and at 1 week after delivery. Of the 2654 participants, 47.4% had anaemia (haemoglobin [Hb] anaemia (Hb= 9-10.9g/dl), 9.9% had moderate anaemia (Hb =7- 8.9g/dl), and 2.1% had severe anaemia (Hb Anaemia was significantly more prevalent in HIV-positive (56.4%) than in HIV-negative women (46.7%), (P = 0.01). In logistic regression anaemia was independently associated with maternal HIV (OR= 1.5), malaria (OR= 5.2), clinic of recruitment (OR= 1.5) and low income (OR= 1.9). Pregnant women with anaemia were more likely to have low birth weight (LBW) infants. Compared with non-anaemic women, the risk of LBW was 1.6 times and 4.8 times higher for children born to women with moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. In conclusion, anaemia in pregnancy is a severe public health problem in northern Tanzania. Control of maternal anaemia may be one important strategy to prevent LBW in this setting. Measures to prevent malaria and to control anaemia among all pregnant women irrespective of HIV status, should be strengthened. Outside of the health sector broader approaches for anaemia prevention targeting women of lower income, are required.

  9. The effect of somatic symptom attribution on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety among nursing home patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalbrugge, Martin; Pot, Anne Margriet; Jongenelis, Lineke; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Eefsting, Jan A

    2005-01-01

    The validity of diagnostic psychiatric instruments for depression and anxiety disorders may be compromised among patients with complex physical illness and disability. The objective of this study was to determine the effect on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety in a nursing home population of attributing somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety to either somatic or psychiatric disorder. Symptoms of major depression (MD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) were measured using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN). Somatic symptoms of MD, GAD and PD were attributed to somatic causes when the interviewer was not sure about a psychiatric cause. To analyse the effect of this attribution on the prevalence rate of MD, GAD and PD, a sensitivity analysis was undertaken in which symptoms that were attributed to somatic causes were recoded as symptoms attributed to psychiatric disorder. Prevalence rates of MD, GAD and PD were calculated before and after recoding. The prevalence of MD after recoding rose from 7.5% to 8.1%. The prevalence of GAD did not change. The prevalence of PD rose from 1.5% to 1.8%. Attribution of somatic symptoms to either somatic or psychiatric disorder when the interviewer was not sure about a psychiatric cause of the somatic symptoms had only a very modest effect on the prevalence rate of major depression, generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder in a nursing home population.

  10. Investigation of selection bias in the association of race with prevalent atrial fibrillation in a national cohort study: REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Evan L; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Pulley, LeaVonne; Safford, Monika M; Howard, George; Howard, Virginia J

    2016-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is diagnosed more commonly in whites than blacks in the United States. In epidemiologic studies, selection bias could induce a noncausal positive association of white race with prevalent AF if voluntary enrollment was influenced by both race and AF status. We investigated whether nonrandom enrollment biased the association of race with prevalent self-reported AF in the US-based REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke Study (REGARDS). REGARDS had a two-stage enrollment process, allowing us to compare 30,183 fully enrolled REGARDS participants with 12,828 people who completed the first-stage telephone survey but did not complete the second-stage in-home visit to finalize their REGARDS enrollment (telephone-only participants). REGARDS enrollment was higher among whites (77.1%) than among blacks (62.3%) but did not differ by self-reported AF status. The prevalence of AF was 8.45% in whites and 5.86% in blacks adjusted for age, sex, income, education, and perceived general health. The adjusted white/black prevalence ratio of self-reported AF was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.32-1.56) among REGARDS participants and 1.38 (1.22-1.55) among telephone-only participants. These findings suggest that selection bias is not a viable explanation for the higher prevalence of self-reported AF among whites in population studies such as REGARDS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of three ergonomics training programs on the prevalence of low-back pain among workers of an Iranian automobile factory: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghilinejad, M; Bahrami-Ahmadi, A; Kabir-Mokamelkhah, E; Sarebanha, S; Hosseini, H R; Sadeghi, Z

    2014-04-01

    Many workers suffer from low-back pain. Type and severity of spinal complaints have relationship with work load. Lack of adherence to ergonomics recommendations among the important causes of low-back pain. To assess the effect of 3 ergonomics training programs on the prevalence of lowback pain among workers of an Iranian automobile factory. In a parallel-design 4-arm randomized clinical trial, 760 active workers of an automobile factory were studied. 503 workers were found eligible and randomized into 3 intervention groups (n=252), and a control group (n=251). The intervention groups consisted of 3 arms: 84 workers were educated by pamphlet, 84 by lectures, and 84 by workshop. Nordic questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of spinal complaint before and 1-year after the interventions. The trial is registered with the Iranian Randomized Clinical Trial Registry, number IRCT2013061213182N2. Out of 503 workers, 52 lost to follow-up leaving 451 workers for analyses. The prevalence of low-back pain at the baseline was not significantly different among the studied arms. 1-year after the interventions, the prevalence did not change significantly from the baseline values for the lecture and pamphlet group. However, the prevalence of LBP experienced during the last year significantly (p=0.036) decreased from 42% to 23% in participant took part in the workshop. Training of automobile factory workers in ergonomics is more effective by running workshop than giving lecture or disseminating pamphlet.

  12. The Effect of Three Ergonomics Training Programs on the Prevalence of Low-Back Pain among Workers of an Iranian Automobile Factory: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aghilinejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many workers suffer from low-back pain. Type and severity of spinal complaints have relationship with work load. Lack of adherence to ergonomics recommendations among the important causes of low-back pain. Objective: To assess the effect of 3 ergonomics training programs on the prevalence of lowback pain among workers of an Iranian automobile factory. Methods: In a parallel-design 4-arm randomized clinical trial, 760 active workers of an automobile factory were studied. 503 workers were found eligible and randomized into 3 intervention groups (n=252, and a control group (n=251. The intervention groups consisted of 3 arms: 84 workers were educated by pamphlet, 84 by lectures, and 84 by workshop. Nordic questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of spinal complaint before and 1-year after the interventions. The trial is registered with the Iranian Randomized Clinical Trial Registry, number IRCT2013061213182N2. Results: Out of 503 workers, 52 lost to follow-up leaving 451 workers for analyses. The prevalence of low-back pain at the baseline was not significantly different among the studied arms. 1-year after the interventions, the prevalence did not change significantly from the baseline values for the lecture and pamphlet group. However, the prevalence of LBP experienced during the last year significantly (p=0.036 decreased from 42% to 23% in participant took part in the workshop. Conclusion: Training of automobile factory workers in ergonomics is more effective by running workshop than giving lecture or disseminating pamphlet.

  13. The cost-effectiveness of intervening in low and high HIV prevalence areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josue Mbonigaba

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This research compared the cost-effectiveness of a set of HIV/AIDS interventions in a low HIV prevalence area (LPA and in a high HIV prevalence area (HPA in South Africa. The rationale for this analysis was to assess the interaction dynamics between a specific HIV/AIDS intervention and an area of implementation and the effects of these dynamics on the cost-effectiveness of such an HIV/AIDS intervention. A pair of Markov models was evaluated for each intervention; one model for a HPA and another for an LPA and the cost-effectiveness of that intervention was compared across an LPA and a HPA. The baseline costs and health outcomes in each area were collected from the literature. To depict interaction dynamics between an HIV/AIDS intervention and an area of implementation, baseline health outcomes collected in each area, were adjusted over time based on the patterns of the projections observed in the AIDS model of the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008. The study found that the VCT and treatment of STDs were equally cost-effective in an LPA and in a HPA while PMTCT and HAART were more cost-effective in an LPA than in a HPA. As a policy proposal, resources earmarked to non-ARV based interventions (VCT and treatment of STDs should  be equally shared across an LPA and a HPA while  more of the resources reserved for ARV-based interventions (PMTCT and HAART should go in an LPA in order to increase efficiency.

  14. The epidemiology of major depressive disorder and subthreshold depression in Izmir, Turkey: Prevalence, socioeconomic differences, impairment and help-seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuzoğlu, Ahmet; Binbay, Tolga; Ulaş, Halis; Elbi, Hayriye; Tanık, Feride Aksu; Zağlı, Nesli; Alptekin, Köksal

    2015-08-01

    Subclinical and clinical depression is common, widely distributed in the general population, and usually associated with role impairment and help-seeking. Reliable information at the population level is needed to estimate the disease burden of depression and associated care needs in Turkey. The cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of subthreshold (SubD) and clinical major depressive disorder (MDD) in Izmir, Turkey. In the 5242 eligible households, a total of 4011 individuals were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 76.5%. Prevalence estimates of MDD and SubD depression were formed by using the responses to the questions of the CIDI section E. Short Form 36 (SF-36) to assess health status and functional impairments in eight scaled scores during the last four weeks. All respondents were questioned about receiving 12-month treatment for any psychological complaints, the route of help-seeking, as well as prescribed medicines and any hospitalization. The one year prevalence estimate for CIDI/DSM IV MDD was 8.2% (95% CI, 7.4-9.1). Less educated, low income, uninsured, low SES, unemployed/disabled and housewives, slum area residents had higher one year MDD prevalence. Determined prevalence of help seeking from mental health services of SubD and MDD cases were 23.6%, 30.6% respectively. Only 24.8% of clinically depressive patients received minimally adequate treatment. Cross sectional design. Higher MDD prevalence correlates with younger ages, female gender, unemployment, less education, lower monthly income, lower SES and uninsurance. Help seeking from mental health services were low. There are treatment gap and impairment in depressive group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and molecular profiling of Epstein Barr virus (EBV among healthy blood donors from different nationalities in Qatar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria K Smatti

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis. EBV is highly prevalent lymphotropic herpesvirus and has been linked to several malignancies. Transmission is generally by oral secretions, but can be through blood transfusions and organ transplantations. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, viremia rates, and circulating genotypes of EBV in healthy blood donors in Qatar.Blood samples from 673 blood donors of different nationalities residing in Qatar (mainly Qatar, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Pakistan, and India were collected and tested for anti-EBV capsid (VCA; IgG & IgM, nuclear (EBNA; IgG, and early (EA-D; IgG antigens. Avidity testing was determined when active infection was suspected. DNA was extracted from the buffy coat and subjected to EBV-DNA quantification using qRT-PCR. Genotyping was performed using nested-PCR targeting EBV-EBNA2 gene, and phylogeny by sequence analysis of the LMP-1 gene.97.9% (673/659 of the samples were seropositive as indicated by the presence VCA-IgG, while 52.6% (354/673 had detectible EBV-DNA. EBV seroprevalence and viremia rates increased significantly with age. Genotyping of 51 randomly selected samples showed predominance of Genotype 1 (72.5%, 37/51 as compared to genotype 2 (3.5%, and mixed infections were detected in 4% of the samples. Sub-genotyping for these samples revealed that the Mediterranean strain was predominant (65.3%, followed by B95.8 prototype and North Carolina strains (12.2% each, and China1 strain (6%.As a first study to evaluate EBV infection in highly diverse population in Qatar, where expatriates represent more than 85% of the population, our results indicated high seroprevalence and viremia rate of EBV in different nationalities, with genotype 1 and Mediterranean strain being predominant. Clinical significance of these finding have not been investigated and shall be evaluated in future studies.

  16. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control and risk factors related to hypertension among urban adults in Inner Mongolia 2014: differences between Mongolian and Han populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoju Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Han and Mongolian populations constitute approximately 96 % of the population of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and the two ethnic groups have different genetic backgrounds and lifestyle. We aim to assess the prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and related risk factors of hypertension among urban adults in Inner Mongolia, with the comparison of the differences between Mongolian and Han populations in this respect. Methods Three thousand two hundred fifty-one individuals aged 20–80 years (2326 Han and 925 Mongolian were selected using a multistage cluster sampling method from Inner Mongolia in 2014. The adjusted prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were evaluated by the Logistic regression. In addition, possible interactions were also tested. When interactions were found significant, strata-specific analysis were performed. Multivariate logistic regression was used for estimating independent associations between risk factors and hypertension. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 27.47 % for Han population, 31.46 % for Mongolian population. The adjusted prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were 26.45, 65.43, 78.24 and 48.28 % in Han, and 31.30, 68.22, 85.57 and 50.55 % in Mongolian, respectively. There was no significant difference in the adjusted awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among Mongolian and Han adult residents (all P >0.05. Lower prevalence of hypertension was associated with younger age and healthy weight in both Mongolian and Han adults. Within Han adults, high education, moderate physical activity and non-alcohol drinkers were additionally associated with lower prevalence of hypertension, whereas within Mongolian adults, lower prevalence was associated with being female. Among residents with medium education level, nondrinkers had 0.60 times lower odds of having hypertension than current drinkers (OR = 0.60, 95 % CI: 0.44–0

  17. A new tool, a better tool? Prevalence and performance of the International Diabetes Federation and the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria for metabolic syndrome in different ethnic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bindraban, N. R.; van Valkengoed, I. G. M.; Mairuhu, G.; Koster, R. W.; Holleman, F.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Koopmans, R. P.; Stronks, K.

    2008-01-01

    We used a population based study in the Netherlands of 330 Hindustani Surinamese, 586 African Surinamese, and 486 ethnic Dutch (Dutch) to describe the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and the association with differences in cardiovascular disease in and between ethnic groups. Fasting blood

  18. Gender and Geographic Differences in the Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children: Analysis of Data from the National Disability Registry of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Der-Chung; Tseng, Yen-Cheng; Hou, Yuh-Ming; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the world has increased dramatically in the recent decades. However, data at the national level are limited, and geographic differences are seldom evaluated. According to the law, the local governments in Taiwan began to certify disabled residents and provide various services in 1980, and the…

  19. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism at different total plasma cholesterol levels in middle aged men and women : a need for case-finding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bindels, A.J.; Westendorp, R.G.; Frölich, M.; Seidell, J C; Blokstra, A.; Smelt, A.H.M.

    OBJECTIVE: In order to determine whether screening of thyroid function is justified in patients with hypercholesterolaemia, we determined the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism at different levels of total plasma cholesterol in middle-aged men and women. DESIGN AND METHODS: 1200 participants

  20. The Effect of Human Impact on Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence in Taricha torosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, V.; Macario, E.; Tumey, C.

    2014-12-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is emerging as a major cause of the amphibian extinction. As amphibians serve an important role as indicator species in their ecosystem and play a vital role in the food chain, Bd will not only affect the amphibian population but also the health of the environment. Bd is an aquatic fungus that blocks the porous skin of amphibians which interrupts electrolyte, gas and water transfer. This imbalances the electrolyte system which causes cells and organs to malfunction, therefore killing the amphibian. While frogs are more common for Bd, it is not often found in newts. However, Dr. Vance Vredenburg recently found an outbreak of Bd in Taricha torosa in Marin Headlands, California. This location was used in the research as the sample site with most human impact and was expected to have the highest prevalence according to the proposed hypothesis that more human impact will correspond with a higher prevalence of Bd. Decreasing the level of human impact, Fairfield Osborn Preserve and Galbreath Preserve were picked as the other sample sites. After the samples went through qPCR, all of them came back negative for Bd. These results did not support the hypothesis, however, it contributed data to explaining the dynamics of Bd when combined with Dr. Vance Vredenburg's data from 2 months earlier. Within the two months, there was a huge difference in the prevalence of Bd as it dropped from 88% to 0%. This shows that Taricha torosa does in fact get Bd. However, it is rarely detected because Bd is fast-acting and has high mortality rates. Therefore, it is least likely for current nonspecific surveys to swab the newts during a short but lethal Bd outbreak.

  1. Poly-victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population: Prevalence, social and psychological profile, and detrimental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossige, Svein; Huang, Lihong

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on poly-victimization, with the aim of providing a realistic estimation of the prevalence of lifetime victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population (ages 18-19 years). Based upon the concept from previous research, we applied measures of child poly-victimization on Norwegian data obtained from a national youth survey in 2015 (N = 4,531) to arrive at an estimation of its prevalence. We used variables that measure individual characteristics such as gender and educational aspiration and socio-economic factors such as parents' education level and home economic situation to derive a social and psychological profile of victimization and poly-victimization among young people. Finally, we estimated the effects of poly-victimization on mental health such as symptoms of depression, anxiety and trauma. Our study identified a poly-victimization prevalence of 8.6% among young people, i.e. they were exposed to three of all four forms of violence investigated by our study: non-physical violence, witnessing violence against parents, physical violence and sexual abuse. Adolescents of poly-victimization are six times more likely to report depression and anxiety and trauma when compared with those without victimization. Poly-victimization is a phenomenon that heavily burdens many young people across many national contexts. Poly-victims clearly tend to develop depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The early detection of sexual abuse, physical violence, and bullying victimization is of critical importance and preventive measures could consider addressing family factors through parental educational programs.

  2. Prevalence of fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis and its effect on the quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Karthik; Taly, Arun B.; Gupta, Anupam; Prasad, Chandrajit; Christopher, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This prospective study was carried out to observe the prevalence of fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and its effect on quality-of-life (QoL). Study Design and Setting: Prospective observational study in a University Tertiary Research Hospital in India. Patients and Methods: A total of 31 patients (25 females) with definite MS according to McDonald's criteria presented in out-patient/admitted in the Department of Neurology (between February 2010 and December 2011) were included in the study. Disease severity was evaluated using the Kurtzke's expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Fatigue was assessed using Krupp's fatigue severity scale (FSS). QoL was assessed by the World Health Organization QoL-BREF questionnaire. Results: The mean age of patients was 30.1 ± 9.1 years. The mean age at first symptom was 25.23 ± 6.4 years. The mean number of relapses was 4.7 ± 3.6 in the patients. The mean duration of illness was 4.9 ± 4.4 years. The mean EDSS score was 3.5 ± 2.2. Mean fatigue score was 38.7 ± 18.5 (cut-off value 36 in FSS). The prevalence of fatigue in patients with MS was 58.1% (18/31). MS patients with fatigue were significantly more impaired (P < 0.05) on all QoL domains (i.e., physical, psychosocial, social, and environment) than MS patients without fatigue. Conclusion: Prevalence of fatigue was found to be high in the MS patients in the study. All four domains of QoL were significantly more impaired in the group with fatigue than in those without fatigue. PMID:24250159

  3. Poly-victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population: Prevalence, social and psychological profile, and detrimental effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Mossige

    Full Text Available This study focuses on poly-victimization, with the aim of providing a realistic estimation of the prevalence of lifetime victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population (ages 18-19 years.Based upon the concept from previous research, we applied measures of child poly-victimization on Norwegian data obtained from a national youth survey in 2015 (N = 4,531 to arrive at an estimation of its prevalence. We used variables that measure individual characteristics such as gender and educational aspiration and socio-economic factors such as parents' education level and home economic situation to derive a social and psychological profile of victimization and poly-victimization among young people. Finally, we estimated the effects of poly-victimization on mental health such as symptoms of depression, anxiety and trauma.Our study identified a poly-victimization prevalence of 8.6% among young people, i.e. they were exposed to three of all four forms of violence investigated by our study: non-physical violence, witnessing violence against parents, physical violence and sexual abuse. Adolescents of poly-victimization are six times more likely to report depression and anxiety and trauma when compared with those without victimization.Poly-victimization is a phenomenon that heavily burdens many young people across many national contexts. Poly-victims clearly tend to develop depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The early detection of sexual abuse, physical violence, and bullying victimization is of critical importance and preventive measures could consider addressing family factors through parental educational programs.

  4. Defining sarcopenia : The impact of different diagnostic criteria on the prevalence of sarcopenia in a large middle aged cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, A. Y.; Meskers, C. G M; Ling, C. H Y; Narici, M.; Kurrle, S. E.; Cameron, I. D.; Westendorp, R. G J; Maier, A. B.

    Sarcopenia, low muscle mass, is an increasing problem in our ageing society. The prevalence of sarcopenia varies extremely between elderly cohorts ranging from 7% to over 50%. Without consensus on the definition of sarcopenia, a variety of diagnostic criteria are being used. We assessed the degree

  5. Seasonal abundance and development of the Asian longhorned beetle and natural enemy prevalence in different forest types in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Tonghai Zhao; Ruitong Gao; Therese M. Poland

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal abundance and population development of the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and prevalence of its natural enemies were studied on Hankow willow (Salix matsudana Koidz.) at an urban forest site (Anci) and a rural forest site (Tangerli) in Hebei province...

  6. A cross sectional study on Dutch layer farms to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors for different Chlamydia species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, Marloes; van der Goot, Jeanet A; Fijten, Helmi; van der Giessen, Joke W; Kuijt, Eric; Maassen, Catharina B M; van Roon, Annika; Wit, Ben; Koets, Ad P; Roest, Hendrik I J

    2018-01-01

    In poultry several Chlamydia species have been detected, but Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea appear to be most prevalent and important. Chlamydia psittaci is a well-known zoonosis and is considered to be a pathogen of poultry. Chlamydia gallinacea has been described more recently. Its

  7. A cross sectional study on Dutch layer farms to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors for different Chlamydia species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, Marloes; Goot, van der Jeanet A.; Fijten, Helmi; Giessen, van der Joke W.; Kuijt, Eric; Maassen, Catharina B.M.; Roon, van Annika; Wit, Ben; Koets, Ad P.; Roest, Hendrik I.J.

    2018-01-01

    In poultry several Chlamydia species have been detected, but Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea appear to be most prevalent and important. Chlamydia psittaci is a well-known zoonosis and is considered to be a pathogen of poultry. Chlamydia gallinacea has been described more recently. Its

  8. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Consequent Effect of Dystocia in Holstein Dairy Cows in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashi, Hadi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza; Dadpasand, Mohammad; Asaadi, Anise

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and consequent effect of dystocia on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. The data set consisted of 55,577 calving records on 30,879 Holstein cows in 30 dairy herds for the period March 2000 to April 2009. Factors affecting dystocia were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models through the maximum likelihood method in the GENMOD procedure. The effect of dystocia on lactation performance and factors affecting calf birth weight were analyzed using mixed linear model in the MIXED procedure. The average incidence of dystocia was 10.8% and the mean (SD) calf birth weight was 42.13 (5.42) kg. Primiparous cows had calves with lower body weight and were more likely to require assistance at parturition (pdystocia than male calves (pdystocia than singletons (pdystocia at calving compared with those that did not (p<0.05). PMID:25049584

  9. Moving to an A1C-based diagnosis of diabetes has a different impact on prevalence in different ethnic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L; Witte, Daniel R; Kaduka, Lydia

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare screen-detected diabetes prevalence and the degree of diagnostic agreement by ethnicity with the current oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-based and newly proposed A1C-based diagnostic criteria. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Six studies (1999-2009) from Denmark, the U.K., Aust...

  10. Decline in HIV prevalence among young women in Zambia: national-level estimates of trends mask geographical and socio-demographic differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkomba Kayeyi

    Full Text Available A decline in HIV incidence has been reported in Zambia and a number of other sub-Saharan countries. The trend of HIV prevalence among young people is a good marker of HIV incidence. In this study, different data sources are used to examine geographical and sub-population group differentials in HIV prevalence trends among men and women aged 15-24 years in Zambia.We analysed ANC data for women aged 15-24 years from 22 sentinel sites consistently covered in the period 1994-2008, and HIV data for young men and women aged 15-24 years from the ZDHS 2001/2 and 2007. In addition, we systematically reviewed peer-reviewed articles that have reported findings on HIV prevalence and incidence among young people.Overall trends of the ANC surveillance data indicated a substantial HIV prevalence decline among young women in both urban and rural areas. However, provincial declines differed substantially, i.e. between 10% and 68% among urban women, and from stability to 86% among rural women. Prevalence declines were steeper among those with the highest educational attainments than among the least educated. The ZDHS data indicated a significant reduction in prevalence between the two survey rounds among young women only. Provincial-level ZDHS changes were difficult to assess because the sample sizes were small. ANC-based trend patterns were consistent with those observed in PMTCT-based data (2002-2006, whereas population-based surveys in a selected urban community (1995-2003 suggested that the ANC-based data underestimated the prevalence declines in the general populations of both young both men and women.The overall HIV prevalence declined substantially among young women in Zambia and this is interpreted as indicating a decline in HIV incidence. It is noteworthy that overall national trends masked substantial differences by place and by educational attainment, demonstrating critical limitations in the current focus on overall country-level trends in

  11. Elite athletes' estimates of the prevalence of illicit drug use: evidence for the false consensus effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Matthew; Thomas, Johanna O; Swift, Wendy; Burns, Lucinda

    2012-01-01

    The false consensus effect (FCE) is the tendency for people to assume that others share their attitudes and behaviours to a greater extent than they actually do. The FCE has been demonstrated for a range of health behaviours, including substance use. The study aimed to explore the relationship between elite athlete's engagement in recreational drug use and their consensus estimates (the FCE) and to determine whether those who engage in the behaviour overestimate the use of others around them. The FCE was investigated among 974 elite Australian athletes who were classified according to their drug use history. Participants tended to report that there was a higher prevalence of drug use among athletes in general compared with athletes in their sport, and these estimates appeared to be influenced by participants' drug use history. While overestimation of drug use by participants was not common, this overestimation also appeared to be influenced by athletes' drug use history. The results suggest that athletes who have a history of illicit drug use overestimate the prevalence of drug use among athletes. These findings may be helpful in the formulation of normative education initiatives. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. Prevalence, side effects and awareness about energy drinks among the female university students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahamathulla, Mohamudha Parveen

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the consumption, prevalence, side effects and awareness of energy drinks among female university students in Saudi Arabia. A quantitative research design was implied with sample size of 358 female students, recruited from Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data, gathered through self-administered questionnaire, was analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 with p value energy drink consumers. The reasons for increased consumption of energy drinks mainly include giving company to friends (59.4%), better performance in exams (41.2%), and better concentration in studies (39.4%). The most common side effect was headache (32.3%), and the least was identified as allergy (2%). Only 39.4% and 29.9% of students acquired awareness regarding the harmful effects of energy drink consumption during pregnancy and breast feeding respectively. A significant proportion of female students at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz have reported to consume energy drinks regularly with several adverse effects. The government of Saudi Arabia should take serious initiatives towards organizing effective awareness programs specifically in universities and colleges to control the consumption of energy drinks and educate on the adverse effects.

  13. Ameliorative Effect of Different Concentration of Mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    ameliorative effect of mushroom in the post-experimental stage. Samples of liver and ... except in the liver which showed mild periportal chronic inflammatory cell. However, the .... alcohol for 12 hours and through absolute alcohol to remove ...

  14. Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331,288 participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and the classification of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in different regions. We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA1c (HbA1c ≥6·5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG ≥7·0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT ≥11·1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated diabetes prevalence, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights. We compared the prevalences of diabetes using different definitions graphically and by regression analyses. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of diabetes diagnosis based on HbA1c compared with diagnosis based on glucose among previously undiagnosed individuals (ie, excluding those with history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated sensitivity and specificity in each survey, and then pooled results using a random-effects model. We assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori. Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r=0·98), but was higher by 2-6 percentage points at different prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA1c was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42·8% of age-sex-survey groups and higher in another 41·6%; in the other 15·6%, the two definitions

  15. 20 EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF DECOMPOSED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... the urban markets. Cabbage is one of the priority vegetable crops in the diet of the Seychelles people. (Grubben, 1997). Poultry manure, an efficient ... Planting holes measuring 6.0 cm depth were dug at a spacing of 50 cm x 50 cm between and within rows in each treatment plot. DPM at the different rates of ...

  16. Multitasking: productivity effects and gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.; Peter, N.

    2011-01-01

    We examine how multitasking affects performance and check whether women are indeed better at multitasking. Subjects in our experiment perform two different tasks according to three treatments: one where they perform the tasks sequentially, one where they are forced to multitask, and one where they

  17. Age differences in genetic effect of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohanjanian, E.E.; Sahakian, D.G.; Khachatrian, G.A.; Mkrtichian, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    The age differences in the radiosensitivity of the genetic apparatus of spleen cells, lymphatic ganglion and the epithelium of the mucous uterus have been revealed. In mice not having reached puberty the chromosomes of the cells of the above-mentioned organs are more sensitive to a single radiation dose of 100 R than in mice having reached puberty. (author)

  18. Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em crianças e adolescentes de diferentes condições socioeconômicas Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents of different socioeconomic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselia Alves Pontes da Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: comparar as prevalências de sobrepeso e obesidade em um grupo de pré-escolares, escolares e adolescentes de diferentes condições socioeconômicas na cidade do Recife. MÉTODOS: estudo do tipo transversal envolvendo uma amostra de 1616 crianças e adolescentes, escolhida por conveniência. Os indicadores nutricionais foram definidos conforme as recomendações do National Center of Health Statistics 2000, sendo considerado sobrepeso o índice de massa corporal igual ou superior ao percentil 85 e inferior ao percentil 95 e obesidade, o índice de massa corporal igual ou superior ao percentil 95. RESULTADOS: foi identificado sobrepeso em 234 (14,5% indivíduos e obesidade, em 134 (8,3%. A prevalência de sobrepeso foi maior nos pré-escolares (22,2%, observando-se redução progressiva da freqüência nas faixas etárias de escolar (12,9% e adolescente (10,8%. Constatou-se fato idêntico quanto à obesidade, detectada em 13,8% dos pré-escolares, 8,2% dos escolares e 4,9% dos adolescentes. O sobrepeso e a obesidade foram mais observados entre crianças e adolescentes de melhor condição socioeconômica. CONCLUSÕES: as prevalências de sobrepeso e obesidade diminuíram à medida que ocorreu aumento da faixa etária. Entre os pré-escolares observou-se prevalência de sobrepeso semelhante, independente das condições socioeconômicas. A prevalência da obesidade foi maior entre escolares de boas condições socioeconômicas e adolescentes de baixa condição socioeconômica.OBJECTIVES: to compare overweight and obesity in preschool children, school children and adolescents belonging to different socioeconomic conditions. METHODS: cross-sectional and based on a 1616 children and adolescents sample. Nutritional indicators were defined according to the National Center of Health Statistics 2000 recommendations, overweight being BMI equal to or above 85 percentile and below percentile 95; obesity indicator being defined with BMI equal to

  19. Sex difference in the association between habitual daytime napping and prevalence of diabetes: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kan; Li, Feng; Qi, Yiqin; Lin, Diaozhu; Ren, Meng; Xu, Mingtong; Li, Fangping; Li, Yan; Yan, Li

    2016-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the associations between habitual daytime napping and diabetes and whether it varies by sex, menopause, and sleep quality. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in 8621 eligible individuals aged 40 years or older. Information on daytime napping hours, night-time sleep duration, history of menstruation, and sleep quality was self-reported. Diabetes was diagnosed according to the 1999 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. The prevalence of diabetes was 19.4 % in men and 15.6 % in women. Increased daytime napping hours were positively associated with parameters of glycometabolism in women, such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 2-h plasma glucose, and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, all P for trend napping group, 0-1-h daytime napping group, and more than 1-h daytime napping group were 14.5, 15.6, and 20.8 %, respectively (P for trend = 0.0004). A similar trend was detected in postmenopausal women (P for trend = 0.002). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, compared with no-habitual daytime napping postmenopausal women, those with daytime napping more than 1 h had higher prevalent diabetes (odds ratios 1.36, 95 % confidence interval, 1.04-1.77). In subgroup analysis of postmenopausal women, associations of daytime napping levels and prevalent diabetes were detected in older, overweight participants with good sleep quality who have not retired from work. In conclusion, our study suggests that habitual daytime napping is associated with prevalence of diabetes in postmenopausal women.

  20. Ethnic and Regional Differences in Prevalence and Correlates of Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors in Northern Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Joykrishna Sarkar, MSc; Lisa M. Lix, PhD; Sharon Bruce, PhD; T. Kue Young, MD, PhD

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionWe investigated ethnic and geographic variations in major chronic diseases and risk factors in northern Canada, an area that is undergoing rapid changes in its social, cultural, and physical environments.MethodsSelf-report data were obtained from the population-based Canadian Community Health Survey in 2000-2001 and 2005-2006 for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal respondents from the 3 regions of northern Canada: Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Crude prevalence estimates, a...

  1. Hospital-acquired urinary tract infection point prevalence in Turkey: Differences in risk factors among patient groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the point prevalence of nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs) and to investigate risk factors for pathogen type (E. coli vs. others) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) positivity among nosocomial UTI patients. Methods A questionnaire consisting of 44 questions on demographic data and risk factors of UTI cases was sent to 51 tertiary care hospitals. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results The overall prevalence of UTI was 1.82% (483/26534). The prevalence of UTI was higher in intensive care units (ICUs) with 6.77% versus 1.45% outside ICUs. Hospitals of the Ministry of Health (compared to university hospitals), hospitals in less developed provinces and hospitals with bed capacity urinary catheter were more likely to have received immunosuppressive therapy, current corticosteroid use, renal transplantation and uterine prolapsus and less likely to have another infection outside the urinary tract, as compared to catheterized patients. Among the 422 culture-positive patients, the most common pathogen was E. coli (45.5%). The risk factors increasing the likelihood of E. coli in urine culture were being female, history of urinary tract operation, no use of antibiotics in the preceding three months and infection outside the urinary tract. There were 247 patients with E. coli or Klebsiella spp. positive in culture. Among these, 61% (n=151) were ESBL- positive. Among patients having E. coli/Klebsiella positive in culture, antibiotic use in the preceding three months and history of urinary tract operation were the independent risk factors significantly increasing the risk of ESBL. Conclusions The reasons underlying the high prevalence of nosocomial UTIs, and a better understanding of the risk factors might lead to improved control of these infections. PMID:24188193

  2. Detection and prevalence of four different hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in Eastern North Carolina American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Lori S H; Stoskopf, Michael K; Maggi, Ricardo G

    2017-02-01

    Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are globally emerging, obligate parasitic, epierythrocytic bacteria that infect many vertebrates, including humans. Hemoplasma infection can cause acute life-threatening symptoms or lead to a chronic sub-clinical carrier state. Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. transmission, prevalence, and host specificity are uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of Mycoplasma species in blood from 68 free-ranging black bears from the eastern coast of North Carolina. DNA amplification of Mycoplasma 16S rRNA gene identified four distinct species infecting 34/68 (50%) of the black bear blood samples, including Candidatus M. haematoparvum. The high prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma infection in this wildlife species highlights the importance of understanding intra and inter species transmission. Black bears may play a role in the transmission of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. between animals, arthropod vectors, and humans. Further studies are needed to elucidate black bears as a potential reservoir for hemotropic Mycoplasma infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Differences in gay men's AIDS risk knowledge and behavior patterns in high and low AIDS prevalence cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T; Kelly, J A

    1989-01-01

    Several studies have found reductions in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk practices among gay men in high AIDS-prevalence cities since the start of the AIDS crisis. Much less is known about risk behavior patterns among gay men in smaller cities, where AIDS cases are less common and the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection is relatively lower. In the study, men entering gay bars in three cities, one large and two small, completed anonymous surveys of sexual practices and AIDS risk knowledge. Men in high AIDS-prevalence areas were found to have had a greater number of sexual partners, were more knowledgeable about AIDS, were much more likely to engage in low-risk practices (such as mutual masturbation or body rubbing), and had unprotected anal intercourse less frequently than gay men in smaller cities. The most common sexual activity among gay men in the larger city was mutual masturbation, a low-risk practice. The most common sexual activity among gay men in the smaller cities was unprotected anal intercourse. Increased efforts are needed to educate gay men and to promote risk behavior changes among those living in smaller cities and in communities outside the prominent AIDS epicenters.

  4. Higher prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in adolescent and young adult girls belonging to different Indian tribes with varied socio-sexual lifestyle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Sharma

    Full Text Available Despite high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and cervical cancer in Indian women, no study has been done in tribal populations whose socio-sexual lifestyle is different. Therefore, HPV screening has been carried out in pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adult tribal girls using self-collected urine samples.20-35 ml self-collected midstream urine samples were obtained from a total of 2278 healthy tribal girls (9-25 years comprising pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adults from three Indian states: Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. β-globin positive 2034 samples were employed for HPV detection and genotyping.The overall prevalence of HPV infection in tribal girls was 12.9% (262/2034. More than 65% (172/262 of them were infected with HR-HPV types of which HPV16 was the most predominant type (54%. Young adult girls aged 18-25 years showed a significantly higher prevalence of HPV infection (19.2%; OR = 3.36; 95% CI 2.97-6.34, P<0.001 as compared to that in adolescent (11.4%; OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.20-2.76, P<0.01 or pre-adolescent girls (6.6%.This is a first study showing significantly a very high prevalence of HPV infection in adolescent and young adult tribal girls possibly due to different socio-sexual behavior, indicating a serious health concern for Indian tribal women.

  5. Do Class Size Effects Differ across Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analysing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enrolled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class size cap that creates exogenous variation in…

  6. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INCLUDING DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  7. Prevalence of habit of tobacco and its deleterious effects in general population of Jaipur District, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vela Desai

    2012-01-01

    Materials and methods: A total of 552 patients who visited Outpatient Department of Jaipur Dental College, Jaipur, were studied. Complete information regarding presence of smoking and other forms of tobacco was recorded in case history proforma and any of tobacco-related oral lesions among these patients were examined. Results: In age group of 0.05 in 12.84% subjects, oral cancer was reported in 33 patients (p-value = 0.001 whereas smoker′s palate in 25 patients and OSMF being the most common. Awareness level about ill effects of tobacco was 51.10 %. Conclusion: High incidence of tobacco usage in smokeless form is seen in Jaipur population especially in adolescents. There were no significant findings found between males and females. Of all lesion examined, OSMF was found to be more prevalent. Therefore, it is important to take immediate steps to curb the habit.

  8. Prevalence and effects of rape myths in print journalism: the Kobe Bryant case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franiuk, Renae; Seefelt, Jennifer L; Cepress, Sandy L; Vandello, Joseph A

    2008-03-01

    Two studies examine the prevalence and effects of rape myths in the print media covering a real-life case of alleged sexual assault. Study 1 was an archival study of 156 sources from around the country. Articles about the Kobe Bryant case were coded for instances of rape myths, among other variables. Of the articles, 65 mentioned at least one rape myth (with "she's lying" being the single most common myth perpetuated). Study 2 assessed participants' (N = 62) prior knowledge of the Bryant case and exposed them to a myth-endorsing or myth-challenging article about the case. Those exposed to the myth-endorsing article were more likely to believe that Bryant was not guilty and the alleged victim was lying. The implications for victim reporting and reducing sexual assault in general are discussed.

  9. Increased prevalence of hyperthyroidism as an early and transient side-effect of implementing iodine prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołkowski, Filip; Buziak-Bereza, Monika; Trofimiuk, Małgorzata; Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata; Szybiński, Zbigniew; Huszno, Bohdan

    2007-08-01

    To assess the prevalence of hyperthyroidism just after implementation of iodine prophylaxis among adults from an area with iodine deficiency. A total of 1648 adults (age 16 years and older) were sampled from an area of southern Poland during two nationwide epidemiological surveys. Of these, 1424 adults with negative medical history for thyroid disorders qualified for final analysis. The authors compared thyroid dysfunction in participants prior to (1989-1990) and after implementation of iodine prophylaxis (1997-1999). The southern part of Poland. We found an increase in the serum concentration of anti-thyroid microsomal antibodies from 4.9% in the years 1989-1990 to 12.1% after introduction of iodised household salt (P hyperthyroidism (defined as thyroid-stimulating hormone hyperthyroidism. Those possible early side-effects appear to be only temporary and are acceptable when compared with the evident benefits of adequate iodine intake.

  10. Prevalence of the different Axis I clinical subtypes in a sample of patients with orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders in the Andalusian Healthcare Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Aguilera, Antonio; Blanco-Aguilera, Elena; Serrano-del-Rosal, Rafael; Biedma-Velázquez, Lourdes; Rodríguez-Torronteras, Alejandro; Segura-Saint-Gerons, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Background The main objective of this paper is to analyze the prevalence of each of the different clinical subtypes of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a sample of patients with this pathology. In addition, a second objective was to analyze their distribution according to gender. Material and Methods To this end, the results of 1603 patients who went to the Unit of Temporomandibular Disorders in the Córdoba Healthcare District because they suffered from this pathology were analyzed. In order to diagnose them, the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) were applied, analyzing the different Axis I subtypes (myopathy, discopathy and arthropathy) and obtaining the combined Axis I for each patient and the relation of all these variables according to gender. The null-hypothesis test confirmed the lack of connection between the gender variable and the different subtypes in the clinical analysis, and between the former and the combined Axis I of the RDC/TMD. Results The prevalence was high for the muscle disorders subtype in general, showing an 88.7% prevalence, while the presence of discopathies or arthropathies was much lower. Among discopathies, the most frequent ones were disc displacements with reduction, with 39.7% and 42.8% for the left and right temporomandibular joints (TMJ), respectively, while the prevalence of arthropathies was 26.3% for the right TMJ and 32.9% for the left TMJ. The bivariate analysis on the connection with gender reveals a p≥ 0.05 value for the muscle and arthralgia subtypes. Conclusions The patients seen at the TMD Unit where mostly middle-aged women whose main clinical axis subtype was the muscle disorder subtype. For their part, both discopathies and arthropathies, although present, are much less prevalent. Key words:RDCTMD, axis I, orofacial pain, temporomandibular disorders, gender. PMID:26615508

  11. Multitasking: Productivity Effects and Gender Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Buser; Noemi Peter

    2011-01-01

    We examine how multitasking affects performance and check whether women are indeed better at multitasking. Subjects in our experiment perform two different tasks according to three treatments: one where they perform the tasks sequentially, one where they are forced to multitask, and one where they can freely organize their work. Subjects who are forced to multitask perform significantly worse than those forced to work sequentially. Surprisingly, subjects who can freely organize their own sche...

  12. Gender and geographic differences in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in children: analysis of data from the national disability registry of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Der-Chung; Tseng, Yen-Cheng; Hou, Yuh-Ming; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the world has increased dramatically in the recent decades. However, data at the national level are limited, and geographic differences are seldom evaluated. According to the law, the local governments in Taiwan began to certify disabled residents and provide various services in 1980, and the central government maintains a registry of certified cases. The registry started to enroll cases of ASD in 1990, providing a unique opportunity for studying ASD at the national level. Because the government discourages the certification under 3 years of age, we limited our analyses to those who were at least 3 years old. Using the registry data from 2004 to 2010, we calculated the prevalence of ASD by age, gender, and geographic area and assessed the changes over time. From 2004 to 2010, the registered cases between 3 and 17 years old increased from 3995 to 8072 annually, and the prevalence generally increased every year in all age groups (p<0.01). In each year there were more boy cases than girl cases, and the prevalence rate ratio ranged from 5.64:1 to 6.06:1 (p<0.01 in all years), with an increasing trend over time (p<0.01). A higher prevalence was observed in the urban areas over the years, and the prevalence rate ratio ranged from 2.24:1 to 2.72:1 (p<0.01 in all years), with a decreasing trend over time (p<0.01). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adipokine serum concentrations, anthropometric measurements and socio-economic status in two ethnic groups with different prevalence levels for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisberg, R; Paiker, J E; Crowther, N J

    2011-08-01

    Obesity is more common in African than Asian-Indian populations and yet type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are more common in the latter populations. The main purpose of the current study was therefore to determine whether ethnic differences in body fat distribution, adipokine levels, and socio-economic status may explain population differences in the prevalence of these metabolic disorders. Leptin, IL-6, CRP, visceral fat, education level, and socio-economic status were measured in 50 African and the same number of Indian women residing in Johannesburg, South Africa. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in Indian than African subjects (41.3±2.0 and 34.2±2.9 ng/ml, respectively; pAfrican group, (5.22±0.86 vs. 2.54±0.52 pg/ml; peconomic status (pAfrican subjects, however, adjusting for these variables in ANCOVA did not attenuate differences in adipokine or visceral fat levels. We hypothesise that one of the reasons for the higher prevalence of obesity in the African than Indian population may be related to lower leptin levels, whilst ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic disorders cannot be explained by differences in adipokine levels, but maybe related to higher visceral adiposity in the Indian group. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · NewYork.

  14. [Prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus infection in hospitalized children at a children's hospital and effects of climate change on the prevalence in Suzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jia; Guo, Wan-Liang; Zhang, Xue-Lan

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in hospitalized children and the relationship between the prevalence and the climate change in Suzhou, China. A total of 42 664 nasopharyngeal secretions from hospitalized children with acute respiratory infection at the Suzhou Children's Hospital were screened for RSV antigens using direct immunofluorescence. Monthly meteorological data (mean monthly air temperature, monthly relative humidity, monthly rainfall, total monthly sunshine duration, and mean monthly wind velocity) in Suzhou between 2001 and 2011 were collected. The correlations between RSV detection rate and climatic factors were evaluated using correlation and stepwise regression analysis. The annual RSV infection rate in hospitalized children with respiratory infection in the Suzhou Children's Hospital varied between 11.85% and 27.30% from 2001 to 2011. In the 9 epidemic seasons, each spanning from November to April of the next year, from 2001 to 2010, the RSV detection rates were 40.75%, 22.72%, 39.93%, 27.37%, 42.71%, 21.28%, 38.57%, 19.86%, and 29.73%, respectively; there were significant differences in the detection rate between the epidemic seasons. The monthly RSV detection rate was negatively correlated with mean monthly air temperature, total monthly sunshine duration, monthly rainfall, monthly relative humidity, and mean monthly wind velocity (P<0.05). Stepwise regression analysis showed that mean monthly air temperature fitted into a linear model (R(2)=0.64, P<0.01). From 2001 to 2011, RSV infection in Suzhou was predominantly prevalent between November and April of the next year. As a whole, the infection rate of RSV reached a peak every other year. Air temperature played an important role in the epidemics of RSV infection in Suzhou.

  15. [Prevalence of hepatitis A antibody among population covered by different hepatitis A immunization strategies in Shandong Province, 2015, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Q; Yan, B Y; Lyu, J J; Feng, Y; Liu, J Y; Song, L Z; Xu, Q; Zhang, L; Xu, A Q

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To evaluate prevalence of hepatitis A antibody (anti-HAV IgG) among population covered by different hepatitis A vaccine immunization strategies in Shandong Province in 2015. Methods: In October 2015, according to the geographical location of Shandong Province, the stratified random sampling method was used to stratify the 17 municipal distrcts, and the random number table method was used for sampling, First, two eastern cites (Qingdao, Rizhao), two western cities (Liaocheng, Zaozhuang) and three central cities (Jinan, Zibo and Laiwu) were selected; secondly, one county was drawn from each city. Finally, the participants were divided into five age groups including ≤7 years (age group covered by free hepatitis A vaccination strategy), 8-11 years (age group who receive hepatitis A vaccination at their own charge), 12-24 years (age group covered by catch-up vaccination of hepatitis A), 25-34 years (age group born before hepatitis A vaccine was used) and ≥35 years (age group born before hepatitis A vaccine was used). After all the paticipants or their guardians asked and registered basic information such as age, gender, home address, blood samples were collected from them and anti-HAV IgG was detected by ELISA method. The positive rate of anti-HAV IgG and 95% CI were calculated. Results: A total of 1 654 participants were involved in the final analysis, including 856 males (51.75%) and 798 females (48.25%) whose mean age was (13.44±13.06) years. The crude positive rate of anti-HAV IgG was 91.41% (1 512/1 654, 95% CI: 89.96%-92.72%) and the age-adjusted rate was 90.93% (95% CI: 90.92%-90.94%). The positive rates of anti-HAV IgG was at the highest level in the age group of ≤7 years (95.90%, 95% CI: 95.88%-95.91%) and was at the lowest level in the age group of 25-34 years (83.23%, 95% CI: 83.21%-83.25%). The age-specific positive rates of anti-HAV IgG in eastern areas (96.79%, 95% CI: 96.78%-96.80%) were higher than those in both middle areas (86.66%, 95

  16. Re-analysing tobacco industry funded research on the effect of plain packaging on minors in Australia: Same data but different results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal A. Diethelm

    2017-11-01

    Our findings suggest a decline of smoking prevalence in minors following the introduction of plain packaging in Australia. They differ substantially from those presented in an industry-funded study on the effects of plain packaging on smoking prevalence in minors in Australia, which used the same data.

  17. Temperature effects on flocculation, using different coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C S B; Fradin, E; Gregory, J

    2004-01-01

    Temperature is known to affect flocculation and filter performance. Jar tests have been conducted in the laboratory, using a photometric dispersion analyser (PDA) to assess the effects of temperature on floc formation, breakage and reformation. Alum, ferric sulphate and three polyaluminium chloride (PACI) coagulants have been investigated for temperatures ranging between 6 and 29 degrees C for a suspension of kaolin clay in London tap water. Results confirm that floc formation is slower at lower temperatures for all coagulants. A commercial PACl product, PAX XL 19, produces the largest flocs for all temperatures; and alum the smallest. Increasing the shear rate results in floc breakage in all cases and the flocs never reform to their original size. This effect is most notable for temperatures around 15 degrees C. Breakage, in terms of floc size reduction, is greater for higher temperatures, suggesting a weaker floc. Recovery after increased shear is greater at lower temperatures implying that floc break-up is more reversible for lower temperatures.

  18. Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus infection among women with different degrees of cervical cytological abnormalities in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Franchina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are etiological agents of cervical cancer. In the absence of Pap smear alterations, high-risk HPV DNA can be detected in cervical samples. The prevalence of papillomavirus infection and their genotype distribution varies greatly across populations. The aims of this study were: i to assess the prevalences of HPV genotypes in people living in Eastern Sicily (Italy and the frequency of HPV multiple infections; ii to evaluate the association between HPV genotypes and cervical lesions in order to improve the epidemiological knowledge useful for monitoring or treating infected women. Nested PCR and reverse dot/blot hybridization were used for the detection and typing of HPV DNA in 315 women who had had an abnormal PAP-smear. HPV DNA test was positive in 70.5% cases; the prevalence was 50% in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 80.8% in low grade-, and 76.2% in high grade-squamous intraepithelial lesion (H-SIL. The genotype distribution showed a predominance of HPV-16 (56.7% followed by HPV-18 (12.2%, HPV-31 (9.5% and HPV-6 (9.5%. Multiple infections were detected in 35.1% of the infected patients. High frequency of positive results for HPV was confirmed and, even in case of ASCUS, patients should be taken into account for genotyping. Our data indicate that multiple infections are consistent in women with low-grade lesions while they are less frequent in women with H-SIL. This could reinforce the theory of the multi-stage cancer model, by which one HPV type becomes predominant along with the progression of cervical lesion severity.

  19. Intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci at parturition: Species-specific prevalence, risk factors, and effect on udder health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Haesebrouck, F; De Vliegher, S

    2016-08-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the main cause of bovine intramammary infections (IMI) in many countries. Despite a high prevalence of CNS IMI at parturition, species-specific risk factor studies, relying on accurate identification methods, are lacking. Therefore, this observational study aimed at determining the prevalence and distribution of different CNS species causing IMI in fresh heifers and dairy cows in Flemish dairy herds and identifying associated species- and subgroup-specific risk factors at the herd, cow, and quarter level. The effect on udder health was investigated as well. Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. sciuri, and S. cohnii were the most frequently isolated species. The only CNS species causing IMI in fresh heifers and dairy cows in all herds was Staphylococcus chromogenes, whereas large between-herd differences in distribution were observed for the other species. Quarters from heifers and quarters with an inverted teat end had higher odds of being infected with S. chromogenes, S. simulans, or S. xylosus as well as with S. chromogenes solely. Prepartum teat apex colonization with S. chromogenes increased the likelihood of S. chromogenes IMI in the corresponding quarters at parturition. Quarters with dirty teat apices before calving were more likely to be infected with S. cohnii, S. equorum, S. saprophyticus, or S. sciuri, supporting the environmental nature of these CNS species. Three species (S. chromogenes, S. simulans, and S. xylosus) were associated with a higher quarter somatic cell count at parturition as compared with uninfected quarters. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and Factors Affecting Dysmenorrhea in Female University Students: Effect on General Comfort Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Demet

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the affecting factors of dysmenorrhea and its effects on overall comfort among female university students. This was a cross-sectional study. The research was carried out between October and November 2013 at a university in Ankara. This study was conducted with 200 female students. The data were analyzed using frequencies, means, SD, χ(2) tests, independent t tests and analysis of variance. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire, the visual analog scale (VAS) and the General Comfort Questionnaire. The mean age of students in this study group was 20.85 ± 2.15 years. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea in the students was 84%. The mean severity of pain was 5.78 ± 2.45 on the VAS. The present study found that 45.8% of female students experienced moderate menstrual pain and the most common co-occurring symptoms were irritability (34.6%) and fatigue (21.5%). One-fourth of the students with dysmenorrhea consulted the advice of a physician and the most commonly used methods for pain were analgesics (69%), heat application (56.5%), and rest (71.4%). Family history of dysmenorrhea, education about menstruation, and frequency of menstrual cycle were identified as important factors in the development of dysmenorrhea (p dysmenorrhea (2.57 ± 0.25) was lower than that of students without the condition (2.65 ± 0.23). Also, use of the methods for management of dysmenorrhea was found to increase students' general comfort levels. Therefore, it is important for nurses to educate and advise adolescents and young women about dysmenorrhea. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nature and prevalence of non-additive toxic effects in industrially relevant mixtures of organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Shahid; Venkataraman, Chandra; Mukherji, Suparna

    2009-06-01

    The concentration addition (CA) and the independent action (IA) models are widely used for predicting mixture toxicity based on its composition and individual component dose-response profiles. However, the prediction based on these models may be inaccurate due to interaction among mixture components. In this work, the nature and prevalence of non-additive effects were explored for binary, ternary and quaternary mixtures composed of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs). The toxicity of each individual component and mixture was determined using the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition assay. For each combination of chemicals specified by the 2(n) factorial design, the percent deviation of the predicted toxic effect from the measured value was used to characterize mixtures as synergistic (positive deviation) and antagonistic (negative deviation). An arbitrary classification scheme was proposed based on the magnitude of deviation (d) as: additive (50%, class-IV) antagonistic/synergistic. Naphthalene, n-butanol, o-xylene, catechol and p-cresol led to synergism in mixtures while 1, 2, 4-trimethylbenzene and 1, 3-dimethylnaphthalene contributed to antagonism. Most of the mixtures depicted additive or antagonistic effect. Synergism was prominent in some of the mixtures, such as, pulp and paper, textile dyes, and a mixture composed of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The organic chemical industry mixture depicted the highest abundance of antagonism and least synergism. Mixture toxicity was found to depend on partition coefficient, molecular connectivity index and relative concentration of the components.

  2. Investigation of Prevalence of Energizer Drugs and Supplements Consumption and Effective Factors Among Bodybuilder Men in Karaj (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shoshtarizadeh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body builder athletes’ high attention to form of body can result in high prevalence of nutritional disorders and habit to energizer drugs consumption. With notice to abuse problems of these drugs, this research was carried out to estimate prevalence of energizer drugs and supplements consumption in Karaj body builder men in 2011. Method: In cross-sectional (description- analytical research 780 Karaj body builder men were selected randomly. Data were collected through interview with questionnaires containing demographic questions and using information of drugs. Data were analyzed with SPSS software (Ver. 19 and κ² test with meaningful level of P<0.05. Result: Prevalence of consumption in studied sample from different types of supplements and energizer drugs was estimated 88.2%. The most consumption prevalence belonged to food supplements and vitamins group and combination of those (69.9%. About anabolic and energizer compounds and also hormonal drugs and corticosteroids, prevalence was 5.6% and 2.1% respectively and 7.7% totally. There was meaningful relation between experience times of abuse problems, place of drug and supplement supply and attention to being permissible or impermissible of those items with type of drugs or supplement (P = 0.001. Also relation between consumption of supplements and drugs with main goal in using them was meaningful (P = 0.045. Conclusion: Consumption of supplement and energizer drugs in Karaj body builder men has high prevalence.

  3. Consumption of energy drinks among lebanese youth: a pilot study on the prevalence and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged between 13 and 30 years in private and public schools and universities in Lebanon over 5 months. A self-administered questionnaire was used inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, consumption patterns, attitudes and beliefs about energy drinks. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Data was analyzed using SPSS 17. We studied 1500 students (mean age: 18.92 ± 1.85; 51.3% were males). The overall prevalence of energy drinks consumption was 63.6% (60.5% were males), among which 50.5% used alcoholic energy drinks. Respondents indicated that most consumed energy drinks were "Red Bull" and "Boom Boom" (70.9% and 51.5% respectively). In total, 64.5% of participants believed the effect of these drinks in energizing the body, and 72.7% believed that they can stimulate intellectual capacities. In addition, 29.6% of consumers experienced at least one adverse effect, where tachycardia was reported in 21.1% of cases. On the other hand, desired effects felt after consumption were mostly pleasure (33.8%). Males had a 3-time more risk of consuming such drinks compared to females (OR: 0.381, P energy drinks consumption and regions outside Beirut (OR: 1.401, P: 0.006; 95% CI: 1.103-1.781), medical field of work (OR: 0.376, P: 0.010; 95% CI: 0.179-0.790) and higher personal income (OR: 1.317, P energy drinks consumption among youth. The current results highlight the importance of education to prevent the consumption of energy drinks in excessive quantities and modifying some wrong perceptions regarding the benefits

  4. Age differences in the prosocial influence effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, Lucy; Leung, Jovita T; Fuhrmann, Delia; Knoll, Lisa J; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2018-04-15

    Social influence occurs when an individual's thoughts or behaviours are affected by other people. There are significant age effects on susceptibility to social influence, typically a decline from childhood to adulthood. Most research has focused on negative aspects of social influence, such as peer influence on risky behaviour, particularly in adolescence. The current study investigated the impact of social influence on the reporting of prosocial behaviour (any act intended to help another person). In this study, 755 participants aged 8-59 completed a computerized task in which they rated how likely they would be to engage in a prosocial behaviour. Afterwards, they were told the average rating (in fact fictitious) that other participants had given to the same question, and then were asked to rate the same behaviour again. We found that participants' age affected the extent to which they were influenced by other people: children (8-11 years), young adolescents (12-14 years) and mid-adolescents (15-18 years) all significantly changed their ratings, while young adults (19-25 years) and adults (26-59 years) did not. Across the three youngest age groups, children showed the most susceptibility to prosocial influence, changing their reporting of prosocial behaviour the most. The study provides evidence that younger people's increased susceptibility to social influence can have positive outcomes. © 2018 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Differences in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and hip fractures in nursing home residents and independently living elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkov, Alexander; Borissova, Anna-Maria; Dakovska, Lilia; Vlahov, Jordan; Kassabova, Lidia; Svinarov, Dobrin; Krivoshiev, Stefan

    2016-02-23

    To compare the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and fracture history in nursing home residents and community-dwelling elderly subjects and to explore the association of vitamin D levels with various characteristics. Sixty-six nursing home residents and 139 community-dwelling elderly subjects participated. Marital status, medical history, medication including vitamin D supplements, smoking, past fractures were assessed. Weight and height were measured and body mass index calculated. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), PTH, Ca, phosphate, creatinine and eGFR were determined. In the nursing home residents 25-OHD was lower (17.8 nmol/l, [9.4-28.6] vs. 36.7 nmol/l, [26.9-50], p elderly. The only predictor for hip fracture was elevated PTH (OR = 7.6 (1.5-36.9), p = 0.013). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism was high in the institutionalized subjects. Hip fracture risk was associated with elevated PTH and not directly with vitamin D levels or the residency status.

  6. Domestic violence in pregnant adolescents: Characterization of the partners and prevalence of the different forms of expression

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    Monterrosa-Castro, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pregnancy in adolescents and domestic violence (DV are worldwide problems. Their prevalence is influenced by cultural factors. Objectives: To characterize pregnant adolescents and their sexual partners, and to determine the prevalence of psychological, physical and sexual DV. Methodology: Cross-sectional study of 406 Colombian pregnant teenagers. Socio-demographic data were collected, and the scales “Are you being abused?” and “Abuse Assessment Screen” were applied. The former identifies domestic violence by the partner, and the latter, DV at any moment, the last year or during pregnancy. Results: Age: 16.5 ± 1.5 years, 92.9 % were in late adolescence, average years of schooling: nine; 50 % dropped out from school when they became pregnant; 70 % depended on their parents, both before and after pregnancy. DV by the partner: 7.1 %; physical DV: 6.7 %; psychological DV: 3.7 %; sexual DV: 2.2 %. DV by partner/husband/other person: 12.4 %; physical or emotional abuse by partner/another person: 21.7 %; fear from the partner: 3.4 %. There was significant association between alcohol consumption by the partner every weekend and DV. Conclusion: Frequency of DV against pregnant adolescents is high and alcohol consumption by the partner is an important risk factor for it.

  7. Extensive clinical experience: relative prevalence of different androgen excess disorders in 950 women referred because of clinical hyperandrogenism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmina, E; Rosato, F; Jannì, A; Rizzo, M; Longo, R A

    2006-01-01

    We undertook this study to estimate the prevalence of the various androgen excess disorders using the new criteria suggested for the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study was performed at two endocrine departments at the University of Palermo (Palermo, Italy). The records of all patients referred between 1980 and 2004 for evaluation of clinical hyperandrogenism were reevaluated. All past diagnoses were reviewed using the actual diagnostic criteria. To be included in this study, the records of the patients had to present the following available data: clinical evaluation of hyperandrogenism, body weight and height, testosterone (T), free T, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, progesterone, and pelvic sonography. A total of 1226 consecutive patients were seen during the study period, but only the scores of 950 patients satisfied all criteria and were reassessed for the diagnosis. The prevalence of androgen excess disorders was: PCOS, 72.1% (classic anovulatory patients, 56.6%; mild ovulatory patients, 15.5%), idiopathic hyperandrogenism, 15.8%; idiopathic hirsutism, 7.6%; 21-hydroxylase-deficient nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia, 4.3%; and androgen-secreting tumors, 0.2%. Compared with other androgen excess disorders, patients with PCOS had increased body weight whereas nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia patients were younger and more hirsute and had higher serum levels of T, free T, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone. Classic PCOS is the most common androgen excess disorder. However, mild androgen excess disorders (ovulatory PCOS and idiopathic hyperandrogenism) are also common and, in an endocrine setting, include about 30% of patients with clinical hyperandrogenism.

  8. The longitudinal prevalence of MRSA in care home residents and the effectiveness of improving infection prevention knowledge and practice on colonisation using a stepped wedge study design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, C; Barr, B; Hall, D; Hodgson, G; Parnell, P; Tompkins, D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence and health outcomes of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonisation in elderly care home residents. To measure the effectiveness of improving infection prevention knowledge and practice on MRSA prevalence. Setting Care homes for elderly residents in Leeds, UK. Participants Residents able to give informed consent. Design A controlled intervention study, using a stepped wedge design, comprising 65 homes divided into three groups. Baseline MRSA prevalence was determined by screening the nares of residents (n=2492). An intervention based upon staff education and training on hand hygiene was delivered at three different times according to group number. Scores for three assessment methods, an audit of hand hygiene facilities, staff hand hygiene observations and an educational questionnaire, were collected before and after the intervention. After each group of homes received the intervention, all participants were screened for MRSA nasal colonisation. In total, four surveys took place between November 2006 and February 2009. Results MRSA prevalence was 20%, 19%, 22% and 21% in each survey, respectively. There was a significant improvement in scores for all three assessment methods post-intervention (p≤0.001). The intervention was associated with a small but significant increase in MRSA prevalence (p=0.023). MRSA colonisation was associated with previous and subsequent MRSA infection but was not significantly associated with subsequent hospitalisation or mortality. Conclusions The intervention did not result in a decrease in the prevalence of MRSA colonisation in care home residents. Additional measures will be required to reduce endemic MRSA colonisation in care homes. PMID:22240647

  9. Human cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland antigens in endemic areas differing in prevalence of Leishmania major infection.

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    Wafa Kammoun-Rebai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sand fly saliva compounds are able to elicit specific immune responses that have a significant role in Leishmania parasite establishment and disease outcome. Characterizing anti-saliva immune responses in individuals living in well defined leishmaniasis endemic areas would provide valuable insights regarding their effect on parasite transmission and establishment in humans.We explored the cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus (P. papatasi salivary gland extracts (SGE in individuals living in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL old or emerging foci (OF, EF. OF was characterized by a higher infection prevalence as assessed by higher proportions of leishmanin skin test (LST positive individuals compared to EF. Subjects were further subdivided into healed, asymptomatic or naïve groups. We showed anti-SGE proliferation in less than 30% of the individuals, regardless of the immune status, in both foci. IFN-γ production was higher in OF and only observed in immune individuals from OF and naïve subjects from EF. Although IL-10 was not detected, addition of anti-human IL-10 antibodies revealed an increase in proliferation and IFN-γ production only in individuals from OF. The percentage of seropositive individuals was similar in immune and naïves groups but was significantly higher in OF. No correlation was observed between anti-saliva immune responses and LST response. High anti-SGE-IgG responses were associated with an increased risk of developing ZCL. No differences were observed for anti-SGE humoral or cellular responses among naïve individuals who converted or not their LST response or developed or not ZCL after the transmission season.These data suggest that individuals living in an old focus characterized by a frequent exposure to sand fly bites and a high prevalence of infection, develop higher anti-saliva IgG responses and IFN-γ levels and a skew towards a Th2-type cellular response, probably in favor of parasite establishment

  10. Gender and geographic differences in the prevalence of intellectual disability in children: analysis of data from the national disability registry of Taiwan.

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    Lai, Der-Chung; Tseng, Yen-Cheng; Hou, Yuh-Ming; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is not uncommon in children, but data at the national level are limited, especially those on geographic differences. On the basis of the Disabled Welfare Law, Taiwan began to certify disabled residents and provide various services in 1980. All the cases are registered, and the registry provides a rare opportunity for studying ID at the national level. Using the data from 2004 to 2010, we calculated the prevalence of ID in children by age, gender, and geographic area and assessed the changes over time. We limited analyses to children at least 3 years of age, because certification before 3 years old is discouraged by the government. We found that from 2004 to 2010, the registered cases between 3 and 17 years old ranged from 20,531 to 23,547, and the prevalence of ID increased constantly from 4.40/1000 to 5.79/1000 (p<0.01), which generally increased every year in all age groups (p<0.01). In each year there were more boy cases than girl cases, and the boy-to-girl ratio generally decreased with age (p<0.01 for chi-square test for trend in all years). The prevalence rate ratio ranged from 1.33 to 1.37 (p<0.01 in all years), and the changes in the rate ratio were small over the years. We observed a higher prevalence in the rural areas over the years, and the prevalence rate ratio ranged from 1.34 to 1.43 (p<0.01 in all years), with an increasing trend over time (p<0.01). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Local differences in human immunodeficiency virus prevalence: a comparison of social venue patrons, antenatal patients, and sexually transmitted infection patients in eastern kinshasa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwandagalirwa, Kashamuka; Jackson, Elizabeth F; McClamroch, Kristi; Bollinger, Robert; Ryder, Robert W; Weir, Sharon S

    2009-07-01

    This study compares the sexual behavior and HIV prevalence of men and women at social venues where people meet new sexual partners in Eastern Kinshasa with that of sexually transmitted infection (STI) treatment and antenatal clinic (ANC) patients in the same area. ANC patients, STI clinic patients, and social venue patrons were interviewed, asked to provide a blood sample on-site, and provided with information about obtaining test results. Every patron at identified social venues in the study area was invited to participate. One thousand one hundred sixteen pregnant women; 66 male and 229 female STI clinic patients; and 952 male and 247 female patrons of social venues were interviewed and tested for HIV. HIV prevalence differed by group: ANC patients (4%); female venue patrons (12%); female STI patients (16%); male venue patrons (2%); and male STI patients (23%). HIV prevalence among sex workers at social venues (29%) was higher than HIV prevalence among other female patrons with new or multiple partnerships in the past four weeks (19%) and higher than HIV prevalence among female patrons denying sex work (6%). However, the absolute number of infected women was higher among women reporting recent new or multiple partnerships than among the smaller group of sex workers (23 vs. 18). Two-thirds of the infected female STI patients (24/36) reported no more than one and no new sexual partner in the past year. Improving prevention programs in Kinshasa is essential. Prevention efforts should not neglect women at social venues who do not self-identify as sex workers but who have high rates of new sexual partnership formation.

  12. Antibody Prevalence and Factors Associated with Exposure to Orientia tsutsugamushi in Different Aboriginal Subgroups in West Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Sun Tee; Mohamed Zan, Hafizatul Anis; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Ngui, Romano

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited data is available on the current status of scrub typhus infection in the aboriginal population in Malaysia. This study was aimed to provide recent data on the degree of exposure of 280 individuals from seven aboriginal subgroups to Orientia tsutsugamushi (causative agent of scrub typhus) in West Malaysia. The environment, socioeconomic and behavioural risk factors associated with the disease were also investigated. Methods/Findings The antibody prevalence to O. tsutsugamushi ranged from 0 to 36.4% in seven subgroups, with high prevalence rates noted in subgroups involved in agricultural activity and the lowest prevalence rates noted in subgroups whose main occupations were associated to fishing. Univariate analysis indicated populations with age above 18 years (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.02–1.30, P = 0.015), working (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.01–3.92, P = 0.044), working at agriculture area (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.98–1.42, P = 0.031), receiving household income less than US$ 166.7 (RM500) per month (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.16–5.11, P = 0.016) and having close contact with animal pets (OR = 4.06, 95% CI = 1.20–13.76, P = 0.016) are significantly associated with exposure to O. tsutsugamushi. Multivariate analysis confirms that participants who are above 18 years old, receiving household income less than US$ 166.7 (RM500) per month and having close contact with animal pets are 3.6 times (95% CI = 1.81–7.03, Ppopulation in Malaysia. Awareness about the disease and education on the preventive measures are important in reducing the risk of acquiring scrub typhus in the population studied. PMID:23936576

  13. A STUDY OF THE PREVALENCE OF THE USE OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF OIL AND FAT IN URBAN AND RURAL IRANIAN COMMUNITIES ACCORDING TO EDUCATION

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    Marzieh Saiedi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is increasing inindustrialized communities. Dyslipidemia is a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor whichis related to diet, especially consumption of hard margarine and hydrogenated fat.The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors differs in communities.We studied the prevalence of consumption of different types of oil and fat in areas ofCentral Iran.METHODS: The subjects were selected using randomized cluster sampling and dividedinto rural and urban groups. A 48-item standard food frequency questionnaire was filledout for every subject by a trained interviewer, who also obtained demographic data. Datawere analyzed with SPSS. Different educational groups and the two sexes in urban andrural areas were compared using chi square test and paired t-test. P values below 0.05were considered as significant.RESULTS: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on 12600 adultsubjects aged above 19 years in the cities of Isfahan, Najafabad, and Arak. Consumptionof olive oil and other types of oil in the urban community of Isfahan was higher than inthe rural community. Consumption of animal oil and fat was higher in the ruralcommunity of Isfahan. In subjects with high school education and higher, consumptionof different types of oil was not found to be different between urban and ruralcommunities, or between men and women. In Arak, no difference was found betweenrural and urban subjects with high school education and higher, in respect ofconsumption of different types of oil. Among subjects with lower education, however,consumption of olive oil and other types of oil was higher in urban areas andconsumption of animal oil and fat was higher in rural men. In Najafabad, no differencewas found between different educational groups in respect of the different types of oilconsumed; only consumption of animal oil in rural subjects educated below high schooldiploma was

  14. [Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection and effect of albendazole treatment among residents in two communities of Zhongshan City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying-Yan, Zheng; Ting-Jun, Xie; Man, Wang; Yue-Yi, Fang; Le, Luo

    2018-02-22

    To understand the prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection among residents in two communities of Zhongshan City, and evaluate the effect of albendazole treatment, so as to offer the evidence for formulating the strategy of clonorchiasis prevention and control. The stool specimens were collected from the residents of two comprehensive demonstration areas, and the eggs of C. sinensis were detected by Kato-Katz technique. Those who were tested positive were treated with albendazole (0.4, twice a day for 4 days in adults, and half dosage for children aged 16 years or below). Three weeks after the treatment, the stool specimens were recollected and retested to evaluate the effect. A total of 532 people were investigated and 96 were tested positive, with an infection rate of 18.05%. The infection rate was 28.63% (69/241) in the males and 9.28% (27/291) in the females, and there was a significant difference between them ( χ 2 = 334.99, P sinensis among residents in the two communities of Zhongshan City is high, especially among the males and aged people. The effect of albendazole is good in the treatment of C. sinensis infection. In the future, the general survey and treatment should be strengthened in order to lower the infection rate.

  15. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Consequent Effect of Dystocia in Holstein Dairy Cows in Iran

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    Hadi Atashi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and consequent effect of dystocia on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. The data set consisted of 55,577 calving records on 30,879 Holstein cows in 30 dairy herds for the period March 2000 to April 2009. Factors affecting dystocia were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models through the maximum likelihood method in the GENMOD procedure. The effect of dystocia on lactation performance and factors affecting calf birth weight were analyzed using mixed linear model in the MIXED procedure. The average incidence of dystocia was 10.8% and the mean (SD calf birth weight was 42.13 (5.42 kg. Primiparous cows had calves with lower body weight and were more likely to require assistance at parturition (p<0.05. Female calves had lower body weight, and had a lower odds ratio for dystocia than male calves (p<0.05. Twins had lower birth weight, and had a higher odds ratio for dystocia than singletons (p<0.05. Cows which gave birth to a calf with higher weight at birth experienced more calving difficulty (OR (95% CI = 1.1(1.08–1.11. Total 305-d milk, fat and protein yield was 135 (23, 3.16 (0.80 and 6.52 (1.01 kg less, in cows that experienced dystocia at calving compared with those that did not (p<0.05.

  16. Effect of norfloxacin therapy for acute, uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection on vaginal Candida prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rodrigo M; Zanni, Pâmela C M Delvas; de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça, Patrícia; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Alczuk, Silvia S Dantas; Svidzinski, Terezinha I Estivalet; Consolaro, Márcia E Lopes

    2016-05-01

    Acute uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections (UTI) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) both occur frequently in women. Although VVC is believed to commonly occur after antibiotic therapy, few studies have demonstrated this association. Thus, the aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of colonization by Candida spp. and VVC after norfloxacin (NOR) use for UTI and the effects on the vaginal microbiota and inflammatory process. This was a prospective cohort study of women with culture-proven UTI who were treated with NOR (antibiotic group). The control group consisted of women with noninfectious diseases or in preventive care. Candida vaginal infections were monitored both clinically and mycologically at baseline and at the follow-up evaluation. All women showed UTI remission after NOR treatment, and no woman in either group, antibiotic and control, showed symptoms of VVC. Both groups showed similar ratios of a positive Candida culture at baseline (6.7 % and 12.8 %, respectively) and at follow-up (3.3 % and 8.5 %, respectively) (p = 0.2768 and p = 0.5035, respectively). The antibiotic group showed no increased risk of Candida colonization or VVC after NOR treatment compared with the control group [odds ratio (OR) 0.556, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.2407-10.05]. NOR was effective for UTI treatment, did not increase the risk of vaginal colonization by Candida or VVC, and did not lead to major disturbances of the vaginal microbiota.

  17. Variations in Substance Use Prevalence Estimates and Need for Interventions Among Adult Emergency Department Patients Based on Different Screening Strategies Using the ASSIST

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    Roland C. Merchant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among adult emergency department (ED patients, we sought to examine how estimates of substance use prevalence and the need for interventions can differ, based on the type of screening and assessment strategies employed. Methods: We estimated the prevalence of substance use and the need for interventions using the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST in a secondary analysis of data from two cross-sectional studies using random samples of English- or Spanish-speaking 18-64-year-old ED patients. In addition, the test performance characteristics of three simplified screening strategies consisting of selected questions from the ASSIST (lifetime use, past three-month use, and past three-month frequency of use to identify patients in need of a possible intervention were compared against using the full ASSIST. Results: Of 6,432 adult ED patients, the median age was 37 years-old, 56.6% were female, and 61.6% were white. Estimated substance use prevalence among this population differed by how it was measured (lifetime use, past three-month use, past three-month frequency of use, or need for interventions. As compared to using the full ASSIST, the predictive value and accuracy to identify patients in need of any intervention was best for a simplified strategy asking about past three-month substance use. A strategy asking about daily/near-daily use was better in identifying patients needing intensive interventions. However, some patients needing interventions were missed when using these simplified strategies. Conclusion: Substance use prevalence estimates and identification of ED patients needing interventions differ by screening strategies used. EDs should carefully select strategies to identify patients in need of substance use interventions.

  18. Swallowing Disorders in Sjögren's Syndrome: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Effects on Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jenny L; Tanner, Kristine; Merrill, Ray M; Miller, Karla L; Kendall, Katherine A; Roy, Nelson

    2016-02-01

    This epidemiological investigation examined the prevalence, risk factors, and quality-of-life effects of swallowing disorders in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). One hundred and one individuals with primary or secondary SS (94 females, 7 males; mean age 59.4, SD = 14.1) were interviewed regarding the presence, nature, and impact of swallowing disorders and symptoms. Associations among swallowing disorders and symptoms, select medical and social history factors, SS disease severity, and the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) were examined. The prevalence of a current self-reported swallowing disorder was 64.4 %. SS disease severity was the strongest predictor of swallowing disorders, including significant associations with the following swallow symptoms: taking smaller bites, thick mucus in the throat, difficulty placing food in the mouth, and wheezing while eating (p esophageal reflux, current exposure to secondary tobacco smoke, frequent neck or throat tension, frequent throat clearing, chronic post-nasal drip, and stomach or duodenal ulcers. Swallowing disorders did not differ on the basis of primary or secondary SS. Swallowing disorders and specific swallowing symptoms were uniquely associated with reduced quality of life. Among those with swallowing disorders, 42 % sought treatment, with approximately half reporting improvement. Patient-perceived swallowing disorders are relatively common in SS and increase with disease severity. Specific swallowing symptoms uniquely and significantly reduce swallow and health-related quality of life, indicating the need for increased identification and management of dysphagia in this population.

  19. Prevalence and effects of mycotoxins on poultry health and performance, and recent development in mycotoxin counteracting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, G R; Ledoux, D R; Naehrer, K; Berthiller, F; Applegate, T J; Grenier, B; Phillips, T D; Schatzmayr, G

    2015-06-01

    Extensive research over the last couple of decades has made it obvious that mycotoxins are commonly prevalent in majority of feed ingredients. A worldwide mycotoxin survey in 2013 revealed 81% of around 3,000 grain and feed samples analyzed had at least 1 mycotoxin, which was higher than the 10-year average (from 2004 to 2013) of 76% in a total of 25,944 samples. The considerable increase in the number of positive samples in 2013 may be due to the improvements in detection methods and their sensitivity. The recently developed liquid chromatography coupled to (tandem) mass spectrometry allows the inclusion of a high number of analytes and is the most selective, sensitive, and accurate of all the mycotoxin analytical methods. Mycotoxins can affect the animals either individually or additively in the presence of more than 1 mycotoxin, and may affect various organs such as gastrointestinal tract, liver, and immune system, essentially resulting in reduced productivity of the birds and mortality in extreme cases. While the use of mycotoxin binding agents has been a commonly used counteracting strategy, considering the great diversity in the chemical structures of mycotoxins, it is very obvious that there is no single method that can be used to deactivate mycotoxins in feed. Therefore, different strategies have to be combined in order to specifically target individual mycotoxins without impacting the quality of feed. Enzymatic or microbial detoxification, referred to as "biotransformation" or "biodetoxification," utilizes microorganisms or purified enzymes thereof to catabolize the entire mycotoxin or transform or cleave it to less or non-toxic compounds. However, the awareness on the prevalence of mycotoxins, available modern techniques to analyze them, the effects of mycotoxicoses, and the recent developments in the ways to safely eliminate the mycotoxins from the feed are very minimal among the producers. This symposium review paper comprehensively discusses the above

  20. Prevalence and effects of mycotoxins on poultry health and performance, and recent development in mycotoxin counteracting strategies1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, G. R.; Ledoux, D. R.; Naehrer, K.; Berthiller, F.; Applegate, T. J.; Grenier, B.; Phillips, T. D.; Schatzmayr, G.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research over the last couple of decades has made it obvious that mycotoxins are commonly prevalent in majority of feed ingredients. A worldwide mycotoxin survey in 2013 revealed 81% of around 3,000 grain and feed samples analyzed had at least 1 mycotoxin, which was higher than the 10-year average (from 2004 to 2013) of 76% in a total of 25,944 samples. The considerable increase in the number of positive samples in 2013 may be due to the improvements in detection methods and their sensitivity. The recently developed liquid chromatography coupled to (tandem) mass spectrometry allows the inclusion of a high number of analytes and is the most selective, sensitive, and accurate of all the mycotoxin analytical methods. Mycotoxins can affect the animals either individually or additively in the presence of more than 1 mycotoxin, and may affect various organs such as gastrointestinal tract, liver, and immune system, essentially resulting in reduced productivity of the birds and mortality in extreme cases. While the use of mycotoxin binding agents has been a commonly used counteracting strategy, considering the great diversity in the chemical structures of mycotoxins, it is very obvious that there is no single method that can be used to deactivate mycotoxins in feed. Therefore, different strategies have to be combined in order to specifically target individual mycotoxins without impacting the quality of feed. Enzymatic or microbial detoxification, referred to as “biotransformation” or “biodetoxification,” utilizes microorganisms or purified enzymes thereof to catabolize the entire mycotoxin or transform or cleave it to less or non-toxic compounds. However, the awareness on the prevalence of mycotoxins, available modern techniques to analyze them, the effects of mycotoxicoses, and the recent developments in the ways to safely eliminate the mycotoxins from the feed are very minimal among the producers. This symposium review paper comprehensively discusses

  1. The Prevalence of Malnutrition and Effectiveness of STRONGkids Tool in the Identification of Malnutrition Risks among Pediatric Surgical Patients

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    Çiğdem Ulukaya Durakbaşa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: High prevalence of malnutrition along with the risk for the development of malnutrition in hospitalised children has been reported. However, this problem remains largely unrecognised by healthcare workers. Aims: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition and effectiveness of STRONGkids nutritional risk screening (NRS tool in the identification of malnutrition risk among pediatric surgical patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 494 pediatric surgical patients (median age 59 months, 75.8% males were included in this prospective study conducted over 3 months. SD-scores 60 months (13.4 vs. 6.6%, p=0.012. Chronic malnutrition was identified in 23 (4.6% of patients with no significant difference between age groups. There were 7 (1.4% children with coexistent acute and chronic malnutrition. The STRONGkids tool revealed that 35.7% of patients were either in the moderate or high risk group for malnutrition. Malnutrition, as revealed by anthropometric measurements, was more likely in the presence of gastrointestinal (26.9%, p=0.004 and inguinoscrotal/penile surgery (4.0%, p=0.031, co-morbidities affecting nutritional status (p<0.001 and inpatient admissions (p=0.014. Among patients categorized as low risk for malnutrition, there were more outpatients than inpatients (89.3 vs. 10.7%, p<0.001 and more elective surgery cases than emergency surgery cases (93.4 vs. 6.6%, p<0.001. Conclusion: Providing data on the prevalence of malnutrition and risk of malnutrition in a prospectively recruited group of hospitalised pediatric surgical patients, the data acquired in the present study emphasise the need to raise clinician’s awareness about the importance of nutritional status assessment among hospitalised pediatric patients and the benefits of identifying patients at the risk of nutritional depletion before malnutrition occurs. Our findings support the use of the STRONGkids tool among pediatric surgical patients to

  2. Effects of dietary habits and risk factors on allergic rhinitis prevalence among Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamay, Zeynep; Akcay, Ahmet; Ergin, Ahmet; Guler, Nermin

    2013-09-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a global health problem affecting many people from childhood to adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of AR and related symptoms, and to assess the risk factors, dietary habits and the Mediterranean diet affecting AR. In a cross-sectional study design, 9991 children, aged 13-14 years in 61 primary schools in 32 districts of Istanbul were evaluated. The prevalence of AR symptoms among the children was evaluated using the ISAAC protocol. In our study, total of 10,984 questionnaires were distributed to 13-14yr-old schoolchildren to 61 schools in 32 district of Istanbul and 9991 questionnaires were suitable for analysis with an overall response of 91.7%. The rates of lifetime rhinitis, rhinitis in last 12 months and lifetime doctor diagnosed AR prevalence were 53.5%, 38.3% and 4.5%, respectively. The variation among districts in the prevalence of doctor diagnosed AR was very high. The highest prevalence was about 10 times higher than in the district with the lowest prevalence (range: 1.4-14.5) of Istanbul. A family history of atopy, mother with a university degree, presence of cat at home during last 12 months and adenoidectomy were significant for increased doctor diagnosed AR risk. Additionally, although fish and other sea foods, fermented drinks made from millets and various seeds, animal fats and butter were independent risk factors for doctor diagnosed AR, fish oil and hamburger were protective foods for doctor diagnosed AR. The MD was not associated with the prevalence of doctor diagnosed AR. This study shows that that there are wide variations for the prevalence of AR related symptoms in 13-14yr-old schoolchildren among districts of Istanbul in Turkey. Socio-economical, environmental factors, some dietary habits, but not Mediterranean diet may affect the prevalence of AR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sweden SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking and snus prevalence and attributable deaths

    OpenAIRE

    Near, Aimee M.; Blackman, Kenneth; Currie, Laura M.; Levy, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examines the effect of past tobacco control policies and projects the effect of future policies on smoking and snus use prevalence and associated premature mortality in Sweden. Methods: The established SimSmoke model was adapted with population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data from Sweden. SimSmoke evaluates the effect of taxes, smoke-free air, mass media, marketing bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies on smoking and snus pre...

  4. Higher Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Adolescent and Young Adult Girls Belonging to Different Indian Tribes with Varied Socio-Sexual Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kirti; Kathait, Atul; Jain, Asha; Kujur, Karmila; Raghuwanshi, Shirish; Bharti, Alok Chandra; Saklani, Asha Chandola; Das, Bhudev Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer in Indian women, no study has been done in tribal populations whose socio-sexual lifestyle is different. Therefore, HPV screening has been carried out in pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adult tribal girls using self-collected urine samples. Methods 20–35 ml self-collected midstream urine samples were obtained from a total of 2278 healthy tribal girls (9–25 years) comprising pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adults from three Indian states: Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. β-globin positive 2034 samples were employed for HPV detection and genotyping. Results The overall prevalence of HPV infection in tribal girls was 12.9% (262/2034). More than 65% (172/262) of them were infected with HR-HPV types of which HPV16 was the most predominant type (54%). Young adult girls aged 18–25 years showed a significantly higher prevalence of HPV infection (19.2%; OR = 3.36; 95% CI 2.97–6.34, P<0.001) as compared to that in adolescent (11.4%; OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.20–2.76, P<0.01) or pre-adolescent girls (6.6%). Conclusion This is a first study showing significantly a very high prevalence of HPV infection in adolescent and young adult tribal girls possibly due to different socio-sexual behavior, indicating a serious health concern for Indian tribal women. PMID:25954813

  5. The effect of vaginal and cesarean delivery on lower urinary tract symptoms: what makes the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brummen, Henriette Jorien; Bruinse, Hein W; van de Pol, Geerte; Heintz, A Peter M; van der Vaart, C Huub

    2007-02-01

    A prospective cohort study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of pregnancy and childbirth in nulliparous pregnant women. The focus of this paper is on the difference in the prevalences and risk factors for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) between woman who delivered vaginally or by cesarean and secondly the effect of LUTS on the quality of life between these two groups was analyzed. Included were 344 nulliparous pregnant women who completed four questionnaires with the Urogenital Distress Inventory and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ). Two groups were formed: vaginal delivery group (VD), which included spontaneous vaginal delivery and an instrumental vaginal delivery and cesarean delivery group (CD). No statistical significant differences were found in the prevalences of LUTS during pregnancy between the two groups. Three months after childbirth, urgency and urge urinary incontinence (UUI) are less prevalent in the CD group, but no statistical difference was found 1 year postpartum. Stress incontinence was significantly more prevalent in the VD group at 3 and 12 months postpartum. The presence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in early pregnancy is predictive for SUI both in the VD as in CD group. A woman who underwent a CD and had SUI in early pregnancy had an 18 times higher risk of having SUI in year postpartum. Women were more embarrassed by urinary frequency after a VD. After a CD, 9% experienced urge urinary incontinence. Urge incontinence affected the emotional functioning more after a cesarean, but the domain scores on the IIQ were low, indicating a minor restriction in lifestyle. In conclusion, after childbirth, SUI was significantly more prevalent in the group who delivered vaginally. Besides a vaginal delivery, we found both in the VD and in the CD group that the presence of SUI in early pregnancy increased the risk for SUI 1 year after childbirth. Further research is necessary to evaluate the effect of SUI in early pregnancy on SUI

  6. Does the Size of a Company Make a Difference in the Prevalence of Exposure to Asthmagens and in the Use of Respiratory Protective Equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaemey, Sonia; Carey, Renee N; Darcey, Ellie; Reid, Alison; Rushton, Lesley; McElvenny, Damien M; Fritschi, Lin

    2018-05-08

    About half of all workers in high-income countries work in small companies. However, regulatory bodies and researchers predominantly work with large companies because they are more convenient to study and easier to reach. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of exposure to asthmagens and the use of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) by company size. This analysis used data from the Australian Work Exposures Study-Asthma, a telephone survey which investigated exposure to 27 asthmagen groups. Among 4844 respondents, 18.8, 19.9, 31.9, and 29.4% of workers reported working in micro (200 employees) companies, respectively. Compared to workers in large companies, workers in micro, small, or medium companies had higher prevalence of exposure to most asthmagens and lesser use of RPE. Our results suggest that policy actions and regulatory measures should target micro/small companies in order to have the greatest effect.

  7. Sweden SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking and snus prevalence and attributable deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Aimee M; Blackman, Kenneth; Currie, Laura M; Levy, David T

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the effect of past tobacco control policies and projects the effect of future policies on smoking and snus use prevalence and associated premature mortality in Sweden. The established SimSmoke model was adapted with population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data from Sweden. SimSmoke evaluates the effect of taxes, smoke-free air, mass media, marketing bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies on smoking and snus prevalence and the number of deaths attributable to smoking and snus use by gender from 2010 to 2040. Sweden SimSmoke estimates that significant inroads to reducing smoking and snus prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tax increases, especially when combined with other policies. Smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 26% in the first few years, reaching a 37% reduction within 30 years. Without effective tobacco control policies, almost 54 500 lives will be lost in Sweden due to tobacco use by the year 2040. Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model identifies gaps in surveillance and evaluation that can help better focus tobacco control policy in Sweden. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of somatic symptom attribution on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety among nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smalbrugge, M.; Pot, A.M.; Jongenelis, L.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Eefsting, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The validity of diagnostic psychiatric instruments for depression and anxiety disorders may be compromised among patients with complex physical illness and disability. The objective of this study was to determine the effect on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety in a nursing home

  9. Study of prevalence and effects of insulin resistance in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, A F; Baddour, M M; Elshazly, M A; Fadally, G; Hanafi, N F; Assar, S L

    2016-02-01

    There is strong epidemiological evidence linking hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and diabetes. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of insulin resistance in Egyptian patients with chronic HCV genotype 4 infection, to assess factors associated with insulin resistance and to test the impact of insulin resistance on outcomes of treatment with pegylated interferon/ribavirin. Insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessmentinsulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score > 3.0] was detected in 31 of 100 nondiabetic patients. The relationship between elevated HOMA-IR and baseline viral load and degree of fibrosis was statistically significant (r = 0.218 and r = 0.223). Follow-up of patients with complete early virological response until the end of treatment showed a statistically significant decrease in HOMA-IR score. Out of 29 liver tissue sections examined, 14 had a low level of expression of insulin receptor type 1 by immunohistochemical studies. This study confirms that insulin resistance affects treatment outcome, and thus HOMA-IR testing before initiation of therapy may be a cost-effective tool.

  10. Prevalence of myofascial chronic pelvic pain and the effectiveness of pelvic floor physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedaiwy, Mohamed A; Patterson, Betsy; Mahajan, Sangeeta

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of myofascial pain and the outcome of transvaginal pelvic floor physical therapy for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain caused by myofascial pelvic pain in a tertiary care facility. A retrospective chart review was performed on all women who presented to our facility between January 2005 and December 2007. Those diagnosed with myofascial pelvic pain and referred for transvaginal pelvic floor physical therapy over this 3-year period were evaluated. Participants with an initial pain score of > or = 4, myofascial pelvic pain on examination, and who attended 2 or more physician visits were included in the analysis. Patient physical examination findings, symptoms, and verbal pain ratings were reviewed. In all, 146 (13.2%) of 1,106 initially screened patients were diagnosed with myofascial pain. Seventy-five (51%) of the 146 patients who were referred for physical therapy were included, and 75% had an initial pain score of > or = 7. Pain scores significantly improved proportional to the number of physical therapy visits completed, with 63% of patients reporting significant pain improvement. Transvaginal physical therapy is an effective treatment for chronic pelvic pain resulting from myofascial pelvic pain.

  11. Prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and its effect on neonatal outcomes in Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Reeta; Sable, Corey; Wolfson, Julian; Boro, Kanta; Rao, Raghavendra

    2014-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and characterize its effect on neonatal outcome in Northeast India. Four hundred and seventy mothers and their newborn infants during a one month period were included. The association between maternal hemoglobin (Hb) at delivery and neonatal outcomes were determined. Anemia (Hb < 110 g/L) was present in 421 (89.6%) mothers with 35 (8.3%) having severe anemia(Hb < 70 g/L). After adjusting for maternal and neonatal variables, each 10 g/L decrease in maternal Hb was associated with 0.18 week decrease in gestational length (p = 0.003) and 21 g decrease in birth weight (p = 0.093). Severe maternal anemia was associated with 0.63 week (95% CI, 0.03-1.23week) shorter gestation, 481 g (95% CI, 305-658 g) lower birth weight and 89% increased risk of small-for-gestation (OR 1.89, 95% CI, 1.25-2.86)in the offspring, compared with those born to mothers without anemia (p < 0.001). Maternal anemia was highly prevalentin this population. Lower gestational age and birth weight, and increased risk of small-for-gestation were associated with maternal anemia, especially when maternal Hb was <80 g/L. Maternal anemia needs urgent attention to improve neonatal outcome in this population.

  12. Prevalence of Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma in Infertile Men in Van Region and Effects to Semen Parameters

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    Kerem Taken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU and Mycoplasma hominis (MH in semen cultures of cases with primary infertility in the Van Province, and also to determine the effect of therapy on sperm parameters. Material and Method: The study included 106 individuals divided into three groups: The infertile group (41 cases, the group with lower urinary tract symptoms (33 cases, and the control group (32 cases. The patients in the infertile group had no history of varicocele, testicular torsion, hydrocele, undescended testis, and hormonal disorders. The control group included cases without infertility and lower urinary tract symptoms. The parameters of culture-positive cases in the infertile group were determined before and after therapy. The identification of Mycoplasma species was made using the Biomerieux® Mycoplasma IST 2 (RCS Lyon-France kit. The sperm count was carried out with the Makler counting chamber (Self Medical Industries, Haifa, Israel. Results: In the infertile group, UU was isolated from 17 and MH was isolated from 3 cases. In the group with lower urinary tract symptoms, UU was isolated from 15 (45.5% and MH was isolated from 6 (18.8% cases. In the control group, UU was isolated from 6 (18.8% cases, but MH was isolated from none of the cases. In the infertile group, the sperm counts in 3 culture-positive cases (15% and in 10 culture-negative cases (50% were

  13. STUDY OF THE ISOLATES OF SUSPECTED VAP, PREVALENCE OF THE DIFFERENT ORGANISMS AND MIC PATTERNS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Swagnik Roy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The development of nosocomial infections mostly ventilator-associated pneumonia due to prolonged stay in the ICUs varies grossly in different outcomes including increased morbidity and mortality. The American Thoracic Society (ATS guidelines recommend that quantitative cultures can be performed on ETA or samples collected either bronchoscopically or nonbronchosopically. 1 More importantly, recent small trials have repeatedly shown that there is no advantage of bronchoscopic cultures over quantitative endotracheal aspirate. 2,3,4 Detection of causative organisms and their antibiotic MIC determination is absolutely necessary to initiate the specific antibiotic with appropriate dose thereby reducing the adverse effects of inadequate antibiotic treatment on the patient prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The prospective study was carried out during the period from August 2012 to January 2015 in Department of Microbiology from the samples those were received as a routine culture from VAP suspected patients from the ICU. There were 373 samples from which 123 were culture positives. Inclusion criteria were all the patients 18 years and more age group who were intubated in mechanical ventilator and others were excluded in the study. Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS was given to each patient included in the study on daily basis. CPIS of greater than six was used as diagnostic criteria for VAP. 5 Clinically diagnosed ventilator-associated pneumonia were observed and clinical parameters were recorded from their medical records and bedside charts. All patients with clinical and radiological signs suggestive of pneumonia on admission. Endotracheal aspirate was collected by using a 22-inch Romsons suction catheter. Chest vibration or percussion for 10 mins. was used. Only 1 ETA sample was collected from each patient and was immediately taken to the laboratory for processing. RESULTS Klebsiella pneumonia was isolated 39.02%, Pseudomonas

  14. Prevalence of asthma symptoms based on the european community respiratory health survey questionnaire and FENO in university students: gender differences in symptoms and FENO

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    Ishizuka Tamotsu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fractional concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FENO is used as a biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. FENO is increased in patients with asthma. The relationship between subjective asthma symptoms and airway inflammation is an important issue. We expected that the subjective asthma symptoms in women might be different from those in men. Therefore, we investigated the gender differences of asthma symptoms and FENO in a survey of asthma prevalence in university students. Methods The information about asthma symptoms was obtained from answers to the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS questionnaire, and FENO was measured by an offline method in 640 students who were informed of this study and consented to participate. Results The prevalence of asthma symptoms on the basis of data obtained from 584 students (266 men and 318 women, ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, was analyzed. Wheeze, chest tightness, an attack of shortness of breath, or an attack of cough within the last year was observed in 13.2% of 584 students. When 38.0 ppb was used as the cut-off value of FENO to make the diagnosis of asthma, the sensitivity was 86.8% and the specificity was 74.0%. FENO was ≥ 38.0 ppb in 32.7% of students. FENO was higher in men than in women. The prevalence of asthma symptoms estimated by considering FENO was 7.2%; the prevalence was greater in men (9.4% than women (5.3%. A FENO ≥ 38.0 ppb was common in students who reported wheeze, but not in students, especially women, who reported cough attacks. Conclusions The prevalence of asthma symptoms in university students age 18 to 24 years in Japan was estimated to be 7.2% on the basis of FENO levels as well as subjective symptoms. Gender differences were observed in both FENO levels and asthma symptoms reflecting the presence of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Trial registration number UMIN000003244

  15. Prevalence and Molecular Diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica in Sheep and Goats in Different Districts of Punjab, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Shahzad*, Khalid Mehmood1, Rashid Munir2, Waqar Aslam, Muhammad Ijaz1, Rashid Ahmad, Mohammad Sarwar Khan1 and Ahmad Jawad Sabir1

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular diagnosis of fasciolosis in Lohi sheep and Beetal goats in Okara, Sahiwal and Lahore districts of Punjab province. A total of 800 samples including 200 fecal and 200 bile, each from Lohi sheep and Beetal goats were collected and processed for microscopic examination of Fasciola eggs as well as its confirmation through polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Of the fecal samples, 3.5 and 2% samples whereas from bile samples, 6.5 and 4% bile samples from sheep and goats were found microscopically positive for Fasciola hepatica, respectively. By PCR, 4.5 and 3.5% fecal samples and 8.5 and 5% bile samples from sheep and goats, respectively were confirmed for F. hepatica. Statistically sheep and goats species were found equally likely acquiring the F. hepatica diagnosed by either source of material (fecal and bile samples similarly fecal and bile samples were equally likely showing fasciolosis in either of sheep and goats.

  16. Gender differences in drunk driving prevalence rates and trends: a 20-year assessment using multiple sources of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jennifer

    2008-09-01

    This research tracked women's and men's drunk driving rates and the DUI sex ratio in the United States from 1982-2004 using three diverse sources of evidence. Sex-specific prevalence estimates and the sex ratio are derived from official arrest statistics from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, self-reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and traffic fatality data from the National Highway and Transportation Safety Administration. Drunk driving trends were analyzed using Augmented Dickey Fuller time series techniques. Female DUI arrest rates increased whereas male rates declined then stabilized, producing a significantly narrower sex ratio. According to self-report and traffic data, women's and men's drunk driving rates declined and the gender gap was unchanged. Women's overrepresentation in arrests relative to their share of offending began in the 1990s and accelerated in 2000. Women's arrest gains, contrasted with no systematic change in DUI behavior, and the timing of this shift suggest an increased vulnerability to arrest. More stringent laws and enforcement directed at less intoxicated offenders may inadvertently target female offending patterns.

  17. Birth prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefts in Saudi Arabia and the effects of parental consanguinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Heba J.; Innes, Nicola P.; Sallout, Bahauddin I.; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Hamdan, Mustafa A.; Alhamlan, Nasir; Al-Khozami, Amaal I.; Abdulhameed, Fatma D.; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; Mossey, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefting (NSOFC) and assess the effects of parental consanguinity on NSOFC phenotypes in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia. Methods: All infants (114,035) born at 3 referral centers in Riyadh, and 6 hospitals in Jeddah and Madinah between January 2010 and December 2011 were screened. The NSOFC cases (n=133) were identified and data was collected through clinical examination and records, and information on consanguinity through parent interviews. The diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing medical records and contacting the infants’ pediatricians. Control infants (n=233) matched for gender and born in the same hospitals during the same period, were selected. Results: The prevalence of NSOFC was 1.07/1000 births in Riyadh, and 1.17/1000 births overall; cleft lip (CL) was 0.47/1000 births, cleft lip and palate (CLP) was 0.42/1000 births, and cleft palate (CP) was 0.28/1000 births. Cleft palate was significantly associated with consanguinity (p=0.047, odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 6.46), particularly for first cousin marriages. Conclusion: The birth prevalence of NSOFC in Riyadh alone, and in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia were marginally lower than the mean global prevalence. While birth prevalence for CLP was comparable to global figures, the CL:CLP ratio was high, and only CP was significantly associated with consanguinity. PMID:26318465

  18. Birth prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefts in Saudi Arabia and the effects of parental consanguinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba J. Sabbagh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefting (NSOFC and assess the effects of parental consanguinity on NSOFC phenotypes in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia. Methods: All infants (114,035 born at 3 referral centers in Riyadh, and 6 hospitals in Jeddah and Madinah between January 2010 and December 2011 were screened. The NSOFC cases (n=133 were identified and data was collected through clinical examination and records, and information on consanguinity through parent interviews. The diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing medical records and contacting the infants’ pediatricians. Control infants (n=233 matched for gender and born in the same hospitals during the same period, were selected. Results: The prevalence of NSOFC was 1.07/1000 births in Riyadh, and 1.17/1000 births overall; cleft lip (CL was 0.47/1000 births, cleft lip and palate (CLP was 0.42/1000 births, and cleft palate (CP was 0.28/1000 births. Cleft palate was significantly associated with consanguinity (p=0.047, odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 6.46, particularly for first cousin marriages. Conclusion: The birth prevalence of NSOFC in Riyadh alone, and in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia were marginally lower than the mean global prevalence. While birth prevalence for CLP was comparable to global figures, the CL:CLP ratio was high, and only CP was significantly associated with consanguinity.

  19. Age, cohort and period effects in the prevalence of sleep disturbances among older people: the impact of economic downturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dregan, Alex; Armstrong, David

    2009-11-01

    Using two longitudinal and nationally representative datasets, this study employs a cross-cohort analysis to examine age, cohort and period effects in the prevalence of sleep loss through worry for people over the age of 50 in the UK. The likelihood of reporting sleep loss through worry is calculated at two time-points for 7785 respondents from the Health and Activity Survey (HALs) and 21,834 respondents from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), with baseline information on sleep loss through worry. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to determine the prevalence rates in sleep loss through worry at each survey within both datasets. The results of analysis reveal that sleep loss through worry declined with age, but this pattern was tempered by a temporary increase in the early 1990s. The contemporary economic downturn is suggested as a possible explanation for the significant increase in the prevalence of sleep loss through worry in 1991.

  20. Prevalence, Reasons, and Perceived Effects of Khat Chewing Among Students of a College in Gondar Town, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teni, F S; Surur, A S; Hailemariam, A; Aye, A; Mitiku, G; Gurmu, A E; Tessema, B

    2015-01-01

    The estimate of the number of people chewing Khat globally ranges from 5 to 10 million people. Its use may result in a variety of effects due to the different compounds in it with effects on the gastro-intestinal system and nervous system being the principal ones. To assess the prevalence, factors, and effects of Khat chewing among students of a college in Gondar town, northwestern Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 15(th) to 20(th) of April 2009 on a total sample of 424 students who were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected by three of the principal investigators using a structured pretested data collection instrument and analyzed by Epi Info version 3.5.2. The lifetime and current prevalence of Khat chewing among the respondents were 42% (168/400) and 32.5% (130/400), respectively. Sex (P sleep disturbance, 82.3% (107/130) loss of appetite, and 80.8% (105/130) constipation. The prevalence of Khat chewing was fairly high among the students and the majority among them used other substances together with Khat. Spending of a significant amount of money and facing health problems were reported to be consequences of the habit. The college should take steps to make students aware of the ills of Khat chewing and associated habits.

  1. Sexual infidelity in a national survey of American women: differences in prevalence and correlates as a function of method of assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A; Snyder, Douglas K

    2007-06-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to estimate the annual prevalence of, and to identify the predictors of, sexual infidelity in a population-based sample of married women (N = 4,884); and (b) to evaluate whether the prevalence and predictors of infidelity varied as a function of whether the assessment of infidelity was based on a face-to-face interview versus a computer-assisted self-interview. Annual prevalence of infidelity was much smaller on the basis of the face-to-face interview (1.08%) than on the computer-assisted self-interview (6.13%). Although many of the predictor variables replicated results from previous studies (e.g., demographic variables, religiosity, sexual experience), findings also indicated that childhood sexual abuse (i.e., forced sex) predicted greater probability of infidelity. Finally, the magnitude of the association with infidelity for 4 of the 9 predictor variables differed between the 2 methods for assessing infidelity. This study's findings underscore the importance of assessing infidelity with methods such as computer-assisted self-interviews that minimize the influence of social desirability and impression management.

  2. Dental caries prevalence in children up to 36 months of age attending daycare centers in municipalities with different water fluoride content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Valéria Pagliari Tiano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence of cavitated caries lesions (CCL and early childhood caries (ECC, and the contribution of some variables in children up to 36 months of age attending daycare centers in municipalities with different fluoride levels in the water supply: AFC (adequate fluoride content and LFC (low fluoride content. After approval of the Ethics Committee, the parents were interviewed. The children were clinically examined using the same codes and criteria established by the WHO (World Health Organization and the ADA (American Dental Association. Fisher's exact test (p<0.05 was applied for statistical analysis of data. The dmft indices calculated in the LFC and AFC municipalities were 0.57 and 0.68, respectively. Considering all children examined, 17.6% presented CCL and 33.8% ECC. The economic classification, mother's education level and duration of breastfeeding were considered statistically significant with regards to CCL prevalence. The age group, duration of the habit of drinking milk before bedtime and age at which oral hygiene started were considered statistically significant with regards to ECC prevalence.

  3. The differences of caries prevalence and caries index of children in primary school with UKGS and without UKGS in Kota Batam

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    Ratna Ayu Alia Zulkarnain

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to describe the caries prevalence and caries index of children in primary school with UKGS (SD Kartini I and without UKGS (SD 009 Bulang in Kota Batam. Total samples of this research were 193 persons, it is consist of 107 persons from SD Kartini I and 86 persons from SD 009 Bulang. The Chi-Square Test and U Mann-Whitney Test were conducted in this research. The statistical analysis was significant for caries prevalence between children in primary school with UKGS and without UKGS with χ2table = 2.71 and χ2calculate = 3.73, whereas def-t index between children in primary school with UKGS and without UKGS was significant with - Ztable = - 1.96 and Zcalculate = - 2.91 with α = 0.05. The DMF-T index between children in primary school with UKGS and without UKGS was significant with Ztable = 1.96 and Zcalculate = 6.32 with α = 0,05. The conclusions of this study indicate that there were differences of caries prevalence and caries index between children in primary school with UKGS and without UKGS.

  4. Metabolic disorders in dairy Simmentals - prevalence risk and effect on subsequent daily milk traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyse metabolic disorders in Simmental cows, 2.641.223 test-day records have been used. The metabolic disorders prevalence risk was indicated by the fat to protein (F/P ratio, while the subclinical disorder was demonstrated using the F/P ratio and daily production. In terms of the ketosis prevalence risk (KPR, the highest prevalence risks occurred at the 20th lactation day in all tested cows with exception of cows in parity P4+ which experienced peak prevalence risk at 25th lactation day. A steady decrease of KPR after peak prevalence was observed in all animals except the 3rd lactation cows which experienced the second peak prevalence at the 30th lactation day, after which the prevalence risk continued to decline. The highest acidosis prevalence risk (APR was detected among 4+ parity cows. Considering the lactation stage, the highest APR occurred within the first 10 days, with the indication from 16 to 23 %, depending on parity. The peak prevalence risk was followed by a considerable decline during the ensuing 20 days. The prevalence risk began to increase among all cows after the 25th lactation day. Furthermore, there was a considerable decrease in a daily milk yield and variation of daily milk contents due to subclinical disorders. The most noticeable drop in daily milk yield, for both ketosis/acidosis, was detected in cows in 4+ parity in the amounts of 7.45 kg/day and 2.73 kg/day respectively. There was also a production decline in the subsequent milk controls. Subclinical disorders can also substantially change daily milk contents. The daily fat content was considerably reduced by the subclinical ketosis and the same parameter was considerably increased by the subclinical acidosis. The opposite trends were detected for daily protein content. Since indication criteria was set on Holstein population and considering the fact that Simmental cows produce noticeably less, some adjustment is needed before a routine use of test

  5. Prevalence, Variability and Bioconcentration of Saxitoxin-Group in Different Marine Species Present in the Food Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyaneder Terrazas, Javiera; Contreras, Héctor R.; García, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The saxitoxin-group (STX-group) corresponds to toxic metabolites produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, and Pyrodinium. Over the last decade, it has been possible to extrapolate the areas contaminated with the STX-group worldwide, including Chile, a phenomenon that has affected ≈35% of the Southern Pacific coast territory, generating a high economic impact. The objective of this research was to study the toxicity of the STX-group in all aquatic organisms (bivalves, algae, echinoderms, crustaceans, tunicates, cephalopods, gastropods, and fish) present in areas with a variable presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Then, the toxic profiles of each species and dose of STX equivalents ingested by a 60 kg person from 400 g of shellfish were determined to establish the health risk assessment. The toxins with the highest prevalence detected were gonyautoxin-4/1 (GTX4/GTX1), gonyautoxin-3/2 (GTX3/GTX2), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX), and saxitoxin (STX), with average concentrations of 400, 2800, 280, 200, and 2000 µg kg−1 respectively, a species-specific variability, dependent on the evaluated tissue, which demonstrates the biotransformation of the analogues in the trophic transfer with a predominance of α-epimers in all toxic profiles. The identification in multiple vectors, as well as in unregulated species, suggests that a risk assessment and risk management update are required; also, chemical and specific analyses for the detection of all analogues associated with the STX-group need to be established. PMID:28604648

  6. Prevalence, Variability and Bioconcentration of Saxitoxin-Group in Different Marine Species Present in the Food Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyaneder Terrazas, Javiera; Contreras, Héctor R; García, Carlos

    2017-06-12

    The saxitoxin-group (STX-group) corresponds to toxic metabolites produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium , and Pyrodinium . Over the last decade, it has been possible to extrapolate the areas contaminated with the STX-group worldwide, including Chile, a phenomenon that has affected ≈35% of the Southern Pacific coast territory, generating a high economic impact. The objective of this research was to study the toxicity of the STX-group in all aquatic organisms (bivalves, algae, echinoderms, crustaceans, tunicates, cephalopods, gastropods, and fish) present in areas with a variable presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Then, the toxic profiles of each species and dose of STX equivalents ingested by a 60 kg person from 400 g of shellfish were determined to establish the health risk assessment. The toxins with the highest prevalence detected were gonyautoxin-4/1 (GTX4/GTX1), gonyautoxin-3/2 (GTX3/GTX2), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX), and saxitoxin (STX), with average concentrations of 400, 2800, 280, 200, and 2000 µg kg -1 respectively, a species-specific variability, dependent on the evaluated tissue, which demonstrates the biotransformation of the analogues in the trophic transfer with a predominance of α-epimers in all toxic profiles. The identification in multiple vectors, as well as in unregulated species, suggests that a risk assessment and risk management update are required; also, chemical and specific analyses for the detection of all analogues associated with the STX-group need to be established.

  7. Prevalence, Variability and Bioconcentration of Saxitoxin-Group in Different Marine Species Present in the Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javiera Oyaneder Terrazas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The saxitoxin-group (STX-group corresponds to toxic metabolites produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, and Pyrodinium. Over the last decade, it has been possible to extrapolate the areas contaminated with the STX-group worldwide, including Chile, a phenomenon that has affected ≈35% of the Southern Pacific coast territory, generating a high economic impact. The objective of this research was to study the toxicity of the STX-group in all aquatic organisms (bivalves, algae, echinoderms, crustaceans, tunicates, cephalopods, gastropods, and fish present in areas with a variable presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs. Then, the toxic profiles of each species and dose of STX equivalents ingested by a 60 kg person from 400 g of shellfish were determined to establish the health risk assessment. The toxins with the highest prevalence detected were gonyautoxin-4/1 (GTX4/GTX1, gonyautoxin-3/2 (GTX3/GTX2, neosaxitoxin (neoSTX, decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX, and saxitoxin (STX, with average concentrations of 400, 2800, 280, 200, and 2000 µg kg−1 respectively, a species-specific variability, dependent on the evaluated tissue, which demonstrates the biotransformation of the analogues in the trophic transfer with a predominance of α-epimers in all toxic profiles. The identification in multiple vectors, as well as in unregulated species, suggests that a risk assessment and risk management update are required; also, chemical and specific analyses for the detection of all analogues associated with the STX-group need to be established.

  8. Effects of unit-based garbage pricing : A differences-in-differences approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten A.; Hoeben, Corine

    Using a unique 10-year dataset of all 458 Dutch municipalities, we apply a differences-in-differences approach to estimate the effect of unit-based pricing on household waste quantities and recycling. Community-level studies of unit-based pricing typically do not include fixed effects at the local

  9. The electron irradiation effects in different structures of diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Quanfen; Wang Jiaxu

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the different electron irradiation effects in different structures of diodes and the different results produced by different irradiation ways. From this work, we can know how to choose proper manufacture arts and comprehensive factors according to the structures of diodes and the irradiation conditions

  10. The sublethal effects of zinc at different water temperatures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sublethal effects of zinc at different water temperatures on selected ... of 96h at different water temperatures representing the seasonal temperatures in the ... are mobilised to meet increased energy demands during periods of stress.

  11. Prevalence and incidence of dementia among 75-80-year-old community-dwelling elderly in different districts of Antwerp, Belgium: the Antwerp Cognition (ANCOG) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deyn, P P; Goeman, J; Vervaet, A; Dourcy-Belle-Rose, B; Van Dam, D; Geerts, E

    2011-11-01

    To analyse the prevalence and incidence of dementia in a population of community-dwelling elderly (aged 75-80), living in socio-economically differing districts of Antwerp (Belgium), taking into account possible gender and educational differences. A longitudinal cohort study (N=825) with a 3-year follow-up period (N=363). The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used as a primary screen of cognitive functioning. Scoring 21 or below led to a second phase examination by a neurologist, including the CAMDEX-R-N and a neurological examination, to provide a tentative aetiological diagnosis of dementia. These procedures were conducted annually during a 3-year follow-up period. In accordance with international literature, the overall prevalence rate of dementia was 8.7%. The cumulative incidence rate (IR) of dementia was 36.60 per 1000Py with annual IRs ranging from 34.39 over 35.16 to 49.04 per 1000Py. Dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) was the most occurring prevalent and incident cause. Women appeared to be at higher risk and the occurrence of cognitive deterioration was more prominent in districts with lower socio-economic status, possibly related to a lower education level. We demonstrate dementia is a considerable health problem in an urban Belgian population of community-dwelling elderly aged between 75 and 80 years old. In order to prepare health care and social security systems for the future management of dementia, proper epidemiological insight into the current and future magnitude of the burden of dementia, taking into account socio-economic differences, to which this study contributes, are required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Locomotor differences in Mongolian gerbils with the effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Locomotor differences in Mongolian gerbils with the effects of midazolam ... African Health Sciences ... We subjected the gerbils to an adapted “Open Field” to determine the possible effects on central nervous system of midazolam. Gerbils ...

  13. The Effect of Age on the Prevalence of Obesity among US Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Eliasziw, Misha; Phillips, Sarah M; Curtin, Carol; Kral, Tanja V E; Segal, Mary; Sherwood, Nancy E; Sikich, Linmarie; Stanish, Heidi I; Bandini, Linda G

    2017-02-01

    We sought to assess the association between age and the prevalence of obesity among children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Analyses were restricted to 43,777 children, ages 10-17, with valid measures of parent-reported weight, height, and ASD status. Exploratory analyses describe the impact of sex, race/ethnicity, and household income on the relationship between age and obesity in ASD. Although the overall prevalence of obesity among children with ASD was significantly (p obesity among children with ASD compared with children without ASD increased monotonically from ages 10 to 17 years. This pattern arose due to a consistently high prevalence of obesity among children with ASD and a decline in prevalence with advancing age among children without ASD. These findings were replicated using a propensity score analysis. Exploratory analyses suggested that the age-related change in obesity disparity between children with and without ASD may be further modified by sex, race/ethnicity, and household income. The patterns of prevalence observed with increasing age among children with and without ASD were unexpected. A better understanding of the etiological and maintenance factors for obesity in youth with ASD is needed to develop interventions tailored to the specific needs of these children.

  14. Descendants of Hardship: Prevalence, Drivers and Scarring Effects of Social Exclusion in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cok Vrooman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The social exclusion of children is problematic for two reasons. Young people typically inherit their marginal position from their family, and therefore cannot be held responsible for their hardship themselves; and social exclusion in childhood may affect their wellbeing and subsequent development, possibly leading to a “scarring effect” in later life. In this contribution we develop an instrument for measuring social exclusion among children. Social exclusion is regarded as a theoretical construct with four sub-dimensions: material deprivation, limited social participation, inadequate access to social rights, and a lack of normative integration. First we analyse data from a survey of 2,200 Dutch children, which contains a large set of social exclusion items. We applied nonlinear principal components analysis in order to construct a multidimensional scale. Measured in this way, the prevalence of social exclusion among children is 4.5%. Boys and children living in large families are more likely to experience social exclusion than girls and children with few siblings. The parental level of education and dependency on social security benefits are also important driving factors of childhood social exclusion. Subsequently we investigate the scarring effect. Longitudinal administrative income and household data covering 25 years were combined with a new survey of just under 1,000 Dutch adults, a third of whom were poor as a child. The survey assessed their past and current degree of social exclusion, and their health and psychosocial development, educational career, past family circumstances, etc. In an absolute sense scarring turns out to have been limited during this period: a very large majority of those who were poor or excluded as a child are above the threshold values in adult life. However, the “descendants of hardship” are still more likely to be socially excluded as adults than people who grew up in more favourable conditions. A

  15. Effect of the Syrian Civil War on Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inci, Rahime; Ozturk, Perihan; Mulayim, Mehmet Kamil; Ozyurt, Kemal; Alatas, Emine Tugba; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-07-20

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-mediated skin disease, characterized by chronic wounds on the skin and caused by macrophages in protozoan parasites. It is an endemic disease in the southern and southeastern Anatolia region and is still an important public health problem in Turkey. Because of the civil war in Syria, immigrants to this region in the last 3 years have begun to more frequently present with this disease. The aim of this study was to draw attention to the dramatic increase in new cases with CL after the beginning of the civil war in Syria. In this retrospective study, we evaluated demographic, epidemiological, and clinical features of 110 patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis who were admitted to the Department of Dermatology at Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Faculty of Medicine between January 2011 and June 2014. A total of 110 patients included in the study; 50 (45%) were males, and 60 (55%) were females. The age range of the study group was 1-78 years, and the infection was more prevalent in the 0-20 year age group. Of these patients, 76 (69%) were Syrian refugees living in tent camps and 34 (31%) were Turkish citizens. The majority of the cases were diagnosed between October and December. Immigrations to endemic regions of Turkey from neighbouring countries where CL incidence is higher may lead to large increases in case numbers. In order to decrease the risk of exposure, housing conditions of the refugees must be improved, routine health controls must be performed, effective measures must be set in place for vector control, and infected individuals must be diagnosed and treated to prevent spread of the infection.

  16. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in comparison: prevalence, metabolic profile, and key differences. A cross-sectional study in Italian hospitalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Simone; Peroni, Gabriella; Faliva, Milena Anna; Bartolo, Arianna; Naso, Maurizio; Miccono, Alessandra; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence, assess the metabolic profile, and key differences (versus healthy) in a cohort of subjects with sarcopenia (S) and in sarcopenic obesity (SO) hospitalized elderly. A standardized comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed. We enrolled 639 elderly subjects (196 men, 443 women) with a mean age of 80.90 ± 7.77 years. Analysis of variance and a multinomial logistic regression analysis adjusting for covariates were used to assess the differences between groups. The prevalence of (S) was 12.42% in women and 23.47% in men. (SO) was 8.13% in women and 22.45% in men. Data showed that either groups had a functional impairment (Barthel index 15 mm/h), CPR (>0.50 mg/dl) homocysteine (>12 micromol/l), and hemoglobin (145 mcg/dl) was detected in either cohort (due to inflammation). (SO) had glycemia (>110 mg/dl). Key differences in (S) cohort (versus healthy) were a reduction in functional impairment (p Sarcopenia is closely linked to an increase in the risk of hip-femur fractures, inflammation, edema, and malnutrition. The (SO) subjects seem to benefit from the "obesity paradox."

  17. Sex differences in prevalence and comorbidity of alcohol and drug use disorders: results from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Risë B; Dawson, Deborah A; Chou, S Patricia; Grant, Bridget F

    2012-11-01

    The present study examined sex differences in lifetime Axis I and II psychiatric comorbidity of DSM-IV alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and drug use disorders (DUDs) among general population U.S. adults. Using data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Wave 2 lifetime prevalences of each disorder comorbid with alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, drug abuse, and drug dependence were compared between men and women. Sex-specific associations of alcohol, any drug, and cannabis- and cocaine-specific abuse and dependence with each comorbid disorder were examined using logistic regression, first with adjustment for sociodemographic variables and then with additional adjustment for all other psychiatric disorders. Prevalences of most comorbid disorders differed significantly by sex among respondents with each AUD and DUD. However, after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and additional co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses, there were few sex differences in unique comorbid associations of specific AUDs and DUDs with specific psychiatric disorders. Rates of psychiatric disorders comorbid with AUDs and DUDs indicate large burdens of morbidity in both sexes, highlighting the need for careful assessment and appropriate treatment of both substance use and mental health disorders. The unique comorbid associations with AUDs and DUDs identified in this study further indicate the need for prospective etiological research to characterize these associations, their underlying mechanisms, and the possible sex specificity of those mechanisms.

  18. Serologic prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Indian women of child bearing age and effects of social and environmental factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarman Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in women of child bearing age has remained a contentious issue in the Indian subcontinent. Different laboratories have used different patient recruitment criteria, methods and variable results, making these data difficult to compare. AIM: To map the point-prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in India. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1464 women of fertile age were recruited from 4 regions using similar recruitment plans. This included women from northern (203, southern (512, eastern (250 and western (501 regions of India. All samples were transported to a central laboratory in Delhi and tested using VIDAS technology. Their age, parity, eating habits and other demographic and clinical details were noted. RESULTS: Most women were in the 18-25 years age group (48.3%, followed by 26-30 years (28.2% and 31-35 years (13.66. Few (45 women older than 35 yr. were included. Overall prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was seen in 22.40%, with significantly more in married women (25.8% as compared to single women (4.3%. Prevalence increased steadily with age: 18.1% in the 18-25 yr. age group to 40.5% in women older than 40 yr. The prevalence was high (66% in those who resided in mud houses. Region-wise, the highest prevalence was observed in South India (37.3% and the lowest (8.8% in West Indian women. This difference was highly significant (P<0.001. Prevalence was 21.2% in East India and 19.7% in North India. The IgM positivity rate ranged from 0.4% to 2.9% in four study centers. CONCLUSIONS: This pan-India study shows a prevalence rate of 22.4% with a wide variation in four geographical regions ranging from as low as 8.8% to as high as 37.3%. The overall IgM positivity rate was 1.43%, indicating that an estimated 56,737-176,882 children per year are born in India with a possible risk of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  19. Serologic prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Indian women of child bearing age and effects of social and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarman; Munawwar, Arshi; Rao, Sugandhi; Mehta, Sanjay; Hazarika, Naba Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in women of child bearing age has remained a contentious issue in the Indian subcontinent. Different laboratories have used different patient recruitment criteria, methods and variable results, making these data difficult to compare. To map the point-prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in India. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1464 women of fertile age were recruited from 4 regions using similar recruitment plans. This included women from northern (203), southern (512), eastern (250) and western (501) regions of India. All samples were transported to a central laboratory in Delhi and tested using VIDAS technology. Their age, parity, eating habits and other demographic and clinical details were noted. Most women were in the 18-25 years age group (48.3%), followed by 26-30 years (28.2%) and 31-35 years (13.66). Few (45) women older than 35 yr. were included. Overall prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was seen in 22.40%, with significantly more in married women (25.8%) as compared to single women (4.3%). Prevalence increased steadily with age: 18.1% in the 18-25 yr. age group to 40.5% in women older than 40 yr. The prevalence was high (66%) in those who resided in mud houses. Region-wise, the highest prevalence was observed in South India (37.3%) and the lowest (8.8%) in West Indian women. This difference was highly significant (P<0.001). Prevalence was 21.2% in East India and 19.7% in North India. The IgM positivity rate ranged from 0.4% to 2.9% in four study centers. This pan-India study shows a prevalence rate of 22.4% with a wide variation in four geographical regions ranging from as low as 8.8% to as high as 37.3%. The overall IgM positivity rate was 1.43%, indicating that an estimated 56,737-176,882 children per year are born in India with a possible risk of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  20. Prevalence of and risk factors for malaria, filariasis, and intestinal parasites as single infections or co-infections in different settlements of Gabon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'bondoukwé, Noé Patrick; Kendjo, Eric; Mawili-Mboumba, Denise Patricia; Koumba Lengongo, Jeanne Vanessa; Offouga Mbouoronde, Christelle; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Touré, Fousseyni; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle Karine

    2018-01-30

    Malaria, filariasis, and intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are common and frequently overlap in developing countries. The prevalence and predictors of these infections were investigated in three different settlements (rural, semi-urban, and urban) of Gabon. During cross-sectional surveys performed from September 2013 to June 2014, 451 individuals were interviewed. In addition, blood and stool samples were analysed for the presence of Plasmodium, filarial roundworm, intestinal protozoan, and helminth infections. Intestinal parasitic infections (61.1%), including intestinal protozoa (56.7%) and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) (22.2%), predominated, whereas Plasmodium falciparum (18.8%), Loa loa (4.7%), and Mansonella perstans (1.1%) were less prevalent. Filariasis and STHs were mainly found in rural settlements, whereas a higher plasmodial infection prevalence rate was observed in the periurban area. The most common IPI was blastocystosis (48.6%), followed by ascaridiasis (13.7%), trichuriasis (11.8%), amoebiasis (9.3%), giardiasis (4.8%), and strongyloidiasis (3.7%). Hookworm was detected in one adult from rural Dienga. Adults had a higher prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and STHs, whereas Giardia duodenalis was more frequently observed among children aged below 5 years (P < 0.01). The polyparasitism rate was 41.5%, with 7.0% Plasmodium-IPIs and 1.8% Plasmodium-STH co-infections. The multivariate analysis showed that living in a suburban area, belonging to the age group of 5-15 years, having none or a secondary education, or having an open body water close to home were significant risk factors for malaria (P ≤ 0.01). For STH infections, identified risk factors were drinking untreated water and living in a rural area (P ≤ 0.04). No significant predictors were identified for IPIs and malaria-IPI co-infection. This study reports a high prevalence of IPIs and intestinal protozoa, but a low rate of malaria-IPI co-infections in the study sites

  1. The impact of biosecurity and partial depopulation on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broiler flocks with differing levels of hygiene and economic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Smith

    2016-05-01

    -performance farms, no single biosecurity intervention was identified as significant as this group had full compliance with multiple factors. High-performance farms had significantly better feed conversion ratios compared with low-performance farms (1.61 v 1.67 (P≤0.01. No differences in flock mortality rates were observed (P≥0.05. This highlights the impact of season, biosecurity, partial depopulation, and farm performance on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broilers.

  2. The impact of biosecurity and partial depopulation on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broiler flocks with differing levels of hygiene and economic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shaun; Messam, Locksley L McV; Meade, Joseph; Gibbons, James; McGill, Kevina; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul

    2016-01-01

    significant as this group had full compliance with multiple factors. High-performance farms had significantly better feed conversion ratios compared with low-performance farms (1.61 v 1.67 (P≤0.01)). No differences in flock mortality rates were observed (P≥0.05). This highlights the impact of season, biosecurity, partial depopulation, and farm performance on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broilers.

  3. Effect of free stall surface on daily activity patterns in dairy cows with relevance to lameness prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, N B; Bennett, T B; Nordlund, K V

    2004-09-01

    Differences in behavior of nonlame cows, slightly lame cows, and moderately lame cows in 6 free stall barns with sand bedding (SAND) vs. 6 free stall barns with rubber-crumb geotextile mattress surfaces (MAT) were documented in Wisconsin dairy herds. All lactating cows in the 12 herds were observed and given a locomotion score based on a 4-point scale: 1 = nonlame, 2 = slightly lame, 3 = moderately lame, and 4 = severely lame. Herd least square means +/-SE for prevalence of clinical lameness (locomotion scores = 3 and 4) were 11.1 vs. 24.0 +/- 1.7% for herds using SAND vs. MAT surfaces, respectively. Subsets of 10 cows per herd with locomotion scores of 1 to 3 were observed via video cameras for 24-h periods. Cows in MAT herds spent more time standing in free stalls per day than cows in SAND herds. Differences in standing times were 0.73 h/d for cows that were not lame, 2.32 h/d for cows that were slightly lame, and 4.31 h/d for cows that were moderately lame in MAT herds compared with equivalent cows in SAND herds. In MAT herds, the increase in time spent standing in the stall in moderately lame cows was associated with a significant reduction in stall use sessions per day, which impacted daily lying time. Although cause and effect are not clear, these findings have implications for housing, comfort, and care of cows in dairy herds with different types of free stall surfaces.

  4. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens isolated from cattle in different European countries: 2002–2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Mevius, Dik J; Schroeter, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Background: The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin - II" (ARBAO-II) was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146) for the period 2003 - 2005, with the aim to establish a continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility among veterinary laboratories...... (2002-2004). Each year the participating laboratories were requested to fill in excelfile templates with national summary data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance from different bacterial species. A proficiency test (EQAS - external quality assurance system) for antimicrobial susceptibility...... from 13 European countries. For Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis major differences were apparent in the occurrence of resistance between countries and between the different antimicrobial agents tested. The highest frequency of resistance was observed for penicillin. For Mannheimia haemolytica...

  5. Social Discrimination and Resiliency are not associated with Differences in Prevalent HIV Infection in Black and White Men who have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger; Sullivan, Patrick; Millett, Gregorio; Rosenberg, Eli; Salazar, Laura; Di Clemente, Ralph J.; Cooper, Hannah; Kelley, Colleen F.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Frew, Paula; del Rio, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine associations of homophobia, racism, and resiliency with differences in prevalent HIV infection in black and white MSM. Methods The Involve[ment]t study is a cohort of black and white MSM aged 18–39 years in Atlanta, GA designed to evaluate individual, dyadic, and community level factors that might explain racial disparities in HIV prevalence. Participants were recruited irrespective of HIV serostatus from community-based venues and from Internet ads and were tested for HIV. We assessed respondents’ demographics, whether they had engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) within the past 6 months, and attitudes about perceived homophobia, perceived racism, and personal resiliency. Results Compared to white MSM, black MSM were less likely to report UAI in the past 6 months (OR = 0.59, CI = 0.44–0.80), more likely to be HIV-positive (OR = 5.05, CI = 3.52–7.25) and, among—those HIV-positive—more likely to report not being aware of their HIV infection (OR = 2.58, CI = 1.18–5.65). Greater perceived racism was associated with UAI in the black sample (partial odds ratio [pOR] = 1.48, CI = 1.10–1.99). Overall, perceived homophobia, perceived racism, and resilience were not associated with prevalent HIV infection in our samples. Greater resilience was associated with less perceived homophobia in both black and white samples (Spearman r = −.27, p < .001, for both). Conclusion Future studies of social discrimination at the institutional and network level, than at the individual level, may explain differences in HIV infection in black and white MSM. PMID:24820109

  6. Prevalência de disfunção sexual em dois grupos de mulheres de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos Prevalence of sexual dysfunction in two women groups of different socioeconomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Siqueira Prado

    2010-03-01

    ou escolaridade.PURPOSE: to identify if there is a difference in the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and in the sexual domain scores between a group of women attended at a public service and a group attended at a private service, and to investigate if there is an association between sexual dysfunction, family income and educational status. METHODS: transversal study including 201 sexually active women aged from 18 to 45 years, 90 of them from a public service and 111 from private services. We evaluated age, marital status, use of hormonal contraception, income and educational status, and all women were submitted to the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, an instrument for the evaluation of their sexuality. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 15.0, was used for statistical analysis. The χ2 test was applied for categorical variables and the Student's t-test to independent samples. RESULTS: there was no significant difference regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunction between groups (public versus private (20 and 23.4%, p=0.5, or concerning the domain scores, desire (3.9±1.3 and 3.8±1.0, p=0.6, sexual arousal (4.5±0.8 and 4.4±0.9, p=0.5, lubrication (5.2±1.2 and 5.0±0.9, p=0.1, orgasm (5.0±1.2 and 4.9±1.1, p=0.5, s