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Sample records for prevalence determinants knowledge

  1. Smoking prevalence, determinants, knowledge, attitudes and habits among Buddhist monks in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanphanom, Sychareun; Phengsavanh, Alongkon; Hansana, Visanou; Menorath, Sing; Tomson, Tanja

    2009-06-08

    This cross-sectional study, the first of its kind, uses baseline data on smoking prevalence among Buddhist monks in Northern and Central provinces of Lao PDR. Between March and September 2006, 390 monks were interviewed, using questionnaires, to assess smoking prevalence including determinants, knowledge and attitudes. Data entry was performed with Epi-Info (version 6.04) and data analysis with SPSS version 11. Descriptive analysis was employed for all independent and dependent variables. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used for categorical variables to compare smoking status, knowledge, attitudes and province. Logistic regression was applied to identify determinants of smoking. Daily current smoking was 11.8%. Controlling for confounding variables, age at start of monkhood and the length of religious education were significant determinants of smoking. The majority of the monks 67.9% were in favor of the idea that offerings of cigarettes should be prohibited and that they should refuse the cigarettes offered to them (30.3%) but, in fact, 34.8% of the monks who were current smokers accepted cigarettes from the public. Some monks were smokers, whilst they, in fact, should be used as non-smoking role models. There was no anti-smoking policy in temples. This needs to be addressed when setting up smoke-free policies at temples.

  2. Smoking prevalence, determinants, knowledge, attitudes and habits among Buddhist monks in Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menorath Sing

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross-sectional study, the first of its kind, uses baseline data on smoking prevalence among Buddhist monks in Northern and Central provinces of Lao PDR. Findings Between March and September 2006, 390 monks were interviewed, using questionnaires, to assess smoking prevalence including determinants, knowledge and attitudes. Data entry was performed with Epi-Info (version 6.04 and data analysis with SPSS version 11. Descriptive analysis was employed for all independent and dependent variables. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used for categorical variables to compare smoking status, knowledge, attitudes and province. Logistic regression was applied to identify determinants of smoking. Daily current smoking was 11.8%. Controlling for confounding variables, age at start of monkhood and the length of religious education were significant determinants of smoking. The majority of the monks 67.9% were in favor of the idea that offerings of cigarettes should be prohibited and that they should refuse the cigarettes offered to them (30.3% but, in fact, 34.8% of the monks who were current smokers accepted cigarettes from the public. Conclusion Some monks were smokers, whilst they, in fact, should be used as non-smoking role models. There was no anti-smoking policy in temples. This needs to be addressed when setting up smoke-free policies at temples.

  3. Socio-demographic determinants and prevalence of Tuberculosis knowledge in three slum populations of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obuku Ekwaro A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of tuberculosis has been shown to influence health seeking behaviour; and urban slum dwellers are at a higher risk of acquiring tuberculosis than the general population. The study aim was to assess knowledge of tuberculosis and identify the associated socio-demographic determinants, in order to inform tailored interventions for advocacy, communication and social mobilisation in three urban-slum communities of Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1361 adults between April and October 2011. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI of potential determinants of tuberculosis (TB knowledge were estimated by multivariable ordinal logistic regression using Stata 11.2 software. Results We found low knowledge of TB cause (26.7%; symptoms (46.8%, transmission (54.3%, prevention (34% and free treatment (35%. Knowledge about TB treatment (69.4 and cure (85.1 was relatively high. Independent determinants of poor knowledge of TB in the multivariable analysis included (aOR, 95% CI lack of formal education (0.56; 0.38 – 0.83, P = 0.004, unemployment (0.67; 0.49 – 0.90, P = 0.010 and never testing for HIV (0.69; 0.51 – 0.92, P  Conclusion This study revealed deficiencies in the public health knowledge about TB symptoms, diagnosis and treatment among urban-slum dwellers in Uganda. Tuberculosis control programmes in similar settings should consider innovative strategies for TB education, advocacy, communication and social mobilisation to reach the youth, unemployed and less-educated; as well as those who have never tested for HIV.

  4. Socio-demographic determinants and prevalence of Tuberculosis knowledge in three slum populations of Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowledge of tuberculosis has been shown to influence health seeking behaviour; and urban slum dwellers are at a higher risk of acquiring tuberculosis than the general population. The study aim was to assess knowledge of tuberculosis and identify the associated socio-demographic determinants, in order to inform tailored interventions for advocacy, communication and social mobilisation in three urban-slum communities of Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1361 adults between April and October 2011. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of potential determinants of tuberculosis (TB) knowledge were estimated by multivariable ordinal logistic regression using Stata 11.2 software. Results We found low knowledge of TB cause (26.7%); symptoms (46.8%), transmission (54.3%), prevention (34%) and free treatment (35%). Knowledge about TB treatment (69.4) and cure (85.1) was relatively high. Independent determinants of poor knowledge of TB in the multivariable analysis included (aOR, 95% CI) lack of formal education (0.56; 0.38 – 0.83, P = 0.004), unemployment (0.67; 0.49 – 0.90, P = 0.010) and never testing for HIV (0.69; 0.51 – 0.92, P slum dwellers in Uganda. Tuberculosis control programmes in similar settings should consider innovative strategies for TB education, advocacy, communication and social mobilisation to reach the youth, unemployed and less-educated; as well as those who have never tested for HIV. PMID:22824498

  5. Prevalence of self-reported tuberculosis, knowledge about tuberculosis transmission and its determinants among adults in India: results from a nation-wide cross-sectional household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeramareddy Chandrashekhar T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about symptoms and transmission of tuberculosis determines health seeking behavior and helps in prevention of tuberculosis transmission in the community. Such data is useful for policy makers to formulate information, education and communication strategies for tuberculosis control. Methods A secondary data analysis of India demographic and health survey, 2005/6 was carried out. Questions about self-reported tuberculosis, transmission and curability of tuberculosis were analysed. Correct knowledge (without misconceptions about tuberculosis transmission was used as a dependant variable and the explanatory variables tested were: demographic data, education, wealth quintiles, frequency of exposure to media and the curability of tuberculosis. Determinants of correct knowledge without misconceptions were tested by univariate and multivariate analyses using national weighting factor to adjust for complex sampling design. Results A total of 109,070 households (response rate of 93.5% and 198,718 participants (response rate of 91.6% completed the survey. The samples of men and women interviewed were 74,360 and 124,358 respectively. Prevalence rate of self-reported tuberculosis was 445 per 100,000 usual household residents and 4.60 per 1,000 participants. The number of respondents who had “heard of an illness called tuberculosis” was 177,423 (89.3%. Of these 47,487 (26.8% participants did not know and 55.5% knew about the correct mode of tuberculosis transmission i.e. “Through the air when coughing or sneezing”. The common misconceptions about transmission were “Through food” (32.4%, “Sharing utensils” (18.2%, and “Touching a person with tuberculosis” (12.3%. Only 52,617 (29.7% participants had correct knowledge without misconceptions. Being male (aOR 1.17, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.21, being a Hindu (aOR 1.20, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.26 or Muslim (aOR 1.26, 95% CIs 1.18, 1.34, listening to radio (aOR 1.08, 95% CIs 1.04, 1

  6. Knowledge and prevalence of Human African Trypanosomiasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and prevalence of Human African Trypanosomiasis among residents of Kachia grazing reserve, Kachia local government area, Kaduna state, ... Knowledge of HAT was scored 0-5 and categorized good (3-5) and poor (0-2) based on score, predisposition to risk of HAT as exposure to ≥two risk factors and, ...

  7. Knowledge dissemination: Determining impact

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molapo, D

    2007-07-17

    Full Text Available , efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability may be used respectively. Techniques of analyzing applied knowledge data abound. Two techniques of applied knowledge analysis which are used in the CSIR namely, Cost-Benefit Analysis and Cost...

  8. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Several studies have reported a negative relationship between smoking and military performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health implications among Nigerian Army personnel. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of 853 soldiers ...

  9. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and the knowledge of its health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Several studies have reported a negative relationship between smoking and military performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health implications among Nigerian Army personnel. Materials and Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of ...

  10. Knowledge, attitude, prevalence and factors leading to smoking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude, prevalence and factors leading to smoking among students at the Center for Physical Education and Sports Science, University of Sindh, Jamsoro Pakistan. A total of 148 (128 males and 20 females) students of Center for Physical Education and Sports ...

  11. Studies on the Prevalence, Knowledge, and Practices Toward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Teenagers (10-19yrs) had the highest malaria prevalence rate and were followed by ... Keywords: Cluster sampling, Malaria, Prevalence, Knowledge, Practices, ... annual rainfall and humidity were relatively .... Alcohol/ Don't.

  12. Prevalence and Determinants of Contraceptive Use among Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    Background: Women's ability to determine whether and when to have ... knowledge, prevalence and determinants of contraception among women of child- ... contraceptive (p = 0.036), informed choice (p < 0.001), and level of education ... make an immediate impact and reach far ... their income, family stability, mental health.

  13. Knowledge and prevalence of risk factors for hypertension among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and prevalence of risk factors for hypertension among workers in the banking industry in ... Tropical Journal of Health Sciences ... hours, with little physical activity could predispose bank workers to developing hypertension.

  14. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive airways disease and several cancers. There is little data about the prevalence and determinants of smoking among adolescents in southern Africa. This study aimed to determine the ...

  15. The prevalence of smoking and the knowledge of smoking hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. While the detrimental effects of smoking among HIV-positive patients have been well documented, there is a paucity of data regarding cigarette smoking prevalence among these patients in South Africa (SA). Objectives. To establish the frequency, demographics, knowledge of harmful effects, and knowledge of ...

  16. Determinants of individual AIDS risk perception: knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of individual AIDS risk perception: knowledge, behavioural ... we argue that individual risk perception is shaped by social network influences. ... to show that the importance of AIDS related knowledge and behavioural factors risks ...

  17. Prevalence and determinants of resistant hypertension among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Prevalence and determinants of resistant hypertension among hypertensive patients attending a cardiology clinic in ... Obese patients and those suffering from diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  18. Participation in blood glucose test, knowledge and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus causes great health complications which include cardiovascular diseases and nerve damage. Aim: To ascertain the participation in blood glucose test, knowledge of diabetes mellitus (DM) and prevalence of hyperglycemia among traders at New market, Enugu State. Methods: The study is a ...

  19. Determinants of glaucoma awareness and knowledge in urban Chennai

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    Sathyamangalam Ramesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the awareness and knowledge levels about glaucoma and its determinants in an urban population of Chennai in south India. Materials and Methods: Chennai glaucoma study (CGS was a population based prevalence study to estimate the prevalence of glaucoma in a rural and urban south Indian population. A total of 3850 subjects aged 40 years or above participated in the urban arm of CGS. A systematic random sample of 1926 (50.0% subjects completed a questionnaire that assesses their awareness and knowledge level of glaucoma. Respondents "having heard of glaucoma" even before they were contacted/recruited for the study were defined as "aware" and respondents having some understanding of the eye disease were defined as "knowledgeable". Results: Overall 13.5% were aware of glaucoma, the age-gender adjusted rate for awareness was 13.3% (95% CI: 11.57 to 15.03. Two clinicians graded knowledge on glaucoma, based on the subject′s knowledge of risk factors, definitions and treatment aspects of glaucoma. Overall 8.7% had some knowledge about glaucoma. Among those who had knowledge 0.5% had good knowledge about glaucoma, 4% had fair knowledge and 4.2% had poor knowledge. We observed a very good agreement between the clinicians in grading knowledge (k =0.92. Determinants of glaucoma awareness and knowledge were higher levels of education, females, age, religion and family history of glaucoma. Conclusion: Awareness and knowledge about glaucoma was very low among the urban population of Chennai. We have found that younger subjects and men were less aware of glaucoma. Subjects with lower levels of education were less aware and knew less about glaucoma than their counterparts. The study findings stress the need for health education for effective prevention of blindness due to glaucoma.

  20. Consanguinity in Lebanon: prevalence, distribution and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Bernadette; Salameh, Pascale

    2009-07-01

    The union of individuals with a common ancestor may lead to serious health consequences in their offspring. Consanguinity is high in Middle Eastern communities; it was around 26% in 1988. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of consanguinity in Beirut and other Lebanese regions, and its associated factors in different subgroups. The cross-sectional study was performed on a convenience sample of married women in Lebanon. The women were administered a standardized questionnaire in a face-to-face interview by independent enquirers. Among 1556 women, the overall prevalence of consanguineous marriages was 35.5%, and the consanguinity coefficient was 0.020; 968 marriages (62.2%) were not consanguineous, 492 (31.6%) were first cousin, 61 (3.9%) were second cousin and 36 (2.3%) had lower degrees of consanguinity. Beirut suburb dwelling, low education subgroups, women working in the home and non-Christian religion presented the highest rates of consanguinity (pwomen thinking that consanguinity would not lead to serious diseases. Consanguinity is therefore still a prevailing problem in Lebanon. Specific health education, and genetic counselling in particular, are suggested to explain the consequences of consanguinity to the general population and to help couples make informed choices.

  1. Helmet wearing in Kenya: prevalence, knowledge, attitude, practice and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, A M; Hung, Y W; Mogere, S; Akunga, D; Nyamari, J; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    In light of the increasing prevalence of motorcycles on Kenyan roads, there is a need to address the safety of individuals using this mode of transport. Helmet use has been proven to be effective in preventing head injuries and fatalities in the event of a crash. This study aims to understand the prevalence of helmet use as well as knowledge, attitudes, and practices in two districts in Kenya over a 5-year period (2010-2014). Observational studies on helmet use at randomly selected locations throughout each district were done every quarter to estimate the prevalence of helmet use. Roadside knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were done two times a year in each district. Helmet use among motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thika and Naivasha was assessed through systematic observations at randomly selected locations in the two districts between August 2010 and December 2014. Roadside KAP surveys were administered in both sites to motorcyclists in areas where they stopped, including motorcycle bays, petrol stations and rest areas near the helmet observation sites. Secondary analysis of trauma registries was also used. Negative binomial regressions were used to assess trends of helmet wearing among motorcyclists over time, and logistic regressions were used to analyze associated risk factors as well as association with health outcomes among those admitted to the four hospitals. A total of 256,851 motorcycles were observed in the two target districts during the study period. Overall, prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle drivers in Thika and Naivasha across all periods was 35.12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.87%-35.38%) and 37.42% (95% CI: 37.15%-37.69%) respectively. Prevalence of helmet wearing remained similar after the passage of a traffic amendment bill. These results were not statistically significant in either Thika or in Naivasha. Data from the KAP survey showed that respondents recognized the life-saving effect of wearing a helmet, but

  2. Prevalence and associated determinants of malaria parasites among Kenyan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Marufa; Sheikh, Nurnabi; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Jahir, Tania; Islam, Ziaul; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 80% of deaths attributed to malaria worldwide occurred mainly in Africa in 2015. Kenya is one of the major malaria endemic countries, making malaria the leading public health concern in this country. This study intended to document the prevalence of malaria and determine associated factors including socioeconomic status among children aged 6 months to 14 years in Kenya. This study analyzed the secondary data extracted from the 2015 Kenya Malaria Indicator Survey (KMIS), a cross-sectional country representative survey. Associations of demographic, socioeconomic, community-based, and behavioral factors with the prevalence of malaria in children were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Data from 7040 children aged 6 months to 14 years were analyzed. The prevalence of malaria showed an upward trend in terms of age, with the highest prevalence among children aged 11-14 years. Prevalence was also higher among rural children (10.16%) compared to urban children (2.93%), as well as poor children (11.05%) compared to rich children (3.23%). The likelihood of having malaria was higher among children aged 10-14 years (AOR = 4.47, 95% CI = 3.33, 6.02; P level of the household head (AOR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.08, 2.25; P knowledge in practice to control the malaria burden in Kenya. Furthermore, this study suggests that improving the information available through the mass media and introducing behavior change communication and intervention program specifically for those of poor socioeconomic status will help to reduce malaria cases.

  3. Prevalence and determinants of resistant hypertension among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... among hypertensive patients attending a cardiology clinic in China: a ... leading cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) ... Hypertension in present study was defined as ... patients who were currently smoking at least one .... prevalence of RHT by Ma et al [19] than us might.

  4. Prevalence and determinants of sunburn in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carla; Kvaskoff, Marina; DiSipio, Tracey; Youlden, Danny; Whiteman, David; Eakin, Elizabeth; Youl, Philippa H; Aitken, Joanne; Fritschi, Lyn

    2009-08-01

    Australia records the highest incidence of skin cancer in the world. In response to this, public education campaigns have incorporated messages about reducing sun exposure and avoiding sunburn. This study sought to describe the prevalence of and factors associated with sunburn in Queensland residents. The Queensland Cancer Risk Study was a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 9,298 respondents conducted via computer-assisted telephone interview during 2004. Sunburn prevalence and its association with socio-demographics and skin cancer risk variables were examined. More than two-thirds (70.4%) of respondents reported at least one episode of sunburn in the past 12 months, and one in 10 respondents reported at least one episode of severe sunburn in the past 12 months. Experiences of sunburn on two or more occasions were reported more frequently by males than females (57.6% versus 46.5%, psunburn were strongly associated with being male (OR=2.20 95%CI 1.84-2.63) and being aged 20 to 39 years compared to 60 to 75 years (OR=9.79, 95%CI=7.66-12.50). Sunburn remains highly prevalent among Queensland residents particularly among men and in the younger age groups.

  5. Primary Dysmenorrhea in Adolescents: Prevalence, Impact and Recent Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf; Bernasconi, Sergio; Bianchin, Luigi; Bona, Gianni; Bozzola, Mauro; Buzi, Fabio; De Sanctis, Carlo; Tonini, Giorgio; Rigon, Franco; Perissinotto, Egle

    2015-12-01

    . The efficacy of conventional treatments using NSAIDs and OCP is high. However, failure rate may reach up to 20% to 25%, besides the occurrence of drug-associated adverse effects. Only 6% of adolescents receive medical advice to treat dysmenorrhea while 70% practice self-management. Unfortunately, some girls even abuse these medications (non-therapeutic high doses) for quick pain relief. The persistence of dysmenorrhea despite the use of OCP and/or NSAIDs drugs is a strong indicator of an organic pelvic disease. This condition mandates an appropriate referral to a gynecologist with proper laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis and/or other pelvic diseases. Dysmenorrhea is an important health problem for adolescents, school and occupational as well as practitioners that adversely affects the daily activities and quality of life for adolescent women. The accurate prevalence of dysmenorrhea is difficult to establish due to the variety of diagnostic criteria and the subjective nature of the symptoms. In adolescents, moderate to severe dysmenorrhea that affects lifestyle and does not respond to medical treatment requires professional attention and proper diagnosis of possible underlying pelvic disease. Therefore, adolescent care providers should be more knowledgeable and actively involved in the care of dysmenorrhea.

  6. Prevalence and determinants of burnout syndrome among primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and determinants of burnout syndrome among primary healthcare ... Background: General practitioners (GPs) in particular are prone to developing ... Fatigue, the use of analgesics and irritability were the most common symptoms.

  7. [Prevalence of asthma and determination of symptoms as risk indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Hernández, Eleazar; Medina-Ávalos, Miguel Alejandro; Barnica-Alvarado, Raúl Humberto; Soto-Candia, Diego; Guerrero-Venegas, Rosario; Zecua-Nájera, Yahvéh

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease whose prevalence has increased, especially in developed countries; the results of studies of asthma prevalence vary in different populations and even within the same country; in Mexico we observed fluctuations in prevalence of asthma from 7% to 33%. To determine the prevalence of asthma and severity of symptoms as risk indicators in school population in cities in various states of Mexico. A descriptive study of detection of asthma prevalence and analytical-comparative observational study of determination of symptoms of asthma. The surveys were applied to preschool, elementary, middle and high school population, in the cities of Puebla, Puebla; Tulancingo, Hidalgo; Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala, and Cancún, Quintana Roo; new validated questionnaire was used as instrument: Asthma Diagnostic Questionnaire for Epidemiologic Studies, consisting of eight questions with summation value for diagnosis. 8,754 surveys showed a 14% prevalence in Puebla, 17% in Tulancingo, 7% in Tlaxcala, and 14% in Cancún; average in four cities surveyed was 13%; the strength of association with asthma symptoms in descending order with significant odds ratio were: recurrent wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, recurrent cough, cough cold, recurrent cold symptoms, predominantly nocturnal cough, cough that increases with exercise. The average prevalence of asthma in the surveyed cities was 13% and the main symptoms indicators of risk of asthma in school children were: recurrent wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness and recurrent cough.

  8. Prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction in Santos, southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Júnior,Edson Duarte; Bestane,Walter Jorge; Bartolo,Elaine Bestane; Fittipaldi,João Antônio Saraiva

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT: Recent population-based surveys suggest that the prevalence of erectile dysfunction is between 30% and 56% among men over the age of 40. Most of these studies, however, are from the United States or Europe. We need estimates of erectile dysfunction from samples of Brazilian populations, as societies that differ ethnically, culturally, and economically may also differ with respect to potential risk factors for erectile dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of erectile dy...

  9. Prevalence and determinants of stunting among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studies on stunting in children have largely focused on the underfive, establishing it as a strong predictor of mortality in these children. Few studies have documented the prevalence or determinants of stunting among school children in southwestern Nigeria. The aim of the study was to determine the ...

  10. Prevalence and distribution of oral health knowledge according to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Having knowledge about health issues is necessary for making informed decisions related to practicing lifestyles conducive to good health. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic, behavioural and clinical covariates of knowledge related to the cause and prevention of oral diseases among ...

  11. Reproductive health knowledge, beliefs and determinants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Though respondents were knowledgeable about benefits of family planning, there is the need for continuous education of women about reproductive health issues and integration of men's participation in family planning programme to increase utilization of family planning services in Ibadan, Nigeria.

  12. High prevalence of urinary incontinence and poor knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-02

    Dec 2, 2010 ... Demographic and Health Survey (SADHS) measured the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in South. Africa for the first time, but only among women who had had children.2. In 1998, the World Health Organization's first International. Consultation on Incontinence classified UI as a disease,.

  13. Prevalence, Knowledge and Attitudes Concerning Dietary Supplements among a Student Population in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pavičić Žeželj

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of usage and the knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements among medical sciences and nonmedical sciences students from Croatia. The study was conducted based on a questionnaire about dietary supplement usage, knowledge and attitudes. The prevalence of dietary supplement use, among 910 university students was 30.5%. The most-used dietary supplements were vitamins (18.0% in medical sciences students and 9.8% in non-medical sciences students. For all students, the internet (66.1% was the most common source of information, followed by healthcare professionals (33.2%. The most common reason for taking dietary supplements was to maintain good health (26.4%. Use of the internet rather than health professionals as a trusted information source should be revised among this young population. Supplement intake was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI (p = 0.016 and physical activity (p = 0.050. Students with normal BMI (61.5% and the most physically active students (37.7% took significantly more dietary supplements. Results of this study could help medicine faculties to improve their curriculum and support the development of public health messages aimed at wise and safe use of dietary supplements.

  14. Knowledge and prevalence of risk factors for arterial hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High job strain, mental stress, sedentary lifestyle, increase in BMI are among the factors associated with significantly higher incidence of hypertension. The job of bank employees is both sedentary in nature and accompanies high mental stress. The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of risk ...

  15. Prevalence and determinants of road traffic injuries in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Key words: Road traffic injuries, prevalence, determinants, population-based, Ethiopia. Introduction. Globally ... One tenth of all road traffic injuries are associated with driving under the ..... STEPS finding is similar to the Iranian study in that marital status did ... seat belt use, helmet use and alcohol consumption while driving ...

  16. Prevalence, Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Smoking Among SEPAR Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano Reina, Segismundo; Jiménez Ruiz, Carlos A; de Higes Martinez, Eva; Garcia Rueda, Marcos; Callejas González, Francisco J; de Granda Orive, Jose I; Vaquero Lozano, Paz; de Lucas Ramos, Pilar; Alfageme Michavila, Inmaculada

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of smoking among SEPAR members, and their approach to smoking cessation in their patients. An online survey was completed by 640 members (496 pulmonologists, 45 nurses, 34 thoracic surgeons, 37 physiotherapists, and 28 other specialists). Of the members interviewed, 5% confessed that they were smokers: 3.5% pulmonologists; 8.9% nurses; 8.8% thoracic surgeons, and 13.5% physiotherapists. A total of 96% of members assign a lot or quite a lot of importance to setting an example; 98% of members always or often ask their patients about their smoking habit. The most effective anti-smoking intervention, according to 77% of members, is a combination of drugs and psychological support. These results are an indicator of the awareness and commitment of SEPAR members to smoking and its cessation. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence, knowledge and awareness of hepatitis C among residents of three union councils in Mansehra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan is home to approximately 10 million HCV infected people. HCV prevalence is expected to be higher in the earthquake affected area of Tehsil Oghi. The aim of this study was to estimate HCV prevalence in three Union Councils of Tehsil Oghi, i.e., Oghi, Shamdhara and Kathai, and to assess HCV knowledge and awareness in the population. Methods: This is an observational study carried out during June 2010. Blood samples of 648 participants were analysed for the presence of anti HCV antibodies using Immuno-chromatographic method and a knowledge and awareness questionnaire was administered to the participants. Results: 394 (61%) participants were females, while 254 (39% ) were males. The overall prevalence of HCV in the study area was recorded as 67 (10.3%). Prevalence among male participants was 30 (11.8%), whereas, that among female participants was 37 (9.4%). Prevalence estimates in Oghi, Shamdhara and Kathai were 10.3%, 11% and 9% respectively. Knowledge and awareness regarding HCV was inadequate among the study population. Conclusions: HCV prevalence in the study area is higher than the overall prevalence in Pakistan. HCV related knowledge and awareness among population in the area is inadequate. There is a need to undertake a large scale population based epidemiological study and to introduce health interventions to control and reverse the spread of HCV in the area and to impart health education and awareness to the masses. (author)

  18. Prevalence, determinants and prognosis of pulmonary hypertension among hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence, determinants and prognosis of pulmonary hypertension among long-term hemodialysis patients in the USA are poorly understood. Methods A cross-sectional survey of prevalence and determinants of pulmonary hypertension was performed, followed by longitudinal follow-up for all-cause mortality. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as an estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure of >35 mmHg using echocardiograms performed within an hour after the end of dialysis. Results Prevalent in 110/288 patients (38%), the independent determinants of pulmonary hypertension were the following: left atrial diameter (odds ratio 10.1 per cm/m2, P pulmonary hypertension (53%, CMR 168.9/1000 patient-years) and 39 among 178 without pulmonary hypertension (22%, CMR 52.5/1000 patient-years) [unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death 2.12 (95% confidence interval 1.41–3.19), P pulmonary hypertension remained an independent predictor for all-cause mortality [HR 2.17 (95% confidence interval 1.31–3.61), P pulmonary hypertension is common and is strongly associated with an enlarged left atrium and poor long-term survival. Reducing left atrial size such as through volume control may be an attractive target to improve pulmonary hypertension. Improving pulmonary hypertension in this group of patients may improve the dismal outcomes. PMID:22290987

  19. HIV/AIDS in Russia: determinants of regional prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordaan Jacob A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The motivation for this paper is to inform the selection of future policy directions for tackling HIV/AIDS in Russia. The Russian Federation has more people living with HIV/AIDS than any other country in Europe, and nearly 70% of the known infections in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The epidemic is particularly young, with 80% of those infected aged less than thirty, and no Russian region has escaped the detection of infections. However, measures to address the epidemic in Russia have been hampered by late recognition of the scale of the problem, poor data on HIV prevalence, potentially counterproductive narcotics legislation, and competing health priorities. An additional complication has been the relative lack of research into the spatial heterogeneity of the Russian HIV/AIDS epidemic, investigating the variety of prevalence rates in the constituent regions and questioning assumptions about the links between the epidemic and the circumstances of post-Soviet transformation. In the light of these recent developments, this paper presents research into the determinants of regional HIV prevalence levels in Russia. Results Statistical empirical research on HIV and other infectious diseases has identified a variety of factors that influence the spread and development of these diseases. In our empirical analysis of determinants of HIV prevalence in Russia at the regional level, we identify factors that are statistically related to the level of HIV prevalence in Russian regions, and obtain some indication of the relative importance of these factors. We estimate an empirical model that includes factors which describe economic and socio-cultural characteristics. Conclusion Our analysis statistically identifies four main factors that influence HIV prevalence in Russian regions. Given the different nature of the factors that we identify to be of importance, we conclude that successful HIV intervention policies will need to be

  20. Drinking & driving in Viet Nam: prevalence, knowledge, attitudes, and practices in two provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Jessani, Nasreen S; Pham, V Cuong; Quang, La Ngoc; Nguyen, Phuong N; Passmore, Jonathon; Hyder, Adnan A

    2013-12-01

    Viet Nam is experiencing a shift in its burden of disease profile with injuries becoming more prominent. A history of high alcohol involvement in road traffic crashes despite stringent laws led to increased enforcement by police, enhanced public education messaging and targeted social marketing campaigns in Ha Nam and Ninh Binh provinces in Viet Nam. This study aims to illustrate the changes in prevalence (November 2010 to December 2011) and knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) around alcohol use and drink-driving for the year 2011. Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) was collected through police enforcement checkpoints in the two provinces. The proportion of drivers with BrAC above the legal limit was plotted over time for both provinces. The trend in prevalence of drink-driving over time was further assessed using Poisson regression models. Prevailing KAPs were determined through surveying randomly selected road users over the age of 17 years at gas stations at quarterly intervals. Cross tabulations of key variables as well Chi-Square statistic were used to assess associations. A total of 8,404 drivers were tested for BrAC levels of which less than 0.25% were female. Of 1,639 drivers displaying BrAC levels in excess of the legal limit, 87.3% were car drivers, 7.9% motorcyclists and 86% were between the ages of 25 and 44 years. KAP surveys captured 1,661 drivers over the study period. The prevalence of self-reported drink-driving increased 6 percentage points among respondents aged 27-36. Between 44% (January 2011) and 49% (December 2011) of respondents indicated awareness of a drinking and driving Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) or BrAC limit and only 25% of all study participants recalled being penalized for a traffic violation - none of which were for drink-driving. While there has been some reduction in drink-driving prevalence, inadequate or incorrect knowledge on drink-driving legislation appears to be an impediment to greater gains. Increased

  1. Trends and Determinants of Comprehensive Knowledge of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    This study examined comprehensive knowledge of HIV (CKH) and its determinants among young ... gender, education, marital status, place of ..... One of such interventions is the National ... of learning leaving a teeming population of out-of-.

  2. Determining the prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalized paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, L V; Goddard, E; Workman, L

    2006-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalised paediatric patients at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital. A 1-day cross-sectional survey was completed in all medical and surgical wards and some specialist outpatient clinics. A total of 227 children participated in the study. Thirty-five per cent of patients were moderately malnourished (malnutrition seen, a nutrition risk-screening tool, identifying risk factors for malnutrition such as food access and vulnerability, should be developed. The tool should be used to assess nutrition status and risk during the course of hospitalisation, in addition to planning appropriate nutrition care plan interventions for discharge.

  3. University students and HIV in Namibia: an HIV prevalence survey and a knowledge and attitude survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Ingrid H; Gelderblom, Huub C; Schellekens, Onno; Gaeb, Esegiel; van Rooy, Gert; McNally, Alta; Wit, Ferdinand W; Tobias, Rinke de Wit F

    2012-02-22

    With an overall adult HIV prevalence of 15.3%, Namibia is facing one of the largest HIV epidemics in Africa. Young people aged 20 to 34 years constitute one of the groups at highest risk of HIV infection in Namibia. However, little is known about the impact of HIV on this group and its access to healthcare. The purpose of this study was to estimate HIV prevalence, to assess the knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS, and to assess access to healthcare among university students in Namibia. We assessed HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes, HIV prevalence and access to healthcare among students at the Polytechnic of Namibia and the University of Namibia. HIV prevalence was tested through anonymous oral fluid-based tests. Half (n = 2790/5568) of the university students and 45% (n = 2807/6302) of the Polytechnic students participated in the knowledge and attitudes surveys. HIV/AIDS knowledge was reasonable, except for misperceptions about transmission. Awareness of one's own HIV status and risks was low. In all, 55% (n = 3055/5568) of university students and 58% (n = 3680/6302) of Polytechnic students participated in the HIV prevalence survey; 54 (1.8%) university students and 103 (2.8%) Polytechnic students tested HIV positive. Campus clinics were not the major providers of healthcare to the students. Meaningful strategies addressing the gap between knowledge, attitude and young people's perception of risk of HIV acquisition should be implemented. HIV prevalence among Namibian university students appears relatively low. Voluntary counselling and testing should be stimulated. Efforts should be made to increase access to healthcare through the campus clinics.

  4. Determination of 3D Equilibria from Flux Surface Knowledge Only

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.; Pomphrey, N.

    2001-01-01

    We show that the method of Christiansen and Taylor, from which complete tokamak equilibria can be determined given only knowledge of the shape of the flux surfaces, can be extended to 3-dimensional equilibria, such as those of stellarators. As for the tokamak case, the given geometric knowledge has a high degree of redundancy, so that the full equilibrium can be obtained using only a small portion of that information

  5. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A.; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E.; Frew, Paula M.; Haley, Danielle F.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n=1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), partner age>35 (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901

  6. Seasonal prevalence and determinants of food insecurity in Iqaluit, Nunavut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food insecurity is an ongoing problem in the Canadian Arctic. Although most studies have focused on smaller communities, little is known about food insecurity in larger centres. Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of food insecurity during 2 different seasons in Iqaluit, the territorial capital of Nunavut, as well as identify associated risk factors. Designs: A modified United States Department of Agriculture Food Security Survey was applied to 532 randomly selected households in September 2012 and 523 in May 2013. Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine potential associations between food security and 9 risk factors identified in the literature. Results: In September 2012, 28.7% of surveyed households in Iqaluit were food insecure, a rate 3 times higher than the national average, but lower than smaller Inuit communities in Nunavut. Prevalence of food insecurity in September 2012 was not significantly different in May 2013 (27.2%. When aggregating results from Inuit households from both seasons (May and September, food insecurity was associated with poor quality housing and reliance on income support (p<0.01. Unemployment and younger age of the person in charge of food preparation were also significantly associated with food insecurity. In contrast to previous research among Arctic communities, gender and consumption of country food were not positively associated with food security. These results are consistent with research describing high food insecurity across the Canadian Arctic. Conclusion: The factors associated with food insecurity in Iqaluit differed from those identified in smaller communities, suggesting that experiences with, and processes of, food insecurity may differ between small communities and larger commercial centres. These results suggest that country food consumption, traditional knowledge and sharing networks may play a less important role in larger Inuit

  7. Parental Perception, Prevalence and Primary Care Physicians’ Knowledge on Childhood Food Allergy in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Voskresensky Baricic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy in children is increasing and the perception of food allergy among parents is even more common. In a questionnaire-based study of 702 children aged 6 to 48 months in four primary care settings, the aim was to determine the prevalence of perception vs. proven food allergy, parental anxiety and general pediatrician knowledge of food allergy. In 95/702 children (13.5% parentally-reported food was associated reactions. IgE and/or skin prick test (SPT and/or an open provocation test were performed in 48 (6.8% and allergy was proven in 38 (5.4% children. Discrepancy between parental perception and proven allergy is significant (p < 0.001, especially for food other than milk, egg and peanut (p < 0.001. Allergy to milk was the most common. Allergy to peanut was significantly more common in children ≥2 years (p < 0.05. Severe reactions occurred in 5/95 (5.2% of all children and in 5/38 (13.1% of allergic children, in 3/5 caused by peanut. Parents of children with proven allergy do not experience high degree of anxiety. The perception of food allergy among general pediatricians is limited, and in children with severe reactions precautionary measures and information to parents were insufficient. Parents and general pediatricians need additional education in food allergy.

  8. Malaria in Hadhramout, a southeast province of Yemen: prevalence, risk factors, knowledge, attitude and practices (KAPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaga, Omar A A; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Mahmud, Rohela; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2014-07-29

    Yemen is a Mediterranean country where 65% of its population is at risk of malaria, with 43% at high risk. Yemen is still in the control phase without sustainable reduction in the proportion of malaria cases. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out in different districts in the southeast of the country to determine malaria prevalence and identify factors that impede progress of the elimination phase. Blood specimens were collected from 735 individuals aged 1-66 years. Plasmodium species were detected and identified by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears. A household-based questionnaire was used to collect demographic, socioeconomic and environmental data. The overall prevalence of malaria was 18.8% with Plasmodium falciparum as the predominant species (99.3%), with a low rate of Plasmodium vivax detected (0.7%). The infection rate was higher in Al-Raydah and Qusyer districts (21.8%) compared to Hajer district (11.8%). Fifty-two percent of the persons positive for Plasmodium were asymptomatic with low parasite density. The adults had a higher infection rate as compared to children. Univariate analysis identified those whose household's head are fishermen (OR = 11.3, 95% CI: 3.13-40.5) and farmers (OR = 4.84, 95% CI: 1.73-13.6) as high-risk groups. A higher number of positive smears were observed in people living in houses with uncemented brick walls (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.32-3.30), without access to toilets (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.05-2.32), without a fridge (OR = 1. 6, 95% CI: 1.05-2.30), or without TV (OR = 1. 6, (95% CI: 1.05-2.30). People living in houses with water collection points located less than 200 meters away were also at higher risk of acquiring malaria (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.05-2.30). Knowledge about the importance of using insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) for prevention of malaria was 7% and 2%, respectively. Several environmental, socioeconomic

  9. Prevalence and lifestyle determinants of central obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorakis, Dimitris A; Georgoulis, Michael; Psarra, Glykeria; Tambalis, Konstantinos D; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Sidossis, Labros S

    2016-08-01

    Central obesity is a strong risk factor for metabolic disorders and cardiometabolic diseases in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of central obesity and to determine its cross-sectional association with lifestyle habits in a sample of school-aged children in Greece. The study sample consisted of 124,113 children (9.9 ± 1.1 years old, 51 % boys) attending the third and fifth grade of primary school. Anthropometric measurements were performed by trained physical education teachers, and central obesity was defined as waist-to-height ratio ≥0.5. Children's lifestyle habits were assessed through 7-day recall questionnaires. Of the participating children, 33.4 % were classified as centrally obese. Central obesity was significantly more prevalent in boys than in girls (36.0 vs. 30.7 %, P obese children, as well as in a significant percentage of overweight (69.5 %) and normal-weight ones (12.0 %). Children with central obesity, compared to their non-centrally obese counterparts, reported poorer dietary habits and were less physically active. According to multiple logistic regression analysis, frequent breakfast (OR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.69-0.75) and snack consumption (OR 0.70, 95 % CI 0.67-0.74), as well as frequent participation in sedentary activities (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.07-1.14), were the strongest lifestyle determinants of central obesity. Strategies for the prevention of central obesity and associated comorbidities are urgently needed, for both obese and non-obese children. Our results suggest the need for a shift towards a healthier environment for our children, with emphasis on specific lifestyle habits, such as regular meal consumption and low sedentariness.

  10. Assessing Health Workers Knowledge on the Determinants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The participants were interviewed with a structured questionnaire used to elicit the knowledge of health workers on health determinants. Results: When individual factors were considered, a greater percentage of health workers, believed that safe drinking water (98.9%), where a person lives (96.6%) and a balanced diet, ...

  11. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Jaime E; Bozon, Michel; Ortiz, Edith; Arredondo, Anabella

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability.

  12. Determinants and prevalence of late HIV testing in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizosa, Claudia M; Blumberg, Elaine J; Hovell, Melbourne F; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Garcia-Gonzalez, Gregorio; Lozada, Remedios; Kelley, Norma J; Hofstetter, C Richard; Sipan, Carol L

    2010-05-01

    Timely diagnosis of HIV is essential to improve survival rates and reduce transmission of the virus. Insufficient progress has been made in effecting earlier HIV diagnoses. The Mexican border city of Tijuana has one of the highest AIDS incidence and mortality rates in all of Mexico. This study examined the prevalence and potential correlates of late HIV testing in Tijuana, Mexico. Late testers were defined as participants who had at least one of: (1) an AIDS-defining illness within 1 year of first positive HIV test; (2) a date of AIDS diagnosis within 1 year of first positive HIV test; or (3) an initial CD4 cell count below 200 cells per microliter within 1 year of first positive HIV test. Medical charts of 670 HIV-positive patients from two HIV/AIDS public clinics in Tijuana were reviewed and abstracted; 362 of these patients were interviewed using a cross-sectional survey. Using multivariate logistic regression, we explored potential correlates of late HIV testing based on the Behavioral Ecological Model. From 342 participants for whom late testing could be determined, the prevalence of late testing was 43.2%. Multivariate logistic regression results (n = 275) revealed five significant correlates of late testing: "I preferred not to know I had HIV" (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.78, 1.46-5.31); clinic (AOR = 1.90, 1.06-3.41); exposure to peers engaging in high-risk sexual behavior (AOR = 1.14, 1.02-1.27); stigma regarding HIV-infected individuals (AOR = 0.65, 0.47-0.92); and stigma regarding HIV testing (AOR = 0.66, 0.45-0.97). These findings may inform the design of interventions to increase timely HIV testing and help reduce HIV transmission in the community at large.

  13. Utility of knowledge, attitude, and practice survey, and prevalence of dental caries among 11- to 13-year-old children in an urban community in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanskriti Khanal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The school oral health education program is believed to be a cost-effective method for promoting oral health. The KAP (knowledge–attitude–practice model of oral health education is often the foundation of most health education programs. Objectives: To assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and oral health care practices among 11- to 13-year-old children and the association of knowledge with attitude, oral health care practices, and dental caries prevalence. Design: Cross-sectional design, involving 858 children studying in class seven at various schools in the city of Mangalore, India. The children were selected using stratified random sampling method. Prevalence of dental caries was determined using decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT index. A self-administered questionnaire on self-care practices in oral health, knowledge, and attitude toward oral health care was filled by children. The association of different variables with knowledge was analyzed using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: The dental caries prevalence was 59.4%, and 54.5% had low knowledge. They lacked knowledge regarding use of fluoridated toothpaste and did not use them. Children with low knowledge had significantly higher odds of having DMFT ≥ 1, not using fluoridated toothpaste, and being afraid of going to the dentist due to possible pain. There was no association of other oral health care practices and attitudes with knowledge. Conclusion: Oral health care practices and attitudes are not fully explained by knowledge, and other models of health education need to be considered.

  14. Prevalence of injections and knowledge of safe injections among rural residents in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y W; Yan, J; Zhang, G P; Gao, Z L; Jian, H X

    2007-08-01

    Abuse of the injection services, namely unnecessary injections and unsafe injections, exists extensively in developing countries. Unsafe injection practices contribute to the transmission of blood-borne pathogens. The aims of this study were to survey the prevalence of injections and knowledge of injection safety among the rural residents in Jingzhou district, Hubei, China and to provide scientific data for developing a health educational programme. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 villages, which were selected from the Jingzhou district by the random sampling method. 50 rural residents were interviewed per village using a questionnaire. Among the 595 residents studied, 192 had received at least one injection in the past three months, with an injection prevalence of 32.3 percent and an average of 0.93 injections. 90.3 percent of the rural residents knew that unsafe injections could transmit the following blood-borne pathogens: human immunodeficiency virus (74.4 percent), hepatitis B virus (55.8 percent) and hepatitis C virus (22.9 percent). Logistic regression analysis showed that the residents' age, educational level and residential area were important factors in influencing their knowledge about injection safety. The results indicated that the injection prevalence was high among rural residents in the study area, and their knowledge regarding injection safety should be further improved.

  15. A knowledge based method for nuclear plant loading pattern determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauboin, P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a knowledge based system for solving an industrial problem which occurs in nuclear fuel management. The problem lies in determining satisfactory loading patterns for nuclear plants. Its primary feature consists in the huge search space involved. Conventional resolution processes are formally defined and analyzed: there is no general algorithm which guarantees to always provide a reasonable solution in each situation. We propose a new approach to solve this constrained search problem using domain-specific knowledge and general constraint-based heuristics. During a preprocessing step, a problem dependent search algorithm is designed. This procedure is then automatically implemented in FORTRAN. The generated routines have proved to be very efficient finding solutions which could not have been provided using logic programming. A prototype expert system has already been applied to actual reload pattern searches. While combining efficiency and flexibility, this knowledge based system enables human experts to rapidly match new constraints and requirements

  16. Prevalence and determinants of glucose intolerance among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ±SD age of 38±15 years were HAARTtreated; while 200 (61 males and 139 females) with mean±SD age of 33±17 years were HAART-naive. Overall, the prevalence of GI was 40.4% (IFG) 19.5%, IGT 11.5% and DM 9.4%. The prevalence of ...

  17. Alcoholic Ketosis: Prevalence, Determinants, and Ketohepatitis in Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Mizukami, Takeshi; Matsui, Toshifumi; Shiraishi, Koichi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2014-11-01

    Alcoholic ketosis and ketoacidosis are metabolic abnormalities often diagnosed in alcoholics in emergency departments. We attempted to identify determinants or factors associated with alcoholic ketosis. The subjects of this cross-sectional survey were 1588 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who came to an addiction center within 14 days of their last drink. The results of the dipstick urinalyses revealed a prevalence of ketosis of 34.0% (±, 21.5%; +, 8.9%; and 2+/3+; 3.6%) in the alcoholics. Higher urine ketone levels were associated with higher serum total bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels. A multivariate analysis by the proportional odds model showed that the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for an increase in ketosis by one category was 0.94 (0.84-1.06) per 10-year increase in age, 0.93 (0.89-0.97) per 1-day increase in interval since the last drink, 1.78 (1.41-2.26) in the presence of slow-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B*1/*1), 1.61 (1.10-2.36) and 1.30 (1.03-1.65) when the beverage of choice was whiskey and shochu, respectively (distilled no-carbohydrate beverages vs. the other beverages), 2.05 (1.27-3.32) in the presence of hypoglycemia Ketosis was a very common complication and frequently accompanied by alcoholic liver injury in our Japanese male alcoholic population, in which ADH1B*1/*1 genotype, consumption of whiskey or shochu, hypoglycemia, lower BMI and smoking were significant determinants of the development of ketosis. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  18. Adherence to phosphate binders in hemodialysis patients: prevalence and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Yoleen P M; Vrijens, Bernard; Abraham, Ivo; Van Rompaey, Bart; Elseviers, Monique M

    2014-12-01

    Phosphate control is a crucial treatment goal in end-stage renal disease, but poor patient adherence to phosphate binder therapy remains a challenge. This study aimed to estimate the extent of phosphate binder adherence in hemodialysis patients and to identify potential determinants. Phosphate binder adherence was measured blindly in 135 hemodialysis patients for 2 months using the medication event monitoring system. Patient data, gathered at inclusion through medical records, ad hoc questionnaires and the short form (SF)-36 health survey, included: (1) demographics, (2) perceived side-effects, belief in benefit, self-reported adherence to the therapy, (3) knowledge about phosphate binder therapy, (4) social support, and (5) quality of life (SF-36). Phosphatemia data was collected from charts. 'Being adherent' was defined as missing adherent' as missing adherent. Over the entire 8-week period, 22 % of patients were totally adherent. Mean phosphatemia levels were 0.55 mg/dl lower in adherent than nonadherent patients (4.76 vs. 5.31 mg/dl). Determinants for being totally adherent were living with a partner, higher social support (both were interrelated) and higher physical quality of life. Experiencing intake-related inconvenience negatively affected adherence. The social support and quality of life physical score explained 26 % of the variance in adherence. Phosphate binder nonadherence remains a major problem. Interventions should aim, at least, to improve social support. With few associated factors found and yet low adherence, an individualized approach seems indicated.

  19. Tobacco use prevalence, knowledge, and attitudes among newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients in Penang State and Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaisu, Ahmed; Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki; Abd Aziz, Noorizan; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Mohamad Noordin, Noorliza; Muttalif, Abdul Razak; Ahmad Mahayiddin, Aziah

    2010-01-12

    There is sufficient evidence to conclude that tobacco smoking is strongly linked to tuberculosis (TB) and a large proportion of TB patients may be active smokers. In addition, a previous analysis has suggested that a considerable proportion of the global burden of TB may be attributable to smoking. However, there is paucity of information on the prevalence of tobacco smoking among TB patients in Malaysia. Moreover, the tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of TB patients who are smokers have not been previously explored. This study aimed to document the prevalence of smoking among newly diagnosed TB patients and to learn about the tobacco use knowledge and attitudes of those who are smokers among this population. Data were generated on prevalence rates of smoking among newly diagnosed TB patients in the State of Penang from January 2008 to December 2008. The data were obtained based on a review of routinely collated data from the quarterly report on TB case registration. The study setting comprised of five healthcare facilities (TB clinics) located within Penang and Wilayah Persekutuan, Kuala Lumpur health districts in Malaysia, which were involved in a larger project, known as SCIDOTS Project. A 58-item questionnaire was used to assess the tobacco use knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of those TB patients who were smokers. Smoking status was determinant in 817 of 943 new cases of TB from January to December 2008. Of this, it was estimated that the prevalence rates of current- and ex-smoking among the TB patients were 40.27% (329/817) and 13.95% (114/817), respectively. The prevalence of ever-smoking among patients with TB was estimated to be 54,220 per 100,000 population. Of 120 eligible participants for the SCIDOTS Project, 88 responded to the survey (73.3% response rate) and 80 surveys were analyzed (66.7% usable rate). The mean (+/- SD) total score of tobacco use knowledge items was 4.23 +/- 2.66 (maximum possible score=11). More than half of the

  20. Tobacco use prevalence, knowledge, and attitudes among newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients in Penang State and Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Noordin Noorliza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is sufficient evidence to conclude that tobacco smoking is strongly linked to tuberculosis (TB and a large proportion of TB patients may be active smokers. In addition, a previous analysis has suggested that a considerable proportion of the global burden of TB may be attributable to smoking. However, there is paucity of information on the prevalence of tobacco smoking among TB patients in Malaysia. Moreover, the tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of TB patients who are smokers have not been previously explored. This study aimed to document the prevalence of smoking among newly diagnosed TB patients and to learn about the tobacco use knowledge and attitudes of those who are smokers among this population. Methods Data were generated on prevalence rates of smoking among newly diagnosed TB patients in the State of Penang from January 2008 to December 2008. The data were obtained based on a review of routinely collated data from the quarterly report on TB case registration. The study setting comprised of five healthcare facilities (TB clinics located within Penang and Wilayah Persekutuan, Kuala Lumpur health districts in Malaysia, which were involved in a larger project, known as SCIDOTS Project. A 58-item questionnaire was used to assess the tobacco use knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of those TB patients who were smokers. Results Smoking status was determinant in 817 of 943 new cases of TB from January to December 2008. Of this, it was estimated that the prevalence rates of current- and ex-smoking among the TB patients were 40.27% (329/817 and 13.95% (114/817, respectively. The prevalence of ever-smoking among patients with TB was estimated to be 54,220 per 100,000 population. Of 120 eligible participants for the SCIDOTS Project, 88 responded to the survey (73.3% response rate and 80 surveys were analyzed (66.7% usable rate. The mean (± SD total score of tobacco use knowledge items was 4.23 ± 2

  1. Prevalence and determinants of childhood mortality in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanni Yaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood mortality has remained a major challenge to public health amongst families in Nigeria and other developing countries. The menace of incessant childhood mortality has been a major concern and this calls for studies to generate new scientific evidence to determine its prevalence and explore predisposing factors associated with it in Nigeria. Method Data was obtained from Nigeria DHS, 2013. The study outcome variable was the total number of children lost by male partners and female partners respectively who were married. The difference between the numbers of child births and the number of living children was used to determine the number of children lost. Study variables were obtained for 8658 couples captured in the data set. Descriptive statistics were computed to examine the presence of over-dispersion and zero occurrences. Data were analysed using STATA Software version 12.0. Zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB regression analysis was carried out to determine the factors associated with childhood mortality. Results of ZINB were reported in terms of IRR and 95% confidence interval (CI. Results The age (mean ± std. of male and female participants were 36.88 ± 7.37 and 28.59 ± 7.30 respectively. The data showed that 30.8% women reported loss of children and 37.3% men reported the same problem. The study revealed age (years, region, residence, education, wealth index, age at first birth and religion of father and mother as factors associated with childhood mortality. In terms of education, secondary and tertiary educated fathers exhibited 3.8% and 12.1% lower risk of childhood mortality respectively than non-educated fathers. The results showed that the risk of childhood mortality are 26.7%, 39.7 and 45.9% lower among the mothers having primary, secondary and tertiary education respectively than those with no formal education. The mothers living in rural areas experienced 28.3% increase in childhood mortality

  2. Prevalence and determinants of childhood mortality in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya, Sanni; Ekholuenetale, Michael; Tudeme, Godson; Vaibhav, Shah; Bishwajit, Ghose; Kadio, Bernard

    2017-05-22

    Childhood mortality has remained a major challenge to public health amongst families in Nigeria and other developing countries. The menace of incessant childhood mortality has been a major concern and this calls for studies to generate new scientific evidence to determine its prevalence and explore predisposing factors associated with it in Nigeria. Data was obtained from Nigeria DHS, 2013. The study outcome variable was the total number of children lost by male partners and female partners respectively who were married. The difference between the numbers of child births and the number of living children was used to determine the number of children lost. Study variables were obtained for 8658 couples captured in the data set. Descriptive statistics were computed to examine the presence of over-dispersion and zero occurrences. Data were analysed using STATA Software version 12.0. Zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression analysis was carried out to determine the factors associated with childhood mortality. Results of ZINB were reported in terms of IRR and 95% confidence interval (CI). The age (mean ± std.) of male and female participants were 36.88 ± 7.37 and 28.59 ± 7.30 respectively. The data showed that 30.8% women reported loss of children and 37.3% men reported the same problem. The study revealed age (years), region, residence, education, wealth index, age at first birth and religion of father and mother as factors associated with childhood mortality. In terms of education, secondary and tertiary educated fathers exhibited 3.8% and 12.1% lower risk of childhood mortality respectively than non-educated fathers. The results showed that the risk of childhood mortality are 26.7%, 39.7 and 45.9% lower among the mothers having primary, secondary and tertiary education respectively than those with no formal education. The mothers living in rural areas experienced 28.3% increase in childhood mortality than those in urban areas, while the fathers in

  3. DETERMINANTS OF THE ACCURACY OF NURSING DIAGNOSES : INFLUENCE OF READY KNOWLEDGE, KNOWLEDGE SOURCES, DISPOSITION TOWARD CRITICAL THINKING, AND REASONING SKILLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, Wolter; Sermeus, Walter; Nieweg, Roos; Van der Schans, Cees

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how knowledge sources, ready knowledge, and disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills influence the accuracy of student nurses' diagnoses. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the influence of knowledge sources. We used

  4. Determinants of the accuracy of nursing diagnoses : influence of ready knowledge, knowledge sources, disposition toward critical thinking, and reasoning skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, Wolter; Sermeus, Walter; Nieweg, Roos; van der Schans, Cees

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how knowledge sources, ready knowledge, and disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills influence the accuracy of student nurses' diagnoses. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the influence of knowledge sources. We used

  5. Determinants of folic acid knowledge and use among antenatal women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    1999-06-01

    Although recommendations on folic acid use were issued by health authorities in a number of countries in the early 1990s, uptake of peri-conceptional folic acid is still disappointingly low. Regardless of food fortification policies, folic acid promotion will probably be required in most countries to optimize folate levels among women of child-bearing age. The aim of this study was to examine folic acid knowledge and use, and their determinants among antenatal women in the east of Ireland in 1997.

  6. Students nurses' knowledge and prevalence of Needle Stick Injury in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Mohammad; Al Qadire, Mohammad; Alazzam, Manar; Aloush, Sami; Alsaraireh, Arwa; Alsaraireh, Faris A

    2018-01-01

    Student nurses are at high risk of blood-borne pathogens transmitted via Needle Stick Injury (NSI). Understanding various aspects of NSI is essential if they are to avoid the risks associated with it. The study was conducted to measure student nurses' level of knowledge about NSI and to examine its prevalence and post-exposure measures in Jordan. A cross-sectional and descriptive design was used. A sample of 279 student nurses studying at one private and four government universities distributed throughout Jordan. The study used an online survey composed of 22 questions developed from NSI literature. The questionnaire was divided into three parts: background, to measure students' demographics; knowledge, to measure nurses' understanding of NSI; and prevalence, to measure exposure to NSI and the follow-up measures. Student nurses were recruited through Facebook. The survey was available online for one full semester in 2016/2017. The total number of completed surveys was 279 (response rate=61%). Most of the students were female (n=198; 71%), in their fourth year (n=114; 40.9%). Their mean age was 21years (SD=2.5). The mean score for the knowledge part was 7 out of 10 (SD=1.7). Almost a third of the students had at least one incident of exposure to NSI (n=73; 26.2%). Most of the students who had suffered NSI did not inform their clinical instructors (67.1%) or write an incident report (86.3%). The results showed that there was no significant difference in the knowledge total scores between males and females or between students across different universities. However, a significant difference was found between students in different years of study (F (276, 2)=6.77, p=0.001). Student nurses in Jordan have a moderate understanding of issues regarding NSI. This knowledge improved with seniority. However, exposure to NSI and its under-reporting is a prevalent problem. This study recommends focusing on NSI in the nursing curriculum, and providing more protection and post

  7. High Prevalence of Dehydration and Inadequate Nutritional Knowledge Among University and Club Level Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Pamela Jane; Gallagher, Alison M; McCormack, Jacqueline M

    2017-04-01

    Although dehydration of ≥ 2% body weight (BW) loss significantly impairs endurance performance, dehydration remains prevalent among athletes and may be owing to a lack of knowledge in relation to fluid requirements. The aim of this study was to assess the hydration status of university/club level athletes (n = 430) from a range of sports/activities (army officer cadet training; bootcamp training; cycling; Gaelic Athletic Association camogie, football and hurling; golf; hockey; netball; rugby; running (sprinting and endurance); Shotokan karate and soccer) immediately before and after training/competition and to assess their nutritional knowledge. Urine specific gravity (USG) was measured immediately before and after exercise and BW loss during exercise was assessed. Nutritional knowledge was assessed using a validated questionnaire. 31.9% of athletes commenced exercise in a dehydrated state (USG >1.020) with 43.6% of participants dehydrated posttraining/competition. Dehydration was particularly prevalent (>40% of cohort) among karateka, female netball players, army officer cadets, and golfers. Golfers that commenced a competitive 18 hole round dehydrated took a significantly higher number of strokes to complete the round in comparison with their euhydrated counterparts (79.5 ± 2.1 vs. 75.7 ± 3.9 strokes, p = .049). Nutritional knowledge was poor among participants (median total score [IQR]; 52.9% [46.0, 59.8]), albeit athletes who were euhydrated at the start of exercise had a higher overall score in comparison with dehydrated athletes (55.2% vs. 50.6%, p = .001). Findings from the current study, therefore, have significant implications for the education of athletes in relation to their individual fluid requirements around exercise.

  8. Prevalence and Knowledge Assessment of HIV and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors among Formal Sector Employees in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariguata, Leonor; de Beer, Ingrid; Hough, Rina; Mulongeni, Pancho; Feeley, Frank G; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F

    2015-01-01

    The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is growing in sub-Saharan Africa combined with an already high prevalence of infectious disease, like HIV. Engaging the formal employment sector may present a viable strategy for addressing both HIV and NCDs in people of working age. This study assesses the presence of three of the most significant threats to health in Namibia among employees in the formal sector: elevated blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and HIV and assesses the knowledge and self-perceived risk of employees for these conditions. A health and wellness screening survey of employees working in 13 industries in the formal sector of Namibia was conducted including 11,192 participants in the Bophelo! Project in Namibia, from January 2009 to October 2010. The survey combined a medical screening for HIV, blood glucose and blood pressure with an employee-completed survey on knowledge and risk behaviors for those conditions. We estimated the prevalence of the three conditions and compared to self-reported employee knowledge and risk behaviors and possible determinants. 25.8% of participants had elevated blood pressure, 8.3% of participants had an elevated random blood glucose measurement, and 8.9% of participants tested positive for HIV. Most participants were not smokers (80%), reported not drinking alcohol regularly (81.2%), and had regular condom use (66%). Most participants could not correctly identify risk factors for hypertension (57.2%), diabetes (57.3%), or high-risk behaviors for HIV infection (59.5%). In multivariate analysis, having insurance (OR:1.15, 95%CI: 1.03 - 1.28) and a managerial position (OR: 1.29, 95%CI: 1.13 - 1.47) were associated with better odds of knowledge of diabetes. The prevalence of elevated blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and HIV among employees of the Namibian formal sector is high, while risk awareness is low. Attention must be paid to improving the knowledge of health-related risk factors as well as providing

  9. Prevalence and Knowledge Assessment of HIV and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors among Formal Sector Employees in Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Guariguata

    Full Text Available The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs is growing in sub-Saharan Africa combined with an already high prevalence of infectious disease, like HIV. Engaging the formal employment sector may present a viable strategy for addressing both HIV and NCDs in people of working age. This study assesses the presence of three of the most significant threats to health in Namibia among employees in the formal sector: elevated blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and HIV and assesses the knowledge and self-perceived risk of employees for these conditions.A health and wellness screening survey of employees working in 13 industries in the formal sector of Namibia was conducted including 11,192 participants in the Bophelo! Project in Namibia, from January 2009 to October 2010. The survey combined a medical screening for HIV, blood glucose and blood pressure with an employee-completed survey on knowledge and risk behaviors for those conditions. We estimated the prevalence of the three conditions and compared to self-reported employee knowledge and risk behaviors and possible determinants.25.8% of participants had elevated blood pressure, 8.3% of participants had an elevated random blood glucose measurement, and 8.9% of participants tested positive for HIV. Most participants were not smokers (80%, reported not drinking alcohol regularly (81.2%, and had regular condom use (66%. Most participants could not correctly identify risk factors for hypertension (57.2%, diabetes (57.3%, or high-risk behaviors for HIV infection (59.5%. In multivariate analysis, having insurance (OR:1.15, 95%CI: 1.03 - 1.28 and a managerial position (OR: 1.29, 95%CI: 1.13 - 1.47 were associated with better odds of knowledge of diabetes.The prevalence of elevated blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and HIV among employees of the Namibian formal sector is high, while risk awareness is low. Attention must be paid to improving the knowledge of health-related risk factors as well as

  10. Determination of Hearing Loss Prevalence in Preschool Children of Ahwaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Sarafraz

    2011-03-01

    Considering the high prevalence of HL, especially SNHL, in this study, which is usually permanent but detectable at the neonatal ages, raising public awareness and early screening of ear diseases, which can lead to the detection and treatment in most cases, seem to be vital.

  11. High prevalence rate of left superior vena cava determined by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-08

    Oct 8, 2013 ... persistent LSVC (6). There was a similar high prevalence, in the current study, of persistent LSVC in patients with tetralogy of. Fallot and coarctation of the aorta when compared to other studies (6, 8). This can be explained by the fact that the patient sample in the current study with these lesions was small.

  12. Prevalence and determinants of common mental illness among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Common mental disorders include depression, anxiety and somatoform disorders are a public health problem in developed as well as developing countries. It represents a psychiatric morbidity with significant prevalence, affecting all stages of life and cause suffering to the individuals, their family and ...

  13. Prevalence and determinants of HIV infection among maritime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The close proximity of brothels and large sex-worker populations, as well as the fact that many seafarers are young, ... Methods: The study utilized a descriptive cross-sectional design. ... Prevalence of HIV in the studied population was 4.8%.

  14. Determining Prevalence of Acute Bilirubin Encephalopathy in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-11

    Demonstrate BIND II Score of >=5, is Valid for Detecting Moderate to Severe ABE in Neonates <14 Days Old.; Demonstrate Community-BIND Instrument, a Modified BIND II, is a Valid and Reliable Tool for Detecting ABE.; Demonstrate That Community-BIND Can be Used for Acquiring Population-based Prevalence of ABE in the Community.

  15. Prevalence and Determinants of Hypertension in an Agrarian Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and Methods: Consenting residents aged 18 years and above participated in this survey. ... A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used with the objective of ... clothing without shoes, caps or head tie on using a standard calibrated meter rule affixed to a wall perpendicular to a flat ..... Prevalence and pattern.

  16. Determinants of the accuracy of nursing diagnoses: influence of ready knowledge, knowledge sources, disposition toward critical thinking, and reasoning skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paans, Wolter; Sermeus, Walter; Nieweg, Roos; van der Schans, Cees

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how knowledge sources, ready knowledge, and disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills influence the accuracy of student nurses' diagnoses. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the influence of knowledge sources. We used the following questionnaires: (a) knowledge inventory, (b) California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and (c) Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT). The use of knowledge sources had very little influence on the accuracy of nursing diagnoses. Accuracy was significantly related to the analysis domain of the HSRT. Students were unable to operationalize knowledge sources to derive accurate diagnoses and did not effectively use reasoning skills. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence, knowledge and attitude of prohibited substances use (doping) among Saudi sport players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghobain, M; Konbaz, M S; Almassad, A; Alsultan, A; Al Shubaili, M; AlShabanh, O

    2016-04-16

    To estimate the lifetime prevalence and address the attitudes and knowledge of using prohibited substances (doping) among sport players in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey carried out using systematic random sampling technique among Saudi players of variable sports attending the sport clubs, stadiums, and sport fields (70 sport clubs, 22 types of sports belong to 22 Saudi sport federations were visted in 18 cities from all regions of Saudi Arabia). A total of 1142 male sport players were interviewed with main age of 24. The prevalence of using prohibited substances (doping) was 4.3 %. The main reason for using prohibited substances was to improve performance (69 %). The prevalence of using food supplements (not prohibited) was 38.4 %. Among the players, 30 % of them believe that such behavior is against the spirit of sport while 70 % of the players are aware of punishment against doping. 65 % of players admitted that they received advice on prohibited substances. Higher rate of using prohibited substances (doping) among Saudi players was associated with low education, age below 20 years, previous use of food supplements and lack of punishment awareness. Using prohibited substances (doping) among Saudi sport players is common. Players believe that such use is against the spirit of the sport and they are aware about its punishment, despite this, they are still using prohibited substances.

  18. Interaction between HIV awareness, knowledge, safe sex practice and HIV prevalence: evidence from Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ranjan; Sinha, Kompal

    2012-05-01

    This paper makes methodological and empirical contributions to the study of HIV in the context of Botswana, a country with high HIV prevalence. Comparable evidence is presented from India to put the Botswana results in perspective. The results point to the strong role played by affluence and education in increasing HIV knowledge, promoting safe sex and reducing HIV prevalence. The study presents African evidence on the role played by the empowerment of women in promoting safe sex practices such as condom use. The lack of significant association between HIV prevalence and safe sex practice points to the danger of HIV-infected individuals spreading the disease through multiple sex partners and unprotected sex. This danger is underlined by the finding that females with multiple sex partners are at higher risk of being infected with HIV. These results take on special policy significance in the context of Botswana, where the issue of multiple sex partners has not been adequately addressed in the programme to contain the spread of HIV.

  19. Prevalence and knowledge of urinary incontinence and possibilities of treatment among low-income working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amabily Carolline Zago

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Urinary incontinence (UI can affect women's lives in all areas, including in the occupational context, due to an uncomfortable workplace, incorrect positions for long periods of time and the handling of heavy items. Another worrying aspect is that the knowledge about urinary incontinence, in the health area, and its forms of treatment is still small among the low-income population. Objective: To verify the prevalence and knowledge about urinary incontinence and treatment possibilities among low-income working women. Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out on working women of a poultry processing plant. Results: The study included 136 women with an average age of 33.7 ± 9.7 years; body mass index of 26.6 ± 5.6 kg/m2; parity of 2.1 ± 1.1 children; monthly income of 2.3 ± 1 minimum wages. Of those interviewed, 63.9% were white; 44.8% had incomplete primary education; 52.9% were single; 53.6% underwent cesarean section delivery; and of those who underwent normal labor delivery, 86.6% underwent episiotomy. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was found to be 2.9%, and among the women affected, two reported that UI led to sexual, social, water and occupational restriction, and one of them believes that UI interferes with her concentration and productivity in the workplace. Regarding health knowledge, 46.3% had never heard of urinary incontinence before, and more than half (66.1% did not know about the existence of medical treatment. All women interviewed (100% were unaware of the existence of physiotherapeutic treatment. Conclusion: The prevalence of urinary incontinence was among those interviewed was small, however, the knowledge about the symptoms and possibilities of medical, and mainly physiotherapeutic treatment. is scarce among these women. This study allows to alert and to guide the health professionals and the society about the importance of actions that promote health education in the low income population

  20. Dental caries prevalence, oral health knowledge and practice among indigenous Chepang school children of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai Dixit, Lonim; Shakya, Ajay; Shrestha, Manash; Shrestha, Ayush

    2013-05-14

    Chepang communities are one of the most deprived ethnic communities in Nepal. According to the National Pathfinder Survey, dental caries is a highly prevalent childhood disease in Nepal. There is no data concerning the prevalence of caries along with knowledge, attitude and oral hygiene practices among Chepang schoolchildren. The objectives of this study were to 1) record the prevalence of dental caries 2) report experience of dental pain 3) evaluate knowledge, attitude and preventive practices on oral health of primary Chepang schoolchildren. A cross sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 5 government Primary schools of remote Chandibhanjyang Village Development Committee (VDC) in Chitwan district. Ethical approval was taken from the Institutional Review Board within the Research Department of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Tribhuvan University. Consent was obtained from parents for conducting clinical examination and administrating questionnaire. Permission was taken from the school principal in all schools. Data was collected using a pretested questionnaire on 131 schoolchildren aged 8-16-year- olds attending Grade 3-5. Clinical examination was conducted on 361 school children aged 5-16 -year-olds attending grade 1-5. Criteria set by the World Health Organization (1997) was used for caries diagnosis. The questionnaires, originally constructed in English and translated into Nepali were administered to the schoolchildren by the researchers. SPSS 11software was used for data analysis. Caries prevalence for 5-6 -year-old was above the goals recommended by WHO and Federation of Dentistry international (FDI) of less than 50% caries free children. Caries prevalence in 5-6-year-olds was 52% and 12-13-year-olds was 41%. The mean dmft/DMFT score of 5-6 -year-olds and 12 -13-year -olds was 1.59, 0.31 and 0.52, 0.84 respectively. The DMFT scores increased with age and the d/D component constituted almost the entire dmft/DMFT index. About 31% of 8-16-year

  1. Nonadherence in dialysis patients: prevalence, measurement, outcome, and psychological determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah; Farrington, Ken; Chilcot, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Nonadherence to aspects of the management of End-Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD) is common. Estimates of nonadherence vary with assessment method. Whilst readily available and free from report bias, physiological proxies-frequently used as measures of adherence-are often confounded by clinical factors including residual kidney function and dialysis adequacy. Despite variation in estimates of its prevalence, it is clear that suboptimal adherence to dialysis prescriptions, medication and diet can lead to adverse clinical outcomes. Several factors can help explain nonadherence in ESKD including mood, self-efficacy, social support, illness, and treatment perceptions. Psychological interventions have been shown to improve ESKD adherence, yet achieving long-term behavior change remains challenging. Identifying individuals who struggle to adhere to aspects of the dialysis regime, and tailoring theory-led interventions to improve and support adherence is a clear clinical need requiring further empirical enquiry. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Determination of Hearing Loss Prevalence in Preschool Children of Ahwaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Sarafraz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children learn to communicate by hearing sounds. If there is hearing loss, the cognitive and speaking abilities and language learning will deteriorate. Early detection and intervention are important factors in the successful treatment of hearing loss in children. Hearing loss (HL is divided into two main groups: conductive hearing loss (CHL and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL, the prevalence of the former being higher in children, many whose causes are easy to detect and treat. Material and Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, 785 children, aged 6-7 years, entering elementary school Grade 1 in the school year 2010/2011, were randomly selected from 10% of Ahwaz Hearing Loss Screening Centers, and their audiograms were studied. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS and descriptive statistics. Results: Out of the 785 preschool children examined in this study, 77 children (9.8% suffered from HL (42.9% female and 57.1% male, 59.7% from CHL, and 40.3% from SNHL. Twenty-six percent suffered from bilateral HL and 74% from unilateral HL. Thirty-eight point ninety-six percent had abnormal tympanometry, 61% of whom were Type B. Most of the children (53% had mild HL. Thirty-one point two percent of parents were aware of their children's HL. Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of HL, especially SNHL, in this study, which is usually permanent but detectable at the neonatal ages, raising public awareness and early screening of ear diseases, which can lead to the detection and treatment in most cases, seem to be vital.

  3. Modeling Contextual Determinants of HIV/AIDS Prevalence in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    As a result, it was argued to go beyond the KABP determinant studies to focus on contextual ... guided most of the determinant studies which formed a basis .... risk factor, i.e. gender power relations or ..... communication with Anna Meyer-Weitz.

  4. Determinants and prevalence of burnout in emergency nurses: a systematic review of 25 years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaenssens, Jef; De Gucht, Véronique; Maes, Stan

    2015-02-01

    Burnout is an important problem in health care professionals and is associated with a decrease in occupational well-being and an increase in absenteeism, turnover and illness. Nurses are found to be vulnerable to burnout, but emergency nurses are even more so, since emergency nursing is characterized by unpredictability, overcrowding and continuous confrontation with a broad range of diseases, injuries and traumatic events. This systematic review aims (1) to explore the prevalence of burnout in emergency nurses and (2) to identify specific (individual and work related) determinants of burnout in this population. A systematic review of empirical quantitative studies on burnout in emergency nurses, published in English between 1989 and 2014. The databases NCBI PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, Informa HealthCare, Picarta, Cinahl and Scielo were searched. Seventeen studies were included in this review. On average 26% of the emergency nurses suffered from burnout. Individual factors such as demographic variables, personality characteristics and coping strategies were predictive of burnout. Work related factors such as exposure to traumatic events, job characteristics and organizational variables were also found to be determinants of burnout in this population. Burnout rates in emergency nurses are high. Job demands, job control, social support and exposure to traumatic events are determinants of burnout, as well as several organizational variables. As a consequence specific action targets for hospital management are formulated to prevent turnover and burnout in emergency nurses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sexually transmitted infections: prevalence, knowledge and treatment practices among female sex workers in a cosmopolitan city in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekoni, Adekemi O; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O; Onajole, Adebayo T; Odeyemi, Kofoworola A

    2013-03-01

    Sexually transmitted infections constitute economic burden for developing countries, exposure to causative agents is an occupational hazard for female sex workers. Targeted interventions for this population can reduce the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus, but barriers exists which can hinder effective implementation of such programs. This descriptive cross sectional study sought to assess the prevalence, knowledge and treatment practices of sexually transmitted infections among brothel based female sex workers. Three hundred and twenty three consenting female sex workers were surveyed using pre tested, interviewer administered questionnaires. More than half of the respondents (54.2%) had poor knowledge of symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. Only 13.9% were aware that sexually transmitted infections could be asymptomatic. The self reported prevalence of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections was 36.5%. About half of those with sexually transmitted infectionss sought treatment in a hospital or health centre while 32.5% from a patent medicine vendor. Most respondents (53.8%) mentioned the perceived quality of care as the main reason for seeking treatment in their chosen place. More of the respondents with good knowledge of sexually transmitted infections reported symptoms compared to those with fair and poor knowledge. The knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among these female sex workers is poor and the prevalence is relatively high. Efforts to improve knowledge promote and encourage preventive as well as effective treatment practices must be made for this population.

  6. Prevalence and determinants of ever smoked cigarettes among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is limited data on adolescent smoking and its determinants in ... ever smoked cigarettes was associated with having a parent or closest friend who smoked. ... to prevent teenage adolescent smoking should incorporate a comprehensive ...

  7. Cyclical mastalgia: Prevalence and associated determinants in Hamadan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shobeiri

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Most of women with breast discomfort suffered cyclical mastalgia which severity can be determined by advanced age, age of marriage, history of abortion and history of premenstrual syndrome, but inversely by oral contraceptive use and exercise activity.

  8. Prevalence And Determinants Of Drug Abuse Among Youths In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug abuse is a global public health problem that impacts negatively on health, ... and Marijuana and farming occupation was a determinant of drug abuse. ... area, there is need for health education campaigns on harmful effects of drug abuse.

  9. Prevalence and determinants of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among male migrant factory workers in Haryana, North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi; Kant, Shashi; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Goswami, Kiran; Misra, Puneet

    2015-01-01

    Male migrant workers display high risk sexual behavior and have been shown to have higher prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), which make them more vulnerable to HIV infection. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported STIs and delineate their determinants among male migrant factory workers in Faridabad, Haryana. Male workers in two selected factories, who were aged ≥18 years, were born outside Haryana (destination), and who had migrated to Haryana after the age of 15 years were eligible. Socio-demographic information, HIV/AIDS knowledge and behavior, and self-reported STI symptoms in the last 1 year were ascertained by face-to-face interview. Determinants of STIs were identified by regression analysis. Totally 755 eligible workers participated. Mean ± SD age was 31.4 ± 8.2 years and migration duration was 9.5 ± 6.7 years. At least one STI symptom was reported by 41.7% of the participants (burning micturition- 35%, inguinal bubos-5.2%, genital ulcers- 2.6%, urethral pus discharge- 1.3%). Factors associated with STIs were higher age at migration, lower HIV/AIDS knowledge, paid sex in the last year, non-use of condoms during the last non-spousal sex, and unfavorable intention to use condom. Prevalence of self-reported STIs among these migrant men was high. Targeted Interventions among migrant workers need to be strengthened for control and prevention of STIs.

  10. Oral health knowledge, practice, oral hygiene status, and dental caries prevalence among visually impaired children in Bangalore

    OpenAIRE

    S T Prashanth; Sudhanshu Bhatnagar; Usha Mohan Das; H Gopu

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Visually impaired children daily face challenges for bearing their everyday skills. Maintenance of proper oral hygiene is one among them. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the oral health knowledge, practice, oral hygiene status, and dental caries prevalence among visually impaired children in Bangalore. Materials and Methods: A total of 85 children were asked verbally a questionnaire regarding the frequency of brushing, cleaning tools, use of dentifrice, knowledge about t...

  11. Prevalence and knowledge on e-cigarette among teenagers in Romania 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Munteanu

    2018-03-01

    A number of 2000 original questionnaires was directly distribute to teenagers for high schools from 6 important towns from Romania. Results A number of 776 (457 girls and 319 boys adolescents from different parts of the country where involved. The main objectives were to establish the prevalence of using, condition of using and knowledge about e-cigarette among them. 324 (42% had used the device 177 girls and 147 boys. Majority of users were smokers but a number of 61 (21% were nonsmokers and they used it. Although the majority said they use it occasionally they are able to present the advantages and disadvantages of the device . The one who never used it related no advantages and the users mentioned : less toxicity, money save, you can smoke it everywhere . Regarding disadvantages the option were more variety like: battery power, price, utility and so on. Conclusions In conclusion, in the absence of specific legislative measures for Romania we can expect an increasing number of users among young people the electronic cigarette tends to be a in an ascendant trend among teenagers and especially girls.

  12. Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugbomoiko, Uade Samuel; Ariza, Liana; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2008-12-09

    Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide. They may harbour a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans. In Nigeria, epidemiological knowledge on these parasites is limited. In a community-based study, we examined 396 dogs in urban and rural areas of Ilorin (Kwara State, Central Nigeria) for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths. In addition, a questionnaire regarding knowledge and practices was applied to pet owners. Nine ectoparasite species belonging to four taxa and six intestinal helminth species were identified: fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, Tunga penetrans), mites (Demodex canis, Otodectes sp., Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis), ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes sp.), and lice (Trichodectes canis); and Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma sp., Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum, Taenidae and Strongyloides sp. Overall prevalence of ectoparasites was 60.4% and of intestinal helminths 68.4%. The occurrence of C. canis, R. sanguineus, T. canis, Ancylostoma sp. and T. vulpis was most common (prevalence 14.4% to 41.7%). Prevalence patterns in helminths were age-dependent, with T. canis showing a decreasing prevalence with age of host, and a reverse trend in other parasite species. Knowledge regarding zoonoses was very limited and the diseases not considered a major health problem. Treatment with antiparasitic drugs was more frequent in urban areas. Parasites of importance for human health were highly prevalent in Nigerian dogs. Interventions should include health education provided to dog owners and the establishment of a program focusing on zoonotic diseases.

  13. Prevalence and determinants of online-sex use in the German population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred E Beutel

    Full Text Available The unlimited access to sexual features in the World Wide Web has raised concerns about excessive and problematic online-sex use. However, little is known about antecedents of internet-sex use of different intensity. Based on a representative German sample of 2,522 participants between the ages of 14 and 97 years, the aims of the present study were (1 to determine the prevalence rates of online-sex users with the short version (ISSTGSV of the Internet Sex Screening Test and (2 to associate online-sex use with anxious vs. avoidant partner attachment patterns and "Big Five" personality traits as potential antecedents.The ISST is a brief, one-dimensional and reliable measure of online-sex activities (rtt = .69. Overall, 14.7% of respondents reported occasional and 4.2% intensive online-sex use. In multivariate analysis, online-sex use was significantly positively associated with male sex, younger age, unemployment and an anxious partner attachment pattern and negatively with conscientiousness and agreeableness.Arousal and satisfaction by virtual enactment of sexual phantasies may be attractive for anxiously attached persons who find it difficult to commit to a real life relationship due to fear of rejection or low self-esteem. More knowledge about the individual antecedents of intensive online-sex use may also be helpful for the development of consultation and treatment strategies for excessive and addictive online-sex use.

  14. Prevalence and determinants of online-sex use in the German population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Giralt, Sebastian; Wölfling, Klaus; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Reiner, Iris; Tibubos, Ana Nanette; Brähler, Elmar

    2017-01-01

    The unlimited access to sexual features in the World Wide Web has raised concerns about excessive and problematic online-sex use. However, little is known about antecedents of internet-sex use of different intensity. Based on a representative German sample of 2,522 participants between the ages of 14 and 97 years, the aims of the present study were (1) to determine the prevalence rates of online-sex users with the short version (ISSTGSV) of the Internet Sex Screening Test and (2) to associate online-sex use with anxious vs. avoidant partner attachment patterns and "Big Five" personality traits as potential antecedents. The ISST is a brief, one-dimensional and reliable measure of online-sex activities (rtt = .69). Overall, 14.7% of respondents reported occasional and 4.2% intensive online-sex use. In multivariate analysis, online-sex use was significantly positively associated with male sex, younger age, unemployment and an anxious partner attachment pattern and negatively with conscientiousness and agreeableness. Arousal and satisfaction by virtual enactment of sexual phantasies may be attractive for anxiously attached persons who find it difficult to commit to a real life relationship due to fear of rejection or low self-esteem. More knowledge about the individual antecedents of intensive online-sex use may also be helpful for the development of consultation and treatment strategies for excessive and addictive online-sex use.

  15. Determinants of burn first aid knowledge: Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Hilary J; O'Neill, Tomas B; Wood, Fiona M; Edgar, Dale W; Rea, Suzanne M

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated demographic factors, experience of burn/care and first aid course attendance as factors influencing burn first aid knowledge. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using convenience sampling of members of sporting and recreation clubs. The main outcome measure was the proportion of correct responses to multiple-choice questions relating to four burn scenarios: (1) scald, (2) contact burn, (3) ignited clothing, and (4) chemical burn. A total of 2602 responses were obtained. Large gaps (30-50% incorrect answers) were identified in burn first aid knowledge across all scenarios. 15% more individuals gave correct answers if they had attended a first aid course compared to those who had not (pfirst aid knowledge. Gender and age were significant predictors of first aid course attendance, with males and younger (≤25 years) and older (≥65 years) age-groups less likely to have attended a first aid course. In this sample, first aid training undertaken within the last 5 years with a specific burns component was associated with enhanced burn first aid knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Socio-demographic determinants of the knowledge of diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the respondents knew that lack of exercise and obesity were risk factors for developing the disease and higher income and increased age were associated with better knowledge. The authors recommended among other things that health education be given to the populace on the signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus.

  17. Student Perceived and Determined Knowledge of Biology Concepts in an Upper-Level Biology Course

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Brittany; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Students who lack metacognitive skills can struggle with the learning process. To be effective learners, students should recognize what they know and what they do not know. This study examines the relationship between students’ perception of their knowledge and determined knowledge in an upper-level biology course utilizing a pre/posttest approach. Significant differences in students’ perception of their knowledge and their determined knowledge exist at the beginning (pretest) and end (postte...

  18. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  19. Determinants of nurses' knowledge gap on pain management in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziato, Lydia; Adejumo, Oluyinka

    2014-03-01

    There are concerns about adequacy of nurses' knowledge and skill in effective pain management since effective pain management promotes early recovery after surgery. This study explores factors that accounted for Ghanaian nurses' inadequate knowledge of postoperative pain management using a focused ethnographic design for data collection at a tertiary teaching hospital in Ghana. Fourteen nurses designated as key informants with different backgrounds as nurse educators and leaders were purposively sampled to participate. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews; all interviews were conducted in English, audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. The study revealed that nurses' inadequate pain management knowledge might have resulted from curriculum gaps during training; inadequate clinical supervision, study days, and workshops for practising nurses; lack of funding for organising regular workshops; and, negative attitudes of nurses whereby new information learned at workshops was not readily applied in clinical practice. It was concluded that nursing curricula at all levels of training in Ghana should incorporate credit-bearing courses on pain management, and appropriate pain management education programmes should be instituted for practising nurses. Regular monitoring and evaluation of the impact of such education programs is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Dynapenia and Their Determinants in Iranian Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    As'habi, Atefeh; Najafi, Iraj; Tabibi, Hadi; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    Uremic sarcopenia and dynapenia are prevalent in chronic kidney disease patients, including dialysis patients. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and dynapenia and their determinants in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients in Tehran, Iran. All eligible PD patients at the peritoneal dialysis centers of Tehran were included in this cross-sectional study. Skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength were assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis and hand grip strength, respectively. Physical performance was determined by a 4-m walk gait speed test. The prevalence rates of dynapenia and sarcopenia were 43.0% and 11.5% in the PD patients, respectively. There were significant associations between the prevalence of dynapenia and the age of patients (P = .03), physical activity level (P = .04), and the presence of diabetes mellitus (P = .005). In addition, a significant association was found between the prevalence of sarcopenia and sex (P = .009). This study indicates that uremic sarcopenia and dynapenia are prevalent in PD patients in Tehran, Iran. These conditions may contribute to physical disability, decreased the quality of life, increased morbidity, and a high mortality rate. Therefore, prevention and treatment of uremic sarcopenia and dynapenia are necessary for Iranian PD patients.

  1. Determining Chronic Disease Prevalence in Local Populations Using Emergency Department Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David C; Long, Judith A; Wall, Stephen P; Carr, Brendan G; Satchell, Samantha N; Braithwaite, R Scott; Elbel, Brian

    2015-09-01

    We sought to improve public health surveillance by using a geographic analysis of emergency department (ED) visits to determine local chronic disease prevalence. Using an all-payer administrative database, we determined the proportion of unique ED patients with diabetes, hypertension, or asthma. We compared these rates to those determined by the New York City Community Health Survey. For diabetes prevalence, we also analyzed the fidelity of longitudinal estimates using logistic regression and determined disease burden within census tracts using geocoded addresses. We identified 4.4 million unique New York City adults visiting an ED between 2009 and 2012. When we compared our emergency sample to survey data, rates of neighborhood diabetes, hypertension, and asthma prevalence were similar (correlation coefficient = 0.86, 0.88, and 0.77, respectively). In addition, our method demonstrated less year-to-year scatter and identified significant variation of disease burden within neighborhoods among census tracts. Our method for determining chronic disease prevalence correlates with a validated health survey and may have higher reliability over time and greater granularity at a local level. Our findings can improve public health surveillance by identifying local variation of disease prevalence.

  2. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Prevalence, Knowledge, and Attitudes in Junior and Senior High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, Maurie J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports a survey of junior and senior high school students that investigated the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and examined gender, sports participation, and illicit drug use. Results indicated the prevalence of steroid use was 3.3%. Steroid use was greater for males, users of other drugs, and strength trainers. (SM)

  3. The longitudinal prevalence of MRSA in care home residents and the effectiveness of improving infection prevention knowledge and practice on colonisation using a stepped wedge study design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, C; Barr, B; Hall, D; Hodgson, G; Parnell, P; Tompkins, D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence and health outcomes of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonisation in elderly care home residents. To measure the effectiveness of improving infection prevention knowledge and practice on MRSA prevalence. Setting Care homes for elderly residents in Leeds, UK. Participants Residents able to give informed consent. Design A controlled intervention study, using a stepped wedge design, comprising 65 homes divided into three groups. Baseline MRSA prevalence was determined by screening the nares of residents (n=2492). An intervention based upon staff education and training on hand hygiene was delivered at three different times according to group number. Scores for three assessment methods, an audit of hand hygiene facilities, staff hand hygiene observations and an educational questionnaire, were collected before and after the intervention. After each group of homes received the intervention, all participants were screened for MRSA nasal colonisation. In total, four surveys took place between November 2006 and February 2009. Results MRSA prevalence was 20%, 19%, 22% and 21% in each survey, respectively. There was a significant improvement in scores for all three assessment methods post-intervention (p≤0.001). The intervention was associated with a small but significant increase in MRSA prevalence (p=0.023). MRSA colonisation was associated with previous and subsequent MRSA infection but was not significantly associated with subsequent hospitalisation or mortality. Conclusions The intervention did not result in a decrease in the prevalence of MRSA colonisation in care home residents. Additional measures will be required to reduce endemic MRSA colonisation in care homes. PMID:22240647

  4. Young children's knowledge of the "determiner" and "adjective" categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Nenagh; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2005-06-01

    Children's understanding of the grammatical categories of "determiner" and "adjective" was examined using 2 different methodologies. In Experiment 1, children heard novel nouns combined with either a or the. Few 2-year-olds, but nearly all 3- and 4-year-olds, subsequently produced the novel nouns with a different determiner from the modeled combination. Experiment 2 used a priming methodology. Children age 2, 3, 4, and 6 years repeated descriptions of pictures, before describing target pictures themselves. When the primes consisted of a varied determiner + noun, all age groups produced more determiner + noun descriptions. When the primes consisted of a determiner + adjective + noun, 2-year-olds showed no priming. Three- to 6-year-olds showed item-specific priming, but only 6-year-olds (and to a limited extent 4-year-olds) showed both item-specific and structural priming. These results suggest that children build an understanding of determiners and adjectives gradually, perhaps from individual lexical items, over a number of years, and that pragmatic correctness may be attained particularly late.

  5. Employee Determinants to Share Knowledge in a U.S. Federal Government Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kenneth C.

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature indicates that knowledge sharing (KS) research is prevalent in the private sector, there is scant empirical research data about KS in the public sector. Moreover, organizations lack an understanding of employee KS behavior. This study investigated two research questions: First, how does the perceived importance of five…

  6. Prevalence of smoking habits, attitudes, knowledge and beliefs among Health Professional School students: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Ferrante

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: 422 students answered to the questionnaire. Prevalence of current smokers was 38.2%. 94.3% of the total sample believe that health professionals should receive specific training to quit smoking, but only 21.3% of the sample received it during the study courses. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of smokers among health professionals and their key role both as advisers and behavioral models, our results highlight the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training addressed to them.

  7. Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heukelbach Jorg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide. They may harbour a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans. In Nigeria, epidemiological knowledge on these parasites is limited. Methods In a community-based study, we examined 396 dogs in urban and rural areas of Ilorin (Kwara State, Central Nigeria for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths. In addition, a questionnaire regarding knowledge and practices was applied to pet owners. Results Nine ectoparasite species belonging to four taxa and six intestinal helminth species were identified: fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, Tunga penetrans, mites (Demodex canis, Otodectes sp., Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis, ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes sp., and lice (Trichodectes canis; and Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma sp., Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum, Taenidae and Strongyloides sp. Overall prevalence of ectoparasites was 60.4% and of intestinal helminths 68.4%. The occurrence of C. canis, R. sanguineus, T. canis, Ancylostoma sp. and T. vulpis was most common (prevalence 14.4% to 41.7%. Prevalence patterns in helminths were age-dependent, with T. canis showing a decreasing prevalence with age of host, and a reverse trend in other parasite species. Knowledge regarding zoonoses was very limited and the diseases not considered a major health problem. Treatment with antiparasitic drugs was more frequent in urban areas. Conclusion Parasites of importance for human health were highly prevalent in Nigerian dogs. Interventions should include health education provided to dog owners and the establishment of a program focusing on zoonotic diseases.

  8. Tobacco use prevalence, knowledge, and attitudes among newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients in Penang State and Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Awaisu, Ahmed; Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki; Abd Aziz, Noorizan; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Mohamad Noordin, Noorliza; Muttalif, Abdul Razak; Ahmad Mahayiddin, Aziah

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There is sufficient evidence to conclude that tobacco smoking is strongly linked to tuberculosis (TB) and a large proportion of TB patients may be active smokers. In addition, a previous analysis has suggested that a considerable proportion of the global burden of TB may be attributable to smoking. However, there is paucity of information on the prevalence of tobacco smoking among TB patients in Malaysia. Moreover, the tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of...

  9. Prevalence and Determinants of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Dewan S; Chowdhury, Muhammad Ah; Siddiquee, Ali T; Ahmed, Shyfuddin; Clemens, John D

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of population-based data on COPD prevalence and its determinants in Bangladesh. To measure COPD prevalence and socioeconomic and lifestyle determinants among ≥40 years Bangladeshi adults. In a cross-sectional study, we measured lung function of 3744 randomly selected adults ≥40 years from rural and urban areas in Bangladesh, using a handheld spirometer. COPD was defined according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria as post-bronchodilator ratio of Forced Expiratory Volume in 1st second (FEV1) to Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) COPD was also assessed by the lower limit of normal (LLN) threshold defined as lower fifth percentile for the predicted FEV1/FVC. The prevalence of COPD was 13.5% by GOLD criteria and 10.3% by LLN criteria. Prevalence of COPD was higher among rural than urban residents and in males than females. More than half of the COPD cases were stage II COPD by both criteria. Milder cases (Stages I and II) were over estimated by the GOLD fixed criteria, but more severe cases (Stages III and IV) were similarly classified. In multiple logistic regression analysis, older age, male sex, illiteracy, underweight, history of smoking (both current and former), history of asthma and solid fuel use were significant predictors of COPD. COPD is a highly prevalent and grossly underdiagnosed public health problem in Bangladeshi adults aged 40 years or older. Illiteracy, smoking and biomass fuel burning are modifiable determinants of COPD.

  10. Student Perceived and Determined Knowledge of Biology Concepts in an Upper-Level Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montplaisir, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Students who lack metacognitive skills can struggle with the learning process. To be effective learners, students should recognize what they know and what they do not know. This study examines the relationship between students’ perception of their knowledge and determined knowledge in an upper-level biology course utilizing a pre/posttest approach. Significant differences in students’ perception of their knowledge and their determined knowledge exist at the beginning (pretest) and end (posttest) of the course. Alignment between student perception and determined knowledge was significantly more accurate on the posttest compared with the pretest. Students whose determined knowledge was in the upper quartile had significantly better alignment between their perception and determined knowledge on the pre- and posttest than students in the lower quartile. No difference exists between how students perceived their knowledge between upper- and lower-quartile students. There was a significant difference in alignment of perception and determined knowledge between males and females on the posttest, with females being more accurate in their perception of knowledge. This study provides evidence of discrepancies that exist between what students perceive they know and what they actually know. PMID:26086662

  11. Prevalence and Determinants of Waterpipe Tobacco Use among Adolescents in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lawati, Jawad A; Muula, Adamson S; Hilmi, Sahar A; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and determinants of waterpipe use among school-going adolescents in Oman. Methods: A cross-sectional, school-based study was conducted in 2003 involving 9 regions of Oman, as part of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Participants were requested to complete an anonymous questionnaire containing demographic characteristics, current and previous use of waterpipe tobacco, attitudes towards cigarette smoking, parents’ and friends’ cigarette smoking habits. Proportions were used to calculate prevalence rates and logistic regression analysis to obtain odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: 1,962 students participated of whom 1,005 (51.2%) were males. Eighty-eight percent were between 13 and 16 years of age. Five hundred and twenty-two (26.6%) reported ever smoking waterpipe tobacco while 189 (9.6%) were current users. Among males, 155 (15.5%) were current users while among females only 24 (2.6%) smoked currently. Study participants were more likely to use waterpipe if they had a parent or friend who smoked cigarettes. Adolescents were, however, less likely to use waterpipe tobacco if they believed that cigarette smoking was harmful to health. Students who were receiving 500 Baisas (US$ 1.3) or more per day pocket money were more likely to use waterpipe tobacco compared to those receiving less (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.3 to 4.6). In multivariate analysis, the OR for males being a smoker of waterpipe tobacco compared to females was 4.46 (95% CI, 2.38 to 8.35); while the OR for most or all friends smoking cigarettes compared to non-smoking was OR 5.65 (95% CI 2.87 to 11.13). Study participants who perceived smoking as harmful to health were less likely to use waterpipe tobacco compared to those who did not believe smoking was harmful (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.92) and those receiving 500 Baisas or more (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5 to 3.2). Conclusion: Waterpipe smoking among Omani adolescents is an emerging public health concern

  12. Prevalence and Determinants of Waterpipe Tobacco Use among Adolescents in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lawati, Jawad A; Muula, Adamson S; Hilmi, Sahar A; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2008-03-01

    To assess the prevalence and determinants of waterpipe use among school-going adolescents in Oman. A cross-sectional, school-based study was conducted in 2003 involving 9 regions of Oman, as part of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Participants were requested to complete an anonymous questionnaire containing demographic characteristics, current and previous use of waterpipe tobacco, attitudes towards cigarette smoking, parents' and friends' cigarette smoking habits. Proportions were used to calculate prevalence rates and logistic regression analysis to obtain odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). 1,962 students participated of whom 1,005 (51.2%) were males. Eighty-eight percent were between 13 and 16 years of age. Five hundred and twenty-two (26.6%) reported ever smoking waterpipe tobacco while 189 (9.6%) were current users. Among males, 155 (15.5%) were current users while among females only 24 (2.6%) smoked currently. Study participants were more likely to use waterpipe if they had a parent or friend who smoked cigarettes. Adolescents were, however, less likely to use waterpipe tobacco if they believed that cigarette smoking was harmful to health. Students who were receiving 500 Baisas (US$ 1.3) or more per day pocket money were more likely to use waterpipe tobacco compared to those receiving less (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.3 to 4.6). In multivariate analysis, the OR for males being a smoker of waterpipe tobacco compared to females was 4.46 (95% CI, 2.38 to 8.35); while the OR for most or all friends smoking cigarettes compared to non-smoking was OR 5.65 (95% CI 2.87 to 11.13). Study participants who perceived smoking as harmful to health were less likely to use waterpipe tobacco compared to those who did not believe smoking was harmful (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.92) and those receiving 500 Baisas or more (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5 to 3.2). Waterpipe smoking among Omani adolescents is an emerging public health concern. Efforts to prevent adolescent smoking should be

  13. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Blantyre City, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muula, A S

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive airways disease and several cancers. There is little data about the prevalence and determinants of smoking among adolescents in southern Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Blantyre City, Malawi. Cross-sectional data were obtained from school-going adolescents in Blantyre in 2001 using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey data collection instrument. Data were analysed to determine prevalence of current and ever cigarette smoking, and predictors of smoking. The prevalence of current smoking and ever smoking were 3.0% and 15.6%, respectively. Predictors of current tobacco smoking included male gender, having friends or parents who smoked, having been exposed to advertisements about tobacco brands on television and having seen a lot of advertisements in newspapers and magazines. School programmes that included being taught about smoking in class and a class discussion on the dangers of tobacco were not associated with reduced current smoking. Intervention programmes aiming to curb tobacco smoking among adolescents should focus on dealing also with parental smoking, peer influence and pay special attention toward male gender. School-based programmes to prevent smoking should be evaluated as some may have little impact in influencing current smoking status.

  14. Determinants of Selenium Intake in a High HIV Prevalence Fishing Community in Bondo District, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Samwel Boaz Otieno; Fred Were; Ephantus Kabiru; Kaunda Waza

    2016-01-01

    A study was done to establish determinants of selenium intake in a high HIV prevalence fishing community in the Pala Bondo district, Kenya. It was established that most of the respondents (61%) were small holder Farmers and Fishermen {χ2 (1, N=386) p

  15. Metrics for determining hydrophytic vegetation in wetland delineation: a clarification on the prevalence index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven

    2015-01-01

    A recent publication and an article in Wetland Science & Practice (Lichvar and Gillrich 2014b, 2014a) discuss two metrics for determining if vegetation is hydrophytic for purposes of U.S. wetland delineations, the Prevalence Index (PI) and a proposed Hydrophytic Cover Index (HCI). Based on Wentworth et al. (1988), the PI is a weighted average of ordinal scores (1-5...

  16. Prevalence and determinants of low birth weight: the situation in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The traditional birth attendant delivers majority of pregnant women in Nigeria. Objective: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors for delivery of low birth weight (LBW) neonates in a Traditional Birth Home (TBH)in Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 780 pregnant women ...

  17. Prevalence and determinants of symptoms of common mental disorders in retired professional Rugby Union players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse nutrition behaviour, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking) among retired professional Rugby Union players. The secondary aim was to

  18. Prevalence of anaemia and its socio demographic determinants among pregnant women in Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramatma Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: About one-third of the global population is anaemic. WHO has estimated that prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women is 18% in developed countries and relatively high 56% in developing countries. Prevalence of anaemia in South East Asian countries is highest in the world. WHO estimates that even among the South East Asian countries, India has the highest prevalence of anaemia. Aims & Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women and to determine association of anaemia with its socio-demographic factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant women 2nd trimester onwards who came to ante natal clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology department during January-March 2014 by using pre-designed, pretested schedule. A total of 300 pregnant women were clinically examined. Written consent was taken. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Cyanmethaemoglobin method and anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS Version 17. Results: Overall prevalence of anaemia among the pregnant women was found to be 58.3%. It was seen that 31% of women were illiterate and 38.7% of them belong to upper middle class. Factors such as level of education of women, occupation and consumption of Iron Folic Acid were found to be significantly associated with prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy. Conclusion: A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs awareness about late marriage, birth spacing, one or two child norm, antenatal care, green leafy vegetable in diet, mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies.

  19. Prevalence of anaemia and its socio demographic determinants among pregnant women in Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramatma Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: About one-third of the global population is anaemic. WHO has estimated that prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women is 18% in developed countries and relatively high 56% in developing countries. Prevalence of anaemia in South East Asian countries is highest in the world. WHO estimates that even among the South East Asian countries, India has the highest prevalence of anaemia. Aims & Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women and to determine association of anaemia with its socio-demographic factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant women 2nd trimester onwards who came to ante natal clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology department during January-March 2014 by using pre-designed, pretested schedule. A total of 300 pregnant women were clinically examined. Written consent was taken. Haemoglobin estimation was done by Cyanmethaemoglobin method and anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS Version 17. Results: Overall prevalence of anaemia among the pregnant women was found to be 58.3%. It was seen that 31% of women were illiterate and 38.7% of them belong to upper middle class. Factors such as level of education of women, occupation and consumption of Iron Folic Acid were found to be significantly associated with prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy. Conclusion: A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs awareness about late marriage, birth spacing, one or two child norm, antenatal care, green leafy vegetable in diet, mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies.

  20. Multicenter transversal two-phase study to determine a national prevalence of epilepsy in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moualek, Dalila; Pacha, Lamia Ali; Abrouk, Samira; Kediha, Mohamed Islam; Nouioua, Sonia; Aissa, Leila Ait; Bellatache, Mounia; Belarbi, Soreya; Slimani, Saddek; Khennouf, Houria; Fellahi, Lynda; El Amine Hamimed, Mohamed; Benali, Nadia; Chekkour, Mohamed Chahine; Maamoun, Ramdane; Dameche, Rachida; Assami, Salima; Tazir, Meriem

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of epilepsy in Algeria is unknown. The aims of this multicenter transversal study were to determine the national prevalence and clinical characteristics of epilepsy in the Algerian population. This two-phase study was conducted in 5 circumscriptions and included 8,046 subjects aged over 2 months who attended the randomly selected public and private primary care clinics. In the phase 1 study, a questionnaire was submitted to the sample of patients. In the phase 2 study, all potentially epileptic people were examined by neurologists and a second questionnaire was submitted, eventually assessed by appropriate investigations. Sixty-seven patients were identified as having active epilepsy, giving a crude prevalence ratio of 8.32 per 1,000 (95% CI, 6.34-10.3) and an age-adjusted prevalence ratio of 8.9 per 1,000. The highest age-specific ratio was found in patients aged 10-19 years (16.92 per 1,000). Generalized seizures (68.7%) were more common than partial seizures (29.8%). Perinatal injuries were the major leading putative causes (11.9%). The prevalence of epilepsy of 8.32 determined in this study is relatively high. These results provide new epidemiological data and suggest that epilepsy remains an important public health issue to consider in Algeria. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Prevalence of Dental Caries, Oral Hygiene Knowledge, Status, and Practices among Visually Impaired Individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Rufus John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the prevalence of dental caries, oral hygiene knowledge, status, and practices among visually impaired individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 404 visually impaired individuals in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu. Four schools were randomly selected for conducting the study. The oral hygiene status, prevalence of caries, and knowledge and attitude towards oral care among visually impaired individuals were collected and analysed. Results. In the present study, whilst 42% of individuals had fair oral hygiene status, 33% had good hygiene followed by 25% having poor oral hygiene. The overall mean number of DMFT was estimated to be 4.5±2.7. The mean number of decayed teeth was 3.1±2.2, mean number of missing teeth was 0.8±1.4, and mean number of filled teeth was 0.5±1.3. Conclusion. Whilst oral hygiene status was found to be relatively fair, there was a high rate of dental caries among the sample population. This shows that there is lack of knowledge regarding oral health maintenance. Therefore, early identification of caries coupled with effective oral health promotion programs providing practical knowledge to visually impaired students would prove beneficial.

  2. Prevalence of Dental Caries, Oral Hygiene Knowledge, Status, and Practices among Visually Impaired Individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, James Rufus; Daniel, Breena; Paneerselvam, Dakshaini; Rajendran, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    Aim . To assess the prevalence of dental caries, oral hygiene knowledge, status, and practices among visually impaired individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods . A cross-sectional study was conducted among 404 visually impaired individuals in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu. Four schools were randomly selected for conducting the study. The oral hygiene status, prevalence of caries, and knowledge and attitude towards oral care among visually impaired individuals were collected and analysed. Results . In the present study, whilst 42% of individuals had fair oral hygiene status, 33% had good hygiene followed by 25% having poor oral hygiene. The overall mean number of DMFT was estimated to be 4.5 ± 2.7. The mean number of decayed teeth was 3.1 ± 2.2, mean number of missing teeth was 0.8 ± 1.4, and mean number of filled teeth was 0.5 ± 1.3. Conclusion . Whilst oral hygiene status was found to be relatively fair, there was a high rate of dental caries among the sample population. This shows that there is lack of knowledge regarding oral health maintenance. Therefore, early identification of caries coupled with effective oral health promotion programs providing practical knowledge to visually impaired students would prove beneficial.

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV/AIDS and prevalence of HIV in the general population of Sucre, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Calderón, Carolina; Gorena Urizar, Dorian; González Blázquez, Cristina; Alejos Ferreras, Belén; Ramírez Rubio, Oriana; Bolumar Montrull, Francisco; Ortiz Rivera, Marta; del Amo Valero, Julia

    2015-01-01

    To analyse knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices on HIV/AIDS, and estimate HIV prevalence among residents of Sucre (Bolivia). Population-based survey of residents aged 15-49 randomly selected during 2008/2009. Blood samples were collected on Whatman-filter paper and tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Knowledge on HIV/AIDS, sexual risk practices and discriminatory attitudes against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) were modelled with multiple logistic regression. Of 1499 subjects, 59% were women. All subjects were HIV-negative. Inadequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention was observed in 67% and risk factors varied by gender (interaction p-value<0.05). Discriminatory attitudes were displayed by 85% subjects; associated factors were: rural residence, low educational level and low income. Unsafe sex was reported by 10%; risk factors varied by residence area (interaction p-value<0.05). In urban areas, risk factors were male sex, younger age and being in common-law union. Prevalence of HIV infection is very low and unsafe sex is relatively uncommon. Inadequate knowledge on HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes towards PLWHA are extremely high and are associated to gender, ethnic and economic inequalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Determinants of knowledge and use of psychoactive substance among commercial motorcyclist in Sokoto metropolis, Northwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O.Raji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance related disorder. Riding commercial motorcycle entails lot of risk, compounded by abuse of drugs, the scenario can only be worse. This study aimed to assess the determinants of knowledge and use of psychoactive substances among commercial motorcyclist in Sokoto metropolis. Methods The study was a cross sectional descriptive study conducted in Sokoto metropolis, among Commercial motorcyclist, 253 respondents were recruited using multi stage sampling technique. Data was obtained using interviewer administered structured questionnaire containing 47‐item structured questions. Data was analysed using IBM statistical software package version 21, 5% was set as level of significance Result Majority of respondent believed that use of alcohol 214 (84.6, cannabis 147 (58.1 and codeine 171 (67.6 can lead to mental problems. Thirty percent of the respondents reported ever use of psychoactive substances. Most of the respondents (49.3% initiated use of Psychoactive substances between 16‐20 years of age. Respondents who had some formal education had less odds of ever using psychoactive substances (p=0.001, OR= 0.337. Respondents who had ever encouraged fellow commercial motorcyclist to use psychoactive substances had 22 times odds of ever having used psychoactive substances (p=0.000 Conclusion Substance abuse is prevalent among commercial motorcyclist. Despite good knowledge of psychoactive substances and the consequences associated with it, the use was still relatively high. The main predictor of ever use of psychoactive substances was willingness to be friends with someone who use psychoactive substance. There is need for continuous counselling and education of commercial motorcyclist, by road safety workers, on the dangers associated

  5. Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants among oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Argentina

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    Giovanna Rincon Cruz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available High quinolone resistance rates were observed among oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant enterobacteria. In the present study, we searched for the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR genes within the 55 oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant enterobacteria collected in a previous survey. The main PMQR determinants were aac(6'-Ib-cr and qnrB, which had prevalence rates of 42.4% and 33.3%, respectively. The aac(6'-Ib-cr gene was more frequently found in CTX-M-15-producing isolates, while qnrB was homogeneously distributed among all CTX-M producers.

  6. DETERMINATION OF THE PREVALENCE AND THE AFFECTING FACTORS OF CONSANGUINOUS MARRIAGES AMONG YOUNG ADULT MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk TEKBAS

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the prevalence and the affecting factors of consanguinous marriage which is common especially in around of our country and leads to very important health problems, a questionnaire was applied to all 402 married soldiers among 4300 soldiers of Etimesgut Armor School and Training Division Command. At the end of the study, it has been found that the overall prevalence of consanguinous marriage was 18.7%. Contrary to general expectations, ?love and marriage by loving? other than ?economical concerns? was determined as the basic reason of the consanguinous marriage. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(3.000: 120-128

  7. [Prevalence and determinants of obesity in children and young people in Catalonia, Spain, 2006-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posso, Margarita; Brugulat-Guiteras, Pilar; Puig, Teresa; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Alcañiz, Manuela; Guillén, Montserrat; Tresserras-Gaju, Ricard

    2014-12-09

    To estimate the prevalence of obesity and overweight in children aged 2 to 14 years in Catalonia, its trends between 2006 and 2010-2012, and to evaluate social determinants and lifestyle associated with obesity. A cross-sectional study, using the data from 4,389 surveys from Catalonia Health Surveys of the years 2006 and 2010-2012, was conducted. Obesity and overweight were determined by World Health Organization criteria. Socioeconomic position, parent's education, usual diet and activity, and hours of sleep were assessed. The prevalence of obesity and overweight were: 15.4 and 20.2% in 2010-2012. The prevalence of obesity was higher in boys (15.5%) compared to girls (12.8%) (Pchildren ranging from 2 to 9 years old (17.5%) than children aged 10 to 14 years (7.7%) (Pobesity and overweight were similar to the prevalence in 2010-2012. Obesity was more frequent in children with parents with a low socioeconomic position and/or a primary or elementary parent's education. During the last 5 years (2006-2012), child obesity and overweight have remained stable in Catalonia, yet they are relatively high in Europe. Public health programmes against obesity must consider conducting an intersectional action taking social determinants and family life styles into account. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalance of premenstrual syndrome and knowledge assessment regarding it's prevention among medical students of a private medical college of Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsoom, U.; Sultana, A.; Bairam, S.

    2018-01-01

    To assess prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in medical students and to determine their knowledge regarding its prevention. Study Design: A cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Foundation University Medical College, Islamabad,from Jun to Aug 2017. Material and Methods: A purposive sample of 359 female medical students was taken after applying selection criteria. After ethical approval and consent of respondents, data was collected through self-administered structured questionnaire on demographic variables, prevalence of PMS, physical, psychological and behavioral changes, knowledge regarding its prevention etc. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Frequencies were computed and descriptive statistics applied. Cross tabulation between knowledge regarding prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and prevention of premenstrual syndrome was done. Pearson Chi Square test was applied to see the association between these two variables. Cochran test of conditional independence was applied to see conditional association between these variables at p-value <0.05. Result: PMS was found in 280 (80%) students. Out of them, 266 (95%) experienced physical changes and breast tenderness was the most common 159 (60%). While 210 (75%) had psychological changes and depression was found in 76 (36%). Behavioral changes were present in 120 (43%) and most prevalent was effect on academic performance which was 88 (76%). About 250 (71.5%) were ignorant about its prevention while only 100 (28.5%) knew about its prevention. Statistically significant association was found between knowledge regarding prevention of premenstrual syndrome and presence of premenstrual syndrome, as p-value 0.00 of Pearson Chi- Square 35 at df1 was less than 0.05. On application of Cochran test of conditional independence, significant conditional association was found between these variables as p-value of 0.00 was <0.05. Conclusion: Premenstrual Syndrome was found in

  9. Determination of geographic variance in stroke prevalence using Internet search engine analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Brian P; Nahed, Brian V; Kahle, Kristopher T; Redjal, Navid; Coumans, Jean-Valery

    2011-06-01

    Previous methods to determine stroke prevalence, such as nationwide surveys, are labor-intensive endeavors. Recent advances in search engine query analytics have led to a new metric for disease surveillance to evaluate symptomatic phenomenon, such as influenza. The authors hypothesized that the use of search engine query data can determine the prevalence of stroke. The Google Insights for Search database was accessed to analyze anonymized search engine query data. The authors' search strategy utilized common search queries used when attempting either to identify the signs and symptoms of a stroke or to perform stroke education. The search logic was as follows: (stroke signs + stroke symptoms + mini stroke--heat) from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2010. The relative number of searches performed (the interest level) for this search logic was established for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. A Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated from the statespecific stroke prevalence data previously reported. Web search engine interest level was available for all 50 states and the District of Columbia over the time period for January 1, 2005-December 31, 2010. The interest level was highest in Alabama and Tennessee (100 and 96, respectively) and lowest in California and Virginia (58 and 53, respectively). The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was calculated to be 0.47 (p = 0.0005, 2-tailed). Search engine query data analysis allows for the determination of relative stroke prevalence. Further investigation will reveal the reliability of this metric to determine temporal pattern analysis and prevalence in this and other symptomatic diseases.

  10. Differences in gay men's AIDS risk knowledge and behavior patterns in high and low AIDS prevalence cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T; Kelly, J A

    1989-01-01

    Several studies have found reductions in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk practices among gay men in high AIDS-prevalence cities since the start of the AIDS crisis. Much less is known about risk behavior patterns among gay men in smaller cities, where AIDS cases are less common and the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection is relatively lower. In the study, men entering gay bars in three cities, one large and two small, completed anonymous surveys of sexual practices and AIDS risk knowledge. Men in high AIDS-prevalence areas were found to have had a greater number of sexual partners, were more knowledgeable about AIDS, were much more likely to engage in low-risk practices (such as mutual masturbation or body rubbing), and had unprotected anal intercourse less frequently than gay men in smaller cities. The most common sexual activity among gay men in the larger city was mutual masturbation, a low-risk practice. The most common sexual activity among gay men in the smaller cities was unprotected anal intercourse. Increased efforts are needed to educate gay men and to promote risk behavior changes among those living in smaller cities and in communities outside the prominent AIDS epicenters.

  11. University students and HIV in Namibia: an HIV prevalence survey and a knowledge and attitude survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Ingrid H.; Gelderblom, Huub C.; Schellekens, Onno; Gaeb, Esegiel; van Rooy, Gert; McNally, Alta; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: With an overall adult HIV prevalence of 15.3%, Namibia is facing one of the largest HIV epidemics in Africa. Young people aged 20 to 34 years constitute one of the groups at highest risk of HIV infection in Namibia. However, little is known about the impact of HIV on this group and its

  12. Determination of the obesity prevalence and affecting risk factors, of eating habits among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Aktas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and the affecting risk factors of obesity and the eating habits among adolescents. Methods: The study is a descriptive in design. The research was carried out between December 2013 and February 2014 at a private university in Ankara. This study was conducted with 260 students. The data were presented as frequencies, mean, standard deviations and were analyzed by test of chi-square, Pearson correlation analysis and logistic regression analysis. Data were collected using an Interview Questionnaire, the Eating Habits Index and anthropometric measurements were performed. Results: The mean age of students was 20.87+/-2.29. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among students were 23.1% and 6.5% respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was related with male gender (p<0.05, family history of obesity (95% CI: 2.22-2.43, fast eating habit (p<0.05, and healthy dietary habits (95% CI: 1.02-2.85. The percents of moderate grade and high grade risk groups of students according to Eating Habits Index were 56.5 and 30.8 respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in this study was determined to be high. The prevention and control of obesity is urgently needed. In this content, comprehensive strategies of intervention propose periodical monitoring, education on pattern of nutrition, and healthy dietary behaviors. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 406-412

  13. Prevalence and determinants of workplace violence of health care workers in a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Kung, Shou-Mei; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Wang, Jung-Der

    2008-01-01

    Workplace violence, a possible cause of job stress, has recently become an important concern in occupational health. This study determined the prevalence of workplace violence and its risk factors for employees at a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan. A questionnaire developed by ILO/ICN/WHO/PSI was first translated and validated. It was then used to survey the prevalence of workplace violence in the last 12 months experienced by all nursing aides, nurses, and clerks at the hospital. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to discover the determinants of violence. A total of 222 out of 231 surveyed workers completed a valid questionnaire. The one-year prevalence rates of physical violence (PV), verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, sexual harassment, and racial harassment were 35.1, 50.9, 15.8, 9.5, and 4.5%, respectively. The prevalence of PV at this hospital was higher than that reported by other countries for the health sector. A high anxiety level was associated with the occurrence of PV. These results need to be corroborated by future investigation. A training program may be required for high risk groups to reduce workplace violence.

  14. Determinants of reverse knowledge transfer for emerging market multinationals: the role of complexity, autonomy and embeddedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Freitas Silveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Subsidiaries conduct innovation activities in foreign markets either to capture valuable knowledge that is necessary to adapt their products to local markets or to create valuable knowledge for headquarters. For emerging market multinationals, most studies have overlooked the determinants of successful reverse knowledge transfer from subsidiaries located in emerging and developed markets. This paper analyzed the responses of a survey administered to 78 Brazilian multinationals that own subsidiaries in developed and emerging markets. We found that knowledge complexity developed at the subsidiary, its autonomy and embeddedness in the foreign market determine the successful reverse knowledge transfer to headquarters of emerging market multinationals. This paper contributes to previous studies of reverse knowledge transfer by underlying the main drivers for emerging market multinationals.

  15. Prevalence and determinants of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Yap, Roseline Wai Kuan; Loy, See Ling; Norris, Shane A; Biesma, Regien; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2015-03-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine trends in overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Malaysian adults, and to identify its underlying determinants. A review of studies published between 2000 and 2012 on overweight, obesity, and T2DM was conducted. The Cochrane library of systematic reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, Scopus, and MyJurnal digital database were searched. According to national studies, the prevalence of overweight increased from 26.7% in 2003 to 29.4% in 2011; obesity prevalence increased from 12.2% in 2003 to 15.1% in 2011, and T2DM prevalence was reported as 11.6% in 2006 and 15.2% in 2011. Distal determinants of increased risk of overweight, obesity, and T2DM were as follows: female, Malay/Indian ethnicity, and low educational level. The limited number of studies on proximal determinants of these noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) indicated that an unhealthy diet was associated with increased risk, whereas smoking was associated with decreased risk. However, more studies on the proximal determinants of overweight, obesity, and T2DM within the Malaysian context are needed. Overall, our findings provide insights for designing both future investigative studies and strategies to control and prevent these NCDs in Malaysia. © 2014 APJPH.

  16. Prevalence and determinants of burnout syndrome among physicians in Cameroon: a research proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feteh, Vitalis Fambombi; Njim, Tsi; Nji, Miriam A M; Ayeah, Chia Mark; Sama, Carlson-Babila; Tianyi, Frank Leonel

    2017-10-25

    Burnout syndrome is a common psychological state, that may affect human healthcare providers due to their prolonged exposure to job stressors. Burnout can hinder optimal healthcare delivery. Hence this study aims to determine the prevalence and correlates of burnout syndrome amongst physicians in Cameroon. Specifically: (1) to determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome amongst Cameroonian doctors. (2) To identify potential determinants of burnout among Cameroonian doctors. (3) To compare the prevalence and determinants of burnout among specialist physicians and general practitioners in Cameroon. This cross-sectional study will include a minimum of 335 doctors working in five regions of Cameroon. Consenting physicians will be consecutively recruited and data on sociodemographic and work characteristics will be collected via a printed self-administered questionnaire and burnout will be assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Data will be analysed using Epi Info version 7 and a p value health is largely neglected in developing countries like Cameroon. Data from this research will help inform practitioners on the magnitude of the problem and favour the development of policies that improve the mental health of care-providers.

  17. The Prevalence of Amblyopia and Its Determinants in a Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Mohammad; Hashemi, Hassan; Nabovati, Payam; Saatchi, Mohammad; Yekta, Abbasali; Rafati, Shokoofeh; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2017-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and its determinants in a population-based study in Mashhad County, Iran. This cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted on the population of Mashhad County aged >1 year using randomized stratified cluster sampling. Examinations were performed after selection of the participants and their free transportation to the sampling site. The examinations included the measurement of uncorrected and corrected visual acuity, cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refraction, cover testing, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and ophthalmoscopy. In this study, amblyopia was defined as best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/30 or less or 2-line interocular optotype acuity differences with no pathology. After considering the exclusion criteria, the data of 2739 individuals, 65.6% of whom were women, were analyzed. The mean age of the participants was 29.5±17.5 years. The prevalence of amblyopia was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.77%-5.43%) in the total population. The lowest prevalence was 2.24% in the age group 5-15 years (95% CI: 0.99%-3.48%) and the highest prevalence was 7.14% in the age group 55-65 years (95% CI: 2.64%-11.56%). Anisometropic amblyopia was observed in 45.24% of the amblyopic participants. Isometropic, mixed (strabismic/anisometropic), and strabismic amblyopia were other common causes of amblyopia, with a prevalence of 24.6%, 16.67%, and 13.49% in amblyopic patients, respectively. The odds ratio (OR) of having amblyopia for each 1-year increase in age was 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01-1.03). Amblyopia was less common in people with better socioeconomic status. This study showed the prevalence of amblyopia in all age groups in a population-based study for the first time. The findings of this study regarding the relatively high prevalence of amblyopia in the older population and its lower prevalence in young people indicate attention to amblyopia in recent years.

  18. Smoking prevalence, knowledge and attitudes among primary healthcare professionals: a study from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatatbeh, M J; Alefan, Q; Alzghool, M

    2017-02-01

    This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 400 healthcare professionals recruited from primary healthcare centres in northern Jordan between April and October 2015. The questionnaire included questions about smoking behaviour, risks, opinions and providing anti-smoking counselling. More than 80% of participants reported that smoking-free policies were not enforced at primary healthcare centres. Compared to hospitals and the general population, smoking was less prevalent among primary healthcare professionals and more prevalent in men. More than 90% of participants believed that smoking was dangerous and associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Around 92% believed that they should set a good example to patients by not smoking and advise them about smoking cessation. Only 15.3% of participants felt well prepared when counselling patients about smoking and 92.8% believed that they needed training. This study suggests that primary healthcare professionals should act as anti-smoking role models after receiving professional training.

  19. Prevalence and knowledge on e-cigarette among teenagers in Romania 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Munteanu; Florin Mihaltan; Antigona Trofor; Doina Todea; Monica Marc; Corina Marginean; Mihaela Trenchea; Oana Arghir

    2018-01-01

    Background The prevalence of smoking for adolescents in Romania is growing, especially due to girls. According to the study GATS 2011 most of daily smokers started smoking at age 17-19 years (43.1%); 17% started smoking even before 15 years, mostly in rural areas Identifying factors that favor its use will allow better management of the phenomenon. Worrying is the fact that they use the device for inhalation of other psychoactive substances . The number of users among young people the...

  20. Knowledge and prevalence of risk factors for arterial hypertension and blood pressure pattern among bankers and traffic wardens in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaudeen, A G; Musa, O I; Babatunde, O A; Atoyebi, O A; Durowade, K A; Omokanye, L O

    2014-09-01

    High job strain, mental stress, sedentary lifestyle, increase in BMI are among the factors associated with significantly higher incidence of hypertension. The job of bank employees is both sedentary in nature and accompanies high mental stress. The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of risk factors among respondents and to compare the blood pressure pattern of bankers and traffic wardens. The study design is a descriptive cross-sectional conducted among bankers and traffic wardens in Ilorin to determine the pattern and knowledge of blood pressure. Self-administered questionnaires, weighing scale (Omron Digital scale), stadiometer and sphygmomanometer were used as the research instruments. Simple random sampling was used to select respondents involved in the study. The prevalence of hypertension in this study was 34.4% in bankers and 22.2% in traffic wardens. The risk factors the bankers commonly had knowledge of are alcohol, obesity, high salt intake, certain drugs, stress, emotional problems and family history while the traffic wardens commonly had knowledge of all these in addition to cigarette smoking. Also, more bankers (32.2%) than traffic wardens (13.3%) were smoking cigarette and more of these cigarette smokers that are bankers (17.8%) had elevated blood pressure compared to the traffic wardens (3.3%). Workers in the banking industry as well as traffic wardens should be better educated about the risk factors of hypertension and bankers should be encouraged to create time for exercise.

  1. Student Perceived and Determined Knowledge of Biology Concepts in an Upper-Level Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Brittany; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Students who lack metacognitive skills can struggle with the learning process. To be effective learners, students should recognize what they know and what they do not know. This study examines the relationship between students' perception of their knowledge and determined knowledge in an upper-level biology course utilizing a pre/posttest…

  2. Smoking in the home after childbirth: prevalence, determinants and the relationship to smoking in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Orton, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Childhood secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes substantial ill health and mortality, and poses a significant economic and social burden. This thesis aimed to explore the prevalence and determinants of smoking in the home after childbirth, and to understand the experience and attitudes of mothers who stop smoking during pregnancy but relapse soon after delivery.\\ud \\ud \\ud In study one, the factors associated with child SHS exposure in the home were systematically reviewed. Parental smoking,...

  3. Prevalence and Determinants of Frozen Shoulder in Patients with Diabetes: A Single Center Experience from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Inayat, Faisal; Ali, Nouman Safdar; Shahid, Haroon; Younus, Fariha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Frozen shoulder (FS) or adhesive capsulitis is a constellation of symptoms like pain, stiffness, and/or functional deficit at the glenohumeral joint. It is one of the musculoskeletal complications in patients with diabetes that can be particularly debilitating. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of FS and to compare the determinants of this disease in a population with diabetes from Lahore, Pakistan. Materials and Methods We carried out this cross-sectional study...

  4. Prevalence and Sociodemographic Determinants of Hypertension History among Women in Reproductive Age in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel H. Nyarko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension is a global health problem. Yet, studies on hypertension rarely focus on women in Ghana. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of hypertension history among Ghanaian women in reproductive age. Methods. This study used data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were carried out to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of hypertension history among the respondents. Results. The study found that the overall prevalence of hypertension history among the respondents was 7.5%; however, there were vast variations within most of the sociodemographic categories. Age, level of education, marital status, work status, and wealth status had a significant relationship with hypertension history among the respondents. Women in advanced age groups, highly educated, married, and widowed/divorced/separated, nonworking women, and women from wealthy households were at higher risk of having hypertension history. Conclusion. Myriads of sociodemographic factors determine the hypertension history of women in Ghana. It is therefore essential to target medical and psychosocial hypertension interventions at Ghanaian women in the higher risk groups.

  5. Brain Knowledge and the Prevalence of Neuromyths among Prospective Teachers in Greece

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    Marietta Papadatou-Pastou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although very often teachers show a great interest in introducing findings from the field of neuroscience in their classrooms, there is growing concern about the lack of academic instruction on neuroscience on teachers' curricula because this has led to a proliferation of neuromyths. We surveyed 479 undergraduate (mean age = 19.60 years, SD = 2.29 and 94 postgraduate students (mean age = 28.52 years, SD = 7.16 enrolled in Departments of Education at the University of Thessaly and the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. We used a 70-item questionnaire aiming to explore general knowledge on the brain, neuromyths, the participants' attitude toward neuroeducation as well as their reading habits. Prospective teachers were found to believe that neuroscience knowledge is useful for teachers (90.3% agreement, to be somewhat knowledgeable when it comes to the brain (47.33% of the assertions were answered correctly, but to be less well informed when it comes to neuroscientific issues related to special education (36.86% correct responses. Findings further indicate that general knowledge about the brain was found to be the best safeguard against believing in neuromyths. Based on our results we suggest that prospective teachers can benefit from academic instruction on neuroscience. We propose that such instruction takes place in undergraduate courses of Departments of Education and that emphasis is given in debunking neuromyths, enhancing critical reading skills, and dealing with topics relevant to special education.

  6. Brain Knowledge and the Prevalence of Neuromyths among Prospective Teachers in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Haliou, Eleni; Vlachos, Filippos

    2017-01-01

    Although very often teachers show a great interest in introducing findings from the field of neuroscience in their classrooms, there is growing concern about the lack of academic instruction on neuroscience on teachers' curricula because this has led to a proliferation of neuromyths. We surveyed 479 undergraduate (mean age = 19.60 years, SD = 2.29) and 94 postgraduate students (mean age = 28.52 years, SD = 7.16) enrolled in Departments of Education at the University of Thessaly and the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. We used a 70-item questionnaire aiming to explore general knowledge on the brain, neuromyths, the participants' attitude toward neuroeducation as well as their reading habits. Prospective teachers were found to believe that neuroscience knowledge is useful for teachers (90.3% agreement), to be somewhat knowledgeable when it comes to the brain (47.33% of the assertions were answered correctly), but to be less well informed when it comes to neuroscientific issues related to special education (36.86% correct responses). Findings further indicate that general knowledge about the brain was found to be the best safeguard against believing in neuromyths. Based on our results we suggest that prospective teachers can benefit from academic instruction on neuroscience. We propose that such instruction takes place in undergraduate courses of Departments of Education and that emphasis is given in debunking neuromyths, enhancing critical reading skills, and dealing with topics relevant to special education.

  7. Changing the smoking habit: prevalence, knowledge and attitudes among Umbrian hospital healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianori, D; Gili, A; Masanotti, G

    2017-03-01

    Health care professionals should work against smoking habit to promote a correct life style. This study aimed to evaluate smoking prevalence and attitudes towards tobacco among Umbrian hospital professionals in a period between 2006 and 2015, since the approbation of the law that ban smoking in hospitals and all public areas in 2003. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a questionnaire administered in 2006, 2011 and 2015 to healthcare professionals. It consists of 53 multiple-choice questions. Potential predictors of current smoking habits were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The sample included 475 healthcare professionals. Current smokers constituted 34.53% of the sample and no significant difference (p = 0.257) emerged in prevalence over time (33.74% in 2006; 36.02% in 2011 and 33.77% in 2015). The risk of being a smoker increased by not considering the smoking habit as the main cause of preventable deaths (OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.47- 3.45). The strongest risk factor, which was significant in both models (p Smoking" law (OR = 18.90; 95% CI: 2.43-147.71; adjusted OR = 22.10; 95% CI: 1.85-264.78). The hospital staff has higher prevalence of smoking than the general population. The No Smoking law alone has been shown to be inadequate. Effective results can be achieved only by a common strategy and shared intervention programmes that are based on a workplace health promotion strategy. That for the moment has demonstrated to give interesting outcomes in modifying deep-rooted behaviour patterns.

  8. Prevalence and determinants of fecal colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in hospitalized patients in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Braak, N.; Ott, A.; van Belkum, A.; Kluytmans, J. A.; Koeleman, J. G.; Spanjaard, L.; Voss, A.; Weersink, A. J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M.; Buiting, A. G.; Verbrugh, H. A.; Endtz, H. P.

    2000-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and determinants of fecal carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in intensive care unit (ICU), hematology-oncology, and hemodialysis patients in The Netherlands. Descriptive, multicenter study, with yearly 1-week point-prevalence assessments between 1995 and

  9. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil

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    Luciano Lima Correia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. METHODS : Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD; stunting as height/age < -2 SD; wasting as weight/height < -2 SD. Data on biological and sociodemographic determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. RESULTS : A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother’s education, toilet and tap water availability, children’s medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight. Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. CONCLUSIONS : Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children’s nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (< 1,500 g, appears as the most important risk factor for early childhood malnutrition.

  10. Prevalence and Determinants of Diabetic Nephropathy in Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Jae Hee Ahn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. It manifests as albuminuria or impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies with ethnicity. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its determinants in Korean adults have not previously been studied at the national level. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of albuminuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD in Korean patients with diabetes.MethodsThe Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, conducted in 2011, was used to define albuminuria (n=4,652, and the dataset of KNHANES IV-V (2008-2011 was used to define CKD (n=21,521. Selected samples were weighted to represent the entire civilian population in Korea. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. CKD was defined as a GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2.ResultsAmong subjects with diabetes, 26.7% had albuminuria, and 8.6% had CKD. Diabetes was associated with an approximate 2.5-fold increased risk of albuminuria, with virtually no difference between new-onset and previously diagnosed diabetes. Only systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with albuminuria, and old age, high serum triglyceride levels, and previous cardiovascular disease (CVD were related with CKD in subjects with diabetes.ConclusionKorean subjects with diabetes had a higher prevalence of albuminuria and CKD than those without diabetes. Blood pressure was associated with albuminuria, and age, triglyceride level, and previous CVD were independent determinants of CKD in subjects with diabetes.

  11. Prevalence and Determinants of Chronic periodontitis in HIV positive patients in Nigeria

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    Kehinde Adesola Umeizudike

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and determinants of chronic periodontitis in HIV positive patients. Methods: A total of 120 HIV positive patients attending the dedicated HIV outpatient clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria were recruited for the study. Their periodontal status was assessed using the community periodontal index of treatment needs. Their CD4+ cell count was determined using the flow-cytometer method. The risk factors for periodontitis including age, gender, education, smoking, CD4+ cell counts, bleeding on probing (BOP were determined. Results: Prevalence of periodontitis was high (63.3% in the HIV positive patients. In a bivariate analysis, significant associations were observed between severity of periodontitis and age ≥35 years (P=0.021, male gender (P=0.005, smoking (P=0.040 and ≥3 community periodontal index of treatment needs sextants exhibiting BOP (P=0.004. In a binary logistic regression, independent predictors of periodontitis were ≥3 sextants exhibiting BOP (odds ratio 1.738, 95% CI 1.339 to 2.256, P=0.000 and age ≥35 years (odds ratio 1.057, 95% CI 1.005 to 1.111, P=0.030. The CD4+ cell counts were not associated with periodontitis in the HIV positive patients (P=0.988. Conclusions: A high prevalence of periodontitis was found among the HIV positive Nigerian patients in this study. Older age ≥35 years and BOP were the determinants of periodontitis. There is therefore a need for close periodontal monitoring of HIV positive Nigerian patients with emphasis on preventive, professional oral prophylaxis.

  12. A Novel Approach to Determine the Prevalence of Type of Soft Palate Using Digital Intraoral Impression

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    Saurabh Chaturvedi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the prevalence of type of soft palate in targeted population. Materials and Methods. Using computer technology in dentistry, intraoral digital scanner, and 3D analysis software tool, study was conducted. 100 patients selected from the outpatient clinics were divided into two groups based on the ages of 20–40 years and 41–60 years with equal ratio of males and females. Each selected patient’s maxillary arch was scanned with intraoral scanner; images so obtained were sectioned in anteroposterior cross section and with the 3D analysis software; the angulation between hard and soft palate was determined. Results. The prevalence of type II soft palate (angulation between hard and soft palate is between 10 and 45 degrees was highest, 60% in group 1 and 44% in group 2. The difference between genders was statistically significant with p value <0.05 in both the groups, although females had higher angulation compared to the males in all classes of both groups. Conclusions. In targeted population of Aseer Province, Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of type II soft palate was more common, with higher soft palate angulation among females. The advanced age had no effect in the type of soft palate in the region.

  13. Satisfaction of diabetes patients in public outpatient department: prevalance and determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalil, A.; Zakar, R.; Zakar, M.Z.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and determinants of satisfaction among diabetes mellitus patients about the doctors in a major public diabetes clinic in Lahore. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,128 adult patients of diabetes mellitus. The questionnaire was based on the Urdu translation of an internationally validated tool: Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire 3. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 22.0. The results are shown by Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR), 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results: The overall prevalence of patient satisfaction with the doctors was 86%. Patient's gender male (AOR=.41; 95%CI=.26-.63) and higher education (AOR=.33; 95%CI=.17-.63) were found to be associated with lower likelihood of satisfaction. Patient's perception of low technical expertise, poor interpersonal aspects and inappropriate time provision was associated with lower odds of patient satisfaction. Conclusion: Despite the prevalence of patient satisfaction was found to be high, the patients' perception of doctor's skills determines their satisfaction. Patient satisfaction studies should be conducted on regular basis to assess and improve the nature of patient experiences in public out-patient departments. (author)

  14. Prevalence and Determinants of Bullying Among Health Care Workers in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Pedro; Costa, Viviana; Teixeira, Joel; Azevedo, Ana; Roma-Torres, António; Amaro, Joana; Cunha, Liliana

    2017-05-01

    Bullying is defined as systematic exposure to humiliation as well as hostile and violent behaviors against one or more individuals. These behaviors are a serious, growing problem, which affects a significant proportion of health care professionals. To support the hospital's risk management policy, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bullying in this institution and identify the determinants of bullying. Bullying was measured using the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised, Portuguese version (NAQ-R), a self-administered tool. The questionnaire was made available in digital format on the hospital's internal network (Intranet) and in hard copy; questionnaires were returned via nonidentified internal mail addressed to the occupational health unit or deposited in suggestion boxes located throughout the hospital. Multiple questionnaire delivery methods guaranteed data anonymity and confidentiality. The prevalence of bullying in this hospital was 8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = [6.2, 10.2]). Reported bullying was predominantly vertical and more frequently occurring among nurses, clerical staff, and health care assistants (12.5%, 7.6%, 6.4%, respectively; p = .005). After adjusting for gender, age, occupation, type of contract, and work schedule, only type of contract was significantly associated with bullying in the workplace; the risk of bullying was twice as high among government employees compared to workers with indefinite duration employment contracts ( p = .038). This study identified a high prevalence of bullying among health professionals; hence a program to prevent and control this phenomenon was implemented in this institution.

  15. A Novel Approach to Determine the Prevalence of Type of Soft Palate Using Digital Intraoral Impression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled Addas, Mohamed; Al Humaidi, Abdullah Saad Ali; Al Qahtani, Abdulrazaq Mohammed; Al Qahtani, Mubarak Daghash

    2017-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of type of soft palate in targeted population. Materials and Methods Using computer technology in dentistry, intraoral digital scanner, and 3D analysis software tool, study was conducted. 100 patients selected from the outpatient clinics were divided into two groups based on the ages of 20–40 years and 41–60 years with equal ratio of males and females. Each selected patient's maxillary arch was scanned with intraoral scanner; images so obtained were sectioned in anteroposterior cross section and with the 3D analysis software; the angulation between hard and soft palate was determined. Results The prevalence of type II soft palate (angulation between hard and soft palate is between 10 and 45 degrees) was highest, 60% in group 1 and 44% in group 2. The difference between genders was statistically significant with p value <0.05 in both the groups, although females had higher angulation compared to the males in all classes of both groups. Conclusions In targeted population of Aseer Province, Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of type II soft palate was more common, with higher soft palate angulation among females. The advanced age had no effect in the type of soft palate in the region. PMID:28951740

  16. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Type 2 Diabetes in a Coastal Area of Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathy, S; Lohidas, V; Paul, Nimitha; Anish, T S; Narayanan, Tinu; Oldenburg, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Varying prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes have been observed in different parts of the southern state of Kerala, India which is in an advanced stage of epidemiologic transition. Social patterning is evident in diabetes and therefore it was decided to undertake a study on estimating the prevalence of diabetes and associated social determinants. The adopted local self administration unit of the Medical College which is also the field practice area with a population of 25,096 was taken for the study. All the households in the area were visited and the details regarding self reported diabetes was collected after obtaining informed consent and analysis done by multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of self reported diabetes in this coastal area was found to be low at 7.4%. Type 2 diabetes was also found to occur significantly earlier among the respondents belonging to the below poverty line. Age above 40 years (OR 2 95% CI 1.5-2.7, p=.000), marital status (OR 1.9 95% CI 1.1-2.1, p=.006) presence of comorbidities (OR 635 95% CI 389-969, p=.000), more than 8 years of schooling (OR 0.64 95% CI 0.46-0.86, p=.004), living conditions as represented by presence of household source of drinking water(OR 1.4 95% CI 1.01-1.5) were found to be independent predictors. Though there was increasing trend of diabetes among the forward caste line families after backward logistic regression this disappeared leaving behind the proxy of socioeconomic status, household source of drinking water. Though, the state of Kerala is in an advanced stage of epidemiologic transition, coastal areas are still in the earlier phases of transition with low prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Higher education and better living conditions are important social determinants of diabetes though further studies are necessary to delineate the impact of economic status and education.

  17. Extent of knowledge about HIV and its determinants among men in Bangladesh

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    Sanni Yaya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBangladesh is currently a low HIV prevalent country. However, the risk factors are widespread and the number of at-risk population is also rising which warrants special policy attention. The risks of transmission were shown to be correlated with the level of HIV knowledge of individuals. In this study, we aimed to explore the level and influencing factors of HIV knowledge among adult men in Bangladesh. MethodologyData for the present study were collected from the sixth round of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS. Participants were 3305 men between 15 and 54 years of age regardless of HIV status. The primary outcome variable was the HIV knowledge score, which was calculated by responses to questions regarding general concepts and the mode of transmission of HIV. Association between the HIV knowledge score and the explanatory variables were analyzed by binary logistic regression methods. ResultThe mean HIV knowledge score was 7.2 (SD 1.3. Results indicate that being an urban resident (p<0.001; OR=0.56, 95%=0.48-0.64, having secondary/higher educational level (p<0.001 OR=0.56, 95%=0.48-0.64, reading newspaper (p=0.006; OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.62-0.92, and communication with CHWs (p=0.05; OR=0.77, 95%CI=0.60-10.00 were significantly associated with a high (Equal or above mean value HIV knowledge level. ConclusionThe level of HIV knowledge among Bangladeshi men is low. Leveraging HIV awareness programs targeting adult men to prevent future expansion of the epidemic should be a high priority. Revitalization and restructuring of the education sector and strengthening community health worker (CHWs engagement to improve knowledge about HIV transmission among men could generate beneficial returns for HIV prevention programs.

  18. Prevalence and determinants of susceptibility to cigarette smoking among school students in Pakistan: secondary analysis of Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Syeda Kanwal; Zaheer, Sidra; Rao, Saadiyah; Shafique, Kashif

    2014-02-21

    Susceptibility to smoke has been recognized as a strong predictor of smoking experimentation and taking up regular smoking habit. The identification of smoking susceptible individuals and its determinants is important in the efforts to reduce future smoking prevalence. The aims of this study are to estimate prevalence of susceptibility to smoke among adolescents, and identify factors associated with it. Cross sectional data was obtained from Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in three cities of Pakistan in year 2004. Study population consisted of students in grades, 8th, 9th, and 10th; aged 13 to 15 years. Secondary analysis using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the associations between smoking susceptibility and co-variates. Descriptive statistics were reported in proportions, and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were used to report logistic regression analyses. Approximately 12% of nonsmoking students were found susceptible to smoking. Students, who were females (OR = 1.53, 95% CI [1.24-1.89]); whose parents (OR = 1.64, 95% CI [1.35-1.99]); or close friend smoked (OR = 2.77, 95% CI [2.27- 3.40]) were more susceptible to cigarette smoking. Students who had good knowledge about harmful effects of smoking (OR = 0.54, 95% CI [0.43-0.69]); and had access to anti-smoking media (OR = 0.73, 95% CI [0.59-0.89]) were less likely to be susceptible to smoking. Students who were females, had smoking parents, friends or exposure to newspaper/magazines cigarette marketing, were more susceptible to cigarette smoking among Pakistani adolescents. While knowledge of harmful effects of smoking and access to anti-smoking media served as protective factors against susceptibility to smoking.

  19. Knowledge and Lifestyle-Associated Prevalence of Obesity among Newly Diagnosed Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending Diabetic Clinic at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaa Obirikorang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the knowledge and prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics. This cross-sectional study was conducted among diagnosed type 2 diabetics. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood sugar levels were also assessed. Participants had adequate knowledge about the general concept of obesity (72.0% and method of weight measurement (98.6% but were less knowledgeable of ideal body weight (4.2%. The commonly known cause, complication, and management of obesity were poor diet (76.9%, hypertension (81.8%, and diet modification (86.7%, respectively. The anthropometric measures were higher among females compared to males. Prevalence of obesity was 61.3% according to WHR classification, 40.8% according to WHtR classification, 26.1% according to WC, and 14.8% according to BMI classification. Being female was significantly associated with high prevalence of obesity irrespective of the anthropometric measure used (p<0.05. Taking of snacks in meals, eating meals late at night, physical inactivity, excessive fast food intake, and alcoholic beverage intake were associated with increased prevalence of obesity (p<0.05. Prevalence of obesity is high among diabetic patient and thus increasing effort towards developing and making education programs by focusing on adjusting to lifestyle modifications is required.

  20. Trends and determinants of HIV/AIDS knowledge among women in Bangladesh

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    Sanni Yaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, women share an indiscriminate burden of the HIV epidemic and the associated socioeconomic consequences. Previous studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between levels of HIV knowledge with its prevalence. However, for Bangladesh such evidence is non-existent. In this study, we aimed to explore the extent of HIV knowledge in relation to the socio-demographic variables such as age, region, area of residence i.e., urban or rural, wealth index and education, and investigate the factors influencing the level of HIV knowledge among Bangladeshi women. Methods We used data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS survey conducted in 2011. In total 12,512 women ageing between 15 and 49 ever hearing about HIV regardless of HIV status were selected for this study. HIV knowledge level was estimated by analyzing respondents’ answers to a set of 11 basic questions indicative of general awareness and mode of transmission. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation and multinominal logistic regression were performed for data analysis. Results Little over half the respondents had good knowledge regarding HIV transmission risks. The mean HIV knowledge score was −0.001 (SD 0.914. Average correct response rate about mode of transmission was higher than for general awareness. Educational level of women and sex of household head were found to be significantly associated with HIV knowledge in the high score group. Those with no education, primary education or secondary education were less likely to be in the high score group for HIV knowledge when compared with those with higher than secondary level of education. Similarly those with male as household head were less likely to be in the higher score group for HIV knowledge. Conclusions Level of HIV knowledge among Bangladeshi women is quite low, and the limiting factors are rooted in various demographic and household characteristics. Education and sex of the

  1. Exploring Relationships among Belief in Genetic Determinism, Genetics Knowledge, and Social Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, Niklas; Carver, Rebecca; Castéra, Jérémy; Evangelista, Neima Alice Menezes; Marre, Claire Coiffard; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic determinism can be described as the attribution of the formation of traits to genes, where genes are ascribed more causal power than what scientific consensus suggests. Belief in genetic determinism is an educational problem because it contradicts scientific knowledge, and is a societal problem because it has the potential to foster…

  2. Determining the Knowledge Level of Pre-Service Teachers' on Radioactivity and Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergul, N. Remziye

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the basic knowledge levels of teacher candidates' from different branches regarding the subjects of radiation and radioactivity. 42 variables were determined in relation to the specified titles. In the preparation stage of determining the variables, all the related programs were examined, and attention was paid to include…

  3. Exploring Relationships Among Belief in Genetic Determinism, Genetics Knowledge, and Social Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, Niklas; Carver, Rebecca; Castéra, Jérémy; Evangelista, Neima Alice Menezes; Marre, Claire Coiffard; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2017-12-01

    Genetic determinism can be described as the attribution of the formation of traits to genes, where genes are ascribed more causal power than what scientific consensus suggests. Belief in genetic determinism is an educational problem because it contradicts scientific knowledge, and is a societal problem because it has the potential to foster intolerant attitudes such as racism and prejudice against sexual orientation. In this article, we begin by investigating the very nature of belief in genetic determinism. Then, we investigate whether knowledge of genetics and genomics is associated with beliefs in genetic determinism. Finally, we explore the extent to which social factors such as gender, education, and religiosity are associated with genetic determinism. Methodologically, we gathered and analyzed data on beliefs in genetic determinism, knowledge of genetics and genomics, and social variables using the "Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics" (PUGGS) instrument. Our analyses of PUGGS responses from a sample of Brazilian university freshmen undergraduates indicated that (1) belief in genetic determinism was best characterized as a construct built up by two dimensions or belief systems: beliefs concerning social traits and beliefs concerning biological traits; (2) levels of belief in genetic determination of social traits were low, which contradicts prior work; (3) associations between knowledge of genetics and genomics and levels of belief in genetic determinism were low; and (4) social factors such as age and religiosity had stronger associations with beliefs in genetic determinism than knowledge. Although our study design precludes causal inferences, our results raise questions about whether enhancing genetic literacy will decrease or prevent beliefs in genetic determinism.

  4. Socio-demographic and attitudinal determinants of nutrition knowledge of food shoppers in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Wills, Josephine; Fernandez-Celemin, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition knowledge is a prerequisite for processing nutrition-related information when making food choices. Insight into determinants of nutrition knowledge is important both for designing measures aimed at increasing levels of nutrition knowledge and for food industry attempting to position food...... products based on their nutritional properties. Shoppers recruited in the UK, Sweden, France, Germany, Poland and Hungary (total n = 5967) filled out a questionnaire measuring their nutrition knowledge with regard to dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, and calorie content of food and drink......, suggesting that the history of health policies and nutrition-related initiatives taken by retailers and manufacturers, together with cultural differences, are a major factor affecting how people acquire knowledge about food and health....

  5. A questionnaire for determining prevalence of diabetes related foot disease (Q-DFD: construction and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Caroline A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community based prevalence for diabetes related foot disease (DRFD has been poorly quantified in Australian populations. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a survey tool to facilitate collection of community based prevalence data for individuals with DRFD via telephone interview. Methods Agreed components of DRFD were identified through an electronic literature search. Expert feedback and feedback from a population based construction sample were sought on the initial draft. Survey reliability was tested using a cohort recruited through a general practice, a hospital outpatient clinic and an outpatient podiatry clinic. Level of agreement between survey findings and either medical record or clinical assessment was evaluated. Results The Questionnaire for Diabetes Related Foot Disease (Q-DFD comprised 12 questions aimed at determining presence of peripheral sensory neuropathy (PN and peripheral vascular disease (PVD, based on self report of symptoms and/or clinical history, and self report of foot ulceration, amputation and foot deformity. Survey results for 38 from 46 participants demonstrated agreement with either clinical assessment or medical record (kappa 0.65, sensitivity 89.0%, and specificity 77.8%. Correlation for individual survey components was moderate to excellent. Inter and intrarater reliability and test re-test reliability was moderate to high for all survey domains. Conclusion The development of the Q-DFD provides an opportunity for ongoing collection of prevalence estimates for DRFD across Australia.

  6. HIV and STI prevalence and determinants among male migrant workers in India.

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    Sangeeta S Dave

    Full Text Available Our objective was to estimate for the first time the prevalence and determinants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and sexually transmitted infections (STIs among male migrants in India.We conducted a multi-stage stratified probability sample survey of migrant (defined as not born in Surat city men aged 18 to 49 years working in the diamond and textile industries in Surat city. Behavioural and biological data were collected. Biological data included laboratory diagnosed herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, Trichomonas vaginalis (together defined as 'any STI' and HIV-1. Likely recently acquired STIs included chlamydia, gonorrhoea, T. vaginalis and syphilis with rapid plasma reagin ≥1:8. The response rate was 77% (845/1099. Among 841 participants, HIV-1 prevalence was 1.0%, 'any STI' prevalence was 9.5% and 38.9% of these STIs were likely to have been recently acquired. Being a diamond worker, Surat resident for 10+ years and recent antibiotic use were each associated with higher odds of 'any STI' (aORs 1.83 (95% CI 1.09-3.09, 1.98 (95% CI 1.22-3.22 and 2.57 (95% CI 1 .17-5.64, respectively after adjusting for the other two factors and age. The main study limitation was social desirability bias for self-reported sexual behaviour; STIs were diagnosed in some self-reported virgins.HIV and STI prevalence were lower than expected, but prevention interventions remain necessary in Surat since almost 40% of STIs among participants were probably recently acquired and sentinel surveillance HIV prevalence remains high. The participants had a similar HIV prevalence to Surat antenatal clinic attendees, a proxy for the general population. This suggests migrants are not always at higher risk of HIV compared to the general population in their migration destination. Our findings highlight the need to contextualise research findings from a specific setting with other local information to guide HIV/STI prevention

  7. DETERMINING THE LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ON GLOBAL WARMING

    OpenAIRE

    AYDIN, Fatih

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the levelof knowledge of undergraduate students on the formation, causes and results ofglobal warming and steps to be taken. Furthermore, this study investigated thelevel of knowledge of university students in terms of their genre anddepartment in which they study. This study was designed under survey model. Atotal of 472 final year undergraduate students studying in Karabuk UniversityFaculty of Letters in 2016-2017 education year participated in thi...

  8. Prevalence, attitudes, and knowledge of in-vehicle technologies and vehicle adaptations among older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, David W; Molnar, Lisa J; Zakrajsek, Jennifer S; Ryan, Lindsay H; Zanier, Nicole; Louis, Renée M St; Stanciu, Sergiu C; LeBlanc, David; Kostyniuk, Lidia P; Smith, Jacqui; Yung, Raymond; Nyquist, Linda; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Li, Guohua; Mielenz, Thelma J; Strogatz, David

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to gain a better understanding of the types of in-vehicle technologies being used by older drivers as well as older drivers' use, learning, and perceptions of safety related to these technologies among a large cohort of older drivers at multiple sites in the United States. A secondary purpose was to explore the prevalence of aftermarket vehicle adaptations and how older adults go about making adaptations and how they learn to use them. The study utilized baseline questionnaire data from 2990 participants from the Longitudinal Research on Aging Drivers (LongROAD) study. Fifteen in-vehicle technologies and 12 aftermarket vehicle adaptations were investigated. Overall, 57.2% of participants had at least one advanced technology in their primary vehicle. The number of technologies in a vehicle was significantly related to being male, having a higher income, and having a higher education level. The majority of respondents learned to use these technologies on their own, with "figured-it-out-myself" being reported by 25%-75% of respondents across the technologies. Overall, technologies were always used about 43% of the time, with wide variability among the technologies. Across all technologies, nearly 70% of respondents who had these technologies believed that they made them a safer driver. With regard to vehicle adaptations, less than 9% of respondents had at least one vehicle adaptation present, with the number of adaptations per vehicle ranging from 0 to 4. A large majority did not work with a professional to make or learn about the aftermarket vehicle adaptation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigating the Determinants of Toxoplasma gondii Prevalence in Meat: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Belluco

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widespread parasites in humans and can cause severe illness in immunocompromised individuals. However, its role in healthy people is probably under-appreciated. The complex epidemiology of this protozoan recognizes several infection routes but consumption of contaminated food is likely to be the predominant one. Among food, consumption of raw and undercooked meat is a relevant route of transmission, but the role of different meat producing animal species and meats thereof is controversial.The aim of the present work is to summarize and analyse literature data reporting prevalence estimates of T. gondii in meat animals/meats.We searched Medline, Web of Science, Science Direct (last update 31/03/2015.Relevant papers should report data from primary studies dealing with the prevalence of T. gondii in meat from livestock species as obtained through direct detection methods. Meta-analysis and meta-regression were performed.Of 1915 papers screened, 69 papers were included, dealing mainly with cattle, pigs and sheep. Pooled prevalences, based on random-effect models, were 2.6% (CI95 [0.5-5.8] for cattle, 12.3% (CI95 [7.6-17.8] for pigs and 14.7% (CI95 [8.9-21.5] for sheep. Due to the high heterogeneity observed, univariable and multivariable meta-regression models were fitted showing that the geographic area for cattle (p = 0.032, the farming type for pigs (p = 0.0004 and the sample composition for sheep (p = 0.03 had significant effects on the prevalences of Toxoplasma detected/estimated. Moreover, the role of different animal species was dependent on the geographic location of animals' origin.Limitations were due mainly to a possible publication bias.The present work confirms the role of meat, including beef, as T. gondii sources, and highlights the need for a control system for this parasite to be implemented along the meat production chain. Moreover, consumer knowledge should be strengthened in order to reduce

  10. Prevalence of alcohol and drug consumption and knowledge of drug/alcohol-related sexual assaults among Italian adolescents

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    Antonio Villa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol is the most widely used substance among adolescents, exceeding the use of tobacco and illicit drugs. The study aims at investigating the prevalence of alcohol and drug use and prevalence and knowledge of Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault (DFSA among Italian adolescents. Methods: The study population was a sample of 512 students of secondary education (high school from 3 public schools in Milan, Italy. Two hundred and fourty-nine boys and 263 girls aged 15 to 21 years old (M = 16.2, SD = 2.1 answered a specially structured anonymous questionnaire. Results: Recent problem drinking (‘every day’ or ‘once a week’ was reported from 9% (‘wine’ up to 28% (‘beer’ of students. Cannabis and rave drugs usage (ranged from ‘every day’ to ‘once only in a while’ were reported by up to 38% (‘cannabis’ and 2% (‘rave drugs’ of students. Beer was the most popular type of alcoholic beverage (81% with respect to wine (62% and hard liquor (66%. Only a small percentage of participants stated that they were informed about the possible addiction to alcohol (5% and its negative social consequences (3%. Nevertheless, almost all the students (92% declared that alcohol consumption was less dangerous than other psychoactive substances. Finally, most students stated to know DFSA phenomenon (77% and were victims or witness (13% of a DFSA event. Conclusion: Psychoactive substances consumption remains a serious problem among Italian adolescents. For a successful alcohol strategy there is a need to implement preventive measures and counseling approaches in school. Increasing the knowledge of the negative effects of alcohol/drugs use might also lead to a better prevention of the DFSA phenomenon.

  11. Stigma, lack of knowledge and prevalence maintain HIV risk among Black Africans in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Mark; Dickson, Nigel; Mhlanga, Fungai; Ludlam, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    The AfricaNZ Health project aimed explore HIV risks in Black African communities in NZ with a view to informing HIV infection prevention and health promotion programs. AfricaNZ Health was completed in two phases. The first developed desk estimates of the resident Black African population in New Zealand, and Africans living with HIV. The second comprised two arms: an anonymous survey administered at African community events and a series of focus groups around the country. High levels of knowledge and positive attitudes about HIV were more often found in older than younger age groups. Condom use was higher in the younger group than in older age groups. Traditional attitudes still inform some beliefs about HIV. Stigma about HIV and anyone at risk for HIV remains very high among Africans. Western sexual identity constructs are not meaningful. A culturally informed strategy for risk and stigma reduction is urgently needed. The existing prevention and care infrastructure, informed by MSM experiences, must address increased risk to Black African new settlers, but this is not a reason to discriminate or further stigmatise an already vulnerable population. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. The determinants of private medical insurance prevalence in England, 1997-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Derek; Mossialos, Elias

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the factors that determine the prevalence of private medical insurance (PMI) in England. Secondary data sources are the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) 1997-2000, Laing's Healthcare Market Review 1999-2000, the United Kingdom (U.K.) Department of Health's National Health Service Waiting Times Team, and the Work Force Statistics Branch of the Department of Health. Logistic regression models for panel data were used to compare non-PMI subscribers with individual subscribers and those with employer-provided PMI. The BHPS data are collected by the Institute for Social and Economic Research at the University of Essex. Other data used were collected by Laing and Buisson and the U.K. Department of Health. Individual PMI is more prevalent among the well-educated and healthy. Income, age, sex, and political preference are key determinants of PMI prevalence for both individual and employer paid PMI. Individuals are also likely to reflect on information with regard to waiting times in deciding whether or not to purchase PMI cover. The withdrawal of the tax subsidy in 1997 to PMI subscribers over 60 years of age did not impact on their rate of withdrawal from PMI coverage relative to the rate among all PMI subscribers, but may have discouraged potential new subscribers. Current trends in the PMI market suggest that, over time, individually purchased PMI is likely to be partially displaced by PMI purchased as part of a company-based plan. However, having PMI is linked to economic factors in both groups, suggesting a similar segment of the population valuing the responsiveness that PMI provides. Geographic factors relating to waiting times and supply-side factors are associated with both individual and company-based PMI. The withdrawal of the tax subsidy to individual subscribers older than age of 60 resulted in a significant decline in the demand for PMI. In particular, the number of new subscribers in this group declined substantially.

  13. The prevalence and determinants of sexual violence against young married women by husbands in rural Nepal

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    Puri Mahesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual violence within marriage is a public health and human rights issue; yet it remains a much neglected research area, especially in Nepal. This paper represents one of the first attempts to quantify the extent of sexual violence and its determinants among young married women in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,296 married women aged 15–24 years in four major ethnic groups in rural Nepal. The survey data were used to estimate the prevalence and identify determinants of sexual violence. The relative importance of different correlates of sexual violence in the past 12 months at the individual, household and community levels were examined by using a multi-level multivariate statistical approach. Results Of the young women surveyed 46% had experienced sexual violence at some point and 31% had experienced sexual violence in the past 12 months. Women’s autonomy was found to be particularly protective against sexual violence both at the individual and community level. Women’s educational level was not found to be protective, while the educational level of the husband was found to be highly protective. Conclusions The high prevalence of sexual violence against young women by husbands found in this study is a matter for serious concern and underscores the need for a comprehensive response by policymakers.

  14. Prevalence of genetic determinants and phenotypic resistance to ciprofloxacin in Campylobacter jejuni from lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksomaitiene, Jurgita; Ramonaite, Sigita; Olsen, John E.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the number of reports on isolation of ciprofloxacin resistant Campylobacter jejuni has increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin and its genetic determinants among C. jejuni isolated from humans (n = 100), poultry products (n...... = 96) and wild birds (n = 96) in Lithuania. 91.4% of the C. jejuni isolates were phenotypically resistant to ciprofloxacin. DNA sequence analyses of the gyrA gene from 292 isolates revealed that a change in amino acid sequence, Thr86Ile, was the main substition conferring resistance to ciprofloxacin...... forty-five C. jejuni isolates showed one or more silent mutations, and 32.4% of examined isolates possessed six silent mutations. In addition to the ciprofloxacin resistant isolates harboring only Thr86Ile point mutation (110 isolates), the current study identified resistant isolates (n = 101) harboring...

  15. Prevalence and determinants of risky sexual practice in Ethiopia: Systematic review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche, Achenef Asmamaw; Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Berhe, Abadi Kidanemariam; Fekadu, Gedefaw Abeje

    2017-09-06

    Risky sexual practice is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. There are various studies on the prevalence and determinants of risky sexual practice in different regions of the country but there is no study which shows the national estimate of risky sexual practices in Ethiopia. Therefore, this review was conducted to estimate the national pooled prevalence of risky sexual practice and its risk factors in Ethiopia. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guideline was followed to review published and unpublished studies in Ethiopia. The databases used were; PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL and African Journals Online. Search terms were; risky sexual behavior, risky sexual practice, unprotected sex, multiple sexual partner, early sexual initiation, and/or Ethiopia. Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument was used for critical appraisal. The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager software. Descriptive information of studies was presented in narrative form and quantitative results were presented in forest plots. The Cochran Q test and I 2 test statistics were used to test heterogeneity across studies. The pooled estimate prevalence and the odd ratios with 95% confidence intervals were computed by a random effect model. A total of 31 studies with 43,695 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of risky sexual practice was 42.80% (95% CI: 35.64%, 49.96%). Being male (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.37), substance use (OR: 3.42; 95% CI: 1.41, 8.31), peer pressure (OR: 3.41; 95% CI: 1.69, 6.87) and watching pornography (OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 2.21, 5.86) were factors associated with an increase in risky sexual practices. The prevalence of risky sexual practices is high in Ethiopia. Being male, substance use, peer pressure and viewing pornographic materials were found to be associated with risky sexual practices. Therefore, life skills training is recommended to

  16. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome among women in Chinese rural areas.

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    Hui Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Metabolic syndrome (MS is prevalent in recent years but few data is reported in the rural areas in China. The aim of this study was to examine MS prevalence and its risk factors among women in rural China. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study (NMSS, a population based cross-sectional study, was conducted during 2007-2008 in Nantong, China. In person interviews, blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 13,505 female participants aged 18-74 years. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF, the US Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program, the Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII and modified ATPIII for Asian population has determined three criteria of MS. These criteria for MS were used and compared in this study. The prevalence of MS was 22.0%, 16.9% and 23.3% according to IDF, ATPIII and ATPIII-modified criteria, respectively. Levels of agreement of these criteria for MS were above 0.75. We found that vigorous-intensity of occupational physical activity was associated with a low prevalence of MS with OR of 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.63-0.91. Rice wine drinkers (alcohol >12.8 g/day had about 34% low risks of developing MS with OR of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.48-0.91, compared with non-drinkers. Odds ratio of MS was 1.81 (95% CI: 1.15-2.84 in women who smoked more than 20 pack-years, compared to non-smokers. Odds ratio of MS was 1.56 (95% CI: 1.25-1.95 in women who had familial history of diseases, including hypertension, diabetes and stroke, compared to women without familial history of those diseases. CONCLUSION: MS is highly prevalent among women in rural China. Both physical activity and rice wine consumption play a protective role, while family history and smoking are risk factors in MS development. Educational programs should be established for promoting healthy lifestyles and appropriate interventions in rural China.

  17. Prevalence and Determinants of Repeat Mammography Among Women from a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Martínez, Ana María; Gaspar-Rivera, Jimena Estefanía; Juárez-Pérez, Oscar; Montañez-Sauceda, José Roberto; Núñez-Rocha, Georgina Mayela; Guzmán-de-la-Garza, Francisco Javier; Mathiew-Quirós, Álvaro

    2017-04-01

    Failures in repeat mammography decrease the potential benefits of screening; however, it is notable that the recent use of mammography is more frequently studied than repeat use. We estimated the prevalence and analyzed determinants for repeat mammography among women from Mexico, a developing country of Latin America. It was a two-stage study with an initial cross-sectional design (n = 1045) and a final case-control design that involved women of at least 45 years of age with no history of breast, ovarian, or uterine cancer. Case subjects were those with three or more mammograms in the last 5 years, with the last one carried out within the last two years (n = 444); control subjects included those who underwent ≥3 mammograms throughout their life with the most recent carried out >2 years ago (n = 444). Through interviews, we evaluated context-dependency, fulfillment of expected outcomes, self-efficacy, and risk perception, among other factors. We estimated the prevalence with 95 % confidence intervals (CI), and odds ratios (OR) using multivariate binary logistic regression. The prevalence of repeat mammography was 40.4 % (95 % CI 37.4-43.4). Self-efficacy demonstrated the highest effect on repeat use (OR 7.7, 95 % CI 4.7-12.6), followed by awareness context-dependency (OR 4.9, 95 % CI 3.3-7.2), the use of Papanicolaou testing (OR 3.5, 95 % CI 2.3-5.2), the fulfillment of expected waiting time outcome (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.2-4.7), and context-dependency related to self-referral/health provider referral (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.7-3.4), independent of risk perception, age, education, and positive emotional state of mind. The study showed a need for increasing the prevalence of promoting awareness of the determining factors of repeat mammography, which is a necessary component in the early detection of breast cancer.

  18. Prevalence and determinants of unintended pregnancy among women in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikamari, Lawrence; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Ochako, Rhoune

    2013-03-19

    The prevalence of unintended pregnancy in Kenya continues to be high. The 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) showed that nearly 50% of unmarried women aged 15-19 and 45% of the married women reported their current pregnancies as mistimed or unwanted. The 2008-09 KDHS showed that 43% of married women in Kenya reported their current pregnancies were unintended. Unintended pregnancy is one of the most critical factors contributing to schoolgirl drop out in Kenya. Up to 13,000 Kenyan girls drop out of school every year as a result of unintended pregnancy. Unsafe pregnancy termination contributes immensely to maternal mortality which currently estimated at 488 deaths per 100 000 live births. In Kenya, the determinants of prevalence and determinants of unintended pregnancy among women in diverse social and economic situations, particularly in urban areas, are poorly understood due to lack of data. This paper addresses the prevalence and the determinants of unintended pregnancy among women in slum and non-slum settlements of Nairobi. This study used the data that was collected among a random sample of 1262 slum and non-slum women aged 15-49 years in Nairobi. The data was analyzed using simple percentages and logistic regression. The study found that 24 percent of all the women had unintended pregnancy. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy was 21 per cent among women in slum settlements compared to 27 per cent among those in non-slum settlements. Marital status, employment status, ethnicity and type of settlement were significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Logistic analysis results indicate that age, marital status and type of settlement had statistically significantly effects on unintended pregnancy. Young women aged 15-19 were significantly more likely than older women to experience unintended pregnancy. Similarly, unmarried women showed elevated risk for unintended pregnancy than ever-married women. Women in non-slum settlements were

  19. Determinants of perceived and actual knowledge of commission paid by contributors in the pension funds industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Farías

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of perceived and actual knowledge of commission paid by contributors in the Chilean pension funds industry. Results show that price consciousness and brand credibility are positively associated with perceived and actual knowledge of commission paid by pension fund contributors. Results also show that financial literacy is only positively associated with actual knowledge of commission paid by contributors. Additionally, results show that price based advertising exposure is only positively associated with perceived knowledge of commission paid by contributors. This association is stronger for contributors with a high use of the price-quality cue. Based on the findings presented, implications for managers, regulators and researchers are drawn.

  20. Prevalence and determinant factors of malocclusion in population with special needs in South India

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    R Muppa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Malocclusion plays an important role in the overall oral health of an individual because it is associated with periodontal disease, temporomandibular disorders and may be complicated by an individual′s disparity. Careful attention to malocclusion in children with special needs leads to a considerable improvement in the quality-of-life. The objective of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of malocclusion and its association with determinant factors in individuals with special needs in South India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out that included 844 individuals with special needs and their mothers at eleven institutions in South India. Data were collected based on the questionnaire given to the mothers and dental examination carried out on the children. The nutritive and non-nutritive oral habits were obtained from the reports of the mothers. Clinical examination recorded the following: Class I, Class II, Class III, anterior crowding, anterior spacing, deep bite, open bite, and anterior cross bite. Statistical analyses of data were performed using Chi-square test. Results: Results at the end of the study revealed anterior crowding in 27.37% of the total sample size, deep bite in 20.5%, Class I in 14.34%, anterior spacing in 12.9%, Class II in 9.95%, Class III in 5.33%, anterior cross bite in 4.98% and open bite in 4.62%. Conclusion: The prevalence of malocclusion in individuals with special needs is associated with the type of disability and it is more in males than females. Mentally disabled individuals had higher frequencies of all types the malocclusion. Prevalence of anterior crowding was higher compared to other types of malocclusion followed by deep bite.

  1. Pertussis prevalence and its determinants among children with persistent cough in urban Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Kayina

    Full Text Available We determined prevalence of pertussis infection and its associated host and environmental factors to generate information that would guide strategies for disease control.In a cross-sectional study, 449 children aged 3 months to 12 years with persistent cough lasting ≥14 days were enrolled and evaluated for pertussis using DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR and ELISA serology tests.Pertussis prevalence was 67 (15% (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 12-18 and 81 (20% (95% CI: 16-24 by PCR and ELISA, respectively among 449 participating children. The prevalence was highest in children with >59 months of age despite high vaccination coverage of 94% in this age group. Study demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between pertussis and non-pertussis cases. Of the 449 children, 133 (30% had a coughing household member and 316 (70% did not. Among 133 children that had a coughing household member, sex of child, sharing bed with a coughing household member and having a coughing individual in the neighborhood were factors associated with pertussis. Children that had shared a bed with a coughing household individual had seven-fold likelihood of having pertussis compared to children that did not (odds ratio (OR 7.16 (95% CI: 1.24-41.44. Among the 316 children that did not have a coughing household member, age 40 years of age were the factors associated with pertussis. Age 59 months of age, suggesting the possibility of waning immunity. The factors associated with pertussis varied by presence or absence of a coughing household member.

  2. Refractory Hypertension: Determination of Prevalence, Risk Factors and Comorbidities in a Large, Population-Based Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, David A.; Booth, John N.; Oparil, Suzanne; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Shimbo, Daichi; Lackland, Daniel T.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Refractory hypertension is an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure. Participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a large (n=30,239), population-based cohort were evaluated to determine the prevalence of refractory hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Refractory hypertension was defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (systolic/diastolic ≥ 140/90 mm Hg) on ≥ 5 antihypertensive drug classes. Participants with resistant hypertension (systolic/diastolic ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥ 3 orhypertensive participants served as comparator groups. Of 14,809 REGARDS participants receiving antihypertensive treatment, 78 (0.5%) had refractory hypertension. The prevalence of refractory hypertension was 3.6% among participants with resistant hypertension(n=2,144) and 41.7% among participants on 5 or more antihypertensive drug classes. Among all hypertensive participants, African American race, male gender, living in the stroke belt or buckle, higher body mass index, lower heart rate, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, diabetes and history of stroke and coronary heart disease were associated with refractory hypertension. Compared to resistant hypertension, prevalence ratios for refractory hypertension were increased for African Americans (3.00, 95% CI 1.68 – 5.37) and those with albuminuria (2.22, 95% CI 1.40 – 3.52) and diabetes (2.09, 95% CI 1.32 – 3.31). The median 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease and stroke was higher among participants with refractory hypertension compared to either comparator group. These data indicate that while resistant hypertension is relatively common among treated hypertensive patients, true antihypertensive treatment failure is rare. PMID:24324035

  3. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome in Qatar: results from a National Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thani, Mohamed Hamad; Al-Thani, Al Anoud Mohammed; Cheema, Sohaila; Sheikh, Javaid; Mamtani, Ravinder; Lowenfels, Albert B; Al-Chetachi, Walaa Fattah; Almalki, Badria Ali; Hassan Khalifa, Shamseldin Ali; Haj Bakri, Ahmad Omar; Maisonneuve, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine optimum measurements for abdominal obesity and to assess the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome in Qatar. Design National health survey. Setting Qatar National STEPwise Survey conducted by the Supreme Council of Health during 2012. Participants 2496 Qatari citizens aged 18–64 representative of the general population. Primary and secondary outcome measures Measure of obesity (body mass index, waist circumference or waist-to-height ratio) that best identified the presence of at least 2 other factors of metabolic syndrome; cut-off values of waist circumference; frequency of metabolic syndrome. Results Waist circumference ≥102 for men and ≥94 cm for women was the best predictor of the presence of other determinants of metabolic syndrome (raised blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Using these values, we identified 28% of Qataris with metabolic syndrome, which is considerably lower than the estimate of 37% calculated using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Restricting the analysis to participants without known elevated blood pressure, elevated blood sugar or diabetes 16.5% would be classified as having metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased steadily with age (OR=3.40 (95% CI 2.02 to 5.74), OR=5.66 (3.65 to 8.78), OR=10.2 (5.98 to 17.6) and OR=18.2 (7.01 to 47.5) for those in the age group ‘30–39’, ‘40–49’, ‘50–59’, ‘60–64’ vs ‘18–29’; pQatar. Approximately 28% of adult Qatari citizens satisfy the criteria for metabolic syndrome, which increased significantly with age. Education and physical activity were inversely associated with this syndrome. PMID:27601485

  4. The Determination of Children's Knowledge of Global Lunar Patterns from Online Essays Using Text Mining Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Jongpil; Lee, Sangno; Smith, Walter; Song, Jaeki; Kim, Yongjin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use text mining analysis of early adolescents' online essays to determine their knowledge of global lunar patterns. Australian and American students in grades five to seven wrote about global lunar patterns they had discovered by sharing observations with each other via the Internet. These essays were analyzed for…

  5. Construction of a valid and reliable test to determine knowledge on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The construction of a questionnaire, in the format of a test, to determine knowledge on dietary fat of higher-educated young adults. Design: The topics on dietary fat included were in accordance with those tested in other studies. Forty multiple-choice items were drafted as questions and incomplete statements ...

  6. Developmental delay in the Amazon: The social determinants and prevalence among rural communities in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgard, Christopher; Alnasser, Yossef

    2017-01-01

    The consequences of poor child development are becoming increasingly recognized. Programs are being put in place around the world to improve child development by providing healthy and stimulating environments for children. However, these programs often have limited reach and little is known about the prevalence of developmental delay in under-developed communities. The current study set-out to better understand the prevalence of developmental delay in rural communities in the Amazon region of Peru. Also, it explores social determinants that are associated with any delay. Cross-sectional study by evaluating developmental delay in children under 4 years utilizing Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3). Additionally, conducting a social determinants questionnaire answered by caretakers to identify social drivers for developmental delay. The data was analyzed with multi-variant analysis to measure association. The prevalence of developmental delay in the Amazonian communities was 26.7% (19.3% in communication, 11.4% in gross motor skills, 8% in both) (N = 596). The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed significant associations between developmental delay and; level of education (OR 0.64, p = 0.009), age of mother during child's birth (OR 0.96, p = 0.002), visits by community health agents (OR 0.73, p = 0.013), and river as primary water source (OR 2.39, p = 0.001). The social determinants questionnaire revealed that 39% of the mothers had their first child before the age of 17, nearly half stopped going to school before the age of 12 (52%), 29% gave birth at home, 13% breast fed for less than 7 months, and 50% of the children had diarrhea in the last month. There is still a great need to improve the conditions for child development in the Amazon region of Peru. One-fourth of the children suffer from developmental delay, which will likely impede their potentials for life unless something is done. The impact of education, age of mother at birth of the child

  7. Developmental delay in the Amazon: The social determinants and prevalence among rural communities in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Westgard

    Full Text Available The consequences of poor child development are becoming increasingly recognized. Programs are being put in place around the world to improve child development by providing healthy and stimulating environments for children. However, these programs often have limited reach and little is known about the prevalence of developmental delay in under-developed communities. The current study set-out to better understand the prevalence of developmental delay in rural communities in the Amazon region of Peru. Also, it explores social determinants that are associated with any delay. Cross-sectional study by evaluating developmental delay in children under 4 years utilizing Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3. Additionally, conducting a social determinants questionnaire answered by caretakers to identify social drivers for developmental delay. The data was analyzed with multi-variant analysis to measure association. The prevalence of developmental delay in the Amazonian communities was 26.7% (19.3% in communication, 11.4% in gross motor skills, 8% in both (N = 596. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed significant associations between developmental delay and; level of education (OR 0.64, p = 0.009, age of mother during child's birth (OR 0.96, p = 0.002, visits by community health agents (OR 0.73, p = 0.013, and river as primary water source (OR 2.39, p = 0.001. The social determinants questionnaire revealed that 39% of the mothers had their first child before the age of 17, nearly half stopped going to school before the age of 12 (52%, 29% gave birth at home, 13% breast fed for less than 7 months, and 50% of the children had diarrhea in the last month. There is still a great need to improve the conditions for child development in the Amazon region of Peru. One-fourth of the children suffer from developmental delay, which will likely impede their potentials for life unless something is done. The impact of education, age of mother at birth of

  8. Dry eye disease: prevalence, distribution and determinants in a hospital-based population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwubiko, Stella N; Eze, Boniface I; Udeh, Nnemma N; Arinze, Obinna C; Onwasigwe, Ernest N; Umeh, Rich E

    2014-06-01

    To determine the prevalence, distribution and risk factors for dry eye disease (DED) in a tertiary ophthalmic outpatient population. The study was a cross-sectional descriptive hospital-based survey conducted at the Eye clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, between September and December, 2011. The participants comprised adult ophthalmic outpatients aged 18 years or older. Participants' sociodemographic data were obtained. Dry eye disease was assessed subjectively with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire; and objectively with Schirmer's test and Tear-film Break-up Time (TBUT). An OSDI score of ≥ 50 with a TBUT of 40 years (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.06-3.35, p=0.0004), non-possession of formal education (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.21-0.74, p=0.001) but not gender (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.89-2.46, p=0.158). The prevalence of DED among ophthalmic outpatients at UNTH, Enugu, is comparatively high. Older age and illiteracy are predictors of DED. There is need for high index of diagnostic suspicion to prevent sight-threatening complications of DED. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and determinants of headaches in Hawaii: the Hilo Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Angela; Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Rahberg, Nichole; Morrison, Lynn A; Brown, Daniel E

    2012-07-01

    Headache frequency has been associated with ethnicity, menopause, abdominal obesity and stress. To examine the prevalence and determinants of headaches in the multi-ethnic community of Hilo, Hawaii. A random sample of 1824 women aged 16-100 was recruited by postal survey; 206 women aged 45-55 were recruited for clinical measures. Both studies queried the presence/absence of headaches during the past 2 weeks. The clinical study also examined migraines and tension headaches. Headaches were examined in relation to demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, stress, symptoms and anthropometric measures. Headache prevalence was 47%. Japanese women were less likely to report headaches compared to women of European descent, but, after controlling for measures of stress, Japanese women were at a higher risk for headaches. Post-menopausal women were half as likely to report headaches compared with pre-menopausal women. Women with children younger than 18 were 4-times as likely to report migraines compared with women who did not have children younger than 18. Standardized measures of daily hassles, life and job satisfaction were not associated with headaches. The relationship between headaches and having young children suggests that the everyday stress of family life is a headache risk. This may be particularly true in Hilo, Hawaii, where the value of family is culturally prioritized.

  10. Prevalence of renal artery stenosis in flash pulmonary oedema: determination using gadolinium-enhanced MRA.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: The primary purpose was to determine the prevalence of renal artery stenosis (RAS) in patients presenting with acute ("flash") pulmonary oedema (FPE), without identifiable cause using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) of renal arteries. A secondary goal was to correlate clinical parameters at presentation with the presence or absence of RAS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients presenting with acute pulmonary oedema without identifiable cause prospectively underwent CE-MRA. >50% renal artery stenosis was considered significant. Clinical parameters (blood pressure, serum creatinine, history of hypertension\\/hyperlipidaemia) were compared in patients with and without RAS using an unpaired t-test. Results expressed; mean (+\\/-SD). RESULTS: 20 patients (4 male, 16 female, age 78.5+\\/-11 years) underwent CE-MRA. 9 patients (45%) had significant RAS (6 (30%) bilateral, 3 (15%) unilateral). Systolic BP was higher in patients with RAS (192+\\/-38 mm Hg) than those without (134+\\/-30 mm Hg) (p<.005). Diastolic BP was higher in patients with RAS (102+\\/-23 mm Hg) than those without (76+\\/-17 mm Hg) (p<.01). All patients with RAS and 6\\/11(55%) patients without RAS had a history of hypertension. No significant difference in creatinine or hyperlipidaemia history was observed. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of RAS in patients presenting with FPE is 45%. The diagnosis should be considered in patients presenting with unexplained acute pulmonary oedema, particularly if hypertensive at presentation.

  11. A National Survey to Determine Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection among Pregnant Women in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costales, Jaime A.; Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Silva-Aycaguer, Luis C.; Cevallos, William; Tamayo, Susana; Yumiseva, César A.; Jacobson, Jerry O.; Martini, Luiggi; Carrera, Caty A.; Grijalva, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    A nationwide survey was conducted to obtain an estimate of Chagas disease prevalence among pregnant women in Ecuador. As part of a national probability sample, 5,420 women seeking care for delivery or miscarriage at 15 healthcare facilities were recruited into the study. A small minority of participants reported knowing about Chagas disease or recognized the vector. A national seroprevalence of 0.1% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.0–0.2%) was found; cases were concentrated in the coastal region (seroprevalence = 0.2%; 95% CI = 0.0–0.4%). No cases of transmission to neonates were identified in the sample. Seropositive participants were referred to the National Chagas Program for evaluation and treatment. Additional studies are necessary to determine if areas of higher prevalence exist in well-known endemic provinces and guide the development of a national strategy for elimination of mother-to-child transmission of Chagas disease in Ecuador. PMID:25667052

  12. Sample size determination for disease prevalence studies with partially validated data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shi-Fang; Poon, Wai-Yin; Tang, Man-Lai

    2016-02-01

    Disease prevalence is an important topic in medical research, and its study is based on data that are obtained by classifying subjects according to whether a disease has been contracted. Classification can be conducted with high-cost gold standard tests or low-cost screening tests, but the latter are subject to the misclassification of subjects. As a compromise between the two, many research studies use partially validated datasets in which all data points are classified by fallible tests, and some of the data points are validated in the sense that they are also classified by the completely accurate gold-standard test. In this article, we investigate the determination of sample sizes for disease prevalence studies with partially validated data. We use two approaches. The first is to find sample sizes that can achieve a pre-specified power of a statistical test at a chosen significance level, and the second is to find sample sizes that can control the width of a confidence interval with a pre-specified confidence level. Empirical studies have been conducted to demonstrate the performance of various testing procedures with the proposed sample sizes. The applicability of the proposed methods are illustrated by a real-data example. © The Author(s) 2012.

  13. Geriatric syndromes are potential determinants of the medication adherence status in prevalent dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ter Chao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Geriatric syndromes (GS exhibit high prevalence in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD under chronic dialysis irrespective of age. We sought to determine whether GS influences medication adherence in ESRD patients. Methods. A prospective cohort of chronic dialysis patients was assembled. The presence of GS components, including frailty/prefrailty, polypharmacy, and malnutrition, were ascertained through a validated questionnaire, electronic records and chart abstraction, and laboratory tests. The severity of medication non-adherence was defined using the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed targeting MMAS results and incorporating relevant clinical features and GS. Results. The prevalence of frailty/pre-frailty, polypharmacy, and hypoalbuminemia/ malnutrition among the enrolled participants was 66.7%, 94%, and 14%, respectively. The average MMAS scores in these dialysis patients were 2 ± 1.7 (range, 0–6, with only 15.7% exhibiting high medication adherence. Multiple regression analyses showed that the absence of frailty/pre-frailty (P = 0.01 were significantly associated with poorer medication adherence, while the presence of polypharmacy (P = 0.02 and lower serum albumin, a potential sign of malnutrition (P = 0.03, were associated with poor adherence in another model. Conclusion. This study is among the very few reports addressing GS and medication adherence, especially in ESRD patients. Interventions targeting frailty, polypharmacy, and malnutrition might potentially improve the medication non-adherence and symptom control in these pill-burdened patients.

  14. Magnitude and Determinants of the Ratio between Prevalence of Low Vision and Blindness in Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphle, Dinesh; Lewallen, Susan

    2017-10-01

    To determine the magnitude and determinants of the ratio between prevalence of low vision and prevalence of blindness in rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) surveys globally. Standard RAAB reports were downloaded from the repository or requested from principal investigators. Potential predictor variables included prevalence of uncorrected refractive error (URE) as well as gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, health expenditure per capita of the country across World Bank regions. Univariate and multivariate linear regression were used to investigate the correlation between potential predictor variables and the ratio. The results of 94 surveys from 43 countries showed that the ratio ranged from 1.35 in Mozambique to 11.03 in India with a median value of 3.90 (Interquartile range 3.06;5.38). Univariate regression analysis showed that prevalence of URE (p = 0.04), logarithm of GDP per capita (p = 0.01) and logarithm of health expenditure per capita (p = 0.03) were significantly associated with the higher ratio. However, only prevalence of URE was found to be significant in multivariate regression analysis (p = 0.03). There is a wide variation in the ratio of the prevalence of low vision to the prevalence of blindness. Eye care service utilization indicators such as the prevalence of URE may explain some of the variation across the regions.

  15. Prevalence and Determinants of Frozen Shoulder in Patients with Diabetes: A Single Center Experience from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayat, Faisal; Ali, Nouman Safdar; Shahid, Haroon; Younus, Fariha

    2017-08-06

    Introduction Frozen shoulder (FS) or adhesive capsulitis is a constellation of symptoms like pain, stiffness, and/or functional deficit at the glenohumeral joint. It is one of the musculoskeletal complications in patients with diabetes that can be particularly debilitating. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of FS and to compare the determinants of this disease in a population with diabetes from Lahore, Pakistan. Materials and Methods We carried out this cross-sectional study on a systematically randomized sample of 80 patients with diabetes. It included 38 males and 42 females from 2,964 patients registered at the Diabetes Management Center, Services Hospital Lahore, Pakistan. The study was conducted in the months of April, May, and June 2017. A structured questionnaire was designed and the responses of patients were recorded at the clinic after informed verbal and written consent. The questionnaire outlined the key factors that can lead to a higher frequency of FS in patients with diabetes. Results Thirty-three of the total 80 respondents included in the study were diagnosed with FS. The estimated prevalence of FS in diabetics from this data was 41.3% in Lahore, which is an urban area of Pakistan with a population of more than seven million. Female sex, insulin dependence, uncontrolled blood glucose levels, and a positive family history were associated with a significantly higher prevalence of FS. In our study, most patients with FS were in Stage 1 of the disease and had unilateral involvement. Conclusion The present study shows that the prevalence of FS is higher in patients with diabetes residing in Lahore than in comparable foreign populations with diabetes. It can be attributed to socioeconomic status, lack of awareness, a higher threshold for diagnosis, and/or poor glycemic control. Mass awareness campaigns, especially for female patients with diabetes, are required to be initiated to create awareness about the disease and to facilitate

  16. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome among adults in a rural area of Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Zhao

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS among adults in a rural area of Northwest China.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 among adults aged 18 to 80 years in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Interview, physical and clinical examinations, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2990 adults. The definitions of MetS proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel (Adults Treatment Panel III, ATP III and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, and the modified ATP III definition for Asian population were used and compared. Proportions were adjusted for age and sex.The prevalence of MetS was 7.9%, 10.8% and 15.1% according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. Agreement between ATP III and IDF criteria and that between ATP III and modified ATP III criteria were moderate (Kappa = 0.52 and 0.64, respectively, whereas agreement between IDF and modified ATP III criteria was good (Kappa = 0.83. The prevalence of MetS increased with age, and was higher in women than in men (10.4% versus 5.4%, 13.6% versus 8.1% and 17.4% versus 12.8%, according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. The most common MetS component was high blood pressure. Having family history of hypertension, lack of physical activity, high economical level, overweight and obesity were positively associated with MetS.MetS is prevalent among rural adults in Northwest China and high blood pressure is the most common MetS component. Prevention and treatment of hypertension and MetS should be a public health priority to reduce cardiovascular diseases in rural areas of Northwest China. More attention should be given to the elderly, women, people with family history of hypertension and obese people who are at high risk of MetS.

  17. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...

  18. Prevalence and clinical determinants of low bone mineral density in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Marielle; Landewé-Cleuren, Sabine; Wojciechowski, Franz; Kruseman, Arie Nieuwenhuijzen

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of low bone mass in anorexia nervosa (AN) and the association with clinical parameters. A cross-sectional study on 286 Caucasian women with AN. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured with DXA. Low BMD was defined as a Z-score ever (pyear between highest BMI ever and BMI at time of DXA was more rapid in subjects with a normal BMD (p=0.016) as compared to patients with low BMD. Low BMD was found to be independently associated with 'lowest BMI ever' (OR: 0.78; 95%CI=0.66-0.93), and with 'BMI decline per year' (OR: 0.83; 95%CI=0.71-0.97). We conclude that low BMD is frequent in AN. The best indicator of low BMD appeared to be the lowest reported BMI ever.

  19. Determinants of prevalent vertebral fractures and progressive bone loss in long-term hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Jan; Ohlidalova, Kristina; Opatrna, Sylvie; Ferda, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal fractures are common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, consensus regarding technique and site of bone examination has not been reached in HD patients. Seventy-two patients (44% females) aged 65 (1.4) years, treated with HD for 43 (4.6) months were examined with quantitative computed tomography and 53 of them re-examined after 1 year. Bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine was established separately for cortical and trabecular bone, prevalent vertebral fractures were determined. Data are given as mean (standard error). At least one vertebral fracture was discovered in 15 (21%) patients. In a logistic regression model, fractures were best predicted by cortical BMD: OR 0.96 (CI 0.94, 0.99), p multiple regression analysis, time on dialysis was found to be independently correlated to cortical BMD (R = 0.35, p decrement may impose an increased risk of fractures on long-term dialysis patients.

  20. Prevalence and determinants of albuminuria in a cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, Nadine; Salti, Haytham; Al-Mokaddam, Mona; Merheb, Marie; Salti, Ibrahim; Nasrallah, Mona

    2008-01-01

    Few data are available on the extent of albuminuria in diabetic populations in the Middle East generally and in Lebanon specifically. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of albuminuria and its major risk factors in a cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon. Diabetic patients followed in the outpatient department at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC) were included in a prospective observational study. AUBMC is a tertiary referral center and the outpatient department typically handles patients of low socioeconomic status with advanced disease. Patients were classified according to their urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) as having normoalbuminuria (ACR or =300 mg/g creatinine). The three groups were compared to analyze the association between albuminuria and its risk factors. In addition, independent predictors of albuminuria were determined using multivariate logistic regression and presented as an odds ratio. Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were present in 33.3% and 12.7% of 222 patients (mean age 56.4 years, mean deviation of diabetes 8.6 years, 58.7% women, 43.8% obese), respectively. Factors significantly associated with microalbuminuria included glycemic control, insulin use, and total and LDL cholesterol. Those associated with macroalbuminuria included in addition to glycemic control and insulin use, duration of diabetes, hypertension, elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP), and presence of neuropathy, retinopathy and peripheral vascular disease by bivariate analysis. Only glycemic control was an independent risk factor for both in addition to MAP and retinopathy for macroalbuminuria by multivariate analysis. Albuminuria is highly prevalent among this cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon. Both glycemic control and blood pressure need to be better targeted in its management.

  1. Prevalence and Determinants of Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Middle and High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Singh, Tushar; Rolle, Italia; Olalekan, Ayo-Yusuf; King, Brian A

    2016-02-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) causes disease and death among nonsmokers. Private settings are major sources of exposure for children. We assessed prevalence and determinants of self-reported SHS exposure in homes and vehicles, as well as school, work, and indoor/outdoor public areas, among US students in grades 6 through 12. Data were from the 2013 National Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 18 406). Self-reported SHS exposure within the past 7 days was assessed overall and by extent of smoke-free home and vehicle rules among never users of 10 tobacco product types. Descriptive statistics were used to compare estimates, and adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated to assess determinants of SHS exposure. Among never tobacco users, 48.0% reported SHS exposure in 1 or more locations, including 15.5% in the home, 14.7% in a vehicle, 16.8% at school, 27.1% at work, and 35.2% in an indoor/outdoor public area. Home exposure was 8.5%, 55.3%, and 79.4% among never tobacco users with complete, partial, or no smoke-free home rules, respectively (P exposure was 7.1%, 44.8%, and 70.2% among never tobacco users with complete, partial, or no smoke-free vehicle rules, respectively (P exposure included current tobacco use, truant behavior, and having tobacco using household members/friends Approximately half of US students in grades 6 through 12 reported exposure to SHS in 2013. Smoke-free home and vehicle rules, coupled with intensified implementation and enforcement of comprehensive smoke-free laws, could help protect youth from this preventable health hazard. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Leisure time physical activity in Saudi Arabia: prevalence, pattern and determining factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Al Khoudair, Ali Salah; Al Harbi, Mohammad Abdulwahab; Al Ali, Ahmed Radi

    2012-01-01

    Identification of reliable predictors of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) will enable healthcare providers to intervene and change the patterns of LTPA in the population to improve community health. The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence and pattern of LTPA among adult Saudis aged 18-65 years, and to define the socio-demographic determinants that correlate with LTPA in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study of 2176 adult Saudis attending urban and rural primary health care centers were selected using a multistage proportionate sampling method. Participants were personally interviewed to gather information regarding socio-demographics, physical activity pattern using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Physical activity (PA) in each domain was expressed in metabolic equivalents (METs). The median total METs minutes/week for LTPA for both genders was 256, higher for men (636 METs minutes/week) compared to women (249 METs minutes/week). Overall, only 19.8% of the total PA was derived from LTPA. Of the sampled population 50.0% reported doing no leisure activity. Using the cut off of 600 METs-minutes/day or 150 minutes of moderate intensity over 5 or more days/week, only 21.0% of the included sample were considered as being sufficiently active and 10.4% were in the high active category with beneficial health effects. Multivariate regression analysis showed that male, younger age (active in the LTPA domain. The prevalence and intensity of LTPA among the included sample demonstrated low levels. Nearly 80% of the included sample population did not achieve the recommended LTPA level with beneficial health effects. Female gender, urban residence and associated chronic diseases correlated with a low LTPA.

  3. Prevalence and determinants of albuminuria in a cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadine, Taleb

    2010-01-01

    Few data are available on the extent of albuminuria in diabetic populations in the Middle East generally and in Lebanon specifically. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of albuminuria and its major risk factors in a cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon. Patients and Diabetic patients followed in the outpatient department at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC) were included in a prospective observational study. AUBMC is a tertiary referral center and the outpatient department typically handles patients of low socioeconomic status with advanced disease. Patients were classified according to their urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) as having normoalbuminuria (ACR<30 mg/g creatinine), microalbuminuria (ACR=30 to <300 mg/g creatinine), or macro-albuminuria (ACR 2300 mg/g creatinine). The three groups were compared to analyze the association between albuminuria and its risk factors. In addition, independent predictors of albuminuria were determined using multivariate logistic regression and presented as an odds ratio.Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were present in 33.3% and 12.7% of 222 patients (mean age 56.4 years, mean deviation of diabetes 8.6 years, 58.7% women, 43.8% obese), respectively. Factors significantly associated with microalbuminuria included glycemic control, insulin use, and total and LDL cholesterol.Those associated with macroalbuminuria included in addition to glycemic control and insulin use, duration of diabetes, hypertension, elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP), and presence of neuropathy, retinopathy and peripheral vascular disease by bivariate analysis. Only glycemic control was an independent risk factor for both in addition to MAP and retinopathy for macroalbuminuria by multivariate analysis. Albuminuria is highly prevalent among this cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon. Both glyce-mic control and blood pressure need to be better targeted in its management (Author).

  4. Prevalence and determinants of hypertension in Myanmar - a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjertness, Marius B; Htet, Aung Soe; Meyer, Haakon E; Htike, Maung Maung Than; Zaw, Ko Ko; Oo, Win Myint; Latt, Tint Swe; Sherpa, Lhamo Y; Bjertness, Espen

    2016-07-18

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), malaria and tuberculosis dominate the disease pattern in Myanmar. Due to urbanization, westernized lifestyle and economic development, it is likely that NCDs such as cerebrovascular disease and ischemic heart disease are on a rise. The leading behavioral- and metabolic NCDs risk factors are tobacco smoke, dietary risks and alcohol use, and high blood pressure and body mass index, respectively. The study aimed at estimating the prevalence and determinants of hypertension, including metabolic-, behavioral- and socio-demographic risk factors. A nationwide, cross-sectional study of 7429 citizens of Myanmar aged 15-64 years were examined in 2009, using the WHO STEPS methodology. In separate analyses by gender, odds radios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for determinants of hypertension were estimated using logistic regression analyses. Confounders included in analyses were chosen based on Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs). The prevalence of hypertension was 30.1 % (95 % CI: 28.4-31.8) in males and 29.8 % (28.5-31.1) in females. The mean BMI was 21.7 (SD 4.3) kg/m(2) for males and 23.0 (5.1) kg/m(2) for females. In fully adjusted analyses, we found in both genders increased OR for hypertension if the participants had high BMI (males: OR = 2.6; 95 % CI 2.1-3.3, females: OR = 2.3; 2.0-2.7) and high waist circumference (males: OR = 3.4; 1.8-6.8, females: OR = 2.7; 2.2-3.3). In both sexes, associations were also found between hypertension and low physical activity at work, or living in urban areas or the delta region. Being underweight and use of sesame oil in cooking was associated with lower odds for hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was high and associated with metabolic-, behavioral- and socio-demographic factors. Due to expected rapid economic growth in Myanmar we recommend similar studies in the future to follow up and describe trends in the risk factors, especially modifiable factors, which will

  5. Prevalence and determinants of hypertension in Myanmar - a nationwide cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius B. Bjertness

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs, malaria and tuberculosis dominate the disease pattern in Myanmar. Due to urbanization, westernized lifestyle and economic development, it is likely that NCDs such as cerebrovascular disease and ischemic heart disease are on a rise. The leading behavioral- and metabolic NCDs risk factors are tobacco smoke, dietary risks and alcohol use, and high blood pressure and body mass index, respectively. The study aimed at estimating the prevalence and determinants of hypertension, including metabolic-, behavioral- and socio-demographic risk factors. Methods A nationwide, cross-sectional study of 7429 citizens of Myanmar aged 15–64 years were examined in 2009, using the WHO STEPS methodology. In separate analyses by gender, odds radios (ORs and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs for determinants of hypertension were estimated using logistic regression analyses. Confounders included in analyses were chosen based on Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 30.1 % (95 % CI: 28.4–31.8 in males and 29.8 % (28.5–31.1 in females. The mean BMI was 21.7 (SD 4.3 kg/m2 for males and 23.0 (5.1 kg/m2 for females. In fully adjusted analyses, we found in both genders increased OR for hypertension if the participants had high BMI (males: OR = 2.6; 95 % CI 2.1–3.3, females: OR = 2.3; 2.0–2.7 and high waist circumference (males: OR = 3.4; 1.8–6.8, females: OR = 2.7; 2.2–3.3. In both sexes, associations were also found between hypertension and low physical activity at work, or living in urban areas or the delta region. Being underweight and use of sesame oil in cooking was associated with lower odds for hypertension. Conclusions The prevalence of hypertension was high and associated with metabolic-, behavioral- and socio-demographic factors. Due to expected rapid economic growth in Myanmar we recommend similar studies in the future to follow up and describe

  6. Prevalence, subtypes, severity and determinants of ocular trauma: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mark Yz; Man, Ryan Ek; Gupta, Preeti; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Lamoureux, Ecosse Luc

    2018-02-01

    To describe the prevalence, subtypes, severity and determinants of ocular trauma (OT) in a population-based study in Singapore. We included 3353 Chinese adults aged ≥40 years from the Singapore Chinese Eye Study, a population-based study, conducted between 2009 and 2011. OT was defined as self-reported history of any eye injury requiring medical attention with or without hospitalisation, and further classified as blunt object, sharp object or chemical burns related. Age and gender-standardised prevalence was estimated using the 2010 Singapore Chinese population census. Multivariable models were used to assess the independent associations of OT with age, gender, income, education, literacy, alcohol consumption, smoking and history of falls. The mean (SD) age was 59.7 (9.9) years and 49.4% were male. There were 138 OT cases, giving a crude and age and gender-standardised prevalence of 4.1% (95% CI 3.5% to 4.8%) and 4.4% (95% CI 3.7% to 5.2%), respectively. Of these, 45 (32.6%), 56 (40.6%) and 10 (7.3%) were blunt object, sharp object and chemical burns-related trauma, respectively. Twenty eight (20.3%) required hospitalisation, with no difference between subtypes. In multivariable models, men (OR (95% CI): 2.80 (1.79-4.39)), younger persons (per year decrease in age (1.03 (1.00-1.05)) and lower education levels (1.8 (1.25-2.60); comparing ≤6 years vs >6 years of education) were independent determinants of OT. OT affected one in 25 adults, with 20% of these requiring hospitalisation. Because OT is preventable, raising awareness and education strategies in the population would allow prevention of vision loss particularly in men, and younger and lesser-educated individuals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Contraceptive prevalence and determinants among women of reproductive age group in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyemi AS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adewale S Adeyemi,1 Adenike I Olugbenga-Bello,2 Oluwatosin A Adeoye,3 Moshood O Salawu,3 Adesola A Aderinoye,3 Michael A Agbaje1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH, Osogbo, Osun State, 3Department of Community Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria Background: The fertility rate in Nigeria is 5.7 children per woman. The contraceptive prevalence rate has been found to be low at 15% in 2013, compared to other countries such as the US and Pakistan. Objective: The study aimed to assess the contraceptive prevalence among women of reproductive age in Ogbomoso town, and determinants of use, with a view to make appropriate recommendations that will enhance the uptake of family planning services. Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted with 560 respondents, using a multistage sampling technique. Data were retrieved using a semi-structured, pretested questionnaire. Results: All the respondents were aware of contraception; however, only 49.7% (271 had ever used any method, while 25.4% (69 of the number who had ever used contraception were currently using a method. The methods being used were the traditional type (four [5.9%], natural type (two [3.0%], and modern type (63 [91.1%]. The predictors of contraception use included the age group of 40–49 years (odds ratio [OR] 14.1; confidence interval [CI] 3.06–73.24; P=0.0001; the married women were approximately four times more likely to use contraception than the single women (OR 4.5; CI 3.03–6.72; P<0.0001. The women with tertiary level of education were three times more likely to use contraception than those without formal education (OR 3.1; CI 1.13–9.95; P=0.0268, and the odds ratio of respondents with a positive attitude to using contraception more than those with negative attitude was 2

  8. A method for determining the content of knowledge training for nuclear professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, C.K.

    2004-01-01

    A developer of knowledge training materials for nuclear professionals is faced with the challenge of determining the appropriate scope and depth of training. This paper presents a method for establishing the content starting from overall objectives of the activity and breaking it down into the job and task level of an individual's specific jobs and tasks. Nuclear safety training is used as an example. In this case there are four stages of break down in the knowledge base before its implementation in jobs and tasks of the station's work processes. This process also satisfies the training principles for enabling effective operational decision making. (author)

  9. Determinants of knowledge gain in evidence-based medicine short courses: an international assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, Klaus; Kunz, Regina; Wegscheider, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health care professionals worldwide attend courses and workshops to learn evidence-based medicine (EBM), but evidence regarding the impact of these educational interventions is conflicting and of low methodologic quality and lacks generalizability. Furthermore, little is known about...... determinants of success. We sought to measure the effect of EBM short courses and workshops on knowledge and to identify course and learner characteristics associated with knowledge acquisition. Methods: Health care professionals with varying expertise in EBM participated in an international, multicentre...... before–after study. The intervention consisted of short courses and workshops on EBM offered in diverse settings, formats and intensities. The primary outcome measure was the score on the Berlin Questionnaire, a validated instrument measuring EBM knowledge that the participants completed before and after...

  10. Determination of knowledge of Turkish midwifery students about human papilloma virus infection and its vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Rabia Ekti; Sarican, Emine Serap; Turgay, Ayse San; Icke, Sibel; Sari, Dilek; Saydam, Birsen Karaca

    2013-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted agents and its infection is the most established cause of cervical cancer. Midwives play a key position in the implementation of cervical cancer. This descriptive study aimed to determine the level of knowledge concerning HPV and HPV vaccination among 268 midwifery students. Data were collected between November 15 and 30, 2011, through a self-reported questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 20.75 ± 1.60. Among all students, 44.4% had heard of HPV, while 40.4% had heard of HPV vaccinatiob. The relationship between the midwifery student knowledge on HPV and HPV vaccine and their current educational year was significant (p=0.001). In conclusion midwifery students have moderate level of knowledge about HPV and its vaccine and relevant information should be included in their teaching curriculum.

  11. The Prevalence of ADHD Patients among Pediatric Dentists in Israel and Knowledge of Dental and Behavioral Aspects of Treating Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer, Sigalit; Khoury, Rula Shehadi; Peretz, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    There are no clear guidelines for managing the dental treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The use of sedation in combination with chronic ADHD medication use is also not well defined. This study surveyed the prevalence of ADHD children, management techniques and knowledge of pharmacologic therapies of these children among Israeli dentists. A specially designed questionnaire was distributed to all Israeli dentists attending a national conference in 2016. Of the 160 dentists who attended the conference, 96 completed the survey (60% response rate), and they included 46 (51%) pediatric dental specialists and 50 (49%) general dental practitioners. The medications Ritalin and Concerta were most familiar to the respondents (98.9%). Eighty-seven (91.1%) of the practitioners responded that their ADHD patients take their usual doses of any drug for treating ADHD symptoms, regardless of whether or not the dentists intended to use sedatives. The practitioners invented their own behavior management techniques with varying degrees of success. There are no specific guidelines for the most effective pharmacologic protocol (co-administration of ADHD drugs and dental sedatives) or behavior management techniques for the provision of optimal dental care to children with ADHD.

  12. Prevalence and determinants of common mental illness among adult residents of Harari Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunduma, Gari; Girma, Mulugeta; Digaffe, Tesfaye; Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Tola, Assefa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Common mental disorders include depression, anxiety and somatoform disorders are a public health problem in developed as well as developing countries. It represents a psychiatric morbidity with significant prevalence, affecting all stages of life and cause suffering to the individuals, their family and communities. Despite this fact, little information about the prevalence of common mental illness is available from low and middle-income countries including Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of common mental disorders and its associated factors among adult residents of Harari Region. Methods Comparative cross-sectional, quantitative community-based survey was conducted From February 1, 2016 to March 30, 2016 in Harari Regional State using multi-stage sampling technique. A total of 968 residents was selected using two stage sampling technique. Of this 901 were participated in the study. Validated and Pretested Self reported questionnaire (SQR_20) was used to determine the maginitude of common mental disorders. Data was entered and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and SPSS-17 for windows statistical packages. Univirate, Bi-variate and multivariate logistic regression analysis with 95% CI was employed in order to infer associations. Results The prevalence of common mental illnesses among adults in our study area was 14.9%. The most common neurotic symptoms in this study were often head ache (23.2%), sleep badly (16%) and poor appetite (13.8%). Substance use like Khat chewing (48.2%), tobacco use (38.2%) and alcohol use (10.5%) was highly prevalent health problem among study participant. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, respondents age between 25-34 years, 35-44 years, 45-54 years and above 55years were 6.4 times (AOR 6.377; 95% CI: 2.280-17.835), 5.9 times (AOR 5.900; 95% CI: 2.243-14.859), 5.6 times (AOR 5.648; 95% CI: 2.200-14.50) and 4.1 times (AOR 4.110; 95% CI: 1.363-12.393) more likely having common

  13. Prevalence and determinants of symptoms of common mental disorders in retired professional Rugby Union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike

    2016-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse nutrition behaviour, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking) among retired professional Rugby Union players. The secondary aim was to explore the associations between stressors (life events, Rugby Union career dissatisfaction) and the health conditions under study. Therefore, cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study of retired professional Rugby Union players. An electronic questionnaire was established using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of CMD and stressors. The electronic questionnaire was subsequently distributed to retired players by the national Rugby Union players' associations in France, Ireland and South Africa. Among 295 retired professional Rugby Union players (mean age of 38 years), prevalence rates were 25% for distress, 28% for anxiety/depression, 29% for sleeping disturbance, 62% for adverse nutrition behaviour, 15% for smoking and 24% for adverse alcohol behaviour. A higher number of life events were associated with distress (OR = 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4), anxiety/depression (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1), sleeping disturbance (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.5). A higher level of dissatisfaction of the player's Rugby Union career was associated with distress (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-1.0), sleeping disturbance (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0), smoking (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-0.9). In conclusion, our study suggests that prevalence of symptoms of CMD is high among retired professional Rugby Union players, being associated with both a higher number of life events and a higher level of Rugby Union career dissatisfaction.

  14. PREVALENCE AND DETERMINANT OF OBESITY AMONGST SCHOOL GOING ADOLESCENT OF ASSAM

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    Tulika Goswami Mahanta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in India are increasing at an alarming rate for the last few decades. Obesity is one major risk factor of CVD which start very early in life, hence there is a need to determine prevalence and risk factor of obesity among younger age group so as to plan preventive strategies. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cluster sample with cluster size of 50 was taken from 16 schools to cover sample size of 800 with consideration of design effect. Socio-demographic, environmental, dietary, and anthropometric and laboratory risk factors were assessed in the studied population. RESULTS Obesity was prevalent in 5%, while overweight in 10%. Overweight and obesity was found to be more amongst students having educated parents (p<0.05. Strong association was seen amongst tobacco product users with overweight (p=0.000 and obesity (p=0.001, secondhand smoke exposures and depression (p<0.05, alcohol consumption, less fruit intake (weekly (p<0.05, frequent animal food product consumer with both overweight (p=0.007 and obesity (p=0.008. Maximum obese (2.0% students were daily consumer of sweet snacks (p=0.030. Overweight and obesity were strongly associated with number of meals served per day (p<0.05. Significant mean difference of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference between overweight and non-overweight and obese and non obese was seen. Second hand smoke exposure was associated with a statistically significant risk of overweight (OR=3.30, 95% CI = 1.754-6.210, p<0.05. Also hypertension was significantly associated with overweight and obesity with (OR=.30, 95% CI = 0.175-0.522, p<0.05 and (OR=0.25, 95% CI = 0.126-0.513, p<0.05 respectively. CONCLUSION There is a need to reduce the risk factor prevalence of CVD to address the future epidemic of non communicable disease amongst this group of population. Different health promotional activities can be implemented with implementation

  15. Prevalence and determinants of lower urinary tract symptoms among expatriate male workers in Qatar

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    V Krishna Prasad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:0 To estimate the prevalence and determinants of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, in male expatriate workers in Qatar and to assess the impact of LUTS on the quality of life (QoL. MATERIALS AND Methods:0 A number of 570 male expatriate workers aged 20 to 63 years, mostly of Indian origin (87%, were interviewed orally by trained interviewers. The International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS questionnaire was used for the assessment of LUTS and QoL. Results:0 The mean age of the study population was 40 years (SD 9.2. Overall, 52% of the study population reported at least one urinary symptom. The most frequent symptom was nocturia (31%, and the most infrequent straining (11%. Twenty-one percent of the men had moderate or severe LUTS (IPSS score > 7. The prevalence of storage symptoms was significantly higher than that of voiding symptoms in all age groups. LUTS was not associated with nationality, smoking, or body mass index. Men with diabetes (OR= 1.4, 95% CI 0.8-2.3 or hypertension (OR= 1.4, 95% CI 0.8-2.3 were slightly at higher risk of LUTS, than those without diabetes or hypertension. Men with moderate (OR = 4.1, 95% CI 2.3-7.4 or severe LUTS (OR = 12.8, 95% CI 4.6-36.0, had poorer quality of life, compared to those with no or mild symptoms. Conclusions:0 Lower urinary tract symptoms, especially storage symptoms, are common in young male expatriates in Qatar. LUTS has a strong negative impact on the quality of life.

  16. Prevalence and Determinants of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study in China

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    Xianglong Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to identify the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and to examine its associations with social and behavioral factors, maternal body mass index (BMI, anemia, and hypertension. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed on data collected from 2345 pregnant women from 16 hospitals in five selected provinces in mainland China. Results: Prevalence of GDM was as follows: overall: 3.7%; pregnant women in the first pregnancy: 3.4%; pregnant women in the second pregnancy: 4.6%. Compared with early pregnancy women, late-stage pregnant women were more likely to have GDM (OR = 4.32, 95% CI (1.82, 10.27. Compared with 18–25 years old pregnant women, women aged 36–45 years were more likely to have GDM (OR = 3.98, 95% CI (1.41, 11.28. Compared with non-hypertensive patients, hypertensive patients were more likely to have GDM (OR = 6.93, 95% CI (1.28, 37.64. However, second pregnancy, high maternal BMI, prolonged screen time (TV-viewing time, computer-using time, and mobile-phone using time, insufficient and excessive sleep duration, poor sleep quality, smoking, and secondhand smoke exposure were not significantly associated with an increased risk of GDM. Conclusions: Women in the second pregnancy do not appear to predict an increased risk for developing GDM than women in the first pregnancy. High-risk groups of GDM included women in their late pregnancy, aged 36–45 years old, and with hypertension. The findings will contribute to an improved understanding of social and behavioral determinants of GDM in Chinese population and contribute to the development of health-prevention promotion interventions to address GDM.

  17. Prevalence and Determinants of Fall-Related Injuries among Older Adults in Ecuador

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    Carlos H. Orces

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the prevalence and determinants of fall-related injuries in the previous year among adults aged 60 years or older in Ecuador. Methods. The prevalence of fall-related injuries was estimated using cross-sectional data from the first national survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging study. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between participants’ demographic characteristics and fall-related injuries. Results. Of 5,227 participants with a mean age of 72.6 years, 11.4% (95% CI, 10.3%–12.7% reported a fall-related injury in Ecuador, representing an estimated 136,000 adults aged 60 years or older. Fall-related injuries were more frequently reported among older adults residing in the most urbanized and populated provinces of the country. After controlling for potential confounders, self-reported race as Indigenous (OR 2.2; 95% CI, 2.11–2.31, drinking alcohol regularly (OR 2.54; 95% CI, 2.46–2.63, subjects with greater number of comorbid conditions (OR 2.03; 95% CI, 1.97–2.08, and urinary incontinence (OR 1.83; 95% CI, 1.79–1.87 were factors independently associated with increased odds of sustaining fall-related injuries. Conclusions. Fall-related injuries represent a considerable burden for older adults in Ecuador. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement fall prevention programs among subjects at higher risk for this type of injury.

  18. Prevalence and Determinants of Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder After Floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Tan, Hongzhuan; Cofie, Reuben; Hu, Shimin; Li, Yan; Zhou, Jia; Yang, Tubao; Tang, Xuemin; Cui, Guanghui; Liu, Aizhong

    2015-10-01

    To explore the prevalence and determinants of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among flood victims. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2014 among individuals who had experienced the 1998 floods and had been diagnosed with PTSD in 1999 in Hunan, China. Cluster sampling was used to select subjects from the areas that had been surveyed in 1999. PTSD was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, social support was measured according to a Social Support Rating Scale, coping style was measured according to a Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and personality was measured by use of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale for Chinese. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews by use of a structured questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to reveal the determinants of chronic PTSD. A total of 123 subjects were interviewed, 17 of whom (14.4%) were diagnosed with chronic PTSD. Chronic PTSD was significantly associated with disaster stressors (odds ratio [OR]: 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-2.47), nervousness (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01-1.17), and social support (OR: 0.85; 95 CI%: 0.74-0.98). Chronic PTSD in flood victims is significantly associated with disaster stressors, nervousness, and social support. These factors may play important roles in identifying persons at high risk of chronic PTSD.

  19. Prevalence and determinants of smoking in Belarus: a national household survey, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A B; McKee, M; Rose, R

    2001-01-01

    A clear, up-to-date picture of smoking prevalence and its determinants is needed to inform the development of effective tobacco control policy in Belarus and other parts of the former Soviet Union. It is particularly important in view of the way the tobacco industry has targeted this region since transition. A nationally representative household survey designed to explore smoking behaviour and its determinants was undertaken in Belarus in April 2000. Data were available on 1090 individuals aged 18 years and over (response rate 53.4%). Respondents were similar demographically to the population of Belarus. Fifty three percent of men and 9% of women are current smokers and an additional 18% and 7% respectively are ex-smokers. Differences in smoking habits between successive generations were identified. These included a ninefold higher rate of ever-smoking amongst 18-29 years old women compared with those aged over 60 years (p workplace where 65% smoke, is common. Smokers are more likely than non-smokers to have positive beliefs about the health impact of active and passive smoking (p < 0.0001). Amongst women the odds of smoking is 13 times higher in those living in large cities compared with those living in villages. In men, disadvantage and a positive attitude to the west appear to increase the likelihood of smoking. To date policy responses have been inadequate. Unless effective tobacco control policies are introduced, tobacco will continue to make an increasingly large contribution to premature morbidity and mortality in Belarus.

  20. Prevalence and Determinants of Premature Menopause among Indian Women: Issues and Challenges Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungari, Suresh Banayya; Chauhan, Bal Govind

    2017-05-01

    Premature menopause refers to the occurrence of menopause in women less than 40 years of age. This heterogeneous disorder affects 1 percent and 0.1 percent of women less than 40 and 30 years of age, respectively. The study reported in this article attempts to understand the prevalence and determinants of premature menopause among Indian women by studying the effects of various socioeconomic indicators, such as age, education, wealth index, rural-urban settlement, work status, religion, and caste, on women. The study analyzed the National Family Health Survey-3, which is equivalent to the Demographic Health Survey in India. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to tease out the determinants of premature menopause. Results indicate that the percentage of premature menopause is very high (5.5 percent) among Indian women. Among Indian states, Andhra Pradesh women have the highest percentage of premature menopause (14.6 percent). Smoking and the nutritional status of women are strongly associated with early menopause. Furthermore, women living in rural areas and using tobacco are at a greater risk of premature menopause. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  1. Erectile dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome—Prevalence and determinants

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    T. Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: OSAS (obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is defined by recurrent episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep, causing multiple clinical consequences. Literature review suggests that OSAS induces a spectrum of abnormalities in neural, hormonal and vascular regulation that contribute to the development of ED (erectile dysfunction.The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of ED in OSAS patients and evaluate its determinants. Methods: 62 patients from Hospital S. João Sleep Laboratory with newly diagnosed OSAS were included in the study and answered the IIEF-5 (international index erectile function 5 item version questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of ED in OSAS patients was 64.4%. Age and diabetes constituted themselves as independent risk factors for more severe degrees of ED: OR = 1.226 (95% CI: 1.062–1.415 and OR = 31.205 (95% CI: 1.222–796.557, respectively. Compared with nonsmokers, ex-smokers group revealed a positive association with ED: OR = 4.32 (95% CI: 1.09–17.11. Hypertension and ACEI (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or ARB (angiotensin II receptor blockers therapy were also correlated to ED symptoms: OR = 3.25 (95% CI: 1.09–9.65 and 7.39 (95% CI: 1.52–35.99, respectively.No association was found relating BMI (p = 0.254, alcoholic habits (p = 0.357, acute myocardial infarction (p = 0.315, dyslipidemia (p = 0.239, metabolic syndrome (p = 0.215 and ED.OSAS severity was not associated with ED in our sample. Conclusions: The prevalence of ED in OSAS patients is high. ED determinants in our sample were age and diabetes. Past smoking habits, hypertension and ACEI/ARB therapy also revealed a statistically significant association with ED. Resumo: Introdução: A SAOS (síndroma de apneia obstrutiva do sono define-se pela ocorrência frequente de obstrução da via aérea superior durante o sono, com m

  2. An apparent lack of epidemiologic association between hepatitis C virus knowledge and the prevalence of hepatitis C infection in a national survey in Egypt.

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    Hiam Chemaitelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Egypt has by far the largest hepatitis C virus (HCV prevalence in the world with 14.7% of the population being antibody positive for HCV. The aim of this study was to examine the association between knowledge of HCV and HCV antibody positivity among the Egyptian population. METHODS: We characterized different measures of HCV knowledge and examined their associations with HCV prevalence, by analyzing a nationally representative database using standard epidemiologic methods. The database, the 2008 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey, included demographic, health, and HCV biomarker information for a sample of over 12,000 individuals. RESULTS: Basic knowledge of HCV was found to be high, but multiple gaps were identified in the specific knowledge of HCV and its modes of transmission. There was no statistically significant difference in HCV prevalence between those who have heard of HCV infection and those who have not (14.4% vs. 15.9%, p>.05. Similar results were found for the other HCV knowledge measures including those specific to HCV modes of transmission and to the sources of information for HCV awareness. Logistic regression analyses did not demonstrate an association between HCV knowledge and HCV prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not provide support for an effect of awareness on reducing the risk of HCV infection in Egypt. Public health messages directed at the lay public may not provide sufficient empowerment for individuals to avoid HCV infection, and should be complemented with prevention programs to promote and strengthen infection control in the settings of exposure, particularly in health care facilities.

  3. Foot care knowledge and practices and the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy among people with diabetes attending a secondary care rural hospital in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Hanu; Rakesh, Ps; Krishna, Manjunath; Alex, Reginald; Abraham, Vinod Joseph; George, Kuryan; Prasad, Jasmin H

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multifaceted disease and foot ulceration is one of its most common complications. Poor foot care knowledge and practices are important risk factors for foot problems among people with diabetes. To assess the knowledge and practices regarding foot care and to estimate the proportion of people with peripheral neuropathy among people with diabetes. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 212 consecutive diabetes patients attending the out-patient department of a rural secondary care hospital. A questionnaire which included demographic details, knowledge questionnaire, and Nottingham assessment of functional foot care was administered. The Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument was used to identify peripheral neuropathy. Descriptive analysis with frequency distribution for knowledge and practice scores, univariate analysis, and multiple logistic regressions to find significant variables associated with good knowledge and practice scores. About 75% had good knowledge score and 67% had good foot care practice score. Male gender (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.16-4.79), poor education status (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.19-4.28), and lesser duration of diabetes (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.15-4.41) were significantly associated with poor knowledge on foot care. Poor knowledge was associated with poor foot care practices (OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.75-6.72). The prevalence of neuropathy was 47% (95% CI 40.14-53.85) and it was associated with longer duration of the disease (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.18-4.04). There exist deficiencies in knowledge and practices regarding foot care. Male gender, low education, and lesser duration of diabetes are associated with poor knowledge scores. The prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is high.

  4. Foot care knowledge and practices and the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy among people with diabetes attending a secondary care rural hospital in southern India

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    Hanu George

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a multifaceted disease and foot ulceration is one of its most common complications. Poor foot care knowledge and practices are important risk factors for foot problems among people with diabetes. Aims: To assess the knowledge and practices regarding foot care and to estimate the proportion of people with peripheral neuropathy among people with diabetes. Settings and Design: The cross-sectional study was conducted in 212 consecutive diabetes patients attending the out-patient department of a rural secondary care hospital Materials and Methods: A questionnaire which included demographic details, knowledge questionnaire, and Nottingham assessment of functional foot care was administered. The Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument was used to identify peripheral neuropathy. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis with frequency distribution for knowledge and practice scores, univariate analysis, and multiple logistic regressions to find significant variables associated with good knowledge and practice scores. Results: About 75% had good knowledge score and 67% had good foot care practice score. Male gender (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.16-4.79, poor education status (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.19-4.28, and lesser duration of diabetes (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.15-4.41 were significantly associated with poor knowledge on foot care. Poor knowledge was associated with poor foot care practices (OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.75-6.72. The prevalence of neuropathy was 47% (95% CI 40.14-53.85 and it was associated with longer duration of the disease (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.18-4.04. Conclusion: There exist deficiencies in knowledge and practices regarding foot care. Male gender, low education, and lesser duration of diabetes are associated with poor knowledge scores. The prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is high.

  5. Diagnostic methodology is critical for accurately determining the prevalence of Ichthyophonus infections in wild fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, Richard; Dolan, Heather; Hershberger, Paul

    2011-04-01

    Several different techniques have been employed to detect and identify Ichthyophonus spp. in infected fish hosts; these include macroscopic observation, microscopic examination of tissue squashes, histological evaluation, in vitro culture, and molecular techniques. Examination of the peer-reviewed literature revealed that when more than 1 diagnostic method is used, they often result in significantly different results; for example, when in vitro culture was used to identify infected trout in an experimentally exposed population, 98.7% of infected trout were detected, but when standard histology was used to confirm known infected tissues from wild salmon, it detected ~50% of low-intensity infections and ~85% of high-intensity infections. Other studies on different species reported similar differences. When we examined a possible mechanism to explain the disparity between different diagnostic techniques, we observed non-random distribution of the parasite in 3-dimensionally visualized tissue sections from infected hosts, thus providing a possible explanation for the different sensitivities of commonly used diagnostic techniques. Based on experimental evidence and a review of the peer-reviewed literature, we have concluded that in vitro culture is currently the most accurate diagnostic technique for determining infection prevalence of Ichthyophonus , particularly when the exposure history of the population is not known.

  6. Computer vision syndrome prevalence, knowledge and associated factors among Saudi Arabia University Students: Is it a serious problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rashidi, Sultan H; Alhumaidan, H

    2017-01-01

    Computers and other visual display devices are now an essential part of our daily life. With the increased use, a very large population is experiencing sundry ocular symptoms globally such as dry eyes, eye strain, irritation, and redness of the eyes to name a few. Collectively, all such computer related symptoms are usually referred to as computer vision syndrome (CVS). The current study aims to define the prevalence, knowledge in community, pathophysiology, factors associated, and prevention of CVS. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Qassim University College of Medicine during a period of 1 year from January 2015 to January 2016 using a questionnaire to collect relevant data including demographics and various variables to be studied. 634 students were inducted from a public sector University of Qassim, Saudi Arabia, regardless of their age and gender. The data were then statistically analyzed on SPSS version 22, and the descriptive data were expressed as percentages, mode, and median using graphs where needed. A total of 634 students with a mean age of 21. 40, Std 1.997 and Range 7 (18-25) were included as study subjects with a male predominance (77.28%). Of the total patients, majority (459, 72%) presented with acute symptoms while remaining had chronic problems. A clear-cut majority was carrying the symptoms for 1 month. The statistical analysis revealed serious symptoms in the majority of study subjects especially those who are permanent users of a computer for long hours. Continuous use of computers for long hours is found to have severe problems of vision especially in those who are using computers and similar devices for a long duration.

  7. The Prevalence of Different Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission Routes and Knowledge about AIDS in Infected People with HIV in Sirjan

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    Mahin Behzadpour

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The immune system of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS is weekend because of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, and they become vulnerable to several opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens and different carcinomas. IV drug abuse, sexual contact, occupational transmission, blood transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission are well known transmission routes for HIV infection. This study was under taken to investigate the prevalence of HIV transmission routs in the HIV infected population of Sirjan, and their knowledge about the disease, in order to plan better preventive strategies. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was planned. During a 6-month period in 2010, all of the HIV infected people in Sirjan (old and new cases who had a file at the consultation center for high risk behavior, completed a valid and reliable questionnaire. Results: The definite route of transmission was not clear in any of the patients because they had more than one suspicious route. Injected drug abusers were the most common (88.4% followed by those who got tattoos (79.1%, invasive therapeutic procedures, dentistry, surgery and endoscopy (56.1%, high risk sexual behavior (62.8%, bloodletting (9.3%, injuries in the barbershop (9.3% and blood transfusion (2.3%. Conclusion: All of the HIV infected cases in Sirjan were involved with several high risk behaviors, but the major route of transmission, similar to other parts of the country was injected drug abuse. Educational programs for prevention of AIDS should be followed seriously and special attention should be paid to groups with multiple high risk behaviors.

  8. Determination of Doping Knowledge Level of Physical Education and Sports College Students

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    Mehmet DALLI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is Physical Education and Sports School students Doping is carried out to determine level of the knowledge. Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University Physical Education and Sports has been applied to the 120 people who teaching in this departmant have been assessed in the 120 sur veys. To determine the knowledge level of doping, content validity of the questionnaire consisting of 32 questions, intelligibility and reliability in the 2006 - 2007 school year are made by Coskun Sargın, Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient was found t o be 0.92. (0.80 knowledge of students in the department and according to gender differences were observed (p <0.05. students about gene doping as a result they do not have sufficient information has emerged. The information obtained on our research findings and results of the evaluation will be presented in some detail.

  9. Prevalence and patterns of chronic disease multimorbidity and associated determinants in Canada

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    K. C. Roberts

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multimorbidity is increasingly recognized as a key issue in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. We examined the prevalence and correlates of chronic disease multimorbidity in the general adult Canadian population in relation to age and other key determinants. Methods: We extracted data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2011/12 on 105 416 Canadians adults. We analysed the data according to the number of multimorbidities (defined as 2+ or 3+ diseases from a list of 9 and examined the determinants of multimorbidity using regression analyses. Results: Our findings show that 12.9% of Canadians report 2+ chronic diseases and 3.9% report 3+ chronic diseases. Those reporting 3 or more chronic diseases were more likely to be female, older, living in the lowest income quintile and to have not completed high school. In the overall population, social deprivation is associated with a 3.7 odds of multimorbidity, but when examined across age groups, the odds of multimorbidity were notably higher in middle age, 7.5 for those aged 35 to 49 years and 5.4 for those aged 50 to 64 years. Discussion: As the proportion of Canadians living with multiple chronic diseases increases, we need to assess chronic disease from a holistic perspective that captures multimorbidity and upstream factors, to facilitate broader and more context-appropriate associations with healthy living, quality of life, health care costs and mortality. Special consideration should be given to the role that social deprivation plays in the development of multimorbidity. Canadians living in the lowest socioeconomic group are not only more likely to develop multimorbidity, but the onset of multimorbidity is also likely to be significantly earlier.

  10. Tracheomalacia in adults with cystic fibrosis: determination of prevalence and severity with dynamic cine CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Shaunagh

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and severity of tracheomalacia in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) by using dynamic cine multidetector computed tomography (CT) and to correlate these findings with pulmonary function test (PFT) results and the severity of parenchymal lung disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this institutional review board-approved HIPAA-compliant study, 40 patients with CF (22 men, 18 women; mean age, 28 years +\\/- 8 [standard deviation]; age range, 18-54 years) prospectively underwent PFTs, standard thin-section CT, and two dynamic cine multidetector CT acquisitions. Ten control subjects underwent dynamic cine multidetector CT. After standard thin-section CT was completed, dynamic cine multidetector CT was performed during a forced expiratory maneuver and during coughing. Dynamic cine multidetector CT images in nine patients were excluded. Maximal inspiratory, dynamic expiratory, and end-expiratory tracheal luminal areas were compared (Student t test) and correlated (Spearman rank) with PFT results and severity of parenchymal lung disease. RESULTS: Mean predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) was 70.6% +\\/- 20.7, and mean Bhalla CT score was 41.8% +\\/- 13.6. In patients with CF, dynamic cine mean tracheal cross-sectional area reduction was 51.7% +\\/- 18.4 (range, 9%-89%) for forced expiratory maneuvers and 68.8% +\\/- 11.7 (range, 18%-88%) for coughing (P = .001). Tracheomalacia was demonstrated in 24 (69%) patients and no control subjects during forced expiratory maneuvers (P = .001) and in 10 (29%) patients and one (10%) control subject during coughing. For end-expiration images, mean tracheal luminal reduction was 16.1% +\\/- 14.0% (range, 0.0%-53.0%), with one patient demonstrating tracheal luminal reduction of more than 50%. There was no correlation between tracheal cross-sectional luminal reduction and either predicted FEV(1) or CT Bhalla score. CONCLUSION: Tracheomalacia depicted at dynamic cine multidetector CT is a

  11. Determination of the knowledge level, attitudes, and behaviors of islamic religious officials toward blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keten, Hamit Sirri; Isik, Oguz; Kus, Celal; Ersoy, Ozgur; Olmez, Soner; Yildirim, Fatis; Celik, Mustafa

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine knowledge level, attitudes, and behaviors of Islamic religious officials toward blood donation. This study included 334 religious officials rendering service in the province of Kahramanmaras, located in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. A questionnaire was administered to gather sociodemographic data of the participants and their knowledge levels, attitudes, and behaviors toward blood donation. The questionnaire consisted of 11 questions that yielded a total of 11 points. The religious officials in the study included 206 imams (61.7%, males) and 128 Quran course instructors (38.3%, females). Of study participants, 134 (40.1%) reported a previous experience of blood donation and 200 (59.9%) denied previous experience of blood donation. The mean knowledge score was 7.09±2.54 points for males and 6.89±2.18 points for females. Male and female participants achieved comparable scores (p=0.476). Of the participants, 291 (87.1%) agreed and nine (2.7%) disagreed with the expression, "Blood donation is permissible in Islam;" 34 (10.2%) participants had no idea. The present study revealed considerable deficiencies in knowledge about blood donation among religious officials. In addition, the rate of blood donation and willingness to donate blood were low among religious officials. Although the level of knowledge about blood donation was similar in males and females, it was an interesting finding that the blood donation rate was significantly higher in males than in females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infections in the Republic of Djibouti: evaluation of their prevalence and potential determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaireh, Bouh Abdi; Briolant, Sébastien; Pascual, Aurélie; Mokrane, Madjid; Machault, Vanessa; Travaillé, Christelle; Khaireh, Mohamed Abdi; Farah, Ismail Hassan; Ali, Habib Moussa; Abdi, Abdul-Ilah Ahmed; Ayeh, Souleiman Nour; Darar, Houssein Youssouf; Ollivier, Lénaïck; Waiss, Mohamed Killeh; Bogreau, Hervé; Rogier, Christophe; Pradines, Bruno

    2012-11-28

    Formerly known as a hypoendemic malaria country, the Republic of Djibouti declared the goal of pre-eliminating malaria in 2006. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and mixed infections in the Djiboutian population by using serological tools and to identify potential determinants of the disease and hotspots of malaria transmission within the country. The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax within the districts of the capital city and the rest of the Republic of Djibouti were assessed using 13 and 2 serological markers, respectively. The relationship between the immune humeral response to P. falciparum and P. vivax and variables such as age, gender, wealth status, urbanism, educational level, distance to rivers/lakes, living area, having fever in the last month, and staying in a malaria-endemic country more than one year was estimated and analysed by questionnaires administered to 1910 Djiboutians. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression models of the immune humeral response were obtained for P. falciparum and P. vivax. The P. falciparum and P. vivax seroprevalence rates were 31.5%, CI95% [29.4-33.7] and 17.5%, CI95% [15.8-19.3], respectively. Protective effects against P. falciparum and P. vivax were female gender, educational level, and never having visited a malaria-endemic area for more than one year. For P. falciparum only, a protective effect was observed for not having a fever in the last month, living more than 1.5 km away from lakes and rivers, and younger ages. This is the first study that assessed the seroprevalence of P. vivax in the Republic of Djibouti. It is necessary to improve knowledge of this pathogen in order to create an effective elimination programme. As supported by recent observations on the subject, the Republic of Djibouti has probably demonstrated a real decrease in the transmission of P. falciparum in the past seven years, which should encourage authorities to

  13. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infections in the Republic of Djibouti: evaluation of their prevalence and potential determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaireh Bouh Abdi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Formerly known as a hypoendemic malaria country, the Republic of Djibouti declared the goal of pre-eliminating malaria in 2006. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and mixed infections in the Djiboutian population by using serological tools and to identify potential determinants of the disease and hotspots of malaria transmission within the country. Methods The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax within the districts of the capital city and the rest of the Republic of Djibouti were assessed using 13 and 2 serological markers, respectively. The relationship between the immune humeral response to P. falciparum and P. vivax and variables such as age, gender, wealth status, urbanism, educational level, distance to rivers/lakes, living area, having fever in the last month, and staying in a malaria-endemic country more than one year was estimated and analysed by questionnaires administered to 1910 Djiboutians. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression models of the immune humeral response were obtained for P. falciparum and P. vivax. Results The P. falciparum and P. vivax seroprevalence rates were 31.5%, CI95% [29.4-33.7] and 17.5%, CI95% [15.8-19.3], respectively. Protective effects against P. falciparum and P. vivax were female gender, educational level, and never having visited a malaria-endemic area for more than one year. For P. falciparum only, a protective effect was observed for not having a fever in the last month, living more than 1.5 km away from lakes and rivers, and younger ages. Conclusions This is the first study that assessed the seroprevalence of P. vivax in the Republic of Djibouti. It is necessary to improve knowledge of this pathogen in order to create an effective elimination programme. As supported by recent observations on the subject, the Republic of Djibouti has probably demonstrated a real decrease in the transmission of P. falciparum

  14. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae and human papilloma virus among women-at risk in the Aegian region of Turkey, and their knowledge about HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazi, H; Surucuoglu, S; Yolasigmaz, G; Sen, M; Akcali, S; Dinc, G; Teker, A; Sanlidag, T; Koroğlu, G

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of selected sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the level of knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS among Turkish brothel based sex-workers (SWs). A pre-designed questionnaire was administered to 199 SWs to obtain their sexual behaviours and their level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The specimens collected for C trachomatis/N gonorrhoeae and human papillomavirus (HPV) were tested using Gen-Probe PACE 2 and HPV-screening assays, respectively. Aproximately sixty-seven per cent of the SWs knew that condoms afforded protection against HIV/AIDS and 62% reported continued use of condoms. Although most of the SWs had heard about HIV/AIDS, thorough knowledge of transmission and prevention was lacking. The overall estimated rates for C trachomatis/N gonorrhoeae and HPV were 18.6% and 9.7%, respectively. There is a need for further studies to generate more data on the prevalence of STDs and the knowledge of STDs in this population.

  15. Level and determinants of diabetes knowledge in patients with diabetes in Zimbabwe: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mufunda, Esther; Wikby, Kerstin; Bj?rn, Albin; Hjelm, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A previous study of beliefs about health and illness in Zimbabweans with diabetes mellitus indicated limited knowledge about diabetes and the body, affecting self-care and health-care seeking behaviour. The aim of this study was to assess the level of diabetes knowledge in Zimbabwean adults with diabetes mellitus, to determine the main gaps in knowledge and identify the socio-demographic and diabetes-related determinants that predict diabetes awareness and self-care practices. Me...

  16. Prevalence of Genotypes That Determine Resistance of Staphylococci to Macrolides and Lincosamides in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Mišić

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins (MLS resistance genes are responsible for resistance to these antibiotics in Staphylococcus infections. The purpose of the study was to analyze the distribution of the MLS resistance genes in community- and hospital-acquired Staphylococcus isolates. The MLS resistance phenotypes [constitutive resistance to macrolide–lincosamide–streptogramin B (cMLSb, inducible resistance to macrolide–lincosamide–streptogramin B (iMLSb, resistance to macrolide/macrolide–streptogramin B (M/MSb, and resistance to lincosamide–streptogramin A/streptogramin B (LSa/b] were determined by double-disc diffusion method. The presence of the MLS resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA/B, lnuA, lnuB, and lsaA were determined by end-point polymerase chain reaction in 179 isolates of staphylococci collected during 1-year period at the Center for Microbiology of Public Health Institute in Vranje. The most frequent MLS phenotype among staphylococcal isolates, both community-acquired and hospital-acquired, was iMLSb (33.4%. The second most frequent was M/MSb (17.6% with statistically significantly higher number of hospital-acquired staphylococcal isolates (p < 0.05. MLS resistance was mostly determined by the presence of msrA/B (35.0% and ermC (20.8% genes. Examined phenotypes were mostly determined by the presence of one gene, especially by msrA/B (26.3% and ermC (14.5%, but 15.6% was determined by a combination of two or more genes. M/MSb phenotype was the most frequently encoded by msrA/B (95.6% gene, LSa/b phenotype by lnuA (56.3% gene, and iMLSb phenotype by ermC (29.4% and ermA (25.5% genes. Although cMLSb phenotype was mostly determined by the presence of ermC (28.9%, combinations of two or more genes have been present too. This pattern was particularly recorded in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA (58.3% and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS (90.9% isolates with c

  17. The Prevalence and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among French Youths and Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Attending Special Education Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begarie, Jerome; Maiano, Christophe; Leconte, Pascale; Ninot, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of overweight and obesity and a panel of potential determinants among French youths and adults with an intellectual disability (ID). The sample used consisted of 1120 youths and adults with an ID, from 5 to 28 years old, attending a French special education school. The results indicated that 19.8% of the…

  18. The prevalence and determinants of breast-feeding initiation and duration in a sample of women in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2010-06-01

    To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers.

  19. Determining the prevalence of intestinal parasites in three Orang Asli (Aborigines) communities in Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, B; Sabaridah, I; Soe, M M; Sabitha, P; Awang, I P R; Ong, G P; Hassan, A K R

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among children and adult Orang Aslis (Aborigines) from different locations in Perak. Faecal samples were collected and analyzed using the direct smear and formal ether sedimentation technique. Some of the faecal samples were stained using the Modified Acid fast stain for Cryptosporidium. Nail clippings of the respondents and the soil around their habitat were also analyzed. Of the 77 stool samples examined, 39 (50.6%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The most common parasite detected was Trichuris trichiura (39.0%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (26.9%), Entamoeba coli (5.2%), Giardia lamblia (5.2%), Blastocystis hominis (3.9%), hookworm (3.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.3%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.3%) respectively. Some respondents had single parasites (24.7%), some with two parasites (18.2%). Some with three parasites (6.5%) and one had four parasites species (1.3%). The parasites were slightly more common in females (54.7%) than males ((41.7%). The parasites were more common in the 13-20 year age group (90.9%) followed by 1-12 years (69.6%), 21-40 year age group (34.8%) and least in the 41-60 year age group (27.8%). Nail examinations of the respondents did not show any evidence of parasites. One had a mite, three had pollen grains and one had yeast cells isolated from the finger nails. Soil samples taken around their houses showed only one sample with a nematode ova and one with oocyst which was of a non human origin.

  20. Determining the prevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in a cohort of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitlick, Mitchell M; Orr, Kristin; Momany, Allison M; McDonald, Erin L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Ryckman, Kelli K

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is a global public health problem that is a significant cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been proposed as a risk factor for preterm birth, but the rate of CMV in infants born preterm is unclear. CMV is the leading infectious cause of sensorineural hearing loss, which will affect 15% - 20% of congenitally infected infants later in their childhood. 90% of infected infants are asymptomatic at birth and are not recognized as at risk for CMV-associated deficits. To determine the prevalence of CMV infection in a large cohort of preterm infants. DNA was extracted from cord blood, peripheral blood, saliva, and buccal swab samples collected from preterm infants. A total of 1200 unique DNA samples were tested for CMV using a nested PCR protocol. The proportions of preterm infants with CMV was compared by sample collection type, race, gender, and gestational age. A total of 37 infants tested positive for CMV (3.08%). After excluding twins, siblings, and infants older than two weeks at the time of sample collection, two out of 589 infants were CMV positive (0.3%), which was lower than the proportion of CMV observed in the general population. All positive samples came from buccal swabs. Our work suggests that while CMV infection may not be greater in preterm infants than in the general population, given the neurologic consequences of CMV in preterm infants, screening of this population may still be warranted. If so, our results suggest buccal swabs, collected at pregnancy or at birth, may be an ideal method for such a program.

  1. Prevalence and determinants of albuminuria in a cohort of diabeticpatients in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleb, N.; Al-Mokadda, M.; Merheb, M.; Salti, I.; Nasrallah, M.; Salti, H.

    2008-01-01

    Few data are available on the extent of albuminuria in diabeticpopulations in the Middle East generally and in Lebanon specifically. Weconducted this study to determine the prevalence of albuminuria and its majorrisk factors in cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon. Diabetic patientsfollowed in the outpatient department at the American University of BeirutMedical Center (AUBMC) were included in prospective observational study.AUBMC is a tertiary referral center and the outpatient department typicallyhandles patients of low socioeconomic status with advanced disease. Patientswere classified according to their urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR)as having normoalbuminuria (ACR -300mg/g creatinine). Thethree groups were compared to analyze the association between albuminuria andits risk factors. In addition, independent predictors of albuminuria weredetermined using multivariate logistic regression and presented as an oddsratio. Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuira were present in 33.3% and 12.7%of 222 patients (mean age 56.4 years, mean deviation of diabetes 8.6 years,58.7% women, 43.8% obese), respectively. Factors significantly associatedwith microalbuminuria included glycemic control, insulin use and total andLDL cholesterol. Those associated with macroalbuminuria included in additionto glycemic control and insulin use, duration of diabetes, hypertension,elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP) and presence of neuropathy, retinopathyand peripheral vascular disease by bivariate analysis. Only glycemic controlwas an independent risk factor for both in addition to MAP and retinopathyfor macroalbuminuria by multivariate analysis. Albuminuria is highlyprevalent among this cohort of diabetic patients in Lebanon. Both glycemiccontrol and blood pressure need to be better targeted in its management.(author)

  2. Children experiencing violence. II: Prevalence and determinants of corporal punishment in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, R M; Attia, M S; Kamel, M I

    1998-10-01

    This study was undertaken to reveal the prevalence and determinants of corporal punishment in preparatory (middle) and secondary (high) schools in Alexandria. A cross sectional survey targeting preparatory and secondary school students enrolled in main stream public schools was conducted. The multistage random sample technique was adopted to select a priori estimated sample of this population. They were requested to fill a self administered questionnaire to collect relevant information. Data were analyzed using the univariate and multivariate analyses. A substantial proportion of boys (79.96%) and girls (61.53%) incurred physical punishment at the hand of their teachers. Teachers were using their hands, sticks, straps, shoes, and kicks to inflict such punishment without sparing a part of their students' body. Physical injuries were reported by a significantly higher percentage of boys (chi 2(1) = 12.26, p = .00046) the most common being bumps and contusions followed by wounds and fractures. Moreover, it was only among boys that serious injuries such as loss of consciousness and concussion were encountered. Both univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that corporal punishment was more likely to be used in preparatory schools and on boys. Such means of punishment were also predicted by students' undesirable behavior as well as their poor achievement in academic tasks. This study indicates that corporal punishment in school is used extensively to discipline students whose behavior doesn't conform with the desired standard of educational institutions. However, since it is no longer perceived as a method of discipline, other alternatives can be used providing that teachers are equipped with the necessary skills for its application.

  3. Prevalence of anaemia, deficiencies of iron and folic acid and their determinants in Ethiopian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Jemal

    2010-08-01

    A cross-sectional community-based study with analytic component was conducted among Ethiopian women during June-July 2005 to assess the magnitude of anaemia and deficiencies of iron and folic acid and to compare the factors responsible for anaemia among anaemic and non-anaemic cases. In total, 970 women, aged 15-19 years, were selected systematically for haematological and other important parameters. The overall prevalence of anaemia, iron deficiency, iron-deficiency anaemia, deficiency of folic acid, and parasitic infestations was 30.4%, 50.1%, 18.1%, 31.3%, and 13.7% respectively. Women who had more children aged less than five years but above two years, open-field toilet habits, chronic illnesses, and having intestinal parasites were positively associated with anaemia. Women who had no formal education and who did not use contraceptives were negatively associated with anaemia. The major determinants identified for anaemia were chronic illnesses [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.55), deficiency of iron (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.35-0.64), and deficiency of folic acid (AOR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.50-0.90). The odds for developing anaemia was 1.1 times more likely among women with chronic illnesses, 60% more likely in the iron-deficient and 40% more likely in the folic acid-deficient than their counterparts. One in every three women had anaemia and deficiency of folic acid while one in every two had iron deficiency, suggesting that deficiencies of both folic acid and iron constitute the major micronutrient deficiencies in Ethiopian women. The risk imposed by anaemia to the health of women ranging from impediment of daily activities and poor pregnancy outcome calls for effective public-health measures, such as improved nutrient supplementation, health education, and timely treatment of illnesses.

  4. The Prevalence and Determinants of Pterygium and Pinguecula in an Urban Population in Shahroud, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khabazkhoob

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While pterygium is considered a common eye disorder, the etiology and pathogenesis is still not known. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of pterygium and pinguecula in the over 40 population of Shahroud and assess associated factors. The present study is part of the phase one of the Shahroud Eye Cohort Study conducted in 2009, in which the target population was people between 40 and 64 years of age. Ophthalmic examinations were performed by two ophthalmologists who made the diagnosis of pterygium and pinguecula. We used Chi-square tests, analysis of variance, and multiple logistic regression tests to examine associations. Of the 6311 invitees, 5190 people participated in the study (response rate: 82.2%. The prevalence of pterygium in at least one eye was 9.4% (95% CI, 8.6-10.3, while 2.9% (95%CI, 2.4-3.3 had bilateral pterygium. The prevalence was significantly higher in men (11.4% vs. 8.0%, and remained relatively constant with age, while the prevalence in women significantly increased with age. The prevalence of pinguecula was 61.0% (95%CI, 59.1-62.9 in at least one eye, and 49.0% (95%CI, 47.1-50.9 in both eyes. The age difference between those with and without pinguecula was significant and the prevalence was significantly higher among men than women (70.6% vs. 53.8%. The prevalence of pterygium in our study was lower than reported rates in the world but higher than Tehran and was significantly associated with age, gender, working outdoors, and the level of education. The prevalence of unilateral and bilateral pinguecula falls in the mid range and was significantly associated with age, male gender, smoking, working outdoors, and level of education.

  5. Nutritional determinants of worldwide diabetes: an econometric study of food markets and diabetes prevalence in 173 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; Galea, Gauden

    2013-01-01

    Ageing and urbanization leading to sedentary lifestyles have been the major explanations proposed for a dramatic rise in diabetes worldwide and have been the variables used to predict future diabetes rates. However, a transition to Western diets has been suggested as an alternative driver. We sought to determine what socio-economic and dietary factors are the most significant population-level contributors to diabetes prevalence rates internationally. Multivariate regression models were used to study how market sizes of major food products (sugars, cereals, vegetable oils, meats, total joules) corresponded to diabetes prevalence, incorporating lagged and cumulative effects. The underlying social determinants of food market sizes and diabetes prevalence rates were also studied, including ageing, income, urbanization, overweight prevalence and imports of foodstuffs. Data were obtained from 173 countries. Population-based survey recipients were the basis for diabetes prevalence and food market data. We found that increased income tends to increase overall food market size among low- and middle-income countries, but the level of food importation significantly shifts the content of markets such that a greater proportion of available joules is composed of sugar and related sweeteners. Sugar exposure statistically explained why urbanization and income have been correlated with diabetes rates. Current diabetes projection methods may estimate future diabetes rates poorly if they fail to incorporate the impact of nutritional factors. Imported sugars deserve further investigation as a potential population-level driver of global diabetes.

  6. Clinician Survey to Determine Knowledge of Dengue and Clinical Management Practices, Texas, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Jessica K; Abeyta, Roman; Smith, Brian; Gaul, Linda; Thomas, Dana L; Han, George; Sharp, Tyler M; Waterman, Stephen H; Tomashek, Kay M

    2017-03-01

    AbstractDengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease, is increasingly being identified as a cause of outbreaks in the United States. During July-December 2013, a total of three south Texas counties reported 53 laboratory-confirmed dengue cases; 26 were locally acquired, constituting the largest outbreak in Texas since 2005. Because dengue outbreaks are expected to continue in south Texas and early case identification and timely treatment can reduce mortality, we sought to determine clinicians' knowledge of dengue and its clinical management. A survey was sent to 2,375 south Texas clinicians; 217 (9%) completed the survey. Approximately half of participants demonstrated knowledge needed to identify dengue cases, including symptoms (56%), early indicators of shock (54%), or timing of thrombocytopenia (48%). Fewer than 20% correctly identified all prevention messages, severe dengue warning signs, or circumstances in which a dengue patient should return for care. Knowledge of clinical management was limited; few participants correctly identified scenarios when plasma leakage occurred (10%) or a crystalloid solution was indicated (7%); however, 45% correctly identified when a blood transfusion was indicated. Because of the ongoing threat of dengue, we recommend clinicians in south Texas receive dengue clinical management training.

  7. Clinician Survey to Determine Knowledge of Dengue and Clinical Management Practices, Texas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Jessica K.; Abeyta, Roman; Smith, Brian; Gaul, Linda; Thomas, Dana L.; Han, George; Sharp, Tyler M.; Waterman, Stephen H.; Tomashek, Kay M.

    2017-01-01

    Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease, is increasingly being identified as a cause of outbreaks in the United States. During July–December 2013, a total of three south Texas counties reported 53 laboratory-confirmed dengue cases; 26 were locally acquired, constituting the largest outbreak in Texas since 2005. Because dengue outbreaks are expected to continue in south Texas and early case identification and timely treatment can reduce mortality, we sought to determine clinicians' knowledge of dengue and its clinical management. A survey was sent to 2,375 south Texas clinicians; 217 (9%) completed the survey. Approximately half of participants demonstrated knowledge needed to identify dengue cases, including symptoms (56%), early indicators of shock (54%), or timing of thrombocytopenia (48%). Fewer than 20% correctly identified all prevention messages, severe dengue warning signs, or circumstances in which a dengue patient should return for care. Knowledge of clinical management was limited; few participants correctly identified scenarios when plasma leakage occurred (10%) or a crystalloid solution was indicated (7%); however, 45% correctly identified when a blood transfusion was indicated. Because of the ongoing threat of dengue, we recommend clinicians in south Texas receive dengue clinical management training. PMID:28138048

  8. Determination of attitude and knowledge of type 2 diabetic patients towards insulin therapy in Northern Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, U.D.; Tarhan, S.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the attitude and knowledge of type-2 diabetics related to insulin therapy. Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2014 at the Dr. Burhan Nalbantoglu Public Hospital, Nicosia in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, and comprised patients with type-2 diabetes. The Likert scale was used to score participants' response to questions using the following scoring system: 0 (disagree), 1 (neutral) and 2 (agree). The minimum scoring value for all the questions combined was 0 whereas the maximum scoring value was 50. Patients' attitudes were classified as either high, medium or low based on scores between 0-16, 17-33 and 34-50, respectively. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. Results: Of the 271 participants, 165(60.9%) were female and 106(39.1%) male. The overall mean age was 60.3+-32.4 years. Moreover, 136(50.3%) participants had a medium attitude and knowledge score towards insulin therapy. men scored significantly better than females (p<0.05). Only 25(9.2%) participants had a high score towards insulin therapy. Conclusion: The participants were found to have an inadequate attitude and knowledge response to insulin therapy. (author)

  9. The Prevalence of Fibromyalgia in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women and to Determination of Related Risk Factors (Preliminary Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Şule Şahin Onat; Sibel Ünsal Delialioğlu; Sibel Özbudak Demir; Sumru Özel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of fibromyalgia in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and to determine the associated factors with fibromyalgia. Materials and Methods: Hundred thirty-seven postmenopausal women with osteoporosis admitted to our outpatient clinic were included in the study. A questionnaire that was including patients’age, marital status, education level, occupation, height, weight was completed. Risk factors of osteoporosis we...

  10. Level and determinants of diabetes knowledge in patients with diabetes in Zimbabwe: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufunda, Esther; Wikby, Kerstin; Björn, Albin; Hjelm, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A previous study of beliefs about health and illness in Zimbabweans with diabetes mellitus indicated limited knowledge about diabetes and the body, affecting self-care and health-care seeking behaviour. The aim of this study was to assess the level of diabetes knowledge in Zimbabwean adults with diabetes mellitus, to determine the main gaps in knowledge and identify the socio-demographic and diabetes-related determinants that predict diabetes awareness and self-care practices. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed using a standardized self-report Diabetes Knowledge Test questionnaire (DKT) of 58 respondents, 32 women and 26 men. Results were analysed with descriptive and analytic statistical methods. Results The majority of the respondents scored average knowledge on all three sub-scales: general knowledge, insulin use and total knowledge, with an overall score of 63.1± 14, 2%. Major knowledge gaps were in areas related to diet, insulin use and glycaemic control. No significant differences in mean scores were detected in the diabetes knowledge sub-scales when comparisons were made of mean knowledge scores in relation to socio-demographic and diabetes-related characteristics. However, diabetes-related complications were significantly associated with lower total and general diabetes knowledge, and female gender was an independent determinant of low general knowledge. Conclusion Knowledge gaps were evident in areas regarding insulin use, diet and glycaemic control. Low diabetes knowledge was associated with female gender and could be a risk factor for development of diabetes-related complications. Knowledge gaps need to be addressed in diabetes education to prevent development of diabetes-related complications. PMID:23396799

  11. Knowledge and prevalence of use of saw palmetto and other herbal products among men with prostate disease in Trinidad and Tobago

    OpenAIRE

    S. Persaud; J. Leach; A. Ramkissoon; L. Goetz

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the knowledge and prevalence of use of saw palmetto and other herbal products among men attending the urology outpatient clinic at San Fernando General Hospital. Subjects and methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study carried out between February and May 2015. A structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected men with prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and who were part of our outpat...

  12. The prevalence and determinants of hypothyroidism in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Bao, Cuiping; Deng, Meiyu; Xu, Hui; Fan, Meijuan; Paillard-Borg, Stéphanie; Xu, Weili; Qi, Xiuying

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hypothyroidism among hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its related factors, and to assess the prevalence of macrovascular and microvascular diseases among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients with hypothyroidism and euthyroidism. A total of 1662 type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients hospitalized at the Metabolic Diseases Hospital, Tianjin Medical University from 1 January 2008 to 1 March 2013 were included in this study. Information on demographic and anthropometric factors and additional variables related to hypothyroidism were collected from medical records. Prevalence rates were calculated and standardized using direct method based on the age-specific and sex-specific structure of all participants. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. The prevalence of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients was 6.8 %, and 77.0 % of the patients with hypothyroidism had subclinical hypothyroidism. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age, and was higher in women (10.8 %) than in men (3.4 %). Older age (odds ratio, 1.74; 95 % confidence interval, 1. 05 to 2.89), female gender (odds ratio, 2.02; 95 % confidence interval, 1.05 to 3.87), and positive thyroid peroxidase antibody (odds ratio, 4.99; 95 % confidence interval, 2.83 to 8.79) were associated with higher odds of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients. The type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients with hypothyroidism had higher prevalence of cerebrovascular diseases than those with euthyroidism after adjustment for age and gender. The prevalence of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients was 6.8 %, and most patients had subclinical hypothyroidism. Older age, female gender, and positive thyroid peroxidase antibody could be indicators for detecting hypothyroidism in type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients.

  13. [Prevalence of Hypothyroidism in Andalusia, Spain, Determined by Thyroid Hormone Comsumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Serrano, José; Mancera-Romero, José; Santos-Sánchez, Vanessa; Payá-Giner, Carolina; Méndez-Esteban, Mª Isabel; García-Bonilla, Antonio; Márquez-Ferrando, Manuela; Hormigo-Pozo, Antonio; Michán-Doña, Alfredo

    2016-12-02

    Hypothyroidism is the most common condition linked to a hormone deficiency, nevertheless data on its prevalence are scarce in Spain. For that reason, we have estimated its prevalence through the registration of patients who had used thyroid hormones in Andalusia (South Spain). Data of patients who had withdrawn levothyroxine under the public system during 2014 from the base of the Andalusian Health Service were considered. Prevalence were calculated with confidence intervals of 95% for each management area, stratified by sex and age groups, and differences between them were evaluated. 321,368 people (98% older than 18 years and 83% female) were identified as levothyroxine users and a prevalence of hypothyroidism of 3.95% (95%CI:3.94-3.96) was estimated for the general population. The condition was more common in females, in the older 18 years 7.81% (95%CI:7.80 to 7.82) compared to males 1.75% (95%CI:1.73-1.77) with a ratio of 4.5-fold. It increases in the population of women older than 45 years, 10.32% (95%CI:10.30-0.32) and in the over 60 years 11.37% (95%CI: 11.35-11.40). The prevalence in adult women in the western provinces is 7.38% (95%CI:7.36-7.40), in the eastern provinces 8.59% (95%CI:8.57-8.62) and in coastal areas 6.70% (95%CI: 6.68-6.72) compared to the mountainous ones, which is 8.91% (95%CI:8.88-8.94). The results denote a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in the adult population of Andalusia compared to the nearby countries, with a clear increased associated with females and age. Furthermore, the prevalence of the illness presents also a geographically-related variability.

  14. The prevalence and correlated determinants of hypertension and type 2 diabetes: a large community-based study in Isfahan, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maracy, M.R.; Feizi, A.; Bagherynejad, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite progress in prevention, detection, treatment and control of hypertension and diabetes, their increasing trend of prevalence remains an important public health problem. In general, only a small proportion of hypertension and diabetes is associated with an underlying disease, i.e. most cases are related to modifiable risk factors. Accordingly, as a large scale community-based study in Iran, the purpose of the present research was to evaluate the prevalence and correlated determinants of hypertension and diabetes among the general population in Isfahan. Methodology: In a cross-sectional study during 2007-2009, 3000 people aged 15-65 years were selected through multi-stage cluster random sampling from the general population in Isfahan. Total and age-sex specific prevalence of hypertension and diabetes were estimated. Multivariate logistic regression was used for studying risk factors and determining their level of association with the risk of hypertension and diabetes simultaneously. Results: The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes was 22.23% and 6.5% respectively among the studied population. Sex specific prevalence of hypertension was 22.4% and 22.06% for women and men, respectively. The corresponding values were 8.27% and 4.86% for diabetes (P < 0.05). Hypertension and diabetes were most prevalent among the age groups of 55-65 years and 45-54 years, respectively. The most important determinants of having hypertension were body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.01), age (P < 0.01), physical activity (P < 0.1) and sex (P < 0.05). Age (P < 0.01), sex (P < 0.05), BMI (P < 0.1), and family history (P < 0.01) were the major determinants of diabetes. Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetes and hypertension was high among the studied population. Furthermore, similar to previous studies, the modifiable risk factors played an important role in their incidence. Therefore, primary prevention is of high importance as a natural extension of hypertension and diabetes

  15. Knowledge, attitude and behavioral determinants of tobacco use among 13-15 year old school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Romshi; Krishna, Madhusudan; Murali, R; Shamala, A; Yalamalli, Maanasi; Kumar, A Vinod

    2015-01-01

    The epidemic of tobacco use is one of the greatest threats to global health today. Tobacco attributable deaths in India currently range from 800,000 to 900,000 per year. Adolescents are among the most vulnerable group to start tobacco use. Information on tobacco use among the youth is necessary to establish control measures against it. To assess the knowledge, attitude, and behavioral determinants of tobacco use among high school students (age13-15 years) in Bangalore. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 3 weeks in the month of September 2012. A structured, pretested questionnaire was administered randomly to 500 high school students in Bangalore to assess the knowledge, attitude, and behavioral determinants of tobacco use. Majority of the study population [94.4% (472/500)] believed that smoking is definitely harmful to our health. Also, 39.0% of the participants of age 13 years believed that smoking does not help in socializing and 92.2% of study subjects had negative attitude toward starting the habit. Most of them (83.9%) had a negative perception about smokers that they lack confidence. However, less than 1% of the study population had a habit of smoking at this young age. Awareness of the harmful effects of smoking was high among the study population. The study provides insight into the factors to consider while planning adolescent anti-smoking programs in this and similar settings.

  16. Differences in gay men's AIDS risk knowledge and behavior patterns in high and low AIDS prevalence cities.

    OpenAIRE

    St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T; Kelly, J A

    1989-01-01

    Several studies have found reductions in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk practices among gay men in high AIDS-prevalence cities since the start of the AIDS crisis. Much less is known about risk behavior patterns among gay men in smaller cities, where AIDS cases are less common and the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection is relatively lower. In the study, men entering gay bars in three cities, one large and two small, completed anonymous surveys of sexual practi...

  17. Prevalence and Determinants of Poor Food Intake of Residents Living in Long-Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heather H; Carrier, Natalie; Slaughter, Susan E; Lengyel, Christina; Steele, Catriona M; Duizer, Lisa; Morrison, Jill; Brown, K Stephen; Chaudhury, Habib; Yoon, Minn N; Duncan, Alison M; Boscart, Veronique; Heckman, George; Villalon, Lita

    2017-11-01

    Poor food intake is known to lead to malnutrition in long-term care homes (LTCH), yet multilevel determinants of food intake are not fully understood, hampering development of interventions that can maintain the nutritional status of residents. This study measures energy and protein intake of LTCH residents, describes prevalence of diverse covariates, and the association of covariates with food intake. Multisite cross-sectional study. Thirty-two nursing homes from 4 provinces in Canada. From a sample of 639 residents (20 randomly selected per home), 628 with complete data were included in analyses. Three days of weighed food intake (main plate, estimated beverages and side dishes, snacks) were completed to measure energy and protein intake. Health records were reviewed for diagnoses, medications, and diet prescription. Mini-Nutritional Assessment-SF was used to determine nutritional risk. Oral health and dysphagia risk were assessed with standardized protocols. The Edinburgh-Feeding Questionnaire (Ed-FED) was used to identify eating challenges; mealtime interactions with staff were assessed with the Mealtime Relational Care Checklist. Mealtime observations recorded duration of meals and assistance received. Dining environments were assessed for physical features using the Dining Environment Audit Protocol, and the Mealtime Scan was used to record mealtime experience and ambiance. Staff completed the Person Directed Care questionnaire, and managers completed a survey describing features of the home and food services. Hierarchical multivariate regression determined predictors of energy and protein intake adjusted for other covariates. Average age of participants was 86.3 ± 7.8 years and 69% were female. Median energy intake was 1571.9 ± 411.93 kcal and protein 58.4 ± 18.02 g/d. There was a significant interaction between being prescribed a pureed/liquidized diet and eating challenges for energy intake. Age, number of eating challenges, pureed

  18. Determinants and prevalence of depression in patients with chronic renal disease, and their caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawamdeh S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sana Hawamdeh, Aljawharah Mohammed Almari, Asrar Salem Almutairi, Wireen Leila T Dator College of Nursing, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: This study explored the prevalence of depression among the patients with chronic kidney disease and their caregivers and its association to their demographic profile.Methods: A descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional study that used the Hamilton rating scale tool to assess the prevalence of depression among 226 patients undergoing hemodialysis and 105 of their caregivers in a hospital in Saudi Arabia.Results: Patients with chronic renal disease and their caregivers experience depression at varying levels. Depression was positively associated with the socioeconomic and marital status of the patients. Socioeconomic status of the caregivers was seen to be associated with their depression.Conclusion: Depression is highly prevalent among patients with chronic renal disease and their caregivers. Keywords: caregivers, chronic renal disease, depression

  19. Prevalence and determinants of non-standard motorcycle safety helmets amongst food delivery workers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulanthayan, S; See, Lai Git; Kaviyarasu, Y; Nor Afiah, M Z

    2012-05-01

    Almost half of the global traffic crashes involve vulnerable groups such as pedestrian, cyclists and two-wheeler users. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors that influence standard of the safety helmets used amongst food delivery workers by presence of Standard and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) certification label. A cross sectional study was conducted amongst 150 food delivery workers from fast food outlets in the vicinity of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. During observation, safety helmets were classified as standard safety helmet in the presence of SIRIM label and non-standard in the absence of the label. They were approached for questionnaire participation once consent was obtained and were requested to exchange their safety helmet voluntarily with a new one after the interview. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS. Chi square and logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the significance and odds ratio of the variables studied, respectively (penetration test, age, education level, knowledge, crash history, types of safety helmet, marital status and years of riding experience) against the presence of SIRIM label. The response rate for this study was 85.2%. The prevalence of non-standard helmets use amongst fast food delivery workers was 55.3%. Safety helmets that failed the penetration test had higher odds of being non-standard helmets compared with safety helmets passing the test. Types of safety helmet indicated half-shell safety helmets had higher odds to be non-standard safety helmets compared to full-shell safety helmets. Riders with more years of riding experience were in high odds of wearing non-standard safety helmets compared to riders with less riding experience. Non-standard (non-SIRIM approved) helmets were more likely to be half-shell helmets, were more likely to fail the standards penetration test, and were more likely to be worn by older, more experienced riders. The implications of these

  20. Filling the Knowledge Gap: Measuring HIV Prevalence and Risk Factors among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Female Sex Workers in Tripoli, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Joseph J.; Berendes, Sima; Jeffery, Caroline; Thomson, Joanna; Ben Othman, Hussain; Danon, Leon; Turki, Abdullah A.; Saffialden, Rabea; Mirzoyan, Lusine

    2013-01-01

    Background Publications on Libya’s HIV epidemic mostly examined the victims of the tragic nosocomial HIV outbreak in the 1990s and the related dispute about the detention of foreign medical workers. The dispute resolution in 2003 included an agreement with the European Union on humanitarian cooperation and the development of Libya’s first National HIV Strategy. As part of this we conducted Libya’s first bio-behavioural survey among men having sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW). Methods Using respondent-driven sampling, we conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and related risk factors among 227 MSM and 69 FSW in Tripoli (FSW recruitment ended prematurely due to the political events in 2011). Results For MSM we estimated an HIV prevalence of 3.1%, HBV prevalence of 2.9%, and HCV prevalence of 7.3%, and for FSW an HIV prevalence of 15.7%, HBV prevalence of 0%, and HCV prevalence of 5.2%. We detected high levels of risk behaviours, poor HIV-related knowledge, high stigma and lack of prevention programmes. These results must be interpreted in the context of the political situation which prohibited reaching an ideal sample size for FSW. Conclusion There is urgent need to implement an effective National HIV Strategy informed by the results of this research. The risk of transmission within different risk groups and to the general population may be high given the recent military events that led to increased violence, migration, and the disruption of essential HIV-related services. PMID:23840521

  1. Prevalence and determinants of misreporting among European children in proxy-reported 24 h dietary recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börnhorst, C; Huybrechts, I; Ahrens, W; Eiben, G; Michels, N; Pala, V; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Barba, G; Bel-Serrat, S; Moreno, L A; Papoutsou, S; Veidebaum, T; Loit, H-M; Lissner, L; Pigeot, I

    2013-04-14

    Dietary assessment is strongly affected by misreporting (both under- and over-reporting), which results in measurement error. Knowledge about misreporting is essential to correctly interpret potentially biased associations between diet and health outcomes. In young children, dietary data mainly rely on proxy respondents but little is known about determinants of misreporting here. The present analysis was conducted within the framework of the multi-centre IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study and is based on 6101 children aged 2-9 years with 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) and complete covariate information. Adapted Goldberg cut-offs were applied to classify the 24-HDR as 'over-report', 'plausible report' or 'under-report'. Backward elimination in the course of multi-level logistic regression analyses was conducted to identify factors significantly related to under- and over-reporting. Next to characteristics of the children and parents, social factors and parental concerns/perceptions concerning their child's weight status were considered. Further selective misreporting was addressed, investigating food group intakes commonly perceived as more or less socially desirable. Proportions of under-, plausible and over-reports were 8.0, 88.6 and 3.4 %, respectively. The risk of under-reporting increased with age (OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.05, 1.83), BMI z-score of the child (OR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.10, 1.37) and household size (OR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.25), and was higher in low/medium income groups (OR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.13, 1.86). Over-reporting was negatively associated with BMI z-scores of the child (OR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.69, 0.88) and higher in girls (OR 1.70, 95 % CI 1.27, 2.28). Further social desirability and parental concerns/perceptions seemed to influence the reporting behaviour. Future studies should involve these determinants of misreporting when investigating diet-disease relationships in children

  2. Determinants of the level of knwoledge application: a knowledge-based and information-processing perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, X.M.; Bij, van der J.D.; Weggeman, M.C.D.P.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge application is of key importance in the development of successful new products. Knowledge application refers to an organization's timely response to technological change by utilizing the knowledge and technology generated into new products and processes. This study uses the knowledge-based

  3. Prevalence and Determinants of Corneal Blindness in a Semi-Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-07-26

    Jul 26, 2017 ... blindness with a prevalence of 1.1% (95% confidence interval: 0.5–1.7). Corneal blindness .... Power Holding Company of Nigeria. The local ... trauma, the redness of the eye with or without pain, history suggestive of measles,.

  4. Prevalence, course and determinants of carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms during pregnancy : A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meems, M.; Truijens, S. E. M.; Spek, V.; Visser, L. H.; Pop, V. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence, severity and relation to fluid retention of self-reported pregnancy-related carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) symptoms in a large sample of pregnant women. Design A prospective longitudinal cohort study. Setting Dutch women who became pregnant between January 2013

  5. The prevalence of overweight and obesity and its determinants in children with and without disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neter, Judith E; Schokker, Dieuwke F; de Jong, Elske; Renders, Carry M; Seidell, Jacob C; Visscher, Tommy L S

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity and nutrition and physical activity behavior between primary school children with and without disabilities. STUDY DESIGN: Body weight and height were measured in 4072 children from regular primary schools in the city of Zwolle, the

  6. Major differences in prevalence of overweight according to nationality in preschool children living in Germany: determinants and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuepper-Nybelen, J; Lamerz, A; Bruning, N; Hebebrand, J; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Brenner, H

    2005-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of overweight according to nationality in preschool children living in Germany, and to establish the determinants responsible for differences in body mass index. The study was performed within the context of the 2001/2002 obligatory health examination before school entry in the city of Aachen, Germany. Of 2020 eligible children 1979 children were recruited (participation rate: 98%). Children's height and weight were measured using a standardised protocol. The parents completed a standardised questionnaire on sociodemographic factors and possible determinants of nutritional status. Being overweight was defined according to age and sex specific reference values for German children as well as according to international reference values. The study population included 452 (22.9%) children with other than German nationality. Among these children the prevalence of overweight was twice as high than among German children (14.8% v 7.2%). Prevalence of most known risk factors for overweight, such as low physical activity, high consumption of soft drinks, and frequent visits to fast-food restaurants was higher in the children with other nationalities than in the German children. Multivariate analyses revealed that most of the difference in prevalence of obesity by nationality is explained by known risk factors of overweight, especially education of mother and watching TV. The apparent ethnic differences could be explained by two non-ethnic but socioeconomic factors. In preventing overweight in children, there is the need to identify and deal with high risk environments rather than high risk ethnic groups.

  7. [Prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus determined with polymerase chain reaction in dogs in Aydın district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuru, Buket Boğa; Aypak, Süleyman; Aysul, Nuran

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to determine the prevalence of E. granulosus in the Aydın district. Clean and fresh faeces samples were collected off the ground from owned dogs (n=100; 25 female, 75 male) with the range of 6-16 months old. These faeces samples were obtained in 13 villages from five different locations (Centre, Söke, Çine, Bozdoğan and Kuyucak) of the Aydın district. The prevalence of E. granulosus was investigated with PCR and prior to applications of molecular techniques, faeces samples were investigated with macroscopic and floatation methods E. granulosus was determined in only one dog (1%; 1/100) and Toxocara canis (11%), Ancylostoma caninum (%3), Taenia spp. (2%) and Capillaria spp. (1%) eggs were also identified. Current prevalence (1%) of E. granulosus in this study is lower than the other studies conducted in different parts of Turkey. Determination of E. granulosus with PCR in faeces without determining any parasites with either macroscopic or microscopic examinations could indicate the potential risk of dog faeces for animal owners, veterinarians and parasitology laboratory technicians.

  8. Falls among older adults in the South of Brazil: prevalence and determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna S Vieira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Evaluate the prevalence and the factors associated with the occurrence of falls among older adults. METHODS A cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 1,451 elderly residents in the urban area of Pelotas, RS, in 2014. A descriptive analysis of the data was performed and the prevalence of falls in the last year was presented. The analysis of demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral and health factors associated with the outcome was performed using Poisson regression with adjustment for robust variance according to the hierarchical model. The variables were adjusted to each other within each level and for the higher level. Those with p ≤ 0.20 were maintained in the model for confounding control and those with p < 0.05 were considered to be associated with the outcome. RESULTS The prevalence of falls among older adults in the last year was 28.1% (95%CI 25.9–30.5, and most occurred in the person’s own residence. Among the older adults who fell, 51.5% (95%CI 46.6–56.4 had a single fall and 12.1% (95%CI 8.9–15.3 had a fracture as a consequence, usually in the lower limbs. The prevalence of falls was higher in women, adults of advanced age, with lower income and schooling level, with functional incapacity for instrumental activities, and patients with diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and arthritis. CONCLUSIONS The occurrence of falls reached almost a third of the older adults, and the prevalence was higher in specific segments of the population in question. About 12% of the older adults who fell fractured some bone. The factors associated with the occurrence of falls identified in this study may guide measures aimed at prevention in the older adult population.

  9. Prevalence, trajectories, and determinants of television viewing time in an ethnically diverse sample of young children from the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Sally E.; Kelly, Brian; Collings, Paul J.; Nagy, Liana; Bywater, Tracey; Wright, John

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive screen viewing in early childhood is associated with poor physical and psycho-social health and poor cognitive development. This study aimed to understand the prevalence, trajectory and determinants of television viewing time in early childhood to inform intervention development. METHODS: In this prospective longitudinal study, mothers of 1558 children (589 white British, 757 Pakistani heritage, 212 other ethnicities) completed questionnaires when their children were app...

  10. Overweight and obesity: prevalence and determining social factors of overweight in the peruvian population (2009-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Dongo, Doris; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Nutricionista.; Sánchez-Abanto, José; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. nutricionista magíster en nutrición.; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico.; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. obstetriz magíster en Epidemiología con especialidad en Estadística.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and the determining social factors of overweight in the Peruvian population. Materials and methods. A cross-cut study was conducted which included family members from homes in the sample of the National Household Survey, 2009-2010. Stratified random and multistage sampling was used. The sample included 69 526 members; the anthropometric measurements were done based on the international methodology. To evaluate overweight and obesity, ...

  11. A Self-Determination Model of Childhood Exposure, Perceived Prevalence, Justification, and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D.; Mbilinyi, Lyungai F.; Zegree, Joan; Foster, Dawn W.; Roffman, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    The present research was designed to evaluate self-determination theory as a framework for integrating factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. The proposed model suggests that childhood exposure to parental violence may influence global motivational orientations which, in turn result in greater cognitive biases (overestimating the prevalence of IPV and justification of IPV) which, in turn, contribute to an individual’s decision to use abusive behavior. Participan...

  12. PREVALENCE OF ANEMIA AND ITS SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC DETERMINANTS IN PREGNANT WOMEN AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN JAIPUR, RAJASTHAN

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhjot Singh; Swati; Rajat; Urvahi; Karnika; Isha; Navsangeet; Arihant

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Prevalence of anemia and its socio - demographic determinants in pregnant women at a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur, Rajasthan . MATERIALS AND METHODS: All the pregnant women aged 25 to 35 years , registered at antenatal clinic at Department of Obstetrics an d Gynaecology , Mahatma Gandhi Medical College , Jaipur were included. A predesigned and pre tested questionnaire was used to elicit the information. Various possible causes of anaemi...

  13. Prevalence and determinants of disability among adults in Malaysia: results from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Noor Ani; Mohamad Kasim, Noraida; Mahmud, Nur Azna; Mohd Yusof, Yusniza; Othman, Salimah; Chan, Ying Ying; Abd Razak, Mohamad Aznuddin; Yusof, Muslimah; Omar, Maisarah; Abdul Aziz, Fazly Azry; Jamaluddin, Rasidah; Ibrahim Wong, Norazizah; Aris, Tahir

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Reliable national data on disability which is internationally comparable is needed in Malaysia. This study aims to examine the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia and its determinants, particularly the socioeconomic factors and comorbidities. Methods This study was based on the disability module, which is part of the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2015. This survey was implemented using a multi-stage stratified sampling design. A locally validated Washi...

  14. Prevalence, severity and determinations of asthma in Danish five-year-olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Christian; De Fine Olivarius, Niels; Høst, Arne

    2006-01-01

    regarding respiratory symptoms and our own questions on sociodemography and tobacco exposure. RESULTS: "Wheeze ever" was reported in 38.3%, "doctor-diagnosed asthma ever" in 10.5%, "childhood bronchitis ever" in 30.0%, "current wheeze" (3 episodes) in 3.......9% of the children. Current wheeze was associated with male gender (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.35-1.96), low parental post-primary education (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02-1.63 for or =3 y) and current maternal smoking (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.39-2.04). "Severe current wheeze" was recognized as asthma in six and childhood......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of asthma and wheeze is increasing. AIM: To study the annual and cumulative prevalence of asthma and wheeze in 5-y-old Danish children. METHODS: We obtained data on 3052 (82.0% of eligible) Danish children by a postal parental questionnaire including ISAAC questions...

  15. Falls among older adults in the South of Brazil: prevalence and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Luna S; Gomes, Ana Paula; Bierhals, Isabel O; Farías-Antúnez, Simone; Ribeiro, Camila G; Miranda, Vanessa I A; Lutz, Bárbara H; Barbosa-Silva, Thiago G; Lima, Natália P; Bertoldi, Andréa D; Tomasi, Elaine

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Evaluate the prevalence and the factors associated with the occurrence of falls among older adults. METHODS A cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 1,451 elderly residents in the urban area of Pelotas, RS, in 2014. A descriptive analysis of the data was performed and the prevalence of falls in the last year was presented. The analysis of demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral and health factors associated with the outcome was performed using Poisson regression with adjustment for robust variance according to the hierarchical model. The variables were adjusted to each other within each level and for the higher level. Those with p ≤ 0.20 were maintained in the model for confounding control and those with p falls among older adults in the last year was 28.1% (95%CI 25.9-30.5), and most occurred in the person's own residence. Among the older adults who fell, 51.5% (95%CI 46.6-56.4) had a single fall and 12.1% (95%CI 8.9-15.3) had a fracture as a consequence, usually in the lower limbs. The prevalence of falls was higher in women, adults of advanced age, with lower income and schooling level, with functional incapacity for instrumental activities, and patients with diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and arthritis. CONCLUSIONS The occurrence of falls reached almost a third of the older adults, and the prevalence was higher in specific segments of the population in question. About 12% of the older adults who fell fractured some bone. The factors associated with the occurrence of falls identified in this study may guide measures aimed at prevention in the older adult population.

  16. Variations in Community Prevalence and Determinants of Recreational and Utilitarian Walking in Older Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Procter-Gray

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regular walking is critical to maintaining health in older age. We examined influences of individual and community factors on walking habits in older adults. Methods. We analyzed walking habits among participants of a prospective cohort study of 745 community-dwelling men and women, mainly aged 70 years or older. We estimated community variations in utilitarian and recreational walking, and examined whether the variations were attributable to community differences in individual and environmental factors. Results. Prevalence of recreational walking was relatively uniform while prevalence of utilitarian walking varied across the 16 communities in the study area. Both types of walking were associated with individual health and physical abilities. However, utilitarian walking was also strongly associated with several measures of neighborhood socioeconomic status and access to amenities while recreational walking was not. Conclusions. Utilitarian walking is strongly influenced by neighborhood environment, but intrinsic factors may be more important for recreational walking. Communities with the highest overall walking prevalence were those with the most utilitarian walkers. Public health promotion of regular walking should take this into account.

  17. Prevalence and Knowledge Assessment of HIV and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors among Formal Sector Employees in Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guariguata, Leonor; de Beer, Ingrid; Hough, Rina; Mulongeni, Pancho; Feeley, Frank G.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is growing in sub-Saharan Africa combined with an already high prevalence of infectious disease, like HIV. Engaging the formal employment sector may present a viable strategy for addressing both HIV and NCDs in people of working age. This study assesses

  18. Postnatal depression in Southern Brazil: prevalence and its demographic and socioeconomic determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busnello Ellis DA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating the prevalence of postnatal depression (PND show rates ranging from 5% to 36.7%. The investigation of age, race, educational levels, religion and income as risk factors for PND has yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of PND in women residing in Southern Brazil and the associated risk factors. Methods This is population-based cross-sectional study of women residing in Porto Alegre who delivered in June 2001. A sample of 271 participants were selected from the Record of Living Newborn Infants of the State Health Department (the official Brazilian database and stores the name and address of all women who give birth to living newborn infants using a process based on pseudo-random numbers which choose a random sample from 2.000 records. Once the addresses were identified, the women were visited at their place of residence (home, hotel, boarding house and prison, with the interviews taking place between the 6th and the 8th week after delivery. The association between the risk factors and PND was investigated through bivariate analysis using Pearson's chi-square test. Student's t-test was used to analyze the continuous variables. To identify independent risk factors, multivariate analysis was performed using hierarchical levels with a predefined model that took into account the time relationship between PND and the risk factors. Cox's regression was used to calculate the prevalence ratios. Results The PND prevalence rate found was 20.7% (CI 95% 15.7 – 25.7. After adjusting for confounding variables, per capita income was found to have a significant association with PND. Conclusion The prevalence of PND is higher than the figures found in most developed countries and similar to the figures found in developing countries. Differences in PND by regions or countries can be partially explained by the effect of income on the mediation of risk factors. In low income

  19. Construction of a valid and reliable test to determine knowledge on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    knowledge-dietary behaviour relationship require use of valid and reliable knowledge .... Which of the following beverages has the lowest energy content per cup (250 ml)?b .... Diploma (ND): Consumer Science: Food and Nutrition together.

  20. Determinants of Green Innovation: The Impact of Internal and External Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Stucki, Tobias; Wörter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive data set comprising 13 countries, 22 industries and a period of 30 years we investigate the impact of internal and external knowledge pools of both green and 'other than green' technologies on green patent activities. It turned out that the internal green knowledge stock is positively related to green patent activities with a considerably large marginal value. The country's green knowledge stock and the green knowledge stock of the same industry in other countries are...

  1. Prevalence of pregnancy experiences and contraceptive knowledge among single adults in a low socio-economic suburban community in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pregnancy experience and its association with contraceptive knowledge among single adults in a low socio-economic suburban community in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among the Kerinchi suburban community. Of the total 3,716 individuals surveyed, young single adults between 18 and 35 years old were questioned with regard to their experience with unplanned pregnancy before marriage. Contraceptive knowledge was assessed by a series of questions on identification of method types and the affectivity of condoms for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. Results A total of 226 female and 257 male participants completed the survey. In total, eight female (3.5%) participants reported experience with an unplanned pregnancy before marriage, and five male (1.9 %) participants had the experience of impregnating their partners. The participants had a mean total score of 3.15 (SD = 1.55) for contraceptive knowledge out of a possible maximum score of five. Female participants who had experienced an unplanned pregnancy had a significantly lower contraceptive knowledge score (2.10 ± 1.48) than who had never experienced pregnancy (3.30 ± 1.35), pknowledge score (1.60 ± 1.50) than those who did not have such experience (3.02 ± 1.59), pknowledge found in this study indicates the need for educational strategies designed to improve contraceptive knowledge. PMID:25438066

  2. Prevalence and social determinants of suicidal behaviours among college youth in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Yogini; Paris, Joel; Thombs, Brett; Kirmayer, Laurence

    2012-07-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of and factors associated with suicide ideation and suicide attempts among college youth in India. The aims were to estimate the prevalence of suicidal behaviours among Indian college students and identify potential risk factors for suicide ideation and attempts. The study surveyed 1,817 undergraduate college students aged 18-24 years in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, with a questionnaire that assessed suicidal behaviours as well as stressful situations and life events. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors. The prevalence of lifetime suicide ideation and lifetime suicide attempts was 11.7% and 4.0%, respectively. Suicide ideation was predicted by female gender, odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, 95% CI 1.01, 1.97, economic stress, OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.11, 1.24, stress due to life events involving religious violence in the community, OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.15, 1.78, and life events involving caste conflicts or caste discrimination, OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.13, 1.46. Female gender and caste-related life events were not significantly associated with suicide attempts but economic stress and stressful experience of religious conflict continued to be significantly associated with lifetime suicide attempt, OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.08, 1.31, and OR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.14, 2.17, respectively. In this sample, college students from low socioeconomic classes who faced economic difficulties, and students who experienced distress as a result of caste discrimination or caste conflict, and communal unrest, were at a higher risk for suicidal behaviour.

  3. Determining prevalence of maltreatment among children in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eissa, M A; Saleheen, H N; AlMadani, S; AlBuhairan, F S; Weber, A; Fluke, J D; Almuneef, M; Casillas, K L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the overall prevalence rates for the major forms of abuse among adolescents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the differences in prevalence by age, gender and living arrangement. The cross-sectional study was conducted in secondary high schools in five of the 13 main regions of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 2012. Through a multistage stratified sampling technique, a sample (n = 16 939) of adolescents (15-19 years) were identified and invited to participate. The ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool - Child was used for data collection. The previous year's occurrence of violence exposure, psychological, physical and sexual abuse, and neglect were assessed. Nearly 90% of the adolescents were between 16 and 18 years of age, and over 80% were cared for by both of their biological parents. Annual prevalence of various forms of abuse in the year before the 2012 assessment ranged between 0.10 and 0.65, with the lowest rate for sexual abuse and the highest for psychological abuse. Significantly, greater rates of all forms of abuse/exposure were found when participants lived with their mother or father only (versus with both), and even greater rates for all when they lived with their biological parent and a step-parent. Rates for violence exposure, psychological abuse and neglect were significantly greater for girls, and rate of sexual abuse was greater for boys. More attention should be given to the effect of adolescent maltreatment particularly among girls. In addition, sexual abuse prevention programme should be targeted among boys. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: A large scale school based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen WQ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. Methods A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. Results The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Conclusion Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children.

  5. Rising Prevalence and Neighborhood, Social, and Behavioral Determinants of Sleep Problems in US Children and Adolescents, 2003–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined trends and neighborhood and sociobehavioral determinants of sleep problems in US children aged 6–17 between 2003 and 2012. The 2003, 2007, and 2011-2012 rounds of the National Survey of Children’s Health were used to estimate trends and differentials in sleep problems using logistic regression. Prevalence of sleep problems increased significantly over time. The proportion of children with <7 days/week of adequate sleep increased from 31.2% in 2003 to 41.9% in 2011-2012, whereas the prevalence of adequate sleep <5 days/week rose from 12.6% in 2003 to 13.6% in 2011-2012. Prevalence of sleep problems varied in relation to neighborhood socioeconomic and built-environmental characteristics (e.g., safety concerns, poor housing, garbage/litter, vandalism, sidewalks, and parks/playgrounds. Approximately 10% of children in neighborhoods with the most-favorable social environment had serious sleep problems, compared with 16.2% of children in neighborhoods with the least-favorable social environment. Children in neighborhoods with the fewest health-promoting amenities or the greatest social disadvantage had 37%–43% higher adjusted odds of serious sleep problems than children in the most-favorable neighborhoods. Higher levels of screen time, physical inactivity, and secondhand smoke exposure were associated with 20%–47% higher adjusted odds of sleep problems. Neighborhood conditions and behavioral factors are important determinants of sleep problems in children.

  6. Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: a large scale school based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Phil W S; Wong, William C W; Chen, W Q; Tang, Catherine S K

    2008-09-29

    Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children.

  7. A Cross Section Study to Determine the Prevalence of Antibodies against HIV Infection among Hepatitis B and C Infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geane L. Flores

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: There are limited data regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence among hepatitis B virus (HBV or hepatitis C virus (HCV infected individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among HIV individuals; (2 Methods: A total of 409 patients (126 HBV+ and 283 HCV+ referred to the Brazilian Reference Laboratory for Viral Hepatitis from 2010 to 2013 donated serum samples. Anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HBcIgM, anti-HBe, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies were measured, and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for viral RNA and genotype; (3 Results: The anti-HIV antibody prevalence was 10.31% and 4.59% among HBV+ and HCV+ patients, respectively. The HCV mean (SD viral load was log 5.14 ± 1.64 IU/mL, and genotype I was most prevalent (163/283. Anti-HBs and anti-HBc were detected in 40% and 26% of HCV+ individuals, respectively. Among the HBV+ population, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with male gender, marital status (married, tattoo, sexual orientation, sexual practices (oral sex and anal sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, history of viral hepatitis treatment, and a sexual partner with hepatitis or HIV. For the HCV+ group, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with female gender, marital status (married, anal intercourse, previous history of STDs, and number of sexual partners; (4 Conclusion: A high prevalence of anti-HIV antibodies was found among individuals with HBV and HCV, showing the importance of education programmes towards HIV infection among HBV- and HCV-infected individuals.

  8. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects according to different criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Sharmin; Fatema, Kaniz; Ahmed, Kazi R; Akter, Jesmin; Chowdhury, Hasina A; Shahjahan, Md; Acharyya, Amitava; Rahim, M A; Ali, Liaquat

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is becoming a serious global public health problem. The prevalence of MS differs in different population by using different definitions. Present study aimed to find out the prevalence and determinants of MS among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (NDT2D) according to different criteria. This cross-sectional analytic study was conducted among 281 subjects selected purposively from the OPD of BIRDEM. Information on lifestyle factors and disease history were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire by face to face interview. The three definitions of MS used in this study are from the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), a modified version of the ATP III criteria for Asian populations (modified ATP III) and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Adjusted odds ratio and confidence limit were generated through logistic regression. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the study subjects according to modified ATPIII, WHO and IDF criteria were 79% (95% CI: 74.2-83.8), 81% (95% CI: 76.4-85.6) and 68% (95% CI: 62.6-73.5) respectively. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among female were higher compared to males in all the criteria's. Female gender (OR=5.93), family history of diabetes (OR=1.92), overweight (OR=6.2), and obesity (OR=5.13) were found as important confounders associated with metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among NDT2D is considerably higher in our population which may indicate considerable risk of cardiovascular diseases in future. Female gender, family history of diabetes, overweight and obesity are important confounders of MS in this population. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of pregnancy experiences and contraceptive knowledge among single adults in a low socio-economic suburban community in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Atefi, Narges; Majid, Hazreen Abd; Su, Tin Tin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pregnancy experience and its association with contraceptive knowledge among single adults in a low socio-economic suburban community in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among the Kerinchi suburban community. Of the total 3,716 individuals surveyed, young single adults between 18 and 35 years old were questioned with regard to their experience with unplanned pregnancy before marriage. Contraceptive knowledge was assessed by a series of questions on identification of method types and the affectivity of condoms for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. A total of 226 female and 257 male participants completed the survey. In total, eight female (3.5%) participants reported experience with an unplanned pregnancy before marriage, and five male (1.9 %) participants had the experience of impregnating their partners. The participants had a mean total score of 3.15 (SD = 1.55) for contraceptive knowledge out of a possible maximum score of five. Female participants who had experienced an unplanned pregnancy had a significantly lower contraceptive knowledge score (2.10 ± 1.48) than who had never experienced pregnancy (3.30 ± 1.35), p<0.05. Likewise, male participants who had experienced impregnating their partners had a significantly lower contraceptive knowledge score (1.60 ± 1.50) than those who did not have such experience (3.02 ± 1.59), p<0.05. The results showed evidence of premarital unplanned pregnancy among this suburban community. The low level of contraceptive knowledge found in this study indicates the need for educational strategies designed to improve contraceptive knowledge.

  10. Prevalence, pattern, and determinants of placental malaria in a population of southeastern Nigerian parturients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezebialu, Ifeanyichukwu U; Eke, Ahizechukwu C; Ezeagwuna, Dorothy A; Nwachukwu, Chukwuemeka E; Ifediata, Francis; Ezebialu, Chinenye U

    2012-12-01

    Placental malaria is a complication of malaria in pregnancy and is associated with adverse outcomes. Its burden is highest in Sub-Saharan Africa, but despite this, data based on histological analysis are scarce from this region. Questionnaires administered by the researchers were used to obtain information from parturients at a university teaching hospital in southeastern Nigeria between April and November 2010. Maternal blood and placental blood were collected for analysis. Placental blocks were taken for histological analysis. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS v. 17. Three hundred and sixty-five placentas were analyzed, out of which 254 showed histological evidence of malaria parasitization, giving a prevalence of 69.6%. Of the 254 placentas, 23 (9.0%) showed active infection and 196 (77.2%) showed active-on-past infection, while 35 (13.8%) showed past infection. Rural residence, hemoglobin genotype AA, not receiving intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), and not sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) were significantly associated with placental malaria. Placental parasite density was inversely related to parity. This study showed that the prevalence of placental malaria in southeastern Nigeria is high, and demonstrated that the mean parasite density was inversely related to parity. Significant factors associated with placental malaria were also identified. Appreciation of these significant factors will assist program managers in implementing the strategies for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. All rights reserved.

  11. Intellectual Disability in a Birth Cohort: Prevalence, Etiology, and Determinants at the Age of 4 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Simone M; Barros, Aluísio J D; Matijasevich, Alícia; Dos Santos, Iná S; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Félix, Têmis M; Riegel, Mariluce; Maluf, Sharbel W; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen M

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID), characterized by impairments in intellectual function and adaptive behavior, affects 1-3% of the population. Many studies investigated its etiology, but few are cohort studies in middle-income countries. To estimate prevalence, etiology, and factors related to ID among children prospectively followed since birth in a Southern Brazilian city (Pelotas). In 2004, maternity hospitals were visited daily and births were identified. Live-born infants (n = 4,231) whose family lived in the urban area have been followed for several years. At the age of 2 and 4 years, performances in development and intelligence tests were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory and Wechsler Intelligence Scale, respectively. Children considered as having developmental delay were invited to attend a genetic evaluation. At 4 years of age, the prevalence of ID was 4.5%, and the etiology was classified into 5 groups: environmental (44.4%), genetic (20.5%), idiopathic (12.6%), neonatal sequelae (13.2%), other diseases (9.3%). Most children presented impairment in two or more areas of adaptive behavior. There was no difference in prenatal care attendance or maternal schooling among the groups. For about 40% of children, ID was attributed to nonbiological factors, suggesting that the rate may be reduced with appropriate interventions early in life. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Prevalence and determinants of antenatal depression among women attending primary health care centers in Western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamala A. Bawahab

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To measure the prevalence of antenatal depression among pregnant women attending the primary health care (PHC antenatal care clinics in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and to determine associated factors. Methods: Following a cross-sectional study design, 320 pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinics in the Ministry of Health PHC Centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between January 1st 2017 and February 15th 2017 were interviewed. A self-administered questionnaire used for data collection asked about socio-demographic variables and included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Results: The most common contributor was the harming herself (mean±SD, 2.7±0.60. Factors significantly associated with depression among participants were the number of daughters, previous diagnosis of depression, and financial problems. Conclusions: The prevalence of antepartum depression among pregnant women in Jeddah is 57.5%, and the greatest contributor is the thought of harming herself.

  13. Understanding problematic game behavior: prevalence and the role of social cognitive determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Haagsma, Maria Catharina

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been growing academic attention on the phenomenon of problematic game use. Empirical research has consistently identified a subgroup of gamers in Western, industrial countries who report adverse psychosocial consequences related to their video-gaming behavior. The aim of this thesis is to get a better understanding of problematic game behavior and to contribute to the development of knowledge on this topic in several ways. First, video gaming habits and prob...

  14. Prevalence and determinants of stereotypic behaviours and physiological stress among tigers and leopards in Indian zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Janice; Narayan, Edward J; Dileep Kumar, R; Thenmozhi, K; Thiyagesan, Krishnamoorthy; Baskaran, Nagarajan

    2017-01-01

    India's charismatic wildlife species are facing immense pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental perturbations. Zoos play a major role in the conservation of threatened species, but their adaptation in captivity is posing a major challenge globally. Stress from inadequate adaptation could lead to suppression of cognitive functioning and increased display of stereotypic behaviour. It is thus necessary to measure biological traits like behaviour, stress physiology, and contextual factors driving the animals maintained at zoos. In this study, we assessed stereotypic behaviour and stress physiology employing standard behaviour scoring, non-invasive stress monitoring, and their contextual drivers in a sub-population of two large felid species managed in six Indian zoos. The prevalence and intensity of stereotypic behaviours and levels of faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) were ascertained among 41 Royal Bengal tigers Panthera tigris tigris and 21 Indian leopards Panthera pardus fusca between April 2014 and March 2015. Behavioural observations showed that tigers spent more time stereotyping (12%) than leopards (7%) during daylight hours. Stress levels assessed using FCM revealed that tigers (23.6 ± 1.62 ng/g) had marginally lower level of corticosterone metabolites than leopards (27.2 ±1.36 ng/g). Stereotypic behaviour increased significantly with FCM level when the effect of heath status was controlled in tigers, and the effects tree cover, stone, den and keeper attitude controlled in leopards. Comparison of stereotypes of tigers with various biological and environmental factors using binary logistic regression revealed that stereotypic prevalence decreased with increased enclosure size, and enclosure enrichments like presence of pools and stones, when managed socially with conspecifics, and with positive keeper attitude, these factors accounting for 43% of variations in stereotypic prevalence among tigers. Stereotype among leopards was significantly

  15. Prevalence and determinants of stereotypic behaviours and physiological stress among tigers and leopards in Indian zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Vaz

    Full Text Available India's charismatic wildlife species are facing immense pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental perturbations. Zoos play a major role in the conservation of threatened species, but their adaptation in captivity is posing a major challenge globally. Stress from inadequate adaptation could lead to suppression of cognitive functioning and increased display of stereotypic behaviour. It is thus necessary to measure biological traits like behaviour, stress physiology, and contextual factors driving the animals maintained at zoos. In this study, we assessed stereotypic behaviour and stress physiology employing standard behaviour scoring, non-invasive stress monitoring, and their contextual drivers in a sub-population of two large felid species managed in six Indian zoos. The prevalence and intensity of stereotypic behaviours and levels of faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM were ascertained among 41 Royal Bengal tigers Panthera tigris tigris and 21 Indian leopards Panthera pardus fusca between April 2014 and March 2015. Behavioural observations showed that tigers spent more time stereotyping (12% than leopards (7% during daylight hours. Stress levels assessed using FCM revealed that tigers (23.6 ± 1.62 ng/g had marginally lower level of corticosterone metabolites than leopards (27.2 ±1.36 ng/g. Stereotypic behaviour increased significantly with FCM level when the effect of heath status was controlled in tigers, and the effects tree cover, stone, den and keeper attitude controlled in leopards. Comparison of stereotypes of tigers with various biological and environmental factors using binary logistic regression revealed that stereotypic prevalence decreased with increased enclosure size, and enclosure enrichments like presence of pools and stones, when managed socially with conspecifics, and with positive keeper attitude, these factors accounting for 43% of variations in stereotypic prevalence among tigers. Stereotype among leopards was

  16. Prevalence and Determinants of Suboptimal Vitamin D Levels in a Multiethnic Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Ryan Eyn Kidd; Li, Ling-Jun; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Yin; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2017-03-22

    This population-based cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and risk factors of suboptimal vitamin D levels (assessed using circulating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D)) in a multi-ethnic sample of Asian adults. Plasma 25(OH)D concentration of 1139 Chinese, Malay and Indians (40-80 years) were stratified into normal (≥30 ng/mL), and suboptimal (including insufficiency and deficiency, 65 years), Malay and Indian ethnicities (compared to Chinese ethnicity), and higher body mass index, HbA1c, education and income levels were associated with suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration ( p < 0.05). In a population-based sample of Asian adults, approximately 75% had suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration. Targeted interventions and stricter reinforcements of existing guidelines for vitamin D supplementation are needed for groups at risk of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency.

  17. Determining the Best Loci of Knowledge, Responsibilities and Decision Rights in Major Acquisition Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dillard, John; Nissen, Mark E

    2005-01-01

    .... Building upon prior research on acquisition centralization and knowledge dynamics, the authors employ computational methods to assess the behavior and performance of different organizational designs...

  18. Determining the Best Loci of Knowledge, Responsibilities and Decision Rights in Major Acquisition Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dillard, John; Nissen, Mark E

    2005-01-01

    .... Building upon prior research of acquisition centralization and knowledge dynamics we employ computational methods to assess the behavior and performance of different organizational designs in varying environments...

  19. Determining the Prevalence and Assessing the Severity of Injuries in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Mixed martial arts (MMA) is currently the fastest growing sport in the United States and has recently surpassed boxing as the most popular full contact sport. Due to the physical nature of the sport, MMA is associated with various types of injuries. Objective The purpose of this study was aimed at identifying prevalence and assessing the severity, location, and type of injuries in MMA athletes sustained during MMA related activities in the twelve month period prior to the survey. Methods A total of fifty-five subjects between the ages of 18 to 39 participated in the study. Participants were given a two-part questionnaire to collect demographic and injury data. Results Two hundred seven injuries were reported in the study. Low belt ranks had significantly more injuries more than any other belt rank, resulting in more than two times higher injury rate. Professional fighters had significantly more injuries than amateur fighters, resulting in three times higher injury rate. The most common body region injured was the head/neck/face (38.2%), followed by the lower extremities (30.4%), upper extremities (22.7%), torso (8.2%), and groin (0.5%). Injuries to the nose (6.3%), shoulder (6.3%), and toe (6.3%) were the most common. The most common type of injury was contusions (29.4%), followed by strains (16.2%), sprains (14.9%), and abrasions (10.1%). Conclusion Injury prevention efforts should consider the prevalence and distribution of injuries and focus on reducing or preventing injuries to the head/neck/face in MMA related activities. Preventative measures should focus on improving protective equipment during training, and possible competition rule modifications to further minimize participant injury. PMID:21509103

  20. Motivational deficits in early schizophrenia: prevalent, persistent, and key determinants of functional outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2015-08-01

    Negative symptoms, in particular motivational deficits, are reported as impediments to functional recovery in patients with schizophrenia. This study examined the prevalence of motivational deficits in patients early in the illness, and the impact these deficits have on community functioning. Patients with schizophrenia between the ages of 18 and 35years, and within 5years of initiating antipsychotic treatment were included in the present investigation (N=166). The impact of motivation and cognition on concurrent and longitudinal functioning was evaluated. Motivational impairments were found in more than 75% of participants, and were not associated with receipt of social support. These deficits served as the most robust and reliable predictor of functional outcome, while neurocognition demonstrated significantly weaker associations with outcome. When considered together, motivational deficits demonstrated a reliable link with concurrent and longitudinal functioning, with cognition not offering any independent predictive value. Moreover, motivation was found to mediate the relationship between cognition and outcome. Changes in motivation were linked to changes in functioning; however, this was not the case for changes in cognitive performance. Motivation emerged as a significant predictor of functioning even after selected demographic and clinical characteristics (e.g., positive symptoms) were accounted for. These data indicate that motivational deficits are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, even in the early stages of the illness, and these deficits stand as one of the most robust barriers to people with schizophrenia achieving functional recovery. Greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying these deficits is critical to effective treatment innovation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and determinants of depression among elderly persons in a rural community from northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Priyamadhaba; Sharan, Pratap; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Kant, Shashi; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Globally, more than 350 million people of all ages suffer from depression. Elderly persons are more vulnerable to depression. We conducted this study to estimate the prevalence of depression, and to study the association of depression with sociodemographic and clinical variables among elderly persons in a rural community. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study among 395 randomly selected elderly persons aged 60 years and above in a rural area of Ballabgarh, Haryana, India. The participants were screened by using the Geriatric Depression Scale, and diagnosis was confirmed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Multivariate analysis was done for independent predictors of depression. The prevalence of depression was 11.4% (95% CI 8.6%-14.9%). Living in a nuclear family (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 8.98, 95% CI 3.40-23.71), lack of physical activity (AOR 4.95, 95% CI 2.00-12.27), whole-time involvement in household work (AOR 4.47, 95% CI 1.18-16.93), presence of two or more chronic diseases (AOR 4.45, 95% CI 1.60-12.35), having no role in family decision-making (AOR 2.77, 95% CI 1.19-6.42), sleep problems in past one year (AOR 2.97, 95% CI 1.32-6.69) and bilateral hearing impairment (AOR 4.00, 95% CI 1.80-8.88) were factors associated with depression in elderly persons. Depression is common among elderly persons in rural areas. Individuals providing healthcare to elderly persons need to be trained to identify depression and take appropriate action; elderly persons with chronic diseases and hearing impairment deserve special attention.

  2. The Prevalence of High-Risk HPV Types and Factors Determining Infection in Female Colombian Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Del Río-Ospina

    Full Text Available This study reports six HR-HPV types' infection prevalence discriminated by species and multiple infection in unvaccinated Colombian female adolescents, as well as some factors modulating the risk of infection. HPV DNA for six high-risk viral types was identified in cervical samples taken from 2,134 12-19 year-old females using conventional generic and type-specific PCR. Binomial logistical regression analysis was used for modelling HR-HPV infection and multiple infection risk. The interaction between variables in a stepwise model was also included in such analysis. Viral DNA was detected in 48.97% of the females; 28.52% of them had multiple infections, HPV-16 being the most frequently occurring type (37.44%. Cytological abnormality prevalence was 15.61%. Being over 16 years-old (1.66: 1.01-2.71 95%CI, white ethnicity (4.40: 1.16-16.73 95%CI, having had 3 or more sexual partners (1.77: 1.11-2.81 95%CI and prior sexually-transmitted infections (STI (1.65: 1.17-2.32 95%CI were associated with a greater risk of HPV infection. Having given birth was related to a higher risk of infection by A7 species and antecedent of abortion to less risk of coinfection. Where the females in this study came from also influenced the risk of infection by A7 species as female adolescents from the Andean region had a lower risk of infection (0.42: 0.18-0.99 95%CI. The presence of factors related to risky sexual behaviour in the study population indicated that public health services should pay special attention to female adolescents to modify the risk of infection by high-risk HPV types and decrease their impact on this age group.

  3. High HIV Prevalence, Suboptimal HIV Testing, and Low Knowledge of HIV-Positive Serostatus Among Injection Drug Users in St. Petersburg, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussova, Olga V.; Verevochkin, Sergei V.; Barbour, Russell; Heimer, Robert; Kozlov, Andrei P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to estimate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and testing patterns among injection drug users (IDUs) in St. Petersburg, Russia. HIV prevalence among 387 IDUs in the sample was 50%. Correlates of HIV-positive serostatus included unemployment, recent unsafe injections, and history/current sexually transmitted infection. Seventy-six percent had been HIV tested, but only 22% of those who did not report HIV-positive serostatus had been tested in the past 12 months and received their test result. Correlates of this measure included recent doctor visit and having been in prison or jail among men. Among the 193 HIV-infected participants, 36% were aware of their HIV-positive serostatus. HIV prevalence is high and continuing to increase in this population. Adequate coverage of HIV testing has not been achieved, resulting in poor knowledge of positive serostatus. Efforts are needed to better understand motivating and deterring factors for HIV testing in this setting. PMID:18843531

  4. Prevalence of dental disorders in degus and evaluation of diagnostic methods to determine dental disease and its prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bolhuis, Hester; van Hoffen, Lotte; van Zijll Langhout, Martine; van Engeldorp Gastelaars, Heleen; Hendriks, Wouter; Lamberts, Marnix; Kik, Marja

    2017-12-01

    Degus ( Octodon degus ) are prone to develop dental disease with deleterious health effects. The two studies reported here aimed to determine the prevalence of dental disorders in degus and to identify and evaluate diagnostic tools for determination of prognosis of these disorders. In study A, health data from 225 degus at AAP, Rescue Center for Exotic Animals in the Netherlands, were collated and the prevalence of dental disorders and differences in sex and age at clinical onset of symptoms associated with dental disorders were described. The prevalence was 34.7 per cent and higher (P<0.01) in males than in females. The occurrence of cheek teeth malocclusion was highly positively (P<0.0001) correlated to mortality. In study B, 36 skulls were examined by macroscopic evaluation, radiography and histology. Additionally, the calcium:phosphorus (Ca:P) of mandibular bone in degus with and without dental disorders were determined. There was no significant (P=0.10) difference in Ca:P between the two groups. Quantifying mandibular apical cheek teeth elongation via macroscopic evaluation was highly correlated (P<0.01) to the results obtained via radiography. Examination for apical elongation by palpation and diagnostic imaging should be included in routine health monitoring of degus. Apical elongation appeared to develop before coronal elongation and when cheek teeth malocclusion occurred, prognosis for recovery of dental disease was poor. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Prevalence and determinants of disability among adults in Malaysia: results from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Noor Ani; Mohamad Kasim, Noraida; Mahmud, Nur Azna; Mohd Yusof, Yusniza; Othman, Salimah; Chan, Ying Ying; Abd Razak, Mohamad Aznuddin; Yusof, Muslimah; Omar, Maisarah; Abdul Aziz, Fazly Azry; Jamaluddin, Rasidah; Ibrahim Wong, Norazizah; Aris, Tahir

    2017-09-29

    Reliable national data on disability which is internationally comparable is needed in Malaysia. This study aims to examine the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia and its determinants, particularly the socioeconomic factors and comorbidities. This study was based on the disability module, which is part of the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2015. This survey was implemented using a multi-stage stratified sampling design. A locally validated Washington Group questionnaire was used to collect data on disability. Based on the definition of having at least one domain scored "a lot of difficulty or unable to do at all" or at least "some difficulty" scored in two domains, the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia was 11.8% (95% CI: 11.15, 12.53). Logistic regression analysis performed showed that population at risk of having disability in Malaysia were those of older people, ethnic minority, low level of education, single, obese, physically inactive and having mental health problems. Among older people, disability was significantly higher among those with no formal education, having mental health problems and physically inactive. The prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia is comparable to WHO estimates and most developing countries. Planning for healthcare services should consider at-risk population, particularly older people and those from disadvantaged background to ensure equity healthcare.

  6. A cross-sectional pilot study to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency syndrome in working population of Indian men

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    Apul Goel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS in healthy Indian men employed in a hospital aged above 40 years. Materials and Methods: A general medical health check-up camp was organized for all male employees above 40 years age working in surgical departments. After clinical history and systemic inquiry, subjects were requested to fill the St. Louis University′s ADAM Questionnaire based on which the total and free-serum testosterone estimation was then done. Results: One hundred fifty seven healthy volunteers enrolled for the study (mean age 53.1 years; range 40-60. The androgen decline in the aging male (ADAM Questionnaire detected 106 men (67.5% to be symptomatic for TDS. Serum testosterone estimation in these subjects revealed 41/106 to have low free-serum testosterone levels and 32/106 to have low total-serum testosterone. In 11 and 6 cases, respectively, the serum free- and total-testosterone levels were found to be low although the subjects were asymptomatic for TDS. Conclusions: The prevalence of symptomatic biochemical hypogonadism was 26.1%. The higher prevalence of symptoms alone of TDS was unusual. It could be because of the nature of the questionnaire. Free-serum testosterone may be a better single test to diagnose symptomatic hypogonadism than total-serum testosterone.

  7. Prevalence and determinants of disability among adults in Malaysia: results from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Ani Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable national data on disability which is internationally comparable is needed in Malaysia. This study aims to examine the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia and its determinants, particularly the socioeconomic factors and comorbidities. Methods This study was based on the disability module, which is part of the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2015. This survey was implemented using a multi-stage stratified sampling design. A locally validated Washington Group questionnaire was used to collect data on disability. Results Based on the definition of having at least one domain scored "a lot of difficulty or unable to do at all" or at least “some difficulty” scored in two domains, the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia was 11.8% (95% CI: 11.15, 12.53. Logistic regression analysis performed showed that population at risk of having disability in Malaysia were those of older people, ethnic minority, low level of education, single, obese, physically inactive and having mental health problems. Among older people, disability was significantly higher among those with no formal education, having mental health problems and physically inactive. Conclusions The prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia is comparable to WHO estimates and most developing countries. Planning for healthcare services should consider at-risk population, particularly older people and those from disadvantaged background to ensure equity healthcare.

  8. Organizational Culture as Determinant of Knowledge Sharing Practices of Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to explore the influence of organisational culture on the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The study hypothesized the impact of various aspects of organisational culture on the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The data required for the…

  9. Indigenous Peoples Knowledge Community (IPKC): Self-Determination in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephanie J.; Harrison, Irvin D.

    2017-01-01

    Special interest groups (SIGs) offer spaces for interests that may not be supported or adequately addressed by the larger organization. NASPA: Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education (NASPA) calls its SIGs "knowledge communities." This article describes the ways the members of the Indigenous Peoples knowledge community (IPKC)…

  10. Determination of Technopedagogical Content Knowledge Competencies of Preservice Physical Education Teachers: A Turkish Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    This study examined preservice physical education teachers' (PPETs') technopedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) competencies. The participants were 1028 PPETs from 26 major universities representing all seven geographical regions of Turkey. The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Deep-Scale developed by Kabakci Yurdakul et al. (2012) was…

  11. Company-University Collaboration Types As A Determinant For Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woltmann, Sabrina; Alkærsig, Lars

    This paper develops a framework for a novel measurement of outcomes of different types of company-university collaboration. We test whether the level of formalization and the type of interaction influences the outcomes, in particular knowledge transfer. We extend the existing research by applying...... to identify additional forms of knowledge transfer and give companies insights into their potential benefits from different types of relationships. We propose a new perspective that enables companies to shape and adapt their external knowledge search as effective as possible....... novel statistical computational methods form the field of natural language processing to identify the knowledge transfer. We investigate how the level of formalization of collaboration affects the knowledge transfer between universities and companies. Preliminary results indicate that we are able...

  12. Protein supplements and adolescent athletes: A pilot study investigating the risk knowledge, motivations and prevalence of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Gavin; Lawlis, Tanya

    2017-11-01

    Protein-based sports supplements are among the more common types of nutrition supplements consumed by athletes; however, there is currently limited data investigating the knowledge, motivations and occurrence of use among the adolescent population (13-18 years). This pilot study looks to obtain initial data regarding the use of protein supplements in this population. This study investigates the understanding and occurrence of protein supplement use in 87 adolescent athletes based in an Australian capital city who compete in a variety of sports. Sources of information, regularity of use, purchasing habits, associated risk knowledge and supplement beliefs were examined using a self-reported, written questionnaire. A total of 60% (n = 52) of athletes reported using protein supplements, with a positive relationship between age and use (P supplement consumption, with the most common risk reported as 'I don't know' (22%). Coaches were found to initiate protein supplement use more than other figures in the athlete's life (50%) and were the primary source of information regarding supplements (58%). It was found that 19% of adolescent athletes obtained information about protein supplements from the Internet, and 17% of all consumers purchase their supplements online. The evident lack of knowledge regarding protein supplements demonstrates a necessity for further education of athletes, coaches and families regarding the responsible purchasing and use of protein supplements in the current landscape of sports nutrition. Future research should further explore the role of the Internet in protein supplement purchase and education. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  13. Prevalence and determinants of diabetes mellitus among Iranian patients with chronic liver disease

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    Nematizadeh Fariborz

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in carbohydrate metabolism are frequently observed in cirrhosis. We conducted this study to define the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in Iranian patients with chronic liver disease (CLD, and explore the factors associated with DM in these patients. Methods One hundred and eighty-five patients with CLD were enrolled into the study. Fasting plasma glucose and two-hour plasma glucose were measured in patients' sera. DM and IGT were diagnosed according to the latest American Diabetes Association criteria. Results The subjects included 42 inactive HBV carriers with a mean age of 42.2 ± 12.0 years, 102 patients with HBV or HCV chronic hepatitis with a mean age of 41.2 ± 10.9 years, and 41 cirrhotic patients with a mean age of 52.1 ± 11.4 years. DM and IGT were diagnosed in 40 (21.6% and 21 (11.4% patients, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that age (P = 0.000, CLD status (P = 0.000, history of hypertension (P = 0.007, family history of DM (P = 0.000, and body mass index (BMI (P = 0.009 were associated with DM. Using Multivariate analysis, age (OR = 4.7, 95%CI: 1.8–12.2, family history of DM (OR = 6.6, 95%CI: 2.6–17.6, chronic hepatitis (OR = 11.6, 95%CI: 2.9–45.4, and cirrhosis (OR = 6.5, 95%CI: 2.4–17.4 remained as the factors independently associated with DM. When patients with cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis were analyzed separately, higher Child-Pugh's score in cirrhotic patients (OR = 9.6, 95%CI: 1.0–88.4 and older age (OR = 7.2, 95%CI: 1.0–49.1, higher fibrosis score (OR = 59.5, 95%CI: 2.9–1211.3/ OR = 11.9, 95%CI: 1.0–132.2, and higher BMI (OR = 30.3, 95%CI: 3.0–306.7 in patients with chronic hepatitis were found to be associated with higher prevalence of DM. Conclusions Our findings indicate that patients with cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis are at the increased risk of DM occurrence. Older age, severe liver disease, and obesity were associated

  14. Prevalence of virulence determinants and antimicrobial resistance among commensal Escherichia coli derived from dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Ewa; Mazurek, Justyna; Stosik, Michał; Wojciech, Magdalena; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2015-01-19

    Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs) and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates) and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates). The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics) and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to

  15. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and Coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States as Determined by the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis Nucleic Acid Amplification Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, K.; Smith, J. S.; Aslanzadeh, J.; Snook, J.; Hill, C. S.; Gaydos, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to determine Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence using the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis assay (ATV; Gen-Probe) and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfections in U.S. women undergoing screening for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae. Discarded urogenital samples from 7,593 women (18 to 89 years old) undergoing C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae screening using the Aptima Combo 2 assay (Gen-Probe) in various clinical settings were tested with ATV. Overall, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis, and N. gonorrhoeae prevalences were 8.7%, 6.7%, and 1.7%, respectively. T. vaginalis was more prevalent than C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae in all age groups except the 18- to 19-year-old group. The highest T. vaginalis prevalence was in women ≥40 years old (>11%), while the highest C. trachomatis prevalence (9.2%) and N. gonorrhoeae prevalence (2.2%) were in women vaginalis, 0.61% for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae and N. gonorrhoeae/T. vaginalis, and 0.24% for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae/T. vaginalis and highest in women vaginalis prevalence differed by race/ethnicity, with the highest prevalence in black women (20.2%). T. vaginalis prevalence ranged from 5.4% in family planning clinics to 22.3% in jails. Multivariate analysis determined that ages of ≥40 years, black race, and patient locations were significantly associated with T. vaginalis infection. T. vaginalis is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in women of >40 years, while C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae prevalence is lowest in that age group. Higher T. vaginalis prevalence in women of >40 years is probably attributed to the reason for testing, i.e., symptomatic status versus routine screening in younger women. Coinfections were relatively low. High T. vaginalis prevalence in all age groups suggests that women screened for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae, whether asymptomatic or symptomatic, should be screened for T. vaginalis. PMID:22622447

  16. Determinants of prevalent HIV infection and late HIV diagnosis among young women with two or more sexual partners in Beira, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zango, Arlinda; Dubé, Karine; Kelbert, Sílvia; Meque, Ivete; Cumbe, Fidelina; Chen, Pai Lien; Ferro, Josefo J.; Feldblum, Paul J.; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence and determinants of HIV and late diagnosis of HIV in young women in Beira, Mozambique, were estimated in preparation for HIV prevention trials. An HIV prevalence survey was conducted between December 2009 and October 2012 among 1,018 women aged 18-35 with two or more sexual partners

  17. Determinants of undergraduate nursing students' care willingness towards the elderly in China: Attitudes, gratitude and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Meng, Li-Na; Liu, Peng-Xi

    2016-08-01

    An aging population has become a serious problem in China. Improving the nursing students' care willingness is a critical way to solve this dilemma. Few studies reveal the relationship between the knowledge, care willingness, attitude towards the elderly and gratitude. This research has found that the attitude towards the elderly, the knowledge about aging, and gratitude showed correlation with care willingness. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among knowledge about aging, care willingness, attitude towards the elderly and gratitude. A cross-sectional descriptive design has been used. From November to December 2015, a total of 382 undergraduate nursing students in China completed the questionnaires. The response rate was 95.5%. Four questionnaires including Care Willingness to the Elderly Scale (CW), Kogan's Attitudes towards Old People scale (KAOP), the Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ), and the Gratitude Scale. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the relationship among those variables in this study. For Chinese nursing students, the care willingness of elderly was in medium-high level. Their attitude towards the elderly and gratitude were at the medium degree, while the knowledge about aging was at a lower level. The attitude towards older people, knowledge about aging, and gratitude were significantly correlated with care willingness. The knowledge about aging has no relationship with the attitude. Gratitude plays a mediation role between the knowledge about aging and care willingness. The experience of caring the elderly could lead to a positive impact in care willingness. The nursing students' knowledge about aging had a direct influence on their care willingness. Gratitude plays a mediating role between the knowledge about aging and care willingness to the elderly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The social determinants of knowledge and perception on pulmonary tuberculosis among females in Jakarta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Fuady (Ahmad); Pakasi, T.A. (Trevino A.); Mansyur, M. (Muchtaruddin)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Indonesia has not resolved tuberculosis burden since its prevalence and incidence has remained high. As the capital of Indonesia with a large population and a high number of tuberculosis cases, Jakarta has a distinctive condition of tuberculosis burden. This study

  19. Prevalence and determining factors related to depression among adult women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyung Rim; Shin, Chol; Park, Sun Young; Yi, Hye Ryeon

    2004-12-01

    Korean women are likely to experience symptoms of depression, possibly due to socially fixed limitations on the roles that Korean women are expected to perform. Also if a Korean woman experiences negative relationship problem or stress in her family, she would feel responsible, which will worsen her depression. Nonetheless, much of the research on depression among Korean women has focused on menopausal women. This study aims to understand the depression of Korean women to provide fundamental data to develop nursing intervention method for promoting women's health. The present investigation assessed the prevalence and correlates of depression in a large sample of Korean women, aged 18 or older, from the general population. With a probability sample of 3312 women drawn from two areas in Korea, a survey, which contains the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and background, was completed. According to CES-D classification criteria, 36.5% of the women in the sample displayed either no depression or mild depression, 55.6% exhibited moderate depression, and 7.8% manifested severe depression. Significant bivariate relationships were observed between depression and each measured background variable except alcohol use. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the strongest combination of predictors of depression included income, menopausal, and marital status. The data support the premise that Korean women disproportionately experience elevated levels of depression. Consistent with the theory, depression may be related to social pressures to conform to the traditional roles. The study suggests the need for further research, primary prevention activities, and increased access to treatment.

  20. Prevalence and Determinants of Job Stress in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Philipp; Biedermann, Luc; Rossel, Jean-Benoit; Rogler, Gerhard; Pittet, Valérie; von Känel, Roland

    2017-02-01

    Psychosocial factors have been shown to predict a poor disease course in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but whether this applies to job stress is currently unknown. We assessed the prevalence of job stress and its correlates in a large cohort of patients with IBD. We included all adult, professionally active patients enrolled between 2006 and 2015 in the Swiss IBD Cohort. Job stress was measured through the self-report effort-reward imbalance ratio and overcommitment (OC) to work questionnaires. We used multiple linear regressions to assess association with sociodemographic, lifestyle, psychosocial, and disease-related factors. Altogether 1656 patients completed the questionnaires (905 Crohn's disease and 751 ulcerative colitis/IBD unclassified). Only 91 (5.7%) of patients had an effort-reward imbalance ratio >1. Effort-reward imbalance and OC scores were higher in full-time versus part-time employees (coef = 0.050, P = 0.002; coef = 0.906, P < 0.001) and among those absent from the workplace in the previous 3 months (coef = 0.049, P = 0.010; coef = 1.062, P < 0.001). Higher OC scores were associated with sex (women vs. men: coef = 0.568, P = 0.014), being in a relationship (coef = 0.805, P = 0.001), higher level of occupation (director vs. trainee: coef = 1.447, P < 0.001), and extraintestinal manifestations (coef = 0.623, P = 0.005). Patients hospitalized in the previous 12 months had lower OC scores (coef = 0.560, P = 0.038). The average level of job stress seems to be remarkably low in patients with IBD from Switzerland. The clinician should turn attention especially to women, full-time employees with a high level of education, and patients with extraintestinal manifestations to identify those with the most vulnerability to suffer from job stress.

  1. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Canadian children, 2004 to 2013: Impact of socioeconomic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Celia; Sharma, Atul K

    2017-06-01

    We recently reported an encouraging decline in the prevalence of overweight (OW) or obesity (OB) in Canadian children from 31% to 27% with stabilization in OB rates at ~13% using national survey data between 2004 and 2013. Although rates were lower for toddlers, girls and those of European (White) race-ethnicity, secular trends persisted after adjustment. In this follow-up study, we explored the ability of socioeconomic status to explain or modify these relationships using the same data set. We analyzed a decade of anthropometric data from 14,014 children aged 3 to 19 years. We explored the influence of income adequacy, education, immigration status, family type (e.g., single-parent) and geographic region by multivariable logistic regression. Data sets included Canadian Community Health Survey cycle 2.2 and Canadian Health Measures Surveys cycles 2 and 3. Children from higher-income families fared better than their lower-income counterparts in each survey era and demonstrated a significant decline in OW/OB from 29.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.3 to 30.8) in 2004 to 2005 to 22.2% (95% CI: 19.8 to 24.6) in 2012 to 2013, Psocioeconomic status variables, such as income and education. Regional variations persisted, with lower rates of OB and OW/OB in British Columbia and higher rates in Atlantic Canada. These results confirm that progress is possible against this important public health challenge, underline the need to better understand sociodemographic risk factors and identify groups at higher risk for possible interventions.

  2. Determining Knowledge of Students in Tehran University and Tehran University of Medical Sciences About ECSTASY Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Khoshe Mehri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nowadays, addiction is considered one of the greatest social and economical and health problems. Undoubtedly, The Ecstasy have between some juveniles and youths. This study was performed to understand the knowledge about the Ecstasy tablets. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study 200 students from Tehran universities and universities of medical sciences. Data collecting tool was a structured questionnaire containing 14 questions. Data was analyzed using chi square. Results: It was revealed that only 44 students had high, 55 student had moderate and 101 students had weak knowledge about Ecstasy. There was no significant relationship between knowledge score and variable such as gender, place of residence. Also, there was a significant correlations between age, marriage position , occupation and college about the Ecstasy . Conclusion: That in order to increase the knowledge leveling the students about Ecstasy, mass medias like television, newspapers, radio and university sittings.

  3. Postoperative findings following the Whipple procedure : determination of prevalence and morphologic abdominal CT features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortele, KJ; Lemmerling, M; de Hemptinne, B; De Vos, M; De Bock, G; Kunnen, M

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine characteristic CT findings following the Whipple procedure and to evaluate the usefulness of CT in re-dieting tumor recurrence. Eighty-four postoperative abdominal CT scans and medical records of 43 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Perioperative

  4. [Prevalence and determinants of medication during pregnancy by risk class among mothers of liveborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Lorena Teresinha Consalter; Vargas Filho, Edson Fauth; Geib, Débora; Mesquita, Débora Iasmin; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue

    2007-10-01

    In order to identify the maternal determinants of the consumption of medication during pregnancy according to risk class, we conducted a population cohort baseline cross-sectional study with 2,262 mothers of liveborn infants in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected from the Information System on Live Births and through home interviews (an instrument adapted from the Maternity Advice Survey). The drugs were classified according to criteria. We conducted bivariate analyses and logistic regression according to the hierarchical model of determination. 80% of the mothers consumed at least one medicine during the pregnancy, distributed in risk classes as follows: A (53.4%), B (18.1%), C (24.46%), D (1.47%), X (0.06%), and V (various) (2.1%). Incomplete prenatal care and maternal age consumption of medication in class A and pregnancy complications in classes B, C, and D. In class C, cesarean section and previous abortion also determined consumption, which in class V was independent of the variables analyzed. Maternal factors, especially health complications, determine the consumption of medicines during pregnancy, suggesting that the prescribing physician should orient the safe and proper use of such medication.

  5. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with Down syndrome-prevalence, determinants, consequences, and interventions: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertapelli, Fabio; Pitetti, Ken; Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2016-10-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) are more likely to be overweight or obese than the general population of youth without DS. To review the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their determinants in youth with DS. The health consequences and the effectiveness of interventions were also examined. A search using MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, and COCHRANE was conducted. From a total of 4280 studies, we included 45 original research articles published between 1988 and 2015. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity varied between studies from 23% to 70%. Youth with DS had higher rates of overweight and obesity than youths without DS. Likely determinants of obesity included increased leptin, decreased resting energy expenditure, comorbidities, unfavorable diet, and low physical activity levels. Obesity was positively associated with obstructive sleep apnea, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and gait disorder. Interventions for obesity prevention and control were primarily based on exercise-based programs, and were insufficient to achieve weight or fat loss. Population-based research is needed to identify risk factors and support multi-factorial strategies for reducing overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with DS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence and determinants of cardiovascular disease risk factors among the residents of urban community housing projects in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohammadreza; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Hairi, FarizahMohd; Thangiah, Nithiah; Bulgiba, Awang; Su, Tin Tin

    2014-01-01

    The objectives are to assess the prevalence and determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among the residents of Community Housing Projects in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. By using simple random sampling, we selected and surveyed 833 households which comprised of 3,722 individuals. Out of the 2,360 adults, 50.5% participated in blood sampling and anthropometric measurement sessions. Uni and bivariate data analysis and multivariate binary logistic regression were applied to identify demographic and socioeconomic determinants of the existence of having at least one CVD risk factor. As a Result, while obesity (54.8%), hypercholesterolemia (51.5%), and hypertension (39.3%) were the most common CVD risk factors among the low-income respondents, smoking (16.3%), diabetes mellitus (7.8%) and alcohol consumption (1.4%) were the least prevalent. Finally, the results from the multivariate binary logistic model illustrated that compared to the Malays, the Indians were 41% less likely to have at least one of the CVD risk factors (OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.37 - 0.93). In Conclusion, the low-income individuals were at higher risk of developing CVDs. Prospective policies addressing preventive actions and increased awareness focusing on low-income communities are highly recommended and to consider age, gender, ethnic backgrounds, and occupation classes.

  7. Prevalence and determinants of pre-term deliveries in the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Mokuolu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, over 900,000 children under the age of five years die every year. Early neonatal death is responsible for a little over 20% of these deaths. Prematurity remains a significant cause of these early neonatal deaths. In some series, it is reported to be responsible for 60-70% of these deaths. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of pre-term deliveries at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin. This was a prospective cohort study conducted over a 9-month period at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. Records of deliveries and data on maternal socio-biological and antenatal variables were collected during this period in order to determine the prevalence and determinants of pre-term deliveries. Out of the 2,489 deliveries that took place over a 9-month period, there were 293 pre-terms, giving a pre-term delivery rate of 120 per 1,000 deliveries. Of the total deliveries, 1,522 singleton deliveries that satisfied inclusion criteria were recruited; 185 of them were pre-term deliveries giving a case:control ratio of 1:7. Significant determinants of pre-term delivery identified were previous pre-term delivery (P=0.001; OR=3.55; 95% CI=1.71-7.30, antepartum hemorrhage (P=0.000; OR=8.95; 95%CI=4.06-19.78, premature rupture of the membranes (P=0.000; OR=6.48; 95%CI=4.33-9.67, maternal urinary tract infection (P=0.006; OR=5.89; 95%CI=1.16-27.57, pregnancy induced hypertension (P=0.007; OR=3.23; 95%CI=2.09-4.99, type of labor (P=0.000; OR=6.44; 95%CI=4.42-9.38 and booking status (P=0.000; OR=4.67; 95%CI=3.33-6.56. The prevalence of pre-term delivery was 120 per 1,000 live births. Factors significantly associated with pre-term delivery were low socio-economic class, previous pre-term delivery, antepartum hemorrhage, premature rupture of fetal membranes, urinary tract infection, pregnancy induced hypertension, induced labor, and booking elsewhere outside the teaching hospital.

  8. [Overweight and obesity: prevalence and determining social factors of overweight in the Peruvian population (2009-2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Dongo, Doris; Sánchez-Abanto, Jose; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and the determining social factors of overweight in the Peruvian population. A cross-cut study was conducted which included family members from homes in the sample of the National Household Survey, 2009-2010. Stratified random and multistage sampling was used. The sample included 69 526 members; the anthropometric measurements were done based on the international methodology. To evaluate overweight and obesity, weight-for-height (children Overweight and obesity were higher in young adults (62.3%) and lower in children overweight according to age group were: not being poor (child Overweight and obesity are indeed a public health issue in Peru. Not being poor and living in urban areas are determining social factors of overweight among Peruvian people.

  9. Knowledge, attitude, practice, and determinants emergency contraceptive use among women seeking abortion services in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meskerem Abate

    Full Text Available Unplanned pregnancy from casual sex, unplanned sexual activity, and sexual violence are increasing. Emergency Contraceptives (EC are used to prevent unplanned pregnancies thereby preventing the occurrence and consequences of unplanned pregnancy. Emergency contraception is widely available in Ethiopia particularly in major cities. Yet the use of EC is very low and abortion rate in cities is high compared to the national average.To assess knowledge, attitude and practice and determinants on the use of emergency contraception among women obtaining abortion service at selected health institutions in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia.A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted on 390 women selected by multi-stage random sampling technique. The samples were generated from government and private for non profit health facilities. Participant's knowledge and attitude towards emergency contraception were measured using composite index based on 7 and 9 questions, respectively and analyzed using mean score to classify them as knowledgeable or not, and have positive attitude or not. Practice was assessed if the women reported ever use of emergency contraception. Determinants of use of emergency contraception were analyzed using logistic regression.Out of 390 women interviewed, 162 women (41.5% heard about EC, only 133 (34.1% had good knowledge, and 200 (51.3% of the respondents had positive attitudes towards to EC. Ever use of EC was reported by 38 (9.7%. Age, living arrangement, education, marital status, religion were found to be significantly associated with the use of emergency contraceptives. Women with poor knowledge were less likely to use EC compared to the knowledgeable ones [AOR = 0.027, 95% CI (0.007, 0.105].The study identified that most respondents lack adequate knowledge on the method of EC. In addition ever use of EC is very low.Health professions should give attention in increasing knowledge and uptake of Emergency Contraception.

  10. A national survey of prevalence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and knowledge of the emergency number in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, S

    2009-07-06

    AIM: The aim of this survey was to establish prevalence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training within the last 5 years and reasons preventing training and initiation of CPR in Ireland as well as awareness of the emergency numbers. METHODS: An in-home omnibus survey was undertaken in 2008 with quota sampling reflecting the age, gender, social class and geography of Ireland. RESULTS: Of the 974 respondents, 23.5% had undergone CPR training in the previous 5 years with lower social class and age 65 years and older significantly less likely to be trained. The workplace was both a major source of awareness as well as training for those trained. In the untrained group lack of awareness of the need for CPR training was the most significant reason for non-training. Cost was not cited as a barrier. 88.9% of people gave a correct emergency number with geographical variation. Notably, the European emergency number 112 was not well known. CONCLUSION: Previous Irish and American population targets for CPR training have been surpassed in Ireland in 2008. New internationally agreed targets are now required. Meanwhile older people and those in lower socio-economic groups should be targeted for training. Awareness of at least one emergency number is very high in Ireland. Some geographical variation was found and this should be studied further.

  11. HIV/AIDS knowledge, behaviour and beliefs among South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, South Africa has the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS. In the absence of cure, prevention is the only available method to reduce HIV prevalence rates. This can only be obtained through behavioural change, which is associated with a good knowledge about HIV. The study aims to determine the knowledge, beliefs, ...

  12. Level and determinants of knowledge of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis among railway workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Menke, J Michael; Challakere Ramaswamy, Vasudeva Murthy; Abdul Manaf, Rizal; Alabsi, Aied M; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman

    2014-01-01

    Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, an ancient malady greatly impairing modern population quality of life, has stimulated global attention to find effective modes of prevention and intervention. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) among Malaysian railway workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 railway workers involving eight major states within Peninsular Malaysia using population-based sampling. The assessment instrument was a face-validated, prepiloted, self-administered instrument with sociodemographics and knowledge items on knee OA. Mean (± SD) age of the respondents was 41.4 (± 10.7), with the majority aged 50 years or older (34.9%). Of the total respondents, 53.6% had low levels of knowledge of knee OA disease. Multivariate analysis found that four demographic predictors, age ≥ 50 years, family history of knee OA, self-awareness, and clinical diagnosis of the disease entity, were significantly associated with knowledge scores. The finding of a low level knee OA knowledge among Malaysian railway workers points to an urgent need for massive information to be disseminated among the workers at risk to foster primary prevention and self-care.

  13. Soft Power, University Rankings and Knowledge Production: Distinctions between Hegemony and Self-Determination in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William Yat Wai

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the nature of the global hegemonies in higher education. While anti-colonial thinkers describe the dominance of the Western paradigm as an oppression of indigenous culture and knowledge and as neo-colonialism in higher education, their arguments lead to such questions as how much self-determination do…

  14. Prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients attending in hospitals of central and northwestern zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Seid, Awole; Gerensea, Hadgu; Tarko, Shambel; Zenebe, Yosef; Mezemir, Rahel

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence of erectile dysfunction among diabetic men varies between 35?90%. Although erectile dysfunction is widespread among men with diabetes, the condition often remains undiagnosed and demands appropriate assessment and prompt treatment. Erectile dysfunction can affect all aspects of a patient?s life including physical, emotional, social, sexual, and relationships. The main aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction among diab...

  15. Postoperative findings following the Whipple procedure: determination of prevalence and morphologic abdominal CT features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortele, K.J.; Lemmerling, M.; Bock, G. de; Kunnen, M. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Gent (Belgium); Hemptinne, B. de [Department of Digestive Surgery, University Hospital Gent (Belgium); Vos, M. de [Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Gent (Belgium)

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine characteristic CT findings following the Whipple procedure and to evaluate the usefulness of CT in predicting tumor recurrence. Eighty-four postoperative abdominal CT scans and medical records of 43 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Perioperative histopathologic examinations revealed malignancy in 32 patients (74.4 %). Time interval between surgery and CT varied from 13 days to 6 years and 7 months. Common postoperative findings were unopacified anastomotic bowel loops in the porta hepatis (n = 69 scans), perivascular cuffing (n = 42 scans), pneumobilia (n = 40 scans), dilated intrahepatic bile ducts (n = 22 scans), reactive lymphadenopathy (n = 21 scans), and transient fluid collections (n = 20 scans). Postoperative complications were detected on 17 CT scans (20.2 %): generalized ascites (n = 8 patients), deep abscesses (n = 3 patients), wound abscess (n = 1 patient), pancreatitis (n = 1 patient), and pseudomembranous colitis (n = 1 patient). Tumor recurrence appeared in 15 patients (46.8 %) after a mean postoperative period of 11 months (1 month to 3 years): local (9 of 15), regional lymph nodes (9 of 15), and liver metastasis (8 of 15). Detection of generalized ascites more than 30 days after surgery was associated with tumor recurrence in 6 of 6 patients (100 %). Diffuse ascites (> 30 days after surgery) behaved as an early predictive sign of tumor recurrence. In our series CT accuracy for detecting recurrent tumor with CT was 93.5 %. No predilection site for disease recurrence could be determined. (orig.)

  16. Health-related beliefs and consumer knowledge as determinants of fish consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    samples from Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Spain. The sample consisted of 4786 respondents, aged 18-84 years, who were responsible for food purchasing and cooking in the household. Results: European consumers had a very strong belief that eating fish is healthy. Consumers' belief......' knowledge. Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that communication should focus on health-related benefits other than fish consumption alone. Communicating that eating fish is healthy and stressing the health benefits of fish alone, as is still commonly performed (e.g. in generic promotion...... that eating fish is healthy, their interest in healthy eating and objective fish-related nutrition knowledge, positively, but only weakly, influenced fish consumption frequency. Subjective knowledge was found to be a stronger predictor of fish consumption than the previously noted factors. Age and education...

  17. Using Key Informant Method to Determine the Prevalence and Causes of Childhood Blindness in South-Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaji, Ada E; Ezegwui, Ifeoma R; Shiweobi, Jude O; Mamah, Cyril C; Okoloagu, Mary N; Onwasigwe, Ernest N

    2017-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and causes of childhood blindness in an underserved community in south-eastern Nigeria using the key informant method. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Key informants (KI) appointed by their respective communities received 1-day training on identification of blind children in their communities. Two weeks later, the research team visited the agreed sites within the community and examined the identified children. The World Health Organization eye examination record for blind children was used for data collection. Data entry and analysis were done with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0. Fifteen blind or severely visually impaired children (age range 3 months to 15 years) were identified in this community; nine of these were brought by the KIs. The prevalence of childhood blindness/severe visual impairment (BL/SVI) was 0.12 per 1000 children. By anatomical classification, operable cataract in 6 (40.0%) was the leading cause of BL/SVI in the series; followed by optic nerve lesions (atrophy/hypoplasia) in 3 (20.0%). The etiology of BL/SVI is unknown for the majority of the children (66.7%). It was presumed hereditary in four children (26.7%). Sixty percent of the blindness was judged avoidable. Only three children (20.0%) were enrolled in the Special Education Centre for the Blind. The prevalence of childhood BL/SVI in our study population is low but over half of the blindness is avoidable. There may be a significant backlog of operable childhood cataract in south-eastern Nigeria. The KI method is a practical method for case finding of blind children in rural communities.

  18. Prevalence and Determinants of Glaucoma in Citizens of Qatar Aged 40 Years or Older: A Community-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansouri, Fatma A.; Kanaan, Aida; Gamra, Hamad; Khandekar, Rajiv; Hashim, Shakeel P.; Al Qahtani, Omar; Ahmed, Mohd. Farouk

    2011-01-01

    Background: We present the prevalence and determinants of glaucoma among subjects 40 years of age and older in Qatar. Materials and Methods: This community-based survey was held in 2009 at 49 randomly selected clusters. Demographic details and history of glaucoma was collected by the nurses. Ophthalmologists evaluated the optic disc and retina using a digital camera housed in a mobile van. Visual field was tested with an automated perimeter, the intraocular pressure with an applanation tonometer and the angle of the anterior chamber by gonioscopy. A panel of glaucoma experts diagnosed subjects with glaucoma. Results: This survey enrolled 3,149 (97.3%) participants. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of glaucoma in the population aged 40 years and older was 1.73% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.69-1.77). Accordingly, 5,641 individuals in this age group in Qatar would have glaucoma. Chronological age of 60 years and older (Odds ratio [OR] 11.1) and the presence of myopia (OR 1.78) were predictors of glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma was diagnosed in 44 (65.7%) individuals with glaucoma. In nine (13.4%) and 15 (20.9%) subjects, angle closure glaucoma and other (post-traumatic, pseudoexfoliation) glaucoma were present. Bilateral blindness (vision glaucoma, respectively. Glaucoma was treated in 36 (54%) subjects. Conclusions: The prevalence of glaucoma among citizens of Qatar aged 40 years and older was 1.71%. Glaucoma was associated with the age of 60 years and older and the presence of myopia. PMID:21731325

  19. Education or Personality Traits and Intelligence as Determinants of Political Knowledge?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Recently the causal influence of education on political knowledge has been questioned. Rather, pre-adult predispositions such as personality traits and intelligence are proposed as the real causal agents. This article investigates in two studies whether education retains its explanatory power...... on political knowledge when personality traits and intelligence are taken into account. One study draws on a draftee sample and has excellent measures of both personality traits and intelligence; the other study draws on a representative sample and has excellent measures of personality traits. Openness...

  20. Prevalence and determinants of unmet need for family planning in Kishanganj district, Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Lata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unmet need is a valuable indicator for assessing the achievements of national family planning programs. The present study was undertaken with the objectives to determine the magnitude of unmet need for family planning among the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years, to evaluate the various factors that influence the unmet need and to explore the common reasons for unmet need for family planning. Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2012 in Laucha village in Kishanganj, Bihar through multistage sampling. Married women aged 15-49 years, who were permanent residents of the village, were selected by complete enumeration (330 in total and interviewed through house to house survey with the help of a pre-designed, pre-tested and semi-structured questionnaire. Results: The total unmet need for family planning was 23.9%; 9.4% for spacing births and 14.5% for limiting births. The unmet need varied significantly with age (p < 0.05 and was highest in ≤ 19 years age group (33.7%. It was also significantly higher among illiterates, those with low monthly per capita income, among Muslims and among those having more than two living issues (p < 0.05. Husband’s disapproval (34.2%, lack of awareness (27.8% and fear of side effects (24.1% were common reasons behind the unmet need. Conclusion: the unmet need for family planning was quite high among the respondents and associated with various bio-social determinants that should be considered while planning for scaling-up the program.

  1. Prevalence and determinants of unmet need for family planning in Kishanganj district, Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Lata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unmet need is a valuable indicator for assessing the achievements of national family planning programs. The present study was undertaken with the objectives to determine the magnitude of unmet need for family planning among the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years, to evaluate the various factors that influence the unmet need and to explore the common reasons for unmet need for family planning. Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2012 in Laucha village in Kishanganj, Bihar through multistage sampling. Married women aged 15-49 years, who were permanent residents of the village, were selected by complete enumeration (330 in total and interviewed through house to house survey with the help of a pre-designed, pre-tested and semi-structured questionnaire. Results: The total unmet need for family planning was 23.9%; 9.4% for spacing births and 14.5% for limiting births. The unmet need varied significantly with age (p < 0.05 and was highest in ≤ 19 years age group (33.7%. It was also significantly higher among illiterates, those with low monthly per capita income, among Muslims and among those having more than two living issues (p < 0.05. Husband’s disapproval (34.2%, lack of awareness (27.8% and fear of side effects (24.1% were common reasons behind the unmet need. Conclusion: the unmet need for family planning was quite high among the respondents and associated with various bio-social determinants that should be considered while planning for scaling-up the program.

  2. Using a Herd Profile to Determine Age-Specific Prevalence of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Michigan Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J. Erskine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic bovine leukosis is a contagious disease of cattle caused by the retrovirus, bovine leukemia virus (BLV and is the most common cause of malignant neoplasm in cattle. In order to facilitate surveillance of this disease in dairy herds, we developed a method to combine ELISA of milk collected during routine production testing with a prescribed sampling of cows that is independent of the proportion of cows within each lactation. In 113 Michigan dairy herds, milk samples from ten cows in each of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactations were analyzed for anti-Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV antibodies by milk ELISA. For each herd, a BLV herd profile (BHP was calculated as the simple average of the percent of BLV-positive cows within each of the four lactation groups. The mean BHP for all herds was 32.8%, with means of 18.5, 28.8, 39.2, and 44.8% of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactation animals infected, respectively. In eight herds, we determined the correlation between the BHP, and true herd prevalence by testing the entire lactating herd (r=0.988,  P<0.0001. The BHP allows discrimination of lactation-specific BLV prevalence within a dairy herd, to help identify risk factors and management plans that may be important in transmission of BLV.

  3. Factors Determining Student Retention of Economic Knowledge after Completing the Principles-of-Microeconomics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, Andrew I.; Kipps, Paul H.

    1979-01-01

    Reports results of a study of economics students to test the effect of time and other factors affecting retention, to develop an instrument to measure the rate of depreciation of the student's stock of economic knowledge, and to explore the implications of findings for the student's academic planning. (Author/KC)

  4. Prior knowledge about objects determines neural color representation in human visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, A.R.E.; Fahrenfort, J.J.; Meuwese, J.D.I.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2016-01-01

    To create subjective experience, our brain must translate physical stimulus input by incorporating prior knowledge and expectations. For example, we perceive color and not wavelength information, and this in part depends on our past experience with colored objects ( Hansen et al. 2006; Mitterer and

  5. On the role of object knowledge in reference production : Effects of color typicality on content determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, H.G.W.; Koolen, R.M.F.; Maes, A.A.; Bello, Paul; Guarini, Marcello; McShane, Marjorie; Scassellati, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In two language production experiments, we investigated whether stored knowledge of the typical color of objects affects spoken reference. In experiment 1, human speakers referred to objects with colors ranging from very typical (e.g., red tomato) to very atypical (e.g., blue pepper). The

  6. Prevalence and socioeconomic determinants of leisure time physical activity among Polish farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Elżbieta; Piątkowska, Monika; Mynarski, Władysław

    2018-03-14

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the leisure time physical activity of Polish farmers in the context of meeting health-related recommendations, and to diagnose the social and economic determinants. The analysis concerned leisure and transportation activities of various intensity and sedentary time. Farmers (n=153) aged over 18 were selected from a representative sample of Polish society (n=2039). In order to evaluate LTPA, the long version of the IPAQ was used. Statistically significant differences between the variables were tested using non-parametric tests. The relationship between the amount of exercise recommended by the WHO and studied socio-demographic criteria was assessed using log-linear analysis. The WHO health recommendations were met by 33.3% of farmers. Shares in LTPA (19.1%) and transportation (19.2%) significantly increased the chance of achieving these norms (OR=12.54 and 0.07, respectively). Along with age (≥40 years) and income (≥3000 PLN/Є750) of Polish farmers, the risk of insufficient physical activity increased. Average MET-min/week for LTPA was 299.8±583.4 and transportation - 521.2±1973.9. The average time of sitting during working days was 4.4±2.9, while it was 4.5±3.2 hrs/day during weekends. Health-promoting changes are necessary among Polish farmers, including an increase in the awareness of health benefits and the necessity of undertaking physically active ways of spending leisure time. It seems to be a legitimate action to develop a mini-tourist trail in the rural environment as a means of promoting physical activity also among women aged over 40, and from lower income groups, who are especially threatened by inactivity.

  7. A Self-Determination Model of Childhood Exposure, Perceived Prevalence, Justification, and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D; Mbilinyi, Lyungai F; Zegree, Joan; Foster, Dawn W; Roffman, Roger A

    2013-02-01

    The present research was designed to evaluate self-determination theory as a framework for integrating factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. The proposed model suggests that childhood exposure to parental violence may influence global motivational orientations which, in turn result in greater cognitive biases (overestimating the prevalence of IPV and justification of IPV) which, in turn, contribute to an individual's decision to use abusive behavior. Participants included 124 men who had engaged in abusive behavior toward an intimate partner. Results provided reasonable support for the proposed model and stronger support for a revised model suggesting that controlled orientation, rather than autonomy orientation, appears to play a stronger role in the association between childhood exposure to parental violence and cognitive biases associated with abusive behavior.

  8. Prevalence and determinants of visual impairment in Canada: cross-sectional data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljied, Rumaisa; Aubin, Marie-Josée; Buhrmann, Ralf; Sabeti, Saama; Freeman, Ellen E

    2018-06-01

    To determine the prevalence and determinants of visual impairment in Canada. Cross-sectional population-based study. 30,097 people in the Comprehensive Cohort of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging METHODS: Inclusion criteria included being between the ages of 45 and 85 years old, community-dwelling, and living near one of the 11 data collection sites across 7 Canadian provinces. People were excluded if they were in an institution, living on a First Nations reserve, were a full-time member of the Canadian Armed Forces, did not speak French or English, or had cognitive impairment. Visual acuity was measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart while participants wore their usual prescription for distance, if any. Visual impairment was defined as presenting binocular acuity worse than 20/40. Of Canadian adults, 5.7% (95% CI 5.4-6.0) had visual impairment. A wide variation in the provincial prevalence of visual impairment was observed ranging from a low of 2.4% (95% CI 2.0-3.0) in Manitoba to a high of 10.9% (95% CI 9.6-12.2) in Newfoundland and Labrador. Factors associated with a higher odds of visual impairment included older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.07, 95% CI 1.06-1.08), lower income (OR = 2.07 for those earning less than $20 000 per year, 95% CI 1.65-2.59), current smoking (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.25-1.85), type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.03-1.41), and memory problems (OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.04-2.01). Refractive error was the leading cause of visual impairment. Older age, lower income, province, smoking, diabetes, and memory problems were associated with visual impairment. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The prevalence and determinants of use of vitamin D supplements among children in Alberta, Canada: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, Lalani L; Willows, Noreen; Yuan, Yan; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-10-16

    Limited cutaneous synthesis due to low sun exposure and inadequate dietary intake makes vitamin D supplementation a necessity for many Canadian children. Identification of the factors associated with supplement use is necessary for public health awareness campaigns, but they have not been identified previously. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and the determinants of the use of vitamin D supplements among children in the province of Alberta, Canada. In 2014, a representative sample of grade five students (10-11 y) in Alberta (n = 2686) was surveyed. Data on dietary intake and use of vitamin D supplements were obtained using a modified Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency questionnaire. Mixed effect multiple logistic regression was employed to identify the key correlates of supplement use. Use of vitamin D supplements by children was 29.45 % although only 11.83 % took supplements daily. Children who resided in a metropolitan area (OR = 1.32; 95 % CI:1.06-1.65), were more physically active (2nd tertile: OR = 1.39; 95 % CI:1.09-1.78 and 3rd tertile: OR = 1.70; 95 % CI:1.33-2.16), or whose parents completed college (OR = 1.35; 95 % CI:1.05-1.74) were more likely to take vitamin D supplements. Prevalence of use was highest among those who had a high vitamin D diet and those with under/normal body weight status, although supplement use was not statistically associated with either dietary vitamin D intake or weight status. A considerable proportion of children did not take vitamin D supplements. Region of residence, physical activity level and parental education were determinants of supplement use, independent of child's gender, household income, weight status and dietary practices. We suggest prioritizing public health efforts to support strategies to make parents aware of the importance of providing the correct dose of vitamin D supplements for their children to meet dietary recommendations.

  10. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Interaction between socioeconomic status and parental history of ADHD determines prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Andrew S; Skipper, Betty J; Rabiner, David L; Qeadan, Fares; Campbell, Richard A; Naftel, A Jack; Umbach, David M

    2018-03-01

    Many studies have reported a higher prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among disadvantaged populations, but few have considered how parental history of ADHD might modify that relationship. We evaluated whether the prevalence of ADHD varies by socioeconomic status (SES) and parental history of ADHD in a population-sample of elementary school children age 6-14 years. We screened all children in grades 1-5 in 17 schools in one North Carolina (U.S.) county for ADHD using teacher rating scales and 1,160 parent interviews, including an ADHD structured interview (DISC). We combined parent and teacher ratings to determine DSM-IV ADHD status. Data analysis was restricted to 967 children with information about parental history of ADHD. SES was measured by family income and respondent education. We found an interaction between family income and parental history of ADHD diagnosis (p = .016). The SES gradient was stronger in families without a parental history and weaker among children with a parental history. Among children without a parental history of ADHD diagnosis, low income children had 6.2 times the odds of ADHD (95% CI 3.4-11.3) as high income children after adjusting for covariates. Among children with a parental history, all had over 10 times the odds of ADHD as high income children without a parental history but the SES gradient between high and low income children was less pronounced [odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.5]. Socioeconomic status and parental history of ADHD are each strong risk factors for ADHD that interact to determine prevalence. More research is needed to dissect the components of SES that contribute to risk of ADHD. Future ADHD research should evaluate whether the strength of other environmental risk factors vary by parental history. Early identification and interventions for children with low SES or parental histories of ADHD should be explored. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  11. Determining requirements within an indigenous knowledge system of African rural communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available to discount social or metaphysical aspects in narratives; the intuitive, tacit, intangible or vernacular in therapy ; or social distribution of knowledge; but, their logics have a selective visibility . Designing for communities that privilege a holistic... respond to people?s narrative predispositions in thinking about the world [18]. In TM information on etio logy, its manifestations and therapy, is not codified but shared by practitioners with users and apprentices orally . W estern culture is ves...

  12. Determinants of Knowledge and Safety Practices of Occupational Hazards of Textile Dye Workers in Sokoto, Nigeria: A Descriptive Analytic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafoagu, Nneka Christina; Oche, Mansur; Awosan, Kehinde Joseph; Abdulmulmuni, Hashim Bala; Gana, Godwin Jiya; Ango, Jessica Timane; Raji, Ismail

    2017-06-23

    Textile dye workers are subject to occupational hazards on a daily basis due to exposure to precarious conditions in the workplace. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and safety practices and its determinants among textile dye workers in Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 200 textile dye workers and the respondents were selected by multi stage sampling technique. Data was collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Data was processed using SPSS IBM version 20 and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Majority of the respondents (74.0%) had good knowledge of workplace hazards; (81.0%) had positive attitude and only 20% observed all the safety practices. Formal education (P=0.047); working less than 5 days a week (P=0.001) and permanent employment (P=0.013) were found to be determinants of respondents' knowledge and attitude towards workplace hazards. Although the respondents had good knowledge and positive attitude, their lack of observance of safety practices brings to fore the need for direct safety instruction and training and retraining of textile dye workers on workplace hazards and safety practices.

  13. The Prevalence of Fibromyalgia in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women and to Determination of Related Risk Factors (Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Şahin Onat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of fibromyalgia in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and to determine the associated factors with fibromyalgia. Materials and Methods: Hundred thirty-seven postmenopausal women with osteoporosis admitted to our outpatient clinic were included in the study. A questionnaire that was including patients’age, marital status, education level, occupation, height, weight was completed. Risk factors of osteoporosis were recorded. major and minor risk factors were determined according to Canadian diagnosis and treatment guideline. DXA was used to determine bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Thoracal and lumbar compression fractures were evaulated with thoracal and lumbar radiography. The diagnosis of fibromyalgia was according to the 1990 American College of Rheumatology (ACR criteria. Results: Twenty-six (19% of 137 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis had fibromyalgia. Ninety-four (68.6% of all patients were married and 43 (31.4% of all patients were not married, 63 (46% of all patients were literate, 74 (54% of all patients were illiterate. The average age of patients was 73.56±6.17. According to the results of logistic regression analysis, advanced age, to be married, the number of major risk factors and the decrease of lomber and femur bone mineral density were found to be risk factors for fibromyalgia. Educational level, BMI and the number of minor risk factors were not found to be a risk factors for fibromyalgia. Conclusion: It is importatnt to be careful for fibromyalgia not only in premenopousal women but also in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2014;20: 1-5

  14. Can we determine whether physical limitations are more prevalent in the US than in countries with comparable life expectancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glei, Dana A; Goldman, Noreen; Ryff, Carol D; Weinstein, Maxine

    2017-12-01

    We evaluate the variability in estimates of self-reported physical limitations by age across four nationally representative surveys in the US. We consider its implications for determining whether, as previous literature suggests, the US estimates reveal limitations at an earlier age than in three countries with similar life expectancy: England, Taiwan, and Costa Rica. Based on cross-sectional data from seven population-based surveys, we use local mean smoothing to plot self-reported limitations by age for each of four physical tasks for each survey, stratified by sex. We find substantial variation in the estimates in the US across four nationally-representative surveys. For example, one US survey suggests that American women experience a walking limitation 15 years earlier than their Costa Rican counterparts, while another US survey implies that Americans have a 4-year advantage. Differences in mode of survey may account for higher prevalence of limitations in the one survey that used a self-administered mail-in questionnaire than in the other surveys that used in-person or telephone interviews. Yet, even among US surveys that used the same mode, there is still so much variability in estimates that we cannot conclude whether Americans have better or worse function than their counterparts in the other countries. Seemingly minor differences in question wording and response categories may account for the remaining inconsistency. If minor differences in question wording can result in such extensive variation in the estimates within a given population, then lack of comparability is likely to be an even greater problem when examining results across countries that do not share the same language or culture. Despite the potential utility of self-reported physical function within a survey sample, our findings imply that absolute estimates of population-level prevalence of self-reported physical limitations are unlikely to be strictly comparable across countries-or even

  15. HIV prevalence and demographic determinants of condomless receptive anal intercourse among trans feminine individuals in Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Rachel L; McGowan, Justine; Wagner, Glenn J

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests increased HIV incidence in the Middle East and North Africa among "key populations." To date, epidemiological data have not accurately included and measured HIV prevalence and risk among trans feminine individuals in the region. Through the lens of the Gender Affirmation Framework, we assessed demographic correlates of risk behaviour and the prevalence of HIV among trans feminine individuals in Lebanon. Long-chain referral sampling was used to recruit 53 participants for completion of a behavioural survey and optional free rapid HIV tests. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify demographic determinants of HIV risk behaviour. Fifty-seven percent of participants reported condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) with male partner(s) in the last three months, 40% of whom reported not knowing the HIV status of the partner(s). Of the participants tested for HIV as part of the study or via self-report, four (10%) were HIV positive; 13 declined HIV testing. Forty percent of the sample had no prior history of HIV testing. A history of trauma such as sexual abuse/assault was reported by almost half of the participants (49%). Sixty-eight percent reported experiencing physical violence and 32% police arrest, because of gender identity or presentation. A staggering 98% reported having experienced gender identity or gender presentation-related discrimination. Sixty-six percent of the sample reported current sex work; sex work was correlated with CRAI but was not significant in multivariate analysis. In regression analysis, "openness"/"outness" about transgender identity at work or school was significantly associated with CRAI. Surprisingly, a history of sexual abuse/assault was negatively correlated with CRAI, suggesting the need for further inquiry. The results of this study provide implications for how to address sexual health among trans feminine

  16. The establisment of an achievement test for determination of primary teachers’ knowledge level of earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Süleyman, E-mail: yupul@hotmail.com; Haşiloğlu, M. Akif, E-mail: mehmet.hasiloglu@hotmail.com; Kunduraci, Ayşe, E-mail: ayse-kndrc@hotmail.com [Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Faculty of Education, Science Education, Ağrı (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    In this study it was aimed to improve an academic achievement test to establish the students’ knowledge about the earthquake and the ways of protection from earthquakes. In the method of this study, the steps that Webb (1994) was created to improve an academic achievement test for a unit were followed. In the developmental process of multiple choice test having 25 questions, was prepared to measure the pre-service teachers’ knowledge levels about the earthquake and the ways of protection from earthquakes. The multiple choice test was presented to view of six academics (one of them was from geographic field and five of them were science educator) and two expert teachers in science Prepared test was applied to 93 pre-service teachers studying in elementary education department in 2014-2015 academic years. As a result of validity and reliability of the study, the test was composed of 20 items. As a result of these applications, Pearson Moments Multiplication half-reliability coefficient was found to be 0.94. When this value is adjusted according to Spearman Brown reliability coefficient the reliability coefficient was set at 0.97.

  17. The establisment of an achievement test for determination of primary teachers’ knowledge level of earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Süleyman; Haşiloğlu, M. Akif; Kunduraci, Ayşe

    2016-01-01

    In this study it was aimed to improve an academic achievement test to establish the students’ knowledge about the earthquake and the ways of protection from earthquakes. In the method of this study, the steps that Webb (1994) was created to improve an academic achievement test for a unit were followed. In the developmental process of multiple choice test having 25 questions, was prepared to measure the pre-service teachers’ knowledge levels about the earthquake and the ways of protection from earthquakes. The multiple choice test was presented to view of six academics (one of them was from geographic field and five of them were science educator) and two expert teachers in science Prepared test was applied to 93 pre-service teachers studying in elementary education department in 2014-2015 academic years. As a result of validity and reliability of the study, the test was composed of 20 items. As a result of these applications, Pearson Moments Multiplication half-reliability coefficient was found to be 0.94. When this value is adjusted according to Spearman Brown reliability coefficient the reliability coefficient was set at 0.97.

  18. Prior Knowledge about Objects Determines Neural Color Representation in Human Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, A R E; Fahrenfort, J J; Meuwese, J D I; Scholte, H S; Lamme, V A F

    2016-04-01

    To create subjective experience, our brain must translate physical stimulus input by incorporating prior knowledge and expectations. For example, we perceive color and not wavelength information, and this in part depends on our past experience with colored objects ( Hansen et al. 2006; Mitterer and de Ruiter 2008). Here, we investigated the influence of object knowledge on the neural substrates underlying subjective color vision. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, human subjects viewed a color that lay midway between red and green (ambiguous with respect to its distance from red and green) presented on either typical red (e.g., tomato), typical green (e.g., clover), or semantically meaningless (nonsense) objects. Using decoding techniques, we could predict whether subjects viewed the ambiguous color on typical red or typical green objects based on the neural response of veridical red and green. This shift of neural response for the ambiguous color did not occur for nonsense objects. The modulation of neural responses was observed in visual areas (V3, V4, VO1, lateral occipital complex) involved in color and object processing, as well as frontal areas. This demonstrates that object memory influences wavelength information relatively early in the human visual system to produce subjective color vision. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Managing the Social Determinants of Health: Part I: Fundamental Knowledge for Professional Case Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink-Samnick, Ellen

    PRIMARY PRACTICE SETTING(S):: Applicable to health and behavioral health settings, wherever case management is practiced. The SDH pose major challenges to the health care workforce in terms of effective resource provision, health and behavioral health treatment planning plus adherence, and overall coordination of care. Obstacles and variances to needed interventions easily lead to less than optimal outcomes for case managers and their health care organizations. Possessing sound knowledge and clear understanding of each SDH, the historical perspectives, main theories, and integral dynamics, as well as creative resource solutions, all support a higher level of intentional and effective professional case management practice. Those persons and communities impacted most by the SDH comprise every case management practice setting. These clients can be among the most vulnerable and disenfranchised members of society, which can easily engender biases on the part of the interprofessional workforce. They are also among the costliest to care for with 50% of costs for only 5% of the population. Critical attention to knowledge about managing the SDH leverages and informs case management practice, evolves more effective programming, and enhances operational outcomes across practice settings.

  20. Prevalence and determinants of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in lifelines: A large Dutch population cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline H van den Berg

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is an increasing health issue that develops rather unnoticed with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. We investigated prevalence, determinants and associated metabolic abnormalities of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the largest population-based cohort to date.Biochemical characteristics, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome were determined in the Lifelines Cohort Study (N = 167,729, a population-based cohort in the North of the Netherlands. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was defined as Fatty Liver Index (FLI≥60. Exclusion criteria were age <18 years, immigrants, missing data to assess FLI and metabolic syndrome, excessive alcohol use, previous-diagnosed hepatitis or cirrhosis and non-fasting blood sampling.Out of 37,496 included participants (median age 44 years, 62.1% female, 8,259 (22.0% had a FLI≥60. Individuals with a FLI≥60 were more often male, older, obese, had higher levels of hemoglobinA1c, fasting glucose, liver enzymes, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, c-reactive protein and leucocytes and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (all P<0.0001. Participants with a FLI≥60 showed higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (9.3% vs. 1.4%, metabolic syndrome (54.2% vs. 6.2%, impaired renal function (20.1% vs. 8.7% and cardiovascular disease (4.6% vs. 1.6% (all P<0.0001. Multivariable logistic analysis showed that smoking, hemoglobin, leucocytes, c-reactive protein, platelets, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, impaired renal function (OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.15-1.41, metabolic syndrome (OR 11.89, 95%CI 11.03-12.82 and its individual components hyperglycemia (OR 2.53, 95%CI 2.34-2.72, hypertension (OR 1.89, 95%CI 1.77-2.01 and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 3.44, 95%CI 3.22-3.68 were independently associated with suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (all P<0.0001.Twenty

  1. Prevalence of household-level food insecurity and its determinants in an urban resettlement colony in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnakali, Palanivel; Upadhyay, Ravi P; Shokeen, Deepa; Singh, Kavita; Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Arvind K; Goswami, Anil; Yadav, Kapil; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2014-06-01

    An adequate food intake, in terms of quantity and quality, is a key to healthy life. Malnutrition is the most serious consequence of food insecurity and has a multitude of health and economic implications. India has the world's largest population living in slums, and these have largely been underserved areas. The State of Food Insecurity in the World (2012) estimates that India is home to more than 217 million undernourished people. Various studies have been conducted to assess food insecurity at the global level; however, the literature is limited as far as India is concerned. The present study was conducted with the objective of documenting the prevalence of food insecurity at the household level and the factors determining its existence in an urban slum population of northern India. This cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban resettlement colony of South Delhi, India. A pre-designed, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used for collecting socioeconomic details and information regarding dietary practices. Food insecurity was assessed using Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with food insecurity. A total of 250 women were interviewed through house-to-house survey. Majority of the households were having a nuclear family (61.6%), with mean family-size being 5.5 (SD +/- 2.5) and the mean monthly household income being INR 9,784 (SD +/- 631). Nearly half (53.3%) of the mean monthly household income was spent on food. The study found that a total of 77.2% households were food-insecure, with 49.2% households being mildly food-insecure, 18.8% of the households being moderately food-insecure, and 9.2% of the households being severely food-insecure. Higher education of the women handling food (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.92; p insecure. The study demonstrated a high prevalence of food insecurity in the marginalized section of the urban society. The Government of India

  2. The next Sub Saharan African epidemic? A case study of the determinants of cervical cancer knowledge and screening in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangmennaang, Joseph; Onyango, Elizabeth O; Luginaah, Isaac; Elliott, Susan J

    2018-01-01

    Early cervical cancer screening has been shown to be beneficial in reducing cervical cancer related deaths. Despite the benefits of early cervical cancer screening, uptake remains limited, with wide disparities in access and uptake in most developing countries. As part of a larger study, this paper uses a socio-ecological framework to explain the determinants of cervical cancer knowledge and screening among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Kenya. We conducted a multilevel analysis of cervical cancer knowledge (n = 11,138) and screening (n = 10,333) using the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS). Results show regional disparities in cancer knowledge and the utilization of cervical cancer screening services; regions with high wealth inequality (OR = 0.70, 95% CI [0.56-0.87]) emerged as vulnerable regions where women were less likely to screen for cervical cancer. Gender equity, health insurance coverage and education level significantly predicted cervical cancer screening rates. Results further revealed regional as well as rural-urban wealth inequalities in cervical cancer screening. We argue that given that Kenyan women are highly exposed to human papilloma virus (HPV) due to the legacy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the country, cervical cancer may be the next epidemic if integrated measures are not adopted to increase cervical cancer knowledge and overcome the barriers to utilizing early screening services. The paper concludes with policy recommendations and directions for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Young Adults' Belief in Genetic Determinism, and Knowledge and Attitudes towards Modern Genetics and Genomics: The PUGGS Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Rebecca Bruu; Castéra, Jérémy; Gericke, Niklas; Evangelista, Neima Alice Menezes; El-Hani, Charbel N

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present the development and validation a comprehensive questionnaire to assess college students' knowledge about modern genetics and genomics, their belief in genetic determinism, and their attitudes towards applications of modern genetics and genomic-based technologies. Written in everyday language with minimal jargon, the Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics (PUGGS) questionnaire is intended for use in research on science education and public understanding of science, as a means to investigate relationships between knowledge, determinism and attitudes about modern genetics, which are to date little understood. We developed a set of core ideas and initial items from reviewing the scientific literature on genetics and previous studies on public and student knowledge and attitudes about genetics. Seventeen international experts from different fields (e.g., genetics, education, philosophy of science) reviewed the initial items and their feedback was used to revise the questionnaire. We validated the questionnaire in two pilot tests with samples of university freshmen students. The final questionnaire contains 45 items, including both multiple choice and Likert scale response formats. Cronbach alpha showed good reliability for each section of the questionnaire. In conclusion, the PUGGS questionnaire is a reliable tool for investigating public understanding and attitudes towards modern genetics and genomic-based technologies.

  4. Young Adults’ Belief in Genetic Determinism, and Knowledge and Attitudes towards Modern Genetics and Genomics: The PUGGS Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Rebecca Bruu; Castéra, Jérémy; Gericke, Niklas; Evangelista, Neima Alice Menezes

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present the development and validation a comprehensive questionnaire to assess college students’ knowledge about modern genetics and genomics, their belief in genetic determinism, and their attitudes towards applications of modern genetics and genomic-based technologies. Written in everyday language with minimal jargon, the Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics (PUGGS) questionnaire is intended for use in research on science education and public understanding of science, as a means to investigate relationships between knowledge, determinism and attitudes about modern genetics, which are to date little understood. We developed a set of core ideas and initial items from reviewing the scientific literature on genetics and previous studies on public and student knowledge and attitudes about genetics. Seventeen international experts from different fields (e.g., genetics, education, philosophy of science) reviewed the initial items and their feedback was used to revise the questionnaire. We validated the questionnaire in two pilot tests with samples of university freshmen students. The final questionnaire contains 45 items, including both multiple choice and Likert scale response formats. Cronbach alpha showed good reliability for each section of the questionnaire. In conclusion, the PUGGS questionnaire is a reliable tool for investigating public understanding and attitudes towards modern genetics and genomic-based technologies. PMID:28114357

  5. Knowledge and Cooperation Determinants of Innovation Networks: A Mixed-Methods Approach to the Case of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Pinto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic perspectives of innovation integrate complex interrelations among enterprise, science and technology, and governance spheres. Innovation networks are crucial within innovation systems and refer to the linkages of a variety of actors with the purpose of innovation. In this article, the determinants of innovation networks are analyzed using a qualitative original database of online information about 623 organizations in Portugal. A binary econometric regression for all types of entities is estimated. The model underlines that actors using external technologies and promoting knowledge are more likely to innovate. In parallel, actors that are involved in managing and supporting entrepreneurship have a smaller probability to do it. Advanced firms and universities are the actors more willing to dynamically innovate. Specific models for firms and universities create a direct comparison between the determinants in both collectives. While promoting knowledge and specific orientation towards innovation is essential for firms it is not relevant for universities. Managing knowledge is the crucial catalyst for the innovation practices in universities. External technological linkages are essential for both types of actors in the creation of innovation networks. The article concludes with policy implications regarding the support of cooperation activities to instigate innovation.

  6. Prevalence, determinants and clinical correlates of vitamin D deficiency in adults with inhaled corticosteroid-treated asthma in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, David A; Kilpin, Kate; MacLaughlin, Beverley D; Greiller, Claire L; Hooper, Richard L; Barnes, Neil C; Timms, Peter M; Rajakulasingam, Raj K; Bhowmik, Angshu; Choudhury, Aklak B; Simcock, David E; Hyppönen, Elina; Corrigan, Christopher J; Walton, Robert T; Griffiths, Christopher J; Martineau, Adrian R

    2018-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in children with asthma, and it associates with poor asthma control, reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) and increased requirement for inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Cross-sectional studies investigating the prevalence, determinants and clinical correlates of vitamin D deficiency in adults with asthma are lacking. We conducted a multi-centre cross-sectional study in 297 adults with a medical record diagnosis of ICS-treated asthma living in London, UK. Details of potential environmental determinants of vitamin D status, asthma control and medication use were collected by questionnaire; blood samples were taken for analysis of serum 25(OH)D concentration and DNA extraction, and participants underwent measurement of weight, height and fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration (FeNO), spirometry and sputum induction for determination of lower airway eosinophil counts (n=35 sub-group). Thirty-five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 11 vitamin D pathway genes (DBP, DHCR7, RXRA, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP3A4 CYP27A1, LRP2, CUBN, VDR) were typed using Taqman allelic discrimination assays. Linear regression was used to identify environmental and genetic factors independently associated with serum 25(OH)D concentration, and to determine whether vitamin D status was independently associated with Asthma Control Test (ACT) score, ICS dose, FeNO, forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV 1 or lower airway eosinophilia. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 50.6nmol/L (SD 24.9); 162/297 (54.5%) participants were vitamin D deficient (serum 25(OH)D concentration asthma control investigated. Vitamin D deficiency is common among UK adults with ICS-treated asthma, and classical environmental determinants of serum 25(OH)D operate in this population. However, in contrast to studies conducted in children, we found no association between vitamin D status and markers of asthma severity or control. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by

  7. Prevalence and Determinants of Mucous Membrane Irritations in a Community Near a Cement Factory in Zambia: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmy Nkhama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to cement dust has been associated with deleterious health effects in humans. This study investigated whether residing near a cement factory increases the risk of irritations to the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory system. A cross sectional study was conducted in Freedom Compound, a community bordering a cement factory in Chilanga, Zambia and a control community, Bauleni, located 18 km from the cement plant. A modified American Thoracic Society questionnaire was administered to 225 and 198 respondents aged 15–59 years from Freedom and Bauleni, respectively, to capture symptoms of the irritations. Respondents from Freedom Compound, were more likely to experience the irritations; adjusted ORs 2.50 (95% CI: 1.65, 3.79, 4.36 (95% CI (2.96, 6.55 and 1.94 (95% CI (1.19, 3.18 for eye, nose and sinus membrane irritations respectively. Cohort panel studies to determine associations of cement emissions to mucous membrane irritations and respiratory symptoms, coupled with field characterization of the exposure are needed to assess whether the excess prevalence of symptoms of mucous membrane irritations observed in Freedom compound are due to emissions from the cement factory.

  8. Determination of prevalence of dental erosion in 12-14 years school children and its relationship with dietary habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbaz, U.; Hosein, T.; Fauzia, Q.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of dental erosion in 12-14 years school children and its association with dietary habits. Study Design: Observational cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Fatima Jinnah Dental College, Karachi, from January to June 2010. Methodology: School children aged between 12 - 14 years were included in this study. Dental erosion was detected by visual examination. Aself-developed questionnaire was used to assess the dietary habits of children. Acidic diet was considered a diet that has an acidic pH. The amount of consumption of acidic drinks and food per week was categorized into low consumption (1 - 7 times / week) and medium consumption (8 - 21 times / week). Chi-square test was applied to see any statistical difference between diet and tooth erosion at 95 percent CI. Results: The Results showed a high frequency of (46 percent) dental erosion in children, which was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in children with more acidic diet. Conclusion: This study highlights the impact of dietary habits on the prevalence of dental erosion in children. Acidic diets need to be controlled in frequency to prevent dental erosion. (author)

  9. Prevalence and Determinants of Preterm Birth in Tehran, Iran: A Comparison between Logistic Regression and Decision Tree Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Payam; Maroufizadeh, Saman; Samani, Reza Omani; Hamidi, Omid; Sepidarkish, Mahdi

    2017-06-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of neonatal death and the second biggest cause of death in children under five years of age. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of PTB and its associated factors using logistic regression and decision tree classification methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4,415 pregnant women in Tehran, Iran, from July 6-21, 2015. Data were collected by a researcher-developed questionnaire through interviews with mothers and review of their medical records. To evaluate the accuracy of the logistic regression and decision tree methods, several indices such as sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve were used. The PTB rate was 5.5% in this study. The logistic regression outperformed the decision tree for the classification of PTB based on risk factors. Logistic regression showed that multiple pregnancies, mothers with preeclampsia, and those who conceived with assisted reproductive technology had an increased risk for PTB ( p logistic regression model for the classification of risk groups for PTB.

  10. Prevalence and Modifiable Determinants of Non-Adherence in Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients in a German Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Sandra; Morawa, Eva; Stößel, Lisa; Jank, Sabine; Vitinius, Frank; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Erim, Yesim

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence and the modifiable determinants of non-adherence in adult kidney transplant patients in follow-up care. In 74 patients at least six months post-transplant, self-reported adherence (Basel Assessment of Adherence to ImmunosuppressiveMedications Scale, BAASIS©), subjective experience and attitudes after transplantation (Medication Experience Scale for Immunosuppressants, MESI), and depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale,HADSD) were assessed. Non-adherence to any of the four BAASIS© items was 24.3%. For the sub-dimensions: dose taking, drug holidays, timing deviation more than two hours from prescribed time, and dose reduction, the non-adherence levelswere 9.5%, 0%,17.6% and 2.7%, respectively. Marital status, negative beliefs towards immunosuppressants, and prominent anxiety and depression were associated with non-adherence. Screening for adherence and its indicators is of substantial importance in communication with renal transplant recipients. After detecting non-adherence, supportive interventions can be offered to the patients.

  11. Determinants of tobacco use and prevalence of oral precancerous lesions in cab drivers in Bengaluru City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punith Shetty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco is a most important risk factor for various types of cancer as well as some noncommunicable disease. Around 34.6% of Indian population consume tobacco. The tobacco consumption is higher in some vulnerable population such as drivers, daily wage laborers, and policemen. Tobacco consumption is known to cause oral cancers, and screening for oral cancer in these individuals is known to reduce mortality from cancer. The study was designed to assess the determinants of tobacco use and the prevalence of oral precancerous lesions in cab drivers. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study among cab drivers at prepaid taxi counters in Bengaluru city. A total of 450 cab drivers were enrolled in the study, of which 225 cab drivers were interviewed during morning hours and remaining half at night time using a semi-structured questionnaire. All were screened for oral cancer/precancerous lesions. Results: Nearly 70.88% of cab drivers were consuming tobacco in any form. Long working hours, working at night, and family members consuming tobacco were significant risk factors for tobacco use among cab drivers. Forty-eight drivers were detected to have oral precancerous lesions. Conclusions: It was very evident that long hours of driving and infrequent shifts played a greater role in acquiring the habit. Behavioral counseling and new laws need to be formed to limit the working hours in drivers to have an effective tobacco control.

  12. Level of confidence in venepuncture and knowledge in determining causes of blood sample haemolysis among clinical staff and phlebotomists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhumula-Nkhoma, Nellie; Whittaker, Vicki; McSherry, Robert

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the association between confidence level in venepuncture and knowledge in determining causes of blood sample haemolysis among clinical staff and phlebotomists. Various collection methods are used to perform venepuncture, also called phlebotomy, the act of drawing blood from a patient using a needle. The collection method used has an impact on preanalytical blood sample haemolysis. Haemolysis is the breakdown of red blood cells, which makes the sample unsuitable. Despite available evidence on the common causes, extensive literature search showed a lack of published evidence on the association of haemolysis with staff confidence and knowledge. A quantitative primary research design using survey method. A purposive sample of 290 clinical staff and phlebotomists conducting venepuncture in one North England hospital participated in this quantitative survey. A three-section web-based questionnaire comprising demographic profile, confidence and competence levels, and knowledge sections was used to collect data in 2012. The chi-squared test for independence was used to compare the distribution of responses for categorical data. anova was used to determine mean difference in the knowledge scores of staff with different confidence levels. Almost 25% clinical staff and phlebotomists participated in the survey. There was an increase in confidence at the last venepuncture among staff of all categories. While doctors' scores were higher compared with healthcare assistants', p ≤ 0·001, nurses' were of wide range and lowest. There was no statistically significant difference (at the 5% level) in the total knowledge scores and confidence level at the last venepuncture F(2,4·690) = 1·67, p = 0·31 among staff of all categories. Evidence-based measures are required to boost staff knowledge base of preanalytical blood sample haemolysis for standardised and quality service. Monitoring and evaluation of the training, conducting and monitoring haemolysis rate are

  13. Study to Assess the Prevalence of Soft Drinking and its Determinants among the School going Children of Gwalior city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gour

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the time there has been spectrum of changes in the universe. It may be at physical, chemical and cultural level. People have adopted newer life styles like their working style, clothing’s, food habits and so on. One of the pertinent example of this newer food habits is rising consumption of soft drinks rather than traditional home made drinks. This study was aimed to find out various determinants responsible for this rising trend of soft drinking so that effective intervention can be undertaken to overcome this creeping problem. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of soft drinking consumption among the students and to assess the determinants of soft drink consumption among the students. Materials and methods: It was a cross sectional study. A sample of 200 students was selected from the both govt. and private schools by stratified random sampling. Then they all were interviewed by using pre tested, semi structured proforma. Later on data was analyzed manually and by using suitable statistical software. Results: Frequent drinking of soft drinks was found more among the students of private schools than govt. (p < 0.05. A significant association was found between pocket money, TV watching and frequency of soft drinking (p< 0.05.Other reasons which were found to be responsible by far for frequent soft drinking like lack of awareness regarding hazards, frequent TV watching, desire of new taste, lack of health education from the parents side etc. Conclusion: Soft drinking consumption is creeping day by day amongst the children with out knowing their hazards. And they are the future of any country so there should be effective intervention from both sides govt. as well as parents to get rid of it at earliest.

  14. Prevalence, trajectories, and determinants of television viewing time in an ethnically diverse sample of young children from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sally E; Kelly, Brian; Collings, Paul J; Nagy, Liana; Bywater, Tracey; Wright, John

    2017-07-06

    Excessive screen viewing in early childhood is associated with poor physical and psycho-social health and poor cognitive development. This study aimed to understand the prevalence, trajectory and determinants of television viewing time in early childhood to inform intervention development. In this prospective longitudinal study, mothers of 1558 children (589 white British, 757 Pakistani heritage, 212 other ethnicities) completed questionnaires when their children were approximately 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months old. Mothers answered questions about their own and their child's TV-time. TV-time trajectories were estimated by linear longitudinal multilevel modeling, potential determinants were considered in models. The modelled trajectory estimated that 75% of children aged 12 months exceeded guidelines of zero screen-time. At 12 months of age an accelerated increase in TV-time was observed (2 h/day by 30 months old). For every hour of mothers' TV-time and every hour the TV was on in the home, children's TV-time was 8 min and 1 min higher respectively at 6 months old (P child did not watch too much TV, had 17 min more TV-time than their counterparts (P television is on in the home and mothers' attitude towards child TV-time. These behaviours may be key components to address in interventions for parents. Mothers experiencing stress, first time mothers, and Pakistani heritage mothers (particularly those born outside of the UK), may be priority groups for intervention.

  15. Sick at work: prevalence and determinants among healthcare workers, western Ethiopia: an institution based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Tesfaye Hambisa; Tefera, Mekuriaw Alemayewu; Melsew, Yayehirad Alemu

    2018-01-01

    Going to work despite feeling sick also known as sickness presenteeism is one of the emerging global occupational health challenges. Sickness presenteeism negatively affects both health of work forces and productivity of organizations in general. However, there is insufficient research exploring this situation in majority of the Sub-Saharan African countries, including Ethiopia. Thus this study intended to investigate the prevalence and determinant factors of sickness presenteeism among health care workers, Western Ethiopia. This study used an institution based cross-sectional quantitative study design. The study period was from February to March, 2017. We employed simple random sampling method to select 360 study samples. Data collection was performed by pre-tested structured and self- administered questionnaire. We used SPSS version 20 to carry out binary logistic regression analysis. Odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals was calculated and significance of associations was determined at p -value Educational status [AOR:2.1, 95%CI: (1.17,3.90)], financial problem [AOR:1.9,95%CI:(1.07,3.46)], sickness absenteeism [AOR:2.7,95% CI:(1.50,5.02)], lack of staff replacement [AOR:2.7,95%CI:(1.50,5.02)], absence of occupational health services [AOR:3.0,95%CI:(1.34,6.70)], and pressure from supervisor [AOR:1.8,95% CI:(1.01,3.31)] were significant predictors of the dependent variable. Relatively higher proportions of workers indicated sickness presenteeism as compared to other studies. Risk factors like educational status, personal financial problem, sickness absenteeism, lack of staff replacement, absence of occupational health services, and pressure from supervisors considerably increased the likely occurrence of employees' sick attendance. It is advisable for health care managers to hire adequate health care staffs, to implement basic occupational health services and to design strategies which reduce pressure from supervisors.

  16. Local knowledge and socio-economic determinants of traditional medicines' utilization in livestock health management in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafimisebi Taiwo E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Smallholder livestock farmers in Nigeria utilize traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants (PMs for the maintenance of their animals' health. This study was designed to determine the PMs used in the study area and their level of utilization by livestock farmers, compare the level of utilization of PMs across the three states surveyed and identify the socio-economic factors influencing farmer's utilization of PMs. Thirty-five PMs were identified. Farmers had considerable knowledge about the identified PMs but about 80.0% of them used the PMs to poor/moderate extent. There were statistical differences in the utilization level of PMs among the three states. Six socio-economic variables were found to be statistically significant in influencing PMs' utilization. Farmer's age, household size, distance to the nearest veterinary hospital/clinic and extent of travels, had positive effects while negative effects were exhibited by farm income and number of heads of livestock. It was concluded that there was considerable knowledge about PMs and that utilization of PMs varied between the three states. It was recommended that local knowledge of PMs be preserved in the study area through screening and documentation.

  17. Prevalence, specificity and determinants of lipid-interacting PDZ domains from an in-cell screen and in vitro binding experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylva Ivarsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PDZ domains are highly abundant protein-protein interaction modules involved in the wiring of protein networks. Emerging evidence indicates that some PDZ domains also interact with phosphoinositides (PtdInsPs, important regulators of cell polarization and signaling. Yet our knowledge on the prevalence, specificity, affinity, and molecular determinants of PDZ-PtdInsPs interactions and on their impact on PDZ-protein interactions is very limited. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened the human proteome for PtdInsPs interacting PDZ domains by a combination of in vivo cell-localization studies and in vitro dot blot and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR experiments using synthetic lipids and recombinant proteins. We found that PtdInsPs interactions contribute to the cellular distribution of some PDZ domains, intriguingly also in nuclear organelles, and that a significant subgroup of PDZ domains interacts with PtdInsPs with affinities in the low-to-mid micromolar range. In vitro specificity for the head group is low, but with a trend of higher affinities for more phosphorylated PtdInsPs species. Other membrane lipids can assist PtdInsPs-interactions. PtdInsPs-interacting PDZ domains have generally high pI values and contain characteristic clusters of basic residues, hallmarks that may be used to predict additional PtdInsPs interacting PDZ domains. In tripartite binding experiments we established that peptide binding can either compete or cooperate with PtdInsPs binding depending on the combination of ligands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our screen substantially expands the set of PtdInsPs interacting PDZ domains, and shows that a full understanding of the biology of PDZ proteins will require a comprehensive insight into the intricate relationships between PDZ domains and their peptide and lipid ligands.

  18. Prevalence and determinants of caesarean section in private and public health facilities in underserved South Asian communities: Cross-sectional analysis of data from Bangladesh, India and Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Neuman (Melissa); G. Alcock (Glyn); K. Azad (Kishwar); A. Kuddus (Abdul); D. Osrin (David); N. Shah More (Neena); N. Nair (Nirmala); P. Tripathy (Prasanta); C. Sikorski (Catherine); N. Saville (Naomi); A. Sen (Aman); T. Colbourn (Tim); A.J. Houweling (Tanja); N. Seward (Nadine); A. Manandhar; B. Shrestha (Bhim); A. Costello (Anthony); A. Prost (Audrey)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To describe the prevalence and determinants of births by caesarean section in private and public health facilities in underserved communities in South Asia. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: 81 community-based geographical clusters in four locations in Bangladesh, India

  19. Self-Reported Exercise Prevalence and Determinants in the Long Term After Stroke: The North East Melbourne Stroke Incidence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Dawn; Callisaya, Michele L; English, Coralie; Thrift, Amanda G; Gall, Seana L

    2017-12-01

    Exercise has established benefits following stroke. We aimed to describe self-reported exercise 5 and 10 years after stroke, change in exercise over time, and to identify factors associated with long-term exercise. Data on exercise (defined as 20 minutes' duration, causing sweating and increased heart rate) were obtained by questionnaire from a population-based stroke incidence study with 10-year follow-up. For change in exercise between 5 and 10 years (n = 276), we created 4 categories of exercise (no exercise, ceased exercising, commenced exercising, continued exercising). Multinomial regression determined associations between exercise categories and exercising before stroke, receiving exercise advice and functional ability and demographic factors. The prevalence of exercise at 5 years (n = 520) was 18.5% (n = 96) (mean age 74.7 [standard deviation {SD} 14] years, 50.6% male) and 24% (n = 78) at 10 years. In those with data at both 5 and 10 years (mean age 69 [standard deviation 14] years, 52.9% male), 15% (n = 42) continued exercising, 10% (n = 27) commenced exercising, 14% (n = 38) ceased exercising, and 61% (n = 169) reported no exercise. Continued exercise was associated with younger age (relative risk [RR] .47 95% confidence interval [CI] .25-0.89), greater Barthel score (RR 2.97 95% CI 1.00-8.86), independent walking (RR 2.32 95% CI 1.16-4.68), better quality of life (RR 10.9 95% CI 2.26-52.8), exercising before stroke (RR 16.0 95%CI 4.98-51.5), and receiving advice to exercise (RR 2.99 95% CI 1.73-5.16). Few people exercise after stroke and fewer commence exercise long term. Innovative interventions to promote and maintain exercise are required after stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and determinations of physical inactivity among public hospital employees in Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjian; Cheng, Minna; Zhang, Hao; Ke, Ting; Chen, Yisheng

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to explore the prevalence and determinations of physical inactivity among hospital employees in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional study of 4612 employees aged 19 to 68 years was conducted through stratified cluster sampling from different classes of Shanghai hospitals in 2011. The total physical activity was evaluated using the metabolic equivalent according to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Among the participants, 38.5%, 32.3%, and 64.6% of the employees are inactive at work, commuting, and taking leisure time, respectively. Up to 41.8% of the men and 37.8% of the women (P = 0.012) are physically inactive. When the age and educational level are adjusted, male doctors and medical technicians show a higher percentage of physical inactivity than male workers in logistics (P = 0.001). Among females, employees who are working in second- and third-class hospitals show a higher proportion of physical inactivity than those who are working in community health care centers. Logistic regression analyses show that the odds ratios (ORs) of leisure-time physical inactivity associated with the intensity of physical activity at work are 2.259, 2.897, and 4.266 for men (P physical inactivity in either sex (OR = 2.116 for men and 2.173 for women, P employees, particularly doctors and medical technicians, show a higher proportion of physical inactivity than other inhabitants in Shanghai. The time and intensity of activity at work and commuting are associated with leisure-time activities.

  1. Determination of the prevalence of whole blood taurine in Irish wolfhound dogs with and without echocardiographic evidence of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmar, Andrea C; Fox, Philip R; Servet, Eric; Biourge, Vincent

    2013-09-01

    Taurine plays an important role in maintaining myocardial function. Irish wolfhound dogs (IW) are at risk for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), but a relationship between whole blood taurine (WBT) deficiency and DCM has not been established. Our aim was to determine prevalence of WBT deficiency in IW with and without DCM and assess its association with diet. 115 privately owned IW. Whole blood taurine was measured in IW that received cardiovascular examination. Dietary history was recorded; crude protein and energy intake were estimated. Forty-nine (42.6%) had DCM; 66 (57.4%) had no DCM. Dogs with DCM were older ([median; inter-quartile range or IQR] 5.3; 4.3, 6.2 years) than dogs without heart disease (3; 2, 4 years; P < 0.001). There was no significant relationship between WBT concentration and age (P = 0.64). Whole blood taurine was severely reduced (<130 nmol/mL) in 8 dogs (4 with and 4 without DCM) and moderately reduced (130-179.9 nmol/mL) in 32 dogs (12 with DCM and 20 without DCM). Follow up of dogs without DCM revealed that a higher proportion of dogs with any degree of WBT deficiency developed DCM later compared to dogs with normal WBT (P < 0.001). Whole blood taurine deficiency occurred in IW with and without DCM. Based on taurine measurement on a single occasion, there was no clear relationship between low WBT and presence of DCM in this population. Regardless of WBT, DCM affected predominantly older dogs, suggesting a relatively late onset disease in the IW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. HIV prevalence and demographic determinants of condomless receptive anal intercourse among trans feminine individuals in Beirut, Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel L Kaplan; Justine McGowan; Glenn J Wagner

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Growing evidence suggests increased HIV incidence in the Middle East and North Africa among “key populations.” To date, epidemiological data have not accurately included and measured HIV prevalence and risk among trans feminine individuals in the region. Through the lens of the Gender Affirmation Framework, we assessed demographic correlates of risk behaviour and the prevalence of HIV among trans feminine individuals in Lebanon. Methods: Long-chain referral sampling was used to ...

  3. New knowledge in determining the astronomical orientation of Incas object in Ollantaytambo, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzalová, K.; Klokočník, J.; Kostelecký, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper deals about astronomical orientation of Incas objects in Ollantaytambo, which is located about 35 km southeast from Machu Picchu, about 40 km northwest from Cusco, and lies in the Urubamba valley. Everybody writing about Ollantaytambo, shoud read Protzen (1993). He devoted his monograph to description and interpretation of that locality. Book of Salazar and Salazar (2005) deals, among others, with the orientation of objects in Ollantaytambo with respect to the cardinal direction. Zawaski and Malville (2007) documented astronomical context of major monuments of nine sites in Peru, including Ollantaytambo. We tested astronomical orientation in these places and confirm or disprove hypothesis about purpose of Incas objects. For assessment orientation of objects we used our measurements and also satellite images on Google Earth and digital elevation model from ASTER. The satellite images used to approximate estimation of astronomical orientation. The digital elevation model is useful in the mountains, where we need the really horizon for a calculation of sunset and sunrise on specific days (solstices), which were for Incas people very important. By Incas is very famous that they worshiped the Sun. According to him they determined when to plant and when to harvest the crop. In this paper we focused on Temple of the Sun, also known the Wall of six monoliths. We tested which astronomical phenomenon is connected with this Temple. First, we tested winter solstice sunrise and the rides of the Pleiades for the epochs 2000, 1500 and 1000 A.D. According with our results the Temple isn't connected neither with winter solstice sunrise nor with the Pleiades. Then we tested also winter solstice sunset. We tried to use the line from an observation point near ruins of the Temple of Sun, to west-north, in direction to sunset. The astronomical azimuth from this point was about 5° less then we need. From this results we found, that is possible to find another observation

  4. New knowledge in determining the astronomical orientation of Incas object in Ollantaytambo, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hanzalová

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals about astronomical orientation of Incas objects in Ollantaytambo, which is located about 35 km southeast from Machu Picchu, about 40 km northwest from Cusco, and lies in the Urubamba valley. Everybody writing about Ollantaytambo, shoud read Protzen (1993. He devoted his monograph to description and interpretation of that locality. Book of Salazar and Salazar (2005 deals, among others, with the orientation of objects in Ollantaytambo with respect to the cardinal direction. Zawaski and Malville (2007 documented astronomical context of major monuments of nine sites in Peru, including Ollantaytambo. We tested astronomical orientation in these places and confirm or disprove hypothesis about purpose of Incas objects. For assessment orientation of objects we used our measurements and also satellite images on Google Earth and digital elevation model from ASTER. The satellite images used to approximate estimation of astronomical orientation. The digital elevation model is useful in the mountains, where we need the really horizon for a calculation of sunset and sunrise on specific days (solstices, which were for Incas people very important. By Incas is very famous that they worshiped the Sun. According to him they determined when to plant and when to harvest the crop. In this paper we focused on Temple of the Sun, also known the Wall of six monoliths. We tested which astronomical phenomenon is connected with this Temple. First, we tested winter solstice sunrise and the rides of the Pleiades for the epochs 2000, 1500 and 1000 A.D. According with our results the Temple isn't connected neither with winter solstice sunrise nor with the Pleiades. Then we tested also winter solstice sunset. We tried to use the line from an observation point near ruins of the Temple of Sun, to west-north, in direction to sunset. The astronomical azimuth from this point was about 5° less then we need. From this results we found, that is possible to find another

  5. American Contact Dermatitis Society Contact Allergy Management Program: An Epidemiologic Tool to Determine Relative Prevalence of Contact Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheman, Andrew; Severson, David

    2016-01-01

    Data on the prevalence of contact allergy in North America are currently reported by groups of academic contact allergy specialists at select academic centers. Sampling of data from numerous centers across North America, including practices performing more limited patch testing, would provide a broader perspective of contact allergen prevalence in North America. The American Contact Dermatitis Society Contact Allergy Management Program is an ideal tool for collection of epidemiologic data regarding contact allergy prevalence in North America. The aim of the study was to identify the relative prevalence of contact allergy to common contact allergens in North America. Mapping of Contact Allergy Management Program (CAMP) data was performed to allow analysis of how frequently searches were performed for various contact allergens. The number of searches performed for specific allergens provides a measure of the relative prevalence of contact allergy to these allergens. The top 35 allergens for the period from November 18, 2012 to November 18, 2013 are reported. Although these data are useful, specific recommendations for minor alterations to CAMP are discussed, which will allow future CAMP data to be stratified and more powerful. With minor modifications, CAMP can provide a quantum leap in the reporting of contact allergy epidemiologic data in North America.

  6. Determinants and prevalence of e-cigarette use throughout the European Union: a secondary analysis of 26 566 youth and adults from 27 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Filippidis, Filippos T; Agaku, Israel T

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the prevalence and determinants of e-cigarette use among persons aged ≥15 years in 27 European Union (EU) member countries during 2012. The 2012 Eurobarometer 385 (77.1) survey was analysed for n=26 566 respondents. Knowledge, perception of harm, and determinants of e-cigarettes use were assessed, while separate regression analyses among current (n=7352) and former cigarette smokers (n=5782) were performed. National estimates of the number of e-cigarette users were also extrapolated. 20.3% of current smokers, 4.7% of ex-smokers, and 1.2% of never cigarette smokers in the EU reported having ever used an e-cigarette (overall approximately 29.3 million adults). Among smokers, ever e-cigarette use was more likely among 15-24-year-olds (aOR 3.13, 95% CI 2.22 to 4.54) and 25-39-year-olds (aOR 2.00, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.78) in comparison to older smokers, and among those who smoked 6-10 cigarettes/day (aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.13) or 11-20 cigarettes/day (aOR 2.07, 95% CI 1.52 to 2.81) in comparison to very light smokers (≤5 cigarettes/day). Moreover, e-cigarette use was more likely among smokers who had made a past year quit attempt (aOR 2.08, 95% CI 1.67 to 2.58). E-cigarette use among ex-smokers was associated only with the respondents' age, with younger ex-smokers being more likely to have ever used an e-cigarette. A substantial number of EU adults have ever used e-cigarettes. Ever users were more likely to be younger, current smokers, or past-year quit attempters. These findings underscore the need to evaluate the potential long term impact of e-cigarette use on consumer health, cessation and nicotine addiction and formulate a European framework for e-cigarette regulation within the revised EU Tobacco Product Directive. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Scientometric and patentometric analyses to determine the knowledge landscape in innovative technologies: The case of 3D bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Salvador, Marisela; Rio-Belver, Rosa María; Garechana-Anacabe, Gaizka

    2017-01-01

    This research proposes an innovative data model to determine the landscape of emerging technologies. It is based on a competitive technology intelligence methodology that incorporates the assessment of scientific publications and patent analysis production, and is further supported by experts' feedback. It enables the definition of the growth rate of scientific and technological output in terms of the top countries, institutions and journals producing knowledge within the field as well as the identification of main areas of research and development by analyzing the International Patent Classification codes including keyword clusterization and co-occurrence of patent assignees and patent codes. This model was applied to the evolving domain of 3D bioprinting. Scientific documents from the Scopus and Web of Science databases, along with patents from 27 authorities and 140 countries, were retrieved. In total, 4782 scientific publications and 706 patents were identified from 2000 to mid-2016. The number of scientific documents published and patents in the last five years showed an annual average growth of 20% and 40%, respectively. Results indicate that the most prolific nations and institutions publishing on 3D bioprinting are the USA and China, including the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA), Nanyang Technological University (Singapore) and Tsinghua University (China), respectively. Biomaterials and Biofabrication are the predominant journals. The most prolific patenting countries are China and the USA; while Organovo Holdings Inc. (USA) and Tsinghua University (China) are the institutions leading. International Patent Classification codes reveal that most 3D bioprinting inventions intended for medical purposes apply porous or cellular materials or biologically active materials. Knowledge clusters and expert drivers indicate that there is a research focus on tissue engineering including the fabrication of organs, bioinks and new 3D bioprinting systems. Our

  8. Rapid integrated clinical survey to determine prevalence and co-distribution patterns of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis in a Loa loa co-endemic area: The Angolan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Brito

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Angola is a priority country for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF elimination, however, the co-distribution of the filarial parasite Loa loa (loiasis is a significant impediment, due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs associated with ivermectin used in mass drug administration (MDA campaigns. Angola has a high risk loiasis zone identified in Bengo Province where alternative interventions may need to be implemented; however, the presence and geographical overlap of the three filarial infections/diseases are not well defined. Therefore, this study conducted a rapid integrated filarial mapping survey based on readily identifiable clinical conditions of each disease in this risk zone to help determine prevalence and co-distribution patterns in a timely manner with limited resources. In total, 2007 individuals from 29 communities in five provincial municipalities were surveyed. Community prevalence estimates were determined by the rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA and rapid epidemiological mapping of onchocerciasis (REMO together with two questions on LF clinical manifestations (presence of lymphoedema, hydrocoele. Overall low levels of endemicity, with different overlapping distributions were found. Loiasis was found in 18 communities with a prevalence of 2.0% (31/1571, which contrasted to previous results defining the area as a high risk zone. Onchocerciasis prevalence was 5.3% (49/922 in eight communities, and LF prevalence was 0.4% for lymphoedema (8/2007 and 2.6% for hydrocoeles (20/761 males in seven and 12 communities respectively. The clinical mapping survey method helped to highlight that all three filarial infections are present in this zone of Bengo Province. However, the significant difference in loiasis prevalence found between the past and this current survey suggests that further studies including serological and parasitological confirmation are required. This will help determine levels

  9. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Questionnaire Based on the Nursing Outcomes Classification to Determine the Knowledge of Parents on Breast-Feeding: Research Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloma-Castro, Olga; Romero-Sánchez, José Manuel; Paramio-Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Pastor-Montero, Sonia María; Del Carmen Sánchez-Dalda, María; Rozadillas-Sanmiguel, Elena; Moreno-Corral, Luis Javier

    2017-04-01

    To develop and psychometrically evaluate a questionnaire based on the outcome "Knowledge: Breast-feeding" of the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) to determine the knowledge of parents on breast-feeding. The NOC outcome "Knowledge: Breast-feeding" allows for nurses/midwives to assess the efficacy of interventions aimed to improve the knowledge on breast-feeding in parents thought the clinical interview/observation. However, the use of self-administered questionnaires by patients could facilitate its evaluation. Two-phased study: (1) Development of the questionnaire based on experts' opinions; (2) Methodological design to assess its psychometric properties. The availability of tools that enable the determination of the knowledge of patients would facilitate nurses/midwives to set objectives, individualize interventions, and measure their effectiveness. © 2015 NANDA International, Inc.

  10. Prevalência e fatores determinantes do consumo de medicamentos no Município de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil Prevalence and determinants of medicines consumption in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

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    Paulo Sérgio Dourado Arrais

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por finalidade investigar a prevalência e os determinantes do consumo de medicamentos pela população de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. Com base em um delineamento transversal de base populacional, estudou-se uma amostra representativa de 331 domicílios, onde foram entrevistadas 1.370 pessoas, no período de outubro/2002 a janeiro/2003. Foram consideradas consumidoras de medicamentos todas as pessoas que nos 15 dias anteriores à entrevista tenham consumido pelo menos um medicamento. Para análise estatística foram incluídas 1.366 pessoas. A prevalência do consumo de medicamentos foi de 49,7%. Os fatores preditores do consumo na análise multivariada, por regressão logística, foram: renda familiar mensal maior que três salários mínimos, idade igual ou maior que 50 anos, sexo feminino, três ou menos pessoas por domicílio, doente crônico, ter plano de saúde e ter se consultado uma ou mais vezes nos últimos três meses. A prevalência do consumo de medicamentos em Fortaleza é elevada, mas encontra-se dentro dos parâmetros encontrados no Brasil e no exterior. No entanto, sugere que existe uma iniqüidade no acesso aos medicamentos.The objective of this work was to investigate the prevalence and determinants of medicines consumption in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative sample of 331 households. A total of 1,370 persons living in Fortaleza were interviewed from October 2002 to January 2003, and 1,366 were selected for this study. Consumers were defined as all persons having used one or more drugs during the preceding 15 days. The prevalence of medicine consumption was 49.7%. The following were the predictive factors for medicines consumption according to the multivariate logistic regression analysis: family income > 3 minimum wages, older age ( > or = 50, female gender, > or = 3 persons living in household, chronic disease, having a health

  11. Prevalence and Determinants of Falls among Older Adults in Ecuador: An Analysis of the SABE I Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orces, Carlos H

    2013-01-01

    The present study based on a nationally representative sample of older adults living in the Andes mountains and coastal region of the country indicates that 34.7% of older adults had fallen in the previous year in Ecuador. Among fallers, 30.6% reported a fall-related injury. The prevalence of falls was higher in women and among older adults residing in the rural Andes mountains. In the multivariate model, women, subjects with cognitive impairment, those reporting urinary incontinence, and those being physically active during the previous year were variables found independently associated with increased risk of falling among older adults in Ecuador. Moreover, a gradual and linear increase in the prevalence of falls was seen as the number of risk factors increased. Falls represent a major public health problem among older adults in Ecuador. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement programs of awareness and fall prevention among older adults at higher risk of falls.

  12. Review and determine the factors influencing knowledge sharing using grounded theory and techniques using Dematel-ISM Fuzzy

    OpenAIRE

    Peyman Akhavan; Sanaz Imani

    2016-01-01

    In today's competitive world, knowledge and use of knowledge is a competitive advantage that it makes the administration more efficient and effective management of a true knowledge. Therefore, this study attempted to collect and identify the factors influencing knowledge sharing. In the present study in terms of purpose and using grounded theory methodology classified in nine categories including cultural, leadership, social, personal, business, motivational, organizational, technological,...

  13. Prevalence and demographic determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the Turkish general population: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Zeynel

    2012-08-01

    We aimed to establish the prevalence and demographic determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease in the Turkish general population using the Turkish version of the gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaire. A total of 8143 volunteers (mean age: 38.5 (13.3) years; 52.3% males) were included in this cross-sectional questionnaire study conducted via face-to-face administration of the questionnaire forms including items on sociodemographic features, past history of gastric disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, the influence of reflux symptoms on patients' lives, physician visits, diagnostic tests, and reflux medications. A past history of gastric symptoms was reported in half of the population. More female participants (p<0.001) had a past history of gastric symptoms that yielded a previous diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease in 19.1% of the population. The likelihood of gastroesophageal reflux disease was low in the majority (75.3%) of the subjects evaluated. Gastroesophageal reflux disease with an inconveniencing or disrupting impact on the patient's life was present in 17.9% and 6.8% of the population. Total gastroesophageal reflux disease-questionnaire scores and reflux prevalence were higher in older age groups (p<0.001). Females were more likely to have gastroesophageal reflux disease prevalence based on reflux symptoms. The impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease on sleep and psychological/emotional well-being was more pronounced in older and female patients, whereas the impact on eating/drinking behaviors and physical-social activities was more marked among females independent of their age (p<0.001). Reflux prevalence was higher in subjects from East Anatolia, Central Anatolia, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions of Turkey (p<0.001 for each). Prevalence and demographic determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease are compatible with the profile of the disease in the other Western populations, with a predilection for females and

  14. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh

    2015-01-01

    Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design. Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%), Moldova (51.1%), Ukraine (52%), Azerbaijan (49.8 %), Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 %) and Albania (42.52%) but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81%) and Jordan (17.96%). The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %). Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single. Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  15. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking.Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design.Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%, Moldova (51.1%, Ukraine (52%, Azerbaijan (49.8 %, Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 % and Albania (42.52% but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81% and Jordan (17.96%. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %. Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single.Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  16. Prevalence and Determinants of Falls among Older Adults in Ecuador: An Analysis of the SABE I Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Orces, Carlos H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study based on a nationally representative sample of older adults living in the Andes mountains and coastal region of the country indicates that 34.7% of older adults had fallen in the previous year in Ecuador. Among fallers, 30.6% reported a fall-related injury. The prevalence of falls was higher in women and among older adults residing in the rural Andes mountains. In the multivariate model, women, subjects with cognitive impairment, those reporting urinary incontinence, and tho...

  17. Prevalence and determinants of khat (Catha edulis chewing among high school students in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Ayalu A Reda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Use of psychoactive drugs such as khat leaves (Catha edulis alter moods and emotional state and lead to adverse effects on the health and social life of users. Ethiopia is a major producer and exporter of khat in east Africa and the majority of the khat comes from the eastern part of the country, however, no studies have been conducted to investigate the habit in this area. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing among high school students in Harar, eastern Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted among 1,890 secondary school students in Harar town in April 2010. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing. RESULT: The overall prevalence of khat chewing among the sample was 24.2% (95% CI 22.2%-26.2%. About 28.5% of females and 71.5% of males had chewed khat. Older age (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.16-1.49, male gender (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.50-2.93, Muslim religion (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.17-3.04, having friends who chewed khat (OR 7.93; 95% CI 5.40-11.64, and availability of someone with a similar habit in the family (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.07-2.11 were found to be independent predictors of chewing. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of students chew khat. The use of khat is significantly associated with age, gender, Muslim religion, peer influence and habit of family and other relatives among students. Measures such as educational campaigns need to be instituted to create awareness among school adolescents and their parents in order to reduce the prevalence of the habit and its adverse social and health consequences.

  18. Prevalence and determinants of khat (Catha edulis) chewing among high school students in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Ayalu A; Moges, Asmamaw; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Wondmagegn, Berhanu Y

    2012-01-01

    Use of psychoactive drugs such as khat leaves (Catha edulis) alter moods and emotional state and lead to adverse effects on the health and social life of users. Ethiopia is a major producer and exporter of khat in east Africa and the majority of the khat comes from the eastern part of the country, however, no studies have been conducted to investigate the habit in this area. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing among high school students in Harar, eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted among 1,890 secondary school students in Harar town in April 2010. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing. The overall prevalence of khat chewing among the sample was 24.2% (95% CI 22.2%-26.2%). About 28.5% of females and 71.5% of males had chewed khat. Older age (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.16-1.49), male gender (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.50-2.93), Muslim religion (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.17-3.04), having friends who chewed khat (OR 7.93; 95% CI 5.40-11.64), and availability of someone with a similar habit in the family (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.07-2.11) were found to be independent predictors of chewing. A significant proportion of students chew khat. The use of khat is significantly associated with age, gender, Muslim religion, peer influence and habit of family and other relatives among students. Measures such as educational campaigns need to be instituted to create awareness among school adolescents and their parents in order to reduce the prevalence of the habit and its adverse social and health consequences.

  19. Review and determine the factors influencing knowledge sharing using grounded theory and techniques using Dematel-ISM Fuzzy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Akhavan

    2016-12-01

    The results show that components of culture as a social and technological factors as mainly Most influential and knowledge sharing are factors before any activity in knowledge management, investment culture should be discussed, as well as factors other than cultural factors such as leadership and management, interpersonal, motivational and other factors affecting job or are due for knowledge sharingprocess.

  20. Knowledge Level and Determinants of Neonatal Jaundice: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Effutu Municipality of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontor, Kate Adomakowaah; Bentsil, Joseph-Josiah; Anderson, Maxwell; Nsiah, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Background Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a major cause of hospital admission during the neonatal period and is associated with significant mortality. This case-control study with cross-sectional design sought to identify the possible factors associated with neonatal jaundice and assess maternal knowledge level of this condition. Methods One hundred and fifty (150) neonates comprising 100 with clinically evident jaundice and 50 without jaundice were conveniently recruited from the Trauma and Specialist Hospital in the Effutu Municipality. Blood samples were collected for the determination of serum bilirubin, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), status and blood group (ABO and Rhesus). Well-structured questionnaire was used to collect maternal and neonate sociodemographic and clinical history. Results Majority (54%) of neonates developed jaundice within 1–3 days after birth with 10% having it at birth. Duration of labour and neonatal birth weight were associated with neonatal jaundice (P jaundice and ABO incompatibility was present in 18%. Neonates delivered by mothers with formal occupation and those who had prolonged duration of labour were significantly more likely to have neonatal jaundice (OR = 4.174, P = 0.003; OR = 2.389, P = 0.025, resp.). Neonates with low birth weight were also more likely to develop neonatal jaundice (OR = 2.347, P = 0.044). Only 17.3% of mothers had heard of neonatal jaundice. School was the major source of information on neonatal jaundice (34.6%). Majority of participants (mothers) did not know that NNJ can cause damage to other organs in the body (90%). Conclusion Low neonatal birth weight and prolonged duration of labour are associated with neonatal jaundice. Mothers had inadequate knowledge of neonatal jaundice and its causes. PMID:29686715

  1. Determinants of knowledge translation from health technology assessment to policy-making in China: From the perspective of researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbin; Shi, Lizheng; Pong, Raymond W.; Dong, Hengjin; Mao, Yiwei; Tang, Meng; Chen, Yingyao

    2018-01-01

    Background For health technology assessment (HTA) to be more policy relevant and for health technology-related decision-making to be truly evidence-based, promoting knowledge translation (KT) is of vital importance. Although some research has focused on KT of HTA, there is a dearth of literature on KT determinants and the situation in developing countries and transitional societies remains largely unknown. Objective To investigate the determinants of HTA KT from research to health policy-making from the perspective of researchers in China. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods A structured questionnaire which focused on KT was distributed to HTA researchers in China. KT activity levels in various fields of HTA research were compared, using one-way ANOVA. Principal component analysis was performed to provide a basis to combine similar variables. To investigate the determinants of KT level, multiple linear regression analysis was performed. Results Based on a survey of 382 HTA researchers, it was found that HTA KT wasn’t widespread in China. Furthermore, results showed that no significant differences existed between the various HTA research fields. Factors, such as attitudes of researchers toward HTA and evidence utilization, academic ranks and linkages between researchers and policy-makers, had significant impact on HTA KT (p-valuespolicy-makers, policy-relevance of HTA research, practicality of HTA outcomes and making HTA reports easier to understand also contributed to predicting KT level. However, academic nature of HTA research was negatively associated with KT level. Conclusion KT from HTA to policy-making was influenced by many factors. Of particular importance were collaborations between researchers and policy-makers, ensuring policy relevance of HTA and making HTA evidence easier to understand by potential users. PMID:29300753

  2. Prevalence of high bloodpressure, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and their determinants in Ethiopia: Evidences from the National NCDs STEPS Survey, 2015.

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    Yeweyenhareg Feleke Gebreyes

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetes, dyslipidemias, and high blood pressure is increasing worldwide especially in low and middle income countries. World Health Organization has emphasized the importance of the assessment of the magnitude of the specific disease in each country. We determined the prevalence and determinant factors of high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemias and metabolic syndrome in Ethiopia. A community based survey was conducted from -April to June 2015 using WHO NCD STEPS instrument version 3.1. 2008. Multistage stratified systemic random sampling was used to select representative samples from 9 regions of the country. A total of 10,260 people aged 15-69 years participated in the study. Blood pressure (BP was measured for 9788 individuals. A total of 9141 people underwent metabolic screening. The prevalence of raised blood pressure (SBP ≥140 and/or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg was 15.8% (16.3% in females and 15.5% in males. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (FBS ≥ 126 mg /dl including those on medication was 3.2% (3.5% males and 3.0% females. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 9.1% with ADA criteria and 3.8% with WHO criteria. Hypercholesterolemia was found in 5.2%, hypertriglyceridemia in 21.0%, high LDL cholesterol occurred in 14.1% and low HDL cholesterol occurred in 68.7%. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome using IDF definition was 4.8% (8.6% in females and vs. 1.8% in males. Advanced age, urban residence, lack of physical exercise, raised waist circumference, raised waist hip ratio, overweight or obesity, and total blood cholesterol were significantly associated with raised blood pressure (BP and diabetes mellitus. Increased waist- hip ratio was an independent predictor of raised blood pressure, hyperglycemia and raised total cholesterol. Our study showed significantly high prevalence of raised blood pressure, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in Ethiopia. Community based interventions are recommended to control these

  3. The varying distribution of intra- and inter-vertebral height ratios determines the prevalence of vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebaze, Roger Martin Djoumessi; Djoumessi, Roger Martin Zebaze; Maalouf, Ghassan; Wehbe, Joseph; Nehme, Alexandre; Maalouf, Naim; Seeman, Ego

    2004-08-01

    Credible inferences regarding the burden of vertebral fractures (VFs) cannot be made without a globally accepted quantitative definition of 'fracture'. Currently, differences in anterior, middle, or posterior vertebral heights (VHs) within a vertebra, or between adjacent vertebrae, are used to define 'fracture'. However, VH differences are essential for the construction of thoracolumbar curves, evolutionary adaptations that provide stability in bipedal stance and gait. As there is no reference standard to distinguish anatomical variation from fracture, approaches to defining a VF use a reference range of VH ratios derived in premenopausal women or derived by trimming, a method that iteratively removes the tails of a distribution of VH ratios to produce a normal distribution. From this, reference ranges of VH ratio means and standard deviations (SDs) are obtained and a nominal deviation of 15% or more, or 3 SD or more is regarded as a 'fracture'. We measured VHs by quantitative vertebral morphometry (QVM) and bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 697 Lebanese women (age 20-89 years) to compare the prevalence of VF ascertained by published methods and a new method that uses the premenopausal range (without trimming) and requires two VH abnormalities. VF prevalence using published methods reached 60% to 70% in pre- and post-menopausal women, and in women with normal or high BMD because VH ratios were not normally distributed and cut-offs used to define VF fracture fell within the observed distribution of the data. The new method resulted in a VF prevalence of 3.3% in younger and 14% in older women, 7% (high), 10% (middle), and 20% (low) BMD tertiles consistent with the notion that the method detected VF due to bone fragility. We suggest that using a fixed trimming method to define reference range and cut-offs or applying fixed cut-offs to identify VFs in populations, where these ratios are not normally distributed, may result in the capture

  4. The Southern French registry of genetic hemochromatosis: a tool for determining clinical prevalence of the disorder and genotype penetrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Martinez, Patricia; Bismuth, Michael; Blanc, François; Blanc, Pierre; Cunat, Severine; Dereure, Olivier; Dujols, Pierre; Giansily-Blaizot, Muriel; Jorgensen, Christian; Konate, Amadou; Larrey, Dominique; Le Quellec, Alain; Mura, Thibault; Raingeard, Isabelle; Ramos, Jeanne; Renard, Eric; Rousseau, Florence; Schved, Jean-François; Picot, Marie-Christine

    2010-04-01

    Despite great progress in understanding the mechanisms underlying genetic hemochromatosis, data on the prevalence and the penetrance of the disorder are conflicting. A registry of patients with genetic hemochromatosis was established in the South of France and a regional health network was developed to allow the inclusion of all the diagnosed patients. C282Y homozygous patients classified in stages 2 (biological iron overload), 3 and 4 (clinical manifestations of iron overload, stage 4 being the more severe) according to the classification of the French National Authority for Health were included in the registry over a 6-year period. A total of 352 symptomatic C282Y homozygotes were identified, resulting in a total prevalence of 1.83 per 10,000 (95% CI: 1.63 to 2.02) in subjects over 20 years and 2.40 per 10,000 (95% CI, 2.15 to 2.65) among subjects of European descent. Among Europeans, the total calculated penetrance was 15.8% in stage 2 or higher, 12.1% in stage 3 or 4 and 2.9% in stage 4. The penetrance was slightly higher in males (18.7%) than in females (13.2%). It was 19.9% for individuals over 40 years of age (24.1% and 16.3% in males and females, respectively) with a maximum of 31% in subjects between 50 and 54 years old. Among 249 patients with complete records, 24% were in stage 2, the majority (58%) were in stage 3, and 18% in stage 4. There was a higher proportion of males, and excessive alcohol intake was more prevalent in stage 4 than in stages 2 and 3 combined. A French Mediterranean regional hemochromatosis registry with strict inclusion criteria is a useful tool for characterizing the history of this disease, particularly for the most severely affected patients, as defined by the disease severity classification. The total prevalence of symptomatic C282Y homozygotes in the region was found to be low. However, clinical penetrance (stages 3 and 4) was not negligible.

  5. Prevalence and Determinants of Falls among Older Adults in Ecuador: An Analysis of the SABE I Survey

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    Carlos H. Orces

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study based on a nationally representative sample of older adults living in the Andes mountains and coastal region of the country indicates that 34.7% of older adults had fallen in the previous year in Ecuador. Among fallers, 30.6% reported a fall-related injury. The prevalence of falls was higher in women and among older adults residing in the rural Andes mountains. In the multivariate model, women, subjects with cognitive impairment, those reporting urinary incontinence, and those being physically active during the previous year were variables found independently associated with increased risk of falling among older adults in Ecuador. Moreover, a gradual and linear increase in the prevalence of falls was seen as the number of risk factors increased. Falls represent a major public health problem among older adults in Ecuador. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement programs of awareness and fall prevention among older adults at higher risk of falls.

  6. Determination Of Prevalence Of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Infections Through Measurement Of Mics Of S. Aureus Isolates Imam Hospital (November 2001 To January 2003

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    M. Mohraz

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a predominantly nosocomial pathogen which its prevalence has increased worldwide over the past three decades."nMaterials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The following study is designed for determination of prevalence of MRSA infection through measurement of MICs of S. aureus isolates in Imam Khomeini Hospital (a teaching hospital from November 2001 to January 2003. A total number of 402 specimens were isolated and specified as S. aureus by Imam Khomeini microbiology lab. Demographic and clinical data and results of MIC were analysed by Epilnfo 6 software."nResults: During the study, staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 402 patients that 187 (46.5% of isolates were MRSA and 215 (53.5% were MSSA. Of 402 patients, 254 (63.2% were male and 148 (36.8% were female. The difference of the prevalence of MRSA between males and females was not statistically significant (p= 0.09. The difference in mean age in MRSA and MSSA groups was not statistically significant (p= 0.55. In the age group of < 1 month, the prevalence of MRSA infection was significantly higher than other groups (P= 0.01."nConclusion: In this study, the prevalence of MRSA infection was increased, statistically significant in the presence of such factors as sepsis, longer duration of hospitalization, hospital- acquired infection, history of invasive procedure, history of antimicrobials used in the past 3 months and type of administered antimicrobial (s, history of hospitalization in the preceding year, certain underlying diseases, type of admission ward, type of infection, type of specimen and type of administered antimicrobials for treatment. Surprisingly, the prevalence of MRSA infection in IV drug user group was low that was statistically significant (p< 0.0001. In this study, there was no statistically significant difference in outcome between MRSA infected and MSSA infected patients. Based on results of

  7. Knowledge and prevalence of use of saw palmetto and other herbal products among men with prostate disease in Trinidad and Tobago

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    S. Persaud

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the use of herbal products is common among men with prostate disease in Trinidad and Tobago and that saw palmetto is the most common product used. It also highlights the prevalence of unsubstantiated beliefs as well as the uncertainty about the efficacy of saw palmetto.

  8. Prevalence and Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Determinants of Anemia during Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study of Pregnant Women in China

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    Xianglong Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the differences regarding anemia among pregnant women with diverse characteristics and lifestyle factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study of pregnant women was conducted between June and August 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces of Mainland China. Self-reported doctor-diagnosed anemia was used in the study. Results: We included 2345 pregnant women. Of the participants, 1755 (74.8% were pregnant women of first pregnancy (PWFP and 590 (25.2% were second pregnancy (PWSP. The mean age of the participants was 28.1 years (SD 4.1. Overall, the prevalence of anemia was 12.7% (13.4% and 10.7% among PWFP and PWSP, respectively. The prevalence for not eating breakfast was 11.0%. Compared with PWFP, PWSP was inversely associated with the risk of anemia (odds ratio (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.48–0.91. Compared with those being registered in a low ranking hospital, pregnant women who were admitted to a high (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.28–0.57 or a medium ranking hospital (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37–0.92 were inversely associated with the risk of anemia. Compared with women of low income (<¥4,500, those with high income were less likely to have anemia (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50–0.94. Compared with women with non-manual jobs, women with manual jobs (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.17–2.45 and unemployed women (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04–1.93 were associated with a greater likelihood of suffering from anemia. Conclusions: Pregnant women not eating breakfast are of concern. Anemia is highly prevalent among pregnant women in China. Lower socio-economic status, manual jobs, PWFP, and those who attend a lower quality hospital have a greater likelihood of suffering from anemia. Tailored interventions are needed to address these issues.

  9. Knowledge, attitude and practice of women referred to health centers of Gorgan on the determining factors of self-care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Kamaloddin Mirkarimi

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Due to the relative knowledge, attitude and unfavorable performance of individuals, appropriate educational interventions are recommended to increase knowledge. Moreover the awareness and attitude of the participants should also be changed using attitude change techniques such as in-depth interviews and subsequently its improvements will occur.

  10. Determination of Self Efficacy Perception Levels of Teachers' Attending an Online Course toward Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskay, Özge Özyalçin; Odabasi, Zuhal

    2016-01-01

    The effects of technological developments occurred new requirements in educational area. Today's teachers should know the content knowledge they teach, have pedagogical knowledge about teaching and learning methods and besides should use the technological tools effectively. Depending on these, new concepts such as Technological Pedagogical Content…

  11. Prevalence and determinants of iron deficiency anemia among non-pregnant women of reproductive age in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Muhammad Atif; Raynes-Greenow, Camille; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Ali, Noshad; Nausheen, Sidrah; Ahmed, Imran; Bhutta, Zulfiqar Ahmed; Black, Kirsten I

    2018-01-01

    Iron deficiency Anemia (IDA) in women of reproductive age is a recognized public health concern that impairs health and well-being in women and is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. In Pakistan there is a dearth of up-to-date information on the prevalence and predictors of IDA. This study sought to investigate IDA in Pakistani women. Secondary analysis was performed using the National Nutrition Survey in Pakistan 2011- 2012. We used a pre-structured instrument to collect socio demographic, reproductive and nutritional data on women. We also collected anthropometric measurements and blood samples for micronutrient deficiencies. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyse the data. A total of 7491 non-pregnant women aged between 15-49 years were included in the analysis. The prevalence of IDA was 18.1%. In the multivariate regression analysis; not using iron folic acid supplementation during the last pregnancy adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% CI) 1.31 (1.05, 1.64), a history of four or more pregnancies AOR (95% CI) 1.30 (1.04, 1.60), birth interval of <24 months AOR (95% CI) 1.27 (1.06, 1.71), household food insecurity AOR (95% CI) 1.42 (1.23, 1.63) and presence of clinical anemia AOR (95% CI) 5.82 (4.82, 7.02) were significantly associated with increased odds of IDA while with obesity AOR (95% CI) 0.60 (0.4, 0.88) showed a protective effect on IDA. To reduce IDA in Pakistani women, the country needs a multifaceted approach that incorporates iron supplementation, food fortification, improved family planning services and efforts to reduce food insecurity.

  12. Foot care knowledge and practices and the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy among people with diabetes attending a secondary care rural hospital in southern India

    OpenAIRE

    Hanu George; P S Rakesh; Manjunath Krishna; Reginald Alex; Vinod Joseph Abraham; Kuryan George; Jasmin H Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a multifaceted disease and foot ulceration is one of its most common complications. Poor foot care knowledge and practices are important risk factors for foot problems among people with diabetes. Aims: To assess the knowledge and practices regarding foot care and to estimate the proportion of people with peripheral neuropathy among people with diabetes. Settings and Design: The cross-sectional study was conducted in 212 consecutive diabetes patients attending ...

  13. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, K.E.C.; Allen, K.; Edwards, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy......The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack...... prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised...

  14. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimshaw, K E C

    2009-10-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised to assess the effectiveness of current dissemination and implementation strategies.

  15. Prevalence, and virulence determination of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from clinical and non-clinical samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournajaf, Abazar; Rajabnia, Ramazan; Sedighi, Mansour; Kassani, Aziz; Moqarabzadeh, Vahid; Lotfollahi, Lida; Ardebilli, Abdollah; Emadi, Behzad; Irajian, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence, and virulence factors of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from various samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR). A total of 617 isolates were obtained and MPCR was employed for detection of the inlA, inlC, and inlJ genes. L. monocytogenes was detected in 46 (7.45%) of the 617 specimens. inlA, inlC, and inlJ were detected in 100%, 76.26%, and 71% isolates, respectively. This study validated MPCR in the analysis and rapid detection of L. monocytogenes. The role of the genes in pathogenesis of the strains can also be affirmed.

  16. EPA and USGS scientists conduct study to determine prevalence of newly-emerging contaminants in treated and untreated drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists from the EPA and USGS are collaborating on a research study to determine the presence of contaminants of emerging concern in treated and untreated drinking water collected from drinking water treatment plants.

  17. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use in nine South and Southeast Asian countries: prevalence estimates and social determinants from Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh; Mir, Imtiyaz Ali; Sin, Shwe

    2014-01-01

    In South and Southeast Asian countries, tobacco is consumed in diverse forms, and smoking among women is very low. We aimed to provide national estimates of prevalence and social determinants of smoking and smokeless tobacco use among men and women separately. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys completed in nine countries (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, Philippines, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Timor Leste) were analyzed. Current smoking or smokeless tobacco use was assessed as response "yes" to one or more of three questions, such as "Do you currently smoke cigarettes?" Weighted country-level prevalence rates for socio-economic subgroups were calculated for smoking and smokeless tobacco use. Binary logistic regression analyses were done on STATA/IC (version 10) by 'svy' command. Prevalence and type of tobacco use among men and women varied across the countries and among socio-economic sub groups. Smoking prevalence was much lower in women than men in all countries. Smoking among men was very high in Indonesia, Maldives, and Bangladesh. Smokeless tobacco (mainly chewable) was used in diverse forms, particularly in India, among both men and women. Chewing tobacco was common in Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Cambodia. Both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were associated with higher age, lower education, and poverty, but their association with place of residence and marital status was not uniform between men and women across the countries. Policymakers should consider type of tobacco consumption and their differentials among various population subgroups to implement country-specific tobacco control policies and target the vulnerable groups. Smokeless tobacco use should also be prioritized in tobacco control efforts.

  18. The epidemiology of dependence in older people in Nigeria: prevalence, determinants, informal care, and health service utilization. A 10/66 dementia research group cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwakwe, Richard; Ibeh, Christian C; Modebe, Anne Ifeoma; Bo, Emeka; Ezeama, Nkiru; Njelita, Ifeoma; Ferri, Cleusa P; Prince, Martin J

    2009-09-01

    To describe the prevalence and determinants of dependence in older Nigerians and associations with informal care and health service utilization. A single-phase cross-sectional catchment area survey. Dunukofia, a rural community in southeastern Nigeria. One thousand two hundred thirty-eight adults aged 65 and older, for whom full data were available on 914. The full 10/66 Dementia Research Group survey protocol was applied, including ascertainment of depression, cognitive impairment, physical impairments, and self-reported diagnoses. The interviewer rated dependence as not needing care, needing some care, or needing much care. The prevalence of dependence and the independent contribution of underlying health conditions were estimated. Sources of income, care arrangements, caregiver strain, and health service use are described according to level of dependence. The prevalence of dependence was 24.3% (95% confidence interval=22.1-26.5%), with a concentration in participants aged 80 and older. Only 1% of participants received a pension, and fewer than 7% had paid work. Those who were dependent were less likely than others to receive income from their family. Cognitive impairment, physical impairments, stroke, and depression were each independently associated with dependence. Depression made the largest contribution. Dependence was strongly associated with health service use (particularly private doctor and traditional healer services) and with high levels of out-of-pocket expenditure. In Nigeria, dependence is an important outcome given rapid demographic aging and increases in chronic disease prevalence in all developing regions. Enhancing the social protection of dependent older adults should be a policy priority. Cognitive and mental disorders are important contributors to disability and dependence; more attention should be given to their prevention, detection, and treatment.

  19. Infertility and the use of infertility treatments in Finland: prevalence and socio-demographic determinants 1992-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terävä, Anna-Niina; Gissler, Mika; Hemminki, Elina; Luoto, Riitta

    2008-01-01

    To examine changes in the use of infertility treatments by time, the causes of infertility, lifetime prevalence of subfertility, and the use of infertility treatments by socio-demographic factors. Aggregate IVF statistics (1992-2004) and two nationally representative cross-sectional surveys (1997 and 2002). Total number of IVF, ICSI and FET treatments initiated more than tripled between 1992 and 2004. The proportion of tubal injury as a cause of infertility treatment decreased over time while other female factors, male factor and multiple causes became more common. Self-reported lifetime subfertility was 16.0% in 2002 among women aged 25-64 years. Subfertility differed notably by age and education: young less educated women and older more educated women more frequently reported subfertility. Use of hormone therapy to treat subfertility (1997 and 2002) and participation in infertility treatments or medical examinations (2002) was more common among urban, highly educated and affluent women. The use of infertility treatments increased and the proportions of causes of infertility have changed over time. Self-reported subfertility differed by age and education. There are socio-demographic differences in the use of infertility treatments.

  20. Prevalence and determinants of hypertension in Abia State Nigeria: results from the Abia State Non-Communicable Diseases and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogah, Okechukwu S; Madukwe, Okechukwu O; Chukwuonye, Innocent I; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu U; Ukegbu, Andrew U; Akhimien, Moses O; Onwubere, Basden J C; Okpechi, Ikechi G

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is the most common non-communicable disease and risk factor for heart failure, stroke, chronic kidney disease and ischemic heart disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria and, in Abia State, no previous study has been conducted on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension among the populace. The purpose of our study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence and determinants of high blood pressure in Abia State, southeastern Nigeria. We hypothesise that high blood pressure burden is high in Abia State. The study was a community based cross-sectional house-to-house survey aimed at ascertaining the burden/prevalence of hypertension in the state as well as identifying related risk factors associated with them. The study was conducted in rural and urban communities in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were men and women aged > or =15 years and were recruited from the three senatorial zones in the state. A total of 2,999 respondents were selected for the survey and, 2,983 consented to be interviewed giving a response rate of 99.5%. The data for 2,928 participants were suitable for analysis. Of these, 1,399 (47.8%) were men. The mean age of the population was 41.7 +/- 18.5 years (range 18-96 years). About 54% of the population were < or =40 years. Ninety percent had at least primary education with about 47% having completed secondary education. Expectedly, 96% of the respondents were Ibos, the predominant tribe in the southeastern part of the country. Women had significantly higher BMI than the men. Similarly, waist circumference was also larger in women but waist-to-hip ratio was only significantly higher in women in the urban areas compared to those in rural areas. Thirty-one percent of all participants had systolic hypertension (33.5% in men and 30.5% in women). This sex difference was statistically different in the urban area. On the other hand, diastolic hypertension was 22

  1. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Latin America and the Caribbean: modelling the determinants, prevalence, population at risk and costs of control at sub-national level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Colston

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an example of a tool for quantifying the burden, the population in need of intervention and resources need to contribute for the control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection at multiple administrative levels for the region of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. The tool relies on published STH prevalence data along with data on the distribution of several STH transmission determinants for 12,273 sub-national administrative units in 22 LAC countries taken from national censuses. Data on these determinants was aggregated into a single risk index based on a conceptual framework and the statistical significance of the association between this index and the STH prevalence indicators was tested using simple linear regression. The coefficient and constant from the output of this regression was then put into a regression formula that was applied to the risk index values for all of the administrative units in order to model the estimated prevalence of each STH species. We then combine these estimates with population data, treatment thresholds and unit cost data to calculate total control costs. The model predicts an annual cost for the procurement of preventive chemotherapy of around US$ 1.7 million and a total cost of US$ 47 million for implementing a comprehensive STH control programme targeting an estimated 78.7 million school-aged children according to the WHO guidelines throughout the entirety of the countries included in the study. Considerable savings to this cost could potentially be made by embedding STH control interventions within existing health programmes and systems. A study of this scope is prone to many limitations which restrict the interpretation of the results and the uses to which its findings may be put. We discuss several of these limitations.

  2. Identification of Streptococcus agalactiae by fluorescent in situ hybridization compared to culturing and the determination of prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae colonization among pregnant women in Bushehr, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbakhsh, Saeed; Norouzi Esfahani, Marjan; Emaneini, Mohammad; Motamed, Niloofar; Rahmani, Elham; Gharibi, Somayyeh

    2013-09-08

    Pregnant women colonized by Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci [GBS]) may transfer this microorganism to their newborns. S. agalactiae is an important cause of pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis in newborns. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is considered as a method of identification in the field of diagnostic microbiology. In this paper, we have designed a study to compare the DNA FISH after 7 h Lim broth enrichment and culturing for the identification of S. agalactiae and to determine the prevalence of vaginal colonization by S. agalactiae among pregnant women in Bushehr, Iran. Vaginal swab specimens were obtained from 285 pregnant women at 35 weeks or more than 35 weeks of gestation. The specimens were inoculated into Lim broth. In order to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of GBS DNA FISH after 7 h Lim broth enrichment, the specimens were tested using both FISH and conventional culture methods. In addition, the prevalence of GBS colonization was determined. Based on the results of this study, both the sensitivity and specificity of FISH were 100%. S. agalactiae was detected by both culture and FISH in 27 of the 285 pregnant women. Thus, the prevalence of GBS colonization was 9.5%. Since short-term (7 h) Lim broth enrichment followed by FISH using oligonucleotide probes showed a high sensitivity and specificity, this protocol is therefore a highly accurate and relatively rapid method for the detection of S. agalactiae. Our analysis suggests that the use of DNA FISH to screen for S. agalactiae colonization in pregnant women may be considered in the absence of GBS culture availability.

  3. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Latin America and the Caribbean: modelling the determinants, prevalence, population at risk and costs of control at sub-national level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colston, Josh; Saboyá, Martha

    2013-05-01

    We present an example of a tool for quantifying the burden, the population in need of intervention and resources need to contribute for the control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection at multiple administrative levels for the region of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The tool relies on published STH prevalence data along with data on the distribution of several STH transmission determinants for 12,273 sub-national administrative units in 22 LAC countries taken from national censuses. Data on these determinants was aggregated into a single risk index based on a conceptual framework and the statistical significance of the association between this index and the STH prevalence indicators was tested using simple linear regression. The coefficient and constant from the output of this regression was then put into a regression formula that was applied to the risk index values for all of the administrative units in order to model the estimated prevalence of each STH species. We then combine these estimates with population data, treatment thresholds and unit cost data to calculate total control costs. The model predicts an annual cost for the procurement of preventive chemotherapy of around US$ 1.7 million and a total cost of US$ 47 million for implementing a comprehensive STH control programme targeting an estimated 78.7 million school-aged children according to the WHO guidelines throughout the entirety of the countries included in the study. Considerable savings to this cost could potentially be made by embedding STH control interventions within existing health programmes and systems. A study of this scope is prone to many limitations which restrict the interpretation of the results and the uses to which its findings may be put. We discuss several of these limitations.

  4. Partial-mouth periodontal examination protocols for the determination of the prevalence and extent of gingival bleeding in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Michely Ediani; Tomazoni, Fernanda; Casarin, Maísa; Ardenghi, Thiago M; Zanatta, Fabricio Batistin

    2017-10-01

    To compare the performance of partial-mouth periodontal examination (PMPE) protocols with different cut-off points to the full-mouth examination (FME) in the assessment of the prevalence and extent of gingival bleeding in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 12-year-old adolescents. Following a systematic two-stage cluster sampling process, 1134 individuals were evaluated. Different PMPE protocols were compared to the FME with six sites per tooth. Sensitivity, specificity, area under the ROC curve (AUC), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), relative and absolute biases and the inflation factor were assessed for each PMPE protocol with different cut-off points for the severity of gingival bleeding. The highest AUC values were found for the six-site two-diagonal quadrant (2-4) (0.97), six-site random half-mouth (0.95) and Community Periodontal Index (0.95) protocols. The assessment of three sites [mesiobuccal (MB), buccal (B) and distolingual (DL)] in two diagonal quadrants and the random half-mouth protocol had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than the same protocols with distobuccal (DB) sites. However, the use of DB sites led to better specificity and improved the balance between sensitivity and specificity, except for the two-diagonal quadrant (1-3) protocol. The ≥1 cut-off point led to the most discrepant results from the FME. Six-site two-diagonal quadrant (2-4) and random half-mouth assessments perform better in the evaluation of gingival bleeding in adolescents. However, when a faster protocol is needed, a two-diagonal quadrant assessment using only MB, B and DL sites can be used with no important loss of information. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. β-Carboline Alkaloids and Essential Tremor: Exploring the Environmental Determinants of One of the Most Prevalent Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elan D. Louis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential tremor (ET is among the most prevalent neurological diseases, yet its etiology is not well understood. Susceptibility genotypes undoubtedly underlie many ET cases, although no genes have been identified thus far. Environmental factors are also likely to contribute to the etiology of ET. Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-β]indole is a potent, tremor-producing β-carboline alkaloid, and emerging literature has provided initial links between this neurotoxin and ET. In this report, we review this literature. Two studies, both in New York, have demonstrated higher blood harmane levels in ET cases than controls and, in one study, especially high levels in familial ET cases. Replication studies of populations outside of New York and studies of brain harmane levels in ET have yet to be undertaken. A small number of studies have explored several of the biological correlates of exposure to harmane in ET patients. Studies of the mechanisms of this putative elevation of harmane in ET have explored the role of increased dietary consumption, finding weak evidence of increased exogenous intake in male ET cases, and other studies have found initial evidence that the elevated harmane in ET might be due to a hereditarily reduced capacity to metabolize harmane to harmine (7-methoxy-1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-β]-indole. Studies of harmane and its possible association with ET have been intriguing. Additional studies are needed to establish more definitively whether these toxic exposures are associated with ET and are of etiological importance.

  6. Determination of knowledge levels, attitude and behaviors of female university students concerning cervical cancer, human papiloma virus and its vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yörük, Selda; Açıkgöz, Ayla; Ergör, Gül

    2016-08-03

    The purpose of the study is to investigate knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine of female students studying at a university in a health related department and explore variables affecting taking the vaccine. The research group consists of female students attending a health related department in Balıkesir University. The data of this cross-sectional research was collected via surveys. The average total knowledge score of the students concerning risks, symptoms and screening methods of cervical cancer and HPV vaccines was 14.15 ± 6.7. The HPV knowledge score of the students attending the faculty of medicine was higher compared to the students attending other departments and their HPV vaccine knowledge score was higher compared to the students attending nursing and paramedics students. The HPV vaccine knowledge score of the students attending the department of midwifery was significantly higher compared to other students. Only 0.9 % of the students took the vaccine. One third of the students who did not take the vaccine did not know that the vaccine was available in our country. In terms of the department that they attended, the students with a higher total knowledge score compared to the average (OR:1.5) and students with history of cancer in their families (OR:1.6) were more likely to consider taking the vaccine. Research group's knowledge on risk factors of cervical cancer, Pap smear test, symptoms and prevention ways of cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine was low.

  7. HIV INFECTION AMONG FEMALE SEX WORKERS IN CONCENTRATED AND HIGH PREVALENCE EPIDEMICS: WHY A STRUCTURAL DETERMINANTS FRAMEWORK IS NEEDED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kate; Goldenberg, Shira M.; Deering, Kathleen N.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This article reviews the current state of the epidemiological literature on female sex work and HIV from the past 18 months. We offer a conceptual framework for structural HIV determinants and sex work that unpacks intersecting structural, interpersonal, and individual biological and behavioural factors. Recent findings Our review suggests that despite the heavy HIV burden among female sex workers (FSWs) globally, data on the structural determinants shaping HIV transmission dynamics have only begun to emerge. Emerging research suggests that factors operating at macrostructural (e.g., migration, stigma, criminalized laws), community organization (e.g., empowerment) and work environment levels (e.g., violence, policing, access to condoms HIV testing, HAART) act dynamically with interpersonal (e.g., dyad factors, sexual networks) and individual biological and behavioural factors to confer risks or protections for HIV transmission in female sex work. Summary Future research should be guided by a Structural HIV Determinants Framework to better elucidate the complex and iterative effects of structural determinants with interpersonal and individual biological and behavioural factors on HIV transmission pathways among FSWs, and meet critical gaps in optimal access to HIV prevention, treatment, and care for FSWs globally. PMID:24464089

  8. Prevalence of bacterial agents isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis in the dry period and the determination of their antibiotic sensitivity in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Mosaferi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of mastitis-causing bacteria in the dry period and its antibiotic sensitivity. Methods: In this study, 852 dry cows were examined. A total of 30 cows with clinical mastitis symptoms were detected and their milk samples were collected. In order to purify the bacteria, brain heart infusion and blood agar media were applied and single colonies were used for Gram staining, oxidase and catalase testing, cultivating in O-F medium to determine the genus and species of bacteria. Then, antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the agar disk diffusion method. Results: The prevalence of isolated bacteria was 2.46%, in which coagulase positive Staphylococcus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and yeast were (9/99%, (6/66%, (13/32%, (3/33%, (6/66%, (13/32%, (9/99% and (6/66%, respectively. After tests of antibiotic susceptibility, the most and the least sensitivity were reported to enrofloxacin and ampicillin respectively. Conclusions: This study indicated that Streptococcus dysgalactiae is the most commonly isolated bacteria with the greatest sensitivity to enrofloxacin and tetracycline which can be used to treat mastitis in the dry period in Tabriz.

  9. Prevalence of alcohol and cannabis use and reported knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding its relationship with health and safety on mines in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pick, W

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available is one of the most significant public health concerns facing South Africa today. Globally, cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug, with an estimated 144 million people using it annually (1). It constitutes the main drug of abuse in Africa (2... research on alcohol and cannabis use among mineworkers is limited. 1.1 Prevalence of substance use It is estimated that 6% to 16% of the average workforce is likely to be alcohol dependent and that a further 20% is likely to experience drug...

  10. Use of the Drawing-Writing Technique to Determine the Level of Knowledge of Pre-Service Teachers Regarding Renewable Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of pre-service science teachers in Turkey regarding the different types of renewable energy sources, the methods used for obtaining energy from these sources, and the areas of use for these energy sources. Within the context of the study, the drawing-writing technique was used in order…

  11. The prevalence and determinants of poor glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzaheb RA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Riyadh A Alzaheb,1 Abdullah H Altemani2 1Department of Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia Background: Although the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is rising sharply in Saudi Arabia, data on glycemic control, crucial to reducing diabetes mellitus complications, remain scarce. This study therefore investigated glycemic control status and the factors influencing poor glycemic control among adult T2DM patients in Saudi Arabia.Methods: This cross-sectional study examined 423 T2DM patients at a diabetic center in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia between September 2016 and July 2017. Glycemic levels were measured via fasting blood glucose (FBG levels, and “poor glycemic control” was defined as FBG >130 mg/dL. Poor glycemic control’s risk factors were identified using a logistic regression.Results: In the sample, 74.9% of the patients had poor blood glycemic control. Logistic regression revealed that T2DM patients had an increased chance of poorly controlled diabetes if they had family histories of diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =7.38, 95% CI 4.09–13.31, longer diabetic durations (AOR =2.33, 95% CI 1.14–4.78 for 5–10 years and AOR =5.19, 95% CI 2.50–10.69 for >10 years, insufficient physical exercise (AOR =19.02, 95% CI 6.23–58.06, or were overweight (AOR =3.79, 95% CI 2.00–7.18, or obese (AOR =5.35, 95% CI 2.72–12.59.Conclusion: A high proportion of the sampled patients had poor glycemic control, therefore, health care professionals should manage the associated risk factors to limit disease complications and improve the health of patients with diabetes. Keywords: type 2 diabetes, glycemic control, Saudi Arabia

  12. Prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients attending in hospitals of central and northwestern zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Awole; Gerensea, Hadgu; Tarko, Shambel; Zenebe, Yosef; Mezemir, Rahel

    2017-03-15

    The prevalence of erectile dysfunction among diabetic men varies between 35-90%. Although erectile dysfunction is widespread among men with diabetes, the condition often remains undiagnosed and demands appropriate assessment and prompt treatment. Erectile dysfunction can affect all aspects of a patient's life including physical, emotional, social, sexual, and relationships. The main aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients attending hospitals in the Central and Northwest zone of Tigray, Ethiopia. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted on 249 male diabetic patients attending five hospitals in the Central and Northwestern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia using systematic random sampling. The data was collected from January 1 - February 30, 2016 and was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Correlation and multivariate logistic regression was employed to test associations between independent and outcome variables. The mean age of study participants was 43.39 years and the mean duration of diabetes diagnosis was 6.22 years. The overall prevalence of erectile dysfunction was 69.9%, with 32.9% suffering from mild, 31.7% moderate, and 5.2% severe erectile dysfunction. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that erective dysfunction was significantly predicted by old age (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] =15.013, CI:3.212-70.166), longer duration of diabetes (AOR = 3.77, CI:1.291-11.051), and lower monthly income (AOR = 0.285, CI:0.132-0.615). No association was found with body mass index, co-morbidity, glycemic control, and alcohol consumption. The prevalence of erective dysfunction in this study population was very high. Age, income, and duration of diabetes were the independent predictors of erectile dysfunction. Nearly all of the patients in the sample (97%) had not been screened or treated for erectile dysfunction. Assessment and management of erectile dysfunction in the

  13. Determination of the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and evaluation of molecular characterization of Escherichia coli (E-coli separated of them in mares repeat breeder in Yazd province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taktaz Hafshejani Taghi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli are known as the most common cause of reproductive tract infection in mare. Due to the progressive process of antibiotics use and increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance, the aim of this study is evaluate the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and antibiotic resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated. In this study, 60 mares were used with infertility background. Diagnosis of endometritis was performed using history and ultrasonography. Cytology, culture, Antibiogram were done of samples and PCR test was used to examine the gene virulence and antibiotic resistance. E-coli bacteria was isolated 48/33 % from sample culture. In PCR test 66/21 % of bacteria had virulence gene. It was determined, the lowest resistance to chloramphenicol about 38/15% and greatest resistance into ampicillin, tetracycline and streptomycin with 23/69 percent, respectively. 93% samples cytology had neutrophil more than two and the agent of 50% showed E. coli. The cause of half of subclinical endometritis in infertile maresis E-coli bacteriaEscherichia coli are known as the most common cause of reproductive tract infection in mare. Due to the progressive process of antibiotics use and increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance, the aim of this study is evaluate the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and antibiotic resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated. In this study, 60 mares were used with infertility background. Diagnosis of endometritis was performed using history and ultrasonography. Cytology, culture, Antibiogram were done of samples and PCR test was used to examine the gene virulence and antibiotic resistance. E-coli bacteria was isolated 48/33 % from sample culture. In PCR test 66/21 % of bacteria had virulence gene. It was determined, the lowest resistance to chloramphenicol about 38/15% and greatest resistance into ampicillin, tetracycline and streptomycin with 23/69 percent, respectively. 93% samples cytology had

  14. Relationships between Health-Related Fitness Knowledge, Perceived Competence, Self- Determination, and Physical Activity Behaviors of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslem, Liz; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Christensen, William F.; Pennington, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to test a hypothesized model of motivation within the context of conceptual physical education (CPE), and (b) to explore the strength and directionality of perceived competence for physical activity as a possible mediator for health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity behaviors. High school…

  15. Determinants of the sustainability of teacher design teams as a professional development arrangement for developing technology integration knowledge and skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kafyulilo, A.; Fisser, P.; Voogt, J.; Searson, M.; Ochoa, M.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher design team was introduced to in-service science teachers in Tanzania between 2011 and 2012 as a professional development arrangement for developing technology integration knowledge and skills. This study was conducted to investigate the extent of the teachers’ continuous collaboration in

  16. Prevalence of hypertension determined by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and body composition in long-term survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Elif; Col, Nilgun; Buyukcelik, Mithat; Balat, Ayse

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, survival rates of childhood cancers have significantly increased, and occurrence of long-term adverse late effects (eg, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, hypertension) has become increasingly important. Early diagnosis of obesity/hypertension in childhood is essential to avoid morbidity in the adulthood. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the blood pressure (BP) profile by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) method, and prevalence of hypertension, obesity, abdominal obesity among childhood cancer survivors. The study was carried out with 52 cancer survivors. The ABPM measurement was performed during 24 hours. The anthropometric measurements of patients were performed using standardized protocols. The body composition analysis was performed with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method. Statistical significance was considered at p < 0.05. The mean age of patients was 12.84 ± 3.88 years. Time off therapy ranged 24-125 month. The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension were 57.7% and 9.6%, respectively. There was no statistically significant relationship between diagnosis and BP status (p = 0.59). The prevalence of obesity, and abdominal obesity were 1.9% and 30.4%, respectively. There was a positive correlation between waist circumference (WC) and time off therapy (p = 0.046). The WC was found to be higher in patients who received cranial irradiation (p = 0.048). Weight/WC were higher in patients who used corticosteroids in the treatment (p = 0.019). Careful follow up of BP, weight and WC is necessary for long-term cancer survivors to prevent complications. Especially patients who receive cranial radiotherapy and use corticosteroid are at increased risk of abdominal obesity.

  17. Characteristics and determinants of knowledge transfer policies at universities and public institutions in medical research--protocol for a systematic review of the qualitative research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Rosa; Müller, Olaf; Bozorgmehr, Kayvan

    2015-08-19

    Universities, public institutions, and the transfer of knowledge to the private sector play a major role in the development of medical technologies. The decisions of universities and public institutions regarding the transfer of knowledge impact the accessibility of the final product, making it easier or more difficult for consumers to access these products. In the case of medical research, these products are pharmaceuticals, diagnostics, or medical procedures. The ethical dimension of access to these potentially lifesaving products is apparent and distinguishes the transfer of medical knowledge from the transfer of knowledge in other areas. While the general field of technology transfer from academic and public to private actors is attracting an increasing amount of scholarly attention, the specifications of knowledge transfer in the medical field are not as well explored. This review seeks to provide a systematic overview and analysis of the qualitative literature on the characteristics and determinants of knowledge transfer in medical research and development. The review systematically searches the literature for qualitative studies that focus on knowledge transfer characteristics and determinants at medical academic and public research institutions. It aims at identifying and analyzing the literature on the content and context of knowledge transfer policies, decision-making processes, and actors at academic and public institutions. The search strategy includes the databases PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest, and DiVa. These databases will be searched based on pre-specified search terms. The studies selected for inclusion in the review will be critically assessed for their quality utilizing the Qualitative Research Checklist developed by the Clinical Appraisal Skills Programme. Data extraction and synthesis will be based on the meta-ethnographic approach. This review seeks to further the understanding of the kinds of transfer pathways that exist in medical

  18. Prevalence and Determinants of Unintended Pregnancy in Mchinji District, Malawi; Using a Conceptual Hierarchy to Inform Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jennifer Anne; Barrett, Geraldine; Phiri, Tambosi; Copas, Andrew; Malata, Address; Stephenson, Judith

    2016-01-01

    In 2012 there were around 85 million unintended pregnancies globally. Unintended pregnancies unnecessarily expose women to the risks associated with pregnancy, unsafe abortion and childbirth, thereby contributing to maternal mortality and morbidity. Studies have identified a range of potential determinants of unplanned pregnancy but have used varying methodologies, measures of pregnancy intention and analysis techniques. Consequently there are many contradictions in their findings. Identifying women at risk of unplanned pregnancy is important as this information can be used to help with designing and targeting interventions and developing preventative policies. 4,244 pregnant women from Mchinji District, Malawi were interviewed at home between March and December 2013. They were asked about their pregnancy intention using the validated Chichewa version of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy, as well as their socio-demographics and obstetric and psychiatric history. A conceptual hierarchical model of the determinants of pregnancy intention was developed and used to inform the analysis. Multiple random effects linear regression was used to explore the ways in which factors determine pregnancy intention leading to the identification of women at risk of unplanned pregnancies. 44.4% of pregnancies were planned. On univariate analyses pregnancy intention was associated with mother and father's age and education, marital status, number of live children, birth interval, socio-economic status, intimate partner violence and previous depression all at peffect is mediated through other factors in the model. Socio-demographic factors of importance were marital status, which was the factor in the model that had the largest effect on pregnancy intention, partner's age and mother's education level. The effect of mother's education level was mediated by maternal reproductive characteristics. Previous depression, abuse in the last year or sexual abuse, younger age, increasing

  19. Determination of Prevalence of Dental Erosion in 12 - 14 Years School Children and Its Relationship with Dietary Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbaz, Uzma; Quadir, Fauzia; Hosein, Tasleem

    2016-07-01

    To determine the frequency of dental erosion in 12-14 years school children and its association with dietary habits. Observational cross-sectional analytical study. Fatima Jinnah Dental College, Karachi, from January to June 2010. School children aged between 12 - 14 years were included in this study. Dental erosion was detected by visual examination. Aself-developed questionnaire was used to assess the dietary habits of children. Acidic diet was considered a diet that has an acidic pH. The amount of consumption of acidic drinks and food per week was categorized into low consumption (1 - 7 times / week) and medium consumption (8 - 21 times / week). Chi-square test was applied to see any statistical difference between diet and tooth erosion at 95% CI. The results showed a high frequency of (46%) dental erosion in children, which was significantly higher (p dental erosion in children. Acidic diets need to be controlled in frequency to prevent dental erosion.

  20. Prevalence and determinants of burnout Syndrome and Depression among medical students at Sultan Qaboos University: A cross-sectional analytical study from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Mohammed; Al-Sinawi, Hamed; Al-Qubtan, Ali; Al-Lawati, Jaber; Al-Habsi, Assad; Al-Shuraiqi, Mohammed; Al-Adawi, Samir; Panchatcharam, Sathiya Murthi

    2017-11-08

    This study investigated the prevalence and determinants of Burnout Syndrome and Depressive Symptoms among medical students in Oman. Then, it explored whether the three-dimensional aspects of Burnout Syndrome (High Emotional Exhaustion, High Cynicism and Low Academic Efficacy) would predict the presence of Depressive Symptoms in a logistic regression model. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a random sample of medical students of Sultan Qaboos University. 662 students participated in the study with a response rate of 98%. The prevalence of Burnout Syndrome and Depressive Symptoms were; 7.4% and 24.5% respectively. Preclinical students reported high levels of both Burnout Syndrome (Odds Ratio-OR 2.83, 95% Confidence Interval CI 1.45-5.54) and Depressive Symptoms (OR 2. 72, 95% CI 1.07-6.89). The three-dimensional aspects of Burnout Syndrome(High Emotional Exhaustion, High Cynicism, low Professional efficacy) were statistically significant predictors of the presence of Depressive Symptoms; OR 3.52 (95% CI: 2.21-5.60), OR 3.33 (95% CI:2.10-5.28) and OR 2.07(95%CI:1.32-3.24) respectively. This study indicates that Burnout Syndrome and Depressive Symptoms are common among medical students, particularly in preclinical grade. Furthermore, the presence of high occupational burnout elevates the risk of depression.

  1. Early drinking onset: a study of prevalence and determinants among 13-year-old adolescents in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfsen, Frode; Strøm, Henriette Kyrrestad; Martinussen, Monica; Natvig, Henrik; Eisemann, Martin; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Koposov, Roman

    2014-10-01

    Early drinking onset is associated with different psychosocial adjustment problems among adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess determinants associated with early drinking and to identify factors predicting early drinking onset among adolescents. The study included 1,550 eighth-graders with a mean age of 13.5 years from 41 schools. A total of 24% (boys 29%, girls 19%) had ever drunk alcohol, while 14% had drunk some alcohol in the last 30 days. Further, early drinking was associated with gender, religion, school performance, smoking and bullying in the bivariate tests. Predictors of early drinking onset were identified by generalized linear mixed models with two multivariable models created. The first model included social and environmental variables. Entering intentions, expectancies, attitudes and norms into the multivariable analysis resulted in a significant improvement of the model fit constituting 86% in the second model. The percentage correctly classified those (56%) who had been drinking in the second model which was two times higher compared to the first model. Gender, religion and smoking emerged as significant predictors of drinking in both models. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. HIV-transmission knowledge, five-factor personality traits and psychopathy as determinants of risky sexual behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Hudek-Knežević, Jasna; Kardum, Igor; Krapić, Nada

    2008-01-01

    On a sample of 203 males and 219 females the effects of HIV-transmission knowledge, five-factor personality traits and three components of psychopathy (antisocial behavior, interpersonal manipulation and impulsive thrill seeking) on overall risky sexual behaviors as well as risky sexual behaviors during previous month were explored by using a series of hierarchical regression analyses. The main hypothesis tested in this research is that psychopathy is an important predictor of risky sexual be...

  3. Focus-on-Teens, sexual risk-reduction intervention for high-school adolescents: impact on knowledge, change of risk-behaviours, and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, C A; Hsieh, Y-H; Galbraith, J S; Barnes, M; Waterfield, G; Stanton, B

    2008-10-01

    A community-based intervention, Focus-on-Kids (FOK) has demonstrated risk-behaviour reduction of urban youth. We modified FOK to Focus-on-Teens (FOT) for high schools. High school adolescents (n=1190) were enrolled over successive school semesters. The small-group sessions were presented during the school-lunch hours. Confidential surveys were conducted at baseline, immediate, six-, and 12-month postintervention for demographics, parental communication/monitoring, sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)/HIV/condom-usage knowledge. Sexually active participants were encouraged to volunteer for urine-based STDs testing at the School-Based Health Centres. Many (47.4%) students reported having had sexual intercourse at baseline. Overall behaviours changed towards 'safer' sex behaviours (intent-to-use and using condoms, communicating with partner/parents about sex/condoms/STDs) with time (Pcorrect knowledge of STDs/HIV increased to 88% at time 4 from 80% at baseline after adjusting for age, gender and sexual activity (Pcondom usage, decreases in sexual risk behaviours supported the effectiveness of this intervention.

  4. PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS, PROPHYLACTIC BEHAVIOR, THERAPEUTIC BEHAVIOR AND STATE OF KNOWLEDGE REGARDING URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS AMONG CHOSEN POPULATION OF NURSING/MIDWIFERY STUDENTS AND QUALIFIED NURSES/MIDWIFES FROM MEDICAL UNIVERSITY OF ¸ÓDè

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Grzelewska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available evalence, risk factors, therapeutic behavior, knowledge level, prophylactic and treatment methods regarding uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI. Materials and methods: Anonymous, closed, previously validated questionnaire, consisting of 12 questions on UTI in women was used in 267 adult nursing/midwifery students and nurses/midwifes from many different clinics/wards of the Medical University of Lodz. Results: 83% of respondents reported UTI at least once in a lifetime, 80% of them periodically, with cystitis being a main diagnosis. 40% of respondents reported periodical presence of UTI signs and symptoms without physician diagnosis confirmation. Main UTI causes were body cooling and cold water baths. 40% of respondents had symptoms suggesting UTI in the past but no diagnosis by physician. The risk of UTI symptoms disregarding or self-treatment prevalence decreased with time of professional practice, and in respondents with UTI symptoms connected with sexual activity, antibiotics treatment or sufficient level of knowledge of UTI. 64% UTI positive respondents had mothers with history of UTI. Conclusions: Cystitis is an important problem in Lodz Medical University students and nurses, however their knowledge level regarding risk factors, prophylactic and management of UTI are insufficient what may lead to underdiagnosis and undertreatment.

  5. Medication use in early pregnancy-prevalence and determinants of use in a prospective cohort of women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the extent, nature and determinants of medication use in early pregnancy. METHODS: We reviewed early pregnancy medication use, as reported to a midwife at the booking interview, in women delivering between 2000 and 2007 in a large maternity hospital in Dublin, Ireland (n = 61 252). RESULTS: Excluding folic acid, at least one medication was reported in 23 989 (39.2%) pregnancies. Over the counter (OTC) medications were reported in 11 970 (19.5%) pregnancies, illicit drugs or methadone in 545 (0.9%) and herbal medicines\\/supplements in 352 (0.58%). FDA category D and X medications were reported by 1532 (2.5%) and 1987 (3.2%) women. Asthma, depression and hypertension were among the most commonly reported chronic medical disorders. Medications with potential for foetal harm were reported by 86 (15.7%) women treated for depression and 68 (20%) women treated for hypertension. Factors associated with reporting the use of medications with potential for foetal harm included unplanned pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.52), booking at less than 12 weeks gestation (aOR 1.83, 95%CI 1.58-2.13), being above 25 years of age, unemployed (aOR 2.58, 95%CI 2.03-3.29), nulliparous (aOR 1.41; 95%CI 1.22-1.63), single (aOR 1.28; 95%CI 1.06-1.54) or smoking during pregnancy (aOR 1.96, 95%CI 1.67-2.28). CONCLUSIONS: Women frequently report medication use in early pregnancy. Women and prescribers need to be aware of the lack of pregnancy safety data for many medications, and the need for pre-pregnancy planning. Prescribers should ensure that optimal medications are used when treating women of childbearing potential with chronic medical disorders.

  6. Prevalence and determinants of airflow limitation in urban and rural children exposed to cooking fuels in South-East Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguonu, Tagbo; Obumneme-Anyim, Ijeoma N; Eze, Joy N; Ayuk, Adaeze C; Okoli, Chinyere V; Ndu, Ikenna K

    2018-03-15

    Background Biofuels and other cooking fuels are used in households in low- and middle-income countries. Aim To investigate the impact of cooking fuels on lung function in children in urban and rural households in South-East Nigeria. Methods The multi-stage sampling method was used to enroll children exposed to cooking fuel in the communities. Lung function values FEV1, FVC and the FEV1/FVC ratio, were measured with ndd EasyOne R spirometer. Airflow limitation was determined with FEV1/FVC Z-score values at -1.64 as the lower limit of normal (LLN5). The Global Lung Function Initiative 2012 software was used to calculate the lung function indices. Results The median age (range) of the 912 children enrolled was 10.6 years (6-18). Altogether, 468 (51.6%) children lived in rural areas. Seven hundred and thirty-seven (80.7%) were directly exposed to cooking fuels (418/737, 56.5% in rural areas). Wood and kerosene were the dominant fuels in rural and urban households. The respective mean Z-scores of the exposed children in rural and urban were zFEV1 -0.62, FVC -0.21, FEV1/FVC -0.83 and zFEV1 -0.57, zFVC -0.14, FEV1/FVC -0.75. Few (5.2%, 38/737) of the children had airflow limitation. Most of them (60.5%, 25/38) lived in the rural community; the lowest FEV1/FVC Z-scores were those of exposed to a combination of fuels. Conclusion Exposure to cooking fuels affects lung function in children with airway limitation in a small proportion, Control measures are advocated to reduce the morbidity related to cooking fuels exposure.

  7. Prevalence, and virulence determination of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from clinical and non-clinical samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abazar Pournajaf

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the prevalence, and virulence factors of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from various samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR. METHODS: A total of 617 isolates were obtained and MPCR was employed for detection of the inlA, inlC, and inlJ genes. RESULTS: L. monocytogenes was detected in 46 (7.45% of the 617 specimens. inlA, inlC, and inlJ were detected in 100%, 76.26%, and 71% isolates, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study validated MPCR in the analysis and rapid detection of L. monocytogenes. The role of the genes in pathogenesis of the strains can also be affirmed.

  8. Awareness, prevalence of hair smoothing products that contain formaldehyde and determinants of their harmful effects among women in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Nasser Hameed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who use hair smoothing products at home or in a salon work environment are at risk of exposure to various chemical compounds. Formaldehyde mixed with keratin as a hair straightening product is in common use by women in Saudi Arabia. The high temperatures used during blow-drying can release gas fumes that have several implications to include irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory complications. Furthermore, formaldehyde is classified as a known human carcinogen. The aim of this study is to assess the source of keratin hair treatment among women, demonstrate the symptoms related to formaldehyde exposure during keratin hair treatment process and determine the practices that can increase the exposure to formaldehyde and to evaluate the level of formaldehyde in the keratin hair treatment products. A national cross-sectional survey was first conducted during March-April 2017 on Saudi Arabian children and women aged between the age of 12 and 50 years old. A standardized, fully confidential questionnaire was provided to participating members. A total of 330 filled questionnaires were obtained within the study location. Moreover, 30 hair salons that used keratin-based products were visited in 3 different cities in Al Qassim province to check the location of keratin hair treatment, ventilation procedures and take samples of hair products that were later analyzed. Most commonly reported symptom was irritation of the eyes reported by 135 people. Other symptoms described include irritation of throat, burning sensation of the nose, headache and nausea. Argan e Ojon was one of the most famous product tested in this study with formaldehyde levels above 0.2% threshold (0.35%. It is worrying thatArgan e Ojon does not comply with GSO 1943 and SASO 1953 standards. A majority of salons demonstrated poor ventilation measures and failed to isolate their clients from the general public and salon workers. With the evident complications, more should be

  9. Social media, knowledge translation, and action on the social determinants of health and health equity: A survey of public health practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndumbe-Eyoh, Sume; Mazzucco, Agnes

    2016-11-01

    The growth of social media presents opportunities for public health to increase its influence and impact on the social determinants of health and health equity. The National Collaborating Centre for Determinants of Health at St. Francis Xavier University conducted a survey during the first half of 2016 to assess how public health used social media for knowledge translation, relationship building, and specific public health roles to advance health equity. Respondents reported that social media had an important role in public health. Uptake of social media, while relatively high for personal use, was less present in professional settings and varied for different platforms. Over 20 per cent of those surveyed used Twitter or Facebook at least weekly for knowledge exchange. A lesser number used social media for specific health equity action. Opportunities to enhance the use of social media in public health persist. Capacity building and organizational policies that support social media use may help achieve this.

  10. Prevalence Of Dental Caries Among Female Adolescents In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was mainly to ascertain the knowledge and practice of oral health and to determine the prevalence of dental caries among female adolescents. It is a descriptive crosssectional study. The study population consisted of female adolescents in senior secondary schools in Umuahia. Two hundred and ...

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of latent Tuberculosis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Latent Tuberculosis treatment is a key tuberculosis control intervention. Adolescents are a high risk group that is not routinely treated in low income countries. Knowledge of latent Tuberculosis (TB) burden among adolescents may influence policy. Objectives: We determined the prevalence and risk factors of ...

  12. Knowledge about knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

  13. Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ntui Asundep

    2013-12-01

    Nineteen percent of the women experienced an adverse pregnancy outcome. For 49% of the women, cost influenced their antenatal attendance. Cost was associated with increased likelihood of a woman experiencing an adverse outcome (adjusted OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.16–3.99; p = 0.016. Also, women with >5 births had an increased likelihood of an adverse outcome compared with women with single deliveries (adjusted OR = 3.77; 95% CI = 1.50–9.53; p = 0.005. The prevalence of adverse outcomes was lower than previously reported (44.6 versus 19%. Cost and distance were associated with adverse outcomes after adjusting for confounders. Cost and distance could be minimized through a wider application of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme.

  14. Prevalence and Determinants of Pre-Hypertension among Omani Adults Attending Non-Communicable Disease Screening Program in Primary Care Setting in Sohar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdullah Al-Maqbali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of pre-hypertension and its association with some selected cardiovascular risk factors among the Omani adult population in the primary healthcare setting.Method: A cross-sectional study involving a sample taken from a National Screening Program of chronic non-communicable diseases in primary healthcare institutions, Sohar city, Sultanate of Oman (July 2006 - December 2007. Inclusion criteria included Omanis aged 40 years or above residents of Sohar city attending primary healthcare institutions not previously diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or chronic kidney diseases. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the demographic, physical and metabolic characteristics. Univariate analysis was used to identify the significant association between the characteristics and normal blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension. Chi-squared test was used for categorical variables analysis and independent t-test was used for continuous variables analysis. In order to examine the strength of significant associations, the multinomial logistic regression analysis was used.Results: There were 1498 participants, 41% were males and 59% were females. Overall, pre-hypertension was observed in 45% of the total study population (95% CI: 0.422 - 0.473. There were more males affected than females (46% versus 44%. About 34% of the total study population was hypertensive. The multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that an increase of one unit of age, body mass index, fasting blood glucose and total blood cholesterol, were significantly associated with higher risk in both pre-hypertension and hypertension. High odds ratio of pre-hypertension and hypertension was found with the total blood cholesterol.Conclusion: The prevalence of pre-hypertension was high among the Omani adult population. The determinants of pre-hypertension in this research age, body mass index, fasting blood glucose and total blood

  15. Prevalence and determinants of anaemia among children aged 0-59 months in a rural region of Armenia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirchyan, Anahit; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Sargsyan, Viktoria; Hekimian, Kim

    2016-05-01

    Despite the trend of increasing prevalence of childhood anaemia in Armenia, no studies exploring its risk factors have been conducted in the country. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of childhood anaemia in rural Armenia. Blood Hb level was measured among a representative sample of children using the HemoCue Hb201+ analyser. The revealed cases with anaemia were compared with randomly selected non-anaemic controls. Mothers of cases and controls were interviewed. Logistic and linear regression models were fitted to identify the risk factors of anaemia and low Hb level, respectively. Talin communities, Aragatsotn Province, Armenia. Children under 5 years of age in Talin region. Of the 729 studied children, 32·4% were anaemic with 14·7% having moderate/severe anaemia. Infants were the most affected group with 51·1% being anaemic before 6 months and 67·9% at 6-12 months of age. Fitted regression models identified the following predictors of anaemia: younger age, male gender, shorter birth length, anaemia during pregnancy, lower meal frequency per day, lack of meat in the diet, using dung cakes for heating and living in a community that received an incomplete set of nutrition interventions. The study identified several modifiable risk factors that could be targeted to reduce childhood anaemia in rural Armenia and, possibly, in rural areas in other low-/middle-income countries. The suggested interventions include prevention and treatment of anaemia during pregnancy, provision of adequate complementary feeding to children with inclusion of meat in their daily diet and reduction of their exposure to biomass fuel smoke.

  16. Knowledge Creation in Constructivist Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleel, Sajna; Verghis, Alie Molly

    2015-01-01

    In today's competitive global economy characterized by knowledge acquisition, the concept of knowledge management has become increasingly prevalent in academic and business practices. Knowledge creation is an important factor and remains a source of competitive advantage over knowledge management. Constructivism holds that learners learn actively…

  17. Knowledge of preventive measures against occupational risks and spread of healthcare-associated infections among nursing students. An epidemiological prevalence study from Ferrara, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, M; Cucchi, A; Stefanati, A; Cavallaro, A; Gabutti, G

    2009-06-01

    Exposure to biological agents is the most common occupational risk for nursing staff. This study verified changes in attitudes and knowledge occurred in the nursing students after the first year of degree. The survey was conducted in academic year 2006/07 among the students of the Professional Nursing Course at University of Ferrara (Italy) using a structured questionnaire. Students were 85 at the beginning and 80 at the end of the courses. The rate of subjects using gloves for intramuscular injections and fingertip puncture was unsatisfactory. A high percentage of students performed recap of needles. The use of gloves in case of washing of surgical instruments was high. The compliance in the use of gloves in handling test tubes remained low. Only 2/3 of the students washes their hands coming in ward. Incorrect attitudes have been observed in changing or wearing gloves. The students considered vaccination against hepatitis-B necessary, vaccination against flu unnecessary. A high percentage of students had not performed any prophylaxis for tuberculosis. Students intend the use of gloves mainly to perform self-protection. The concept of self-protection is contradicted by the large percentage of students that recap used needles. A significant percentage of students have not yet gained the critical thinking necessary to consider the importance of universal precautions as a means not only of self-protection but also of prevention of hospital infections. Students consider the basic standard measures for the control of infectious diseases only like self-protection and not to prevent hospital infections.

  18. Determination of the knowledge of e-waste disposal impacts on the environment among different gender and age groups in China, Laos, and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Sharp, Alice

    2016-04-01

    E-waste is the fastest growing waste in the solid waste stream in the urban environment. It has become a widely recognised social and environmental problem; therefore, proper management is vital to protecting the fragile environment from its improper disposal. Questionnaire surveys were conducted to determine the knowledge of environmental impacts of e-waste disposal as it relates to mobile phones among different gender and age groups in China, Laos, and Thailand. The results revealed that gender was positively correlated with their knowledge of the status of environmental conditions (P104) (r = 0.077, n = 1994, p environmental conditions (P105) (r = -0.067, n = 2037, p age was positively correlated with respondents' concern over the environmental conditions (P103) (r = 0.052, n = 2077, p environmental conditions than male respondents in the three countries. Knowledge gaps were detected in the respondents, at age ⩽17, in the three countries, and from age 18-22 to 36-45 or older from Thailand and China, on their knowledge of the existing e-waste-related laws. Thus, an effort to bridge the gaps through initiating proper educational programmes in these two countries is necessary. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Complex Personhood of Hip Hop & the Sensibilities of the Culture That Fosters Knowledge of Self & Self-Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bettina L.

    2016-01-01

    Hip hop music and culture have a complex identity in that hip hop is based in self-determination, resistance, and the long enduring fight for Black freedom, but was also created alongside the seductiveness of the material and psychological conditions of capitalism, sexism, and patriarchy. Hip hop pedagogy (HHP) as a pedagogical framework is…

  20. Norms and the development of new knowledge as determinants of climate policy. Theoretical considerations and empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schymura, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of long-term effects of climate change in cost-benefit analysis has a long tradition in environmental economics. Since the publication of the ''Stern Review'' in 2006, the debate about the impacts of climate change on the economy and how to compare cost and benefits with each other was revived. The assessment of climate change mitigation policies mainly depends on three not mutually exclusive decisions: First, the discount rate chosen, since costs are incurred today and long-term benefits occur in the future. Second, the uncertainties related to the problem of climate change. This debate was spurred by the literature surrounding Martin Weitzman's ''dismal theorem'', stating that the unknown unknowns could be too large for cost-benefit analysis of long-term climate policy measures. And third, the treatment of technological change in economic models of climate policy. This dissertation contributes to all three mentioned aspects and consists of two interrelated parts. First, I discuss norms, economic welfare criteria, and catastrophic risks in the context of climate change. This first part is closely bound to a discussion of the Stern Review. The second part of the dissertation deals with technological change in its various dimensions and addresses several questions: How is technological change taken into consideration in large-scale environment-economy models? How do certain inputs substitute each other? And how does technology affect energy intensity, a key parameter for meeting targets set by climate policy? Alongside these questions, I also discuss how the production of knowledge takes place in an environmental and resource economics framework and how knowledge production patterns have changed during previous decades. While the first part is of theoretical nature, the second part is mainly empirical. Summing up, I suggest approaches towards long-term evaluation of climate policies and how some methodological drawbacks of the ''Stern Review'' could

  1. Prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci and determination of antimicrobial resistance in accompany with types of SCCmec in isolated of nosocomial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Arabestani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS were considered as contaminats previously, but, during the past decade considered as one of the most common photogenic bacteria in hospital. Resistance to beta-lactams especially methicillin in staphylococcus species is being worrying in hospitals. Rapid identification of mechanisms of resistance and confirmation of their resistance to methicillin is a basic principle for antibiotic treatment. The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance, frequency of mecA gene, and determination of SCCmec types in CoNS isolates from teaching hospitals in Iran. Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out one hundred clinical samples isolated from patients with an average age of 7-69 years at teaching hospitals in Hamadan City, Iran, from September 2014 to February 2015. After confirmation of isolates by microbiological standard biochemical tests, antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk agar diffusion (DAD method. After extraction of isolated genomicm, mecA gene was detected. Then, the types of SCCmec were performed by PCR. Results: In this study, 387 clinical samples were collected which among 100 CoNS isolated, Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most prevalent species with frequency 55 (55%, followed by S. haemolyticus 40(40% and S. saprophyticus 5(5%. The highest antibiotic susceptibility was to rifampin 96(96% and the lowest resistance was detected for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX 47(47%. None of the strains were resistant to vancomycin. Resistance to methicillin was detected in 50% of CoNS isolates. Typing of SCCmec was performed by The polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Frequency types of SCCmec was type III with frequency 13(13%, type V 11(11%, type II 6(6%, type IV 4 (4%, type I 3(3% respectively. Thirteen isolated was not typable in this study. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that a large percentage of coagulase

  2. Prevalence of Smqnr and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia from Japan: novel variants of Smqnr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kanamori

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important pathogen in healthcare-associated infections. S. maltophilia may contain Smqnr, a quinolone resistance gene encoding the pentapeptide repeat protein, which confers low-level quinolone resistance upon expression in a heterologous host. We investigated the prevalence of Smqnr and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR determinants in S. maltophilia isolates from Japan. A total of 181 consecutive and nonduplicate clinical isolates of S. maltophilia were collected from four areas of Japan. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for these strains were determined. PCR was conducted for Smqnr and PMQR genes, including qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrS, aac(6′-Ib and qepA. PCR products for Smqnr and aac(6′-Ib were sequenced. For the S. maltophilia isolates containing Smqnr, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was performed using XbaI. Resistance rates to ceftazidime, levofloxacin, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol and minocycline were 67.4%, 6.1%, 17.7%, 8.8% and 0%, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 50% and 90% of organisms were 0.5 and 2 mg/L for moxifloxacin but 1 and 4 mg/L for levofloxacin, respectively. Smqnr was detected in 104 of the 181 S. maltophilia isolates (57.5%, and the most frequent was Smqnr6, followed by Smqnr8 and Smqnr11. Eleven novel variants from Smqnr48 to Smqnr58 were detected. The 24 Smqnr-containing S. maltophilia isolates were typed by PFGE and divided into 21 unique types. Nine S. maltophilia isolates (5.0% carried aac(6′-Ib-cr. No qnr or qepA genes were detected. This study describes a high prevalence of Smqnr and novel variants of Smqnr among S. maltophilia from Japan. Continuous antimicrobial surveillance and further molecular epidemiological studies on quinolone resistance in S. maltophilia are needed.

  3. Maternal knowledge, outcome expectancies and normative beliefs as determinants of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding: a cross-sectional study in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewa, Constance A; Chepkemboi, Joan

    2016-03-09

    Despite the importance of multiple psychosocial factors on nutrition-related behavior, very few studies have explored beyond the role of mothers' knowledge and perception of child-focused outcomes on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding in Africa. Our objective was to determine the relationships among mothers' knowledge, outcome expectancies, normative beliefs, and cessation of exclusive breastfeeding in rural Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 400 mothers of children, 0-24 months old, in rural Kenya. Early child-feeding practices, knowledge of breastfeeding recommendations, beliefs associated with impact of exclusive breastfeeding on child- and mother-focused outcomes and perception of acceptability of exclusive breastfeeding by important others were examined. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between independent variables of interest and cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Being knowledgeable of breastfeeding-related recommendations, positive beliefs on the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on child- focused outcomes, having a more positive perception of the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on mother-focused outcomes and a more positive perception of acceptability of exclusive breastfeeding by important others were associated with significantly lower risks of premature cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. In addition to knowledge levels, mothers' beliefs play an important role in mothers' decisions to practice exclusive breastfeeding. Mother's beliefs on the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on the mother's health, physical appearance and ability to engage in other activities were shown to have the strongest relationship with premature cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Addressing these beliefs has the potential to contribute to more effective exclusive breastfeeding promotion efforts in rural Kenya.

  4. Maternal knowledge, outcome expectancies and normative beliefs as determinants of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding: a cross-sectional study in rural Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance A. Gewa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of multiple psychosocial factors on nutrition-related behavior, very few studies have explored beyond the role of mothers’ knowledge and perception of child-focused outcomes on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding in Africa. Our objective was to determine the relationships among mothers’ knowledge, outcome expectancies, normative beliefs, and cessation of exclusive breastfeeding in rural Kenya. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 400 mothers of children, 0-24 months old, in rural Kenya. Early child-feeding practices, knowledge of breastfeeding recommendations, beliefs associated with impact of exclusive breastfeeding on child- and mother-focused outcomes and perception of acceptability of exclusive breastfeeding by important others were examined. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between independent variables of interest and cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Results Being knowledgeable of breastfeeding-related recommendations, positive beliefs on the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on child- focused outcomes, having a more positive perception of the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on mother-focused outcomes and a more positive perception of acceptability of exclusive breastfeeding by important others were associated with significantly lower risks of premature cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion In addition to knowledge levels, mothers’ beliefs play an important role in mothers’ decisions to practice exclusive breastfeeding. Mother’s beliefs on the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on the mother’s health, physical appearance and ability to engage in other activities were shown to have the strongest relationship with premature cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Addressing these beliefs has the potential to contribute to more effective exclusive breastfeeding promotion efforts in rural Kenya.

  5. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    408 heads of cattle to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and assess its public health implications. A comparative ..... (78.6%) of the respondents consume raw and poorly heat ... compromises related to certain stress factors.

  6. Prevalence of serogroups and virulence genes in Escherichia coli associated with postweaning diarrhoea and edema disease in pigs and a comparison of diagnostic approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendahl, K.

    2002-01-01

    Identification of Escherichia coli causing porcine postweaning diarrhoea (PWD) or edema disease (ED) requires knowledge regarding the prevalent pathotypes within a given region. This study was undertaken to determine the present distribution of serogroups. hemolytic activity and virulence factor...

  7. A study on the determination of risk factors associated with babesiosis and prevalence of Babesia sp., by PCR amplification, in small ruminants from Southern Punjab (Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal F.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis is a parasitic infection due to the multiplication of tick borne parasite, Babesia sp., in erythrocytes of host, which includes a wide variety of vertebrates including small ruminants causing decreased livestock output and hence economic losses. The objective of the present study was to establish a PCR based method for the detection of Babesia sp. in small ruminant population in Southern Punjab and to determine the risk factors involve in the spread of babesiosis. A total of 107 blood samples were collected from 40 sheep and 67 goats in seven districts of Southern Punjab from randomly selected herds. Data on the characteristics of the animals and the herd were collected through questionnaires. 36 blood samples (34% of total produced the DNA fragment specific for 18S rRNA gene of Babesia sp., by PCR amplification, of which 20 were sheep and 16 were goats. Samples from all seven district contained Babesia positive samples and prevalence varied between 18 to 68%. It was observed that male animals (P = 0.009 and young animals under one year of age (P = 0.01 were more prone to the parasite. It was observed that herds consist of more than 15 animals (P = 0.007, composed of mixed species of small ruminants (P = 0.022, associated with dogs (P = 0.003 and dogs having ticks on their bodies (P = 0.011 were among the major risk factors for the spread of babesiosis in small ruminants.

  8. A study on the determination of risk factors associated with babesiosis and prevalence of Babesia sp., by PCR amplification, in small ruminants from Southern Punjab (Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, F; Fatima, M; Shahnawaz, S; Naeem, M; Shaikh, Rs; Ali, M; Shaikh, As; Aktas, M; Ali, M

    2011-08-01

    Babesiosis is a parasitic infection due to the multiplication of tick borne parasite, Babesia sp., in erythrocytes of host, which includes a wide variety of vertebrates including small ruminants causing decreased livestock output and hence economic losses. The objective of the present study was to establish a PCR based method for the detection of Babesia sp. in small ruminant population in Southern Punjab and to determine the risk factors involve in the spread of babesiosis. A total of 107 blood samples were collected from 40 sheep and 67 goats in seven districts of Southern Punjab from randomly selected herds. Data on the characteristics of the animals and the herd were collected through questionnaires. 36 blood samples (34% of total) produced the DNA fragment specific for 18S rRNA gene of Babesia sp., by PCR amplification, of which 20 were sheep and 16 were goats. Samples from all seven district contained Babesia positive samples and prevalence varied between 18 to 68%. It was observed that male animals (P = 0.009) and young animals under one year of age (P = 0.01) were more prone to the parasite. It was observed that herds consist of more than 15 animals (P = 0.007), composed of mixed species of small ruminants (P = 0.022), associated with dogs (P = 0.003) and dogs having ticks on their bodies (P = 0.011) were among the major risk factors for the spread of babesiosis in small ruminants.

  9. Prevalence of reproductive tract infections and their determinants in married women residing in an urban slum of North-East Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhilwar, Meenakshi; Lal, Panna; Sharma, Nandini; Bhalla, Preena; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-08-01

    Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) have adverse implications on the health of the women. Community-based studies in India have shown a high prevalence of RTIs but here is a lack of sizeable literature from urban slums and resettlement areas. The objective was to document the prevalence and determinants of RTIs in married women (15-49 years) residing in an urban slum in Delhi, India. The study was conducted in an urban resettlement colony of Gokulpuri in the North-East district of Delhi. Systematic random sampling method was adopted to choose the study subjects, that is, married and non-pregnant women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) residing in the study area. Data were collected using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire, through the house to house visits. The diagnosis of RTIs was made as per the World Health Organization syndromic approach. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 16 (Chicago, IL, USA). A total of 802 women were interviewed. The mean age of study subjects was 30.79 ± 7 years. A total of 352 (43.9%) women currently had symptoms of RTIs. The most frequently reported symptoms included abdominal pain (68.2%), back pain (69.6%), and vaginal discharge (59.3%). Older women (≥25 years) (odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.4-3.5), those belonging to the lower socioeconomic status (OR 2.1, 95% CI; 1.5-2.9), those using cloth during menses (OR 2.6, 95% CI; 1.6-4.3), those having more than three pregnancies (OR 1.8, 95% CI; 1.2-2.6) and those using an intrauterine contraceptive device (OR 11.8, 95% CI; 4.3-32.0) had higher odds of having RTIs. A high case load was found based on the syndromic approach. Generating community awareness, ensuring proper menstrual hygiene, and improving the socioeconomic status would help in reducing the cases of RTI.

  10. A Secondary Analysis of Longitudinal Prevalence Data to Determine the Use of Pressure Ulcer Preventive Measures in Dutch Nursing Homes, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leen, Martin Wf; Schols, Joseph Mga; Hovius, Steven Er; Halfens, Ruud Jg

    2017-09-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) are an important and distressing problem in Dutch nursing homes. A secondary analysis of longitudinal data from the Dutch National Prevalence Measurement of Care Problems (LPZ) - an annual, multicenter, point-prevalence survey - was conducted for the years 2005-2014 to determine the use of specific recommended PU preventive measures from the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel 1998, the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel/European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel 2009, and the 2002 and 2011 Dutch PU guidelines. Preventive care was investigated among nursing home residents at risk for PUs and included skin care (moisturization); nutritional and hydration status assessment and optimization; and pressure redistribution involving mattresses, cushions, and heel pressure-relieving strategies and devices. Following abstraction from the study database, data for 3 at-risk groups were distinguished: 1) residents with a Braden score of 17, 18, or 19; 2) residents with a Braden score below 17; and 3) residents with a PU. Data were aggregated at the institutional level. Differences were tested with multiple regression analyses. The mean number of residents over the study period was 5435, the mean age was 82.8 years, and the mean Braden score was 15.3. None of the recommended preventive measures from the guidelines consulted was applied 100% of the time: preventive skin care measures were used in 25.1% to 63.8% of cases and dehydration and/or malnutrition were identified and managed in 27.8% to 65.6% of patients. Pressure redistribution with special types of mattresses was used in 85.2% of patients, cushions in (wheel)chairs were used in 64.8% of patients, and heels were offloaded in 57.8% of patients. The results regarding repositioning for the 3 groups, respectively, showed a maximum use of 9.7%, 30.3%, and 65.6%; the higher the PU risk, the more preventive measures were used. Although the results show a decrease in the percent of category 2 through

  11. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile Prevalencia del VIH, conocimientos sobre el SIDA, y uso del condón en trabajadoras sexuales de Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E. Barrientos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%, although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%. The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability.Este artículo examina la prevalencia del VIH, los conocimientos respecto a su infección y, además, describe el uso del condón en mujeres que ejercen el comercio sexual en Santiago de Chile y que son atendidas en cinco centros especializados de enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Se aplicó una encuesta que indagaba sobre las características sociodemográficas, el conocimiento sobre el VIH/SIDA y el uso del condón a 626 mujeres. La prevalencia del VIH fue evaluada mediante un examen de ELISA. La prevalencia del VIH fue 0. El conocimiento del VIH fue bueno e, incluso, mejor que en población general, en algunos indicadores. El uso del condón con los clientes fue alto, aunque su uso regular con las parejas estables fue bajo. La prevalencia cero del VIH y el uso consistente de condones con los clientes confirma el impacto positivo que han tenido las estrategias de intervención implementadas para estos grupos, incrementando el conocimiento adecuado sobre el SIDA y el

  12. Diabetic foot care: Self reported knowledge and practice among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) foot complications are a leading cause of mortality in developing countries and the prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase in the next decades in these countries. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and practice of foot care among diabetes patients attending ...

  13. A field study to determine the prevalence, dairy herd management systems, and fresh cow clinical conditions associated with ketosis in western European dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Anna C; Vertenten, Geert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, major management systems, and fresh cow clinical conditions associated with ketosis in western European dairy herds. A total of 131 dairies were enrolled in Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom during 2011 to 2012. A milk-based test for ketones (Keto-Test; Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co. Ltd., Nagoya, Japan; distributed by Elanco Animal Health, Antwerp, Belgium) was used for screening cows between d 7 and 21 after calving and ketosis was defined as a Keto-Test ≥100µmol/L. Study cows were observed for clinical disease up to 35d postcalving. Multivariate analysis (generalized estimating equation logistic regression) was performed to determine country, farm, management, feed, and cow factors associated with ketosis and to determine associations between ketosis and fresh cow diseases. Thirty-nine percent of the cows were classified as having ketosis. The herd average of ketosis was 43% in Germany, 53% in France, 31% in Italy, 46% in the Netherlands, and 31% in the United Kingdom. Of the 131 farms, 112 (85%) had 25% or more of their fresh cows resulting as positive for ketosis. Clinical ketosis was not reported in most farms and the highest level of clinical ketosis reported was 23%. The risks of ketosis were significantly lower in Italy and the United Kingdom compared with France, the Netherlands, and Germany. Larger herd size was associated with a decreased risk of ketosis. The farms that fed partially mixed rations had 1.5 times higher odds of ketosis than those that fed total mixed rations. Cows that calved in April to June had the highest odds of ketosis, with about twice as high odds compared with cows that calved in July to September. The cows that calved in January to March tended to have 1.5 times higher risk of ketosis compared with cows that calved in July to September. The odds of ketosis in parity 2 and parity 3 to 7 was significantly higher (1.5 and 2.8 times higher

  14. Sexually transmitted infections: Prevalence, knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude descriptive transversale a cherché à évaluer les pratiques de la prévalence, la connaissance et le traitement des infections sexuellement transmissibles chez les prostituées qui pratiquent leur métier dans des bordels. Trois cent vingt-trois prostituées consentants ont été interrogées à l'aide des questionnaires ...

  15. Prevalence, incidence and determinants of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among HIV-seronegative women at high-risk of HIV infection: a prospective study in Beira, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meque, Ivete; Dubé, Karine; Feldblum, Paul J.; Clements, Archie C. A.; Zango, Arlinda; Cumbe, Fidelina; Chen, Pai Lien; Ferro, Josefo J.; van de Wijgert, Janneke H.

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence, incidence and determinants of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) infection, and associations between HSV-2 and incident HIV infection, among women at higher risk for HIV infection in Beira, Mozambique. Between 2009 and 2012, 411 women aged 18-35 years at higher risk of HIV

  16. The Use of Multiplex PCR to Determine the Prevalence of Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Raw Milk, Feta Cheese, and Hand Swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinhom, Mohamed M A; Abdel-Latef, Gihan K; Jordan, Kieran

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) can cause mastitis in cattle and, therefore, can be present in milk. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of coagulase positive S. aureus and its enterotoxin genes sea, seb, and sec in isolates recovered from raw milk, feta cheese, and human hand swabs of milk and cheese handlers in Beni-Suef province, Egypt. A total of 100 samples of raw milk and 50 samples of pasteurized-milk feta cheese were collected. In addition, 50 hand swabs from milk handlers and 25 hand swabs from cheese handlers were examined for the presence of coagulase positive S. aureus. The isolates were characterized by multiplex PCR for detection of sea, seb, and sec genes, and for resistance to 5 classes of commonly used antibiotics. Twelve (12/100), 12 (6/50), and 17% (13/75) of milk, cheese, and hand swab samples, respectively, were positive for coagulase positive S. aureus. One isolate was obtained from each positive sample (31 isolates), and none contained genes for SEA or SEC production. Twenty-five percent, 33%, and 31%, respectively, of the isolates contained the genes for SEB, resulting in 3%, 4%, and 5% of samples being positive for toxin producing coagulase positive S. aureus, respectively. At least one isolate was resistant to each of the antibiotics tested. Despite the low potential for SEB production shown, preventative measures, such as maintenance of the cold-chain and good hygienic practices should be implemented to further reduce the potential risk to public health from SEB, and to reduce the spread of antimicrobial resistance. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Prevalence and determinants of differences in cystatin C and creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate in community-dwelling older adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Helen; Werner, Karin; Christensson, Anders; Pihlsgård, Mats; Elmståhl, Sölve

    2017-12-04

    Differences in cystatin C and creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) can lead to clinical uncertainty. Existing eGFR equations perform poorly in a subset of individuals. This study aims to describe the prevalence of differences between cystatin C-based (eGFR cys ) and creatinine-based (eGFR creat ) eGFR in older adults and to explore which subsets of individuals may be most affected by differing estimations. In this cross-sectional study, participants from a co