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Sample records for prevalence correlates comorbidity

  1. Prevalence and Polysomnographic Correlates of Insomnia Comorbid with Medical Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhiraja, Rohit; Roth, Thomas; Hudgel, David W.; Budhiraja, Pooja; Drake, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the prevalence and polysomnographic correlates of insomnia in subjects with self-reported medical disorders. Design: Prospective cross-sectional study. Participants: Community-based sample of 3282 men and women aged 18 to 65 years old, with a subset who underwent polysomnography. Measurements: Self-reported measures of sleep habits and current health, and polysomnographic sleep variables. Results: The prevalence of insomnia was 21.4%. The adjusted odds of insomnia were 2.2 times as high in persons with any medical disorders as in those without medical disorders. Specifically, odds of insomnia were higher in people with heart disease (OR = 1.6 [95% CI: 1.2-23], P = 0.004), hypertension (1.5 [12-18], P insomnia increased with increasing number of medical disorders. However, polysomnographic sleep was not significantly different in persons with or without medical disorders for most disorders assessed. Conclusion: This large population-based study suggests that insomnia is highly prevalent in diverse chronic medical disorders. However, polysomnographic evidence of disturbed sleep is present in only a subset of comorbid insomnia populations. Citation: Budhiraja R; Roth T; Hudgel DW; Budhiraja P; Drake CL. Prevalence and polysomnographic correlates of insomnia comorbid with medical disorders. SLEEP 2011;34(7):859-867. PMID:21731135

  2. Prevalence and polysomnographic correlates of insomnia comorbid with medical disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhiraja, Rohit; Roth, Thomas; Hudgel, David W; Budhiraja, Pooja; Drake, Christopher L

    2011-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and polysomnographic correlates of insomnia in subjects with self-reported medical disorders. Prospective cross-sectional study. Community-based sample of 3282 men and women aged 18 to 65 years old, with a subset who underwent polysomnography. Self-reported measures of sleep habits and current health, and polysomnographic sleep variables. The prevalence of insomnia was 21.4%. The adjusted odds of insomnia were 2.2 times as high in persons with any medical disorders as in those without medical disorders. Specifically, odds of insomnia were higher in people with heart disease (OR = 1.6 [95% CI: 1.2-23], P = 0.004), hypertension (1.5 [12-18], P insomnia increased with increasing number of medical disorders. However, polysomnographic sleep was not significantly different in persons with or without medical disorders for most disorders assessed. This large population-based study suggests that insomnia is highly prevalent in diverse chronic medical disorders. However, polysomnographic evidence of disturbed sleep is present in only a subset of comorbid insomnia populations.

  3. Social Phobia and Subtypes in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement: Prevalence, Correlates, and Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Marcy; He, Jian-Ping; Kattan, Gabriela; Albano, Anne Marie; Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Social phobia typically develops during the adolescent years, yet no nationally representative studies in the United States have examined the rates and features of this condition among youth in this age range. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) present the lifetime prevalence, sociodemographic and clinical correlates, and…

  4. Cannabis use disorders in the USA: prevalence, correlates and co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Frederick S; Ruan, W June; Pickering, Roger; Grant, Bridget F

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to present 12-month and lifetime estimates of the prevalence, sociodemographic and clinical correlates, and psychiatric co-morbidity of DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence. Data were derived from a large nationally representative survey (n=43093) of US adults. The prevalence of 12-month and lifetime DSM-IV cannabis abuse (1.1% and 7.2%) exceeded the corresponding rates of cannabis dependence (0.3% and 1.3%). Being male, Native American, widowed/separated/divorced, and residing in the West increased the odds whereas being Black, Asian or Hispanic decreased the odds of cannabis abuse and dependence. Cannabis dependence was significantly associated with low income. Ages of onset for both cannabis use disorders occurred in adolescence and the majority of individuals with these disorders remained untreated. Co-morbidity was high between cannabis use disorders and other Axis I and II disorders. Cannabis use disorders continue to present a widespread and serious personal and public health problem. Native Americans were found to have high rates of cannabis use disorders, warranting closer attention to the mental health needs of this subgroup. Associations between cannabis abuse and dependence and Axis I and II disorders were strong, signaling the need for more comprehensive assessment of individuals with cannabis use disorders. Further controlled treatment studies are needed, especially among co-morbid individuals, in view of growing evidence of the adverse personal, medical and societal impacts of cannabis use disorders in the USA.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of bipolar spectrum disorder comorbid with ADHD features in nonclinical young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Jung, Young-Eun; Chung, Sang-Keun; Hong, Jeongwan; Ri Kang, Na; Kim, Moon-Doo; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the rate of bipolar spectrum disorder comorbid with ADHD features using two screening instruments, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), in a nonclinical young adult population. College and graduate students aged 18 years or older from four universities in Korea were selected. Comorbidity was defined as both MDQ positivity and WURS positivity. To look for a trend in clinical characteristics according to the severity of the comorbid condition, we used the Jonckheere-Terpstra test and the linear-by-linear association test. We performed ordinal logistic regression analysis to identify predictors associated with the studied comorbid condition. A total of 1948 subjects were included in the study, and 15 (0.8%) of them were found to have the comorbid condition defined as both MDQ positivity and WURS positivity. As the severity of the comorbid condition increased, we saw trends of lower socioeconomic status, higher history of suicidality, higher history of self-mutilating behavior, higher history of parental abuse or abuse by other people, more severe depression, and more severe problematic alcohol use. The ordinal regression analysis showed that history of parental abuse, depression, and problematic alcohol use predicted the comorbid condition. We did not use standardized diagnostic tools for case findings. The condition of comorbid bipolar spectrum disorder with ADHD features had a notable prevalence of 0.8% in a nonclinical young adult sample. This comorbid condition was found to be related with serious clinical phenomenology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder in a Community Mental Health Clinic: Prevalence, Comorbidity and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew J; Youngstrom, Eric A; Youngstrom, Jennifer K; Findling, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    The revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) added a new diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) to depressive disorders. This study examines the prevalence, comorbidity, and correlates of the new disorder, with a particular focus on its overlap with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), with which DMDD shares core symptoms. Data were obtained from 597 youth 6-18 years of age who participated in a systematic assessment of symptoms offered to all intakes at a community mental health center (sample accrued from July 2003 to March 2008). Assessment included diagnostic, symptomatic, and functional measures. DMDD was diagnosed using a post-hoc definition from item-level ratings on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children that closely matches the DSM-5 definition. Caregivers rated youth on the Child Behavior Checklist. Approximately 31% of youth met the operational definition of DMDD, and 40% had Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) diagnoses of ODD. Youth with DMDD almost always had ODD (odds ratio [OR] = 53.84) and displayed higher rates of comorbidity with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder than youth without DMDD. Caregivers of youth with DMDD reported more symptoms of aggressive behavior, rule-breaking, social problems, anxiety/depression, attention problems, and thought problems than all other youth without DMDD. Compared with youth with ODD, youth with DMDD were not significantly different in terms of categorical or dimensional approaches to comorbidity and impairment. The new diagnosis of DMDD might be common in community mental health clinics. Youth with DMDD displayed more severe symptoms and poorer functioning than youth without DMDD. However, DMDD almost entirely overlaps with ODD and youth with DMDD were not significantly different than youth with ODD. These findings raise concerns

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder comorbidity in homeless adults: Prevalence, correlates, and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchalla, Iris; Strehlau, Verena; Li, Kathy; Aube Linden, Isabelle; Noel, Francois; Krausz, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) are highly prevalent in homeless populations, and rates are typically greater among males. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common co-occurring condition among individuals with SUDs; however, little attention has been directed to examining this comorbidity in homeless populations. Although some studies indicate considerable sex differences among individuals with PTSD, it has also been suggested that sex differences in PTSD rates diminish in populations with severe SUDs. This cross-sectional study investigated SUD-PTSD comorbidity and its associations with indicators of psychosocial functioning in a sample of 500 homeless individuals from Canada. Sex-related patterns of SUD, PTSD, and their comorbidity were also examined. Males and females had similar SUD prevalence rates, but the rates of PTSD and PTSD-SUD comorbidity were higher in females. PTSD and sex were found to have significant main effects on suicidality, psychological distress, somatic symptoms, and incarceration among individuals with SUD. Sex also moderated the association of PTSD with suicide risk and psychological distress. Our results contradict assumptions that sex differences in PTSD rates attenuate in samples with severe SUDs. Organizations providing SUD treatment for homeless people should address PTSD as an integrated part of their services. SUD and integrated treatment programs may benefit from sex-specific components.

  8. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of four DSM-IV specific phobia subtypes: results from the Korean Epidemiological Catchment Area study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Hong, Jin Pyo; Chang, Sung Man; Lee, Young Moon; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Bae, Jae Nam; Lee, Jun Young; Son, Jung-Woo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2013-10-30

    Although several studies have detected differences in clinical features among specific phobias, there is a shortage of detailed national data on the on the DSM-IV SP subtypes, particularly in the Asian population. To examine the prevalence, demographic and other correlates, and co-morbidities of DSM-IV SP subtypes in a nationwide sample of Korean adults. We recruited 6510 participants aged 18-64 years for this study. Lay interviewers used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess participants. We analyzed socio-demographics, health-related correlates and frequencies of comorbid mental disorders among participants with SP and each subtypes compared to unaffected adults. The prevalence of lifetime DSM-IV SP was 3.8%, and animal phobias were the most prevalent type of SP. Blood-injection-injury phobia was negatively associated with education, whereas situational phobia was positively associated with education. The strongest mental disorder comorbidity was associated with situational phobia; there is a higher probability of comorbid mood (OR=5.73, 95% CI=2.09-15.73), anxiety (OR=7.54, 95% CI=2.34-24.28), and somatoform disorders (OR=7.61, 95% CI=1.64-35.22) with this subtype. Blood-injection-injury phobia was highly associated with alcohol dependence (OR=9.02, 95% CI=3.54-23.02). Specific phobias are heterogeneous with respect to socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidity pattern. Implications of the usefulness of current subtype categories should continue to be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of comorbid depression in a nonclinical online sample with DSM-5 internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Cho, Hyun; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2018-01-15

    We investigated the prevalence and correlates of comorbid depression among patients with internet gaming disorder using the Internet Gaming Disorder scale (IGD-9) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) among nonclinical online survey respondents. Korean adolescents and adults from 14 to 39 years of age were selected. We compared internet gaming use patterns and sociodemographic and clinical variables between patients with internet gaming disorder who had depression and those without depression. In 2016, 7200 people participated in an online survey. Respondents with internet gaming disorder that was comorbid with depression were older, more often female, had greater Internet Addiction Test total scores, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test total scores, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 total scores, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence total scores, and higher Dickman Dysfunctional Impulsivity Instrument dysfunctional subscale scores than those without depression. The binary logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender, problematic alcohol use, anxiety, and a past history of psychiatric counseling or treatment due to internet gaming use were significant predictors for comorbid depression among participants with internet gaming disorder. Depression was a common comorbidity of internet gaming disorder. Internet gaming disorder with comorbid depression was related to more serious psychiatric phenomenology and a greater psychiatric burden. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Lifetime prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity and demographic correlates of "hikikomori" in a community population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Asuka; Miyake, Yuko; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Tachimori, Hisateru; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2010-03-30

    The epidemiology of "hikikomori" (acute social withdrawal) in a community population is not clear, although it has been noted for the past decade in Japan. The objective of this study is to clarify the prevalence of "hikikomori" and to examine the relation between "hikikomori" and psychiatric disorders. A face-to-face household survey was conducted of community residents (n=4134). We defined "hikikomori" as a psychopathological phenomenon in which people become completely withdrawn from society for 6 months or longer. We asked all respondents whether they had any children currently experiencing "hikikomori". For respondents aged 20-49 years old (n=1660), we asked whether they had ever experienced "hikikomori". A total of 1.2% had experienced "hikikomori" in their lifetime. Among them, 54.5% had also experienced a psychiatric (mood, anxiety, impulse control, or substance-related) disorder in their lifetime. Respondents who experienced "hikikomori" had a 6.1 times higher risk of mood disorder. Among respondents, 0.5% currently had at least one child who had experienced "hikikomori". The study suggests that "hikikomori" is common in the community population in Japan. While psychiatric disorders were often comorbid with "hikikomori", half of the cases seem to be "primary hikikomori" without a comorbid psychiatric disorder. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychoactive substance use and dependence among Spanish university students: prevalence, correlates, polyconsumption, and comorbidity with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Fernando L

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and dependence was estimated among students at a Spanish university, together with associated factors, polyconsumption, and comorbidity with depression, using a 554-member sample stratified by sex, degree year, and discipline. 86.5% had consumed some potentially addictive psychoactive substance in the past month, and 10.5% satisfied DSM-IV criteria for dependence on nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, or cannabis. Polyconsumers (90.4%) consumed an average 3.2 different substances. Current depression implied increased likelihood of having consumed tobacco or psychoactive pharmaceutical drugs in the past month, and DSM-IV symptoms of major depressive episode were shown by 8.6% of 58 substance-dependent participants, 8.7% of 540 past-month legal substance consumers, and 12.1% of 140 past-month illegal substance consumers.

  12. Correlation of Electronic Health Records Use and Reduced Prevalence of Diabetes Co-Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The general problem is Native American tribes have high prevalence rates of diabetes. The specific problem is the failure of IHS sites to adopt EHR may cause health care providers to miss critical opportunities to improve screening and triage processes that result in quality improvement. The purpose of the quantitative correlational study was to…

  13. Gender differences in prevalence, risk, and clinical correlates of alcoholism comorbidity in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frye, MA; Altshuler, LL; McElroy, SL; Suppes, T; Keck, PE; Denicoff, K; Nolen, WA; Kupka, R; Leverich, GS; Pollio, C; Grunze, H; Walden, J; Post, RM

    Objective: The prevalence of lifetime alcohol abuse and/or dependence (alcoholism) in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be higher than in all other axis I psychiatric diagnoses. This study examined gender-specific relationships between alcoholism and bipolar illness, which have

  14. Prevalence, correlates, and treatment of lifetime suicidal behavior among adolescents: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Matthew K; Green, Jennifer Greif; Hwang, Irving; McLaughlin, Katie A; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2013-03-01

    Although suicide is the third leading cause of death among US adolescents, little is known about the prevalence, correlates, or treatment of its immediate precursors, adolescent suicidal behaviors (ie, suicide ideation, plans, and attempts). To estimate the lifetime prevalence of suicidal behaviors among US adolescents and the associations of retrospectively reported, temporally primary DSM-IV disorders with the subsequent onset of suicidal behaviors. Dual-frame national sample of adolescents from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. Face-to-face household interviews with adolescents and questionnaires for parents. A total of 6483 adolescents 13 to 18 years of age and their parents. Lifetime suicide ideation, plans, and attempts. The estimated lifetime prevalences of suicide ideation, plans, and attempts among the respondents are 12.1%, 4.0%, and 4.1%, respectively. The vast majority of adolescents with these behaviors meet lifetime criteria for at least one DSM-IV mental disorder assessed in the survey. Most temporally primary (based on retrospective age-of-onset reports) fear/anger, distress, disruptive behavior, and substance disorders significantly predict elevated odds of subsequent suicidal behaviors in bivariate models. The most consistently significant associations of these disorders are with suicide ideation, although a number of disorders are also predictors of plans and both planned and unplanned attempts among ideators. Most suicidal adolescents (>80%) receive some form of mental health treatment. In most cases (>55%), treatment starts prior to onset of suicidal behaviors but fails to prevent these behaviors from occurring. Suicidal behaviors are common among US adolescents, with rates that approach those of adults. The vast majority of youth with suicidal behaviors have preexisting mental disorders. The disorders most powerfully predicting ideation, though, are different from those most powerfully predicting conditional

  15. Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV narcissistic personality disorder: results from the wave 2 national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Frederick S; Dawson, Deborah A; Goldstein, Risë B; Chou, S Patricia; Huang, Boji; Smith, Sharon M; Ruan, W June; Pulay, Attila J; Saha, Tulshi D; Pickering, Roger P; Grant, Bridget F

    2008-07-01

    To present nationally representative findings on prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, disability, and comorbidity of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) among men and women. Face-to-face interviews with 34,653 adults participating in the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions conducted between 2004 and 2005 in the United States. Prevalence of lifetime NPD was 6.2%, with rates greater for men (7.7%) than for women (4.8%). NPD was significantly more prevalent among black men and women and Hispanic women, younger adults, and separated/divorced/widowed and never married adults. NPD was associated with mental disability among men but not women. High co-occurrence rates of substance use, mood, and anxiety disorders and other personality disorders were observed. With additional comorbidity controlled for, associations with bipolar I disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizotypal and borderline personality disorders remained significant, but weakened, among men and women. Similar associations were observed between NPD and specific phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, and bipolar II disorder among women and between NPD and alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, and histrionic and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders among men. Dysthymic disorder was significantly and negatively associated with NPD. NPD is a prevalent personality disorder in the general U.S. population and is associated with considerable disability among men, whose rates exceed those of women. NPD may not be as stable as previously recognized or described in the DSM-IV. The results highlight the need for further research from numerous perspectives to identify the unique and common genetic and environmental factors underlying the disorder-specific associations with NPD observed in this study.

  16. A profile of social, separation and generalized anxiety disorders in an Australian nationally representative sample of children and adolescents: Prevalence, comorbidity and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Susan H; Zubrick, Stephen R; Lawrence, David

    2017-11-01

    To examine (1) the 12-month prevalence of social anxiety disorder (SOC), separation anxiety disorder (SEP) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a large, nationally representative sample of Australian youth; (2) patterns of comorbidity between these disorders; (3) demographic and socio-environmental correlates and (4) the psychosocial impact and service use associated with each condition. Data are from the 2013/2014 Australian national, face-to-face household Young Minds Matter survey of mental health and wellbeing. Informants were parents or carers reporting on 6310, 4- to 17-year-olds (55% of eligible households). The presence of each of the three anxiety disorders was determined based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Version IV. In the past 12 months, 6.6% of youth had experienced at least one of SOC, SEP or GAD, with rates of 2.3% for SOC, 4.3% for SEP and 2.3% for GAD. Rates did not differ by gender but were significantly higher for SOC and GAD and lower for SEP in 12- to 17-year-olds than 4- to 11-year-olds. Comorbidity between these disorders was high, although lower for SEP. Having SOC, SEP or GAD was associated with not living with both biological parents, having a parent with a mental health problem, elevated negative family events, low carer employment and peer victimization. The association with family risk factors was greater for SEP than for SOC and GAD. Although the majority of anxious youth had received professional help, this was less likely in the younger cohort. Social, separation and generalized anxiety disorders in young people are relatively common and impairing, with a high level of comorbidity. There are both commonalities and differences in socio-environmental correlates. The majority of anxious youth received some form of professional assistance, although the rate was lower among children compared to adolescents.

  17. The prevalence and correlates of lifetime psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures in urban and rural settings: results from the national comorbidity survey replication (NCS-R.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S McCall-Hosenfeld

    Full Text Available Distinctions between rural and urban environments produce different frequencies of traumatic exposures and psychiatric disorders. We examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and frequency of trauma exposures by position on the rural-urban continuum.The National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R was used to evaluate psychiatric disorders among a nationally-representative sample of the U.S. population. Rurality was designated using the Department of Agriculture's 2003 rural-urban continuum codes (RUCC, which differentiate counties into levels of rurality by population density and adjacency to metropolitan areas. Lifetime psychiatric disorders included post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, mood disorders, impulse-control disorders, and substance abuse. Trauma exposures were classified as war-related, accident-related, disaster-related, interpersonal or other. Weighted logistic regression models examined the odds of psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures by position on the rural-urban continuum, adjusted for relevant covariates.75% of participants were metropolitan, 12.2% were suburban, and 12.8% were from rural counties. The most common disorder reported was any anxiety disorder (38.5%. Drug abuse was more common among metropolitan (8.7%, p = 0.018, compared to nonmetropolitan (5.1% suburban, 6.1% rural participants. A one-category increase in rurality was associated with decreased odds for war-related trauma (aOR = 0.86, 95%CI 0.78-0.95. Rurality was not associated with risk for any other lifetime psychiatric disorders or trauma exposure.Contrary to the expectation of some rural primary care providers, the frequencies of most psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures are similar across the rural-urban continuum, reinforcing calls to improve mental healthcare access in resource-poor rural communities.

  18. A Cross-sectional Cohort Study of Prevalence, Co-Morbidities, and Correlates of Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Adult Patients Admitted to the Li Ka Shing Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic, Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, V Mc; Chan, L F

    2017-06-01

    To examine the prevalence, co-morbidities, and correlates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adult patients who attended the Li Ka Shing psychiatric outpatient clinic (LKSPC), Hong Kong. This study was a cross-sectional cohort study of patients consecutively referred to LKSPC over a 3-month period for evaluation of adult ADHD in 2 phases. In the screening phase, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-v1.1 (ASRS-v1.1) Screener and Symptom Checklist and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) were used in the evaluation. In the interview phase, ADHD diagnosis was ascertained using the Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in Adults, version 2.0 (DIVA 2.0), with the DSM-5 criteria, in patients who exceeded the cut-off point of either the ASRS-v1.1 Screener or Symptom Checklist. The study included 254 patients of whom 49 were diagnosed with ADHD. Patients with ADHD were aged 18 to 60 (mean, 40.1) years, and 63.3% were women. The estimated prevalence of ADHD in adult psychiatric patients, by sensitivity analysis, was 13% to 19.3% with a higher prevalence in men than women (24.7% vs. 17.1%). Adult ADHD was highly co-morbid with substance / alcohol use disorders and forensic record, and associated with functional impairment. In the ADHD combined presentation group, there was additional co-morbidities of bipolar disorder, active substance use and chronic alcohol use, and a higher associated risk of suicidal attempt. Efforts are needed to increase the detection and treatment of adult ADHD that affects a relevant proportion of our adult psychiatric outpatient population, and was associated with adverse social outcomes and functional impairment.

  19. Epidemiology of illicit drug use disorders in Iran: prevalence, correlates, comorbidity and service utilization results from the Iranian Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Sharifi, Vandad; Hajebi, Ahmad; Radgoodarzi, Reza; Mojtabai, Ramin; Hefazi, Mitra; Motevalian, Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Drug abuse is a significant social and public health problem in Iran. The present study aimed to provide prevalence estimates and information on correlates of illicit drug use disorder and opioid dependence, as well as service use for these disorders in Iran. This report is based on the Iranian household Mental Health Survey (IranMHS) conducted in 2011. A three-stage probability sampling was employed. Face-to-face interviews by trained psychologists were carried out with a nationally representative sample of 7841 individuals (3366 men and 4475 women) aged 15-64 years. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview and questionnaires for socio-demographic correlates and service use. The prevalence of 12-month use disorders for any illicit drug according to DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria were 2.09% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.70-2.47%] and 2.44% (95% CI = 2.03-2.85%), respectively. Opioid use disorders, and opium in particular, were the most common use disorder. The odds of drug use disorders were greater in men than in women, in previously married participants than in currently or never married participants, and in participants with lower socio-economic status than in those with higher socio-economic status (all P-values drug use disorders and 40% with opioid dependence had a 12-month unmet need for treatment. Self-help groups were the most common type of service used, followed by obtaining medication from pharmacies directly and outpatient treatment services. Opioid use disorders are the most common type of drug use disorders in Iran, setting Iran apart from many other countries. Patterns of service use suggest a large unmet need for drug use disorder treatment in Iran. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Prevalence and comorbidity of allergic diseases in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyeong Yun; Kwon, Eun Byul; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Shin, Youn Ho; Yum, Hye Yung; Jee, Hye Mi; Yoon, Jung Won; Han, Man Yong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Allergic disease and its comorbidities significantly influence the quality of life. Although the comorbidities of allergic diseases are well described in adult populations, little is known about them in preschool children. In the present study, we aimed to assess the prevalence and comorbidity of allergic diseases in Korean preschool children. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study comprising 615 Korean children (age, 3 to 6 years). Symptoms of allergic diseases were assessed us...

  1. The Patient's Comorbidity Burden Correlates with the Erectile Dysfunction Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cruz, E; Carrión, A; Ajami, T; Álvarez, M; Correas, M Á; García, B; García, J V; González, C; Portillo, J A; Romero-Otero, J; Simón, C; Torremadé, J; Vigués, F; Alcaraz, A

    To explore the potential relationship between erectile dysfunction (ED), low testosterone levels, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Cross-sectional study on patients referred to the andrology unit in 7 Spanish centers. The ED was diagnosed and graded using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) score. Total testosterone, the prevalence of each comorbidity, and the CCI were compared between patients with different grades of ED. Besides, the correlation between total testosterone and the CCI score, the influence of each comorbidity, and the ED severity on the CCI was assessed in a multiple linear regression. The study included 430 men with a mean age of 61 years. The mean CCI was 3.5, and mean total testosterone 15.2 nmol/L; 389 (91%) subjects had some grade of ED: 97 (23%) mild, 149 (35%) mild-to-moderate, 86 (20%) moderate, and 57 (13%) severe. The increase in ED severity was significantly associated with a decrease in total testosterone (P=.002), and an increase in the CCI score (P<.001). Testosterone levels were significantly lower in patients with obesity, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia (P<.05). However, only the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension was significantly associated with the severity of ED. The multivariate analysis including variables related to all assessed comorbidities, total testosterone levels, and the DE severity significantly predicted the CCI score (P<.001, R 2 =.426). The severity of ED significantly contributed to this model (P=.011), but total testosterone did not (P=.204). The CCI is significantly associated with the ED severity, but it shows a weak correlation with the testosterone levels. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical Intolerance in Primary Care Settings: Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerndahl, David A.; Bell, Iris R.; Palmer, Raymond F.; Miller, Claudia S.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE This study extends previous community-based studies on the prevalence and clinical characteristics of chemical intolerance in a sample of primary care clinic patients. We evaluated comorbid medical and psychiatric disorders, functional status, and rates of health care use. METHODS A total of 400 patients were recruited from 2 family medicine clinic waiting rooms in San Antonio, Texas. Patients completed the validated Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI) to assess chemical intolerance; the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) screen for possible psychiatric disorders; the Dartmouth–Northern New England Primary Care Cooperative Information Project (Dartmouth COOP) charts for functional status; and the Healthcare Utilization Questionnaire. RESULTS Overall, 20.3% of the sample met criteria for chemical intolerance. The chemically intolerant group reported significantly higher rates of comorbid allergies and more often met screening criteria for possible major depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and alcohol abuse disorder, as well as somatization disorder. The total number of possible mental disorders was correlated with chemical intolerance scores (P intolerance were significantly more likely to have poorer functional status, with trends toward increased medical service use when compared with non–chemically intolerant patients. After controlling for comorbid psychiatric conditions, the groups differed significantly only regarding limitations of social activities. CONCLUSIONS Chemical intolerance occurs in 1 of 5 primary care patients yet is rarely diagnosed by busy practitioners. Psychiatric comorbidities contribute to functional limitations and increased health care use. Chemical intolerance offers an etiologic explanation. Symptoms may resolve or improve with the avoidance of salient chemical, dietary (including caffeine and alcohol), and drug triggers. Given greater medication

  3. Prevalence of vitiligo and associated comorbidities in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hemin; Lee, Mu-Hyoung; Lee, Dong Youn; Kang, Hee Young; Kim, Ki Ho; Choi, Gwang Seong; Shin, Jeonghyun; Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Tae Heung; Lee, Ai-Young; Lee, Seung Chul; Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Kyoung Wan; Hann, Seung-Kyung; Park, Chul Jong; Oh, Sang Ho

    2015-05-01

    Vitiligo prevalence and its associated comorbidities rate have been reported variably among different populations. We aimed to determine the prevalence of vitiligo in Korea along with the baseline rate of comorbidities and compared the risks to the general population using hospital visit information of the total population in Korea. We assessed demographic characteristics of vitiligo patients in Korean population from 2009 to 2011 in a nationwide data from Health Insurance Review Assessment Service. Patients who had at least one visit to Korea's primary, secondary, or tertiary referral hospitals with International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code for vitiligo were identified. As a supplementary study, comorbidities associated with vitiligo were selected for further review to calculate relative risks compared to the general population. The annual prevalence of vitiligo determined by hospital-visiting rate in Korea was 0.12% to 0.13% over a three year period. In sync with other previous epidemiological studies, there was bimodal distribution among the age groups and no difference between genders. Also, vitiligo in Korean population was associated with various autoimmune/non-autoimmune diseases such as thyroiditis, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. This study was by far the most comprehensive review on prevalence of vitiligo using a data of total population in Korea. The prevalence is within a range of those reported in previous literatures, and increased risk of comorbidities such as thyroid diseases and psoriasis in vitiligo might aid clinicians in the initial work up of vitiligo patients and concurrent follow ups.

  4. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Heterotypic Comorbidity in Externalizing Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Colin L.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Shannon, Katherine E.; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents with externalizing behavior disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) often present with symptoms of comorbid internalizing psychopathology. However, few studies have examined central nervous system correlates of such comorbidity. We evaluated interactions between…

  5. Prevalence, incidence, and autoimmune comorbidities of celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Louise; Bech, Bodil H; Jensen, Thomas Møller

    2018-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe and identify potential trends with respect to prevalence, incidence, age, sex, and autoimmune comorbidity of celiac disease (CD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A Danish nationwide cohort study of CD using data from The National Patient Register. Patients...

  6. Tinnitus and the prevalence of co-morbid psychological stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tinnitus is a symptom of unknown pathophysiology with few therapeutic measures and may present with co-morbid psychological stresses necessitating psychiatric treatment. This study aims at determining the prevalence of depression and anxiety in tinnitus sufferers in our environment. Method: This is a one ...

  7. Prevalence and comorbidities of childhood overweight and obesity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isah JA. Prevalence and comorbidities of childhood overweight and obesity among school aged children in an urban settlement in Benin City, Nigeria. Accepted: 6th December 2016. Adam VY. Department of Community Health. Isah JA. Department of Child Health. University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Benin City Nigeria.

  8. Frequency and correlates of comorbid psychiatric illness in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frequency and correlates of comorbid psychiatric illness in patients with heroin use disorder admitted to Stikland Opioid Detoxification Unit, South Africa. ... use disorders (World Health Organization's Alcohol Smoking Substance Involvement Screening Tool), and legal and social problems (Maudsley Addiction Profile).

  9. Trichotillomania Among Young Adults: Prevalence and Comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesiak, Magdalena; Reich, Adam; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Hadryś, Tomasz; Pacan, Przemysław

    2017-04-06

    Trichotillomania is an impulse control disorder characterized by repetitive pulling out of one's hair. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of trichotillomania in young adults and its association with anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). A total of 339 individuals completed a questionnaire to determine the presence of trichotillomania. OCD and anxiety disorders were diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria of the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10), based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Twelve persons (3.5%) reported hair pulling during their lifetime, but only 8 of them met the criteria of trichotillomania according to the ICD-10. Four individuals had stopped their behaviour prior to the study participation. The lifetime anxiety disorders were diagnosed in 5 participants with trichotillomania (62.5%), while in the group without trichotillomania, 67 persons (20.2%) met the diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders (p trichotillomania, among participants without trichotillomania, 14 persons (4.2%) reported symptoms of OCD.

  10. Prevalence and comorbidity of tic disorder in Israeli adolescents: results from a national mental health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Tamar; Tamir, Inbal; Zimmerman-Brenner, Sharon; Friling, Michal; Apter, Alan

    2013-02-01

    Tic disorders are common causes of morbidity in Israel but their prevalence in this country needs further study. To assess the prevalence of mental disorders in Israeli youth including tic disorders, as part of the Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA). The ISMEHA was conducted in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers during 2004-2005. We interviewed the adolescents and their mothers in their homes and collected demographic information about the use of services. We also administered a psychiatric interview, the Development and Well-Being Assessment inventory (DAWBA), which included a question on tic disorder. The prevalence of tic disorders was calculated based on the adolescents' and maternal reports. The relationships among demographic data, comorbidity rates, help-seeking behaviors and tic disorder are presented. The prevalence of tics was 1.3% according to maternal reports and 4.4% according to adolescents' reports. The prevalence correlated with externalizing disorders and learning disabilities. A higher prevalence of tics was found in the Arab population compared with Jewish adolescents. The prevalence of tic disorders in Israel, as measured by a direct question in this epidemiological study, and associated comorbidities concurs with previous reports. The complexities of prevalence estimations, comorbidities, demographic correlates, and help-seeking behaviors are discussed.

  11. Prevalence and impact of comorbid anxiety and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Martin B

    2006-01-01

    Comorbid conditions pose a serious risk to patients with bipolar disorder, but anxiety comorbidity poses a specific hazard due to the increased negative impact of anxiety on illness course and treatment. Anxiety comorbidity appears to be highly prevalent and is associated with intensified symptoms of bipolar disorder and additional comorbid disorders, resulting in a negative impact on the patient and on the course of the illness. The presence of anxiety in bipolar patients is also associated with a lowered age at onset, hampered patient response to treatment such as lithium, increased rates of suicide and substance abuse, and decreased quality of life. Patients can experience work, family, and social impairment and be made to contend with increased health care costs and strains on family support. Studies are few and have a limited scope, and many have failed to consider the clinical significance of comorbid anxiety and bipolar disorder. Because the degree to which anxiety impacts patients with bipolar disorder is not fully known, more information is needed about the relationship between bipolar disorder and anxiety.

  12. Prevalence of comorbidities in Mexican mestizo patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza-Delgado, Dionicio A; Azpiri-Lopez, Jose R; Colunga-Pedraza, Iris J; Cárdenas-de la Garza, Jesus A; Vera-Pineda, Raymundo; Wah-Suárez, Martín; Arvizu-Rivera, Rosa I; Martínez-Moreno, Adrian; Ramos-Cázares, Ray E; Torres-Quintanilla, Francisco J; Valdovinos-Bañuelos, Aldo; Esquivel-Valerio, Jorge Antonio; Garza-Elizondo, Mario A

    2017-09-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have a high risk for comorbid conditions which increase mortality, hospital admissions, costs of care and inability. To evaluate the prevalence of comorbidities in Mexican mestizo patients with RA and determine the associated risk factors. Cross-sectional study in which RA patients admitted to our outpatient clinic were consecutively enrolled. We collected data regarding demographics, disease characteristics and comorbidities at the time of the patient's visit to the clinic. We analyzed 225 patients. Their mean age was 55.7 ± 8.3 years; disease duration, 9.5 (3.8-15.5) years; female gender, 93.8%; Disease Activity Score using 28 joints-C-reactive protein, 3 (2-4); methotrexate use, 84.9%; use of any other conventional disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug, 65.7%; use of biological agents, 8%. The most frequently associated diseases were: hypertension, 29.8%; dyslipidemia, 27.1%; osteoporosis, 19.1%; diabetes, 12.4%; hypothyroidism, 6.2%; solid malignancies 4.4%. Risk factors were also evaluated, the most prevalent was overweight in 101 (44.9%) of our patients. A total of 71 (31.6%) had obesity. We also detected high blood pressure in 12.4%, hyperglycemia in 27.1% and hyperlipidemia in 49.8%. Due to the high frequency of comorbidities among RA patients, it is important to follow existing recommendations for their timely detection and management. Cardiovascular diseases must be evaluated with priority. The initial evaluation should include a thorough examination to prevent the deleterious effect of comorbidities in RA.

  13. Prevalence, comorbidity and impact of irritable bowel syndrome in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandvik, Per Olav; Lydersen, Stian; Farup, Per G

    2006-06-01

    To study the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and its comorbidity in a Norwegian adult population. In 2001, 11,078 inhabitants (aged 30-75 years) in Oppland County were invited to take part in a public health survey. A total of 4622 subjects (42%) completed the questionnaires on symptoms of IBS (Rome II criteria), comorbidity, health-care visits and medications. The impact of comorbidity on global health, working disability and use of health-care resources in subjects with IBS was explored by stepwise logistic regression. The population prevalence of IBS was 388/4622 (8.4% (95% CI: 7.6-9.4%)) with a female predominance and an age-dependent decrease. The proportion who had consulted for IBS ranged from 51% among 30-year-olds to 79% in 75-year-olds (p=0.05). IBS was associated with musculoskeletal complaints (OR = 2.4-3.4 for six different items), fibromyalgia (OR = 3.6 [2.7-4.8]), mood disorder (OR = 3.3 (2.6-4.3)), reduced global health (OR = 2.6 (2.1-3.2)), working disability (OR = 1.6 (1.2-2.1)), more frequent health-care visits and use of medications (OR 1.7-2.3). When controlling for comorbidity, reduced global health (OR = 1.5 (1.1-2.0)) and use of alternative health care (OR = 1.7 (1.3-2.4)) remained associated with IBS. Severity of abdominal pain/discomfort was a predictor of having to seek a physician for IBS (OR = 1.3 (1.2-1.5)). Symptoms of IBS were reported by 8% of Norwegian adults and had resulted in consultations with physicians for the majority in the long run. Subjects with IBS in the community were characterized by frequent somatic and psychiatric comorbidity. Their observed reduced health, working disability and increased use of health resources were largely explained by comorbid symptoms and disorders.

  14. Chronic widespread pain : clinical comorbidities and psychological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burri, Andrea; Ogata, Soshiro; Vehof, Jelle; Williams, Frances

    Recent studies have provided consistent evidence for a genetic influence on chronic widespread pain (CWP). The aim of this study was to investigate (1) the etiological structure underlying CWP by examining the covariation between CWP and psychological comorbidities and psychoaffective correlates and

  15. Anxiety and depression in Nepal: prevalence, comorbidity and associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risal, Ajay; Manandhar, Kedar; Linde, Mattias; Steiner, Timothy J; Holen, Are

    2016-04-14

    Anxiety and depression are two important contributors to the global burden of disease. In many developing countries, including Nepal, their prevalences are yet to be assessed. A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of Nepalese adults aged 18-65 years (N = 2100), selected by multistage random cluster sampling and interviewed at home during unannounced visits. The validated questionnaires included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), to detect cases of anxiety (HADS-A), depression (HADS-D) and comorbid anxiety and depression (HADS-cAD), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised Short Form-Neuroticism (EPQRS-N), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life 8-question scale (WHOQOL-8). Logistic regression analyses were used to explore associations of caseness with four groups of variables: demographic, domicile, substance use, and behavioural and health. Age- and gender-adjusted point prevalences of HADS-A, HADS-D and HADS-cAD were 16.1, 4.2 and 5.9% respectively. In a multivariate model, HADS-A was positively associated with urban residence (AOR = 1.82; p urban residence (AOR = 2.37; p = 0.001), living at altitude ≥2000 m (AOR = 2.32; p = 0.002) and neuroticism (AOR = 1.26; p mental health conditions in Nepal, and major contributors to public ill health, being very highly prevalent, comorbid and associated with psychosocial burden. They are also linked to the unique topography, habitation and social structure of the country. High prevalence coupled with the disabling nature of these disorders establishes their health-care priority and their importance in national health policy.

  16. Lifetime Prevalence, Age of Risk, and Etiology of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschtritt, Matthew E.; Lee, Paul C.; Pauls, David L.; Dion, Yves; Grados, Marco A.; Illmann, Cornelia; King, Robert A.; Sandor, Paul; McMahon, William M.; Lyon, Gholson J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Kurlan, Roger; Robertson, Mary M.; Osiecki, Lisa; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by high rates of psychiatric comorbidity; however, few studies have fully characterized these comorbidities. Furthermore, most studies have included relatively few participants (disorders, their heritabilities, ages of maximal risk, and associations with symptom severity, age at onset, and parental psychiatric history. Results The lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric comorbidity among individuals with TS was 85.7%; 57.7% of the population had 2 or more psychiatric disorders. The mean (SD) number of lifetime comorbid diagnoses was 2.1 (1.6); the mean number was 0.9 (1.3) when obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were excluded, and 72.1% of the individuals met the criteria for OCD or ADHD. Other disorders, including mood, anxiety, and disruptive behavior, each occurred in approximately 30% of the participants. The age of greatest risk for the onset of most comorbid psychiatric disorders was between 4 and 10 years, with the exception of eating and substance use disorders, which began in adolescence (interquartile range, 15–19 years for both). Tourette syndrome was associated with increased risk of anxiety (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0–1.9; P = .04) and decreased risk of substance use disorders (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3–0.9; P = .02) independent from comorbid OCD and ADHD; however, high rates of mood disorders among participants with TS (29.8%) may be accounted for by comorbid OCD (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.9–4.8; P disorders (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.32–2.61; P Genetic correlations between TS and mood (RhoG, 0.47), anxiety (RhoG, 0.35), and disruptive behavior disorders (RhoG, 0.48), may be accounted for by ADHD and, for mood disorders, by OCD. Conclusions and Relevance This study is, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive of its kind. It confirms the belief that psychiatric comorbidities are common among individuals with TS, demonstrates that most comorbidities

  17. Prevalence of CHD-related metabolic comorbidity of diabetes mellitus in Northern Chinese adults: the REACTION study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nannan; Yuan, Zhongshang; Tang, Xulei; Zhou, Xiaoming; Zhao, Meng; Liu, Lu; Ji, Jiadong; Xue, Fuzhong; Ning, Guang; Zhao, Jiajun; Zhang, Haiqing; Gao, Ling

    2016-03-01

    To gain more precise understanding of the epidemiology of comorbidities with diabetes and to clarify the correlation with coronary heart disease (CHD) in Chinese population. Based on REACTION study, 18,696 participants aged over 40 years were included in the cross-sectional analysis. Prevalence and patterns of comorbid diseases were demonstrated, and their impact on CHD was also analyzed by logistic regression. Diabetes was more prevalent in patients with older age and lower education level, with relatively low awareness (36.3%), treatment (27.9%) and control (34.7%) rate. The proportion of diabetics with additional condition was 88.8%; 53.2% had more than two comorbidities. Compared with patients with comorbidities, diabetics only had the highest controlled HbA1c rate (37.9%). Dyslipidemia (71.97%) was the most common comorbidity, followed by hypertension (58.19%), and hypothyroidism (21.24%). A strong gradient existed between the number of comorbidities and CHD versus "diabetes only" group; the odds ratio was 1.38, 2.48 and 3.01 for diabetics with one, two and three additional diseases, respectively. Low glycemic control and high prevalence of diabetes comorbidities are common in China, which increases the risk of CHD. Full-scale and individualized guidelines for diabetics should be planned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence, risk factors and comorbidities of allergic rhinitis in South Korea: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Chae-Seo; Wee, Jee Hye; Ahn, Jae-Cheul; Lee, Woo Hyun; Tan, Keng Lu; Ahn, Soyeon; Lee, Ju Hyun; Lee, Chul-Hee; Cho, Yang-Sun; Park, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Kun Hee; Kim, Kyung-Su; Lee, Ari; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2014-01-01

    There has been no nationwide epidemiological investigation of allergic rhinitis (AR) that was diagnosed by both questionnaires and laboratory tests in Korea. This study investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidities of AR in South Korea. The Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey examined a representative sample of the Korean population. A total of 2305 participants underwent immunoradiometric assay for specific IgE antibodies against common indoor allergens. Healthy, atopy only, and AR groups were defined according to the results of allergen test. The weighted prevalence for each group was calculated. Risk factors including food and comorbidities were identified using univariate or multivariate analyses. The patients were also categorized into four subgroups according to the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) classification and associated comorbidities were analyzed. The prevalence of atopy only and AR was 30.0 ± 1.2% and 16.2 ± 1.0%, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that the prevalence was influenced by sex (p rhinitis was most common (58.1%). Asthma was correlated to severity and atopic dermatitis and NPs was associated with persistency. Daily intake of less mackerel and more carrots, bread, and bean curd were associated with the increased risk of AR. Prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidities of AR were evaluated in the general Korean population, which will contribute to prevention and treatment of AR and its comorbidities in Koreans.

  19. High prevalence of comorbidity and need for up-referral among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High prevalence of comorbidity and need for up-referral among inpatients at a district-level hospital with specialist tuberculosis services in South Africa – the need for ... pre-extensively (pre-XDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB had a lower prevalence of HIV co-infection, but manifested high rates of comorbidity.

  20. Lifetime Prevalence of Mental Disorders in U.S. Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikangas, Kathleen Ries; He, Jian-ping; Burstein, Marcy; Swanson, Sonja A.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Cui, Lihong; Benjet, Corina; Georgiades, Katholiki; Swendsen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To present estimates of the lifetime prevalence of "DSM-IV" mental disorders with and without severe impairment, their comorbidity across broad classes of disorder, and their sociodemographic correlates. Method: The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement NCS-A is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of…

  1. Prevalence and co-prevalence of comorbidities among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglay, Kristy; Hannachi, Hakima; Joseph Howie, Patrick; Xu, Jinfei; Li, Xueying; Engel, Samuel S; Moore, Lori M; Rajpathak, Swapnil

    2016-07-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) often have multiple comorbidities which may impact the selection of antihyperglycemic therapies. The purpose of this study was to quantify the prevalence and co-prevalence of common comorbidities. A retrospective study was conducted using the Quintiles Electronic Medical Record database. Adult patients with T2DM who had ≥1 encounter from July 2014 to June 2015 (index period) with ≥1 year medical history available were included. The index date was defined as the most recent encounter date during the 1 year index period. Comorbid conditions were assessed using all data available prior to and including the index date. Patient characteristics, laboratory measures, and comorbidities were summarized via descriptive analyses, overall and by subgroups of age (condition in addition to T2DM and 88.5% had at least two. The comorbidity burden tended to increase in older age groups and was higher in men than women. The most common conditions in patients with T2DM included hypertension (HTN) in 82.1%; overweight/obesity in 78.2%; hyperlipidemia in 77.2%; chronic kidney disease (CKD) in 24.1%; and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 21.6%. The highest co-prevalence was demonstrated for the combination of HTN and hyperlipidemia (67.5%), followed by overweight/obesity and HTN (66.0%), overweight/obesity and hyperlipidemia (62.5%), HTN and CKD (22.4%), hyperlipidemia and CKD (21.1%), HTN and CVD (20.2%), hyperlipidemia and CVD (20.1%), overweight/obesity and CKD (19.1%) and overweight/obesity and CVD (17.0%). Limitations include the potential for misclassification/underreporting due to the use of diagnostic codes, drug codes, or laboratory measures for identification of medical conditions. The vast majority of patients with T2DM have multiple comorbidities. To ensure a comprehensive approach to patient management, the presence of multimorbidity should be considered in the context of clinical decision making.

  2. Health Correlates of Insomnia Symptoms and Comorbid Mental Disorders in a Nationally Representative Sample of US Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blank, M.; Zhang, J.H.; Lamers, F.; Taylor, A.D.; Hickie, I.B.; Merikangas, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and health correlates of insomnia symptoms and their association with comorbid mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States. Design: National representative cross-sectional study. Setting: Population-based

  3. Violent behavior during sleep: prevalence, comorbidity and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Schenck, Carlos H

    2010-10-01

    Violent behaviors during sleep (VBS) are consequences of several sleep disorders but have received little attention in epidemiologic studies. This study aims to determine the prevalence of VBS in the general population and their comorbidity, familial links, course and treatment. Random stratified sample of 19,961 participants, 15 years and older, from the general population of Finland, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom were interviewed by telephone using the Sleep-EVAL Expert System. They answered a questionnaire on VBS, their consequences and treatment. Parasomnias and sleep and mental disorders were also evaluated. VBS was reported by 1.6% (95% confidence interval: 1.4-1.7%) of the sample. VBS was higher in subjects younger than 35 years. During VBS episodes, 78.7% of VBS subjects reported vivid dreams and 31.4% hurt themselves or someone else. Only 12.3% of them consulted a physician for these behaviors. In 72.8% of cases, VBS were associated with other parasomnias (highest odds of VBS for sleepwalking and sleep terrors). Family history of VBS, sleepwalking and sleep terrors was reported more frequently in VBS than in non-VBS subjects with odds of 9.3, 2.0 and 4.2, respectively. VBS are frequent in the general population and often associated with dream-enactment, sleepwalking and sleep terrors. High frequency of VBS, sleepwalking and sleep terrors in family of VBS subjects indicated that some families have a greater vulnerability to sleep disorders involving motor dyscontrol. Subjects who consulted a physician for these behaviors mostly received inappropriate or no support, indicating a lack of knowledge about VBS.

  4. Prevalence of co-morbid depression in diabetic population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, K.; Malik, I.; Shehzadi, A.; Mir, K.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is common among diabetic patients and is linked with worse outcomes. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and determinants of depression in patients with established type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: In this cross sectional study, patients with established T2DM were examined consecutively for depression by administering the nine-item PHQ-9. A sample of 112 participants was purposively selected. Differences in characteristics between participants were tested with independent t-test at 5% significance level. Results: One hundred-twelve patients were evaluated, including 41 (36.6%) males, 71 females (63.4%). The mean age of participants was 49.5 ± 12.1 years, with the mean duration of diabetes 8. 7.3 years. Mean PHQ-9 score was 11.9 ± 6.9, with 67 cases (59.8%) achieving the diagnosis of clinically significant depression. Depression was found to be more in females (13.14 ± 6.73) as compared to males (9.97 ± 6.92, p=0.02). A positive correlation was observed between depression and duration of diabetes, whereas a weak positive correlation was noticed between depression and age. However, no significant relationship was observed between depression and type of medication (p=0.094).Conclusions: The study showed high prevalence of depression in patients with T2DM, with higher occurrence in females as compared to males. The risk factors of depression were age and duration of diabetes. (author)

  5. Comorbidities and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Prevalence, Influence on Outcomes, and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Nirupama; Drummond, M. Bradley; Wise, Robert A.; Hansel, Nadia N.

    2016-01-01

    Comorbidities impact a large proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with over 80% of patients with COPD estimated to have at least one comorbid chronic condition. Guidelines for the treatment of COPD are just now incorporating comorbidities to their management recommendations of COPD, and it is becoming increasingly clear that multimorbidity as well as specific comorbidities have strong associations with mortality and clinical outcomes in COPD, including dyspnea, exercise capacity, quality of life, healthcare utilization, and exacerbation risk. Appropriately, there has been an increased focus upon describing the burden of comorbidity in the COPD population and incorporating this information into existing efforts to better understand the clinical and phenotypic heterogeneity of this group. In this article, we summarize existing knowledge about comorbidity burden and specific comorbidities in COPD, focusing on prevalence estimates, association with outcomes, and existing knowledge about treatment strategies. PMID:26238643

  6. Lifetime psychiatric comorbidity in hospitalized alcoholics: subject and familial correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, D S; Grant, B F; Endicott, J

    1988-08-01

    We classified 123 alcohol rehabilitation patients by their histories of lifetime psychiatric comorbidity, and examined the demographic, social, occupational, treatment, and familial variables characterizing the groups. Diagnostic assessments were made with the SADS-L/RDC. High lifetime prevalences of major depressive disorder and drug use disorder were found. Aspects of treatment history distinguished between patient groups with and without lifetime major depression, but not other personal or familial variables. Patients with lifetime drug use disorders were younger and experienced an earlier onset of alcohol problems and treatment. Those with numerous childhood antisocial symptoms were younger, more likely to be male and unmarried, and less educated, and they had presented earlier for treatment. Subjects with two or more adult antisocial symptoms which occurred when subjects were not drinking or using drugs had a significant increase in family history of antisocial personality disorder. However, adult antisocial behaviors which were not separated from the effects of alcohol or drug use were unrelated to a family history of antisocial personality disorder. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Differentiating Interpersonal Correlates of Depressive Symptoms and Social Anxiety in Adolescence: Implications for Models of Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R.; Davila, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    Research on psychosocial correlates of depression and social anxiety often has not accounted for their comorbidity. Differentiating correlates of depression and social anxiety may inform the development of comorbidity models. Building on research linking both disorders to interpersonal dysfunction, this study examined interpersonal correlates of…

  8. Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug abuse solutions. Research Studies at NIDA Intramural Research Program - located in Baltimore, Maryland. This page was last updated December 2012 Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the ...

  9. Comorbidity in pediatric bipolar disorder: prevalence, clinical impact, etiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, Álvaro; Palma, Cárol; Farriols, Núria

    2015-03-15

    Research on pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is providing a plethora of empirical findings regarding its comorbidity. We addressed this question through a systematic review concerning the prevalence, clinical impact, etiology and treatment of main comorbid disorders involved. A comprehensive database search was performed from 1990 to August 2014. Overall, 167 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Bipolar youth tend to suffer from comorbid disorders, with highest weighted mean prevalence rate arising from anxiety disorders (54%), followed by attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (48%), disruptive behavior disorders (31%), and substance use disorders (SUD) (31%). Furthermore, evidence indicates that ADHD and anxiety disorders negatively affect the symptomatology, neurocognitive profile, clinical course and the global functioning of PBD. Likewise, several theories have been posited to explain comorbidity rates in PBD, specifically common risk factors, one disorder being a risk factor for the other and nosological artefacts. Lastly, randomized controlled trials highlight a stronger therapeutic response to stimulants and atomoxetine (vs. placebo) as adjunctive interventions for comorbid ADHD symptoms. In addition, research focused on the treatment of other comorbid disorders postulates some benefits from mood stabilizers and/or SGA. Epidemiologic follow-up studies are needed to avoid the risk of nosological artefacts. Likewise, more research is needed on pervasive developmental disorders and anxiety disorders, especially regarding their etiology and treatment. Psychiatric comorbidity is highly prevalent and is associated with a deleterious clinical effect on pediatric bipolarity. Different etiological pathways may explain the presence of these comorbid disorders among bipolar youth. Standardized treatments are providing ongoing data regarding their effectiveness for these comorbidities among bipolar youth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. The incidence and prevalence of comorbid gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, ocular, pulmonary, and renal disorders in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reider, Nadia; Stuve, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    was assessed. For population-based studies we quantitatively assessed studies using the I² statistic, and conducted random effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Study designs were heterogeneous with respect to populations, case definitions, and methods of ascertainment. Incidence of the studied comorbidities......BACKGROUND: As new disease-modifying therapies emerge a better knowledge of the risk of comorbid disease in multiple sclerosis (MS) is needed. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and prevalence of comorbid gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, ocular, pulmonary, and renal disorders in MS. METHODS: We...

  11. Prevalence and associated factors of tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus comorbidity: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, Mahteme Haile; Bjune, Gunnar Aksel; Yimer, Solomon Abebe

    2017-01-01

    The dual burden of tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a major global public health concern. There is mounting evidence from different countries on the burden of TB and DM comorbidity. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize the existing evidence on prevalence and associated/risk factors of TBDM comorbidity at global and regional levels. Ovid Medline, Embase, Global health, Cochrane library, Web of science and Scopus Elsevier databases were searched to identify eligible articles for the systematic review. Data were extracted using standardized excel form and pilot tested. Median with interquartile range (IQR) was used to estimate prevalence of TBDM comorbidity. Associated/risk factors that were identified from individual studies were thematically analyzed and described. The prevalence of DM among TB patients ranged from 1.9% to 45%. The overall median global prevalence was 16% (IQR 9.0%-25.3%) Similarly, the prevalence of TB among DM patients ranged from 0.38% to 14% and the overall median global prevalence was 4.1% (IQR 1.8%-6.2%). The highest prevalence of DM among TB patients is observed in the studied countries of Asia, North America and Oceania. On the contrary, the prevalence of TB among DM patients is low globally, but relatively higher in the studied countries of Asia and the African continents. Sex, older age, urban residence, tobacco smoking, sedentary lifestyle, poor glycemic control, having family history of DM and TB illness were among the variables identified as associated/risk factors for TBDM comorbidity. This systematic review revealed that there is a high burden of DM among TB patients at global level. On the contrary, the global prevalence of TB among DM patients is low. Assessing the magnitude and risk/associated factors of TBDM comorbidity at country/local level is crucial before making decisions to undertake TBDM integrated services.

  12. Prevalence of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riahi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often associated with other psychological problems. Objectives The present study aimed to study the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with ADHD who admitted to Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods This was a descriptive/analytic cross-sectional study carried out on 118 outpatient children and adolescents who were selected by convenient sampling. The data were collected using the questionnaire, designed by authors, and were analyzed through descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results The prevalence of comorbid disorders were as follows: anxiety disorders (48.3%; depression (20.33%; bipolar disorder (17.79%; obsessive-compulsive (47.45%; tic and tourette (35.59%, oppositional defiant disorder (43.22%; conduct disorder (11.01%; urinary incontinence (58.47%; communication disorder (9.32%; and learning disorder (21.18%. There was no significant difference between females and males with respect to the prevalence of comorbid disorders. Conclusions Similar to previous studies, we found some comorbid psychiatric disorders with ADHD. The treatment of the disorder can be improved, by more attention to comorbid psychiatric disorders, early diagnosis of them, and using distinct and specific treatment for everyone.

  13. [Body dysmorphic disorder in cosmetic surgery - prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity and outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundscheid, T; van der Hulst, R R W J; Rutten, B P F; Leue, C

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from body dysmorphic disorder (bdd) are preoccupied with a slight or imagined defect in appearance. First of all, to review the literature on the prevalence of bdd in cosmetic surgery and thereafter to review the literature on psychiatric comorbidity and the outcome of surgical interventions. We based our search strategy on Embase, Medline and PubMed, using the search terms 'body dysmorphic disorder', 'cosmetic surgery', 'prevalence', 'comorbidity' and 'outcome'. Our search covered English and Dutch literature published after the introduction of bdd in dsm-iii-r and before 1 November, 2013. A study of the relevant articles enabled us to access additional articles mentioned in these texts. Our initial search strategy turned out to be too narrow. It was therefore broadened to include 'body dysmorphic disorder', 'cosmetic surgery', and 'prevalence'. Eventually we included 23 original articles. In 11 of these the prevalence of bdd varied from 3.2 to 53.6%. Twelve articles on psychiatric comorbidity revealed predominantly mood and anxiety disorders on axis I and cluster C personality disorders on axis II. Only two studies reported on the outcome of cosmetic surgery performed on bdd patients; surgical interventions, however, seemed to result in new preoccupations with the prolongation of psychiatric comorbidity. bdd is a common psychiatric disorder that can sometimes lead to cosmetic surgery. However, pre-operative screening of bdd patients is vital so that efficient psychiatric treatment can be initiated and patients are not subjected to surgical interventions which may be ineffective or even harmful.

  14. Prevalence and Psychiatric Comorbidity of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in an Adolescent Finnish Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Susan L.; McGough, James J.; Moilanen, Irma K.; Loo, Sandra K.; Taanila, Anja; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula; Kaakinen, Marika; Humphrey, Lorie A.; McCracken, James T.; Varilo, Teppo; Yang, May H.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Peltonen, Leena; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its clinical characteristics in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. The results conclude that ADHD is common among Northern Finnish adolescents and is related with psychiatric comorbidity in adolescence.

  15. Prevalence, Comorbidity and Course of Trauma Reactions in Young Burn-Injured Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Alexandra C.; Kenardy, Justin A.; Cobham, Vanessa E.; Kimble, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infants, toddlers and preschoolers are the highest risk group for burn injury. However, to date this population has been largely neglected. This study examined the prevalence, onset, comorbidity and recovery patterns of posttrauma reactions in young children with burns. Methods: Parents of 130 unintentionally burned children (1-6…

  16. Prevalence and comorbidity of major depressive disorder in young black and white women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Barton, BA; Dohm, FA; Kraemer, HC; Iachan, R; Crawford, PB; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH

    Objective This study reports the prevalence and comorbidity of depression in two large samples of black and white young adult women. Method Clinical interviews of participants in a follow-up study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS-Wave II; N = 378) were

  17. Comorbid Depression and Anxiety in Childhood and Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: Prevalence and Implications for Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Elizabeth K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Comorbid conditions are common in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and can raise issues for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning. Methods: First, reported prevalence rates for depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with AN were reviewed. Diagnostic issues and current understanding of the temporal onset and…

  18. Prevalence of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Riahi; Izadi-Mazidi; Mohammadi Abdi

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often associated with other psychological problems. Objectives The present study aimed to study the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with ADHD who admitted to Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods This was a descriptive/analytic cross-sectional study carried out on 118 o...

  19. Prevalence and influence of psychiatric comorbidity on rehabilitation outcome for older hospital inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluyas, Cathy; Lum, Carmel; Chong, Sinn Yuin; Borg, Cynthia; Haines, Terry P

    2011-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the psychiatric comorbidity of a group of older subacute inpatients and then determine whether their psychiatric comorbidity affected measures of rehabilitation outcomes. Eighty-eight older subacute inpatients were recruited for this prospective study. Psychiatric comorbidity was defined according to a participants' performance on four inventory scales: the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Health of the Nation Outcome Scale 65+. Rehabilitation outcome referred to the participants' length of stay and their performance at discharge on the EuroQol-5D health-related quality of life questionnaire and Barthel index. 68% of the participants scored in the clinical range on at least one of the four scales assessing psychiatric comorbidity at admission, with 51% in the clinical range for GDS and 32% for the GAI. The decrease in scores by the time of discharge was significant for all four scales. Linear regression analyses pointed to a trend for depressive symptoms at admission to be an influential but nonsignificant predictor of rehabilitation outcome. An interesting association was found between the length of the previous acute admission and the GDS score on admission to the subacute unit. A high prevalence of psychological symptoms was identified upon admission, with a significant decrease by the time of discharge. These factors did not significantly predict the selected measures of rehabilitation outcome. Opportunities for future longitudinal research on the prevalence and impact of psychiatric comorbidities on patient outcomes are considered.

  20. The Prevalence of Ocular Allergy and Comorbidities in Chinese School Children in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqing Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the prevalence and features of ocular allergy (OA and comorbidities among school children in Shanghai, China. Methods. This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Each participant completed an ISAAC-based questionnaire. The prevalence of OA symptoms, allergic rhinitis (AR asthma, atopic dermatitis (AD, and sensitization to mites, pollen, and food was analyzed. Results. A total of 724 and 942 completed questionnaires from the 7–9-year-old (young group and the 12–14-year-old (teen group groups were analyzed, respectively. The overall prevalence of OA symptoms was 28%. However, more young students (10.6% reported mild to severe daily life interference caused by OA than the teens (5.7%. The young group had higher prevalence of diagnosed allergic conjunctivitis (10.2%. The overall prevalence of AR symptom, diagnosed asthma, and diagnosed AD was 40.4%, 11.6%, and 16.7%, respectively. Young children had higher prevalence of diagnosed AR and AD than the teens. There were gender associated differences in the prevalence of AR and asthma among young children, but not among the teens. The comorbidities associated with OA was also analyzed. Sensitization to mites, food, and pollen was associated with higher prevalence of allergic conditions. Conclusions. OA together with other allergic conditions affected a significant number of children in Shanghai.

  1. Prevalence of comorbidity and associated risk factors in adults with atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A.; Andersen, Y. M.F.; Gislason, G. H.

    2017-01-01

    profile of patients with AD, to assess the potential risks, benefits, and complications in management of patients with AD. We described the occurrence of medical and psychiatric comorbidities and associated risk factors in adults with AD compared with psoriasis and the general population. Methods: All....... Prevalence of diabetes was lower in AD than psoriasis patients as well as general population controls. Conclusions: Despite an increased risk of various medical and psychiatric comorbidities compared to general population controls, adult patients with AD had markedly lower prevalence of cardiovascular...... Danish individuals aged ≥18 years with a hospital (inpatient or ambulatory) diagnosis of AD or psoriasis during the study period (January 1, 1995–December 31, 2012) were linked in administrative registers. Results: Overall, prevalence of smoking and alcohol abuse was higher among patients with AD than...

  2. Comorbid psychiatric diagnosis and psychological correlates of eating disorders in dance students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Yu; Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chang, Chin-Hao; Fang, David; Lee, Ming-Been

    2016-02-01

    Although dancers are at risk for eating disorders (EDs), little is known about the features of EDs among the dance population. This study explores the prevalence of EDs, and their psychiatric comorbidities and correlates in dance students. In total, 442 female high-school dance students participated in a two-phase survey. All participants completed screening questionnaires as well as measures assessing teasing, self-esteem, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, and personality. Of the participating students, 311 underwent the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders. Sixty-eight individuals (15.4%) had an ED by DSM-IV diagnosis. The prevalence of any co-occurring mood (47.1%) and anxiety disorders (30.9%) was high. Although low self-esteem, high neuroticism, and high psychological distress were associated with EDs in univariate analysis, only teasing for overweight and body image dissatisfaction were significantly associated with EDs by multivariate analysis. Prevention and intervention programs for dance students should include recognition and management of emotional disorders and strategies promoting positive body image and reducing the incidence of negative weight-related comments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Prevalence of comorbidities according to predominant phenotype and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camiciottoli G

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gianna Camiciottoli,1,2 Francesca Bigazzi,1 Chiara Magni,1 Viola Bonti,1 Stefano Diciotti,3 Maurizio Bartolucci,4 Mario Mascalchi,5 Massimo Pistolesi1 1Section of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, 3Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi,” University of Bologna, Cesena, 4Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Careggi University Hospital, 5Radiodiagnostic Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Background: In addition to lung involvement, several other diseases and syndromes coexist in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of idiopathic arterial hypertension (IAH, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease (PVD, diabetes, osteoporosis, and anxious depressive syndrome in a clinical setting of COPD outpatients whose phenotypes (predominant airway disease and predominant emphysema and severity (mild and severe diseases were determined by clinical and functional parameters. Methods: A total of 412 outpatients with COPD were assigned either a predominant airway disease or a predominant emphysema phenotype of mild or severe degree according to predictive models based on pulmonary functions (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/vital capacity; total lung capacity %; functional residual capacity %; and diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide % and sputum characteristics. Comorbidities were assessed by objective medical records. Results: Eighty-four percent of patients suffered from at least one comorbidity and 75% from at least one cardiovascular comorbidity, with IAH and PVD being the most prevalent ones (62% and 28%, respectively. IAH prevailed significantly in predominant airway disease, osteoporosis prevailed

  4. The Impact of Proposed Changes to ICD-11 on Estimates of PTSD Prevalence and Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisco, Blair E.; Miller, Mark W.; Wolf, Erika J.; Kilpatrick, Dean; Resnick, Heidi S.; Badour, Christal L.; Marx, Brian P.; Keane, Terence M.; Rosen, Raymond C.; Friedman, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization's posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) work group has published a proposal for the forthcoming edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) that would yield a very different diagnosis relative to DSM-5. This study examined the impact of the proposed ICD-11 changes on PTSD prevalence relative to the ICD-10 and DSM-5 definitions and also evaluated the extent to which these changes would accomplish the stated aim of reducing the comorbidity associated with PTSD. Diagnostic prevalence estimates were compared using a U.S. national community sample and two U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs clinical samples. The ICD-11 definition yielded prevalence estimates 10 to 30 percent lower than DSM-5 and 25 and 50 percent lower than ICD-10 with no reduction in the prevalence of common comorbidities. Findings suggest that by constraining the diagnosis to a narrower set of symptoms, the proposed ICD-11 criteria set would substantially reduce the number of individuals with the disorder. These findings raise doubt about the extent to which the ICD-11 proposal would achieve the aim of reducing comorbidity associated with PTSD and highlight the public health and policy implications of such a redefinition. PMID:27124207

  5. Prevalence and onset of comorbidities in the CDKL5 disorder differ from Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangatt, Meghana; Wong, Kingsley; Anderson, Barbara; Epstein, Amy; Hodgetts, Stuart; Leonard, Helen; Downs, Jenny

    2016-04-14

    Initially described as an early onset seizure variant of Rett syndrome, the CDKL5 disorder is now considered as an independent entity. However, little is currently known about the full spectrum of comorbidities that affect these patients and available literature is limited to small case series. This study aimed to use a large international sample to examine the prevalence in this disorder of comorbidities of epilepsy, gastrointestinal problems including feeding difficulties, sleep and respiratory problems and scoliosis and their relationships with age and genotype. Prevalence and onset were also compared with those occurring in Rett syndrome. Data for the CDKL5 disorder and Rett syndrome were sourced from the International CDKL5 Disorder Database (ICDD), InterRett and the Australian Rett syndrome Database (ARSD). Logistic regression (multivariate and univariate) was used to analyse the relationships between age group, mutation type and the prevalence of various comorbidities. Binary longitudinal data from the ARSD and the equivalent cross-sectional data from ICDD were examined using generalized linear models with generalized estimating equations. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the failure function for the two disorders and the log-rank test was used to compare the two functions. The likelihood of experiencing epilepsy, GI problems, respiratory problems, and scoliosis in the CDKL5 disorder increased with age and males were more vulnerable to respiratory and sleep problems than females. We did not identify any statistically significant relationships between mutation group and prevalence of comorbidities. Epilepsy, GI problems and sleep abnormalities were more common in the CDKL5 disorder than in Rett syndrome whilst scoliosis and respiratory problems were less prevalent. This study captured a much clearer picture of the CDKL5 disorder than previously possible using the largest sample available to date. There were differences in the presentation of

  6. The rising prevalence of comorbid obesity and eating disorder behaviors from 1995 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Anita; Hay, Phillipa; Mond, Jonathan; Quirk, Frances; Buttner, Petra; Kennedy, Lee

    2009-03-01

    To measure the cooccurrence of obesity and eating disorder (ED) behaviors in the South Australian population and assess the change in level from 1995 to 2005. Two independent cross-sectional single stage interview based population surveys were conducted a decade apart. Self-reported height, weight, ED behaviors, and sociodemographics were assessed. Changes between the two time points were analyzed. From 1995 to 2005 the population prevalence of comorbid obesity and ED behaviors increased from 1 to 3.5%. Comorbid obesity and ED behaviors increased more (prevalence odds ratio (POR) = 4.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 95% CI = [2.8, 7.4]; p < .001) than either obesity (POR = 1.6; 95% CI = [1.3, 2.0]; p < .001) or ED behaviors (POR = 3.1; 95% CI = [2.3, 4.1]; p < .001) alone. Comorbid obesity and ED behaviors are an increasing problem in our society. Prevention and treatments efforts for obesity and EDs must consider and address this increasing comorbidity.

  7. Epidemiological studies in incidence, prevalence, mortality, and comorbidity of the rheumatic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Sherine E; Michaud, Kaleb

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. Over the past decade there has been considerable progress in our understanding of the fundamental descriptive epidemiology (levels of disease frequency: incidence and prevalence, comorbidity, mortality, trends over time, geographic distributions, and clinical characteristics) of the rheumatic diseases. This progress is reviewed for the following major rheumatic diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA), juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, giant cell arteritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, gout, Sjögren's syndrome, and ankylosing spondylitis. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of the incidence and prevalence of these conditions – a reflection of the impact of genetic and environmental factors. The past decade has also brought new insights regarding the comorbidity associated with rheumatic diseases. Strong evidence now shows that persons with RA are at a high risk for developing several comorbid disorders, that these conditions may have atypical features and thus may be difficult to diagnose, and that persons with RA experience poorer outcomes after comorbidity compared with the general population. Taken together, these findings underscore the complexity of the rheumatic diseases and highlight the key role of epidemiological research in understanding these intriguing conditions. PMID:19519924

  8. A systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of comorbidity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Cohen, Jeffrey; Stuve, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    approach. We quantitatively assessed population-based studies using the I² statistic, and conducted random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: We included 249 articles. Study designs were variable with respect to source populations, case definitions, methods of ascertainment and approaches to reporting...... about comorbidity in Central or South America, Asia or Africa. Findings in North America and Europe are inconsistent. Future studies should report age-, sex- and ethnicity-specific estimates of incidence and prevalence, and standardize findings to a common population....

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to determine the pattern, prevalence and correlates of psychiatric disorders among the residents of a juvenile justice facility in Nigeria and to speculate appropriate policy responses. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional comparative study design, 60 consecutive residents of the Ibadan juvenile Remand home ...

  10. Gender Differences in Anxiety Disorders: Prevalence, Course of Illness, Comorbidity and Burden of Illness

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Carmen P.; Asnaani, Anu; Litz, Brett T.; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    Women have consistently higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders, but less is known about how gender affects age of onset, chronicity, comorbidity, and burden of illness. Gender differences in DSM-IV anxiety disorders were examined in a large sample of adults (N = 20,013) in the United States using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES). The lifetime and 12-month male:female prevalence ratios of any anxiety disorder were 1:1.7 and 1:1.79, respectively. Women h...

  11. Intellectual Disabilities Among Prisoners: Prevalence and Mental and Physical Health Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellenbach, Mike; Karatzias, Thanos; Brown, Michael

    2016-01-18

    Limited evidence suggests that people with ID (ID) are overrepresented in prisons although prevalence rates of ID among prisoners vary significantly across studies, making it difficult to identify prevalence and assess existing need. A systematic review of relevant literature was conducted, and results were organized and compared in relation to study aims, design, measures used to screen for ID, sample, limitations and key findings. Existing international data suggest a prevalence of prisoners with ID between 7 and 10%. Most frequent coexisting health issues among this population are hearing and vision impairments, obesity, diabetes and a range of mental health disorders, notably anxiety and personality and conduct disorders. More research is required on prevalence rates and associated comorbidities of ID within prison settings, taking into account the heterogeneity of the population with ID. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Psychiatric comorbidity in children with epilepsy: A cross-sectional 5 years rural prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Sanjay Dharmadhikari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorders. In children, it has long debilitating course and is associated with comorbidities including psychiatric comorbidity. To tackle this burden of comorbidities, we must know the extent of problem. Hence, there is a need for estimation of prevalence of psychiatry disorder in children with epilepsy. Aim: The present study was aimed at measuring the prevalence of various psychiatry disorders among children suffering from epilepsy. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional chart review. Methodology: We reviewed case record files of all patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy in the age group of 9–17 years. Chart review was done for 5 years, May 1, 2007, to April 30, 2012. A total of 718 patients record were included in the study after satisfying inclusion criteria and excluding nonepilepsy diagnosis. Statistical Analysis: Statistics was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 18.0. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate the result, Chi-square and Mann–Whitney U-test used wherever applicable. Results: The prevalence of childhood psychiatric disorder among children with epilepsy found to be 31.2%. We also found that having a partial component (73.21%, n = 164 in seizure has more chances of psychopathology in comparison to generalized seizure (8.1%, n = 18. Among them, those having a partial component with generalization (66.96%, n = 150 had a greater prevalence of psychopathology. Mental retardation was most common psychiatric disorder among psychopathology followed by manic/depressive illness (unipolar followed by unspecified nonorganic psychosis. Conclusion: From our study, we demonstrate the significant mental health needs of children with epilepsy. The evident high prevalence of psychiatry disorder emphasizes the need for psychopathology assessment and treatment as a part of any comprehensive epilepsy clinic.

  13. Comorbid Diagnosis of Psychotic Disorders in Borderline Personality Disorder: Prevalence and Influence on Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Slotema

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA diagnosis of psychotic disorder is traditionally considered incompatible with borderline personality disorder (BPD, even though patients sometimes fulfill the diagnostic criteria for both disorders. How often this happens is barely known, as is the influence of comorbid psychotic disorders on the outcome of BPD. Since studies on isolated auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with BPD indicate that these perceptual symptoms have severe consequences and are associated with suicidal behavior and hospitalization, patients with comorbid psychotic disorders are unlikely to fare better.ObjectiveTo examine the point prevalence of psychotic disorders in patients with BPD, their association with the outcome of BPD, and their predictive value for outcome.MethodsIn a cross-sectional design, 84 female outpatients diagnosed with BPD were interviewed with the aid of the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview to establish the point prevalence of comorbid psychotic and other comorbid disorders. After termination of their treatment at a specialized outpatient clinic, the type of referral was considered to be a “good” outcome when they were referred to their general practitioner or to basic psychiatric care for noncomplex patients, and a “poor” outcome when referred to a specialized psychiatric department or to a psychiatric district team for patients with severe psychiatric disorders.ResultsPsychotic disorders were present in 38% of the patients with BPD. With a prevalence of 20%, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (NOS was the most common subtype; the least common types were schizophrenia (2%, substance-induced psychotic disorder (2%, and brief psychotic disorder (1%. Among six types of comorbid disorders, only psychotic disorders were associated with a poor outcome; they were also predictors for a poor outcome, along with comorbid mood disorders, eating disorders, and somatoform disorders, as well as the severity of BPD

  14. Gambling in a National U.S. Veteran Population: Prevalence, Socio-demographics, and Psychiatric Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovics, Elina A; Potenza, Marc N; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between gambling level and clinically relevant measures, including psychiatric disorders and suicidality, in a nationally representative sample of U.S. veterans. Data on 3157 U.S. veterans were analyzed from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study. Chi square tests and analyses of variance were used to assess associations between gambling level, and demographic, military, and personality characteristics. Multinomial logistic regressions using stepwise selection were used to identify independent correlates of recreational gambling and at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG). A significant proportion of U.S. veterans engage in gambling activities, with 35.1% gambling recreationally and 2.2% screening positive for ARPG. ARPG was associated with greater prevalence of substance use, anxiety, and depressive disorders, as well as with a history of physical trauma or sexual trauma, having sought mental health treatment (particularly from the Veterans Administration), and minority group status. A similar pattern was found associated with recreational gambling, although the magnitudes of association were lower relative to ARPG. Younger age, self-identifying as black, being retired, and trauma burden were associated with increased odds of ARPG, whereas older age, being single, non-white Hispanic, being retired or not having a job, screening positive for alcohol- and drug-use disorders, and trauma burden were associated with increased odds of recreational gambling. More than a third of U.S. veterans gamble recreationally, with a significant minority (2.2%) screening positive for ARPG. Both recreational and ARPG were associated with elevated trauma burden and psychiatric comorbidities. These findings underscore the importance of routine screening and monitoring of gambling severity, and interventions for ARPG in this population.

  15. Speech sound disorder at 4 years: prevalence, comorbidities, and predictors in a community cohort of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Patricia; Morgan, Angela; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Ttofari Eecen, Kyriaki; Wake, Melissa; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-06-01

    The epidemiology of preschool speech sound disorder is poorly understood. Our aims were to determine: the prevalence of idiopathic speech sound disorder; the comorbidity of speech sound disorder with language and pre-literacy difficulties; and the factors contributing to speech outcome at 4 years. One thousand four hundred and ninety-four participants from an Australian longitudinal cohort completed speech, language, and pre-literacy assessments at 4 years. Prevalence of speech sound disorder (SSD) was defined by standard score performance of ≤79 on a speech assessment. Logistic regression examined predictors of SSD within four domains: child and family; parent-reported speech; cognitive-linguistic; and parent-reported motor skills. At 4 years the prevalence of speech disorder in an Australian cohort was 3.4%. Comorbidity with SSD was 40.8% for language disorder and 20.8% for poor pre-literacy skills. Sex, maternal vocabulary, socio-economic status, and family history of speech and language difficulties predicted SSD, as did 2-year speech, language, and motor skills. Together these variables provided good discrimination of SSD (area under the curve=0.78). This is the first epidemiological study to demonstrate prevalence of SSD at 4 years of age that was consistent with previous clinical studies. Early detection of SSD at 4 years should focus on family variables and speech, language, and motor skills measured at 2 years. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  16. Prevalence of symptoms and associated comorbidities of testosterone deficiency syndrome in the Korean general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Du Geon; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Je Jong; Park, Kwang Sung; Park, Jong Kwan; Park, Nam Cheol; Kim, Sae Woong; Lee, Sung Won

    2014-02-01

    Testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) is a prevalent disease of the aging male with much confusion to its associated presentation, diagnosis, and comorbidities. We investigated the overall prevalence of TDS and its putative symptoms and associated diseases in a nationwide study on participants recruited from routine checkup. One thousand eight hundred seventy-five participants seeking biennial health checkup were enrolled from a nationwide distribution of randomly selected registry of primary clinics. Putative symptoms and comorbidities were assessed for serum testosterone-dependent prevalence change, independent of age. The identified symptoms were then assessed by multivariate backward stepwise binominal regression to determine the optimal reference level of testosterone and the strength of the associated comorbidities. TDS was assessed by serum testosterone, the Aging Males' Symptom scale, and the Androgen Deficiency in Aging Male questionnaire. Patient body habitus measurements and history of associated comorbidities were also described. The dependent variables included the age-specific prevalence of decreased testosterone and the probability of TDS-specific symptoms. Grossly 10.2% of the participants fell into the criteria for TDS. Testosterone was highly age dependent, and most putative symptoms of TDS showed significant age dependence but was not affected by serum testosterone levels. However, the symptoms of decreased libido and erectile dysfunction, and comorbidities such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and obesity showed relevant dependence on serum testosterone levels as well as age above 50 years of age. Furthermore, these symptoms were also affected at different serum testosterone thresholds. Decreased libido increased significantly at serum testosterone levels of 550 ng/dL (odds ratio [OR] = 1.295, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.047-1.601), and erectile dysfunction was affected by serum testosterone levels at 250 ng/dL (OR = 1.369, 95% CI = 1

  17. Prevalence, incidence and associated comorbidities of treated hypothyroidism: an update from a European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorda, Carlo B; Carnà, Paolo; Romeo, Francesco; Costa, Giuseppe; Tartaglino, Barbara; Gnavi, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    Estimates of the prevalence of hypothyroidism in unselected populations date from the late 1990s. We present an update on the prevalence and incidence of overt hypothyroidism in Piedmont, northwest Italy and examine the association between hypothyroidism and multiple chronic comorbidities. Data were obtained from drug prescription and hospital discharge databases. Individuals who had received at least two levothyroxine prescriptions in 2012 were defined as having hypothyroidism; those who had undergone thyroidectomy or I 131 irradiation in the previous 5 years were defined as having iatrogenic hypothyroidism and those who had either obtained exemption from treatment co-payment or had been discharged from hospital with a chronic comorbidity (diabetes and connective tissue diseases) were identified as having one of these conditions. The overall crude prevalence was 31.1/1000 (2.3/1000 for iatrogenic hypothyroidism) and the overall crude incidence was 7/1000. The average daily dose of thyroxine (122 µg) roughly corresponded to 1.7 µg/kg. There was a strong association between hypothyroidism and diabetes (type 1, type 2 or gestational) and with autoimmune diseases, with the odds ratio ranging from 1.43 (1.02-1.99) for psoriatic arthritis to 4.99 (3.06-8.15) for lupus erythematosus. As compared with previous estimates, the prevalence of hypothyroidism rose by about 35%, driven mainly by non-iatrogenic forms. The increase may be due to either population aging or improved diagnostic capability or both. The frequent co-occurrence of hypothyroidism with other multiple chronic conditions characterizes it more as a comorbidity rather than an isolated chronic disease. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  18. Sleep Problems and Their Correlates and Comorbid Psychopathology of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Chung, Un-Sun; Park, Tae-Won; Son, Jung-Woo; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sleep problems and their correlates and comorbid psychopathology in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Participants consisted of 166 ASD children and 111 unaffected siblings aged 4-15 years. Parents completed a self-administered child sleep questionnaire. Of the children with ASDs, 47.0% (78/166) had at least one…

  19. Postcoital Dysphoria: Prevalence and Psychological Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Schweitzer, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The findings confirm that PCD is under‐recognized and under‐researched. There appears to be no relationship between PCD and intimacy in close relationships. Further research is necessary to understand the subjective experience of PCD and to inform the development of a reliable measure. Schweitzer RD, O'Brien J, and Burri A. Postcoital dysphoria: Prevalence and psychological correlates. Sex Med 2015;3:229–237.

  20. Prevalence and comorbidity of common mental disorders and associations with suicidal ideation in the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisani, Yousef; Mohamadian, Fathola; Delpisheh, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Little information exists on the association between comorbidities of mental disorders and suicidal ideation in developing countries. The current study examined the relationship between the presence of comorbid mental disorders and suicidal ideation in the adult population. This cross-sectional study was conducted using the cluster random sampling method in 3 steps. Data were collected from a household assets survey and the self-administered 28-item General Health Questionnaire as first step in screening, and the Persian version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition - Text Revision was used in the second stage to determine the prevalence of mental disorders. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to investigate the associations between mental disorders and suicidal ideation. Of the 763 participants, 199 (26.1%) had 1 or more mental disorder. Forty-two (71.4%) subjects with comorbidities had a history of suicidal ideation, whereas 59 (7.7%) of all participants had a history of suicidal ideation. We found that major depressive disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder were the most predictive of suicidal ideation in both sexes. The odds ratio for suicidal ideation associated with having 3 comorbid disorders was 2.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40 to 14.12) in males and 3.06 (95% CI, 1.25 to 15.22) in females. Consistent with pervious data, our results confirmed that mental disorders and comorbidities of mental disorders were important predictors of suicidal ideation. Our findings are very useful for applied intervention programs to reduce the suicide rate in regions in which it is high.

  1. Psychiatric comorbidity in patients with conversion disorder and prevalence of dissociative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayla, Sinan; Bakım, Bahadır; Tankaya, Onur; Ozer, Omer Akil; Karamustafalioglu, Oguz; Ertekin, Hulya; Tekin, Atilla

    2015-01-01

    The 1st objective of the current study was to investigate the frequency and types of dissociative symptoms in patients with conversion disorder (CD). The 2nd objective of the current study was to determine psychiatric comorbidity in patients with and without dissociative symptoms. A total of 54 consecutive consenting patients primarily diagnosed with CD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, criteria who were admitted to the psychiatric emergency outpatient clinic of Sisli Etfal Research and Teaching Hospital (Istanbul, Turkey) were included in the study. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Structured Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, and Dissociative Experiences Scale were administered. Study groups consisted of 20 patients with a dissociative disorder and 34 patients without a diagnosis of any dissociative disorder. A total of 37% of patients with CD had any dissociative diagnosis. The prevalence of dissociative disorders was as follows: 18.5% dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, 14.8% dissociative amnesia, and 3.7% depersonalization disorder. Significant differences were found between the study groups with respect to comorbidity of bipolar disorder, past hypomania, and current and past posttraumatic stress disorder (ps = .001, .028, .015, and .028, respectively). Overall comorbidity of bipolar disorder was 27.8%. Psychiatric comorbidity was higher and age at onset was earlier among dissociative patients compared to patients without dissociative symptoms. The increased psychiatric comorbidity and early onset of conversion disorder found in patients with dissociative symptoms suggest that these patients may have had a more severe form of conversion disorder.

  2. Prevalence and comorbidity of common mental disorders and associations with suicidal ideation in the adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Veisani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Little information exists on the association between comorbidities of mental disorders and suicidal ideation in developing countries. The current study examined the relationship between the presence of comorbid mental disorders and suicidal ideation in the adult population. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted using the cluster random sampling method in 3 steps. Data were collected from a household assets survey and the self-administered 28-item General Health Questionnaire as first step in screening, and the Persian version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition - Text Revision was used in the second stage to determine the prevalence of mental disorders. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to investigate the associations between mental disorders and suicidal ideation. RESULTS Of the 763 participants, 199 (26.1% had 1 or more mental disorder. Forty-two (71.4% subjects with comorbidities had a history of suicidal ideation, whereas 59 (7.7% of all participants had a history of suicidal ideation. We found that major depressive disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder were the most predictive of suicidal ideation in both sexes. The odds ratio for suicidal ideation associated with having 3 comorbid disorders was 2.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40 to 14.12 in males and 3.06 (95% CI, 1.25 to 15.22 in females. CONCLUSIONS Consistent with pervious data, our results confirmed that mental disorders and comorbidities of mental disorders were important predictors of suicidal ideation. Our findings are very useful for applied intervention programs to reduce the suicide rate in regions in which it is high.

  3. Prevalence, correlates and treatment of nightmares in secondary mental healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schagen, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nightmares are associated with psychopathology. The prevalence of nightmares in the general population is 2-5%. However, the impact of nightmares when comorbid mental disorders are present is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of nightmares in a population with diverse mental disorders. Over

  4. Allergic Rhinitis and Associated Comorbidities: Prevalence in Oman with Knowledge Gaps in Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al-Abri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Allergic rhinitis (AR is a global health problem and its impact on health related quality of life for patients is substantial, and the economic impact often underestimated. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis in Oman is unknown. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of AR and associated co-morbidities among adults in Oman. Its secondary objective was to identify knowledge gaps in the literature with the aim of directing future research. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study of patients who presented to the outpatient otolaryngology clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital with nasal symptoms between June 2010 and June 2011 was conducted. Results: A total of 887 patients were seen with nasal complaints. Among them 127 patients were diagnosed with non-infective rhinitis, the mean age of presentation was 27 years. AR was noted in 48% of patients, and non-allergic rhinitis in 52%. The prevalence of AR was 7%, with females being more affected than males, and age ranging from 18 to 51 years. Prevalence of perennial AR was 84% compared to seasonal AR which was 16%. The most common perennial antigens were house dust mites (80% followed by cockroaches (67%. All patients diagnosed with seasonal AR were found to be sensitive to Russian thistle. The prevalence of chronic rhinosinusitis in patients with AR was 34%. Conclusion: The prevalence of AR in the adult population presenting with nasal symptoms was found to be 7%, with associated chronic rhinosinusitis present in a third of these patients. However, there appears to be substantial knowledge gaps regarding the association of other comorbidities, like otitis media, bronchitis and bronchial asthma, the long-term outcomes of medical management, and indication of surgical intervention in patients with AR. Future research in AR among Omani patients should aim to address these issues.

  5. Sex Differences and Correlates of Pain in Patients with Comorbid Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences and correlates of pain were examined in a sample of patients with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. One hundred fifty-two treatment-seeking patients with BED completed the Brief Pain Inventory. Analysis of covariance was utilized to compare women and men on pain, and correlational analysis, overall and by sex, was performed to examine relationships among pain, eating behaviour and metabolic risk factors. Women reported significantly greater pain severity and pa...

  6. ASA grade and Charlson Comorbidity Index of spinal surgery patients: correlation with complications and societal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Robert G; Stephen, James H; Vernick, Coleen; Campbell, Peter G; Yadla, Sanjay; Ghobrial, George M; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Ratliff, John K

    2014-01-01

    The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status Classification System (ASA grade) are useful for predicting morbidity and mortality for a variety of disease processes. To evaluate CCI and ASA grade as predictors of complications after spinal surgery and examine the correlation between these comorbidity indices and the cost of care. Prospective observational study. All patients undergoing any spine surgery at a single academic tertiary center over a 6-month period. Direct health-care costs estimated from diagnosis related group and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes. Demographic data, including all patient comorbidities, procedural data, and all complications, occurring within 30 days of the index procedure were prospectively recorded. Charlson Comorbidity Index was calculated from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes and ASA grades determined from the operative record. Diagnosis related group and CPT codes were captured for each patient. Direct costs were estimated from a societal perspective using Medicare rates of reimbursement. A multivariable analysis was performed to assess the association of the CCI and ASA grade to the rate of complication and direct health-care costs. Two hundred twenty-six cases were analyzed. The average CCI score for the patient cohort was 0.92, and the average ASA grade was 2.65. The CCI and ASA grade were significantly correlated, with Spearman ρ of 0.458 (pcosts (p=.0062). American Society of Anesthesiologists and CCI scores are useful comorbidity indices for the spine patient population, although neither was completely predictive of complication occurrence. A spine-specific comorbidity index, based on ICD-9-CM coding that could be easily captured from patient records, and which is predictive of patient likelihood of complications and mortality, would be beneficial in patient counseling and choice of operative

  7. Prevalence and correlates of heart disease among adults in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Louisa; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-02-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and it has been well established that it is associated with both mental and physical conditions. This paper describes the prevalence of heart disease with mental disorders and other chronic physical conditions among the Singapore resident population. Data were from the Singapore Mental Health Study which was a representative, cross-sectional epidemiological survey undertaken with 6616 Singapore residents, between December 2009 and December 2010. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 was used to establish the diagnosis of mental disorders, while a chronic medical conditions checklist was used to gather information on 15 physical conditions, including various forms of heart disease. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Euro-Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D). The lifetime prevalence of heart disease was 2.8%. Socio-demographic correlates of heart disease included older age, Indian ethnicity, secondary education (vs. tertiary) and being economically inactive. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables and other comorbid physical and mental disorders, the prevalence of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder were significantly higher among those with heart disease, as were diabetes, arthritis, kidney failure and lung disease. These findings highlight important associations between heart disease and various socio-demographic correlates, mental disorders and physical conditions. Given the high prevalence of mood disorders among heart disease patients, timely and appropriate screening and treatment of mental disorders among this group is essential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The prevalence, age distribution and comorbidity of personality disorders in Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Shae E; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Chanen, Andrew M; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Burke, Lisa M; Jackson, Henry J; Hulbert, Carol; A Olsson, Craig; Moran, Paul; Stuart, Amanda L; Williams, Lana J

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to describe the prevalence and age distribution of personality disorders and their comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders in an age-stratified sample of Australian women aged ⩾25 years. Individual personality disorders (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive), lifetime mood, anxiety, eating and substance misuse disorders were diagnosed utilising validated semi-structured clinical interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Non-patient Edition and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders). The prevalence of personality disorders and Clusters were determined from the study population ( n = 768), and standardised to the Australian population using the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. Prevalence by age and the association with mood, anxiety, eating and substance misuse disorders was also examined. The overall prevalence of personality disorders in women was 21.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.7, 24.9). Cluster C personality disorders (17.5%, 95% CI: 16.0, 18.9) were more common than Cluster A (5.3%, 95% CI: 3.5, 7.0) and Cluster B personality disorders (3.2%, 95% CI: 1.8, 4.6). Of the individual personality disorders, obsessive-compulsive (10.3%, 95% CI: 8.0, 12.6), avoidant (9.3%, 95% CI: 7.1, 11.5), paranoid (3.9%, 95% CI: 3.1, 4.7) and borderline (2.7%, 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) were among the most prevalent. The prevalence of other personality disorders was low (⩽1.7%). Being younger (25-34 years) was predictive of having any personality disorder (odds ratio: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.18, 4.74), as was being middle-aged (odds ratio: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.72). Among the strongest predictors of having any personality disorder was having a lifetime history of psychiatric disorders (odds ratio: 4.29, 95% CI: 2.90, 6.33). Mood and anxiety disorders were the most common comorbid

  9. Epidemiology of eating disorders in Europe: prevalence, incidence, comorbidity, course, consequences, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Mustelin, Linda

    2016-11-01

    Eating disorders - anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder - affect numerous Europeans. This narrative review summarizes European studies on their prevalence, incidence, comorbidity, course, consequences, and risk factors published in 2015 and the first half of 2016. Anorexia nervosa is reported by eating disorder eating disorders by 2-3% of women in Europe. Of men, 0.3-0.7% report eating disorders. Incidences of anorexia appear stable, whereas bulimia may be declining. Although the numbers of individuals receiving treatment have increased, only about one-third is detected by healthcare. Over 70% of individuals with eating disorders report comorbid disorders: anxiety disorders (>50%), mood disorders (>40%), self-harm (>20%), and substance use (>10%) are common. The long-term course of anorexia nervosa is favorable for most, but a substantial minority of eating disorder patients experience longstanding symptoms and somatic problems. The risk of suicide is elevated. Parental psychiatric disorders, prenatal maternal stress, various family factors, childhood overweight, and body dissatisfaction in adolescence increase the risk of eating disorders. Eating disorders are relatively common disorders that are often overlooked, although they are associated with high comorbidity and serious health consequences.

  10. Estimating the prevalence of comorbid conditions and their effect on health care costs in patients with diabetes mellitus in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber CA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carola A Huber,1 Peter Diem,2 Matthias Schwenkglenks,3 Roland Rapold,1 Oliver Reich1 1Department of Health Sciences, Helsana Group, Zürich, Switzerland; 2Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 3Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland Background: Estimating the prevalence of comorbidities and their associated costs in patients with diabetes is fundamental to optimizing health care management. This study assesses the prevalence and health care costs of comorbid conditions among patients with diabetes compared with patients without diabetes. Distinguishing potentially diabetes- and nondiabetes-related comorbidities in patients with diabetes, we also determined the most frequent chronic conditions and estimated their effect on costs across different health care settings in Switzerland. Methods: Using health care claims data from 2011, we calculated the prevalence and average health care costs of comorbidities among patients with and without diabetes in inpatient and outpatient settings. Patients with diabetes and comorbid conditions were identified using pharmacy-based cost groups. Generalized linear models with negative binomial distribution were used to analyze the effect of comorbidities on health care costs. Results: A total of 932,612 persons, including 50,751 patients with diabetes, were enrolled. The most frequent potentially diabetes- and nondiabetes-related comorbidities in patients older than 64 years were cardiovascular diseases (91%, rheumatologic conditions (55%, and hyperlipidemia (53%. The mean total health care costs for diabetes patients varied substantially by comorbidity status (US$3,203–$14,223. Patients with diabetes and more than two comorbidities incurred US$10,584 higher total costs than patients without comorbidity. Costs were significantly higher in patients with

  11. Eating disorders in a multi-ethnic inner-city UK sample: prevalence, comorbidity and service use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmi, F; Hotopf, M; Hatch, S L; Treasure, J; Micali, N

    2016-03-01

    No studies have investigated the prevalence of eating disorders (ED) according to DSM-5 criteria and few have explored their comorbidity and service use in the general population in the UK. We aimed to estimate the prevalence, comorbidity, and service use in individuals with ED in a multi-ethnic inner city sample. A total of 1698 individuals (age 16/90) were screened for ED in the first phase of the South East London Community Health Study and 145 were followed up with a diagnostic interview. Data was weighed for survey design and Chi Square tests were used to investigate socio-demographic distribution, comorbidity and service use in participants with ED. The point prevalence of ED was 4.4 % (Binge Eating Disorder (BED) 3.6 %; Bulimia Nervosa (BN) 0.8 %) and 7.4 % when including sub-threshold diagnoses (Purging Disorder (PD) 0.6 %; Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders (OSFED) 2.4 %). No cases of AN were identified. Purging Disorder was the ED with the highest proportion of comorbid disorders. A minority of participants with ED had accessed specialist care services. ED are common, the comorbidity of ED was in line with previous studies and no ethnic differences were identified. Although PD is not a full diagnosis in DSM-5, we found some evidence of high comorbidity with other disorders, that needs to be replicated using larger samples. Service use was low across ED diagnoses, despite high levels of comorbidity.

  12. Prevalence, comorbidities and outpatient treatment of anorexia and bulimia nervosa in German children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaite, Charlotte; Hoffmann, Falk; Glaeske, Gerd; Bachmann, Christian J

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed at investigating the prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity and outpatient treatment in a sample of German children and adolescents with eating disorders (EDs). Data of a large German statutory health insurance company were analysed and outpatients aged between 10 and 21 years with an ED diagnosis in 2009 were identified. Of 248,558 insured children and adolescents, 1,404 patients (79.9 % females, mean age: 16.7; SD: 3.3 years) matched the inclusion criteria. The large majority of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) were females (94.7 and 92.7 %), on which we focus in the following analyses. The prevalence in females was 0.28 % (AN) and 0.20 % (BN). Psychiatric comorbidity was diagnosed in 59.8 % (AN) and 64.1 % (BN) of patients, respectively. Most patients were treated with psychotherapy (AN: 75.7 %, BN: 78.5 %), 16.4 % (AN) and 20.2 % (BN) of our patients received pharmacotherapy with either antidepressants or antipsychotics. 23.5 % (AN) and 21.1 % (BN) received no treatment with psychotherapy, antidepressants or antipsychotics. This naturalistic study suggests that in young ED outpatients, EDs seem to be underdiagnosed and treatment does not necessarily comply with current guidelines. Therefore, dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge on diagnosis and treatment in children and adolescents with EDs constitutes an important educational goal.

  13. Health Correlates of Insomnia Symptoms and Comorbid Mental Disorders in a Nationally Representative Sample of US Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Madeleine; Zhang, Jihui; Lamers, Femke; Taylor, Adrienne D.; Hickie, Ian B.; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and health correlates of insomnia symptoms and their association with comorbid mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States. Design: National representative cross-sectional study. Setting: Population-based sample from the US adolescents. Measurements and Results: A total of 6,483 individuals aged between 13–18 y in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) with both individual and parental reports of mental health were included in this study. Participants were classified with insomnia symptoms if they reported difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and/or early morning awakening, nearly every day for at least 2 w in the past year. Nearly one-third of adolescents reported insomnia symptoms for at least 2 w during the previous year. Hispanic and black youth were significantly more likely to report insomnia symptoms (42.0% and 41.3%, respectively) than non-Hispanic white youth (30.4%). Adolescents with insomnia symptoms were at a higher risk for all classes of mental disorders {odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4 (2.9–4.0)} including mood, anxiety, behavioral, substance use, and eating disorders, suicidality [OR (95% CI): 2.63 (1.34–5.16)], poor perceived mental health [OR (95% CI): 2.01 (1.02–3.96)], chronic medical conditions [OR (95% CI): 1.94 (1.55–2.43)], smoking [OR (95% CI: 2.60 (1.00–6.72)], and obesity [OR (95% CI: 1.46 (1.10–1.93)] than those without insomnia symptoms. Adolescents with insomnia symptoms and comorbid mental disorders manifested even greater rates of these indicators of negative health behaviors and disorders than those with mental disorders alone (P Insomnia symptoms are reported by one-third of adolescents in the general population. Insomnia symptoms, even in the absence of concomitant depression or other mental disorders, are associated with serious health conditions, risk factors

  14. Gender Differences in Anxiety Disorders: Prevalence, Course of Illness, Comorbidity and Burden of Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Carmen P.; Asnaani, Anu; Litz, Brett T.; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    Women have consistently higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders, but less is known about how gender affects age of onset, chronicity, comorbidity, and burden of illness. Gender differences in DSM-IV anxiety disorders were examined in a large sample of adults (N = 20,013) in the United States using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES). The lifetime and 12-month male:female prevalence ratios of any anxiety disorder were 1:1.7 and 1:1.79, respectively. Women had higher rates of lifetime diagnosis for each of the anxiety disorders examined, except for social anxiety disorder which showed no gender difference in prevalence. No gender differences were observed in the age of onset and chronicity of the illness. However, women with a lifetime diagnosis of an anxiety disorder were more likely than men to also be diagnosed with another anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, and major depressive disorder. Furthermore, anxiety disorders were associated with a greater illness burden in women than in men, particularly among European American women and to some extend also among Hispanic women. These results suggest that anxiety disorders are not only more prevalent but also more disabling in women than in men. PMID:21439576

  15. Comorbid atypical depression in borderline personality disorder is common and correlated with anxiety-related psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremaud-Heitz, Daniela; Riemenschneider, Anke; Walter, Marc; Sollberger, Daniel; Küchenhoff, Joachim; Dammann, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    The core features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are affective instability, unstable relationships and identity disturbance. Axis I comorbidities are frequent, in particular affective disorders. The concept of atypical depression is complex and often underestimated. The purpose of the study was to investigate the comorbidity of atypical depression in borderline patients regarding anxiety-related psychopathology and interpersonal problems. Sixty patients with BPD were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders (SCID I, SCID II) as well as the Atypical Depression Diagnostic Scale (ADDS). Additionally, patients completed a questionnaire (SCL-90-R, BDI, STAI, STAXI, IIP-C). Forty-five BPD patients (81.8%) had a comorbid affective disorder of which 15 (27.3%) were diagnosed with an atypical depression. In comparison to patients with major depressive disorder or no comorbid depression, patients with atypical depression showed significant higher scores in psychopathological symptoms regarding anxiety and global severity as well as interpersonal problems. The presence of atypical depression in borderline patients is correlated with psychopathology, anxiety, and interpersonal problems and seems to be of clinical importance for personalized treatment decisions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of Comorbidities and Risk Factors for Comorbidities in Patients with Spondyloarthritis in Latin America: A Comparative Study with the General Population and Data from the ASAS-COMOSPA Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bautista-Molano, Wilson; Landewé, Robert; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Maldonado-Cocco, José; Moltó, Anna; van den Bosch, Filip; Valle-Oñate, Rafael; Dougados, Maxime; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2018-01-01

    Increased risk of comorbidities has been reported in spondyloarthritis (SpA). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk of developing comorbidities in patients with SpA in 3 Latin American (LA) countries, and to compare that prevalence with the general population. Data

  17. Comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder: prevalence, explanatory theories, and clinical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frías Á

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Álvaro Frías,1,2 Carol Palma,1,2 Núria Farriols,1,2 Laura González2 1FPCEE Blanquerna, Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona, 2Adult Outpatient Mental Health Center, Hospital de Mataró – CSdM, Mataró, Spain Background: With the advent of the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD has been subsumed into the obsessive-compulsive disorders and related disorders (OCDRD category. Objective: We aimed to determine the empirical evidence regarding the potential relationship between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD based on the prevalence data, etiopathogenic pathways, and clinical characterization of patients with both disorders. Method: A comprehensive search of databases (PubMed and PsycINFO was performed. Published manuscripts between 1985 and May 2015 were identified. Overall, 53 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Results: Lifetime comorbidity rates of BDD–OCD are almost three times higher in samples with a primary diagnosis of BDD than those with primary OCD (27.5% vs 10.4%. However, other mental disorders, such as social phobia or major mood depression, are more likely among both types of psychiatric samples. Empirical evidence regarding the etiopathogenic pathways for BDD–OCD comorbidity is still inconclusive, whether concerning common shared features or one disorder as a risk factor for the other. Specifically, current findings concerning third variables show more divergences than similarities when comparing both disorders. Preliminary data on the clinical characterization of the patients with BDD and OCD indicate that the deleterious clinical impact of BDD in OCD patients is greater than vice versa. Conclusion: Despite the recent inclusion of BDD within the OCDRD, data from comparative studies between BDD and OCD need further evidence for supporting this nosological approach. To better define this issue, comparative studies between BDD, OCD, and social phobia

  18. Prevalence and co-morbidity among anxiety disorders in a national cohort of psychiatrically referred children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Hoeyer, Mette; Dyrborg, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides prevalence estimates of anxiety disorders as well as homotypic (e.g., other anxiety disorders) and heterotypic (e.g., mood, externalizing) co-morbidity in a national sample of children and adolescents referred to the psychiatric system in Denmark. Data were gathered from...... a database containing 83% of all youth referred from 2004 to 2007 (N=13,241). A prevalence of 5.7% of anxiety disorder was found in the sample. Homotypic co-morbidity was found in only 2.8%, whereas heterotypic co-morbidity was found in 42.9% of the cohort. A total of 73.6% had a principal anxiety disorder...... as opposed to 26.4% who had other principal diagnoses and a secondary anxiety disorder. The national database not only provides a valuable prevalence estimate of anxiety disorders in every-day non-research psychiatric settings, but also highlights the importance of applying standardized screening instruments...

  19. Anxiety, psychosis and substance use: prevalence, correlates and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The current study examined anxiety in people with substance use disorder (SUD) and a psychotic disorder. It is hypothesised that: anxiety disorders (AD) would be highly prevalent (greater than 20%) in people identified as having SUD and psychotic disorders; those with comorbid AD would fair worse than those ...

  20. Prevalence of and Comorbid Health Conditions Associated With Pediatric Prescription Opioid Use in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Souvik; Roland, Carl L; Willke, Richard; Mardekian, Jack; Garrison, Louis P

    Prescription opioids are among the most effective analgesics to treat moderate to severe pain; however, little is known about the use of prescription opioids in children, particularly those receiving an extended-release formulation for the treatment of chronic pain. In this retrospective study, the authors determined the prevalence of prescription opioid use among 7-17-year-old children and associated comorbid health conditions from 2010 to 2013 using Truven Health MarketScan (MarketScan) and Optum Clinformatics DataMart (Optum). The primary end points were prevalence of using any prescription opioids, using only prescription short-acting opioids (SAOs), and at least one prescription of a long-acting opioid (LAO). The prevalence of prescription opioid use among children is non-negligible and has been trending downwards: 6.90% in 2010 and 5.93% in 2013 using MarketScan and a similar trend using Optum: 5.47% in 2010 and 4.51% in 2013. Very few children had claims for LAOs, with only 0.04% (4979 children) in MarketScan and 0.03% (1117 children) in Optum. Given the very small number of children, primarily in the 12-17 age group, who are prescribed LAOs, there is a need to focus on a better understanding of the patterns of SAO use in children.

  1. Prevalence of Comorbidity in Patients With Young-Onset Alzheimer Disease Compared With Late-Onset: A Comparative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Adrie A J; Bakker, Christian; Verhey, Frans R J; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Melis, René J F; Koopmans, Raymond T C M

    2016-04-01

    With the lack of a cure for Alzheimer disease (AD), the identification of comorbidity is important to reduce the possibility of excess disability. Although comorbidity in patients with late-onset AD (LO-AD) is common, for people with young-onset AD (YO-AD), it is unclear how often comorbidity occurs. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether comorbidity in patients with YO-AD differs from that in patients with LO-AD. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence, types of morbidity, and morbidity profiles in patients with YO-AD compared with those of patients with LO-AD. Explorative cohort study from 2 separate Dutch cohorts (Needs in Young-onset Dementia [NeedYD] and the Clinical Course of Cognition and Comorbidity-Dementia Study [4C-Dementia study]). Participants were recruited in 2007 and 2008 from (1) the memory clinics of 3 Dutch Alzheimer centers, (2) the memory clinics of general hospitals, (3) mental health services in the southern part of the Netherlands, and (4) young-onset dementia specialized day care facilities. A comparison group of community-dwelling, elderly patients with AD was selected from the 4C-Dementia study. Patients in this study were recruited in 2010 and 2011 from the aforementioned Alzheimer centers. The prevalence rates of comorbidity were compared between 177 patients with YO-AD and 155 patients with LO-AD. Comorbidity was classified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). The total amount of comorbidity was established by counting the number of existing diseases (ICD categories or chapters) and comorbidity was also dichotomized as present or absent. Furthermore, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to study clusters of comorbidity. Compared with LO-AD, patients with YO-AD showed less (P < .001) overall comorbidity (58.2% vs 86.5%) and had lower prevalence rates of diabetes, obesity, and circulatory diseases; however, the prevalence rates of diseases of the nervous system in YO-AD (6

  2. Prevalence of co-morbidity and its relationship to treatment among unselected patients with Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 1993-1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsen, DJ; Janssen-Heijnen, MLG; Breed, WPM; Coebergh, JWW

    A population-based series of patients with cancer is likely to comprise more patients with serious co-morbidity than clinical trials because of restrictive eligibility criteria for the latter. Since co-morbidity may influence decision-making, we studied the age-specific prevalence of co-morbidity

  3. A meta-analysis of pathological gaming prevalence and comorbidity with mental health, academic and social problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Coulson, Mark; Barnett, Jane

    2011-12-01

    Mental health professionals, policy makers and the general public continue to debate the issue of pathological video gaming. Scholars disagree on the prevalence and diagnostic criteria for this potential new disorder. The current meta-analysis considers existing scholarship to examine how differing measurement methods influence prevalence rates and associations with other mental health problems. Thirty three published studies and doctoral dissertations were analyzed in meta-analysis. Prevalence rates and comorbidity with other mental health problems were examined according to measurement method. Prevalence estimates and comorbidity with other problems varied widely between studies. Measurement which attempted to replicate "pathological gambling" approaches produced higher prevalence estimates and lower comorbidity estimates than methods which focused on the interfering nature of pathological gaming. The most precise measures produce an overall prevalence rate of 3.1%. Diagnostic analogies with pathological gambling may produce spuriously high prevalence estimates, potentially over identifying non-pathological players as pathological. Diagnostic approaches focused on the interfering nature on other life needs and responsibilities may have greater validity and utility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Commercial Driver Medical Examinations: Prevalence of Obesity, Comorbidities, and Certification Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiese, Matthew S; Moffitt, Gary; Hanowski, Richard J; Kales, Stefanos N; Porter, Richard J; Hegmann, Kurt T

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess relationships between body mass index (BMI) and comorbid conditions within a large sample of truck drivers. Commercial driver medical examination data from 88,246 commercial drivers between 2005 and 2012 were analyzed for associations between BMI, medical disorders, and driver certification. Most drivers were obese (53.3%, BMI >30.0 kg/m) and morbidly obese (26.6%, BMI >35.0 kg/m), higher than prior reports. Obese drivers were less likely to be certified for 2 years and more likely to report heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, nervous disorders, sleep disorders, and chronic low back pain (all P < 0.0001). There are relationships between multiple potentially disqualifying conditions and increasing obesity (P < 0.0001). Morbid obesity prevalence increased 8.9% and prevalence of three or more multiple conditions increased fourfold between 2005 and 2012. Obesity is related to multiple medical factors as well as increasing numbers of conditions that limit driving certification.

  5. Lifetime Prevalence, Age of Risk, and Genetic Relationships of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Tourette Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirschtritt, Matthew E; Lee, Paul C; Pauls, David L; Dion, Yves; Grados, Marco A; Illmann, Cornelia; King, Robert A; Sandor, Paul; McMahon, William M; Lyon, Gholson J; Cath, Danielle C; Kurlan, Roger; Robertson, Mary M; Osiecki, Lisa; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Mathews, Carol A

    IMPORTANCE: Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by high rates of psychiatric comorbidity; however, few studies have fully characterized these comorbidities. Furthermore, most studies have included relatively few participants (<200), and none has examined the ages of highest risk for each

  6. Lifetime prevalence, age of risk, and genetic relationships of comorbid psychiatric disorders in Tourette syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirschtritt, M.E.; Lee, P.C.; Pauls, D.L.; Dion, Y.; Grados, M.A.; Illmann, C.; King, R.A.; Sandor, P.; McMahon, W.M.; Lyon, G.J.; Cath, D.C.; Kurlan, R.; Robertson, M.M.; Osiecki, L.; Scharf, J.M.; Mathews, C.A.; Posthuma, D.; Singer, H.S.; Yu, D.; Cox, N.J.; Freimer, N.B.; Budman, C.L.; Chouinard, S.; Rouleau, G.; Barr, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Importance: Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by high rates of psychiatric comorbidity; however, fewstudies have fully characterized these comorbidities. Furthermore, most studies have included relatively fewparticipants (< 200), and none has examined the ages of highest risk for each

  7. Correlates, comorbidities, and suicidal tendencies of problematic game use in a national wide sample of Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Jeon, Hong Jin; Son, Jung Woo; Kim, Haesoo; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, correlates, comorbidities, and suicidal tendencies of problematic game use in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. Of the 6022 subjects who participated in the 2011 Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study and completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1, 1397 game users were evaluated for problematic game use using 9-item DSM-5 proposed criteria for Internet gaming disorder. Respondents who responded "yes" to five or more of the nine DSM-5 criteria were considered as problematic game users and the reminders were considered as normal game users. 4.0% (56/1397) of game users were classified as a problematic game user. Problematic game users were more likely to be in younger age group and live in urban area compared with normal game user. Problematic game use was positively associated with several psychiatric disorders including nicotine use disorder, depressive disorder, and anxiety disorder, but not associated with alcohol use disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder, after adjusting for age, sex, and residential area. Problematic game use was significantly and positively associated with suicide plans, after controlling for psychiatric disorders as well as socio-demographic factors. Problematic game use is relatively prevalent in Korean adult population and highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders and suicidality. Therefore, preventive strategy for problematic game use is needed for game users who were more likely to be addicted such as young adults in urban area, and mental health screening and appropriate treatment are needed for individuals with problematic game use.

  8. Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptomatology and psychiatric comorbidity among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Walker; André Venter; Adriana van der Walt; KGF Esterhuysen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Given the paucity of research on adolescent ADHD, this study aimed to establish the prevalence of DSM-IV ADHD in a cohort of South African adolescents who had been diagnosed with the disorder in childhood. It also aimed to establish the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities and adjustment difficulties in this sample. Method: Data regarding age of diagnosis, current ADHD status, current ADHD-related pharmacological management, current psychopathology and current adjustment w...

  9. Comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder: prevalence, explanatory theories, and clinical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, Álvaro; Palma, Carol; Farriols, Núria; González, Laura

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) has been subsumed into the obsessive-compulsive disorders and related disorders (OCDRD) category. We aimed to determine the empirical evidence regarding the potential relationship between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on the prevalence data, etiopathogenic pathways, and clinical characterization of patients with both disorders. A comprehensive search of databases (PubMed and PsycINFO) was performed. Published manuscripts between 1985 and May 2015 were identified. Overall, 53 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Lifetime comorbidity rates of BDD-OCD are almost three times higher in samples with a primary diagnosis of BDD than those with primary OCD (27.5% vs 10.4%). However, other mental disorders, such as social phobia or major mood depression, are more likely among both types of psychiatric samples. Empirical evidence regarding the etiopathogenic pathways for BDD-OCD comorbidity is still inconclusive, whether concerning common shared features or one disorder as a risk factor for the other. Specifically, current findings concerning third variables show more divergences than similarities when comparing both disorders. Preliminary data on the clinical characterization of the patients with BDD and OCD indicate that the deleterious clinical impact of BDD in OCD patients is greater than vice versa. Despite the recent inclusion of BDD within the OCDRD, data from comparative studies between BDD and OCD need further evidence for supporting this nosological approach. To better define this issue, comparative studies between BDD, OCD, and social phobia should be carried out.

  10. Comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder: prevalence, explanatory theories, and clinical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, Álvaro; Palma, Carol; Farriols, Núria; González, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background With the advent of the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) has been subsumed into the obsessive-compulsive disorders and related disorders (OCDRD) category. Objective We aimed to determine the empirical evidence regarding the potential relationship between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on the prevalence data, etiopathogenic pathways, and clinical characterization of patients with both disorders. Method A comprehensive search of databases (PubMed and PsycINFO) was performed. Published manuscripts between 1985 and May 2015 were identified. Overall, 53 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Results Lifetime comorbidity rates of BDD–OCD are almost three times higher in samples with a primary diagnosis of BDD than those with primary OCD (27.5% vs 10.4%). However, other mental disorders, such as social phobia or major mood depression, are more likely among both types of psychiatric samples. Empirical evidence regarding the etiopathogenic pathways for BDD–OCD comorbidity is still inconclusive, whether concerning common shared features or one disorder as a risk factor for the other. Specifically, current findings concerning third variables show more divergences than similarities when comparing both disorders. Preliminary data on the clinical characterization of the patients with BDD and OCD indicate that the deleterious clinical impact of BDD in OCD patients is greater than vice versa. Conclusion Despite the recent inclusion of BDD within the OCDRD, data from comparative studies between BDD and OCD need further evidence for supporting this nosological approach. To better define this issue, comparative studies between BDD, OCD, and social phobia should be carried out. PMID:26345330

  11. Prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Morbidly Obese Patients Undergoing Sleeve Bariatric Surgery in Iran and Association With Other Comorbid Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi-Sari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease including simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. NASH could progress to cirrhosis and liver cancer. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing by increasing the prevalence of obesity. Objectives This study was designed to determine the prevalence of NASH in morbidly obese patients undergoing sleeve bariatric surgery and its correlation with other comorbidities. Patients and Methods In this analytical cross-sectional study, 114 morbidly obese patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy were selected. Liver ultrasonography was performed for all patients before surgery and NAFLD existence and its grade was determined by hyperechoic texture and fatty infiltration. The liver enzymes and lipid profile were also measured. Prevalence of NAFLD in these patients and its correlation with other comorbid conditions (e.g. diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hypothyroidism and ischemic heart disease were evaluated by SPSS software version 18. Results One hundred fourteen patients with a mean age of 33.96 ± 9.92 years and mean BMI of 43.61 ± 5.77 kg/m2 were enrolled (48 males and 66 females. The prevalence of NAFLD was 16.7%. NAFLD existence was associated with systolic blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, hemoglobin, hematocrit, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and potassium (P < 0.05. Conclusions According to high prevalence of NAFLD in morbidly obese patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy in Iran, we suggest using gold standard diagnostic method to determine the exact NAFLD prevalence and evaluation of impact of sleeve surgery on NAFLD in short and long term follow-up periods.

  12. Refractory Hypertension: Determination of Prevalence, Risk Factors and Comorbidities in a Large, Population-Based Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, David A.; Booth, John N.; Oparil, Suzanne; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Shimbo, Daichi; Lackland, Daniel T.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Refractory hypertension is an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure. Participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a large (n=30,239), population-based cohort were evaluated to determine the prevalence of refractory hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Refractory hypertension was defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (systolic/diastolic ≥ 140/90 mm Hg) on ≥ 5 antihypertensive drug classes. Participants with resistant hypertension (systolic/diastolic ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥ 3 orhypertensive participants served as comparator groups. Of 14,809 REGARDS participants receiving antihypertensive treatment, 78 (0.5%) had refractory hypertension. The prevalence of refractory hypertension was 3.6% among participants with resistant hypertension(n=2,144) and 41.7% among participants on 5 or more antihypertensive drug classes. Among all hypertensive participants, African American race, male gender, living in the stroke belt or buckle, higher body mass index, lower heart rate, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, diabetes and history of stroke and coronary heart disease were associated with refractory hypertension. Compared to resistant hypertension, prevalence ratios for refractory hypertension were increased for African Americans (3.00, 95% CI 1.68 – 5.37) and those with albuminuria (2.22, 95% CI 1.40 – 3.52) and diabetes (2.09, 95% CI 1.32 – 3.31). The median 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease and stroke was higher among participants with refractory hypertension compared to either comparator group. These data indicate that while resistant hypertension is relatively common among treated hypertensive patients, true antihypertensive treatment failure is rare. PMID:24324035

  13. Bipolar disorder and co-occurring cannabis use disorders: characteristics, co-morbidities and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ran, Shaul; Le Foll, Bernard; McKenzie, Kwame; George, Tony P; Rehm, Jürgen

    2013-10-30

    This study examines rates of co-morbid mental disorders and indicators of the course of illness among individuals with bipolar disorder and cannabis use disorders (CUD). Data were drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC Wave 1, 2001-2002), a nationally representative sample of adults living in the United States. Among individuals with lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder (N=1905) rates of CUD in the past 12 months were 7.2%, compared to 1.2% in the general population. Logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographic variables indicated that individuals with bipolar disorder and co-occurring CUD were at increased risk for nicotine dependence (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=3.8), alcohol (AOR=6.6) and drug (AOR=11.9) use disorders, as well as antisocial personality disorder (AOR=2.8) compared to those without CUD. Among individuals with co-occurring CUD, age of onset of bipolar disorder was significantly lower and median number of manic, hypomanic and depressive episodes per year was significantly greater compared to individuals without CUD. Co-occurring CUD is associated with significant co-morbidities and a more severe course of illness among individuals with bipolar disorder. Comprehensive evaluation of patients with bipolar disorder should include a systematic assessment of CUD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Health correlates of insomnia symptoms and comorbid mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Madeleine; Zhang, Jihui; Lamers, Femke; Taylor, Adrienne D; Hickie, Ian B; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and health correlates of insomnia symptoms and their association with comorbid mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States. National representative cross-sectional study. Population-based sample from the US adolescents. A total of 6,483 individuals aged between 13–18 y in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) with both individual and parental reports of mental health were included in this study. Participants were classified with insomnia symptoms if they reported difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and/or early morning awakening, nearly every day for at least 2 w in the past year. Nearly one-third of adolescents reported insomnia symptoms for at least 2 w during the previous year. Hispanic and black youth were significantly more likely to report insomnia symptoms (42.0% and 41.3%, respectively) than non-Hispanic white youth (30.4%). Adolescents with insomnia symptoms were at a higher risk for all classes of mental disorders {odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4 (2.9–4.0)} including mood, anxiety, behavioral, substance use, and eating disorders, suicidality [OR (95% CI): 2.63 (1.34–5.16)], poor perceived mental health [OR (95% CI): 2.01 (1.02–3.96)], chronic medical conditions [OR (95% CI): 1.94 (1.55–2.43)], smoking [OR (95% CI: 2.60 (1.00–6.72)], and obesity [OR (95% CI: 1.46 (1.10–1.93)] than those without insomnia symptoms. Adolescents with insomnia symptoms and comorbid mental disorders manifested even greater rates of these indicators of negative health behaviors and disorders than those with mental disorders alone (P Insomnia symptoms are reported by one-third of adolescents in the general population. Insomnia symptoms, even in the absence of concomitant depression or other mental disorders, are associated with serious health conditions, risk factors, and suicidality. Comorbid mental disorders potentiate the

  15. Sex Differences and Correlates of Pain in Patients with Comorbid Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences and correlates of pain were examined in a sample of patients with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. One hundred fifty-two treatment-seeking patients with BED completed the Brief Pain Inventory. Analysis of covariance was utilized to compare women and men on pain, and correlational analysis, overall and by sex, was performed to examine relationships among pain, eating behaviour and metabolic risk factors. Women reported significantly greater pain severity and pain interference than men. Among women, eating behaviour and metabolic markers were not associated with pain. Among men, however, binge frequency was significantly associated with pain, as was high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting glucose. In sum, while women in this sample had more pain than men, the presence of pain in men was associated with increased behavioural and metabolic risk factors. Findings have clinical implications for the assessment of comorbid pain and obesity-related health risks among individuals with BED. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Psychiatric Co-Morbidities in Pregnant Women with Opioid Use Disorders: Prevalence, Impact, and Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaudo, Camila L; Andraka-Christou, Barbara; Allgood, Kacy

    2017-01-01

    This review seeks to investigate three questions: What is the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses among pregnant women with opioid use disorder (OUD)? How do comorbid psychiatric illnesses impact pregnant women with OUD? And how do comorbid psychiatric illnesses affect the ability of pregnant women with OUD to adhere to and complete OUD treatment? Based on this literature review, 25-33% of pregnant women with OUD have a psychiatric comorbidity, with depression and anxiety being especially common. However, of the 17 studies reviewed only 5 have prevalence rates of dual diagnosis in pregnant women with OUD as their primary outcome measures, their N's were typically small, methods for determining psychiatric diagnosis were variable, and many of the studies were undertaken with women presenting for treatment which carries with its implicit selection bias. Of the women enrolled in treatment programs for SUD, those with psychiatric comorbidity were more likely to have impaired psychological and family/social functioning than those without psychiatric comorbidity. Greater severity of comorbid psychiatric illness appears to predict poorer adherence to treatment, but more research is needed to clarify this relationship with the psychiatric illness is less severe. While cooccurrence of psychiatric disorders in pregnant women with opioid use disorder appears to be common, large population-based studies with validated diagnostic tools and longitudinal assessments are needed to obtain definitive rates and characteristics of cooccurring illnesses. Integrated prenatal, addiction, and psychiatric treatment in a setting that provides social support to pregnant patients with OUD is most effective in maintaining women in treatment. More research is still needed to identify optimal treatment settings, therapy modalities, and medication management for dually diagnosed pregnant women with OUD.

  17. Comorbidity of post-traumatic stress disorder and anxiety in flood survivors: Prevalence and shared risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenjie; Kaminga, Atipatsa C; Tan, Hongzhuan; Wang, Jieru; Lai, Zhiwei; Wu, Xin; Xiong, Yuan; Deng, Jing; Liu, Aizhong

    2017-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety are both prevalent in trauma-related populations. However, comorbidity of these 2 psychiatric disorders has not been investigated in flood survivors. This study aimed to estimate the extent to which PTSD and anxiety co-occur in flood survivors, and identify shared risk factors for PTSD only and comorbidity of PTSD and anxiety.Individuals who experienced Dongting Lake flood in 1998 were enrolled in this study using stratified and systematic random sampling method. Information on social support, personality traits, PTSD, and anxiety was collected using self-report questionnaires. The intensity of exposure to the flood was measured by some questions. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with PTSD only and comorbidity of PTSD and anxiety.In all, 325 participants were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of PTSD, anxiety, and comorbidity of PTSD and anxiety among survivors of the 1998 Dongting Lake flood at 17-year follow-up was 9.54%, 9.23%, and 6.15%, respectively. Furthermore, 64.52% of those with PTSD had anxiety and 66.67% of those with anxiety had PTSD. Loss of relative, injury of body, damage of house, and emotional instability were shared risk factors for PTSD only and comorbidity of PTSD and anxiety, in comparison with neither PTSD nor anxiety.Post-traumatic stress disorder only and comorbidity of PTSD and anxiety are prevalent in flood survivors, and are both related to the intensity of exposure to the flood and personality traits, indicating that integrated intervention strategies of PTSD and anxiety for flood survivors are needed.

  18. The Prevalence of Comorbid Personality Disorders in Treatment-Seeking Problem Gamblers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki A; Cowlishaw, S; Jackson, A C; Merkouris, S S; Francis, K L; Christensen, D R

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review and meta-analyze the prevalence of comorbid personality disorders among treatment-seeking problem gamblers. Almost one half (47.9%) of problem gamblers displayed comorbid personality disorders. They were most likely to display Cluster B disorders (17.6%), with smaller proportions reporting Cluster C disorders (12.6%) and Cluster A disorders (6.1%). The most prevalent personality disorders were narcissistic (16.6%), antisocial (14.0%), avoidant (13.4%), obsessive-compulsive (13.4%), and borderline (13.1%) personality disorders. Sensitivity analyses suggested that these prevalence estimates were robust to the inclusion of clinical trials and self-selected samples. Although there was significant variability in reported rates, subgroup analyses revealed no significant differences in estimates of antisocial personality disorder according to problem gambling severity, measure of comorbidity employed, and study jurisdiction. The findings highlight the need for gambling treatment services to conduct routine screening and assessment of co-occurring personality disorders and to provide treatment approaches that adequately address these comorbid conditions.

  19. Prevalence and determinants of frailty and associated comorbidities among older Gurkha welfare pensioners in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Sirjana; Anderson, Bruce; Soiza, Roy L; Myint, Phyo K

    2017-12-01

    Population aging is increasing in low-income countries. Despite this, there is distinct lack of knowledge about the prevalence of comorbidities and determinants of frailty among older people in these countries. We examined data from "Health and Social Care Needs Assessment Survey of the Gurkha Welfare Pensioners" carried out in 2014. Participants were aged ≥60 years from the Gorakha, Lamjung and Tanahu districts of Nepal. Face-to-face interviews were carried out using validated questionnaires. Demographic data, socioeconomic status, and self-reported symptoms and illnesses were collected. Frailty was assessed using the Canadian Study of Health and Aging scale. Univariable and multivariable regression models were constructed to identify the determinants of frailty defined as Canadian Study of Health and Aging scale ≥4. A total of 253 participants (32.0% men) were included in the present study. Most (82.2%) participants were from the Janajati ethnic background. Men who were ex-servicemen had higher educational attainment than women, most of whom (95.3%) were widows of ex-servicemen (P health issues, such as anxiety and insomnia, compared with men. The prevalence of frailty was 46.2% (46.3% in men and 46.1% in women). In this population, frailty was significantly associated with older age, smoking, living with son, breathing problems, unspecified pain and fatigue, poor dental health, and history of falls and fracture (P low-income setting. Concerted efforts should be made with regard to how best to tackle this globally. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2493-2499. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Self-Reported Food Hypersensitivity: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Comorbidities in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dybdahl Jakobsen

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity, (SFH, the characteristics of women with SFH, and whether SFH is associated with multiple health complaints among the participants of the Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC.We conducted a cross-sectional study among 64,316 women aged 41-76 years. The women were randomly selected from the Norwegian Central Person Register. Information on SFH and all covariates except age and place of residence was collected by questionnaires in 2002-2005.The prevalence of SFH in our study sample was 6.8% (95% confidence interval: 6.7-7.0. Logistic regression analysis showed a negative association between SFH and age (odds ratio [OR] 0.97. The odds of SFH increased among women living in or near urban centers, women with more than 9 years of education, women who did not have full-time work, women who had experienced poor economic conditions in childhood, those living without a partner, and those who did not consume alcohol or smoke (OR varied from 1.10 to 1.70. Women with a low body mass index had higher odds of SFH (OR 1.37 than those with a moderate body mass index. SFH was positively associated with poor self-perceived health (OR 2.56. The odds of SFH increased with the number of concurrent health complaints, with an OR for 5-6 comorbidities of 4.93.We found an association between SFH, poor health, and different socio demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Women with SFH had increased odds of reporting multiple health complaints.

  1. Correlation between caries prevalence and chronic perodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Entezari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Periodontitis and dental caries may be synergistically associated, negatively associated, or completely independent.The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between these two diseases and investigate the prevalence of dental caries in periodontitis. Methods: This cross- sectional study has been performed in 180 samples in two groups: periodontal and control group during 2012-2013 in Babol Dental School.All 180 patients were divided into two groups, including 90 cases with chronic periodontitis as the periodontal group (PG and 90 cases with healthy gums as the control group ( probing depth between 2- 3 mm (HG.Clinical measurments including Gingival Index ( GI, Bleeding Index( BI, Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL, Periodontal Pocket Depth (PPD were used to assess the severity of periodontal disease . The clinical features of control group were healthy gums , probing less than 3 mm in depth, and CAL< 1mm . The examination to measure AL was conducted using a Williams’s periodontal probe .In chronic periodontitis group , the patients had GI≥1 and CAL ≥ 1 .The assessment of caries of patients was conducted using bitewing radiography for proximal caries detection , dent on the use of explorer and direct observation. A p-value≤0.05 is considered as significant. Results: The results of this study showed that the mean number of decayed and filled teeth (DFT in periodontal group was 4.32 ± 0.17, and in healthy group was 2.16 ± 0.17.DFT in males with periodontitis was 4.85 ± 0.17 and in females was 4.3 ± 0.17 ,while the healthy males was 2.54 ± 0.17, and females was 2.25 ± 0.17 therefore, the mean DFT in the periodontal group was more than the healthy group (p≤0.05 . Conclusion : Based on our findings, in patients with periodontitis, more dental carries were more significant than the healthy group.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of atypical patterns of drug use progression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and correlates of atypical patterns of drug use progression: findings from the South African Stress and Health Study. ... This paper attempts to address this gap by examining the prevalence and correlates of atypical patterns of drug progression among South Africans. Method: Data on substance use and other ...

  3. Psychiatric disorders in students in six French universities: 12-month prevalence, comorbidity, impairment and help-seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Pierre; Guagliardo, Valérie; Gilbert, Fabien; Rouillon, Frédéric; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane

    2010-02-01

    Few studies have explored the prevalence of psychiatric disorders (PD) among university students. This article aims to study 12-month prevalence of PD in university students, their socio-economic correlates, impairment in daily life and help-seeking behaviours. Cross-sectional study of randomly selected first-year students aged 18-24 years, enrolled in one of the six universities in south-eastern France in 2005-2006. We used the WHO CIDI-Short Form to derive DSM-IV diagnoses and the Sheehan disability scale to evaluate impairment. We studied their correlates with multiple logistic regressions. The 12-month prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders (AD) and substance use disorders (SUD) were 8.9% (95% CI: 7.2-10.9), 15.7% (95% CI: 13.5-18.2) and 8.1% (95% CI: 6.7-9.8), respectively. MDD was associated with precarious economic situation (OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.03-3.23), AD with a precarious job or unemployment of the father (OR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.04-4.14) and SUD with higher educational level of father (OR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.28-3.67) or having a paid job (OR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.06-3.13). "Marked" or "extreme" impairment (score > or =7 for at least one of the domains in the Sheehan scale) was noted for 51.7% of students presenting a PD and was even more frequent in the presence of MDD/AD comorbidity. Only 30.5% of the students with a PD had sought professional help in the past 12 months. This study provides new results regarding university students suggesting a link between precarious economic situations and MDD. The frequent impairment arising from PD alongside low rates of help-seeking suggests that PD could be one of the factors in academic failure in first year of university. These results should be used to improve prevention and care of PD in university students in France.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of body dysmorphic disorder in a community sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sophie C; Turner, Cynthia M; Mond, Jonathan; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2017-06-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder typically begins in adolescence, yet little is known about the prevalence and correlates of the disorder in this age group. The current study aimed to explore the presenting features of adolescents meeting probable criteria for body dysmorphic disorder in a large community sample, and compare levels of comorbid psychopathology, quality of life and mental health service use between adolescents with probable body dysmorphic disorder and those without. Questionnaires were completed at school by 3149 adolescents: 63% male, aged 12-18 years ( M = 14.58). These assessed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) body dysmorphic disorder criteria, past mental health service use and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders. In male participants, additional measures assessed quality of life, muscularity concerns, emotional symptoms, peer problems, conduct problems and hyperactivity. The prevalence of probable body dysmorphic disorder was 1.7%; there was no sex difference in prevalence, but older adolescents reported higher prevalence than younger adolescents. Probable body dysmorphic disorder participants reported substantially elevated levels of psychopathology, quality of life impairment and mental health service use compared to non-body dysmorphic disorder participants. The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in adolescents is similar to adult samples, and probable body dysmorphic disorder is associated with comorbidity, distress and functional impairment in a community sample. Further research is required to better understand the presentation of body dysmorphic disorder in adolescents, and to improve diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Prevalence of Co-morbid Psychiatric Disorders in a Clinic Sample of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Co-morbid psychiatric disorders may mask or be masked by Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), thereby confounding the clinical assessment ... awareness of these co-morbid disorders, which could become targets for interventions that may reduce the overall morbidity profile of children with ADHD.

  6. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comorbid psychiatric and behavioral problems among primary school students in western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten N. AlZaben

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, subtypes of ADHD, and psychiatric, academic, and behavioral comorbidity in public primary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. A simple random sample of 6 primary government schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was identified (3 male, 3 female, and a random sample of classes in each of grades 1-6 were selected. Between July and November 2016, teachers in these classes were asked to complete the Vanderbilt ADHD scale on all students in their classes. Results: A total of 929 students were screened. The overall prevalence of ADHD was 5% (5.3% in girls, 4.7% in boys. The most prevalent subtype of ADHD was combined type (2.7%, followed by hyperactive type (1.2%, and inattentive type (1.1%. The highest prevalence of ADHD overall was in grade 3 (7.1% and the lowest prevalence in grade 6 (3.4%. Among students with ADHD, prevalence of comorbid psychiatric, academic, and behavioral problems was widespread (56.5% oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder, 54.4% impaired academic performance, 44.4% classroom behavioral problems, 41.3% depression/anxiety. Comorbid problems were especially prevalent in combined ADHD subtype and in boys. Conclusions: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is common in primary school children in Jeddah, and is associated with widespread psychiatric, academic, and behavioral problems, especially in boys. These findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of this serious neurobehavioral disorder.

  7. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comorbid psychiatric and behavioral problems among primary school students in western Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZaben, Faten N; Sehlo, Mohammad G; Alghamdi, Waleed A; Tayeb, Haythum O; Khalifa, Doaa A; Mira, Abdulrahman T; Alshuaibi, Abdulaziz M; Alguthmi, Mosab A; Derham, Ahmad A; Koenig, Harold G

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), subtypes of ADHD, and psychiatric, academic, and behavioral comorbidity in public primary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. A simple random sample of 6 primary government schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was identified (3 male, 3 female), and a random sample of classes in each of grades 1-6 were selected. Between July and November 2016, teachers in these classes were asked to complete the Vanderbilt ADHD scale on all students in their classes.  Results: A total of 929 students were screened. The overall prevalence of ADHD was 5% (5.3% in girls, 4.7% in boys). The most prevalent subtype of ADHD was combined type (2.7%), followed by hyperactive type (1.2%), and inattentive type (1.1%). The highest prevalence of ADHD overall was in grade 3 (7.1%) and the lowest prevalence in grade 6 (3.4%). Among students with ADHD, prevalence of comorbid psychiatric, academic, and behavioral problems was widespread (56.5% oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder, 54.4% impaired academic performance, 44.4% classroom behavioral problems, 41.3% depression/anxiety). Comorbid problems were especially prevalent in combined ADHD subtype and in boys. Conclusions: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is common in primary school children in Jeddah, and is associated with widespread psychiatric, academic, and behavioral problems, especially in boys. These findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of this serious neurobehavioral disorder.

  8. Correlates of comorbid depression, anxiety and helplessness with obsessive-compulsive disorder in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Li, Zhanjiang; Buys, Nicholas; Storch, Eric A

    2015-03-15

    Youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are at risk of experiencing comorbid psychiatric conditions, such as depression and anxiety. Studies of Chinese adolescents with OCD are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of depression, anxiety, and helplessness with the occurrence of OCD in Chinese adolescents. This study consisted of two stages. The first stage used a cross-sectional design involving a stratified clustered non-clinical sample of 3174 secondary school students. A clinical interview procedure was then employed to diagnose OCD in students who had a Leyton 'yes' score of 15 or above. The second phase used a case-control study design to examine the relationship of OCD to depression, anxiety and helplessness in a matched sample of 288 adolescents with clinically diagnosed OCD and 246 students without OCD. Helplessness, depression and anxiety scores were directly associated with the probability of OCD caseness. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that the OCD correlated significantly with depression, anxiety, and helplessness. Cluster analysis further indicated that the degree of the OCD is also associated with severity of depression and anxiety, and the level of helplessness. These findings suggest that depression, anxiety and helplessness are important correlates of OCD in Chinese adolescents. Future studies using longitudinal and prospective designs are required to confirm these relationships as causal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Obesity in Mexico: prevalence, comorbidities, associations with patient outcomes, and treatment experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiBonaventura MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Marco D DiBonaventura,1 Henrik Meincke,2 Agathe Le Lay,2 Janine Fournier,2 Erik Bakker,3 Allison Ehrenreich1 1Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA; 2Novo Nordisk, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Novo Nordisk, Mexico City, Mexico Objective: The goal of this study is to investigate obesity and its concomitant effects including the prevalence of comorbidities, its association with patient-reported outcomes and costs, and weight loss strategies in a sample of Mexican adults. Methods: Mexican adults (N=2,511 were recruited from a combination of Internet panels and street intercepts using a random-stratified sampling framework, with strata defined by age and sex, so that they represent the population. Participants responded to a survey consisting of a range of topics including sociodemographics, health history, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, work productivity, health care resource use, and weight loss. Results: The sample consisted of 50.6% male with a mean age of 40.7 years (SD=14.5; 38.3% were overweight, and 24.4% were obese. Increasing body mass index (BMI was associated with increased rates of type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, and hypertension, poorer HRQoL, and decreased work productivity. Of the total number of respondents, 62.2% reported taking steps to lose weight with 27.6% and 17.1% having used an over-the-counter/herbal product and a prescription medication, respectively. Treatment discontinuation rates were high. Conclusion: Findings indicated that 62% of participants reported, at least, being overweight and that they were experiencing the deleterious effects associated with higher BMI despite the desire to lose weight. Given the rates of obesity, and its impact on humanistic and societal outcomes, improved education, prevention, and management could provide significant benefits. Keywords: obesity, quality of life, costs, treatment patterns, weight loss

  10. Obesity in Mexico: prevalence, comorbidities, associations with patient outcomes, and treatment experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBonaventura, Marco D; Meincke, Henrik; Le Lay, Agathe; Fournier, Janine; Bakker, Erik; Ehrenreich, Allison

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate obesity and its concomitant effects including the prevalence of comorbidities, its association with patient-reported outcomes and costs, and weight loss strategies in a sample of Mexican adults. Mexican adults (N=2,511) were recruited from a combination of Internet panels and street intercepts using a random-stratified sampling framework, with strata defined by age and sex, so that they represent the population. Participants responded to a survey consisting of a range of topics including sociodemographics, health history, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), work productivity, health care resource use, and weight loss. The sample consisted of 50.6% male with a mean age of 40.7 years (SD=14.5); 38.3% were overweight, and 24.4% were obese. Increasing body mass index (BMI) was associated with increased rates of type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, and hypertension, poorer HRQoL, and decreased work productivity. Of the total number of respondents, 62.2% reported taking steps to lose weight with 27.6% and 17.1% having used an over-the-counter/herbal product and a prescription medication, respectively. Treatment discontinuation rates were high. Findings indicated that 62% of participants reported, at least, being overweight and that they were experiencing the deleterious effects associated with higher BMI despite the desire to lose weight. Given the rates of obesity, and its impact on humanistic and societal outcomes, improved education, prevention, and management could provide significant benefits.

  11. Prevalence and Comorbidity of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder Among Teacher Candidate University Students

    OpenAIRE

    AHMETOĞLU, Emine; GÖRMEZ, Vahdet; COŞKUN, Murat; ÖZTÜRK, Mücahit; COŞKUN ÖGEYİK, Muhlise

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: To investigate prevalence and comorbidity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) in a Turkish community sample of young adult population. University students aged 21-24 years completed a socio-demographic form developed by the study team; Adult ADD/ ADHD DSM IV- Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Subjects, who scored above the cut off points in each scales, were invited for a diagnostic interv...

  12. Comorbid drug use disorders and eating disorders: a review of prevalence studies

    OpenAIRE

    Nøkleby, Heid

    2012-01-01

    AIMS – This study reviews literature on comorbidity of drug use disorders (DUD) and eating disorders (ED). The article updates knowledge on the occurrence of comorbidity of these diagnoses. METHODS – The databases Embase, Medline and PsycInfo were searched for studies published between 1990 and May 2011, with combinations of the terms ’eating disorder’, ’substance-related disorder’, ’drug dependence’, ’drug abuse’, ’drug addiction’ and ’substance abuse’. This generated altogether ...

  13. Prevalence of comorbidity and its association with traumatic brain injury and outcomes in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Dikmen, Sureyya; Temkin, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The study aims were to examine the association between age, comorbidity, and cause of injury in older adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI); and to determine which comorbidities relate to mortality, length of stay, and functional outcome at hospital discharge, controlling for initial injury severity, age, and sex. A retrospective cohort study design was used; clinical and outcome trauma registry data were obtained for 196 adults 55 and older with TBI. The majority had at least one comorbid condition (e.g., hypertension, alcohol abuse). In-hospital mortality was 31%. Among the oldest-old, motor vehicle collisions and falls were significantly associated with specific chronic diseases. Prior myocardial infarction was significantly associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death. Injury Severity Score and Glasgow Coma Scale score were predictive of discharge function, but comorbidity did not add significantly to the model. Primary TBI prevention efforts in older adults must consider the impact of comorbidity and cause of injury, particularly in the oldest-old. Alcohol abuse is common in older adults with TBI; screening should be conducted and interventions developed to prevent future injury. Future study is warranted to understand the interplay between pathophysiology of comorbid disease and injury and how to best manage rehabilitation within the context of aging. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... regulating CAM use in Nigeria. Keywords: Cancer patients, complementary and alternative medicine, correlates, .... products, such as herbs and food; manipulative therapies, such as chiropractic and massage; and ..... immunity and hence a better quality of life and treatment outcome.[7] These findings are ...

  15. Anxiety Disorders in Old Age: Psychiatric Comorbidities, Quality of Life, and Prevalence According to Age, Gender, and Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Alessandra; Weber, Kerstin; Baertschi, Marc; Andreas, Sylke; Volkert, Jana; Dehoust, Maria Christina; Sehner, Susanne; Suling, Anna; Wegscheider, Karl; Ausín, Berta; Crawford, Mike J; Da Ronch, Chiara; Grassi, Luigi; Hershkovitz, Yael; Muñoz, Manuel; Quirk, Alan; Rotenstein, Ora; Santos-Olmo, Ana Belén; Shalev, Arieh; Strehle, Jens; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Schulz, Holger; Härter, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Previous estimates of the prevalence of anxiety disorders in late life vary greatly due to the lack of reliable diagnostic tools. This MentDis_ICF65+ study assessed 12-month prevalence rates of anxiety disorders and age- and gender-related differences in comorbidities, as well as impact on quality of life. The study used a cross-sectional multicenter survey. The study sample comprised 3,142 men and women aged 65 to 84 years, living in five European countries and Israel. Anxiety disorders were assessed using computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with an age-appropriate diagnostic interview (CIDI65+). The prevalence of anxiety disorders was 17.2%. Agoraphobia was the most frequent disorder (4.9%), followed by panic disorder (3.8%), animal phobia (3.5%), general anxiety disorder (3.1%), post-traumatic stress disorder (1.4%), social phobia (1.3%), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (0.8%). The prevalence rate of any anxiety disorder dropped by 40% to 47% in adults aged 75-84 years compared with those aged 65-74 years. Women were twice as likely to present with agoraphobia or general anxiety disorder as men. Only panic disorder and phobia were associated with comorbid major depression. The negative relationship with quality of life was limited to agoraphobia and generalized anxiety disorder. The age-appropriate CIDI65+ led to higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders in the elderly, yet to weaker associations with comorbidities and impaired quality of life compared with previous studies. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in an urban Xhosa primary care population: prevalence, comorbidity, and service use patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Paul D; Stein, Dan J; Zungu-Dirwayi, Nompumelelo; Seedat, Soraya

    2003-04-01

    Despite increased awareness of the prevalence and morbidity of psychiatric illnesses, relatively few studies have been undertaken in primary care settings in the African context. The authors determined the prevalence of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a South African township primary health care clinic and assessed associated demographic factors, comorbidity, service use, service satisfaction, and quality of life. Subjects were directly interviewed using translated, standardized instruments to assess variables described. Retrospective chart analysis assessed clinician case identification and psychotropic drug-prescribing habits. Of the 201 participants, 94% reported exposure to traumatic events (mean, 3.8). Trauma was associated with single status (p =.01), and PTSD was associated with poverty and single status (p =.04). Both sexes were equally likely to develop PTSD. PTSD (current; 19.9%), depression (37%), and somatization disorder (18.4%) were the most common diagnoses. Comorbidity with PTSD was high and included depression (75%, p <.01), somatization (35%, p <.01), and panic disorder (25%, p <.01). Levels of functional impairment were higher for subjects with PTSD, depression, and somatization than for those without (p <.05). PTSD comorbid with depression compounded impairment (p =.04). Levels of trauma, PTSD, and depression did not increase service use or dissatisfaction with services. Clinicians did not identify trauma (0%) or psychopathology (0%), and psychotropic medication was prescribed for only 1% of participants. In this population, trauma and PTSD were highly prevalent and associated with significant unidentified morbidity and comorbidity. Patients remain untreated for years in the current system of primary care consultations.

  17. Prevalence and Clinical Correlates of Ventricular Arrhythmias on 24 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of ventricular arrhythmias in individuals without apparent heart disease. Method 24-Hour ambulatory electrocardiogram was recorded in 60 apparently healthy subjects with normal echocardiography findings. Premature ventricular complex was analyzed and

  18. Prevalence and correlates of auditory vocal hallucinations in middle childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels-Velthuis, A.A.; Jenner, J.A.; van de Willige, G.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.

    Background Hearing voices occurs in middle childhood, but little is known about prevalence, aetiology and immediate consequences. Aims To investigate prevalence, developmental risk factors and behavioural correlates of auditory vocal hallucinations in 7- and 8-year-olds. Method Auditory vocal

  19. Strong Country Level Correlation between Syphilis and HSV-2 Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Richard Kenyon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Syphilis is curable but Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2 is not. As a result, the prevalence of syphilis but not HSV-2 may be influenced by the efficacy of national STI screening and treatment capacity. If the prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 is found to be correlated, then this makes it more likely that something other than differential STI treatment is responsible for variations in the prevalence of both HSV-2 and syphilis. Methods. Simple linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between national antenatal syphilis prevalence and HSV-2 prevalence in women in two time periods: 1990–1999 and 2008. Adjustments were performed for the laboratory syphilis testing algorithm used and the prevalence of circumcision. Results. The prevalence of syphilis was positively correlated with that of HSV-2 for both time periods (adjusted correlations, 20–24-year-olds: 1990–99: R2=0.54, P<0.001; 2008: R2=0.41, P<0.001 and 40–44-year-olds: 1990–99: R2=0.42, P<0.001; 2008: R2=0.49, P<0.001. Conclusion. The prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 is positively correlated. This could be due to a common set of risk factors underpinning both STIs.

  20. The prevalence and correlates of hallucinations in a general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the prevalence of psychotic-like experiences and symptoms. The prevalence and correlates of hallucinations in a general population sample: findings from the South African Stress and. Health Study. H Temmingh1, DJ Stein1, S Seedat2, DR Williams3. 1Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, ...

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Maternal Anemia in Rural Sidama ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to assess the prevalence and correlates of prenatal anemia, a survey was conducted among 700 randomly selected pregnant women in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia. The prevalences of anemia, Iron Deficiency (ID) and ID anemia were 31.6%, 17.4% and 8.7%, respectively. The burden of anemia was ...

  2. Strong Country Level Correlation between Syphilis and HSV-2 Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris Richard; Tsoumanis, Achilleas

    2016-01-01

    Background. Syphilis is curable but Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) is not. As a result, the prevalence of syphilis but not HSV-2 may be influenced by the efficacy of national STI screening and treatment capacity. If the prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 is found to be correlated, then this makes it more likely that something other than differential STI treatment is responsible for variations in the prevalence of both HSV-2 and syphilis. Methods. Simple linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between national antenatal syphilis prevalence and HSV-2 prevalence in women in two time periods: 1990–1999 and 2008. Adjustments were performed for the laboratory syphilis testing algorithm used and the prevalence of circumcision. Results. The prevalence of syphilis was positively correlated with that of HSV-2 for both time periods (adjusted correlations, 20–24-year-olds: 1990–99: R 2 = 0.54, P < 0.001; 2008: R 2 = 0.41, P < 0.001 and 40–44-year-olds: 1990–99: R 2 = 0.42, P < 0.001; 2008: R 2 = 0.49, P < 0.001). Conclusion. The prevalence of syphilis and HSV-2 is positively correlated. This could be due to a common set of risk factors underpinning both STIs. PMID:27069710

  3. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Donofry, Shannon D.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Rohan, Kelly J.; Wildes, Jennifer E.; Kamarck, Marissa L.

    2014-01-01

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of BED in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals w...

  4. Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD symptomatology and psychiatric comorbidity among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Walker

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Given the paucity of research on adolescent ADHD, this study aimed to establish the prevalence of DSM-IV ADHD in a cohort of South African adolescents who had been diagnosed with the disorder in childhood. It also aimed to establish the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities and adjustment difficulties in this sample. Method: Data regarding age of diagnosis, current ADHD status, current ADHD-related pharmacological management, current psychopathology and current adjustment were gathered from 64 adolescents and their guardians via self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated with regard to current ADHD status, comorbid psychopathology and adjustment difficulties, as well as current ADHD-related medication. Results: According to parent reports, 59.38% of the sample met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD Inattentive subtype, while 37.50% met the criteria for ADHD Hyperactive/Impulsive subtype. Approximately sixty-four percent (64.06% of the adolescents were still using stimulant medication. Based on the adolescent self-report, 43.75% of the sample reported clinically significant symptoms of psychopathology or maladjustment. Furthermore, 39.28% of the adolescents met the diagnostic criteria for at least one psychiatric comorbidity. Conclusion: ADHD did persist into adolescence in the current sample. A significant psychopathological and maladjustment load appears evident amongst adolescents previously diagnosed with ADHD despite continuous pharmacological management of the condition.

  5. Chinese Registry of rheumatoid arthritis (CREDIT): II. prevalence and risk factors of major comorbidities in Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shangyi; Li, Mengtao; Fang, Yongfei; Li, Qin; Liu, Ju; Duan, Xinwang; Liu, Yi; Wu, Rui; Shi, Xiaofei; Wang, Yongfu; Jiang, Zhenyu; Wang, Yanhong; Yu, Chen; Wang, Qian; Tian, Xinping; Zhao, Yan; Zeng, Xiaofeng

    2017-11-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis patients are at higher risk of developing comorbidities. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of major comorbidities in Chinese rheumatoid arthritis patients. We also aimed to identify factors associated with these comorbidities. Baseline demographic, clinical characteristics and comorbidity data from RA patients enrolled in the Chinese Registry of rhEumatoiD arthrITis (CREDIT) from Nov 2016 to August 2017 were presented and compared with those from five other registries across the world. Possible factors related to three major comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, fragility fracture and malignancy) were identified using multivariate logistic regression analyses. A total of 13,210 RA patients were included (80.6% female, mean age 52.9 years and median RA duration 4.0 years). Baseline prevalence rates of major comorbidities were calculated: CVD, 2.2% (95% CI 2.0-2.5%); fragility fracture, 1.7% (95% CI 1.5-1.9%); malignancy, 0.6% (95% CI 0.5-0.7%); overall major comorbidities, 4.2% (95% CI 3.9-4.6%). Advanced age was associated with all comorbidities. Male gender and disease duration were positively related to CVD. Female sex and longer disease duration were potential risk factors for fragility fractures. Ever use of methotrexate (MTX) was negatively related to baseline comorbidities. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis in China have similar prevalence of comorbidities with other Asian countries. Advanced age and long disease duration are possible risk factors for comorbidities. On the contrary, MTX may protect RA patients from several major comorbidities, supporting its central role in the management of rheumatoid arthritis.

  6. Bipolar disorder comorbid with alcohol use disorder: focus on neurocognitive correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent eBalanzá - Martínez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD and alcohol use disorders (AUDs are usually comorbid, and both have been associated with significant neurocognitive impairment. Patients with the BD-AUD comorbidity (dual diagnosis may have more severe neurocognitive deficits than those with a single diagnosis, but there is paucity of research in this area. To explore this hypothesis more thoroughly, we carried out a systematic literature review through January 2015. Eight studies have examined the effect of AUDs on the neurocognitive functioning of BD patients. Most studies found that BD patients with current or past history of comorbid AUDs show more severe impairments, especially in verbal memory and executive cognition, than their non-dual counterparts. Greater neurocognitive dysfunction is another facet of this severe comorbid presentation. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed. Specifically, the application of holistic approaches, such as clinical staging and systems biology, may open new avenues of discoveries related to the BD-AUD comorbidity.

  7. Bipolar disorder comorbid with alcohol use disorder: focus on neurocognitive correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanzá-Martínez, Vicent; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; González-Pinto, Ana; Vieta, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are usually comorbid, and both have been associated with significant neurocognitive impairment. Patients with the BD-AUD comorbidity (dual diagnosis) may have more severe neurocognitive deficits than those with a single diagnosis, but there is paucity of research in this area. To explore this hypothesis more thoroughly, we carried out a systematic literature review through January 2015. Eight studies have examined the effect of AUDs on the neurocognitive functioning of BD patients. Most studies found that BD patients with current or past history of comorbid AUDs show more severe impairments, especially in verbal memory and executive cognition, than their non-dual counterparts. Greater neurocognitive dysfunction is another facet of this severe comorbid presentation. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed. Specifically, the application of holistic approaches, such as clinical staging and systems biology, may open new avenues of discoveries related to the BD-AUD comorbidity.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of bipolar disorders in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chang, Chin-Hao; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, Hsi-Chung

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the prevalence and correlates of bipolar disorders in patients with eating disorders (EDs), and to examine differences in effects between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder on these patients. Sequential attendees were invited to participate in a two-phase survey for EDs at the general psychiatric outpatient clinics. Patients diagnosed with EDs (n=288) and controls of comparable age, sex, and educational level (n=81) were invited to receive structured interviews for psychiatric co-morbidities, suicide risks, and functional level. All participants also completed several self-administered questionnaires assessing general and eating-related pathology and impulsivity. Characteristics were compared between the control, ED-only, ED with major depressive disorder, and ED with bipolar disorder groups. Patients with all ED subtypes had significantly higher rates of major depressive disorder (range, 41.3-66.7%) and bipolar disorder (range, 16.7-49.3%) than controls did. Compared to patients with only EDs, patients with comorbid bipolar disorder and those with comorbid major depressive disorder had significantly increased suicidality and functional impairments. Moreover, the group with comorbid bipolar disorder had increased risks of weight dysregulation, more impulsive behaviors, and higher rates of psychiatric comorbidities. Participants were selected in a tertiary center of a non-Western country and the sample size of individuals with bipolar disorder in some ED subtypes was small. Bipolar disorders were common in patients with EDs. Careful differentiation between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder in patients with EDs may help predict associated psychopathology and provide accurate treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and Pattern of Ocular Co-morbidity in Patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Refractive error (RE) is the second most common cause of preventable blindness, and its correction is now a priority for eye care programs. Some patients with RE may not be able to attain optimal visual outcome after refraction because of associated ocular comorbidity. The purpose of this study is to assess ...

  10. Bipolar disorder comorbid with alcohol use disorder: focus on neurocognitive correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Balanz?-Mart?nez, Vicent; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Gonz?lez-Pinto, Ana; Vieta, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are usually comorbid, and both have been associated with significant neurocognitive impairment. Patients with the BD-AUD comorbidity (dual diagnosis) may have more severe neurocognitive deficits than those with a single diagnosis, but there is paucity of research in this area. To explore this hypothesis more thoroughly, we carried out a systematic literature review through January 2015. Eight studies have examined the effect of AUDs on th...

  11. Sleep apnoea in Australian men: disease burden, co-morbidities, and correlates from the Australian longitudinal study on male health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamara Visanka Senaratna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstructive sleep apnoea is a common disorder with under-rated clinical impact, which is increasingly being recognised as having a major bearing on global disease burden. Men are especially vulnerable and become a priority group for preventative interventions. However, there is limited information on prevalence of the condition in Australia, its co-morbidities, and potential risk factors. Methods We used data from 13,423 adult men included in the baseline wave of Ten to Men, an Australian national study of the health of males, assembled using stratified cluster sampling with oversampling from rural and regional areas. Those aged 18–55 years self-completed a paper-based questionnaire that included a question regarding health professional-diagnosed sleep apnoea, physical and mental health status, and health-related behaviours. Sampling weights were used to account for the sampling design when reporting the prevalence estimates. Odds ratios were used to describe the association between health professional-diagnosed sleep apnoea and potential correlates while adjusting for age, country of birth, and body-mass index (BMI. Results Prevalence of self-reported health professional-diagnosed sleep apnoea increased from 2.2 % in age 18–25 years to 7.8 % in the age 45–55 years. Compared with those without sleep apnoea, those with sleep apnoea had significantly poorer physical, mental, and self-rated health as well as lower subjective wellbeing and poorer concentration/remembering (p < 0.001 for all. Sleep apnoea was significantly associated with older age (p < 0.001, unemployment (p < 0.001, asthma (p = 0.011, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/chronic bronchitis (p = 0.002, diabetes (p < 0.001, hypercholesterolemia (p < 0.001, hypertension (p < 0.001, heart attack (p < 0.001, heart failure (p < 0.001, angina (p < 0.001, depression (p < 0.001, post-traumatic stress disorder (p

  12. Prevalence and correlates of strength exercise among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cynthia C; Blanchard, Chris M; Mummery, W Kerry; Courneya, Kerry

    2015-03-01

    To identify and compare the prevalence and correlates of strength exercise among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors.
 Cross-sectional, descriptive survey.
 Nova Scotia, Canada.
 741 breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors.
. A stratified sample of 2,063 breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors diagnosed from 2003-2011 were identified and mailed a questionnaire. Descriptive, chi-square, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine any correlations among the main research variables. 
 Strength exercise behavior; medical, demographic, and motivational correlates using the Theory of Planned Behavior.
 Of 741 respondents, 23% were meeting the strength exercise guidelines of two or more days per week. Cancer survivors were more likely to meet guidelines if they were younger, more educated, had a higher income, better perceived general health, fewer than two comorbidities, and a healthy body weight. In addition, those meeting guidelines had significantly more favorable affective attitude, instrumental attitude, injunctive norm, perceived behavioral control, planning, and intention. The correlates of strength exercise did not differ by cancer site.
 The prevalence of strength exercise is low among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors in Nova Scotia and the correlates are consistent across those survivor groups. 
. Nurses should take an active role in promoting strength exercise among cancer survivors using the Theory of Planned Behavior, particularly among those survivors at higher risk of not performing strength exercise. 


  13. Social phobia in obsessive-compulsive disorder: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Melissa Chagas; Costa, Daniel Lucas da Conceição; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Shavitt, Roseli Gedanke; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Torres, Albina Rodrigues

    2012-12-20

    Social Phobia (SP) is an anxiety disorder that frequently co-occurs with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, studies that evaluate clinical factors associated with this specific comorbidity are rare. The aim was to estimate the prevalence of SP in a large multicenter sample of OCD patients and compare the characteristics of individuals with and without SP. A cross-sectional study with 1001 patients of the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders using several assessment instruments, including the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. Univariate analyses were followed by logistic regression. Lifetime prevalence of SP was 34.6% (N=346). The following variables remained associated with SP comorbidity after logistic regression: male sex, lower socioeconomic status, body dysmorphic disorder, specific phobia, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, Tourette syndrome and binge eating disorder. The cross-sectional design does not permit the inference of causal relationships; some retrospective information may have been subject to recall bias; all patients were being treated in tertiary services, therefore generalization of the results to other samples of OCD sufferers should be cautious. Despite the large sample size, some hypotheses may not have been confirmed due to the small number of cases with these characteristics (type 2 error). SP is frequent among OCD patients and co-occurs with other disorders that have common phenomenological features. These findings have important implications for clinical practice, indicating the need for broader treatment approaches for individuals with this profile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Prevalence and Comorbidity of Specific Phobias in College Students and Their Interest in Receiving Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Richard W.; Spates, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    While the prevalence of specific phobias and social phobias is believed to be high in the general adult population, little data exists regarding the prevalence of these fears among college students. This paper describes an epidemiological study that surveyed 813 college students regarding the severity of fears experienced toward 12 objects and…

  15. Psoriasis comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Alice B; Chao, Chun; Dann, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic and debilitating inflammatory disease associated with serious comorbidities. Psoriasis can have a significant impact on a patient's quality of life and is associated with loss of productivity, depression, and an increased prevalence of malignancy. Emerging comorbidities of psoriasis include cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Psoriasis patients have an increased prevalence of the core components of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. The relationship between psoriasis and comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is likely linked to the underlying chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis. The molecular mechanisms involved in psoriasis-associated dysregulation of metabolic function are believed to be due, in large part, to the action of increased levels of proinflammatory factors, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, that are central to the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Recent studies investigating the effects of tumor necrosis factor antagonists on the treatment of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome support this concept.

  16. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among School Children and Associated Co-morbidities - A Hospital Based Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimal, H; Pokharel, A

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is the most common neuro- developmental disorders of childhood characterized by the core symptoms including inattentiveness and distractibility and frequently involve impairments in executive functioning, increased impulsivity, and restlessness. Objective To find out the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among school aged children Presented to Pediatric clinic and also to investigate associated comorbidities. Method This study was conducted at Nobel Medical College Teaching Hospital, Biratnagar during April 2014 - March 2015. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was diagnosed by the developmental Pediatrician after taking relevant history and the clinical assessment using Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder rating scale with diagnostic criteria consistent with Diagnostic Statistical Manual - IV classification. Spence anxiety scale child and parent rated version and Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire were also used. Result Result showed the yearly prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder being 41(11.7%) with male: female ratio of 4:1. The study reported that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder combined type was the commonest type that was 26(63%) cases followed by Inattentive type 9(22%) cases and 6(15%) were hyperactive type. The mean age for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was 7 years and 5 months. The most common co-morbidities were sleep problem 12(29.3%), Learning difficulty 10(24.4%), Anxiety disorder 10(24.4), Oppositional Defiant Disorder 9(22%), Autism Spectrum Disorder 5(12%), speech delay 6(14.6%), and 4(10%) had associated tics. There was abnormal SDQ prevalence of 29.3% across the area of emotional distress. The mean abnormal SDQ score in total difficulty area 8 (20.7%), socializing with peer 9(22%), behavioral difficulty 11(26.8%), hyperactivity/inattention 23(56.1%) and impact of difficulties in young person's life being 5(12.2%). Conclusion There is

  17. Prevalence, structure and correlates of anxiety-depression in boys with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F; Andronicos, Nicholas M; Agnew, Linda L

    2016-01-01

    Comorbidity of anxiety and depression predicts impaired treatment outcomes, poor quality of life and increased suicide risk. No study has reported on a combined measure of anxiety-depression in boys with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. To explore the prevalence, underlying factor structure and relationships between anxiety-depression, physiological stress and symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). 150 boys (aged 6-18 years; IQ M=94.9, range=73-132) with an ASD plus their parents (135 mothers, 15 fathers) completed scales about the boys' anxiety and depression, and the boys provided samples of their saliva in the morning and afternoon. Parents also completed the ASD Behaviour Checklist about the boys' ASD symptoms. The two sources of ratings were not significantly different for prevalence of anxiety-depression but the factor structures varied between the parents' and boys' responses, with a four-factor solution for the boys' ratings and a three-factor solution for the parents' ratings. There were also differences in the correlations between cortisol and anxiety-depression and between ASD symptoms and anxiety depression across the boys' and parents' data. Assessment of anxiety and depression comorbidity from parents and from children with an ASD themselves could provide a valuable adjunct datum when diagnosing ASD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of snoring among adults in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and correlates of snoring in addition to morbidity in an adult population in Nigeria. Design: A cross – sectional survey of 370 young adult and adult living in Abuja, Nigeria.. Data were collected on socio- demographic characteristics, sleep pattern as well as occurrence of snoring, ...

  19. HIV Testing in Recent College Students: Prevalence and Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Singer, Barbara J.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence and correlates of HIV testing were examined in a sample of 957 unmarried recent college students in the United States. Participants were asked about HIV testing, past-six-months sexual activities, lifetime treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STI), past-year health service utilization, and DSM-IV criteria for alcohol and other…

  20. Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi. We also assessed associations between relevant explanatory variables and current cigarette smoking among the adolescents. Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents in. Malawi: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2005. A.S. MUULA1,4, S. SIZIYA2* and E. RUDATSIKIRA3.

  1. Prevalence And Correlates Of Mental Distress Among Regular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student integration in Universities is usually difficult and involves many factors which are potentially stressing. Objective: To assess the prevalence of mental distress (Common mental disorders) among regular undergraduate students of Hawassa University, and to study its correlates Method: This cross sectional study was ...

  2. Alternative High School Students: Prevalence and Correlates of Overweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Davey, Cynthia; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sirard, John; Story, Mary; Arcan, Chrisa

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine prevalence and correlates of overweight among adolescents attending alternative high schools (AHS). Methods: AHS students (n=145) from 6 schools completed surveys and anthropometric measures. Cross-sectional associations were assessed using mixed model multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among students, 42% were…

  3. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates for Mental Illness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates for mental illness among inmates at Lusaka Central Prison, Zambia. Design: Cross sectional study. Main outcome measure: Mental illness. Results: Of the 206 inmates in Lusaka, 63.1% had current mental illness. Among the factors considered in the ...

  4. 1. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates for Mental Illness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    INTRODUCTION. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates for. Mental Illness Among Inmates at Lusaka Central. Prison, Zambia. 1. 2*. Mweene Tembalami Nseluke , S Siziya. 1 Clinical Care Department, Chainama Hills College Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. 2 Public Health Unit, Clinical Sciences Department, School of ...

  5. Prevalence, perception and correlates of low back pain among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common cause of disability worldwide. Healthcare workers are particularly prone to it because of the physical and emotional factors associated with their profession. Objectives: To determine the prevalence, perception and correlates of LBP among healthcare workers in tertiary health ...

  6. Anxiety, psychosis and substance use: prevalence, correlates and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anxiety, psychosis and substance use: prevalence, correlates and recognition in an outpatient mental health setting. KM Wyman1,JA Chamberlain1, DJ Castle2. 1Frameworks for Health, St Vincent's Health, Melbourne, Australia. 2Department of Psychiatry, St Vincent's Health and The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, ...

  7. Prevalence and correlates of hepatitis B and C seropositivity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Health care workers are at risk of acquiring hepatitis B and C infections from patients in the course of providing care to them. The study is thus aimed at determining the prevalence and correlates of hepatitis B and C amongst health care workers of a secondary health care facility in northcentral Nigeria as a ...

  8. Prevalence of substance use and correlates of multiple substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of substance use and correlates of multiple substance use among adolescents in Botswana. The study was a cross-sectional study in which a random sample of 3,763 students aged 10 to 19 years. A survey questionnaire was self-administered using a ...

  9. Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Malawi: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2005. ... Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... Using logistic regression analysis, we estimated the association between current cigarette smoking and potential explanatory variables. Overall ...

  10. Prevalence & correlates of tobacco use among adolescents in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Jaisoorya

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The prevalence of tobacco use in adolescents reported in this study was relatively lower than those reported from other Indian States. However, it correlates with multiple negative outcomes suggesting a need to promote specific interventions to prevent adolescent tobacco use.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Sexting Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Maziarz, Lauren; Ward, Britney

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexting among sixth through twelfth grade students and its correlations with other risk behaviors. The survey was conducted in 35 different schools in a midwestern state. Overall, 17% of students engaged in sexting, which varied significantly by age (3% of 12-year-olds to 32% of…

  12. Prevalence and correlates of postpartum depression in a teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Postpartum depression is a common and disabling disorder seen in new mothers having many deleterious effects on the new mother, the new infant, the father, the family and the society at large. This study determined the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of postpartum depression among new ...

  13. Comorbidities and correlates of conduct disorder among male juvenile detainees in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bum-Sung; Kim, Johanna Inhyang; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Bongseog

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the rate and distribution of comorbidities, severity of childhood maltreatment, and clinical characteristics of adolescents with conduct disorder detained in a juvenile detention center in South Korea. In total, 173 juvenile detainees were recruited. We analyzed the distribution of psychiatric disorders among the sample and compared the rate of comorbidities between groups with and without conduct disorder. We compared the two groups in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as severity of childhood maltreatment and psychiatric problems, using the Young Self Report (YSR) scale. A total of 95 (55%) of the detainees were diagnosed with conduct disorder, and 93 (96.9%) of them had at least one comorbid axis I psychiatric disorder. Detainees with conduct disorder had a higher number of comorbid psychiatric disorders; a higher rate of violent crime perpetration; had suffered more physical, emotional, and sexual abuse; and showed higher total YSR scores and externalizing behavior, somatic complaints, rule-breaking behavior, and aggressive behavior YSR subscale scores. Conduct disorder is a common psychiatric disorder among juvenile detainees in South Korea, who tend to commit more violent crimes and show more psychopathology than detainees who do not have conduct disorder. These findings highlight the importance of diagnosing and intervening in conduct disorder within the juvenile detention system.

  14. Prevalence of Comorbidity Behavioral Disorders in Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Sattari

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion The prevalence of inventory disorders in the three types of ADHD varied according to age and sex. Statistically significant differences were observed between the three types of ADHD, confrontational disorder (4000.0, and anxiety (0.02.

  15. Prevalence, comorbidity and heritability of hoarding symptoms in adolescence: a population based twin study in 15-year olds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volen Z Ivanov

    Full Text Available Hoarding Disorder (HD is often assumed to be an 'old age' problem, but many individuals diagnosed with HD retrospectively report first experiencing symptoms in childhood or adolescence. We examined the prevalence, comorbidity and etiology of hoarding symptoms in adolescence.To determine the presence of clinically significant hoarding symptoms, a population-based sample of 15-year old twins (N = 3,974 completed the Hoarding Rating Scale-Self Report. Co-occurring Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD were estimated from parental report. Model-fitting analyses divided hoarding symptom scores into additive genetic, shared, and non-shared environmental effects.The prevalence of clinically significant hoarding symptoms was 2% (95% CI 1.6-2.5%, with a significantly higher prevalence in girls than boys. Exclusion of the clutter criterion (as adolescents do not have control over their environment increased the prevalence rate to 3.7% (95% CI 3.1-4.3%. Excessive acquisition was reported by 30-40% among those with clinically significant hoarding symptoms. The prevalence of co-occurring OCD (2.9%, ASD (2.9% and ADHD (10.0% was comparable in hoarding and non-hoarding teenagers. Model-fitting analyses suggested that, in boys, additive genetic (32%; 95% CI 13-44% and non-shared environmental effects accounted for most of the variance. In contrast, among girls, shared and non-shared environmental effects explained most of the variance, while additive genetic factors played a negligible role.Hoarding symptoms are relatively prevalent in adolescents, particularly in girls, and cause distress and/or impairment. Hoarding was rarely associated with other common neurodevelopmental disorders, supporting its DSM-5 status as an independent diagnosis. The relative importance of genetic and shared environmental factors for hoarding differed across sexes. The findings are suggestive of

  16. Sex differences in prevalence and comorbidity of alcohol and drug use disorders: results from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Risë B; Dawson, Deborah A; Chou, S Patricia; Grant, Bridget F

    2012-11-01

    The present study examined sex differences in lifetime Axis I and II psychiatric comorbidity of DSM-IV alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and drug use disorders (DUDs) among general population U.S. adults. Using data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Wave 2 lifetime prevalences of each disorder comorbid with alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, drug abuse, and drug dependence were compared between men and women. Sex-specific associations of alcohol, any drug, and cannabis- and cocaine-specific abuse and dependence with each comorbid disorder were examined using logistic regression, first with adjustment for sociodemographic variables and then with additional adjustment for all other psychiatric disorders. Prevalences of most comorbid disorders differed significantly by sex among respondents with each AUD and DUD. However, after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and additional co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses, there were few sex differences in unique comorbid associations of specific AUDs and DUDs with specific psychiatric disorders. Rates of psychiatric disorders comorbid with AUDs and DUDs indicate large burdens of morbidity in both sexes, highlighting the need for careful assessment and appropriate treatment of both substance use and mental health disorders. The unique comorbid associations with AUDs and DUDs identified in this study further indicate the need for prospective etiological research to characterize these associations, their underlying mechanisms, and the possible sex specificity of those mechanisms.

  17. Prevalence of Comorbidities, Overweight and Obesity in an International Sample of People with Multiple Sclerosis and Associations with Modifiable Lifestyle Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Helena Marck

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic neurological disorder, often affecting young people. Comorbid disorders such as depression, anxiety and hypertension are common and can affect disease course, treatment, and quality of life (QOL of people with MS (PwMS. The associations between comorbidities, body mass index (BMI and health outcomes are not well studied in MS, although research shows most PwMS are overweight. Most data on the prevalence of comorbidities and obesity in PwMS comes from North American populations. This study describes the prevalence of comorbidities, overweight and obesity and associations with modifiable factors in an international sample of PwMS recruited online through social media, MS societies and websites. The online survey consisted of validated and researcher-devised instruments to assess self-reported health outcomes and lifestyle behaviors. Of the 2399 respondents, 22.5% were overweight, 19.4% were obese and 67.2% reported at least one comorbidity, with back pain (36.2%, depression (31.7%, anxiety (29.1% and arthritis (13.7% most prevalent and most limiting in daily activities. Obesity and most comorbid disorders were significantly more prevalent in North America. Obese participants were more likely to have comorbidities, especially diabetes (OR 4.8 and high blood pressure (OR 4.5 but also depression (OR 2.2. Being overweight, obese, or a former, or current smoker was associated with an increase in the number of comorbidities; while healthy diet, physical activity (borderline significant and moderate alcohol consumption were associated with decreased number of comorbidities. Increasing number of comorbidities was related to worse QOL, increased odds of disability and prior relapse. Obese PwMS had higher odds of disability and lower QOL. The associations between BMI, comorbidities and health outcomes are likely to be bi-directional and associated with lifestyle behaviors. Preventing and treating comorbid disorders and

  18. Correlates of generalized anxiety disorder: independent of co-morbidity with depression: findings from the first Israeli National Health Interview Survey (2003-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Lipsitz, Joshua; Garty-Sandalon, Noga; Gross, Raz; Green, Manfred S

    2008-11-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder with chronic symptoms and is commonly comorbid with depression. To identify correlates of GAD among adults and to describe treatment patterns and functional limitations among individuals with this disorder. Data for 2,082 subjects aged >or=21 years from the first Israeli national health interview survey (INHIS-1) (2003-2004) were analyzed. Information on GAD was collected using the short form of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Data were also obtained on socio-demographic, physical health characteristics, history of life threatening events, treatment seeking behaviors, use of medication and functional impairment. The prevalence of GAD was highest among people aged 40-59 years, in those with asthma, hypertension and in those with osteoporosis. Regular exercise was associated with reduced prevalence for GAD (adjusted OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22-0.95). The exclusion of individuals with major depression from analysis strengthened the association with age (adjusted OR 5.7, 95% CI 1.7, 19.7), weakened the association between GAD and osteoporosis (adjusted OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.2, 9.8), asthma (adjusted OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.2, 9.5) and regular exercise (adjusted OR 0.47 95% CI 0.2, 1.14). In this sub-sample, hypertension was no longer associated with GAD, and a significant association was found between GAD and past experience of life threatening events (adjusted OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.9). Psychiatric and psychological consultations were low among people with GAD (11.5% and 26.4% for those without and with comorbid depression, respectively), concurrent with a high degree of functional limitation. Middle age, history of traumatic life events, and certain chronic medical diseases (e.g., asthma and osteoporosis) are important risk factors for GAD. They could be used to help identify and treat people with GAD.

  19. [Addictive internet use as a comorbid disorder among clients of an adolescent psychiatry - prevalence and psychopathological symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kai W; Ammerschläger, Marcella; Freisleder, Franz Joseph; Beutel, Manfred E; Wölfling, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    Excessive and addictive internet use fulfilling criteria of nonsubstance related addiction disorder is increasingly being discussed by scientists and clinicians alike. Its prevalence of about 3 % among minors points to a relatively frequent phenomenon that can lead to functional impairment and distress. However, there is still no evidence concerning its prevalence among underaged patients in psychiatric treatment. 81 patients between the age of 8 and 17 years were screened by a standardized instrument for internet addiction (AICA-S) to assess the prevalence of internet addiction among minors being treated in psychiatric inpatient settings. Their clinical symptoms were examined using Youth Self-Report and Child Behavior Checklist. 11.3 % of the patients fulfilled the criteria of addictive internet use. These patients were older and more often affected by anxiety and depression than patients without internet addiction. Data suggest that internet addiction is a relevant factor among minors in psychiatric institutions. Those with comorbid internet addiction show distinct patterns of psychopathology and may require disorder-specific treatment.

  20. Correlates of comorbid anxiety and externalizing disorders in childhood obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Audra K; Lewin, Adam B; Bergman, R Lindsey; Lee, Joyce C; Piacentini, John

    2010-08-01

    The present study examines the influence of diagnostic comorbidity on the demographic, psychiatric, and functional status of youth with a primary diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Two hundred and fifteen children (ages 5-17) referred to a university-based OCD specialty clinic were compared based on DSM-IV diagnostic profile: OCD without comorbid anxiety or externalizing disorder, OCD plus anxiety disorder, and OCD plus externalizing disorder. No age or gender differences were found across groups. Higher OCD severity was found for the OCD + ANX group, while the OCD + EXT group reported greater functional impairment than the other two groups. Lower family cohesion was reported by the OCD + EXT group compared to the OCD group and the OCD + ANX group reported higher family conflict compared to the OCD + EXT group. The OCD + ANX group had significantly lower rates of tic disorders while rates of depressive disorders did not differ among the three groups. The presence of comorbid anxiety and externalizing psychopathology are associated with greater symptom severity and functional and family impairment and underscores the importance of a better understanding of the relationship of OCD characteristics and associated disorders. Results and clinical implications are further discussed.

  1. Correlates of comorbid anxiety and externalizing disorders in childhood obsessive compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Lee, Joyce C.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the influence of diagnostic comorbidity on the demographic, psychiatric, and functional status of youth with a primary diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Two hundred and fifteen children (ages 5–17) referred to a university-based OCD specialty clinic were compared based on DSM-IV diagnostic profile: OCD without comorbid anxiety or externalizing disorder, OCD plus anxiety disorder, and OCD plus externalizing disorder. No age or gender differences were found across groups. Higher OCD severity was found for the OCD + ANX group, while the OCD + EXT group reported greater functional impairment than the other two groups. Lower family cohesion was reported by the OCD + EXT group compared to the OCD group and the OCD + ANX group reported higher family conflict compared to the OCD + EXT group. The OCD + ANX group had significantly lower rates of tic disorders while rates of depressive disorders did not differ among the three groups. The presence of comorbid anxiety and externalizing psychopathology are associated with greater symptom severity and functional and family impairment and underscores the importance of a better understanding of the relationship of OCD characteristics and associated disorders. Results and clinical implications are further discussed. PMID:20349255

  2. Double trouble: Prevalence and factors associated with tuberculosis and diabetes comorbidity in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarker, M.; Barua, M.; Guerra, F.; Saha, A.; Aftab, A.; Latif, A.H.M.; Islam, S.; Islam, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes among tuberculosis patients increases the risk of tuberculosis treatment failure, death, and development of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Yet, there is no data is available in Bangladesh on the prevalence of diabetes among tuberculosis patients. The objective of the current

  3. Prevalence, causes, and behavioral and emotional comorbidities of acute symptomatic seizures in Africa: A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariuki, Symon M.; Abubakar Ali, A.; Stein, A.; Marsh, K.; Newton, C.R.

    2017-01-01

    Seizures with fever includes both febrile seizures (due to nonneurological febrile infections) and acute symptomatic seizures (due to neurological febrile infections). The cumulative incidence (lifetime prevalence) of febrile seizures in children aged ≤6 years is 2–5% in American and European

  4. The prevalence of co-morbid depression in adults with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnard, K. D.; Skinner, T. C.; Peveler, R.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To review the literature estimating the cross-sectional prevalence of clinical depression in adults with Type 1 diabetes. Methods: Electronic databases and published references were used to identify studies published between January 2000 and June 2004, with a previous meta-analysis used to i...

  5. Prevalence of systemic co-morbidities in patients with various grades of diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Though diabetes affects multiple organs, most studies highlight the occurence of only one complication in isolation. We conducted a hospital-based study to estimate the co-existence of significant systemic co-morbid conditions in patients with varying grades of diabetic retinopathy. Methods : A total of 170 consecutive patients with diabetic retinopathy were prospectively recruited for the study between June 2009 to June 2010 at a tertiary care eye centre in north India. Retinopathy was graded by fundus biomicroscopy and fundus photography and classified into three categories (mild-moderate nonproliferative retinopathy, proliferative retinopathy requiring only laser and proliferative retinopathy requiring surgery. Nephropathy was classified by calculating the six variable estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR for all patients. Nerve conduction studies and clinical assessment were used to determine presence of neuropathy. Co-existence of macrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease was also ascertained. Results : The percentages of patients with overt nephropathy in the three groups were 19.2, 38.0 and 41.2, respectively. Significant linear trends were observed for serum creatinine (P=0.004, albumin (P=0.017 and eGFR (P=0.030. A higher per cent had abnormal nerve conduction on electrophysiology than that diagnosed clinically (65.4 vs. 44.2, 76.0 vs. 40.0 and 64.8 vs. 48.6, respectively. The odds ratio (95% CI for co-existence of nephropathy, neuropathy, CVA (cerebrovascular accidents and PVD (peripheral vascular disease was 2.9, 0.9, 4.8 and 3.5, respectively. Independent of retinopathy severity, patients with clinically significant macular oedema (CSME had a higher percentage of nephropathy ( p0 < 0.005. Interpretation & conclusions : The co-existence of overt nephropathy, nerve conduction based neuropathy and macrovascular co-morbidity in patients with early grades of diabetic retinopathy was significant

  6. Prevalence of Comorbidities and Risk Factors for Comorbidities in Patients with Spondyloarthritis in Latin America: A Comparative Study with the General Population and Data from the ASAS-COMOSPA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Molano, Wilson; Landewé, Robert; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Maldonado-Cocco, José; Moltó, Anna; van den Bosch, Filip; Valle-Oñate, Rafael; Dougados, Maxime; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2018-02-01

    Increased risk of comorbidities has been reported in spondyloarthritis (SpA). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk of developing comorbidities in patients with SpA in 3 Latin American (LA) countries, and to compare that prevalence with the general population. Data were analyzed from 390 patients with SpA enrolled in the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society of Comorbidities in SpA study from Argentina, Colombia, and Mexico. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence (95% CI) was estimated for arterial hypertension (AHT), tuberculosis (TB), and malignancies. Age- and sex-specific data from the general population were obtained from the Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA) study for AHT, the Global TB report, and the GLOBOCAN project for malignancies. Data analyzed for AHT were confined to Colombia and Mexico. The prevalence in patients with SpA was compared with the prevalence in the general population per age- and sex-specific stratum, resulting in standardized risk ratios (SRR). In total, 64% of the patients with SpA were male, with a mean age of 45 years (SD 14.7). The most common comorbidities in the 3 LA countries were AHT (25.3%, 95% CI 21.2-30.0), hypercholesterolemia (21.5%, 95% CI 17.6-26.0), and osteoporosis (9.4%, 95% CI 6.8-12.9). AHT prevalence in Colombia and Mexico was 21.4% (95% CI 15.4-28.9) and was higher than the general population (12.5%, 95% CI 11.4-13.7), resulting in an SRR of 1.5. TB prevalence in the 3 LA countries was 3.3% (95% CI 1.8-5.7), which was significantly higher than in the general population (0.32%), leading to an SRR of 10.3. The prevalence of malignancies was not increased. Patients with SpA in LA are at increased risk of AHT and TB in comparison to the general population. While this sample of patients may not be entirely representative of the patient population in each country, a systematic evaluation of these comorbidities in all patients with Sp

  7. Sexting prevalence and correlates: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klettke, Bianca; Hallford, David J; Mellor, David J

    2014-02-01

    Despite considerable controversy and speculation regarding sexting behaviour and its associated risks, to date there has been no integration and analysis of empirical literature on this topic. To collect and synthesise findings of the prevalence of sexting, its correlates, and the context in which it occurs, a systematic search of databases was conducted. Thirty-one studies, reporting on sexting prevalence and a diverse range of related variables, met inclusion criteria. The estimated mean prevalence weighted by sample size was calculated, with trends indicating sexting is more prevalent amongst adults than adolescents, older age is predictive of sexting for adolescents but not adults, and more individuals report receiving sexts than sending them. The correlates of sexting behaviour were grouped in terms of demographic variables, sexual and sexual risk behaviours, attitudes towards sexting, perceived outcomes of sexting, motivations for sexting, mental health and well-being variables, and attachment dimensions. Findings are discussed in terms of the trends indicated by the data, which provided substantiation that sexting behaviour is associated with numerous behavioural, psychological, and social factors. Limitations of the current research literature and future directions are also presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Comorbid Conditions Among U.S. and Kentucky Adults, 20002002

    OpenAIRE

    Todd M. Jenkins, MPH

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Obesity rates for adults in Kentucky are regularly among the highest in the nation. Since 1991, adult obesity in Kentucky and the United States has nearly doubled. This trend is of great concern because excess weight has been associated with several chronic diseases and conditions. This paper reports on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults in Kentucky between 2000 and 2002. The estimates produced by this study will provide baseline figures for developing Kentuck...

  9. Correlates of Overweight and Obesity Among Adolescents With Bipolar Disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I; Blanco, Carlos; He, Jian-Ping; Merikangas, Kathleen

    2016-12-01

    Despite substantial evidence on the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity (OW/OB) in adults with bipolar disorder (BD), little is known about this topic in adolescents with BD. The method consisted of the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement, a face-to-face survey of mental disorders from 2001 through 2004, using a modified version of the fully structured World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Participants were adolescents 13 to 17 years of age, with bipolar disorder I or II (n = 295), major depressive disorder (n = 1,112), or controls with neither mood disorder (n = 8,716). Analyses examined for group differences in the prevalence of OW/OB and for correlates of OW/OB in the group with BD. There were no significant differences in weight categories across groups. OW and OB in adolescents with BD were associated with significantly higher lifetime rates of suicide attempt (odds ratio 3.02, 95% CI 1.11-8.24), physical or sexual abuse (2.82, 1.20-6.60), binge eating or bulimia (2.66, 1.13-6.26), and conduct disorder (2.60, 1.10-6.13) in covariate-adjusted analyses. OW and OB also were significantly associated with seeing a professional for depression, being hospitalized overnight for depression, and receiving general medical treatment. The similar prevalence of OW/OB in adolescents with and without BD suggests that this potent association in adults likely comprises a consequence of BD or its correlates. In contrast, the strong association of OW/OB with proxies for depression severity, including suicide attempts and hospitalization, is already evident even in this young, nonclinical sample. Studies are warranted to determine whether early intervention of OW/OB in BD might optimize physical and mental health. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported ADD/ADHD in a Large National Sample of Canadian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jacqueline; Fowler, Ken

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported attention deficit disorder (ADD)/ADHD in Canadian adults. Prevalence of self-reported ADD/ADHD was examined in a large national sample of Canadians ( n = 16,957). Demographic variables, lifetime, and current psychiatric comorbidities were then compared in a group of adults with self-reported ADD/ADHD ( n = 488) and an age- and gender-matched control group ( n = 488). The prevalence of self-reported ADD/ADHD was 2.9%. Significantly higher lifetime and current prevalence rates of major depressive disorder, bipolar I and II disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, and substance use disorders were observed in the ADD/ADHD group compared with the control group. Within the ADD/ADHD group, lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were significantly higher in women, whereas lifetime and current rates of some substance use disorders were significantly higher in men. In a national sample of Canadian adults, self-reported ADD/ADHD was associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity. Gender differences were also noted.

  11. High Prevalence of Gallstone Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A New Comorbidity Related to Dyslipidemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, María Carmen; de Lama, Eugenia; Ordoñez-Palau, Sergi; Nolla, Joan Miquel; Corbella, Emili; Pintó, Xavier

    2017-08-01

    To assess the prevalence of gallstone disease and identify associated risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients compared to the general population. Eighty-four women with rheumatoid arthritis were included in the study. Each patient was assessed via a structured interview, physical examination, abdominal ultrasound and blood test including lipid profile. The prevalence of gallstone disease in rheumatoid arthritis was compared with data from a study of the Spanish population matched by age groups. Twenty-eight of the 84 women had gallstone disease (33.3%). RA women with and without gallstone disease were similar in most of the variables assessed, except for older age and menopausal status in the former. A greater prevalence of gallstone disease was seen in rheumatoid arthritis patients compared to the general population of the same age; however, the differences were significant only in women aged 60 or older (45.5% versus 23.1% respectively, P-value .008). The age-adjusted OR of developing gallstone disease in RA women compared with general population women was 2,3 (95% CI: 1.3-4.1). A significantly higher HDL3-c subfraction and higher apoA-I/HDL and HDL3-c/TC ratios were observed in patients with gallstone disease. Women with rheumatoid arthritis may have a predisposition to gallstones that can manifest in middle or older age compared with women in the general population. This situation could be related to chronic inflammation and HDL metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and management of pulmonary comorbidity in patients with lung and head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Magnus; Marsaa, Kristoffer; Godtfredsen, Nina S

    2015-01-01

    patients, and presence of COPD worsens the prognosis of HNC and LC. COPD is under-diagnosed and under-treated in the Danish population. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of COPD in a HNC and LC population, and to determine the need and feasibility of a randomized controlled phase II...... trial comparing usual care with optimized medical treatment of COPD in cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients with HNC or LC referred for oncologic treatment in a university hospital during a 10-month period were invited to attend a pulmonary clinic for evaluation of lung function. Patients...

  13. Prevalence and correlates of problem gambling in people with psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydock, Maria; Cowlishaw, Sean; Harvey, Carol; Castle, David

    2015-04-01

    There are few published studies on the comorbidity of psychosis and problem gambling. This paper provides estimates of the prevalence and clinical correlates of problem gambling in a representative sample of people with psychotic disorders. The second Australian national survey of psychosis was undertaken in 2010 and included adults (18-64 years) attending mental health services. Problem gambling was measured using the Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI) at two sites of this study, with 442 participants providing data suitable for analysis. There were 151 participants who screened positive to past-year gambling. 4.1% of the total sample was classified as low risk gamblers, 6.4% were moderate risk gamblers and 5.8% were problem gamblers. Moderate risk/problem gamblers were more likely to be male, have left school with no qualifications and have sought financial assistance in the last year. There was a significant association with substance use, including alcohol use disorders and use of cannabis and 'other' drugs (excluding cannabis). People with psychosis are four times more likely to have a gambling problem than the general population. The association of gambling with substance use disorders is consistent with community studies, while the increased need for financial assistance suggests that problem gambling increases the likelihood of financial harm for this population. Clinicians should screen for comorbid gambling problems in people with psychosis, while there is also a need for additional research into this area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence, comorbidities, and cofactors associated with alcohol consumption among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Mala A; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta B; Abdul Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Bt; Kamaruddin, Rozanim Bt; Sabtu, Mohd Yusoff B

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol is deleterious to physical and mental health as well as social well-being. This study aims to examine the prevalence of alcohol consumption and factors associated with its use among school-going Malaysian adolescents. The Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 employed 2-stage clustering design to Malaysian secondary school respondents aged 12 to 17 years. The prevalence of current alcohol usage was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.8-10.07) overall, 11.2% (95% CI: 9.80-12.80) among males, and 23.4 (95% CI: 21.40-25.50) among Chinese students. Multivariate logistic regression showed that adolescents who had used alcohol were more likely to have used substance (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.39; 95% CI: 2.33-4.99), experienced injury (aOR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.20-1.95), and engaged in sexual behaviors (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.12-1.79), and fights (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.08-1.41). The current national policies on alcohol should be strengthened to curb alcohol consumption among adolescents. © 2014 APJPH.

  15. Fibromyalgia, a missed comorbidity in spondyloarthritis: prevalence and impact on assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Philip J

    2017-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is a clinical representation of the neurobiological phenomenon of central sensitization, characterized by chronic widespread pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and other symptoms. Fibromyalgia may occur in conjunction with chronic rheumatic diseases, driven by the effects of chronic pain and inflammation and likely influenced by the patient's genetic and psychoemotional background. This article reviews the data on prevalence of concomitant fibromyalgia and its impact on disease assessment in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Fibromyalgia occurs in 2-8% of the general population. In AxSpA cohorts the prevalence has been reported in 4-25%, and in PsA, 16-22%, the majority being female. Measures of disease activity which are comprised partly or wholly of patient-reported outcomes such as pain and patient global are significantly higher in patients with concomitant fibromyalgia and do not improve as much with treatment as more objective measures, a finding which has been observed in other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. Fibromyalgia occurs in a significant proportion of patients with SpA and PsA. Disease activity measures with subjective elements are conflated in patients with fibromyalgia and do not reliably assess true inflammatory disease. This needs to be taken into account when evaluating the impact of immunomodulatory therapy.

  16. Atopic dermatitis from adolescence to adulthood in the TOACS cohort: prevalence, persistence and comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortz, C G; Andersen, K E; Dellgren, C; Barington, T; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2015-07-01

    While much is known about childhood atopic dermatitis, little is known about persistence of atopic dermatitis into adult life. We report, to our knowledge for the first time, the clinical course of atopic dermatitis in an unselected cohort of adolescents followed into adulthood. The course of atopic dermatitis from adolescence to adulthood was studied prospectively in a cohort of unselected 8th-grade schoolchildren established in 1995 and followed up in 2010 with questionnaire and clinical examination. The lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis was high (34.1%), and a considerable number of adults still suffered from atopic dermatitis evaluated both by questionnaire (17.1%) and clinical examination (10.0%). Persistent atopic dermatitis was found in 50% of those diagnosed in school age, and persistent atopic dermatitis was significantly associated with early onset, childhood allergic rhinitis and hand eczema. A close association was also found with allergic contact dermatitis and increased specific IgE to Malassezia furfur, but not with filaggrin gene defect. Persistence of atopic dermatitis in adulthood is common and affects quality of life. Persistent atopic dermatitis is particularly prevalent in those with early onset, allergic rhinitis and hand eczema in childhood. It is important to recognizing atopic dermatitis as a common and disabling disease not only in children but also in adults. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Gender dysphoria - prevalence and co-morbidities in an Irish adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran eJudge

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gender dysphoria is a condition in which there is a marked incongruence between an individual’s psychological perception of his/her sex and their biological phenotype. Gender Identity Disorder was officially renamed ‘Gender Dysphoria’ (GD in the DSM-V in 2013. The prevalence and demographics of GD vary according to geographical location and have not been well documented in Ireland.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 218 patients with suspected or confirmed GD referred to our endocrine service for consideration of hormonal therapy between 2005 and early 2014. We documented their demographics, clinical characteristics and treatment during the study period.Results: The prevalence of gender dysphoria in the Irish population was 1:10,154 MTF and 1:27,668 FTM, similar to reported figures in Western Europe. 159 of the patients were male-to-female (MTF and 59 were female-to-male (FTM, accounting for 72.9% and 27.1% of the cohort respectively. The rate of referral has increased year-on-year, with 55 patients referred in 2013 versus 6 in 2005. Mean ages were 32.6y (MTF and 32.2y (FTM. 22 patients were married and 41 had children, with 2 others having pregnant partners. 37.6% were referred by a psychologist, with the remainder evenly divided between GPs and psychiatric services. There were low rates of coexistent medical illness although psychiatric conditions were more prevalent, depression being a factor in 34.4% of patients. 5.9% of patients did not attend a mental health professional. 74.3% are currently on hormonal therapy, and 9.17% have had gender reassignment surgery (GRS. Regret following hormonal or surgical treatment was in line with other Western European countries (1.83%.Conclusion: The incidence of diagnosis and referral of GD in Ireland is increasing. This brings with it multiple social, health and financial implications. Clear and accessible treatment pathways supported by mental health professionals

  18. The prevalence, risk factors and clinical correlates of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiongzhen; Du, Xiangdong; Zhang, Yingyang; Yin, Guangzhong; Zhang, Guangya; Walss-Bass, Consuelo; Quevedo, João; Soares, Jair C; Xia, Haishen; Li, Xiaosi; Zheng, Yingjun; Ning, Yuping; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a common comorbidity in schizophrenia. Few studies have addressed obesity in Chinese schizophrenia patients. The aims of this current study were to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and clinical correlates of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. A total of 206 patients were recruited from a hospital in Beijing. Their clinical and anthropometric data together with plasma glucose and lipid parameters were collected. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was rated for all patients. Overall, 43 (20.9%) patients were obese and 67 (32.5%) were overweight. The obese patients had significantly higher glucose levels, triglyceride levels than non-obese patients. Females and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus had increased risk for obesity. Correlation analysis showed that BMI was associated with sex, education levels, negative symptoms, total PANSS score, triglyceride levels and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further stepwise regression analysis showed that sex, type 2 diabetes, education level, triglyceride and amount of smoking/day were significant predictors for obesity. Our study showed that the prevalence of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia is higher than that in the general population. Some demographic and clinical variables are risk factors for obesity in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Individual correlates of self-stigma in patients with anxiety disorders with and without comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ociskova M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marie Ociskova,1,2 Jan Prasko,1 Dana Kamaradova,1 Ales Grambal,1 Zuzana Sigmundova1 1Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital in Olomouc, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Palacky University in Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic Background: A number of psychiatric patients experience stigma connected to prejudices about mental disorders. It has been shown that stigma is most harmful when it is internalized. Most of the studies were performed on individuals either with psychoses or with mood disorders, and hence, there are almost no studies with other diagnostic categories. The goals of this research were to identify factors that are significantly related to self-stigma in patients with anxiety disorders and to suggest possible models of causality for these relationships.Methods: A total of 109 patients with anxiety disorders and possible comorbid depressive or personality disorders, who were admitted to the psychotherapeutic department participated in this study. All patients completed several psychodiagnostic methods, ie, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Version, Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, and Clinical Global Impression (also completed by the senior psychiatrist.Results: The overall level of self-stigma was positively associated with a comorbid personality disorder, more severe symptomatology, more intense symptoms of anxiety and depression, and higher levels of dissociation and harm avoidance. Self-stigma was negatively related to hope, reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness. Multiple regression analysis showed that the most significant factors connected to self-stigma are harm avoidance, the intensity of depressive symptoms, and self-directedness. Two models of causality were proposed and validated. It

  20. Diabetes prevalence, diabetes regimen and co-morbidity in depressed patients compared with non-depressed patients in primary care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, M.C.; Bosmans, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Diabet. Med. 27, 718-722 (2010) AbstractAims To assess the prevalence of diabetes in depressed patients compared with non-depressed matched controls and to compare diabetes regimen and co-morbidity in depressed patients with diabetes vs. non-depressed patients with diabetes in primary care in the

  1. Prevalence and correlates of inappropriate use of benzodiazepines in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiri, Zejdush; Kellici, Suela; Mone, Iris; Shabani, Driton; Qazimi, Musa; Burazeri, Genc

    2017-08-01

    In post-war Kosovo, the magnitude of inappropriate use of benzodiazepines is unknown to date. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of continuation of intake of benzodiazepines beyond prescription (referred to as "inappropriate use") in the adult population of Gjilan region in Kosovo. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gjilan region in 2015 including a representative sample of 780 individuals attending different pharmacies and reporting use of benzodiazepines (385 men and 395 women; age range 18-87 years; response rate: 90%). A structured questionnaire was administered to all participants inquiring about the use of benzodiazepines and socio-demographic characteristics. Overall, the prevalence of inappropriate use of benzodiazepines was 58%. In multivariable-adjusted models, inappropriate use of benzodiazepines was significantly associated with older age (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.7), middle education (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7), daily use (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-2.0) and addiction awareness (OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.0-3.8). Furthermore, there was evidence of a borderline relationship with rural residence (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.7). Our study provides novel evidence about the prevalence and selected correlates of inappropriate use of benzodiazepines in Gjilan region of Kosovo. Health professionals and policymakers in Kosovo should be aware of the magnitude and determinants of drug misuse in this transitional society.

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Drug-drug Interactions in the Regional Hospital of Gjilan, Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Driton; Tahiri, Zejdush; Bara, Petrit; Hudhra, Klejda; Malaj, Ledian; Jucja, Besnik; Bozalia, Adnan; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-08-01

    Our aim was to assess the prevalence and socioeconomic and clinical correlates of drug-drug interactions among the adult population of transitional Kosovo. A cross-sectional study was conducted including a representative sample of 1921 patients aged ≥18 years (mean age: 57.8±11.2 years; 50.3% women; overall response: 96%) from the regional hospital of Gjilan, Kosovo, during 2011-2013. Potential drug-drug-interactions were assessed and clinical data as well as demographic and socioeconomic information were collected. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the correlates of drug-drug interactions. Upon multivariable adjustment for all the demographic and socioeconomic factors as well as the clinical characteristics, drug-drug interactions were positively and significantly related to older age (OR=2.1, 95%CI=1.3-2.8), a lower educational attainment (OR=1.4, 95%CI=1.1-1.9), a longer hospitalization period (OR=2.7, 95%CI=2.1-3.6), presence of three groups of diseases [infectious diseases (OR=1.7, 95%CI=1.3-2.4), cardiovascular diseases (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.4-2.6), respiratory diseases (OR=1.6, 95%CI=1.2-2.5)], presence of comorbid conditions (OR=3.2, 95%CI=2.3-4.4) and an intake of at least four drugs (OR=5.9, 95%CI=4.6-7.1). Our study provides important evidence on the prevalence and socioeconomic and clinical correlates of drug-drug interactions among the hospitalized patients in the regional hospital of Gjilan, Kosovo. Findings from our study should raise the awareness of decision-makers and policy makers about the prevalence and determinants of drug-drug interactions in the adult population of post-war Kosovo.

  3. High prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis from a population-based cross-sectional study of a Japanese health insurance database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Ryoko; Hirano, Fumio; Kihara, Mari; Yokoyama, Waka; Yamazaki, Hayato; Harada, Sayoko; Nanki, Toshihiro; Koike, Ryuji; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Harigai, Masayoshi

    2016-07-01

    To reveal any association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and cardiovascular comorbidities using a Japanese health insurance database. This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using health insurance data provided by the Japan Medical Data Center Co., Ltd. We identified 2762 RA subjects having RA diagnostic codes (ICD10 codes; M05, M060, M062-63, M068-069) with at least two physician visits more than two months apart between June 2011 and May 2012 (RA group, n = 2762). We selected age- (±5 years), sex-, and study period-matched non-RA subjects (non-RA group, n = 27,620). We compared the prevalence of cardiovascular and related comorbidities (ischemic heart diseases [IHD], cerebral infarction, hypertension [HT], dyslipidemia [DL], and diabetes mellitus [DM]) between these groups and investigated the association between RA and cardiovascular comorbidities using a conditional logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of all the investigated comorbidities in the RA group was significantly higher compared to the non-RA group. Odds ratios [95% confidence interval] of RA for IHD and cerebral infarction were 2.0 [1.5-2.5] and 3.1 [2.2-4.2] respectively, after adjusting for HT, DL, and DM. This study revealed for the first time in the Japanese population that RA was significantly associated with cardiovascular comorbidities.

  4. Mental health correlates of past homelessness in the National Comorbidity Study Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Greg A; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2010-11-01

    This study uses data from a nationally representative epidemiologic survey, the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, to investigate the association of mental health and substance use disorders, along with other factors, with past homelessness. Approximately 5% of the 5,251 adults reported having been homelessness. Multivariate analysis showed the strongest independent risk factors for past homelessness were past receipt of welfare payments (odds ratio [OR]=5.7), incarceration for 27 or more days (OR=3.9), exposure to personal violence (OR=2.7), lifetime substance use disorder (OR=2.4), and Black race (OR=2.1). Several non-substance use psychiatric disorders were also significantly, if less strongly (OR 1.4 to 1.6), associated with past homelessness. Past homelessness is associated with a broad array of sociodemographic, economic, and mental health problems. While the association of both substance use and psychiatric disorders with past homelessness was quite strong, non-substance use psychiatric disorders was not as strong an independent risk factor as substance abuse disorders.

  5. Overweight and obesity in Portuguese children: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José A R

    2014-11-03

    There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I) to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II) to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III) to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children's BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9-11 years old) were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287-0.34) for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23-0.35) for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27-0.34) for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children's BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI.

  6. Adolescent Internet Addiction in Hong Kong: Prevalence, Change, and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2016-02-01

    Prevalence, change, and correlates of adolescent Internet addiction were examined in this study on the basis of six waves of longitudinal data collected over 6 years. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Over 6 years, students responded to a questionnaire containing measures of sociodemographic characteristics, positive youth development, family processes, and Internet addiction behavior. The prevalence rates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents ranged from 17% to 26.8% during the high school years. Male students consistently showed a higher prevalence rate of Internet addiction and more Internet addictive behaviors than did female students. Longitudinal data suggested that although family economic disadvantage served as a risk factor for youth Internet addiction, the effects of family intactness and family functioning were not significant. Students' overall positive youth development and general positive youth development qualities were negatively related to Internet addictive behaviors and prosocial attributes had a positive relationship with youth Internet addiction. The results suggest that promotion of positive youth development is a promising direction for preventing Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. Gender and family economic disadvantage must be considered in design of the related prevention programs. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Brave New World of Personality Disorder-Trait Specified: Effects of Additional Definitions on Coverage, Prevalence, and Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lee Anna; Vanderbleek, Emily N.; Shapiro, Jaime L.; Nuzum, Hallie; Allen, Xia; Daly, Elizabeth; Kingsbury, Thomas J.; Oiler, Morgan; Ro, Eunyoe

    2015-01-01

    The alternative dimensional model for personality disorder (PD) in DSM-5, Section III (DSM-5-III) includes two main criteria: (A) personality-functioning impairment, and (B) personality-trait pathology; provides specific functioning-and-trait criteria for six PD-type diagnoses; and introduces PD-trait specified (PD-TS), which requires meeting the general PD criteria and not meeting criteria for any specific PD type. We termed this Simple PD-TS and developed two additional definitions: Mixed PD-TS, meeting criteria for one or two PD types and having five or more additional pathological traits; and Complex PD-TS, meeting criteria for three or more PD types. In a mixed sample of 165 outpatients and 215 community adults screened to be at high-risk for PD, we investigated the effect of these additional definitions on prevalence, coverage, comorbidity, and within-diagnosis heterogeneity, and conclude that eliminating the PD-type diagnoses and thus having PD-TS as the only PD diagnosis would be both more parsimonious and more useful clinically. PMID:26097740

  8. The Brave New World of Personality Disorder-Trait Specified: Effects of Additional Definitions on Coverage, Prevalence, and Comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lee Anna; Vanderbleek, Emily N; Shapiro, Jaime L; Nuzum, Hallie; Allen, Xia; Daly, Elizabeth; Kingsbury, Thomas J; Oiler, Morgan; Ro, Eunyoe

    The alternative dimensional model for personality disorder (PD) in DSM-5 , Section III ( DSM-5 -III) includes two main criteria: (A) personality-functioning impairment, and (B) personality-trait pathology; provides specific functioning-and-trait criteria for six PD-type diagnoses; and introduces PD-trait specified (PD-TS), which requires meeting the general PD criteria and not meeting criteria for any specific PD type. We termed this Simple PD-TS and developed two additional definitions: Mixed PD-TS, meeting criteria for one or two PD types and having five or more additional pathological traits; and Complex PD-TS, meeting criteria for three or more PD types. In a mixed sample of 165 outpatients and 215 community adults screened to be at high-risk for PD, we investigated the effect of these additional definitions on prevalence, coverage, comorbidity, and within-diagnosis heterogeneity, and conclude that eliminating the PD-type diagnoses and thus having PD-TS as the only PD diagnosis would be both more parsimonious and more useful clinically.

  9. Workplace violence towards nurses in Hong Kong: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S F

    2017-02-14

    Nurses are especially vulnerable to violent and other forms of aggression in the workplace. Nonetheless, few population-based studies of workplace violence have been undertaken among working-age nurse professionals in Hong Kong in the last decade. The study estimates the prevalence and examines the socio-economic and psychological correlates of workplace violence (WPV) among professional nurses in Hong Kong. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. Multivariate logistic regression examines the weighted prevalence rates of WPV and its associated factors for a population of nurses. A total of 850 nurses participated in the study. 44.6% had experienced WPV in the preceding year. Male nurses reported more WPV than their female counterparts. The most common forms of WPV were verbal abuse/bullying (39.2%), then physical assault (22.7%) and sexual harassment (1.1%). The most common perpetrators of WPV were patients (36.6%) and their relatives (17.5%), followed by colleagues (7.7%) and supervisors (6.3%). Clinical position, shift work, job satisfaction, recent disturbances with colleagues, deliberate self-harm (DSH) and symptoms of anxiety were significantly correlated with WPV for nurses. WPV remains a significant concern for healthcare worldwide. Hong Kong's local health authority should put in place a raft of zero-tolerance measures to prevent WPV in healthcare settings.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donofry, Shannon D; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Rohan, Kelly J; Wildes, Jennifer E; Kamarck, Marissa L

    2014-06-30

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder (BED) in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N=112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Workplace violence towards nurses in Hong Kong: prevalence and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teris Cheung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses are especially vulnerable to violent and other forms of aggression in the workplace. Nonetheless, few population-based studies of workplace violence have been undertaken among working-age nurse professionals in Hong Kong in the last decade. Methods The study estimates the prevalence and examines the socio-economic and psychological correlates of workplace violence (WPV among professional nurses in Hong Kong. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. Multivariate logistic regression examines the weighted prevalence rates of WPV and its associated factors for a population of nurses. Results A total of 850 nurses participated in the study. 44.6% had experienced WPV in the preceding year. Male nurses reported more WPV than their female counterparts. The most common forms of WPV were verbal abuse/bullying (39.2%, then physical assault (22.7% and sexual harassment (1.1%. The most common perpetrators of WPV were patients (36.6% and their relatives (17.5%, followed by colleagues (7.7% and supervisors (6.3%. Clinical position, shift work, job satisfaction, recent disturbances with colleagues, deliberate self-harm (DSH and symptoms of anxiety were significantly correlated with WPV for nurses. Conclusions WPV remains a significant concern for healthcare worldwide. Hong Kong’s local health authority should put in place a raft of zero-tolerance measures to prevent WPV in healthcare settings.

  12. Prevalence and associated comorbidities of restless legs syndrome (RLS): Data from a large population-based door-to-door survey on 19176 adults in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Rahmani, Arash; Shafieesabet, Mahdiyeh; Soori, Mahshid; Delbari, Ahmad; Motamed, Mohammad Reza; Lökk, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Discrepancies have been reported in the prevalence rate of restless legs syndrome (RLS) among different ethnic groups and geographic populations. Furthermore, there are disagreements on determinant factors and associated comorbidities of RLS. We aimed to estimate prevalence of RLS and investigate its associated comorbid conditions and risk factors in a large population-based door-to-door survey. Following a multistage random sampling from the households lived in 22 urban districts of Tehran, Iran, 19176 participants with ≥30 years of age were recruited. Trained surveyors filled study checklist consisting of baseline characteristics, risk factors and comorbidity profile and the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG) diagnostic criteria through face-to-face interviews. In total, 1580 individuals were positively screened for RLS resulting in a standardized prevalence rate of 60.0/1000. There was a gradual increase in RLS prevalence by advancing age, however, sex difference disappeared after adjustment. Parkinsonism [adjusted odds' ratio (adj-OR) = 7.4 (95% CI: 5.3-10.4)], peripheral neuropathy [adj-OR = 3.7 (95% CI: 3.3-4.1)], subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) [adj-OR = 3.1 (95% CI: 2.7-3.4)], acting out dreams [adj-OR = 2.8 (95% CI: 2.5-3.2)], hyposmia [adj-OR = 2.5 (95% CI: 2.2-2.9)], active smoking [adj-OR = 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3-1.9)] and additional number of cardiometabolic diseases associated with higher risk of RLS [adj-OR = 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.3)]. Our findings showed that neuro-cognitive co-morbidities such as parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, SCI, acting out dreams and hyposmia as well as cardio-metabolic risk factors and diseases were independent determinants of RLS. It is recommended to screen individuals with either these comorbid conditions for RLS or the ones with RLS for the accompanying diseases.

  13. Prevalence and associated comorbidities of restless legs syndrome (RLS: Data from a large population-based door-to-door survey on 19176 adults in Tehran, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad

    Full Text Available Discrepancies have been reported in the prevalence rate of restless legs syndrome (RLS among different ethnic groups and geographic populations. Furthermore, there are disagreements on determinant factors and associated comorbidities of RLS. We aimed to estimate prevalence of RLS and investigate its associated comorbid conditions and risk factors in a large population-based door-to-door survey.Following a multistage random sampling from the households lived in 22 urban districts of Tehran, Iran, 19176 participants with ≥30 years of age were recruited. Trained surveyors filled study checklist consisting of baseline characteristics, risk factors and comorbidity profile and the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG diagnostic criteria through face-to-face interviews.In total, 1580 individuals were positively screened for RLS resulting in a standardized prevalence rate of 60.0/1000. There was a gradual increase in RLS prevalence by advancing age, however, sex difference disappeared after adjustment. Parkinsonism [adjusted odds' ratio (adj-OR = 7.4 (95% CI: 5.3-10.4], peripheral neuropathy [adj-OR = 3.7 (95% CI: 3.3-4.1], subjective cognitive impairment (SCI [adj-OR = 3.1 (95% CI: 2.7-3.4], acting out dreams [adj-OR = 2.8 (95% CI: 2.5-3.2], hyposmia [adj-OR = 2.5 (95% CI: 2.2-2.9], active smoking [adj-OR = 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3-1.9] and additional number of cardiometabolic diseases associated with higher risk of RLS [adj-OR = 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.3].Our findings showed that neuro-cognitive co-morbidities such as parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, SCI, acting out dreams and hyposmia as well as cardio-metabolic risk factors and diseases were independent determinants of RLS. It is recommended to screen individuals with either these comorbid conditions for RLS or the ones with RLS for the accompanying diseases.

  14. Age differences in the prevalence and comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Birnbaum, Howard; Shahly, Victoria; Bromet, Evelyn; Hwang, Irving; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sampson, Nancy; Andrade, Laura Helena; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Aimee N.; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Kovess, Viviane; Lara, Carmen; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Browne, Mark Oakley; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Stein, Dan J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although depression appears to decrease in late life, this could be due to misattribution of depressive symptoms to physical disorders that increase in late life. Methods We investigated this issue by studying age differences in comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes (MDE) with chronic physical conditions in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys, a series of community epidemiological surveys carried out in 10 developed countries (n = 51,771) and 8 developing countries (n = 37,265). MDE and other mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Organic exclusion rules were not used to avoid inappropriate exclusion of cases with physical comorbidity. Physical conditions were assessed with a standard chronic conditions checklist. Results Twelve-month DSM-IV/CIDI MDE was significantly less prevalent among respondents ages 65+ than younger respondents in developed but not developing countries. Prevalence of comorbid mental disorders generally either decreased or remained stable with age, while comorbidity of MDE with mental disorders generally increased with age. Prevalence of physical conditions, in comparison, generally increased with age, while comorbidity of MDE with physical conditions generally decreased with age. Depression treatment was lowest among the elderly in developed and developing countries. Conclusions The weakening associations between MDE and physical conditions with increasing age argue against the suggestion that the low estimated prevalence of MDE among the elderly is due to increased confounding with physical disorders. Future study is needed to investigate processes that might lead to a decreasing impact of physical illness on depression among the elderly. PMID:20037917

  15. Prevalence and correlates of treatment utilization among adults with cannabis use disorder in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Zhu, He; Mannelli, Paolo; Swartz, Marvin S

    2017-08-01

    The increase in cannabis potency may have treatment implications for cannabis use disorder (CUD). Given the reported increase in prevalence of cannabis use among adults, there is a need to understand substance use treatment needs for CUD. We examined demographics and behavioral health indicators of adults aged ≥18 years that met criteria for past-year CUD (n=10,943) in the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We determined prevalence and correlates of past-year treatment use for alcohol/drug, any drug, and cannabis use related problems, to inform treatment efforts for CUD. The majority of adults with past-year CUD were young adults aged 18-25 or men, had low income, and did not attend college. Two-thirds of adults with CUD met criteria for cannabis dependence, which was comparatively common among younger adults, women, low-income or publicly insured adults, and college-educated adults. Nicotine dependence (40.92%) and alcohol (44.07%) or other drug use disorder (19.70%) were prevalent among adults with CUD. Overall, less than 13% of adults with CUD had received alcohol/drug use treatment the past year; only 7.8% received cannabis-specific treatment. There was no significant yearly variation in treatment use prevalence over 9 years. In particular, Asian-Americans, women, and college-educated adults underutilized cannabis-specific treatment. This large sample of adults with CUD reveals pervasive underutilization of cannabis-related treatment, especially in women, married adults, and those with college education, despite a high proportion of comorbid behavioral health problems. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of cannabis use in an outpatient VA posttraumatic stress disorder clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentes, Emily L; Schry, Amie R; Hicks, Terrell A; Clancy, Carolina P; Collie, Claire F; Kirby, Angela C; Dennis, Michelle F; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2016-05-01

    Recent research has documented high rates of comorbidity between cannabis use disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in veterans. However, despite possible links between PTSD and cannabis use, relatively little is known about cannabis use in veterans who present for PTSD treatment, particularly among samples not diagnosed with a substance use disorder. This study examined the prevalence of cannabis use and the psychological and functional correlates of cannabis use among a large sample of veterans seeking treatment at a Veterans Affairs (VA) PTSD specialty clinic. Male veterans (N = 719) who presented at a VA specialty outpatient PTSD clinic completed measures of demographic variables, combat exposure, alcohol, cannabis and other drug use, and PTSD and depressive symptoms. The associations among demographic, psychological, and functional variables were estimated using logistic regressions. Overall, 14.6% of participants reported using cannabis in the past 6 months. After controlling for age, race, service era, and combat exposure, past 6-month cannabis use was associated with unmarried status, use of tobacco products, other drug use, hazardous alcohol use, PTSD severity, depressive symptom severity, and suicidality. The present findings show that cannabis use is quite prevalent among veterans seeking PTSD specialty treatment and is associated with poorer mental health and use of other substances. It may be possible to identify and treat individuals who use cannabis in specialty clinics (e.g., PTSD clinics) where they are likely to present for treatment of associated mental health issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Prevalence and correlates of disturbed dreaming in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauchat, A; Séguin, J R; Zadra, A

    2014-10-01

    Relatively little is known about nightmares and other forms of disturbed dreaming in children. This article reviews the literature on the prevalence and correlates of nightmares in children and highlights key methodological issues in the field. Results show that regardless of how they are defined and measured, nightmares affect a significant proportion of children of all ages and there is some evidence to suggest that nightmare frequency may peak around the age of 10. Gender differences in nightmare frequency, with girls reporting more nightmares than do boys, tend to appear between the ages of 10 and 15. Although nightmares are associated with a range of psychosocial difficulties (e.g., stress, behavioural problems), elevated anxiety and concomitant sleep-related disorders (e.g., sleepwalking) are among the most robust correlates of nightmares. Very few studies have examined nightmare treatment in children, but promising results have been obtained with imagery rehearsal therapy. Overall, research in the field has been hampered by inconsistent definitions for nightmares, by extensive variability in questionnaire items used to measure nightmare frequency, and by a lack of awareness of how using parents versus children as respondents may impact results. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand how nightmares and their correlates evolve during childhood and adolescence, to delineate their clinical significance, and to develop effective and age-appropriate treatment strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of deleting 5 DSM-IV personality disorders on prevalence, comorbidity, and the association between personality disorder pathology and psychosocial morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; Dalrymple, Kristy; Martinez, Jennifer

    2012-02-01

    A high rate of comorbidity among the personality disorders has been consistently identified as a problem. To address the problem of excessive comorbidity, the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group recommended reducing the number of specific personality disorder diagnoses from 10 to 5 by eliminating paranoid, schizoid, histrionic, narcissistic, and dependent personality disorders. No study has examined the impact of this change. The present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project examined the impact of eliminating these 5 personality disorders on the prevalence of personality disorders in a large sample of psychiatric outpatients presenting for treatment, comorbidity among the personality disorders, and association with psychosocial morbidity. From September 1997 to June 2008, 2,150 psychiatric patients presenting to the Rhode Island Hospital outpatient practice were evaluated with semistructured diagnostic interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders and measures of psychosocial morbidity. More than one-quarter of the patients were diagnosed with one of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders (28.6%, n = 614). When 5 personality disorders were excluded from consideration, then 25.8% (n = 555) were diagnosed with at least 1 of the 5 personality disorders proposed for retention in DSM-5, and the comorbidity rate dropped from 29.8% to 21.3%. Compared to patients without a personality disorder, the patients with either a retained or an excluded personality disorder had greater psychosocial morbidity. There was little difference in psychosocial morbidity between patients with a retained and an excluded personality disorder. The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group's desired goal of reducing comorbidity would be achieved by deleting 5 personality disorders, although comorbidity would not be eliminated. The reduction of comorbidity could come with a cost of false-negative diagnoses

  19. Prevalence of Comorbidity in Patients With Young-Onset Alzheimer Disease Compared With Late-Onset: A Comparative Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.A.J.; Bakker, C.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Vugt, M.E. de; Melis, R.J.; Koopmans, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: With the lack of a cure for Alzheimer disease (AD), the identification of comorbidity is important to reduce the possibility of excess disability. Although comorbidity in patients with late-onset AD (LO-AD) is common, for people with young-onset AD (YO-AD), it is unclear how often

  20. Prevalence of Comorbidities in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Evaluation of Their Monitoring in Clinical Practice: The Spanish Cohort of the COMORA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Alejandro; Lojo-Oliveira, Leticia; Alperi-López, Mercedes; García-Manrique, María; Ordóñez-Cañizares, Carmen; Pérez, Lorena; Ruiz-Esquide, Virginia; Corrales, Alfonso; Narváez, Javier; Rey-Rey, José; Rodríguez-Lozano, Carlos; Ojeda, Soledad; Muñoz-Fernández, Santiago; Nolla, Joan M; García-Torrón, José; Gamero, Fernando; García-Vicuña, Rosario; Hernández-Cruz, Blanca; Campos, José; Rosas, José; García-Llorente, José Francisco; Gómez-Centeno, Antonio; Cáliz, Rafael; Sanmartí, Raimon; Bermúdez, Alberto; Abasolo-Alcázar, Lydia; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Marras, Carlos; González-Gay, Miguel Ángel; Hmamouchi, Ihsane; Martín-Mola, Emilio

    2017-07-12

    To describe the prevalence of comorbidities in patients with RA in Spain and discuss their management and implications using data from the Spanish cohort of the multinational study on COMOrbidities in Rheumatoid Arthritis (COMORA). This is a national sub-analysis of the COMORA study. We studied the demographics and disease characteristics of 200 adults patients diagnosed with RA (1987 ACR), and routine practices for screening and preventing the following selected comorbidities: cardiovascular, infections, cancer, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, osteoporosis and depression. Patients had a mean age of 58 years and a mean RA duration of 10 years. Mean DAS28 score was 3.3 and approximately 25% of patients were in remission (DAS28 20% (51%), hypercholesterolemia (46%) or hypertension (41%) and smoking (25%) were the most common CV risk factors. For prostate, colon and skin cancers, only 9%, 10% and 18% of patients, respectively, were optimally monitored. Infections were also inadequately managed, with 7% and 17% of patients vaccinated against influenza and pneumococcal, respectively, as was osteoporosis, with 47% of patients supplemented with vitamin D and 56% with a bone densitometry performed. In Spain, the prevalence of comorbidities and CV risk factors in RA patients with established and advanced disease is relatively high, and their management in clinical daily practice remains suboptimal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Emergency Contraceptive Use in Transitional Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshi, Dajana; Italia, Salvatore; Burazeri, Genc; Brand, Helmut

    2017-11-06

    Objectives The two emergency contraceptive drugs ("morning-after pill") ulipristal acetate and levonorgestrel are available without prescription in many European countries. In Albania, ulipristal acetate is not marketed yet and levonorgestrel has still prescription-only status. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of emergency contraceptive (EMC) use, collect sales figures, and gain information on the women's way of purchasing EMCs in post-communist Albania. Methods For this cross-sectional study, self-administered questionnaires were made accessible to women in Albania in March 2015 by hard copy or online via social networks. Women were asked about lifetime use and last year's use of EMCs, and if they purchased EMCs with or without a prescription. Additionally, pharmacies were contacted and asked about EMC sales figures. Results Of the 205 participating women, 80.5% knew about the availability and use of EMCs, and 15.1% reported EMC use during the previous 12 months. The lifetime prevalence of use was 46.8%. Although having prescription-only status in Albania, 96% of the women bought EMCs without a physician's prescription. Knowledge was significantly lower among the lower educated women and among women residing in small cities. Use of EMCs was significantly higher in women with a weaker financial background and, compared with small cities, in those from large or mid-sized cities. The 54 participating pharmacies (3% of all Albanian pharmacies) reported selling 11 EMCs on average per month. The use of EMCs may be estimated at 0.22 defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day. Compared to January 2015, EMC sales increased by 17% in February 2016. Conclusions Compared to other European countries, the prevalence of EMC use seems to be higher in Albania. Use and knowledge of EMCs depend on socioeconomic characteristics. It is recommended to switch EMCs to non-prescription status in transitional Albania. © Georg

  2. Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Children: Prevalence and Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José A. R.

    2014-01-01

    There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I) to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II) to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III) to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children’s BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9–11 years old) were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287–0.34) for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23–0.35) for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27–0.34) for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children’s BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI. PMID:25372884

  3. Prevalence and correlates of habitual snoring in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chol; Joo, SoonJae; Kim, JinKwan; Kim, Tak

    2003-11-01

    To examine the prevalence and correlates of habitual snoring in senior high school students in Korea. A cross-sectional survey. Ten high schools in the southern part of Seoul, Korea. A total of 3,871 high school students (2,703 male students and 1,168 female students; age range, 15 to 18 years; mean age: male students, 16.8 years; female students, 16.9 years) who were attending the 11th grade. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, school performance, and patterns of sleep and sleep-related disturbances. The overall prevalence of habitual snoring was 11.2% (boys, 12.4%; girls, 8.5%). The mean total sleep time was similar in habitual snorers vs nonsnorers (6.4 and 6.3 h per day, respectively). Frequency of snoring increased significantly with body mass index (BMI) [p performance (p performance was low, there was a 35% excess in the odds of habitual snoring vs those whose school performance was high (odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.78). These findings suggest that chronic habitual snoring is associated with multiple factors in adolescents. Whether interventions to modify BMI and smoking can alter snoring habits and related clinical problems warrants further study, particularly as it also may improve academic performance in high school students.

  4. Atlantooccipital Fusion: Prevalence and its Developmental and Clinical Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, D K; Sharma, Deepak; Sharma, Vandana

    2017-06-01

    Atlantooccipital fusion or occipitalization of atlas or assimilation of atlas is a rare or uncommon abnormality recorded in anatomical, morphological and radiological studies. It is usually associated with reduction in dimensions of foramen magnum leading to acute or chronic neurovascular compression and clinical manifestations of varying severity. Though, atlantooccipital fusion is rare but it is important and significant for the physicians and surgeons for their diagnostic and therapeutic approach. To know the prevalence of atlantooccipital fusion in South Asian population predominantly in Central India and its embryological and clinical correlation by reviewing literature and earlier studies. This study included careful examination for the atlantooccipital fusion on total 192 human skulls of both genders, available in the Department of Anatomy AIIMS Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India, Department of Anatomy and Forensic Medicine of Gandhi Medical Colledge, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India and Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru Memorial Medical College, Raipur. Morphometric measurements of the abnormal skulls were done, analysed and recorded. Observations and findings of this study were correlated embryologically and clinically with the results and claims of previous studies and literature, and accordingly the conclusions were drawn. We found only two skulls with atlantooccipital fusion, in overall study of 192 skulls. The first skull showed incomplete atlantooccipital fusion on the left side with little right lateral inclination and missing posterior tubercle/spinous process and adjoining part of posterior arch of atlas, whereas the second skull showed complete atlantooccipital fusion. We conclude that the prevalence of atlantooccipital fusion including complete and incomplete fusion was 1.04%, which is higher than the proclaimed prevalence rate of 0.12% to 0.72%, by the previous studies. In accordance with the fact that the atlantooccipital fusion represents a synostosis between the

  5. Frequency and correlates of comorbid psychiatric illness in patients with heroin use disorder admitted to Stikland Opioid Detoxification Unit, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Dannatt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a lack of studies addressing the frequency and correlates of comorbidities among heroin users admitted for treatment in South Africa (SA. Objective. To assess the frequency and correlates of psychiatric comorbidity among patients with heroin use disorder admitted to the Opioid Detoxification Unit at Stikland Hospital in the Western Cape, SA. Method. Participants (N=141 were assessed for psychiatric illness (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, comorbid substance use disorders (World Health Organization’s Alcohol Smoking Substance Involvement Screening Tool, and legal and social problems (Maudsley Addiction Profile. Demographic, personal, psychiatric and substance-use history, in addition to mental state examination on admission, were collected from the case notes. Results. The largest group of patients (n=56, 40% had not been abstinent from heroin use since drug debut, and most had been arrested for drug-related activities (n=117, 83% and had family conflicts related to use (n=135, 96%. Nicotine was the most common comorbid substance of dependence (n=137, 97% and methamphetamine was the most common comorbid substance abused (n=73, 52%. The most common comorbid psychiatric illness was previous substance-induced psychosis (n=42, 30% and current major depressive disorder (n=37, 26%. Current major depressive disorder was significantly associated with females (p=0.03, intravenous drug use (p=0.03, alcohol use (p=0.02, and a higher number of previous rehabilitation attempts (p=0.008. Conclusion. Patients with heroin use disorders present with high rates of psychiatric comorbidities, which underscores the need for substance treatment services with the capacity to diagnose and manage these comorbidities.

  6. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-5 eating disorders in patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Crow, Scott; Blom, Thomas J; Biernacka, Joanna M; Winham, Stacey J; Geske, Jennifer; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B; Bobo, William V; Prieto, Miguel L; Veldic, Marin; Mori, Nicole; Seymour, Lisa R; Bond, David J; Frye, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    To determine prevalence rates and clinical correlates of current DSM-5 eating disorders in patients with bipolar disorder (BP). Prevalence rates of current DSM-5- and DSM-IV-defined binge eating disorder (BED), bulimia nervosa (BN), and anorexia nervosa (AN) were assessed with the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) in 1092 patients with BP. Psychiatric illness burden was evaluated with five proxy measures of BP illness severity. Medical illness burden was evaluated with the Cumulative Index Rating Scale (CIRS). Twenty-seven percent of patients had a current DSM-5 eating disorder: 12% had BED, 15% had BN, and 0.2% had AN. Rates of DSM-5-defined BED and BN were higher than clinical diagnosis rates and rates of DSM-IV-defined BED and BN. Compared with BP patients without an eating disorder, BP patients with a DSM-5 eating disorder were younger and more likely to be women; had an earlier age of onset of BP; had higher EDDS composite scores and higher degrees of suicidality, mood instability, and anxiety disorder comorbidity; and had a higher mean BMI, higher rate of obesity, and higher CIRS total scores. In a logistic regression model controlling for previously identified correlates of an eating disorder, younger age, female gender, and higher BMI remained significantly associated with an eating disorder. The EDDS has not been validated in BP patients. DSM-5-defined BED and BN are common in BP patients, possibly more common than DSM-IV-defined BED and BN, and associated with greater psychiatric and general medical illness burden. Further studies assessing DSM-5 eating disorders in people with BP are greatly needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Population-Based Study on Comorbidity in Children with Severe Motor and Intellectual Disabilities: Focus on Feasibility and Prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.G. Veugelers (Rebekka)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractComorbidity is common in children with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID). We performed a population-based study in 196 children with SMID, focusing on respiratory infections, respiratory function, constipation, dysphagia, gastro-oesophageal reflux and nutritional

  8. Depression among university students in Kenya: prevalence and sociodemographic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othieno, Caleb J; Okoth, Roselyne O; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Malla, Lucas O

    2014-08-01

    Depression is a common cause of morbidity but prevalence levels among Kenyan university students are poorly understood. A better understanding of depression and its correlates is essential in planning for appropriate interventions in this population group. A random sample of 923 University of Nairobi students (525 male and 365 female) were interviewed using a questionnaire to record sociodemographic variables. Depressive symptoms were measured using Centre for Epidemiological Studies Short Depression Scale (CES - D 10). The mean age was 23 (s.d. 4.0). Using a cut-off point of 10, the overall prevalence of moderate depressive symptoms was 35.7% (33.5% males and 39.0% females) and severe depression was 5.6% (5.3% males and 5.1% female). Depressive illness was significantly more common among the first year students, those who were married; those who were economically disadvantaged and those living off campus. Other variables significantly related to higher depression levels included year of study, academic performance, religion and college attended. Logistic regression showed that those students who used tobacco, engaged in binge drinking and those who had an older age were more likely to be depressed. No difference was noted with respect to gender. This was a cross sectional study relying on self report of symptoms and could therefore be inaccurate. Although the study was conducted in the largest university in the country that admits students from diverse backgrounds in the country there could still be regional differences in other local universities. Depression occurs in a significant number of students. Appropriate interventions should be set up in higher institutions of learning to detect and treat these disorders paying particular attention to those at risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of apathy in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallais, Benjamin; Montreuil, Michèle; Gargiulo, Marcela; Eymard, Bruno; Gagnon, Cynthia; Laberge, Luc

    2015-08-22

    Apathy in DM1 has long been acknowledged in clinical practice. However, a major drawback is that the concept has been only sparsely explored in previous specific studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of apathy in myotonic dystrophy (DM1), to compare it with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) patients and normal healthy controls, and explore its relationship to psychopathological features and cognitive function. Levels of apathy in 38 DM1 patients with adult phenotypes were compared with 19 patients with FSHD and 20 matched controls. Patient participants were consecutively recruited, regarding their interdisciplinary annual evaluation at the neuromuscular pathology reference center (Institute of Myology, Paris, France), within an 18-month period. Additional measurements included motor disability, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and cognitive abilities. Inter-group comparisons were performed using non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis tests and Mann-Whitney U Tests. Intra-group comparisons were carried out with the Wilcoxon Signed rank and Friedman tests. Also, Spearman's correlations were used to assess the strength of linear relationships between pairs of variables. The significance level was set at 0.05. Global score of apathy was significantly higher in DM1 patients than in FSHD patients (p fatigue, depression, and anxiety. Apathy is a frequent symptom in DM1 (almost 40 %). It is more prevalent than in a similarly disabled group of patients with FSHD and in controls. Results also show that apathy in DM1 is independent of the psychopathological domain, fatigue, age, and motor disability, but associated to general cognitive status. These results altogether could suggest a central cause for apathy in DM1 rather than an adjustment process to cope with the progressive and debilitating nature of the disease. Data emphasize the importance to evaluate this symptom in routine clinical management of DM1 patients.

  10. Psychiatric disorder co-morbidity and correlates in an ethnically diverse sample of obese patients with binge eating disorder in primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M; White, Marney A; Barnes, Rachel D; Masheb, Robin M

    2013-04-01

    To examine DSM-IV lifetime/current psychiatric disorder co-morbidity and correlates in ethnically-diverse obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) seeking treatment for obesity and binge eating in primary care. A consecutive series of 142 participants (43% Caucasian, 37% African-American, 13% Hispanic-American, and 7% "other" ethnicity) were evaluated with semi-structured interviews. 67% of BED patients had at least one additional lifetime psychiatric disorder, with mood (49%), anxiety (41%), and substance-use (22%) disorders most common. In terms of current co-morbidity, 37% had at least one other psychiatric disorder, with anxiety (27%) and mood (17%) most common. Few gender differences were observed but psychiatric co-morbidity rates differed across ethnic/racial groups with larger differences for current diagnoses. African-American and Hispanic groups were more than twice as likely as the Caucasian group to have additional current psychiatric disorders, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders. Psychiatric co-morbidity was associated with greater eating-disorder psychopathology and poorer functioning, but not with binge-eating or BMI. Our study presents new findings suggesting that among obese BED patients in primary care, ethnic/racial minority groups are more likely than Caucasian groups to present with psychiatric co-morbidity. Within BED, psychiatric co-morbidity shows few gender differences but is associated with greater eating-disorder psychopathology and poorer functioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlates of Prevalent Disability Among HIV-Infected Elderly Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Funes, José Alberto; Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Pablo Francisco; Tamez-Rivera, Oscar; Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Cuellar-Rodríguez, Jennifer; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Amieva, Hélène

    2016-02-01

    The growing elderly population of HIV-infected patients is leading to a significant epidemiological transition and HIV infection has been proposed as a premature and accelerated aging model rending the individual more susceptible to premature disability. However, the determinants of disability among this emergent population are still lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the correlates of prevalent disability in adults ≥50 years with HIV infection. A cross-sectional study of 184 HIV-infected adults receiving ambulatory care in an HIV clinic of a tertiary care, university-affiliated hospital in Mexico City was conducted. Disability for instrumental (IADL) and basic activities of daily living (ADL) was established. Sociodemographic factors, clinical variables, current CD4(+) cell count, and HIV viral load (VL) were tested as potential determinants of disability. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the correlates of both types of disability. The mean age was 59.3 years. All participants were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Of participants 17.9% had disability for IADL and 26.1% for ADL. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that being older; having a lower CD4(+) cell count, and having a detectable HIV VL were independently associated with both types of disability. In addition, educational level was also independently associated with ADL disability. Age, educational level, low CD4(+) cell count, and detectable HIV VL were independently associated with disability. Whether effective and timely antiretroviral therapy will reduce the risk of disability in HIV-infected elderly patients needs to be evaluated.

  12. Depression amongst Nigerian university students. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuya, Abiodun O; Ola, Bola A; Aloba, Olutayo O; Mapayi, Boladale M; Oginni, Olaleye O

    2006-08-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and examine the socio-demographic correlates of depressive disorder among university students in Western Nigeria. A representative sample of students living in the halls of residence of a federal university (n = 1,206) completed sets of questionnaires on socio-demographic details, problems encountered in the university, alcohol use and smoking. Depressive disorder was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). A total of 101 (8.3%) students met the criteria for depressive disorder with 68 (5.6%) having minor depressive disorder and 33 (2.7%) having major depressive disorder. The factors that were significantly associated with depressive disorders in the students include problems with accommodation (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.79-4.16), very large family size (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.42-5.73), female gender (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.46-3.35), heavy cigarette smoking (OR 3.67, 95% CI 2.23-6.05) and high level of alcohol consumption (OR 9.44, 95% CI 3.32-26.89). Depression is common among Nigerian university students and significantly associated with sociodemographic factors. An effective model for the prediction of the development of depression in university students need to be developed and evaluated and interventions aimed at reducing the incidence of depression among this population need further research.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasvindar; Cheong, Siew Man; Mahadir Naidu, Balkish; Kaur, Gurpreet; Manickam, Mala A; Mat Noor, Malisa; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Depression among adolescents has been recognized as a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Data from the Malaysia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 were analyzed with additional data from the validated DASS21 (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress) questionnaire. The study revealed that 17.7% of respondents had depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis further showed that feeling lonely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.99; 95% CI = 2.57-3.47), Indian ethnicity (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.63-2.44), using drugs (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.21-2.82), and being bullied (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.60-1.99) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Lack of parental supervision, alcohol use, and tobacco use were also significant risk factors. Addressing depressive symptoms among adolescents may have implications for managing their risks of being bullied and substance use. This study also highlights the need to further investigate depressive symptoms among adolescents of Indian ethnicity. © 2014 APJPH.

  14. Binge drinking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuntsche, Sandra; Thrul, Johannes; Gmel, Gerhard

    2017-08-01

    Binge drinking (also called heavy episodic drinking, risky single-occasion drinking etc.) is a major public health problem. This paper provides an overview of recently published evidence concerning the definition and measurement, prevalence rates, health impact, demographic and psychosocial correlates of, and interventions for, binge drinking. Narrative review. Mostly occurring among young people at weekends, binge drinking increases the risk of both acute (e.g. injuries) and long-term negative consequences (e.g. alcohol disorders). Binge drinkers tend to be extrovert, impulsive and sensation-seeking. Stress, anxiety, traumatic events and depression are also related to binge drinking. Both alcohol-related behaviour of parents and general parenting (e.g. parenting styles, monitoring) are also important. Other major risk factors for binge drinking are frequently spending time with friends who drink, and the drinking norms observed in the wider social environment (e.g. school, community, culture). Emergency departments, birthday parties, fraternities and the workplace serve as settings for interventions; these are increasingly delivered via digital and mobile technology. There is evidence of small-sized effects across approaches (brief interventions, personalised normative feedback, protective behavioural strategies etc.) and populations. A more consistent terminology, investigating multi-level influences and identifying the most effective intervention components are challenges for future research.

  15. Diabetes + Hypertension (comorbidity)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set provides de-identified population data for diabetes and hypertension comorbidity prevalence in Allegheny County.

  16. Apathy among institutionalized stroke patients: prevalence and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Almenkerk, Suzanne; Smalbrugge, Martin; Depla, Marja F I A; Eefsting, Jan A; Hertogh, Cees M P M

    2015-02-01

    Apathy is a frequent neuropsychiatric consequence of stroke. In the under-researched population of institutionalized stroke patients, we aimed to explore the prevalence of apathy, its clinical correlates, and the relation to the amount of stimulating activities in the nursing home (NH). A cross-sectional, observational study. Dutch NHs. 274 chronic stroke patients. Data were collected through observation lists that were filled out in structured interviews with qualified nurse assistants who knew the residents well. The lists comprised the NH-version of the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES10), the Barthel Index, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, and sections of the Resident Assessment Instrument for Long-Term Care Facilities. Attending physicians and therapists provided additional information. Apathy (AES10 score ≥30) was present in 28% of residents. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that this apathy was independently related to (moderate, severe) cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] 11.30 [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.96-25.74], OR 5.54 [95% CI: 2.48-12.40]), very severe ADL-dependency (OR 12.10 [95% CI: 1.35-108.66]), and being >12 hours per day in bed (OR 2.10 [95% CI: 1.07-4.13]). It was not related to depressive mood symptoms (OR 1.75 [95% CI: 0.91-3.37]). Only in residents aged less than 80 years were a higher amount of activities independently related to a lower AES10 score (-0.70 [95% CI: -1.18 to -0.20] points per four extra activities in a 4-week period). Apathy is prevalent in largely one-quarter of institutionalized stroke patients, and that is most strongly related to cognitive impairment in this explorative study. We discuss the need for research on the relation with distinct dimensions of depression and fatigue as partly overlapping constructs, and on (individualized) stimulating activities as a possible intervention method. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Ecological correlates of feather mite prevalence in passerines

    OpenAIRE

    Figuerola, Jordi

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between host ecology and feather mite prevalence was analysed in birds. Feather mites are small arthropods (fam. Pterolichoidea and Analgoidea) commonly found on birds, although the nature of their interactions with the host (commensalism, mutualism or parasitism), still remains unclear. Host body mass and migratory behaviour were unrelated to feather mite prevalence. Contrary to expecta- tion, there was no differences in mite prevalence between colonial and so...

  18. [ADH/D and impulsiveness: Prevalence of impulse control disorders and other comorbidities, in 81 adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADH/D)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteret, R; Bouchez, J; Baylé, F J; Varescon, I

    2016-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADH/D) is a neuropsychological developmental disorder characterized by pervasive and impairing symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Whereas it is well known in children, there is still little information about ADH/D in adults, including prevalence. Indeed, there are actually no epidemiological studies in France, despite the considerable impact of this disorder in a patient's professional and affective life. Moreover, ADH/D rarely stays isolated, and many comorbidities often complicate the diagnostic investigation. It is well known that the so-called ADH/D is composed of two main categories of symptoms (Attentional Disorder/Hyperactiviy Disorder), but Impulsiveness also remains a major symptom. The aim of this study was to evaluate not only the prevalence of Impulse Control Disorders (ICD) but also psychological and addictive comorbidities among adult patients with ADH/D. A total of 100 patients from specialized consultations of adult ADH/D were evaluated in this study, but only 81 were included after presenting all the clinical criteria of ADH/D. We used the DSM IV-T-R for ADH/D, the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview a semi-structured clinical interview assessing impulse control disorders (ICD) (compulsive buying, trichotillomania, compulsive sexual behaviour, kleptomania, pyromania and intermittent explosive disorder), and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview in order to evaluate psychiatric and addictive comorbidities. More than 90 % of the patients met the early apparition criteria of ADH/D (before 7years). More than half of the patients presented a mixed type of ADH/D (both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive forms): 55.6 % vs 44.4 % for the inattentive type. The vast majority of patients showed a complete form (with a total of 6 or more symptoms out of 9, of inattentive and/or impulsive-hyperactivity category): 93.8 % and only 6.2 % presented a sub-syndromic form of ADH/D (with

  19. Prevalence and correlates of chronic kidney disease among civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a public health problem with rising incidence and prevalence ... Conclusion: The prevalence of CKD among Nigerian civil servants was fairly high and was associated with advancing ... including Nigeria, hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus.

  20. Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of autism among children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence and socio-economic determinants of autism among children attending primary and secondary schools in South East, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that assessed the prevalence and socio-economic pattern of childhood autism ...

  1. Prevalence and correlates of successful ageing: a comparative study between China and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qiush; Son, Joonmo; Zeng, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Successful ageing is often defined as a later life with less disease and disease-related disability, high level of cognitive and physical functions, and an active life style. Few studies have compared successful ageing across different societies in a non-Western social context. This study aims to compare prevalence and correlates of successful ageing between China and South Korea. The data come from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA). A total of 19,346 community-dwelling elders over 65 years were included, 15,191 from China and 4,155 from Korea. A multidimensional construct of successful ageing was used, with the criteria of no major comorbidity, being free of disability, good mental health, engaging in social or productive activity, and satisfaction on life. Correlates of successful ageing included demographics (gender, age, and rural/urban residence), socioeconomic features (financial status, education, and spouse accompany), and health behaviours (smoking, alcohol-drinking, and exercising). The results showed that 18.6 % of the older adults in China was successful agers, which was less than 25.2 % in Korea. When gender and age were adjusted, older adults were 51 % less likely to be successful agers in China than Korea ( p  China and Korea. However, before the socioeconomic variables are under control, rural residence was negatively related to successful ageing in China, whereas this is not the case in Korea. And the gender gap of successful ageing was mostly explained by socioeconomic features and health behaviours in Korea, but not in China. In both countries, good financial condition was highly associated with successful ageing. The study suggests that advancement of public health system could better control progression of non-communicable diseases among old people and thus promote successful ageing.

  2. A comparison of DSM-5 and ICD-11 PTSD prevalence, comorbidity and disability: an analysis of the Ukrainian Internally Displaced Person's Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlin, M; Hyland, P; Vallières, F; Bisson, J; Makhashvili, N; Javakhishvili, J; Shpiker, M; Roberts, B

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-5) and the World Health Organization (ICD-11) have both revised their formulation of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The primary aim of this study was to compare DSM-5 and ICD-11 PTSD prevalence and comorbidity rates, as well as the level of disability associated with each diagnosis. This study was based on a representative sample of adult Ukrainian internally displaced persons (IDPs: N = 2203). Post-traumatic stress disorder prevalence was assessed using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 and the International Trauma Questionnaire (ICD-11). Anxiety and depression were measured using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-Depression. Disability was measured using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. The prevalence of DSM-5 PTSD (27.4%) was significantly higher than ICD-11 PTSD (21.0%), and PTSD rates for females were significantly higher using both criteria. ICD-11 PTSD was associated with significantly higher levels of disability and comorbidity. The ICD-11 diagnosis of PTSD appears to be particularly well suited to identifying those with clinically relevant levels of disability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Prevalence and related risk factors of hypertensive patients with co-morbid anxiety and/or depression in community: a cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jinmin; Wang, Xilin; Liu, Cui; Gu, Zhaoxia; Sun, Lijun; Zhang, Yanbo; Huang, Yueqin; Liu, Zhaorui

    2014-01-07

    To explore the prevalence of hypertensive patients with co-morbid anxiety and/or depression and determine the risk factors of comorbidity in community. A cross-section study was performed among 807 hypertensive patients in urban and rural community settings of Beijing in 2011. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview, computer assisted personal interview (CIDI-3.0-CAPI) was administrated by face-to-face interview. And the diagnosis of anxiety and depression was made according to the definitions and criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DMS-IV). The prevalence and related risk factors of hypertensive patients with comorbid anxiety and/or depression were reported. It was found that 23.3% of patients were accompanied with anxiety and 5.7% with depression in hypertensive patients in community. The risk factors of anxiety included irregular treatment (odds ratio 4.500; 95% confidence interval, 2.431 to 8.331), smoking (1.805; 1.036 to 3.145), manual labor (1.933; 1.223 to 3.053) and two or above stage of hypertension (1.525; 1.041 to 2.234). And the risk factors of depression included irregular treatment (5.333; 1.554 to 18.304), taking reserpine or ingredients containing reserpine (6.667; 1.981 to 22.435) and singlehood (5.000; 1.096 to 22.820). The prevalence of anxiety is higher than depression in hypertensive patients in community. Irregular treatment is the common risk factor of anxiety and depression. Patients with smoking, manual labor and two or above stage of hypertension are more likely to have a coexistence of anxiety while those unmarried, taking reserpine or ingredients containing reserpine are more likely to suffer from depression.

  4. Gender differences in prevalence and correlates of antisocial personality disorder among heroin dependent users in compulsory isolation treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Mamy, Jules; Zhou, Liang; Liao, Yan-Hui; Wang, Qiang; Seewoobudul, Vasish; Xiao, Shui-Yuan; Hao, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about gender difference in correlates of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) among drug users. To detect gender difference in correlates of ASPD in a Chinese heroin dependent sample. Structured interviews were conducted among 882 heroin dependent users in two compulsory isolation settings in Changsha, China. Descriptive statistics were employed to report sample characteristics by gender. Bivariate relationships were examined between co-occurring ASPD and variables measuring demographic, drug use, and psychiatric co-morbidities. Multivariate logistic regressions with stepwise forward method were conducted to determine independent predictors for co-occurring ASPD. All analyses examining correlates of co-occurring ASPD were conducted for the total, the male and the female participants respectively to detect both the common and the unique correlates of ASPD by gender. Of the total participants, 41.4% (54.2% of males and 15.4% of females) met the DSM-IV criteria of ASPD. For male participants, lower educational level, unemployment, unmarried, younger age at first heroin use, previous history of compulsory treatment, larger amounts of heroin used per day and poly-drug abuse during past month before admission, as well as psychiatric co-morbidities of lifetime major depressive disorder and borderline personality disorder were independent predictors for co-occurring ASPD; while for female participants, only three variables: younger age at first heroin use, paranoid personality disorder and borderline personality disorder were independent predictors for co-occurring ASPD. Gender differences in prevalence and correlates of ASPD among heroin dependent users were detected. The findings highlight a need for gender-specific interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lumbar spondylolisthesis among elderly men: prevalence, correlates and progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denard, Patrick J.; Holton, Kathleen F.; Miller, Jessica; Fink, Howard A.; Kado, Deborah M.; Yoo, Jung U.; Marshall, Lynn M.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Objective Estimate the prevalence of spondylolisthesis and determine the factors associated with higher or lower prevalence among men aged 65 years or older. Summary of Background Data Spondylolisthesis prevalence is reported to increase with age and to be higher among women than men. Among women aged ≥65 years, prevalence was estimated to be 29%, but no estimates among men of this age have been reported. Methods Lateral lumbar spine radiographs were obtained at baseline and a follow-up visit in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study, a cohort of community dwelling men ages ≥ 65 years. Average time between radiographs was 4.6 (±0.4) years. For the present study, 300 men were sampled at random at baseline. Of these, 295 had a usable baseline radiograph; 190 surviving participants had a follow-up radiograph. Spondylolisthesis was defined as a forward slip ≥ 5%. Progression was defined as a 5% increase in slip severity on the follow-up radiograph. Associations of spondylolisthesis prevalence with baseline characteristics were estimated with age-adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals from log binomial regression models. Results The mean (sd) age of the men studied was 74 (±6) years. Prevalence of lumbar spondylolisthesis was 31%. Spondylolisthesis was observed at the L3/4, L4/5, and L5/S1 levels. In 96% with spondylolisthesis, only one vertebral level was involved. The degree of slip ranged from 5%–28%, and nearly all listhesis was classified as Meyerding grade I. During follow-up, 12% of men with prevalent spondylolisthesis had progression; 12% without baseline spondylolisthesis had new onset. Prevalence did not vary by height, BMI, smoking history, diabetes, or heart disease. However, men with spondylolisthesis more often reported higher levels of physical activity or walking daily for exercise than men without spondylolisthesis. Conclusions Spondylolisthesis may be more common among older men

  6. Calcifications associated with basal cell carcinoma: prevalence, characteristics, and correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slodkowska, Elzbieta A; Cribier, Bernard; Peltre, Bernard; Jones, David M; Carlson, J Andrew

    2010-08-01

    Carcinoma-associated calcifications (Ca(2+)) are a common phenomenon. In the skin, basal cell carcinomas (BCC) can be associated with Ca(2+). To examine the prevalence, characteristics, and clinicopathologic correlations of BCC associated with Ca(2+). Eighty-three BCC with Ca(2+) were retrieved, 27 (11.1%) of which were identified from a review of 243 consecutive BCC. Ca(2+) were classified into 4 types: type 1, Ca(2+) within BCC epithelium; type 2, Ca(2+) in BCC keratocysts; type 3, BCC tumor necrosis with Ca(2+); and type 4, free Ca(2+) adjacent to BCC. Clinical and pathologic features were assessed and compared with BCC without Ca(2+). Expression of hair-associated proteins (hair keratins (K31, K32, and K35) and matrical transcription factors (LEF1, HOXC13, and β-catenin) were examined in a subset of BCC with Ca(2+) and compared with matched controls without Ca(2+). Compared with BCC without Ca(2+), BCC with Ca(2+) were significantly more likely to show a nodular keratinizing phenotype with keratocyst formation, background solar elastosis, active regression, and areas of tumor necrosis (all P ≤ 0.03). Comparing all BCC, high-risk BCC (mostly infiltrative) had significantly higher frequency of Ca(2+) than low-risk (mostly nodular) BCC (44% vs. 25%; P = 0.009). The median and mean number of Ca(2+) deposits per specimen were 2 and 3 ± 4, range 1-30. In decreasing frequency, type 2 Ca(2+) (58%), type 4 (53%), type 3 (14%), and type 1 (10%) were found. In 9 cases (11%), type 2 and type 4 Ca(2+) were linearly arranged, ostensibly after a follicular or eccrine duct tract. In 5 cases (6%), initial histologic sections showed type 4 dermal Ca(2+) without evidence of BCC; level sections revealed BCC in the adjacent tissue. Neither BCC with nor BCC without Ca(2+) showed evidence of matrical differentiation by immunophenotypic analysis. A minority of BCC exhibits Ca(2+) that are associated with BCC-related keratin and/or necrosis. Like other follicular-derived tumors

  7. Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of autism among children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    peds.2013-0763. 5. Bakare MO, Ebigbo PO, Ubochi VN. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among Nigerian children with intellectual disability: a stopgap assessment. J Health. Care Poor Underserved. 2012; 23:513-8; DOI: 10.1111/ dmcn.

  8. Binge drinking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Kuntsche, S.; Thrul, J.; Gmel, G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Binge drinking (also called heavy episodic drinking, risky single-occasion drinking etc.) is a major public health problem. This paper provides an overview of recently published evidence concerning the definition and measurement, prevalence rates, health impact, demographic and

  9. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies.

  10. Lack of remorse in antisocial personality disorder: sociodemographic correlates, symptomatic presentation, and comorbidity with Axis I and Axis II disorders in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Risë B; Grant, Bridget F; Huang, Boji; Smith, Sharon M; Stinson, Frederick S; Dawson, Deborah A; Chou, S Patricia

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sociodemographic and family history correlates, symptomatic presentation, and comorbidity with Axis I and Axis II disorders, in an epidemiologic sample of adults with DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) who lacked, vs those who did not lack, remorse. This study is based on a nationally representative sample of adults. Lifetime prevalences of each ASPD diagnostic criterion and each comorbid mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorder were estimated. Logistic regression was used to examine associations of lack of remorse with ASPD symptom patterns and comorbid disorders. Diagnoses were made using the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version. Among the 1422 respondents with ASPD, 728 (51%) lacked remorse. Respondents who lacked remorse were younger and more often reported a family history of drug problems than those who did not. More often than remorse-positive respondents, those who were remorse-negative met diagnostic criteria involving violence against persons and less often met criteria involving offenses against property. Remorse was not associated with cruelty to animals, nor with most nonviolent antisocial behaviors. Remorse-negative respondents endorsed more total lifetime violent behaviors than those who were remorse-positive. Lack of remorse was not associated with any lifetime comorbid Axis I or Axis II disorder. Patterns of findings were generally similar between men and women. Lack of remorse appears to identify at best a modestly more symptomatically severe and violent form of ASPD in nonclinical populations.

  11. [Internet addiction as a co-morbid disorder among patients of german addiction rehabilitation facilities: an exploratory investigation of clinical prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kai W; Koch, Andreas; Beutel, Manfred E; Dickenhorst, Ulrike; Medenwaldt, Jens; Wölfling, Klaus

    2012-08-01

    Excessive internet use is being discussed as a non-substance-related addiction disorder. Estimations of its prevalence show that 1% of the German general population is affected by internet addiction. However, it is still unclear, whether internet addiction as a co-morbid disorder is also common among patients of the general health care system, especially in patients being treated in inpatient addiction rehabilitation centers. It seems plausible that these patients have a heightened proneness to co-morbid internet addiction. In order to address this issue, a government-funded cooperation project was conducted. Within six months every new patient admitted to one of 15 rehabilitation facilities was screened for internet addiction. 4.2% of the patients fulfilled criteria for internet addiction. Male patients of younger age with main diagnosis of cannabis dependence or pathological gambling were found to be at higher risk. Internet addiction is more common among patients of the rehabilitation system than in the general population. Especially young, male patients in treatment for cannabis dependence or pathological gambling are at risk for co-morbid internet addiction. It is recommended that regular screening for internet addiction should be implemented in facilities with patients at risk in order to offer indicative treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Clinical Correlates of Hoarding With and Without Comorbid Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in a Community Pediatric Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Christie L; Crosbie, Jennifer; Dupuis, Annie; Mathews, Carol A; Soreni, Noam; Schachar, Russell; Arnold, Paul D

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the prevalence and clinical correlates of hoarding, with and without obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, in a community-based pediatric sample. We measured hoarding and OC symptoms using the Toronto Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (TOCS) in 16,718 youth aged 6 to 17 years in the community. We classified participants with high and low symptom counts for hoarding and OC into 4 groups: hoarding+OC; hoarding-only; OC-only; and control (no OC or hoarding symptoms). We compared these 4 groups on parent- or self-reported medical and psychiatric conditions, anxiety symptoms measured with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms measured with the Strengths and Weaknesses of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Normal Behavior Scale (SWAN). Almost 10% of participants were in the high hoarding group. Of these participants, 40% did not fall into the high OC group. The prevalence of reported psychiatric disorders (e.g., ADHD, autism spectrum disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder) was greater in the hoarding (hoarding+OC and hoarding-only) and OC groups (hoarding+OC and OC-only) than in the nonhoarding (OC-only and control) and non-OC groups (hoarding-only and control), respectively. ADHD, specifically inattentive, symptoms were more common in the hoarding-only than in the OC-only group while anxiety symptoms were more common in the OC-only than in the hoarding-only group. In a community pediatric sample, hoarding symptoms occurred in both the presence and absence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Hoarding symptoms alone had some unique clinical correlates, in particular, more inattentive ADHD symptoms and fewer anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that hoarding is distinct from OC traits in youth. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Couple comorbidity and correlates of postnatal depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers in the first two weeks following delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anding, Jana Eos; Röhrle, Bernd; Grieshop, Melita; Schücking, Beate; Christiansen, Hanna

    2016-01-15

    Postnatal depression affects a significant number of parents; however, its co-occurrence in mothers and fathers has not been studied extensively. Identifying predictors and correlates of postnatal depressive symptoms can help develop effective interventions. Questionnaires on several socio-demographic and psychosocial factors were administered to 276 couples within two weeks after birth. Depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). After calculating the correlation coefficient between mothers and fathers' EPDS scores, univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to identify significant correlates of postnatal depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. Prevalence of maternal and paternal postnatal depressive symptoms was 15.9% (EPDS>12) and 5.4% (EPDS>10), respectively. There was a moderate positive correlation between mothers and fathers' EPDS scores (r=.30, pparental stress was the strongest predictor for maternal and paternal postnatal depressive symptoms. Pregnancy- and birth-related distress and partners' EPDS scores were also associated with depressive symptoms in both parents. Relationship satisfaction was only inversely related with fathers' EPDS scores, while mothers' EPDS scores were additionally associated with critical life events, history of childhood violence, and birth-related physiological complaints. Since information about participation rates (those who declined) is unavailable, we cannot rule out sampling bias. Further, some psychosocial factors were assessed using single items. Since co-occurrence of depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers is high, developing and evaluating postnatal depression interventions for couples may be beneficial. Interventions to reduce parenting stress may help prevent parental postnatal depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of eating disorders and psychiatric comorbidity in a clinical sample of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    OpenAIRE

    Papelbaum,Marcelo; Appolinário,José Carlos; Moreira,Rodrigo de Oliveira; Ellinger,Vivian Carola Moema; Kupfer,Rosane; Coutinho,Walmir Ferreira

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A few studies have shown high rates of eating disorders and psychiatric morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: disturbed eating behavior and psychiatric comorbidity in a sample of T2DM patients. METHODS: Seventy type 2 diabetes mellitus patients between 40 and 65 years of age (mean, 52.9 ± 6.8) from a diabetes outpatient clinic were sequentially evaluated. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Binge Eating Scale and Beck Depression Inventory were u...

  15. Prevalence of eating disorders and psychiatric comorbidity in a clinical sample of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papelbaum, Marcelo; Appolinário, José Carlos; Moreira, Rodrigo de Oliveira; Ellinger, Vivian Carola Moema; Kupfer, Rosane; Coutinho, Walmir Ferreira

    2005-06-01

    A few studies have shown high rates of eating disorders and psychiatric morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Disturbed eating behavior and psychiatric comorbidity in a sample of T2DM patients. Seventy type 2 diabetes mellitus patients between 40 and 65 years of age (mean, 52.9 +/- 6.8) from a diabetes outpatient clinic were sequentially evaluated. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Binge Eating Scale and Beck Depression Inventory were used to assess eating disorders and other psychiatric comorbidity. In addition to the descriptive analysis of the data, we compared groups divided based on the presence of obesity (evaluated by the body mass index) or an eating disorder. Twenty percent of the sample displayed an eating disorder. Binge eating disorder was the predominant eating disorder diagnosis (10%). Overall, the group of obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus presented rates of psychiatric comorbidity comparable to those seen in their nonobese counterparts. However, the presence of an eating disorder was associated with a significant increase in the frequency of anxiety disorders (57.1% x 28.6%; p = 0.044). In our study sample, the occurrence of eating disorders was increased compared to rates observed in the general population, with the predominance of binge eating disorder. The presence of an eating disorder in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients was associated with higher rates of anxiety disorders.

  16. Neural correlates of reactive aggression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviour disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubenzer-Busch, Sarah; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Kuzmanovic, B

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often linked with impulsive and aggressive behaviour, indexed by high comorbidity rates between ADHD and disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD). The present study aimed to investigate underlying neural activity of reactive aggression in ch...... activation of regions belonging to the insula and the middle temporal sulcus. ConclusionData support the hypothesis that deficient inhibitory control mechanisms are related to increased impulsive aggressive behaviour in young people with ADHD and comorbid DBD.......ObjectiveAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often linked with impulsive and aggressive behaviour, indexed by high comorbidity rates between ADHD and disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD). The present study aimed to investigate underlying neural activity of reactive aggression...... in children with ADHD and comorbid DBD using functional neuroimaging techniques (fMRI). MethodEighteen boys with ADHD (age 9-14years, 10 subjects with comorbid DBD) and 18 healthy controls were administered a modified fMRI-based version of the Point Subtraction Aggression Game' to elicit reactive aggressive...

  17. Correlates of major depressive disorder with and without comorbid alcohol use disorder nationally in the veterans health administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Gihyun; Petrakis, Ismene L; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-08-01

    This study assesses medical and psychiatric comorbidities, service utilization, and psychotropic medication prescriptions in veterans with comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) relative to veterans with MDD alone. Using cross-sectional administrative data (fiscal year [FY]2012: October 1, 2011-September 30, 2012) from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), we identified veterans with a diagnosis of current (12-month) MDD nationally (N = 309,374), 18.8% of whom were also diagnosed with current (12-month) AUD. Veterans with both MDD and AUD were compared to those with MDD alone on sociodemographic characteristics, current (12-month) medical and psychiatric disorders, service utilization, and psychotropic prescriptions. We then used logistic regression analyses to calculate odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of characteristics that were independently different between the groups. Dually diagnosed veterans with MDD and AUD, relative to veterans with MDD alone, had a greater number of comorbid health conditions, such as liver disease, drug use disorders, and bipolar disorder as well as greater likelihood of homelessness and higher service utilization. Dually diagnosed veterans with MDD and AUD had more frequent medical and psychiatric comorbidities and more frequently had been homeless. These data suggest the importance of assessing the presence of comorbid medical/psychiatric disorders and potential homelessness in order to provide appropriately comprehensive treatment to dually diagnosed veterans with MDD and AUD and indicate a need to develop more effective treatments for combined disorders. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  18. [Prevalence and Comorbidity of Self-Reported Diagnosis of Burnout Syndrome in the General Population - Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. Methods: In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalences were calculated. Results: Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed burnout syndrome was 4.2 % (women 5.2 %, men 3.3 %), 12-month prevalence was 1.5 % (women 1.9 %, men 1.1 %). Highest prevalences were found in 40 - 59 year olds, in people with middle and high socio-economic status and in women with low and men with high social support. Among the 12-month cases, 70.9 % had at least one DSM-IV disorder. Associations were found for the diagnosis of burnout syndrome with somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders. Conclusion: The diagnosis of burnout syndrome is less frequently given and reported than expected. People with a burnout diagnosis often have a manifest mental disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Youth Homelessness in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Matthew H; Dworsky, Amy; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Curry, Susanna R; Schlueter, David; Chávez, Raúl; Farrell, Anne F

    2018-01-01

    Unaccompanied youth homelessness is a serious concern. Response, however, has been constrained by the absence of credible data on the size and characteristics of the population and reliable means to track youth homelessness over time. We sought to address these gaps. Using a nationally representative phone-based survey (N = 26,161), we solicited household and individual reports on different types of youth homelessness. We collected household reports on adolescents aged 13-17 and young adults aged 18-25, as well as self-reports from young adults aged 18-25. Follow-up interviews with a subsample (n = 150) provided additional information on youth experiences and enabled adjustment for inclusion errors. Over a 12-month period, approximately 3.0% of households with 13- to 17-year-olds reported explicit youth homelessness (including running away or being asked to leave) and 1.3% reported experiences that solely involved couch surfing, resulting in an overall 4.3% household prevalence of any homelessness, broadly defined. For 18- to 25-year-olds, household prevalence estimates were 5.9% for explicitly reported homelessness, 6.6% for couch surfing only, and 12.5% overall. The 12-month population prevalence estimates, available only for 18- to 25-year-olds, were 5.2%, 4.5%, and 9.7%, respectively. Incidence rates were about half as high as prevalence rates. Prevalence rates were similar across rural and nonrural counties. Higher risk of homelessness was observed among young parents; black, Hispanic, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) youth; and those who did not complete high school. The prevalence and incidence of youth homelessness reveal a significant need for prevention and youth-centric systems and services, as well as strategies to address disproportionate risks of certain subpopulations. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. The Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents: prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, comorbidity, methylphenidate use, and help-seeking patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbstein, Ilana; Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Auerbach, Judith G; Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Apter, Alan

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of ADHD is controversial, with many feeling that this disorder is over- or under-diagnosed. To study the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its association with sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid mental disorders, medical services, and methylphenidate use in the Israeli adolescent population. The Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents was conducted in a representative national sample of 14-17 year olds and their mothers. The Development and Well-Being Assessment was administered to identify DSM-IV diagnoses of ADHD and comorbid mental and learning disorders, and the results were verified by senior child psychiatrists. Respondents were also asked about their use of medical services and psychotropic drug intake in the past 12 months. Three percent of the adolescents met the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. ADHD was significantly associated with gender (higher prevalence in boys than girls), ethnicity (higher prevalence in Jews than Arabs/Druze), referral to a medical professional, and maternal help-seeking for the emotional or behavioral problems of the adolescent. Medication was prescribed to 2.9% of adolescents: 34.6% with a diagnosis of ADHD had not been prescribed methylphenidate in the past year, and 34.6% of the medicated subjects did not have a diagnosis of ADHD. None of the Arab/Druze adolescents was receiving stimulants compared to 3.7% of the Jewish adolescents. Despite advances in public awareness of mental disorders in youth, a substantial proportion of older Israeli adolescents, especially from minority groups, are under-diagnosed or untreated. At the same time, many, especially from the Jewish majority, are over-diagnosed and potentially over-treated. Ethnic disparities in rates of mental health care highlight the urgent need to identify and overcome barriers to the recognition and treatment of these conditions.

  1. Assessing the prevalence of autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, and psychiatric comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort of female fibromyalgia patients: does the time from hysterectomy provide a clue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Larry; Hadi, Joseph; Amber, Kyle T; Weiner, Michelle; La Riche, Christopher L; Ference, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective chart review investigated differences in the prevalence of medical comorbidity between women with fibromyalgia (FM) (n=219) and a control group women with chronic pain (CP) without FM (n=116). The specific aims were to compare the prevalence of autoimmune, psychiatric, endocrine, gynecologic pathology, the relationship between timing of gynecologic surgery, and pain onset. We additionally sought to compare the number of comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort. This was a retrospective chart review of patients seen in FM or CP clinics at an academic medical center in 2009-2010. Logistic regression modeling found that gynecologic, endocrine, and autoimmune diagnoses were independently associated with a diagnosis of FM. Detailed analyses showed that thyroid disease (Pgynecologic surgery (Pgynecologic, or psychiatric pathologies. A relationship was observed between the timing of gynecologic surgery and pain onset in FM, with more surgeries observed in the years just prior to pain onset or in the year after pain onset. A similar pattern was not found in the control group. This study demonstrates that autoimmune, endocrine, and gynecologic pathologies occur more commonly in women with FM than in those with CP, which is consistent with findings in less ethnically diverse samples. Moreover, a relationship was found between timing of pain onset and gynecologic surgery. A larger prospective study of the relationship between gynecologic surgery and pain onset in FM is warranted.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of gender-based violence among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall prevalence of gender-based violence was 58.8% [95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 52.9% to 64.5%]. Specifically, 22.8%, 22.2% and 50.8% of students experienced physical, sexual or emotional violence respectively. Religious affiliation, ethnicity, indigeneship, marital status, campus residence and faculty ...

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Gender-based Violence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Nigeria; 4Chiles Center for Healthy Mothers and Babies, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA. *For correspondence: Email: ... valued human resources. Graduates have added value if they are not only ..... Prevalence and risk factors of gender-based violence among female college students in Awassa,. Ethiopia.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of violence among South African high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Young people grow up in homes and communities where many are exposed daily to crime and antisocial behaviours. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of violence and the demographic factors associated with such violence among South African (SA) high school learners in the uMgungundlovu District, ...

  5. Prevalence and correlates of being bullied among in-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Violence against adolescents negatively affects the victim in terms of physical health, school attendance and performance and social adjustment. The literature on the prevalence and associated factors of bullying against adolescents is sparse in southern Africa outside South Africa. Such data are even sparser for Malawi.

  6. Prevalence and correlates of violence against female sex workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:. Few studies in Africa provide detailed descriptions of the vulnerabilities of female sex workers (FSWs) to violence. Objective: To document the prevalence and types of violence experienced by FSWs, identify the risk factors of experiencing violence to women (VAW) and the perpetrators of these acts. Methods: ...

  7. Prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS Inc. Released 2007. SPSS for Windows, version 16.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc. was used for statistical analysis. Results: Prevalence of PTSD among the students was 23.5%. Previous childhood trauma and personal experiences during the crisis were significantly associated with having PTSD.

  8. Healthy diet : Health impact, prevalence, correlates, and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ridder, Denise; Kroese, Floor; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke; Gillebaart, Marleen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To discuss healthy diet from a psychological perspective by considering definitions of healthy diet in terms of consumer understanding; the health effects of specific dietary elements in terms of overweight and (chronic) illness; the prevalence of healthy diet; the psychological and

  9. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of alcohol use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic variables and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to assess alcohol use disorders. The estimated prevalence of alcohol related problems was 39.4% with 28.8% harmful drinking and 10.6% hazardous drinking (alcohol ...

  10. Prevalence and correlates of aggression among psychiatric in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study was designed to determine the prevalence of aggression and clinical factors associated with aggression among psychiatric in-patients at Jos University Teaching Hospital. This will help create a good knowledge base about management of these patients. Materials and Methods: All admitted psychiatric ...

  11. Prevalence and social correlates of sexual intercourse among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolescent sexuality is an important public health issue, as it affects risk to contract HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. The assessment of prevalence of sexual intercourse among adolescents is of public health significance, as it may guide policies and programmes aimed at reducing the transmission of sexually ...

  12. The prevalence and correlates of hypertension in a theological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of hypertension was found to be 28.3%. Only 8 subjects admitted being known hypertensives, out of whom 6 were on treatment. Fifty three percent (45) of them checked their blood pressure irregularly, while 28 (33%) never did. Twenty six respondents (31%) admitted taking extra table salt, while 39 (46%) ...

  13. Choice of place for childbirth: prevalence and correlates of utilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the prevalence and correlatesfor utilization of health facilities for childbirth in a rural Chongwe district, Zambia. Design: A cross sectional study was carried among 250 mothers who had delivered babies within one year prior to the survey. A Backward multiple logistic regression method was used to determine ...

  14. Prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-13

    Jan 13, 2016 ... Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been found to be the most common psychiatric complication of traumatic experiences.[1] High prevalence rates were reported among students with 12% in the United States,. 11% in Yugoslavia, and 11.6% in Haiti.[2,3]. History of trauma, severity of trauma, female ...

  15. Prevalence and the correlates of postnatal depression in an urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Postnatal depression is a common cause of morbidity but is rarely diagnosed or managed in busy primary care settings in most resource limited countries like Zimbabwe. Objectives: This study sought to determine the prevalence of postnatal depression and establish factors associated with postnatal depression ...

  16. Prevalence and correlates of hunger among primary and secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conducted in 2009 to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hunger within the last 30 days among primary and secondary school age group. It also assessed the association between self-reported hunger and some selected list of independent variables using frequency distribution, chi- squared test and logistic regression.

  17. Anxiety, psychosis and substance use: prevalence, correlates and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Psychiatry, St Vincent's Health and The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. Abstract. Objective: The ... use disorder and psychosis is highly prevalent, is associated with poorer outcomes, and is under detected by case managers. ..... 28 days was: alcohol 80% (66/82), cannabis 57% (47/83),.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of being bullied among in- school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-14

    Mar 14, 2013 ... but growing problem globally. Violence against adolescents negatively affects the victim in terms of physical health, school attendance and performance and social adjustment. The literature on the prevalence and associated factors of bullying against adolescents is sparse in southern Africa outside South ...

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of “High Dose” Antipsychotic Prescribing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High dose antipsychotic prescribing is common in psychiatric care, despite a lack of its benefit from research evidence. While several studies have explored the prevalence and factors associated with high dose antipsychotic prescribing, no such report has emanated from a developing country like Nigeria.

  20. Ten Years Trend Analysis of Malaria Prevalence and its Correlation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data were analyzed using SPSS software package 16.0. Pearson's correlation analysis was conducted to see the correlation between plasmodium species and climatic variables. Within the last decade (2004–2013) a total of 30,070 blood films were examined for malaria in Sire health center and of this 6036 (20.07%) ...

  1. Relationship of age and gender to the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byles, Julie E; Gallienne, Lucy; Blyth, Fiona M; Banks, Emily

    2012-06-01

    As populations age, psychological distress in late life will become of increasing public health and social importance. This study seeks to bridge the gap in information that exists about psychological distress in late life, by exploring the prevalence of psychological distress among a very large sample of older adults to determine the impact of age and gender, and the modifying effect of these factors on the associations between measures of psychological distress and sociodemographic and comorbid conditions. We analyzed self-reported data from 236,508 men and women in the New South Wales 45 and Up Study, to determine the impact of age and gender, and the modifying effects of these factors on associations between psychological distress and sociodemographic and comorbid conditions. Higher education, married status, and higher income were associated with lower risk of psychological distress. Although overall prevalence of psychological distress is lower at older ages, this increases after age 80, and is particularly associated with physical disabilities. Some older people (such as those requiring help because of disability and those with multiple comorbid health conditions) are at increased risk of psychological distress. These findings have implications for both healthcare providers and policy-makers in identifying and responding to the needs of older people in our aging society.

  2. Neural correlates of reactive aggression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviour disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenzer-Busch, S; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Kuzmanovic, B; Gaber, T J; Helmbold, K; Ullisch, M G; Baurmann, D; Eickhoff, S B; Fink, G R; Zepf, F D

    2016-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often linked with impulsive and aggressive behaviour, indexed by high comorbidity rates between ADHD and disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD). The present study aimed to investigate underlying neural activity of reactive aggression in children with ADHD and comorbid DBD using functional neuroimaging techniques (fMRI). Eighteen boys with ADHD (age 9-14 years, 10 subjects with comorbid DBD) and 18 healthy controls were administered a modified fMRI-based version of the 'Point Subtraction Aggression Game' to elicit reactive aggressive behaviour. Trials consisted of an 'aggression phase' (punishment for a fictitious opponent) and an 'outcome phase' (presentation of the trial outcome). During the aggression phase, higher aggressive responses of control children were accompanied by higher activation of the ventral anterior cingulate cortex and the temporoparietal junction. Patients displayed inverted results. During the outcome phase, comparison between groups and conditions showed differential activation in the dorsal striatum and bilateral insular when subjects gained points. Losing points was accompanied by differential activation of regions belonging to the insula and the middle temporal sulcus. Data support the hypothesis that deficient inhibitory control mechanisms are related to increased impulsive aggressive behaviour in young people with ADHD and comorbid DBD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Neuroanatomical correlates of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder accounting for comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Daimei; Hayashida, Ayako; Yamasue, Hidenori; Harada, Yuzuru; Kaneko, Tomoki; Kasai, Kiyoto; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Amano, Naoji

    2010-08-01

    An increasing number of neuroimaging studies have been conducted to uncover the pathophysiology of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The findings are inconsistent, however, at least partially due to methodological differences. In the present study voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to evaluate brain morphology in ADHD subjects after taking into account the confounding effect of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) comorbidity. Eighteen children with ADHD and 17 age- and gender-matched typically developing subjects underwent high-spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging. The regional gray matter volume differences between the children with ADHD and controls were examined with and without accounting for comorbid ODD and CD in a voxel-by-voxel manner throughout the entire brain. The VBM indicated significantly smaller regional gray matter volume in regions including the bilateral temporal polar and occipital cortices and the left amygdala in subjects with ADHD compared with controls. Significantly smaller regional gray matter volumes were demonstrated in more extensive regions including the bilateral temporal polar cortices, bilateral amygdala, right occipital cortex, right superior temporal sulcus, and left middle frontal gyrus after controlling for the confounding effect of comorbid ODD and CD. Morphological abnormalities in ADHD were seen not only in the regions associated with executive functioning but also in the regions associated with social cognition. When the effect of comorbid CD and ODD was taken into account, there were more extensive regions with significantly smaller volume in ADHD compared to controls.

  4. Stealing among High School Students: Prevalence and Clinical Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Desai, Rani A.

    2011-01-01

    Although stealing among adolescents appears to be fairly common, an assessment of adolescent stealing and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n=3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, stealing behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of steal...

  5. Prevalence and correlates of apathy in myotonic dystrophy type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Gallais, Benjamin; Montreuil, Mich?le; Gargiulo, Marcela; Eymard, Bruno; Gagnon, Cynthia; Laberge, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Background Apathy in DM1 has long been acknowledged in clinical practice. However, a major drawback is that the concept has been only sparsely explored in previous specific studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of apathy in myotonic dystrophy (DM1), to compare it with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) patients and normal healthy controls, and explore its relationship to psychopathological features and cognitive function. Methods Levels of apathy in 38 DM1 patients with adul...

  6. Psychosocial functioning, quality of life and clinical correlates of comorbid alcohol and drug dependence syndromes in people with schizophrenia across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrà, Giuseppe; Johnson, Sonia; Crocamo, Cristina; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Brugha, Traolach; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Toumi, Mondher; Bebbington, Paul E

    2016-05-30

    Little is known about the correlates of comorbid drug and alcohol dependence in people with schizophrenia outside the USA. We tested hypotheses that dependence on alcohol/drugs would be associated with more severe symptoms, and poorer psychosocial functioning and quality of life. The EuroSC Cohort study (N=1204), based in France, Germany and the UK, used semi-structured clinical interviews for diagnoses, and standardized tools to assess correlates. We used mixed models to compare outcomes between past-year comorbid dependence on alcohol/drugs, controlling for covariates and modelling both subject and country-level effects. Participants dependent on alcohol or drugs had fewer negative symptoms on PANSS than their non-dependent counterparts. However, those dependent on alcohol scored higher on PANSS general psychopathology than those who were not, or dependent only on drugs. People with schizophrenia dependent on drugs had poorer quality of life, more extrapyramidal side effects, and scored worse on Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) than those without dependence. People with alcohol dependence reported more reasons for non-compliance with medication, and poorer functioning on GAF, though not on Global Assessment of Relational Functioning. In people with schizophrenia, comorbid dependence on alcohol or drugs is associated with impaired clinical and psychosocial adjustment, and poorer quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Personality correlates of outpatient mental health service utilization: findings from the U.S. national comorbidity survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Lachlan A; Cox, Brian J; Enns, Murray W; Clara, Ian P

    2006-05-01

    The present paper investigated the relationships between several personality constructs and the use of outpatient mental health services. Respondents were from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) Part II data set and included those with a past-year mood, anxiety, alcohol/substance use disorder (n=1750). Bivariate logistic regressions were used to examine associations between participants' self-reports of personality traits and outpatient mental health service utilization. Similar multivariate analyses were used to investigate these associations after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and the presence of psychiatric disorders and their comorbidity. The bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed significant positive associations between outpatient mental health service utilization and both Powerful Others Locus of Control and Self-criticism. These findings suggest that personality traits may play a role in treatment seeking behaviors for mental health problems over and above the presence of psychiatric disorders alone. The assessment of relevant personality constructs has the potential to inform and improve treatment outreach efforts.

  8. Tobacco smoking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Despite reductions in prevalence in recent years, tobacco smoking remains one of the main preventable causes of ill-health and premature death worldwide. This paper reviews the extent and nature of harms caused by smoking, the benefits of stopping, patterns of smoking, psychological, pharmacological and social factors that contribute to uptake and maintenance of smoking, the effectiveness of population and individual level interventions aimed at combatting tobacco smoking, and the effectiveness of methods used to reduce the harm caused by continued use of tobacco or nicotine in some form. Smoking behaviour is maintained primarily by the positive and negative reinforcing properties of nicotine delivered rapidly in a way that is affordable and palatable, with the negative health consequences mostly being sufficiently uncertain and distant in time not to create sufficient immediate concern to deter the behaviour. Raising immediate concerns about smoking by tax increases, social marketing and brief advice from health professionals can increase the rate at which smokers try to stop. Providing behavioural and pharmacological support can improve the rate at which those quit attempts succeed. Implementing national programmes containing these components are effective in reducing tobacco smoking prevalence and reducing smoking-related death and disease.

  9. DSM-5 illness anxiety disorder and somatic symptom disorder: Comorbidity, correlates, and overlap with DSM-IV hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Jill M; Hobbs, Megan J; Mahoney, Alison E J; Wong, Shiu Kelvin; Andrews, Gavin

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the reliability, validity and utility of DSM-5 illness anxiety disorder (IAD) and somatic symptom disorder (SSD), and explore their overlap with DSM-IV Hypochondriasis in a health anxious sample. Treatment-seeking patients with health anxiety (N=118) completed structured diagnostic interviews to assess DSM-IV Hypochondriasis, DSM-5 IAD, SSD, and comorbid mental disorders, and completed self-report measures of health anxiety, comorbid symptoms, cognitions and behaviours, and service utilization. IAD and SSD were more reliable diagnoses than Hypochondriasis (kappa estimates: IAD: 0.80, SSD: 0.92, Hypochondriasis: 0.60). 45% of patients were diagnosed with SSD, 47% with IAD, and 8% with comorbid IAD/SSD. Most patients with IAD fluctuated between seeking and avoiding care (61%), whereas care-seeking (25%) and care-avoidant subtypes were less common (14%). Half the sample met criteria for DSM-IV Hypochondriasis; of those, 56% met criteria for SSD criteria, 36% for IAD, and 8% for comorbid IAD/SSD. Compared to IAD, SSD was characterized by more severe health anxiety, somatic symptoms, depression, and higher health service use, and higher rates of major depressive disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia. DSM-5 IAD and SSD classifications reliably detect more cases of clinically significant health anxiety than DSM-IV Hypochondriasis. The differences between IAD and SSD appear to be due to severity. Future research should explore the generalizability of these findings to other samples, and whether diagnostic status predicts treatment response and long-term outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Distruptive Behaviour Disorders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The mean age was 17.3 ± 2.1 years, 52.8% were between 11-14 years of age and 15.1%, 64.2% and 60.4% had ADHD, CD and oppositional defiant behaviour disorder respectively. Age and parents' marital status were significant correlates. Conclusion: This study showed that juvenile detainees were likely to ...

  11. The clinical-familial correlates and naturalistic outcome of panic-disorder-agoraphobia with and without lifetime bipolar II comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Cristina

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the literature on panic disorder (PD-bipolar disorder (BP cormorbidity concerns BP-I. This literature emphasizes the difficulties encountered in pharmacologic treatment and outcome when such comorbidity is present. The present report explores these issues with respect to BP-II. Methods The sample comprised 326 outpatients (aged 34.5 ± 11.5 years old; 222 females with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 3rd edn, revised (DSM-III-R PD-agoraphobia; among them 52 subjects (16% were affected by lifetime comorbidity with BP-II. Patients were evaluated by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID, the Panic-Agoraphobia Interview, and the Longitudinal Interview Follow-up Examination (Life-Up and treated according to routine clinical practice at the University of Pisa, Italy, for a period of 3 years. Clinical and course features were compared between subjects with and without BP-II. All patients received the clinicians' choice of antidepressants and, in the case of the subsample with BP-II, mood stabilizers (for example, valproate, lithium were among the mainstays of treatment. Results In comparison to patients without bipolar comorbidity, those with BP-II showed a significantly greater frequency of social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, alcohol-related disorders, and separation anxiety during childhood and adolescence. Regarding family history, a significantly greater frequency of PD and mood disorders was present among the BP-II. No significant differences were observed in the long-term course of PD or agoraphobic symptoms under pharmacological treatment or the likelihood of spontaneous pharmacological treatment interruptions. Conclusion Although the severity and outcome of panic-agoraphobic symptomatology appear to be similar in patients with and without lifetime bipolar comorbidity, the higher number of concomitant disorders in our PD patients with BP-II does indicate a greater

  12. Dependent cannabis users at a music festival - prevalence and correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Background In most western countries, the most prevalent type of illicit substance-use dependence in most is cannabis dependence. Historically, cannabis has been associated with several music genres, and the drug is widely used at music festivals. Methods Based on a survey of 380 music festival......), and of these respondents, 21 (15%) screened positive for cannabis dependence. Compared to non-dependent cannabis users, the cannabis dependent respondents were more likely to be daily smokers, they reported having attended fewer music festivals during their lifetime, and they scored higher on self-reported sensation...... at a music festival, one in seven of those respondents showed indication of cannabis dependence. This suggests a need for both available treatment options and primary prevention of dependence....

  13. Prevalence and correlates of being overweight or obese in college

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Lust, Katherine; Wimmelmann, Cathrine L

    2015-01-01

    Recent statistics indicate that over one-third of college students are currently overweight or obese, however, the impact of weight in this population from academic and psychiatric perspectives is not fully understood. This study sought to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in college...... students and its association with stress, mental health disorders and academic achievement. A total of 1765 students completed the College Student Computer User Survey (CSCUS) online at a large Midwestern United States University. Responders were classified by weight as normal, overweight or obese based...... with significantly lower overall academic achievement, more depressive symptoms, and using diet pills for weight loss. Obese males had significantly higher rates of lifetime trichotillomania while overweight and obese females reported higher rates of panic disorder. Higher educational institutions should be aware...

  14. Prevalence of comorbidities in the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Alaa; Ryoo, Seung Gwan

    2016-08-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is associated with life-threatening severe illnesses and a mortality rate of approximately 35%, particularly in patients with underlying comorbidities. A systematic analysis of 637 MERS-CoV cases suggests that diabetes and hypertension are equally prevalent in approximately 50% of the patients. Cardiac diseases are present in 30% and obesity in 16% of the cases. These conditions down-regulate the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and impair the host's innate and humoral immune systems. In conclusion, protection against MERS-CoV and other respiratory infections can be improved if public health vaccination strategies are tailored to target persons with chronic disorders. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of comorbidities in the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Badawi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV is associated with life-threatening severe illnesses and a mortality rate of approximately 35%, particularly in patients with underlying comorbidities. A systematic analysis of 637 MERS-CoV cases suggests that diabetes and hypertension are equally prevalent in approximately 50% of the patients. Cardiac diseases are present in 30% and obesity in 16% of the cases. These conditions down-regulate the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and impair the host's innate and humoral immune systems. In conclusion, protection against MERS-CoV and other respiratory infections can be improved if public health vaccination strategies are tailored to target persons with chronic disorders.

  16. Prevalence of co-morbid depression in out-patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Tapash

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the prevalence of depression in people with diabetes in Bangladesh. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with depression in out-patients with Type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. Methods In this cross-sectional study a random sample of 483 diabetes out-patients from three diabetes clinics in Bangladesh was invited to participate. Of them 417 patients took part. Depressive symptoms were measured using previously developed and culturally standardized Bengali and Sylheti versions of the World HealthOrganization-5 Well Being Index (WHO-5 and the Patient Health Questionairre-9 (PHQ-9 with predefined cut-off scores. Data was collected using two different modes; e.g. standard assisted collection and audio questionnaire methods. Associations between depression and patient characteristics were explored using regression analysis. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 34% (PHQ-9 score ≥ 5 and 36% (WHO-5 score  Conclusions This study demonstrated that depression prevalence is common in out-patients with type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. In a setting where recognition, screening and treatment levels remain low, health care providers need to focus their efforts on diagnosing, referring and effectively treating this important disease in order to improve service delivery.

  17. Stealing among High School Students: Prevalence and Clinical Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Desai, Rani A.

    2013-01-01

    Although stealing among adolescents appears to be fairly common, an assessment of adolescent stealing and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n=3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, stealing behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of stealing was 15.2% (95%CI: 14.8–17.0). Twenty-nine (0.72%) students endorsed symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of DSM-IV kleptomania. Poor grades, alcohol and drug use, regular smoking, sadness and hopelessness, and other antisocial behaviors were all significantly (p<.05) associated with any stealing behavior. Stealing appears fairly common among high school students and is associated with a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and loss of control over this behavior suggests that stealing often has significant associated morbidity. PMID:21389165

  18. Prevalence and correlates of being overweight or obese in college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlaug, Brian L; Lust, Katherine; Wimmelmann, Cathrine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Mortensen, Erik L; Derbyshire, Katherine; Christenson, Gary; Grant, Jon E

    2015-05-30

    Recent statistics indicate that over one-third of college students are currently overweight or obese, however, the impact of weight in this population from academic and psychiatric perspectives is not fully understood. This study sought to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in college students and its association with stress, mental health disorders and academic achievement. A total of 1765 students completed the College Student Computer User Survey (CSCUS) online at a large Midwestern United States University. Responders were classified by weight as normal, overweight or obese based on body mass index. Data were stratified by sex, with cross-tabulation and t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, and logistic regression for analysis. A total of 492 (27.9%) students were overweight (20.2%; range 25.01-29.98) or obese (7.7%; range 30.04-71.26). Overweight and obesity were associated with significantly lower overall academic achievement, more depressive symptoms, and using diet pills for weight loss. Obese males had significantly higher rates of lifetime trichotillomania while overweight and obese females reported higher rates of panic disorder. Higher educational institutions should be aware of the significant burden associated with overweight and obesity in students, and of the differing demographic and clinical associations between overweight or obesity in men and women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of central venous catheter use among haemodialysis patients in the Irish health system - a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Wael F; Mohammed, Husham; Browne, Leonard; Plant, Liam; Stack, Austin G

    2018-04-02

    Central venous catheters (CVC) are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality among patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD), yet they are frequently used as the primary vascular access for many patients on HD. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence and variation in CVC use across centres in the Irish health system. Data from the National Kidney Disease Clinical Patient Management System (KDCPMS) was used to determine CVC use and patterns across centres. Data on demographic characteristics, primary cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), comorbid conditions, laboratory values and centre affiliation were extracted for adult HD patients (n = 1, 196) who were on dialysis for at least three months up to end of December 2016. Correlates of CVC use were explored using multivariable logistic regression. Overall prevalence of CVC use was 54% and varied significantly across clinical sites from 43% to 73%, P catheter use was greater for women than men, OR 1.77 (1.34-2.34) and for 2 out of 10 regional dialysis centres, OR 1.98 (1.02-3.84) and OR 2.86 (1.67-4.90) respectively compared to referent group). Catheters are the predominant type of vascular access in patients undergoing HD in the Irish health system. Substantial centre variation exists which is not explained by patient-level characteristics.

  20. Plateaued national utilization of adolescent bariatric surgery despite increasing prevalence of obesity-associated co-morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindel, Tammy L; Lomelin, Daniel; McBride, Corrigan; Kothari, Vishal; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2016-05-01

    The number of adolescent bariatric surgeries (ABS) performed from 2003 to 2009 has been stable despite reports of an increase in adolescent morbid obesity. We sought to determine the trend in national ABS volume and the changes in obesity-associated co-morbidities (OACM) from 2004 to 2011. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample database. The National Inpatient Sample database was queried for adolescents undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, adjustable gastric banding, or sleeve gastrectomy from 2004 to 2011. Twelve OACM categories were created by ICD-9 code. From 2004 to 2011, an estimated 968 ABS cases per year were performed with no significant change in yearly volumes. There was a significant decrease in the annual volume of Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses (85.7%-54.4%, Padolescent increased significantly, from 1.44±1.3 in 2004-2005 to 1.85±1.5 in 2010-2011 (Padolescent bariatric surgical evaluation and treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence, Incidence and stability of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittchen, H.U.; Becker, E.S.; Lieb, R.; Krause, P.

    2002-01-01

    Background. Despite an abundance of clinical research on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. few epidemiological data provide estimates of the prevalence, incidence, co-morbidity, stability and correlates of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in the community. Aims. To describe the prevalence,

  2. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Comorbid Conditions Among U.S. and Kentucky Adults, 2000–2002

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Todd M

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Obesity rates for adults in Kentucky are regularly among the highest in the nation. Since 1991, adult obesity in Kentucky and the United States has nearly doubled. This trend is of great concern because excess weight has been associated with several chronic diseases and conditions. This paper reports on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults in Kentucky between 2000 and 2002. The estimates produced by this study will provide baseline figures for developing Kentucky...

  3. Prevalence and correlates of internalizing mental health symptoms among CSHCN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandour, Reem M; Kogan, Michael D; Blumberg, Stephen J; Perry, Deborah F

    2010-02-01

    This study provides nationally representative prevalence estimates of internalizing mental health symptoms among children with special health care needs (CSHCN) and identifies significant covariates of these symptoms by using multivariate regression. Internalizing symptoms include feeling anxious and depressed. Data were obtained from the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a nationally representative, parent-reported, cross-sectional survey of 40 465 CSHCN. The presence of internalizing mental health symptoms was assessed by using 2 binary items capturing whether a child had or experienced difficulty with depression, anxiety, disordered eating, or other emotional problems. The odds of experiencing internalizing symptoms were assessed by using multivariate regression, controlling for sociodemographic, health-related, and burden-related covariates. A total of 31.9% of CSHCN 3 to 17 years of age experienced internalizing mental health symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression showed internalizing symptoms to be strongly associated with female gender, older age, and frequent activity limitations, as well as externalizing mental health symptoms and conditions with behavioral components. Children with behavior problems had 6 times the odds of internalizing symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 5.95 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.30-6.69]), whereas children with autism spectrum disorder had 3 times the odds (aOR: 3.00 [95% CI: 2.39-3.77]). Increased odds of symptoms also were associated with frequent headaches (aOR: 1.76 [95% CI: 1.45-2.13]) and chronic pain (aOR: 1.46 [95% CI: 1.22-1.75]). Odds of symptoms were greater for children living in households that experienced employment changes or financial burdens resulting from the children's needs. Internalizing mental health symptoms are common among CSHCN. Findings may help caregivers focus screening and prevention efforts for high-risk groups in this heterogeneous population.

  4. Sexual infidelity in China: prevalence and gender-specific correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Parish, William L; Huang, Yingying; Pan, Suiming

    2012-08-01

    The nature of extra-relational sex in societies with rapidly changing sexual mores and widespread commercial sex remains under-explored. The 2006 Sexuality Survey of China provides a national probability survey with data on 3,567 people 18-49 years old who were in a marital (89%) or dating/cohabiting (11%) relationship. In attitudes, extramarital sex was completely unacceptable to 74% of women and 60% of men and either somewhat or completely unacceptable to 95% of women and men. Most (77%) women wanted severe punishment of men's short-term commercial sex and women's jealousy was equally elevated by their primary partner's episodes of commercial and non-commercial sex. Nevertheless, the prevalence of infidelity during the last 12 months was 4.5% (women's non-commercial sex), 11.0% (men's non-commercial), and 5.5% (men's commercial), with each percent matching or exceeding the median for other countries. In multivariate equations for non-commercial infidelity, men's infidelity was significantly more responsive to sexual dissatisfaction with his primary partner while women's was more responsive to deficits in love. In commercial sex, men were uninfluenced by primary partner deficits in love, sexual satisfaction or oral sex-pursuing, it would seem, simply a greater variety of sexual partners. In a "trading up" pattern, women partnered with low income men had elevated infidelity. The minority of women reporting early masturbation and premarital sex were just as likely as men with these backgrounds to have elevated infidelity. The Chinese patterns provide ample material for deliberations on gender similarities and differences in extra-relational sex.

  5. Prevalence of comorbid depression is high in out-patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results from three out-patient clinics in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwer, F.; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P.H.L.M.; Tack, C.J.; Bazelmans, E.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Heine, R.J.; Snoek, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Depression is common in diabetes, but the scope of the problem and associated correlates are not well established in specialist diabetes care. We aimed to determine the prevalence of depression among adult outpatients with Type 1 (T1DM) or Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) using both self-report measures

  6. Prevalence of comorbid depression is high in out-patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results from three out-patient clinics in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwer, F.; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P.H.; Tack, C.J.J.; Bazelmans, E.; Beekman, A.J.; Heine, R.J.; Snoek, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Depression is common in diabetes, but the scope of the problem and associated correlates are not well established in specialist diabetes care. We aimed to determine the prevalence of depression among adult outpatients with Type 1 (T1DM) or Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) using both self-report measures

  7. Body dysmorphic disorder in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: prevalence and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição Costa, Daniel Lucas; Chagas Assunção, Melissa; Arzeno Ferrão, Ygor; Archetti Conrado, Luciana; Hajaj Gonzalez, Christina; Franklin Fontenelle, Leonardo; Fossaluza, Victor; Constantino Miguel, Eurípedes; Rodrigues Torres, Albina; Gedanke Shavitt, Roseli

    2012-11-01

    The prevalence, sociodemographic aspects, and clinical features of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been previously addressed in primarily relatively small samples. We performed a cross-sectional demographic and clinical assessment of 901 OCD patients participating in the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders. We used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders; Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale; Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS); Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale; Clinical Global Impression Scale; and Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. The lifetime prevalence of BDD was 12.1%. The individuals with comorbid BDD (OCD-BDD; n = 109) were younger than were those without it. In addition, the proportions of single and unemployed patients were greater in the OCD-BDD group. This group of patients also showed higher rates of suicidal behaviors; mood, anxiety, and eating disorders; hypochondriasis; skin picking; Tourette syndrome; and symptoms of the sexual/religious, aggressive, and miscellaneous dimensions. Furthermore, OCD-BDD patients had an earlier onset of OC symptoms; greater severity of OCD, depression, and anxiety symptoms; and poorer insight. After logistic regression, the following features were associated with OCD-BDD: current age; age at OCD onset; severity of the miscellaneous DY-BOCS dimension; severity of depressive symptoms; and comorbid social phobia, dysthymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and skin picking. Because OCD patients might not inform clinicians about concerns regarding their appearance, it is essential to investigate symptoms of BDD, especially in young patients with early onset and comorbid social anxiety, chronic depression, skin picking, or eating disorders. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Among Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachel H B; Timmins, Vanessa; Collins, Jordan; Scavone, Antonette; Iskric, Adam; Goldstein, Benjamin I

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder phenotype (DMDDP) in a clinical population of adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD). DMDD criteria were modified and applied to a sample of 116 adolescents with BD-I (n = 30), BD-II (n = 46) or BD-not otherwise specified (NOS) (n = 40) from a tertiary teaching hospital. Diagnoses were determined via the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children, Present and Lifetime version (KSADS-PL). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) DMDD Criteria A-G were derived from the KSADS oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) screening interview and supplement, as well as narrative summaries. Chi-square analyses or t tests (p associated with BD subtype or with family history of BD. In univariate analyses, after controlling for age, sex, and race, DMDDP was associated with lower functioning, increased family conflict, assault history, and attention deficit and/or hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (FDR adjusted p values: disorder and medication use approached significance (adjusted p = 0.05). In logistic regression, DMDDP was independently associated with greater parent-reported family conflict (odds ratio [OR] 1.17; confidence interval [CI- 1.06-1.30; p = 0.001) and greater functional impairment (OR 0.89; CI 0.82-0.97; p = 0.006). DMDDP was also associated with a threefold increase in ADHD, although ADHD was only marginally significant (OR 3.3; CI 0.98-10.94; p = 0.05). Despite the positioning of DMDD as phenotypically and biologically distinct from BD, these phenotypes commonly overlap in clinical settings. This overlap is not explained by BD-NOS or by nonfamilial BD. The association of ADHD with DMDDP in this sample draws into question whether arousal symptoms should have been retained as originally elaborated in the severe mood dysregulation phenotype. Strategies to mitigate the

  9. Prevalence, predictors and correlates of insomnia in US army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Brownlow, Janeese A; Boland, Elaine M; Mosti, Caterina; Gehrman, Philip R

    2017-10-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate the rates, predictors and correlates of insomnia in a national sample of US Army soldiers. Data were gathered from the cross-sectional survey responses of the All-Army Study, of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service members. Participants were a representative sample of 21 499 US Army soldiers who responded to the All-Army Study self-administered questionnaire between 2011 and 2013. Insomnia was defined by selected DSM-5 criteria using the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire. The results highlight significant functional difficulties associated with insomnia among US soldiers, as well as insights into predictors of insomnia specific to this population. Insomnia was present in 22.76% of the sample. Predictors of insomnia status in logistic regression included greater number of current mental health disorders, less perceived open lines of communication with leadership, less unit member support and less education. Insomnia had global, negative associations with health, social functioning, support, morale, work performance and Army career intentions. The results provide the strongest evidence to-date that insomnia is common in a military population, and is associated with a wide array of negative factors in the domains of health, military readiness and intentions to remain in military careers. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  10. Depression, obesity, and metabolic syndrome: prevalence and risks of comorbidity in a population-based representative sample of Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Rene L; Williamson, Douglas E; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; Vatcheva, Kristina P; McCormick, Joseph B

    2015-10-01

    We examined the prevalence of depression, obesity, and metabolic syndrome and associations between them in a population-based representative cohort of Mexican Americans living on the United States-Mexico border. The sample in this cross-sectional analysis consisted of 1,768 Mexican American adults (≥ 18 years of age) assessed between the years 2004 and 2010, with whom we tested our central hypothesis of a significant relationship between obesity and depression. Depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) with a cutoff score of ≥ 16 for depression and a cutoff score of ≥ 27 for severe depression. We categorized body mass index (BMI) values as obese (≥ 30kg/m(2)) and later subdivided the obese subjects into obese (30-39 kg/m(2)[inclusive]) and morbidly obese (≥ 40 kg/m(2)). Metabolic syndrome was defined using the American Heart Association definition requiring at least 3 of the following: increased waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting glucose. Weighted data were analyzed to establish prevalence of depression, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Univariate and multivariable weighted regression models were used to test potential associations between these disorders. Using weighted prevalence, we observed high rates of depression (30%), obesity (52%), and metabolic syndrome (45%). Univariate models revealed female gender (P = .0004), low education (P = .003), low HDL level (P = .009), and increased waist circumference (P = .03) were associated with depression. Female gender (P = .01), low education (P = .003), and morbid obesity (P = .002) were risk factors for severe depression and remained significant in multivariable models. In this large cohort of Mexican Americans, obesity, female gender, and low education were identified risk factors for depression. These indicators may serve as targets for early

  11. The prevalence and ingredient cost of chronic comorbidity in the Irish elderly population with medication treated type 2 diabetes: A retrospective cross-sectional study using a national pharmacy claims database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Shea Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbidity in patients with diabetes is associated with poorer health and increased cost. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and ingredient cost of comorbidity in patients ≥ 65 years with and without medication treated type 2 diabetes using a national pharmacy claims database. Methods The Irish Health Service Executive Primary Care Reimbursement Service pharmacy claims database, which includes all prescribing to individuals covered by the General Medical Services scheme, was used to identify the study population (≥ 65 years. Patients with medication treated type 2 diabetes (T2DM were identified using the prescription of oral anti-hyperglycaemic agents alone or in combination with insulin as a proxy for disease diagnosis. The prevalence and ingredient prescribing cost of treated chronic comorbidity in the study population with and without medication treated T2DM were ascertained using a modified version of the RxRiskV index, a prescription based comorbidity index. The association between T2DM and comorbid conditions was assessed using logistic regression adjusting for age and sex. Bootstrapping was used to ascertain the mean annual ingredient cost of treated comorbidity. Statistical significance at p  Results In 2010, 43165 of 445180 GMS eligible individuals (9.7% were identified as having received medication for T2DM. The median number of comorbid conditions was significantly higher in those with T2DM compared to without (median 5 vs. 3 respectively; p  Conclusions Individuals with T2DM were more likely to have a higher number of treated comorbid conditions than those without and this was associated with higher ingredient costs. This has important policy and economic consequences for the planning and provision of future health services in Ireland, given the expected increase in T2DM and other chronic conditions.

  12. Prevalence and correlates for sleep complaints in older adults in low and middle income countries: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Diego Robles; Guindalini, Camila; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Ferri, Cleusa P; Tufik, Sergio

    2012-06-01

    Although it is well recognized that the prevalence of sleep complaints increases with age, estimates in developing countries are still unknown. The present study aims to estimate the prevalence and prevalence ratios of the correlates of sleep complaints in a large population of older adults from low and middle income countries (LAMICs). A cross-sectional survey was performed in 16,680 65 year-old or older residents in catchment areas of Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Peru, Venezuela, Mexico, China, India, and Puerto Rico (10/66 Dementia Research Group study). Information about socio-demographic factors, lifestyle, health, and sleep complaints was obtained. Results were standardized by age, sex, household clustering, and residence site (urban or rural). Prevalence ratios were derived for each country and fixed effects meta-analyses were used to combine them. The standardized prevalence of sleep complaints varied from 9.1% (China) to 37.7% (India). The meta-analysis showed that female gender, urban residence, low educational level, low physical activity status, high pain scores, poor health, higher memory impairment score, presence of major depression, mild cognitive impairment, and high number of co-morbidities were associated with sleep complaints. This study robustly characterized the prevalence of sleep complaints in large samples of the elderly in LAMICs and identified potential risk factors that may be specific to these populations. This approach can help to direct health-care efforts related to sleep disturbances in these countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalência de manifestações clínico-laboratoriais e comorbidades na polimiosite segundo o gênero Prevalence of clinical and laboratory manifestations and comorbidities in polymyositis according to gender

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    Fernando Henrique Carlos de Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a distribuição e a influência do gênero na polimiosite (PM, quanto às manifestações clínico-laboratoriais, evolução e comorbidades. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo, unicêntrico, em que foram avaliados 75 pacientes consecutivos com PM (Bohan e Peter, 1975 entre 1990 e 2010. Os exames complementares referem-se ao início do diagnóstico da PM. RESULTADOS: Este estudo avaliou 52 mulheres e 23 homens (razão 2,3:1, a maioria de cor branca (84,0%, com média de idade de 42,7 ± 13,7 anos (16 a 67 anos, e duração média de doença de 6,9 ± 5,5 anos (0 a 20 anos. Aproximadamente 50% apresentaram recidiva da doença durante o acompanhamento, com 4,0% de óbitos. Apesar disso, dois terços encontravam-se em remissão no desfecho do estudo. Não houve diferença entre os gêneros quanto à distribuição das características demográficas, clínico-laboratoriais, evolução clínica e terapia medicamentosa instituída. Com relação às comorbidades, houve alta prevalência de hipertensão arterial sistêmica (38,7% e diabetes mellitus (17,3%, igualmente distribuídas entre os gêneros. Verificou-se alta prevalência de depressão e fibromialgia, porém apenas no gênero feminino. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de PM entre mulheres foi maior (razão 2,3:1. A prevalência de comorbidades foi alta na casuística estudada, cabendo-nos priorizar seus controles e, assim, oferecer melhor qualidade de vida aos pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To assess gender distribution in polymyositis (PM and its influence on disease, regarding clinical and laboratory manifestations, outcome and comorbidities. METHODS: Retrospective single-center cohort study assessing 75 consecutive patients with PM (Bohan and Peter, 1975 from 1990 to 2010. Complementary tests were related to early diagnosis of PM. RESULTS: The study assessed 52 women and 23 men (ratio 2.3:1, most of whom white (84.0%, with a mean age of 42.7 ± 13.7 years (16 to 67 years, and mean

  14. Video Game Addiction among High School Students in Hordaland; Prevalence and Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Bjordal, Sunniva Alsvik; Skumsnes, Toril; Ørland, Anette

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of video game addiction among high school students (N = 531) in Hordaland county, Norway. Video game addiction measured by the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents was estimated both by a monothetic and a polythetic format. The prevalence was found to be 2.5% and 12.5%, respectively. Regression analyses were conducted where video game addiction comprised the dependent variable. Demographic variables, depression, anxiety, lone...

  15. Assessing the prevalence of autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, and psychiatric comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort of female fibromyalgia patients: does the time from hysterectomy provide a clue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Larry Brooks,1 Joseph Hadi,2 Kyle T Amber,1 Michelle Weiner,3 Christopher L La Riche,4 Tamar Ference1 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, 2Anesco Interventional Pain Institute, Margate, 3Miami Pain and Diagnostics, Miami, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, Florida International University Wertheim College of Medicine, University Park, FL, USABackground: This retrospective chart review investigated differences in the prevalence of medical comorbidity between women with fibromyalgia (FM (n=219 and a control group women with chronic pain (CP without FM (n=116. The specific aims were to compare the prevalence of autoimmune, psychiatric, endocrine, gynecologic pathology, the relationship between timing of gynecologic surgery, and pain onset. We additionally sought to compare the number of comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort.Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of patients seen in FM or CP clinics at an academic medical center in 2009–2010.Results: Logistic regression modeling found that gynecologic, endocrine, and autoimmune diagnoses were independently associated with a diagnosis of FM. Detailed analyses showed that thyroid disease (P<0.01 and gynecologic surgery (P<0.05 were significantly more common in FM. Women with FM were more likely to have multiple autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, or psychiatric pathologies. A relationship was observed between the timing of gynecologic surgery and pain onset in FM, with more surgeries observed in the years just prior to pain onset or in the year after pain onset. A similar pattern was not found in the control group.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that autoimmune, endocrine, and gynecologic pathologies occur more commonly in women with FM than in those with CP, which is consistent with findings in less ethnically diverse samples. Moreover, a relationship was found between timing of pain onset and gynecologic

  16. The prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Berglund, Patricia A.; Chiu, Wai Tat; Deitz, Anne C.; Hudson, James I.; Shahly, Victoria; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Benjet, Corina; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Haro, Josep Maria; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; O’Neill, Siobhan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sasu, Carmen; Scott, Kate; Viana, Maria Carmen; Xavier, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Background Little population-based data exist outside the United States on the epidemiology of binge eating disorder (BED). Cross-national data on BED are presented and compared to bulimia nervosa (BN) based on the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Methods Community surveys with 24,124 respondents (ages 18+) across 14 mostly upper-middle and high income countries assessed lifetime and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Physical disorders were assessed with a chronic conditions checklist. Results Country-specific lifetime prevalence estimates are consistently (median; inter-quartile range) higher for BED (1.4%;0.8–1.9%) than BN (0.8%;0.4–1.0%). Median age-of-onset is in the late teens to early 20s for both disorders but slightly younger for BN. Persistence is slightly higher for BN (6.5 years; 2.2–15.4) than BED (4.3 years; 1.0–11.7). Lifetime risk of both disorders is elevated for women and recent cohorts. Retrospective reports suggest that comorbid anxiety, mood, and disruptive behavior disorders predict subsequent onset of BN somewhat more strongly than BED and that BN predicts subsequent comorbid psychiatric disorders somewhat more strongly than does BED. Significant comorbidities with physical conditions are due almost entirely to BN and BED predicting subsequent onset of these conditions, again with BN somewhat stronger than BED. Role impairments are similar for BN and BED. Fewer than half of lifetime BN or BED cases receive treatment. Conclusions BED represents a public health problem at least equal to BN. Low treatment rates highlight the clinical importance of questioning patients about eating problems even when not included among presenting complaints. PMID:23290497

  17. Difficulty in resuming or inability to resume sleep and the links to daytime impairment: definition, prevalence and comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M

    2009-07-01

    To assess the chronicity and severity of nocturnal awakenings with difficulty resuming sleep (DRS), its value as an indicator of an ongoing sleep and/or mental disorder and, finally, how it affects on daytime functioning. A cross-sectional telephone study was performed in the non-institutionalized general population of France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and Spain. This representative sample of 22,740 non-institutionalized individuals aged 15 or over was interviewed on their sleeping habits, health, sleep and mental disorders. These five European countries totaled 245.1 million inhabitants. The evaluation of nocturnal awakenings with DRS included duration, frequency (per night, per week and in the previous months) and assessment scale of daytime functioning. DRS was defined as a complaint of difficulty in resuming or inability to resume sleep occurring at least three nights per week and lasting for at least one month. A total of 16.1% [95% CI: 15.6-16.6] of the sample had DRS. Prevalence was higher in women and increased with age. The average duration of DRS was 40 months. DRS individuals slept on average 30 min less than other subjects with insomnia symptoms and 60 min less than the rest of the sample. Painful physical conditions, anxiety and mood disorders were the most discriminative factors for individuals with DRS distinguishing them from other insomnia subjects and the rest of the sample. Daytime impairment was observed in 52.2% of DRS individuals compared to 32.8% in individuals with classical insomnia symptoms (p sleep or mental disorder; (3) it has a stronger impact on daytime functioning than classical insomnia symptoms (OR: 4.7).

  18. Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among young adults in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lähteenmäki, Sini; Saarni, Suoma; Suokas, Jaana; Saarni, Samuli; Perälä, Jonna; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the epidemiology of eating disorders in a population-based sample of young adults. A mental health questionnaire was sent to a nationally representative two-stage cluster sample of 1863 Finns aged 20-35 years. All screen-positives and a random sample of screen-negatives were invited to participate in a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) interview. Case records from all lifetime mental health treatments were also obtained and were used to complement the diagnostic assessment. The lifetime prevalence of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorder not otherwise specified and any eating disorder among women were 2.1%, 2.3%, 2.0% and 6.0%, respectively, while there was only one man with an eating disorder. Unlike other mental disorders, they are associated with high education. Of women diagnosed with lifetime eating disorder, 67.9% had at least one comorbid Axis I psychiatric disorder, most commonly depressive disorder. While 79.3% of women with lifetime eating disorder had had a treatment contact, only one third of persons with current eating disorder had a current treatment contact. Women whose eating disorder had remitted still experienced more psychological distress and had lower psychosocial functioning that women without lifetime Axis I disorders. Eating disorders are the fourth largest group of mental disorders among young women. They tend to be comorbid, often remain untreated and are associated with residual symptoms after the remission of eating disorder symptoms.

  19. Prevalence of suicide risk and comorbidities in postpartum women in Pelotas Prevalência do risco de suicídio e de comorbidades em mulheres pós-parto em Pelotas

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    Daniele Tavares

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of suicide risk and comorbidities in postpartum women. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of postpartum women. The sample comprised mothers who have received prenatal care from the Brazilian National System of Public Heath in the city of Pelotas. Suicide risk and other mental disorders were evaluated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. A yes answer on one of the six interview questions was considered a sign of suicide risk. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 919 postpartum women. The 11.5% suicide prevalence was 4.62 (CI 2.45, 8.73 times higher in women with low educational levels. Women with comorbid depression or an anxiety disorder showed a 17.04 (CI 2.27; 19.96 times greater risk of suicide than those who did not suffer from any mood disorder. CONCLUSION: Lower education levels and psychiatric disorders are associated with suicide risk. Bipolar disorder is the psychiatric disorder with the highest impact on suicide risk.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a prevalência do risco de suicídio e de comorbidades em mulheres pós-parto. MÉTODOS: Este foi um estudo em corte transversal com mulheres pós-parto. A amostra foi constituída de mães que receberam cuidados pré-natais prestados pelo Sistema Nacional de Saúde Pública do Brasil na cidade de Pelotas. O risco de suicídio e outros transtornos mentais foram avaliados pela Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Uma resposta afirmativa a qualquer das seis perguntas é considerada um risco de suicídio. RESULTADOS: A amostra consistiu de 919 mulheres pós-parto. A prevalência do risco de suicídio foi de 11,5%. Ela foi 4,62 vezes mais alta (IC de 95% 2,45; 8,73 em mulheres de baixo nível educacional. Mulheres apresentando qualquer comorbidade para depressão e transtornos ansiosos tiveram uma chance 17,04 vezes maior (IC 95% 2,27; 19,96 àquelas que não apresentaram nenhum transtorno afetivo. CONCLUSÃO: Um n

  20. Distribution of Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec Types and correlation with comorbidity and infection type in patients with MRSA bacteremia.

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    Jiun-Ling Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular epidemiological definitions that are based on staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec typing and phylogenetic analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA isolates are considered a reliable way to distinguish between healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA and community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA. However, there is little information regarding the clinical features and outcomes of bacteremia patients with MRSA carrying different SCCmec types. METHODS: From January 1 through December 31, 2006, we recorded the demographic data and outcomes of 159 consecutive adult MRSA bacteremia patients from whom isolates for SCCmec analysis were collected. All participants were patients at a tertiary care center in Taiwan. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The following SCCmec types were identified in MRSA isolates: 30 SCCmec II (18.9%, 87 SCCmec III (54.7%, 22 SCCmec IV (13.8%, and 20 SCCmec V (12.6%. The time from admission to the first MRSA-positive blood culture for patients infected with isolates with the SCCmec III element (mean/median, 50.7/26 days was significantly longer than for patients infected with isolates carrying SCCmec IV or V (mean/median, 6.7/3 days for SCCmec IV; 11.1/10.5 days for SCCmec V (P<0.05. In univariate analysis, community onset, soft tissue infection, and deep-seated infection were predictors for SCCmec IV/V. In multivariate analysis, length of stay before index culture, diabetes mellitus, and being bedridden were independent risk factors associated with SCCmec II/III. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are in agreement with previous studies of the genetic characteristics of CA-MRSA. MRSA bacteremia with SCCmec II/III isolates occurred more among patients with serious comorbidities and prolonged hospitalization. Community onset, skin and soft tissue infection, and deep-seated infection best predicted SCCmec IV/V MRSA bacteremia.

  1. The prevalence and correlates of low sexual functioning in women on hemodialysis: A multinational, cross-sectional study.

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    Valeria Saglimbene

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction may affect 80% of women in hemodialysis. However the specific patterns and clinical correlates of sexual functioning remain poorly described. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and correlates of the individual domains of sexual functioning in women treated with hemodialysis. We recruited, into this multinational cross-sectional study, women treated with long-term hemodialysis (Collaborative Working Group on Depression and Sexual dysfunction in Hemodialysis study. Self-reported domains of sexual functioning were assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index, which is routinely administered within the network of dialysis patients followed by the working group. Lower scores represented lower sexual functioning. Socio-demographic and clinical correlates of each domain of sexual functioning were identified by stepwise multivariable linear regression. Sensitivity analyses were restricted to women who reported being sexually active. We found that of 1309 enrolled women, 659 (50.3% provided complete responses to FSFI survey questions and 232 (35% reported being sexually active. Overall, most respondents reported either no sexual activity or low sexual functioning in all measured domains (orgasm 75.1%; arousal 64.0%; lubrication 63.3%; pain 60.7%; satisfaction 60.1%; sexual desire 58.0%. Respondents who were waitlisted for a kidney transplant reported scores with higher sexual functioning, while older respondents reported scores with lower functioning. The presence of depression was associated with worse lubrication and pain scores [mean difference for depressed versus non-depressed women (95% CI -0.42 (-0.73 to -0.11, -0.53 (-0.89 to -0.16, respectively] while women who had experienced a previous cardiovascular event reported higher pain scores [-0.77 (-1.40- to -0.13]. In conclusion, women in hemodialysis reported scores consistent with marked low sexual functioning across a range of domains; the low functioning appeared

  2. The prevalence and correlates of consanguineous marriages in Yemen: similarities and contrasts with other Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdi, Rozzet; Saxena, Prem C

    2003-01-01

    Using data on 9762 women from the 1997 Yemen Demographic and Maternal and Child Health Survey, this paper examines the prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of consanguineous marriages in Yemen. The results indicate that 40% of marriages are consanguineous, over 85% of which are between first cousins. The prevalence of consanguineous marriages appears to have increased over time, particularly for the last marriage cohort. As for socioeconomic correlates, the study confirms the inverse association between consanguineous marriages and women's education and occupation, age at marriage and economic status. However, no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of consanguinity has been found by place of residence and geographical region. Somewhat unexpected results have been obtained by husband's background characteristics, with higher educated men and those working in the modern sector of the economy being more likely to be married to cousins.

  3. Prevalence of HIV infection and the correlates among beggars in Tehran, Iran

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    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the prevalence of HIV infection and the correlates among street beggars in Tehran, Iran. Methods: In a survey conducted in Tehran during 2007 to 2008, 4230 men and women beggars were collected by municipality. As a routine approach, we got serologic test for HIV. A questionnaire regarding socio-demographic and injection drug use (IDU behaviors was designed. Results: HIV prevalence was 1% (0.7 -1.3 in the study population. HIV infection was associated with older age (adjusted OR: 0.38 for >50 years, birthplace (adjusted OR: 2.06 and being IDU (adjusted OR: 8.26. Conclusions: Regarding the HIV prevalence and the correlated, we recommend harm reduction programs such as needle exchange, expanding methadone maintenance therapy and renewing education among this population.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of concurrent sexual partnerships among young people in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Timothy L

    2010-02-01

    Concurrent sexual partnerships are an important behavioral driver of HIV epidemics. This analysis examines the prevalence and correlates of concurrency among young adults in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa. 13% reported concurrency during their last sexual partnership with variability by sex and race. Concurrency was associated with race, knowledge of a partner's infidelity, and other risky sexual behaviors.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of psychotropic drug use in Dutch nursing-home patients with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijk, Renate M; Zuidema, Sytse U; Koopmans, Raymond T C M

    BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia patients are common and are often treated with psychotropic drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of psychotropic drug use in Dutch nursing home patients with dementia. METHODS: Psychotropic drug use of 1322

  6. prevalence and correlates of job stress among junior doctors in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Community Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan. 2. Department ... some find it stimulating while others find it stressful. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of stress among junior doctors in a teaching hospital in ... on job stress were adapted from an article by Cary. Cooper et al ...

  7. Prevalence and correlates of job stress among junior doctors in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of stress among junior doctors in a teaching hospital in Southwest Nigeria. Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional survey of all junior doctors employed at the University College Hospital, Ibadan was carried out. Information was collected with a structured ...

  8. Prevalence and correlates of psychotropic drug use in Dutch nursing-home patients with dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijk, R.M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia patients are common and are often treated with psychotropic drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of psychotropic drug use in Dutch nursing home patients with dementia. METHODS: Psychotropic drug use of 1322

  9. Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in 875 patients with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Altshuler, Lori; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph; Post, Robert M.

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the co-occurrence of bipolar and eating disorders. We therefore assessed the prevalence and clinical correlates of eating disorders in 875 patients with bipolar disorder. Method: 875 outpatients with DSM-IV bipolar I or II disorder were evaluated with

  10. Prevalence of Insomnia and Its Psychosocial Correlates among College Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, C. Y.; Wong, W. S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the prevalence of insomnia and its psychosocial correlates among college students in Hong Kong. Participants: A total of 529 Hong Kong college students participated in the study. Methods: Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Revised Life…

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Sexual Dysfunction in Men and Women With Type 2 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutte, A.; van Splunter, M.M.I.; van der Heijden, A.A.W.A.; Welschen, L.M.C.; Elders, P.J.M.; Dekker, J.M.; Snoek, F.J.; Enzlin, P.; Nijpels, G.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of sexual dysfunction in a sample of Dutch men and women with type 2 diabetes. Patients with type 2 diabetes who were between the ages of 40 and 75 years from 4 Dutch diabetes centers were asked to complete self-report questionnaires covering

  12. Innocent Cardiac Murmur in Puppies : Prevalence, Correlation with Hematocrit, and Auscultation Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szatmári, V; van Leeuwen, M W; Teske, E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of innocent cardiac murmurs in clinically healthy puppies, to investigate a possible correlation between the presence of an innocent murmur and hematocrit, and to describe the auscultation characteristics of innocent murmurs.

  13. A Study On Correlation Between Fertility And Contraceptive Prevalence In Rural Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reema Verma

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:(1    To find the contraceptive prevalence in different reproductive age group females.(2    What is the correlation between fertility pattern and contraceptive prevalence.Study Design : Cross sectional descriptive study.Setting : Community Development block Sarojini Nagar, Lucknow district.Study universe : Married females in reproductive age group (15-49 Years.Study variables : Age, fertility, contraceptive prevalence, education and social class.Statistical analysis : Chi Square test.Result : Contraceptive prevalence was 29.7%. It was 6.5% for women aged 15-19 year to 45.2% for women aged 35­39 years. The acceptors were analyzed based on the number of living children. 74% of the acceptors had 3 or more children as against 26% with 0 to 2 living children.

  14. Prevalence, correlates of major depression: A mental health survey among undergraduates at a mainland Chinese university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Meng, Xiangfei; Xu, Ziqi; Yu, Qiong; Shi, Jieping; Yu, Yaqin; D'Arcy, Carl; Huang, Yueqin; Kou, Changgui

    2016-09-01

    This cross-sectional survey among Chinese university students aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of major depressive disorder (MDD) among undergraduates, in order to provide basic information for the prevention and treatment of depression among the college-aged population. A total of 2,046 undergraduates were interviewed face to face using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (WHO-CIDI, version 3.0). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) criteria were used to diagnose MDD. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between MDD and selected correlates. The survey response rate was 90.1% (N = 1,843). The prevalence rates of MDD were 3.9% (lifetime), 2.4% (12 months) and 0.4% (30 days). No significant gender or age differences were found in prevalence rates. No sociodemographic characteristics were related to the lifetime prevalence of MDD. In contrast, family structure and environment factors specifically being from a single-parent family (odds ratio [OR] = 2.513, confidence interval [CI] = 1.404-2.500), parents having mental problems (OR = 1.809, CI = 1.104-2.964), and physical punishment (OR = 1.789, CI = 1.077-3.001) were associated with higher lifetime prevalence of MDD. These findings showed a relatively lower prevalence of DSM-IV/CIDI MDD in this sample of Chinese undergraduates than that reported for students in other countries. However, the prevalence rate for university students was higher than that reported for general Chinese population. Family structure and socio-environmental factors in the student's family of origin significantly correlated with the lifetime prevalence of MDD. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of psychopathology in children and adolescents evaluated with the strengths and difficulties questionnaire dysregulation profile in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Juan José; Serrano-Drozdowskyj, Elena; García Nieto, Rebeca; Díaz de Neira-Hernando, Mónica; Pérez-Fominaya, Margarita; Molina-Pizarro, Cristian Antonio; De León-Martínez, Victoria; Baca-García, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation of children and adolescents referred to mental health services is frequently complicated by comorbid and severe affective and behavioral dysregulation. This dysregulation phenotype seems to be an indicator of overall psychopathology, symptom severity and functional impairment. Currently, this phenotype is assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist. However, the widely used Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been recently validated to screen the Dysregulation Profile (SDQ-DP) in clinical settings. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and demographic, psychosocial and clinical correlates of the SDQ-DP phenotype in a Spanish clinical sample. In a clinical sample of 623 consecutively referred children and adolescents (4-17 years old), we compared clinical and sociodemographic correlates between subjects who met the SDQ-DP criteria (DP) and those who did not (NO_DP). Sociodemographic data, parent-rated SDQ, Children's Global Assessment Scale, Clinical Global Impression, family Apgar scale and clinical diagnoses were collected by experienced child and adolescent psychiatrists. Overall in our sample, 175 subjects (28.1%) met the SDQ-DP criteria (DP group). Compared with the NO_DP group, the DP subjects had significantly higher scores on internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, problems with peers and overall problems as well as significantly lower scores on prosocial behavior. Clinical diagnoses assigned revealed that DP subjects showed significantly greater psychiatric comorbidity. DP subjects also showed significantly worse family functioning and increased symptom severity and significantly lower scores on psychosocial functioning. A high prevalence of children and adolescents with the dysregulated profile, assessed by the SDQ-DP, was found in our clinical setting. The SDQ-DP may serve as an index of overall psychological severity and functional impairment. In addition, it may indicate family

  16. Evaluation of the prevalence and correlated factors for decreased bone mass density among pre- and post-menopausal educated working women in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboub, Samira M; Al-Muammar, May N; Elareefy, Azza A

    2014-09-01

    Most of the previous studies on osteoporosis have focused on post-menopausal women, and more research is needed to evaluate its prevalence in pre-menopausal women. This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence and correlated factors for decreased bone mass density among pre- and post-menopausal women. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Applied Medical Sciences College under King Saud University. All pre- and post-menopausal women working there were invited to participate in the study. Measurement of bone mass density was done by quantitative ultrasound densitometry. One-fourth of the pre-menopausal females had osteopaenia. There was a significant correlation between having osteoporosis and increasing age, fertility period, parity, menopausal duration, gynaecological age, and presence of co-morbidity, especially hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Pre-menopausal females had high prevalence of osteopaenia (24.8%), and it is recommended to implement health education campaigns demonstrating the preventive measures of osteoporosis.

  17. Self-reported dysphagia and its correlates within a prevalent population of people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard W; Dunn, Janet R; Gray, William K

    2011-03-01

    Many people with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience dysphagia; however, the prevalence of dysphagia in people with PD is unknown. We studied a prevalent population of PD cases. All of those who consented to participate were assessed for anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and quality of life using standard rating scales. Anyone who answered "yes" to either one of the two questions: Do you have difficulty swallowing food/liquid or tablets? and Do you cough after eating/drinking? was considered to have dysphagia. Question 7 of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) was also used to identify dysphagia. Of 106 prevalent PD cases, 75 (38 males) patients consented to examination and assessment. The prevalence of dysphagia was 32.0% (n=24; 11 males). Using the response to UPDRS Question 7 as an indicator of the impact of swallowing problems on the patient, there were significant correlations with cognitive function, anxiety, depression, quality of life, and UPDRS-reported gait disturbance, postural instability and problems with falling. There was no correlation with disease duration, age, or gender. Almost one third of the participants reported dysphagia. There was a strong correlation between dysphagia and gross motor skills; patients reporting such problems should be screened for swallowing problems. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  18. Bullying involvement and autism spectrum disorders: prevalence and correlates of bullying involvement among adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzing, Paul R; Shattuck, Paul T; Narendorf, Sarah C; Wagner, Mary; Cooper, Benjamin P

    2012-11-01

    To produce nationally representative estimates for rates of bullying involvement among adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), to compare population estimates with adolescents who have other developmental disabilities, and to identify social ecological correlates of bullying involvement. Nationally representative surveys from 2001. United States. Parents of adolescents with an ASD, principals of the schools they attended, and staff members most familiar with their school programs. Autism spectrum disorders. Parent report of victimization, perpetration, and victimization/perpetration within the past school year. The prevalence rates of bullying involvement for adolescents with an ASD were 46.3% for victimization, 14.8% for perpetration, and 8.9% for victimization/perpetration. Victimization was related to having a non-Hispanic ethnicity, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, lower social skills, some form of conversational ability, and more classes in general education. Correlates of perpetration included being white, having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and getting together with friends at least once a week. Victimization/perpetration was associated with being white non-Hispanic, having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and getting together with friends at least once a week. School-based bullying interventions need to target the core deficits of ASD (conversational ability and social skills) and comorbid conditions (eg, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). Future bullying interventions also need to address the higher rates of victimization that occur in general education settings by increasing social integration into protective peer groups and increasing the empathy and social skills of typically developing students toward their peers with an ASD.

  19. The prevalence and correlates of neurotic disorders among undergraduates at a mainland Chinese university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Changgui; Meng, Xiangfei; Xie, Bing; Chen, Yanfen; Yu, Qiong; Shi, Jieping; Yu, Yaqin; D'Arcy, Carl; Huang, Yueqin

    2012-12-01

    To study the prevalence and risk factors of neurotic disorders (NDs) among Chinese university students. Stratified random sampling was used to select students who were interviewed using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 to diagnose psychiatric disorder and collected socio-demographic, and family structure and environment data. The response rate was 90 % (N = 1,843). The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) criteria were used to diagnose NDs. We used logistical regression to evaluate the links between NDs and selected correlates. The prevalence of NDs was 25.6 % (lifetime), 15.7 % (12-month), and 6.8 % (30-day) among the university students with no significant gender differences in these rates. No family structure characteristics were related to 12-month prevalence of NDs (P > 0.05). In contrast, family environment factors including a history of family disputes (OR 1.562, CI 1.108-2.203), parental mental health problems (OR 1.800, CI 1.379-2.349), and absence of care in childhood (OR 1.916, 95 % CI 1.331-2.759) were associated with higher prevalence rates of NDs. Our findings show a high prevalence of NDs in this sample of Chinese undergraduates. Social environment factors, in the student's family of orientation, were significantly associated with the prevalence of NDs. These findings support the importance of negative family experiences during childhood and adolescence and increasing vulnerability to NDs.

  20. Sexual dysfunction among male veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosain, G M Monawar; Latini, David M; Kauth, Michael; Goltz, Heather Honoré; Helmer, Drew A

    2013-02-01

    Sexual dysfunction (SD) is not well described in the Iraq/Afghanistan veteran population despite high prevalence of multiple risk factors for this issue. To estimate the prevalence and examine the association of various sociodemographic, mental health, comorbid conditions and life style factors with sexual dysfunction in Iraq/Afghanistan veterans. This exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the VA administrative database. A total of 4,755 Iraq/Afghanistan veterans were identified who sought treatment from the Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center inpatient and outpatient clinic between September 2007 and August 2009. Sexual dysfunction was determined by ICD9-CM codes related to sexual health issues and/or by specific medications, primarily phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5i), prescribed for erectile dysfunction. The overall prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 5.5% (N = 265). By age category, it was 3.6% (N = 145) for Iraq/Afghanistan veterans aged 18-40 years and 15.7% (N = 120) for Iraq/Afghanistan veterans aged > 40 years, respectively. A multivariate logistic-regression model revealed that annual income, marital status, post-traumatic stress disorder, and hypertension were significant risk factors of SD (all P Afghanistan veterans, whereas among the older Iraq/Afghanistan veterans, being African American and having PTSD and hypertension were significant risk factors of SD (all P Afghanistan veterans have SD and that the risk factors differ between younger and older veterans. Our findings also suggest that SD is likely under-coded. To better identify the scope of the problem, systematic screening for sexual dysfunction may be appropriate perhaps as part of an initial post-deployment health evaluation. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. The prevalence and correlates of alcohol use disorder amongst bipolar patients in a hospital setting, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Hway Ann; Loh, Huai Seng; Ng, Chong Guan

    2013-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of alcohol-use disorder and associated correlates amongst bipolar patients in a university hospital in Malaysia. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 121 bipolar disorder patients were included. Their alcohol use disorders were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (plus version) and the Addiction Severity Index-Lite-Clinical Factors version. The number of lifetime hospitalizations and the survival days (the number of days between the last discharge and the most current readmission) were calculated. The prevalence of alcohol-use disorder amongst bipolar patients was 18.2%. Indian ethnicity was the only demographic factor that was statistically associated with alcohol-use disorder (p suicidal attempt (p Malaysia. Since alcohol-use disorder, as well as the potential interactions with the course of the disorder, is highly prevalent amongst bipolar patients, alcohol use should be addressed in these patients.

  2. Prevalence of obesity and its metabolic correlates among the circumpolar inuit in 3 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, T Kue; Bjerregaard, Peter; Dewailly, Eric

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the prevalence of obesity and the metabolic correlates of different levels of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference among the Inuit in 3 countries. METHODS: Data from 4 surveys of Inuit in Canada, Greenland, and Alaska conducted during 1990-2001 were pooled......, with a total sample size of 2545 participants. These data were compared with data from a Canadian population of predominantly European origin. RESULTS: Using the World Health Organization criteria for overweight and obesity, we found that the crude prevalence of overweight among Inuit men and women was 36.......6% and 32.5%, respectively, and obesity was 15.8% and 25.5%, respectively. Inuit prevalences were similar to those of the highly developed countries of Europe and North America. As levels of obesity increased, as measured by BMI or waist circumference, the mean values of various metabolic indicators...

  3. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence rates, correlates, and targeted interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Marta; Galling, Britta; Correll, Christoph U

    2013-08-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with poor outcomes, including suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA). However, frequencies and risk factors of SI/SA and targeted intervention trials for SI/SA in PBD have not been reviewed systematically. We conducted a systematic PubMed review, searching for articles reporting on prevalences/incidences, correlates and intervention studies targeting SI/SA in PBD. Weighted means were calculated, followed by an exploratory meta-regression of SI and SA correlates. Fourteen studies (n = 1595), in which 52.1% of patients were male and the mean age was 14.4 years, reported data on SI/SA prevalence (N = 13, n = 1508) and/or correlates (N = 10, n = 1348) in PBD. Weighted mean prevalences were: past SI = 57.4%, past SA = 21.3%, current SI = 50.4%, and current SA = 25.5%; incidences (mean 42 months of follow-up) were: SI = 14.6% and SA = 14.7%. Regarding significant correlates, SI (N = 3) was associated with a higher percentage of Caucasian race, narrow (as opposed to broad) PBD phenotype, younger age, and higher quality of life than SA. Significant correlates of SA (N = 10) included female sex, older age, earlier illness onset, more severe/episodic PBD, mixed episodes, comorbid disorders, past self-injurious behavior/SI/SA, physical/sexual abuse, parental depression, family history of suicidality, and poor family functioning. Race, socioeconomic status, living situation, and life events were not clearly associated with SA. In a meta-regression analysis, bipolar I disorder and comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were significantly associated with SA. Only one open label study targeting the reduction of SI/SA in PBD was identified. SI and SA are very common but under-investigated in PBD. Exploration of predictors and protective factors is imperative for the establishment of effective preventive and intervention strategies, which are urgently needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  4. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among court-referred male perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Febres, Jeniimarie; Elmquist, JoAnna; Zapor, Heather; Brasfield, Hope; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-02-01

    Despite the documented association between intimate partner violence perpetration and suicidal ideation, few studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in men attending batterer intervention programs. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in 294 males court-ordered to a batterer intervention program. Twenty-two percent of the sample reported experiencing suicidal ideation within the 2 weeks prior to entering the batterer intervention program. Multiple linear regression indicated that depression and borderline personality disorder symptoms, but not intimate partner violence perpetration, victimization, or antisocial personality disorder symptoms, accounted for significant variance in suicidal ideation. These results suggest that symptoms of depression and borderline personality disorder observed in males attending batterer intervention programs should warrant thorough suicide risk assessment. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed.

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively. PMID:29415426

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Christine Bergmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively.

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk

    2018-02-06

    Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of screen time among Brazilian adolescents: findings from a country-wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaan, Camila Wohlgemuth; Cureau, Felipe Vogt; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Carvalho, Kênia M B; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2018-02-06

    To evaluate the distribution, prevalence and correlates of excessive screen time (>2 hours/day) among Brazilian adolescents. The Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) is a national, school-based, cross-sectional multicenter study. Information about time spent in front of screens was assessed by questionnaire. Poisson regression models were used to examine the associations between following correlates (region, sex, age, skin color, income, internet access and number of TVs at home) and excessive screen time. A total of 66,706 Brazilian adolescents (12-17 years) were included. The overall mean time in front of screens was 3.25 h/day (95% CI: 3.20-3.31) and the prevalence of excessive screen time was 57.3% (95%CI: 55.9-58.6). Moreover, excessive screen time also differ across Brazilian regions, being higher in Southeast and South, respectively. In adjusted models stratified by region, the socioeconomic status was associated with excessive screen time in North, Northeast and Midwest. In all regions, having a computer with internet access was associated with higher prevalence of excessive screen time. The prevalence of excessive screen time in Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and facility for access the internet.

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of the Perpetration of Cyber Dating Abuse among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Shegog, Ross; Temple, Jeff R; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Addy, Robert C; Hernandez, Belinda; Cuccaro, Paula; Gabay, Efrat K; Thiel, Melanie; Emery, Susan Tortolero

    2017-02-01

    Much is known about the prevalence and correlates of dating violence, especially the perpetration of physical dating violence, among older adolescents. However, relatively little is known about the prevalence and correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse, particularly among early adolescents. In this study, using a predominantly ethnic-minority sample of sixth graders who reported ever having had a boyfriend/girlfriend (n = 424, 44.2 % female), almost 15 % reported perpetrating cyber dating abuse at least once during their lifetime. Furthermore, using a cross-sectional design, across multiple levels of the socio-ecological model, the individual-level factors of (a) norms for violence for boys against girls, (b) having a current boyfriend/girlfriend, and (c) participation in bullying perpetration were correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse. Collectively, the findings suggest that dating violence interventions targeting these particular correlates in early adolescents are warranted. Future studies are needed to establish causation and to further investigate the relative importance of correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse among early adolescents that have been reported among older adolescents.

  10. School Bullying in Urban China: Prevalence and Correlation with School Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ziqiang; Zhang, Guirong; Zhang, Haibo

    2017-01-01

    School violence and bullying in China is under investigated, though it has become a national concern recently. Using updated national representative survey data collected in 2016 from seven provinces across China, covering students from all pre-college school types (primary, middle, high and vocational schools), this paper analyzes the prevalence of school bullying and the correlation with several school attributes. The incidences of reported bullying, bullying others and witnessing bullying ...

  11. A Study on the Prevalence and Correlates of Academic Dishonesty in Four Undergraduate Degree Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Anthony Mujer Quintos

    2017-01-01

    With college students from four different disciplines representing the humanities as well as the natural, mathematical, and social sciences as respondents, this study determined the degree of prevalence and correlates of academic dishonesty among students. A survey questionnaire about the respondents’ personal characteristics and their frequency of engagement in academic dishonesty during one whole academic year (two semesters) was used as the research instrument. A Wilcoxon Signe...

  12. Prevalence of Coxitis and its Correlation with Inflammatory Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Bajraktari, Ismet H.; Krasniqi, Blerim; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Bexheti, Sadi; Bahtiri, Elton; Bajraktari, Halit; Luri, Besim

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease characterised by intra-articular and extra-articular manifestations but very rarely with coxitis.AIM: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of coxitis, clinical changes, and its correlation with the parameters of inflammatory activity.METHODS: A cohort of 951 patients diagnosed with ACR/EULAR (American College of Rheumatology/European League against Rheumatism) 2010 criteria was enrolled in this prospective, ...

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chong-Wen Wang; Cecilia L. W. Chan; Kwok-Kei Mak; Sai-Yin Ho; Paul W. C. Wong; Rainbow T. H. Ho

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in ...

  14. Risk Factor and Comorbidity of Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro Riyadina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a chronic daily headache which interfere a quality of life. The purpose of this research is to obtain the prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity of migraine. Methods: A cross sectional study involving 4771 subjects in 5 villages in the district of Central Bogor, Bogor City 2011–2012. Data collection was performed using WHO STEPS (interview, measurement, physical examination, and laboratory test. Results: In this study, the migraine prevalence was 22.43%, with significant risk factors were sex, age, and stress (p < 0.05. Comorbidity of migraine was coronary heart diseases (p < 0.05. There was no significant correlation between migraine with marital status, level of education, smoking, hypertension, obesity, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, trigliseride level, and diabetes mellitus (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Risk factors which have significant association with migraine are sex, age, and stress, whereas coronary heart disease existed as a comorbidity with migraine.

  15. Comorbidities Associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: a Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto, José Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is characterized by partial or complete recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. OSA brings many adverse consequences, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiac and encephalic alterations, behavioral, among others, resulting in a significant source of public health care by generating a high financial and social impact. The importance of this assessment proves to be useful, because the incidence of patients with comorbidities associated with AOS has been increasing consistently and presents significant influence in natural disease history. Objective The objective of this study is to assess major comorbidities associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and prevalence in a group of patients diagnosed clinically and polysomnographically with OSA. Methods This is a retrospective study of 100 charts from patients previously diagnosed with OSA in our service between October 2010 and January 2013. Results We evaluated 100 patients with OSA (84 men and 16 women with a mean age of 50.05 years (range 19–75 years. The prevalence of comorbidities were hypertension (39%, obesity (34%, depression (19%, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD (18%, diabetes mellitus (15%, hypercholesterolemia (10%, asthma (4%, and no comorbidities (33%. Comorbidities occurred in 56.2% patients diagnosed with mild OSA, 67.6% with moderate OSA, and 70% of patients with severe OSA. Conclusion According to the current literature data and the values obtained in our paper, we can correlate through expressive values obesity with OSA and their apnea hypopnea index (AHI values. However, despite significant prevalence of OSA with other comorbidities, our study could not render expressive significance values able to justify their correlations.

  16. Examining the comorbidity of bipolar disorder and autism spectrum disorders: a large controlled analysis of phenotypic and familial correlates in a referred population of youth with bipolar I disorder with and without autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gagan; Biederman, Joseph; Petty, Carter; Goldin, Rachel L; Furtak, Stephannie L; Wozniak, Janet

    2013-06-01

    Although mood dysregulation is frequently associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and autistic traits are common in youth with bipolar disorder, uncertainties remain regarding the comorbid occurrence of bipolar disorder and ASD. This study examines the clinical and familial correlates of bipolar disorder when it occurs with and without ASD comorbidity in a well-characterized, research-referred population of youth with bipolar disorder. We hypothesized that in youth with bipolar disorder, the clinical and familial correlates of bipolar disorder will be comparable irrespective of the comorbidity with ASD. Clinical correlates and familial risk were assessed by secondary analysis of the data from a large family study of youth with bipolar I disorder (diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria; probands n = 157, relatives n = 487; study period: November 1997-September 2002). Findings in bipolar I youth were compared with those in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (diagnosis based on DSM-III-R criteria) without bipolar I disorder (probands n = 162, relatives n = 511) and age- and sex-matched controls without bipolar I disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (probands n = 136, relatives n = 411). All subjects were comprehensively assessed using structured diagnostic interviews and a wide range of nonoverlapping measures assessing multiple dimensions of functioning. Thirty percent (47/155) of the bipolar I probands met criteria for ASD (diagnosis based on DSM-III-R criteria). The mean ± SD age at onset of bipolar I disorder was significantly earlier in the presence of ASD comorbidity (4.7 ± 2.9 vs 6.3 ± 3.7 years; P = .01). The phenotypic and familial correlates of bipolar disorder were similar in youth with and without ASD comorbidity. A clinically significant minority of youth with bipolar I disorder suffers from comorbid ASD. Phenotypic and familial correlates of bipolar disorder were typical of the disorder in the presence of ASD

  17. Prevalence, Awareness and Correlates of Hypertension Among Urban Public Workers in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Aladeniyi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the asymptomatic nature of hypertension, its diagnosis is often delayed, thus, leading to increasing morbidity and mortality. This study examines the prevalence, awareness and correlates of hypertension among apparently healthy adults working in an urban area of Ondo State, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of 4844 public service workers drawn across the 47 ministries, departments and agencies in Akure, the state capital of Ondo State, Nigeria. The WHO STEPwise questionnaire was used for data collection. Blood pressure (BP, blood sugar, weight and height measurements followed standard procedures. Hypertension was defined as BP of ≥140/90 mmHg or a history of hypertension while self-reported prior diagnosis was defined as hypertension awareness. Bivariate and logistic analysis were performed to determine the prevalence, awareness and correlates of hypertension and a p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The prevalence of hypertension was 35% while an additional 36.4% had pre-hypertension. Males had a slightly higher prevalence of hypertension (39.1% compared to females (21.3%. Of all the hypertensive participants (n=1692, only 28% were aware of their hypertension status with a higher awareness rate among females (10.8% compared to males (8.7%. After adjusting for confounders in a logistic regression model analysis, only male sex, age above 40 years, primary or no education, marriage, obesity and diabetes were independent and significant predictors of hypertension among the study participants. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of hypertension among the study participants with a high hypertension unawareness. There is a need to implement effective workplace health policy and regularly organise health screening for public civil servants in the setting to reduce the burden of undiagnosed hypertension and its accompanying complications.

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Suspected Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peige Song

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has become a serious public health problem worldwide; however, the availability of information on the prevalence of NAFLD in the general pediatric population is still limited. The primary aim of this study was to reveal the prevalence and correlates of suspected NAFLD in Chinese children at the national level. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS was used. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC, blood pressure (BP were measured for children aged 7–18 years. Blood samples were collected and analyzed. Children were classified as having suspected NAFLD if common causes of liver disease were excluded, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT values were above the established thresholds (>22.1 IU/L for girls and >25.8 IU/L for boys. A percentage of 9.03% (75 out of 831 of Chinese children was found to have suspected NAFLD. Overweight and obesity according to BMI percentiles, abdominal obesity, hyperuricemia (uric acid (UA > 327 μmol/L, and elevated total cholesterol (TC were all detected as the correlates of childhood suspected NAFLD when adjusting for other factors. Our study revealed the prevalence of suspected NAFLD in general Chinese children at the national level for the first time. Our findings indicate that suspected NAFLD in children is associated with increasing childhood morbidities, further studies are needed to better understand the prevalence of childhood NAFLD and its correlates, and large-scale programs should be launched to screen NAFLD in the pediatric population in China.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of metabolic syndrome based on a harmonious definition among adults in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Earl S; Li, Chaoyang; Zhao, Guixiang

    2010-09-01

    Recently, a Joint Scientific Statement bridged differences between previous definitions of metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a representative sample of US adults and to examine its correlates. We analyzed data for up to 3461 participants aged ≥ 20 years of the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using waist circumference thresholds of ≥ 102 cm for men and ≥ 88 cm for women, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.3% among all adults, 36.1% among men, and 32.4% among women. Using racial- or ethnic-specific International Diabetes Federation criteria for waist circumference, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38.5% for all participants, 41.9% for men, and 35.0% for women. Prevalence increased with age, peaking among those aged 60-69 years. Prevalence was lower among African American men than White or Mexican American men, and lower among White women than among African American or Mexican American women. In a multivariate regression model, significant independent associations were noted for age (positive), gender (men higher than women), race or ethnicity (African Americans and participants of another race lower than Whites), educational status (inverse), hypercholesterolemia (positive), concentrations of C-reactive protein (positive), leisure time physical activity (inverse), microalbuminuria (positive), and hyperinsulinemia (positive). Additional adjustment for body mass index weakened many of the associations, with educational status and microalbuminuria no longer significant contributors to the model. Metabolic syndrome continues to be highly prevalent among adults in the US. Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychological Distress in Adolescent Students from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisoorya, T S; Geetha, D; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; Thennarasu, K

    2017-06-01

    There are limited data on the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among adolescents in India. This study assessed psychological distress among adolescents who attended school in Kerala, India. A total of 7560 students from 73 schools, aged 12 to 19 years completed a self-administered questionnaire that included Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and other standardised instruments to assess various domains. Mild psychological distress was reported by 10.5%, moderate distress by 5.4%, and severe distress by 4.9% of students. Older age, not living with both parents, and urban residence were significantly associated with psychological distress (p psychological distress had a higher risk of reporting academic failure, alcohol and tobacco use, suicidality, and sexual abuse. Increasing severity of psychological distress was associated with higher odds of these correlates. Psychological distress is common among adolescents and its correlates with negative outcomes suggest the need for early recognition and treatment.

  1. Prevalence and clinical correlates of sleep disordered breathing in myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Maria Laura Ester; Losurdo, Anna; Di Blasi, Chiara; Santoro, Massimo; Masciullo, Marcella; Conte, Giulia; Valenza, Venanzio; Damiani, Antonello; Della Marca, Giacomo; Silvestri, Gabriella

    2014-09-01

    Myotonic dystrophy types 1 (DM1) and 2 (DM2) are the most common muscular dystrophies in adulthood. A high prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and sleep disordered breathing was documented in DM1; however, there are limited data available regarding DM2. Goals of the study were: (1) to evaluate the prevalence of sleep apnea in a large cohort of patients (71 DM1 and 14 DM2) and (2) to analyze correlations among such disorders and clinical features of myotonic dystrophies. All patients underwent clinical examination, subjective sleep evaluation, and home based cardiorespiratory monitoring, and most of them performed pulmonary function tests and oropharyngeal-oesophageal scintigraphy (OPES). Almost 45% of patients reported poor sleep quality; only 20% of them referred EDS. Sleep studies documented sleep apnea, mostly obstructive, in 69% DM1 patients and 43% DM2 patients; overall, 28% of cases needed non-invasive ventilation. Neither age, gender, illness duration, body mass index, muscle involvement, OPES respiratory function indexes, nor n(CTG) in leukocytes were predictive of sleep apnea in DM1 patients. Conversely, in DM1 the central apnea-hypopnea index is correlated with the oral transit time estimated by OPES, whereas in DM2 apnea indexes are correlated with pulmonary function parameters. Sleep apnea is highly prevalent in both forms of myotonic dystrophies. In DM1, no clinical parameters appear to be predictive, while age appears to influence the severity of the obstructive variant; in DM2, the severity of sleep apnea is correlated with the degree of respiratory muscle involvement. Considering the harmful consequences of sleep apnea on cardiorespiratory function, our findings suggest including PSG in the follow-up of myotonic dystrophies.

  2. The prevalence of substance use among adolescents and its correlation with social and demographic factors

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    Rakić Dušica B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround/Aim. Adolescence is the period of greatest risk of starting to use substances: cigarette smoking, alcohol and illicit drugs. In the first decade of this millennium substance use among adolescents has increased. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of substances use among adolescents and its correlation with social and demographic factors. Methods. The study was conducted among adolescents in Novi Sad during 2010-2011 and included 594 conveniently selected adolescents (275 male and 319 female, aged 15-19 years. A special questionnaire was used and statistical analysis performed in SPSS17. The correlation between parameters was evaluated by the Pearson correlation method and frequency differences were analysed using χ2 test and starting level was p < 0.05. Results. The prevalence of substance use was statistically higher in males. Cigarettes were smoked daily by 21.45% males and 15.67% females (p < 0.01, alcohol was consumed by 81.6% males and 69.11% females (p < 0.001 and illicit drugs were used by 13.65% males and 8.30% females (p < 0.05. There was a positive correlation between smoking cigarettes and alcohol consumption, but negative between smoking cigarettes and the use of illicit drugs (p < 0.01. The prevalence of substance use was statistically higher among adolescents with poor achievement in school (p < 0.01, who lived in a broken home (illicit drugs p < 0.01 and who had more pocket money (cigarette smoking p < 0.01, and alcohol consumption p < 0.5. Conclusion. Stable family, lower amount of pocket money weekly and good school performance are protective factors in prevention of substances use among adolescents.

  3. Prevalence and clinical correlation of dysphagia in Parkinson disease: a study on Chinese patients.

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    Ding, X; Gao, J; Xie, C; Xiong, B; Wu, S; Cen, Z; Lou, Y; Lou, D; Xie, F; Luo, W

    2018-01-01

    Dysphagia is relatively common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and can have a negative impact on their quality of life; therefore, it is imperative that its prevalence in PD patients is studied. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and clinical correlation of dysphagia in Chinese PD patients. We recruited 116 Chinese PD patients. A videofluoroscopic study of swallowing (VFSS) was used to identify dysphagia. Assessments, including water drinking test, relative motor symptoms, non-motor symptoms (NMS) and quality of life, were performed to analyze the risks of dysphagia. The prevalence of dysphagia was 87.1%. The comparison of demographic and clinical features between patients with and without dysphagia included sex, education level, disease course, Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), Question 6, 7 of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS Part II), Hoehn-Yahr stage (H&Y), water drinking test, 39-item Parkinson Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) and Non-Motor Symptoms Quest (NMSQ). We found significant correlations between dysphagia and age. Using age, disease course, and H&Y stage as the independent variable in our regression analysis for assessing the risk factors of dysphagia in PD patients, age and H&Y stage displayed a strong correlation as the risk factors. The risk of dysphagia in elderly PD patients is 1.078 times greater than that of younger PD patients. Also, the risk of dysphagia in PD patients of a greater H&Y staging is 3.260 times greater than that of lower staging PD patients. Our results suggest that dysphagia is common in Chinese PD patients. Older patients or those in higher H&Y stages are more likely to experience dysphagia. There is no correlation between dysphagia and PD duration.

  4. Mental Health Comorbidity in MS: Depression, Anxiety, and Bipolar Disorder.

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    Turner, Aaron P; Alschuler, Kevin N; Hughes, Abbey J; Beier, Meghan; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Sloan, Alicia P; Ehde, Dawn M

    2016-12-01

    Among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), mental health comorbidities play a significant role in contributing to secondary disability and detracting from quality of life. This review examines current evidence surrounding three mental health issues of particular relevance to MS: depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. We review what is known of the prevalence, correlates, screening mechanisms, and current treatment of each issue and provide recommendations for future areas of research.

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Binge Drinking among Young Adults Using Alcohol: A Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Francesco Bartoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although binge drinking prevalence and correlates among young people have been extensively studied in the USA and Northern Europe, less is known for Southern Europe countries with relatively healthier drinking cultures. Objective. We aimed at analyzing prevalence and correlates of binge drinking in a representative sample of young adults in Italy. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among alcohol-consuming young adults. We carried out univariate and multivariate analyses to assess associations between recent binge drinking and candidate variables. Results. We selected 654 subjects, with 590 (mean age: 20.65 ± 1.90 meeting inclusion criteria. Prevalence for recent binge drinking was 38.0%, significantly higher for females than males. Multivariate analysis showed that high alcohol expectancies, large amount of money available during the weekend, interest for parties and discos, female gender, cannabis use, influence by peers, and electronic cigarettes smoking all were significantly associated with recent binge drinking, whereas living with parents appeared a significant protective factor. Conclusions. More than a third of young adults using alcohol are binge drinkers, and, in contrast with findings from Anglo-Saxon countries, females show higher risk as compared with males. These data suggest the increasing importance of primary and secondary prevention programmes for binge drinking.

  6. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its clinical correlates among patients with bipolar disorder.

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    Kumar, Ajay; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Venkatasubramanian, G; Raguram, R; Grover, Sandeep; Aswath, Manju

    2017-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and examine the clinical correlates of MetS. Sixty-seven patients with BD were evaluated for presence for MetS. The consensus definition was used to define MetS. The clinical variables were recorded on the basis of information provided by the patients, accompanying caregivers and review of treatment records. The symptoms severity of present depressive and manic episode was assessed by using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) respectively. The prevalence of MetS was 53.7%. Patients with MetS were older than the patients with BD alone (P=0.001). Increased waist circumference was the most common abnormal parameter (74.6%) followed by low high density lipoprotein (HDL) (71.6%) and raised triglycerides (64.2%). High blood pressures were recorded in 35.8% with high fasting blood glucose levels were seen in 33.3%. MetS was associated with greater number of life time episodes (p=0.010), longer duration of illness (p=0.010), greater numbers of lifetime depressive episodes (pdepressive episodes and use of Olanzapine were found to predictive of the development of MetS. Patients with BD have high prevalence of MetS and its presence correlates with clinical variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder among medical students in the University of Jos, Nigeria.

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    Nwoga, C N; Audu, M D; Obembe, A

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most common consequence of traumatic experiences. The North Central Nigeria to which Plateau State belongs has witnessed many ethno-religious crises. While previous studies suggested a high prevalence of PTSD among students, to the best of our knowledge, no such study has been reported in Nigeria. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of PTSD among medical students in a university. Cross-sectional systematic random sampling was used to select 200 medical students. A two staged interview with questionnaire on sociodemographic variables, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, Impact of Event Scale, and Composite International Diagnostic Interview was carried out. SPSS Inc. Released 2007. SPSS for Windows, version 16.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc. was used for statistical analysis. Prevalence of PTSD among the students was 23.5%. Previous childhood trauma and personal experiences during the crisis were significantly associated with having PTSD. High prevalence rate of PTSD among medical students in Jos is an indicator of psychological consequences of the recurring crises on the inhabitants. There is a need for follow-up and counseling/trauma healing for those identified.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of dental caries in an elderly population in northeast China.

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    Liu, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Min; Li, Yan; Cheng, Ruibo

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China. A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65-74 years) from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed-filled teeth (DFT) indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197). T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs). 67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40), and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (Ppopulation in urban areas (OR 1.713; 95% CI 1.337-2.195), smoking (OR 1.779; 95% CI 1.384-2.288), and individuals without dental insurance (OR 2.050; 95% CI 1.120-3.754) with dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries.

  9. Prevalence & correlates of primary infertility among young women in Mysore, India

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    Adamson, Paul C.; Krupp, Karl; Freeman, Alexandra H.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Reingold, Arthur L.; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: There are sparse data on the prevalence of primary infertility in India and almost none from Southern India. This study describes the correlates and prevalence of primary infertility among young women in Mysore, India. Methods: The baseline data were collected between November 2005 through March 2006, among 897 sexually active women, aged 15-30 yr, for a study investigating the relationship of bacterial vaginosis and acquisition of herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) infection. A secondary data analysis of the baseline data was undertaken. Primary infertility was defined as having been married for longer than two years, not using contraception and without a child. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with primary infertility. Results: The mean age of the women was 25.9 yr (range: 16-30 yr) and the prevalence of primary infertility was 12.6 per cent [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 10.5-15.0%]. The main factor associated with primary infertility was HSV-2 seropositivity (adjusted odds ratio: 3.41; CI: 1.86, 6.26). Interpretation & conclusions: The estimated prevalence of primary infertility among women in the study was within the range reported by the WHO and similar to other estimates from India. Further research is needed to examine the role of HSV-2 in primary infertility. PMID:22089604

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Dental Caries in an Elderly Population in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Min; Li, Yan; Cheng, Ruibo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65–74 years) from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed-filled teeth (DFT) indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197). T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs). Results 67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40), and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (Pcaries accounted for 2.08% with a rate higher in urban areas (Pcaries. Conclusions The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries. PMID:24260129

  11. Measuring prevalence and correlates of concurrent sexual partnerships among young sexually active men in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westercamp, Nelli; Mattson, Christine L; Bailey, Robert C

    2013-11-01

    Our objectives were to: (1) compare multiple measures of partnership concurrency, including the UNAIDS-recommended definition and (2) describe the prevalence and correlates of concurrent sexual partnerships among young Kenyan men. We analyzed 10,907 lifetime partnerships of 1,368 men ages 18-24 years enrolled in a randomized trial of male circumcision to reduce HIV-1 incidence in Kisumu. Partnership concurrency was determined by overlapping dates and examined over varying recall periods and assumptions. The lifetime prevalence of concurrency was 77 %. Sixty-one percent of all partnerships were concurrent and factors associated with concurrency differed by partner type. Point prevalence of concurrency at the time of the interview was consistently the highest and UNAIDS-recommended definition was the most conservative (25 vs. 18 % at baseline, respectively). Estimates of concurrency were influenced by methods for definition and measurement. Regardless of definition, concurrent partnerships are frequent in this population of young, sexually active men in high HIV prevalence Kisumu, Kenya.

  12. Prevalence of intellectual dysfunctioning and its correlates in a community-residing elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, N; Tatara, K; Shinsho, F; Takatorige, T; Murakami, S; Fukuda, H

    1998-09-01

    To examine the prevalence of intellectual dysfunctioning and its correlates in community-residing elderly people, a randomly selected sample of 1,405 people aged 65 and over living in Settsu, Osaka, were investigated in October 1992. Data for assessing intellectual dysfunctioning were obtained from 1,364 people (97.1%), excluding 21 clinically demented people (1.5%); 17.6/100, 5.6/100, and 3.3/100 of the population showed minor, moderate, and appreciable intellectual dysfunctioning, respectively, and the prevalence of intellectual dysfunctioning increased with age. By multivariate analyses using logistic regression, age over 75, poor general health, including current medical treatment, and psychosocial conditions such as no participation in social activities, no life worth living (no Ikigai), and anxiety about the future were independent risk factors for intellectual dysfunctioning. We conclude that intellectual dysfunctioning is closely associated with health and psychosocial conditions.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of lifetime disordered gambling in Cambodian refugees residing in Long Beach, CA.

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    Marshall, Grant N; Elliott, Marc N; Schell, Terry L

    2009-02-01

    Research has suggested that disordered gambling is endemic to Cambodian refugees. Whereas earlier study of the prevalence and correlates of disordered gambling has relied on convenience sampling, this investigation used a subset of a sample representative of the largest Cambodian refugee community in the US. Face-to-face interviews assessing gambling disorder were conducted with a subsample of persons (N = 127) participating in a broader study of the mental health of this community. 13.9% of participants met screening criteria for lifetime disordered gambling, in contrast to previous research suggesting that prevalence rates may exceed 70%. After adjusting for a range of covariates, breadth of trauma exposure and marital status emerged as significant predictors of disordered gambling. Given the myriad mental health challenges facing the Cambodian refugee community, these data indicate that scarce prevention and treatment resources may be more productively channeled toward addressing other mental health and social service needs.

  14. Effectiveness and response predictors of omalizumab in a severe allergic asthma population with a high prevalence of comorbidities: the Australian Xolair Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, P G; Reddel, H; McDonald, V M; Marks, G; Jenkins, C; Gillman, A; Upham, J; Sutherland, M; Rimmer, J; Thien, F; Katsoulotos, G P; Cook, M; Yang, I; Katelaris, C; Bowler, S; Langton, D; Robinson, P; Wright, C; Yozghatlian, V; Burgess, S; Sivakumaran, P; Jaffe, A; Bowden, J; Wark, P A B; Yan, K Y; Kritikos, V; Peters, M; Hew, M; Aminazad, A; Bint, M; Guo, M

    2016-09-01

    Severe asthma is a high impact disease. Omalizumab targets the allergic inflammatory pathway; however, effectiveness data in a population with significant comorbidities are limited. To describe severe allergic asthma, omalizumab treatment outcomes and predictors of response among the Australian Xolair Registry participants. A web-based post-marketing surveillance registry was established to characterise the use, effectiveness and adverse effects of omalizumab (Xolair) for severe allergic asthma. Participants (n = 192) (mean age 51 years, 118 female) with severe allergic asthma from 21 clinics in Australia were assessed, and 180 received omalizumab therapy. They had poor asthma control (Asthma Control Questionnaire, ACQ-5, mean score 3.56) and significant quality of life impairment (Asthma-related Quality of Life Questionnaire score 3.57), and 52% were using daily oral corticosteroid (OCS). Overall, 95% had one or more comorbidities (rhinitis 48%, obesity 45%, cardiovascular disease 23%). The omalizumab responder rate, assessed by an improvement of at least 0.5 in ACQ-5, was high at 83%. OCS use was significantly reduced. The response in participants with comorbid obesity and cardiovascular disease was similar to those without these conditions. Baseline ACQ-5 ≥ 2.0 (P = 0.002) and older age (P = 0.05) predicted the magnitude of change in ACQ-5 in response to omalizumab. Drug-related adverse events included anaphylactoid reactions (n = 4), headache (n = 2) and chest pains (n = 1). Australian patients with severe allergic asthma report a high disease burden and have extensive comorbidity. Symptomatic response to omalizumab was high despite significant comorbid disease. Omalizumab is an effective targeted therapy for severe allergic asthma with comorbidity in a real-life setting. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  15. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among patients with dyspepsia and correlation between endoscopic and histological diagnosis

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    Shiva Raj K.C.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyspepsia is a prevalent complaint in general practice and gastrointestinal clinics. Helicobacter pylori have major causal relationship with gastro duodenal disease. The following study seeks to identify the prevalence of H. pylori based on histology and to correlate endoscopic findings with histopathology.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study conducted in GRP Polyclinic and Om Hospital and research centre from April 2015-September 2015. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings were recorded and were correlated with histopathological findings. All the relevant data were collected and analysed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences version 16 for windows.  Results: Endoscopy finding was divided into reflux esophagitis, antral gastritis, duodenitis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. Duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer was noted more frequently in males than in females (55.0% vs. 45.0% and 58.2% vs. 41.8%, respectively, P < 0.001.Chronic follicular gastritis was the most common in gastric ulcer (41.7%, whereas chronic persistent gastritis was common in non-ulcerative disease. Chronic active gastritis and chronic follicular gastritis were more common in ulcerative diseases, whereas chronic persistent gastritis was more common in gastritis and duodenitis (P < 0.001. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 68.1% with male preponderance. Chronic active gastritis had highest prevalence of H. pylori (84.8%, followed by chronic follicular gastritis (84.1% and chronic persistent gastritis (p value < 0.001.Conclusion: Rate of H. pylori infected patients with dyspepsia was high. Ulcerative lesions were more common in males than in females with higher rate of infection with H. Pylori.  Histological diagnosis of chronic active gastritis and chronic follicular gastritis was the most common pathologies in ulcerative lesions. 

  16. DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder Severity in Puerto Rico: Prevalence, Criteria Profile, and Correlates.

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    Caetano, Raul; Gruenewald, Paul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Canino, Glorisa

    2018-02-01

    Our aim was to examine lifetime criteria profiles and correlates of severity (mild, moderate, severe) of DSM-5 alcohol use disorders (AUD) in Puerto Rico. Data are from a household random sample of individuals 18 to 64 years of age in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The survey response rate was 83%. DSM-5 AUD was identified with the Spanish version of the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The analyses also identify correlates of each severity level using an ordered logistic regression model. The prevalence of lifetime DSM-5 AUD among men and women was 38 and 16%, respectively. Mild lifetime DSM-5 AUD was the most prevalent severity level among both men (18%) and women (9%). The most common criteria, independent of gender and severity level, were drinking larger quantities and for longer than planned (men range: 80 to 97%; women range: 78 to 91%) and hazardous use (men range: 56 to 91%; women range: 42 to 74%). Results from ordered logistic regression showed that the adjusted odds ratio for weekly drinking frequency, greater volume of alcohol consumed per drinking occasion, positive attitudes about drinking, drinking norms, and male gender invariantly increased risks across all DSM-5 AUD severity levels (mild, moderate, severe). Greater negative attitudes about drinking, low family cohesion, and Protestant religion were related to greater risks at higher AUD severity levels. AUD prevalence is high in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Prevalence rates for some criteria are equally high across severity levels and poorly differentiate between mild, moderate, or severe DSM-5 AUD. The sociodemographic and alcohol-related risks vary across DSM-5 severity levels. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. A Study on the Prevalence and Correlates of Academic Dishonesty in Four Undergraduate Degree Programs

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    Mark Anthony Mujer Quintos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With college students from four different disciplines representing the humanities as well as the natural, mathematical, and social sciences as respondents, this study determined the degree of prevalence and correlates of academic dishonesty among students. A survey questionnaire about the respondents’ personal characteristics and their frequency of engagement in academic dishonesty during one whole academic year (two semesters was used as the research instrument. A Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test was used to determine which between cheating on examinations, quizzes and/or exercises and cheating on papers and/or projects was committed more often. Spearman’s Rank Correlation tests were conducted to determine significant correlations between the students’ characteristics and academic dishonesty. The study found that within an academic year, nine out of ten students have engaged in at least one act of academic dishonesty. Furthermore, students engaged in more types of academic cheating on papers/projects than on exams/quizzes/exercises. The most prevalent form of academic dishonesty was connivance through the sharing between students of answers and questions to an exam/quiz/exercise that a student has taken before and the others are just about to take. Cheating on papers/projects was committed more often than on exams/quizzes/exercises for all degree programs except for mathematical science students. Only two variables, (1 perception of one’s classmates’ and peers’ frequency of academic cheating and (2 frequency of academic cheating during high school, have moderately strong positive correlations with academic dishonesty. The attitude that academic cheating is never justified, on the other hand, was found to have a moderately strong negative correlation with academic dishonesty

  18. Prevalence of abnormal liver function tests and comorbid psychiatric disorders among patients with anorexia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified in the anorexia nervosa DSM-IV criteria.

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    Goh, Kye Hock Robin; Lee, Ee Lian

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) are on the rise in Singapore. Abnormal liver function tests have been reported for up to 12.2% of patients with AN. These patients are also known to present with comorbid psychiatric disorders. This study aims to investigate the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and the severity of abnormal liver function tests, and between BMI and the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders. A retrospective cohort analysis of 373 patients diagnosed with AN or EDNOS at a tertiary hospital was performed. The clinical course of transaminitis and comorbid psychiatric disorders was correlated with the patient's BMI. Patients with a BMI of ≥ 16.6 kg/m(2) at their first consult had a significantly lower risk of having comorbid psychiatric disorders (χ(2) = 32.08, p disorders as compared to patients from the other BMI groups (odds ratio [OR] 0.21). On the other hand, patients with a BMI of < 14.6 kg/m(2) had a significantly higher risk of having transaminitis (χ(2) = 72.5, p < 0.001). They were 11.1 times more likely to develop transaminitis as compared to patients with a BMI of ≥ 14.6 kg/m(2) (OR 11.05). Severity of BMI can be used by clinicians as an indicator to assess for secondary psychiatric comorbidities and/or transaminitis during the first consultation. This could help reduce the morbidity and mortality rates in patients with AN or EDNOS.

  19. Prevalence of Coxitis and its Correlation with Inflammatory Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

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    Bajraktari, Ismet H; Krasniqi, Blerim; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Bexheti, Sadi; Bahtiri, Elton; Bajraktari, Halit; Luri, Besim

    2018-02-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease characterised by intra-articular and extra-articular manifestations but very rarely with coxitis. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of coxitis, clinical changes, and its correlation with the parameters of inflammatory activity. A cohort of 951 patients diagnosed with ACR/EULAR (American College of Rheumatology/European League against Rheumatism) 2010 criteria was enrolled in this prospective, observational and analytic research study. The CBC (Complete Blood Count), ESR (Erythrocyte sedimentation rate), CRP(C - reactive protein), Anti CCP (Antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides), X-ray examination of palms and pelvis, and the activity of the disease as measured by DAS - 28 (28 - joint disease activity score) were carried out in all subjects. Independent samples t-test was used to compare the group's characteristics, whereas Pearson correlation test was used to analyse the correlation between study variables. Of the total number of the subjects, 730 (76.8 %) were females, whereas 221 (23.2%) were males. The average age was 51.3, y/o while the most of them were between 40 - 49 y/o (32.6%). The prevalence of coxitis was 14.2%, mostly found in males (19.46%). The echosonografic prevalence of changes was 21.45%, while the radiological changes were 16.3%; in both cases, the changes were more expressed in males. The analysis showed that inflammatory parameters were significantly higher in patients with coxitis. Coxitis has high economic cost because it ends up with a mandatory need for a total hip joint prosthesis. Thus the results of this study can serve to plan and initiate early preventive measures.

  20. Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children

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    Shahid Ubeera

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is becoming an equally challenging, yet under-recognized, problem in developing countries including Pakistan. Children and adolescents are worst affected with an estimated 10% of the world's school-going children being overweight and one quarter of these being obese. The study aimed to assess prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of overweight and obesity, and trend in prevalence statistics, among Pakistani primary school children. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged 5-12 years in Lahore, Pakistan. Overweight (> + 1SD and obesity (> + 2SD were defined using the World Health Organization child growth reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Linear regression was used to examine the predictive power of independent variables in relation to BMI. Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors for overweight and adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were obtained. All regression analyses were controlled for age and gender and statistical significance was considered at P Results Seventeen percent (95% CI 15.4-18.8 children were overweight and 7.5% (95% CI 6.5-8.7 were obese. Higher prevalence of obesity was observed among boys than girls (P = 0.028, however, there was no gender disparity in overweight prevalence. Prevalence of overweight showed a significantly increasing trend with grade (P Conclusion Alarmingly rapid rise in overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children was observed, especially among the affluent urban population. The findings support the urgent need for National preventive strategy for childhood obesity and targeted interventions tailored to local circumstances with meaningful involvement of communities.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of oral human papillomavirus infection among healthy males and females in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brian J; Walter, Leora; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrerra, Lilia; Gravitt, Patti E; Marks, Morgan A

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated head and neck cancers (HNCs) have been increasing in Peru. However, the burden of oral HPV infection in Peru has not been assessed. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of oral HPV infection in a population-based sample from males and females from Lima, Peru. Between January 2010 and June 2011, a population-based sample of 1099 individuals between the ages of 10 and 85 from a low-income neighbourhood in Lima, Peru was identified through random household sampling. Information on demographic, sexual behaviours, reproductive factors and oral hygiene were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Oral rinse specimens were collected from each participant, and these specimens were genotyped using the Roche Linear Array assay. ORs were used to assess differences in the prevalence of any oral HPV and any high-risk oral HPV infection by demographic factors, sexual practices and oral hygiene among individuals 15+ years of age. The prevalence of any HPV and any high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.8% and 2.0%, respectively. The three most common types were HPV 55 (3.4%), HPV 6 (1.5%) and HPV 16 (1.1%). Male sex (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI 1.22 to 4.03) was associated with any HPV infection after adjustment. The prevalence of oral HPV in this study was similar to estimates observed in the USA. Higher prevalence of oral infections in males was consistent with a male predominance of HPV-associated HNCs and may signal a sex-specific aetiology in the natural history of infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Prevalence and correlates of survival sex among runaway and homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J M; Ennett, S T; Ringwalt, C L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the prevalence and correlates of survival sex among runaway and homeless youths. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of shelter youths and a multicity sample of street youths were interviewed. RESULTS: Approximately 28% of street youths and 10% of shelter youths reported having participated in survival sex, which was associated with age, days away from home, victimization, criminal behaviors, substance use, suicide attempts, sexually transmitted disease, and pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive and ongoing services are needed to provide resources and residential assistance to enable runaway and homeless youths to avoid survival sex, which is associated with many problem behaviors. PMID:10474560

  3. Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal ...

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Screen-Time in Youth: An International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Atkin, Andrew James; Sharp, Stephen John; Corder, Kirsten Liane; van, Esther Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Screen-time (including TV viewing/computer use) may be adversely associated with metabolic and mental health in children. Purpose To describe the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of screen-time in an international sample of children aged 4-17 years. Methods Data are from the International Children’s Accelerometry Database (collected between 1997-2009; analysed in 2013). Participants were 11,434 children (48.9% male; mean (SD) age at first assessment 11.7 (3.2) ye...

  5. Major depressive disorder following terrorist attacks: a systematic review of prevalence, course and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero, José M; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo; Iruarrizaga, Itziar; Cano-Vindel, Antonio; Galea, Sandro

    2011-06-01

    Terrorist attacks are traumatic events that may result in a wide range of psychological disorders for people exposed. This review aimed to systematically assess the current evidence on major depressive disorder (MDD) after terrorist attacks. A systematic review was performed. Studies included assessed the impact of human-made, intentional, terrorist attacks in direct victims and/or persons in general population and evaluated MDD based on diagnostic criteria. A total of 567 reports were identified, 11 of which were eligible for this review: 6 carried out with direct victims, 4 with persons in general population, and 1 with victims and general population. The reviewed literature suggests that the risk of MDD ranges between 20 and 30% in direct victims and between 4 and 10% in the general population in the first few months after terrorist attacks. Characteristics that tend to increase risk of MDD after a terrorist attack are female gender, having experienced more stressful situations before or after the attack, peritraumatic reactions during the attack, loss of psychosocial resources, and low social support. The course of MDD after terrorist attacks is less clear due to the scarcity of longitudinal studies. Methodological limitations in the literature of this field are considered and potentially important areas for future research such as the assessment of the course of MDD, the study of correlates of MDD or the comorbidity between MDD and other mental health problems are discussed.

  6. Prevalence, severity and correlates of alcohol use in adult renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierz, Katharina; Steiger, Jürg; Denhaerynck, Kris; Dobbels, Fabienne; Bock, Andreas; De Geest, Sabina

    2006-01-01

    Severe alcohol use is recognized as a major public health concern, even though light to moderate alcohol use might have beneficial effects on health. Alcohol use has been studied to some extent in solid organ transplant populations, yet evidence is lacking on alcohol use and its correlates in the renal transplant population. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence, severity and correlates of alcohol use in renal transplant recipients. This cross-sectional study is a secondary analysis of the Supporting Medication Adherence in Renal Transplantation (SMART) study. Alcohol use was assessed by patient's self-report. At risk and binge drinkers were classified using World Health Organization criteria. The following correlates of alcohol use were explored: adherence with immunosuppression (Siegal questionnaire; electronic monitoring), smoking, coping style (UCL), depressive symptomatology (BDI) and busyness/routine in life style (ACQ Busyness Scale). Two hundred and eighty-four patients were included in this analysis, 58.1% male, with a mean age of 54 yr (range 20-84) and a median of seven (interquartile ranges [IQR] 8) yr post-transplantation. A total of 52.8% of study participants reported to drink alcohol at least once a week. Two hundred and eighty of 284 subjects (98.5%) were drinking at low risk, four at moderate risk (1.5%). None of the participants were drinking severely. Correlates of alcohol use were male gender and being professionally active. Alcohol use is less prevalent in renal transplant recipients than in the general population. Severe alcohol use does not seem to represent a serious problem in renal transplant patients.

  7. Prevalence of cardiac dyssynchrony and correlation with atrio-ventricular block and QRS width in dilated cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anzouan-Kacou, J B; Ncho-Mottoh, M P; Konin, C

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac dyssynchrony causes disorganised cardiac contraction, delayed wall contraction and reduced pumping efficiency. We aimed to assess the prevalence of different types of dyssynchrony in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and to establish the correlation between atrio-ventricular block...

  8. Sexual harassment and assault experienced by reservists during military service: prevalence and health correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Amy E; Stafford, Jane; Mahan, Clare M; Hendricks, Ann

    2008-01-01

    The current investigation identified the gender-specific prevalence of sexual harassment and assault experienced during U.S. military service and the negative mental and physical health correlates of these experiences in a sample of former reservists. We surveyed a stratified random sample of 3,946 former reservists about their experiences during military service and their current health, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatic symptoms, and medical conditions. Prevalence estimates and confidence intervals of sexual harassment and assault were calculated. A series of logistic regressions identified associations with health symptoms and conditions. Both men and women had a substantial prevalence of military sexual harassment and assault. As expected, higher proportions of female reservists reported sexual harassment (60.0% vs 27.2% for males) and sexual assault (13.1% vs 1.6% for males). For both men and women, these experiences were associated with deleterious mental and physical health conditions, with sexual assault demonstrating stronger associations than other types of sexual harassment in most cases. This investigation is the first to document high instances of these experiences among reservists. These data provide further evidence that experiences of sexual harassment and assault during military service have significant implications for the healthcare needs of military veterans.

  9. Prevalence of Postpartum Depression and its Correlation with Breastfeeding: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedad Saad Al-Muhaish

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum depression is bidirectional. Breastfeeding improves the maternal and neonatal health. There is now growing evidence that it might play a role in the prevention of postpartum depression. Objective: This study explores the relationship between breastfeeding and maternal postpartum depression. It also estimates the prevalence rate of postpartum depression among Saudi women. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Three-hundred postpartum women were recruited for this study from various hospitals in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Likelihood of depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS. Socio-demographic data were collected as well as data regarding breastfeeding duration and intention to breastfeed. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21, using parametric tests; independent t-test and One-Way ANOVA. Results: Postpartum mothers who intended to breast-feed their babies had a lower EPDS scores compared with those who did not intend to breast-feed. No correlation was found between the duration of breastfeeding and EPDS scores. Prevalence rate of postpartum depression in our sample was 14%. Greater age, having previous babies, intention to breastfeed and vaginal delivery were significantly associated with actual breastfeeding. Conclusion: Screening for mothers in the early postpartum period is essential to detect those who are at risk for postpartum depression. Breastfeeding may help to reduce and prevent the appearance of symptoms of depression. Prevalence rate of postpartum depression in Saudi Arabia, 14%, is similar to the worldwide rate.

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Missing Meals Among High School Students-United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zewditu; Eaton, Danice K; Lowry, Richard; Nihiser, Allison J; Foltz, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and correlates of missing meals among adolescents. The 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a cross-sectional study. School based. A nationally representative sample of 11 429 high school students. Breakfast, lunch, and dinner consumption; demographics; measured and perceived weight status; physical activity and sedentary behaviors; and fruit, vegetable, milk, sugar-sweetened beverage, and fast-food intake. Prevalence estimates for missing breakfast, lunch, or dinner on ≥1 day during the past 7 days were calculated. Associations between demographics and missing meals were tested. Associations of lifestyle and dietary behaviors with missing meals were examined using logistic regression controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade. In 2010, 63.1% of students missed breakfast, 38.2% missed lunch, and 23.3% missed dinner; the prevalence was highest among female and non-Hispanic black students. Being overweight/obese, perceiving oneself to be overweight, and video game/computer use were associated with increased risk of missing meals. Physical activity behaviors were associated with reduced risk of missing meals. Students who missed breakfast were less likely to eat fruits and vegetables and more likely to consume sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food. Breakfast was the most frequently missed meal, and missing breakfast was associated with the greatest number of less healthy dietary practices. Intervention and education efforts might prioritize breakfast consumption.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Children: The China Health and Nutrition Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peige Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is generally defined as a cluster of metabolically related cardiovascular risk factors which are often associated with the condition of insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and abdominal obesity. During the past decades, MetS has become a major public health issue worldwide in both adults and children. In this study, data from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS was used to assess the prevalence of MetS based on both the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII guidelines and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria, and to evaluate its possible correlates. A total of 831 children aged 7–18 years were included in this study, and 28 children were classified as having MetS as defined by the modified NCEP-ATPIII definition, which yielded an overall prevalence of 3.37%. Elevated blood pressure was the most frequent MetS component. The results of logistic regression models revealed that increased body mass index (BMI, hyperuricemia, and insulin resistance (IR were all associated with the presence of MetS. To conclude, our study revealed the prevalence of MetS in Chinese children at the national level. Further large-scale studies are still needed to identify better MetS criteria in the general paediatric population in China.

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Children: The China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peige; Yu, Jinyue; Chang, Xinlei; Wang, Manli; An, Lin

    2017-01-18

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is generally defined as a cluster of metabolically related cardiovascular risk factors which are often associated with the condition of insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and abdominal obesity. During the past decades, MetS has become a major public health issue worldwide in both adults and children. In this study, data from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS) was used to assess the prevalence of MetS based on both the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) guidelines and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria, and to evaluate its possible correlates. A total of 831 children aged 7-18 years were included in this study, and 28 children were classified as having MetS as defined by the modified NCEP-ATPIII definition, which yielded an overall prevalence of 3.37%. Elevated blood pressure was the most frequent MetS component. The results of logistic regression models revealed that increased body mass index (BMI), hyperuricemia, and insulin resistance (IR) were all associated with the presence of MetS. To conclude, our study revealed the prevalence of MetS in Chinese children at the national level. Further large-scale studies are still needed to identify better MetS criteria in the general paediatric population in China.

  13. Prevalence of Painful Temporomandibular Disorders and Correlation to Lifestyle Factors among Adolescents in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Østensjø

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the prevalence of painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD-P among adolescents and to investigate correlations with health, environment, and lifestyle factors. Methods. For this cross-sectional case-control study, 562 patients were consecutively recruited at their yearly revision control from four dental clinics in Rogaland County, Norway. Patients completed a questionnaire on general health, socioeconomics, demographics, and lifestyle factors. Responses to two screening questions identified patients with TMD-P, who then underwent clinical examination to verify the TMD diagnosis. Pain intensity was assessed on a visual analogue scale. Patients without TMD-P constituted the control group and were not clinically examined. Results. 7% experienced TMD-P. The female-to-male ratio is 3:1; median age is 17 years. Patients at urban clinics had higher prevalence compared with those at rural clinics. TMD-P patients had headache and severe menstrual pain compared to controls. They were more likely to live with divorced/single parents and less likely to have regular physical activity. Myalgia was present in 21 patients with TMD-P, arthralgia in nine, and myalgia and arthralgia in nine. Females had higher pain intensity than males. Conclusions. A low prevalence of TMD-P was shown but was comparable to other studies. Sex, health, lifestyle, and environment factors were associated with TMD-P.

  14. Prevalence of triceps tendon tears on MRI of the elbow and clinical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplas, Monica C. [University of Mississippi Medical Center, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Radiology, Jackson, MS (United States); Schneider, Erika [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Triceps tendon injuries are reported to be very rare. To our knowledge, there have been no studies describing its prevalence or injury patterns on MR imaging. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence and patterns of triceps injuries based on a large series of consecutive MR examinations. Clinical correlation was obtained. From 801 consecutive elbow MR examinations over a 15-year period, 28 patients with 30 triceps tendon injuries were identified and graded as partial tendon tear and complete tendon tear. The patients' medical records were reviewed to determine age, gender, cause of tears, and management. The prevalence of triceps tendon injuries was 3.8%. There were 5 women and 23 men with partial or complete tears (mean age: 46.6 years; range: 2.7 to 75.1 years). The most common injury was partial tear, found in 18 patients. There were 10 patients with 12 complete tears (2 had re-torn following surgical repair). A tear was suspected in 12 out 28 (43%) patients prior to the MRI. The most common presenting symptom was pain. The most common cause was athletic injury (8 patients [29%], including weightlifting [2 patients]). Tendon tear was found to be a complication of infection in 6 patients, and in 3 patients the tears were a complication of steroid use. Thirteen tendon tears were surgically repaired (8 of these were complete tears). Triceps tendon injury is not as rare as commonly reported and may often be clinically underdiagnosed. (orig.)

  15. Workplace Violence toward Physicians and Nurses: Prevalence and Correlates in Macau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Lee, Paul H; Yip, Paul S F

    2017-08-04

    This paper sets out to estimate the prevalence of workplace violence in relation to socio-demographic characteristics of physicians and nurses working in healthcare settings in Macau. Background : Concerted efforts worldwide to reduce workplace violence (WPV) have not yet removed medical-related professionals from the threat of patients', family members', and colleagues' physical and other assaults in Southeast Asia. Methods : The study employs a cross-sectional design to estimate the prevalence and examines the socio-economic and psychological correlates of WPV among medical doctors and nurses in Macau. The data collection period spanned from August to December 2014. Multiple logistic regression examines the prevalence rates of WPV and its associated factors in doctors and nurses. Results : A total of 107 doctors (14.9%) and 613 nurses (85.1%) participated in the study; 57.2% had suffered WPV in the preceding year. The most common forms of workplace violence were verbal abuse (53.4%), physical assault (16.1%), bullying/harassment (14.2%), sexual harassment (4.6%), and racial harassment (2.6%). Most violence was perpetrated by patients and their relatives, colleagues, and supervisors. Conclusions: WPV remains a significant concern in healthcare settings in Macau. Macau's local health authority should consider putting in place a raft of zero-tolerance policies designed to prevent it.

  16. Prevalence of spondylosis deformans in the feline spine and correlation with owner-perceived behavioural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg, H C; Meij, B P; van Hofwegen, E M L; Voorhout, G; Slingerland, L I; Picavet, P; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective was to determine the prevalence, spinal distribution, and association with the signalment of cats suffering from different grades of feline spondylosis deformans (spondylosis). The secondary objective was to document behavioural changes associated with spondylosis by owner observation. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence of feline spondylosis (group 1). A prospective study was performed to determine the association between radiographic abnormalities of the lumbosacral region (L3-S1) and owner perceived behavioural changes based on a completed questionnaire (group 2). The radiographs were reviewed using a grading system (0-3) for spondylosis. The prevalence of spondylosis in group 1 was 39.4% (158/402). Cats with spondylosis were significantly older than cats without spondylosis (p spondylosis, but spondylosis was most severe in the T10-S1 vertebrae. In group 2, spondylosis of the lumbosacral region was significantly correlated with owner-reported behavioural changes, such as a decreased willingness to greet people and to being petted, increased aggressiveness, and a poor perceived quality of life (p = 0.037). This study found that feline spondylosis is common and that spondylosis of the lumbosacral region may be accompanied by behavioural changes.

  17. The prevalence and correlates of secondary traumatic stress among alcohol and other drug workers in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewer, Philippa L; Teesson, Maree; Sannibale, Claudia; Roche, Ann; Mills, Katherine L

    2015-05-01

    The high prevalence of trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among clients of alcohol and other drug (AOD) services is well documented. Less is known, however, about the impact this has on workers who assess and treat such clients. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of secondary traumatic stress (STS) among AOD workers in Australia. An anonymous web-based survey was undertaken and completed by 412 Australian AOD workers. The questionnaire assessed current levels of trauma training, extent of exposure to clients with a history of trauma history, AOD workers' own history of trauma exposure and PTSD, and current STS. Analyses compared individuals who currently met criteria for experiencing STS with those who did not. Despite the high volume of traumatised clients accessing AOD services, less than two-thirds of AOD workers reported having ever received trauma training. The prevalence rate of STS was 19.9% and was independently predicted by a higher traumatised client workload, fewer hours of clinical supervision, and stress and anxiety levels of the worker. The findings highlight the importance of providing adequate trauma training and clinical supervision to AOD workers in order to maintain their health and welfare and ensure optimal treatment to clients with PTSD. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. Prevalence and clinical correlates of police contact prior to a first diagnosis of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Cornelia; Asmal, Laila; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Emsley, Robin

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about the reasons why people with schizophrenia have contact with police, especially prior to the first episode of illness. To investigate the prevalence and correlates of police contact in first-episode schizophrenia. The prevalence and type of police contact was established among all 110 patients presenting to psychiatric services in one catchment area during a first episode of schizophrenia and among 65 non-mentally ill controls, by participant and collateral interview and from records. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were also recorded and the two groups compared. The first episode of schizophrenia patients had more contact with police than controls, despite the higher prevalence of conduct disorder symptoms among the controls. The patients were not, however, more likely to be incarcerated or arrested. Among the patients, over half of the police call-outs occurred during the period of untreated psychosis. Positive psychotic symptoms were independently associated with police contact, after allowing for socio-demographics. As over a third of people in a first episode of schizophrenia had been in contact with the police - more than twice the proportion among non-psychotic controls - and contact was associated with untreated positive psychotic symptoms, better early detection and treatment of psychosis seems indicated. In the meantime, police services may be playing an important role in reducing the duration of untreated psychosis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Cervical facet oedema: prevalence, correlation to symptoms, and follow-up imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevalainen, M.T.; Foran, P.J.; Roedl, J.B.; Zoga, A.C.; Morrison, W.B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of cervical facet oedema in patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate neck pain and/or radiculopathy, and to investigate whether there is a correlation between the presence of oedema and patients' symptoms. Materials and methods: A retrospective report review of 1885 patients undergoing cervical spine MRI between July 2008 and June 2015 was performed. Exclusion criteria included acute trauma, surgery, neoplastic disease, or infection in the cervical spine. One hundred and seventy-three MRI studies with cervical facet oedema were evaluated by each of the two radiologists. In these patients, the grade of bone marrow oedema (BMO) and corresponding neuroforaminal narrowing at the cervical facets was assessed. Correlation with symptoms was performed based on pre-MRI questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of cervical facet oedema was 9%; the most commonly affected levels were C3–4, C4–5, and C2–3. A total of 202 cervical facets were evaluated: mild BMO was seen in 35%, moderate in 41%, and severe in 24% of cases. Surrounding soft-tissue oedema was observed in 36%, 69%, and 92% of the BMO grades, respectively. The correlations between unilateral radiculopathy and ipsilateral facet BMO grades were 79%, 83%, and 73% (chi-square, p<0.001), respectively. Furthermore, neuroforaminal narrowing on the corresponding level was found in 35%, 38%, and 11% of cases, respectively. At follow-up imaging, facet oedema was most likely to remain unchanged or to decrease. Conclusion: The prevalence of cervical facet oedema is 9%. Cervical facet oedema is associated with ipsilateral radiculopathy. Neuroforaminal narrowing, however, is not associated with facet oedema. - Highlights: • Association between the cervical facet oedema and cervical radiculopathy was studied. • Prevalence of the cervical facet oedema was 9%. • Facet oedema was associated with radiculopathy regardless of the degree of oedema.

  20. The prevalence, characteristics and correlates of falls in Korean community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K-R; Kang, Y; Hwang, E-H; Jung, D

    2009-09-01

    The risk factors for falls that have been reported in Caucasian older adults may not be the same for Korean older adults. To examine the prevalence, characteristics and correlates of falls among community-dwelling older adults in Korea. A stratified random sampling method was conducted to recruit participants, and 335 were eligible to participate from September 2006 to March 2007. Socio-demographic data, history of disease and medications, activities of daily living (ADL), cognitive status, health behaviour and fall incidents were collected. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample. The prevalence of falls was obtained. Univariate analyses for risk factors of falls using chi-square and t-test statistics, and multivariate logistic regression analyses for correlates of falls were performed. Of the 335 older adults, 48 (15%) elderly had experienced falls. There was a significant difference between older adults who fell and those who did not fall with regard to ADL and exercise behaviour. Non-fallers had higher ADL scores and showed higher levels of adherence to exercise than fallers. The independent risk factor for falls was ADL. In this study, an individual's functional status and exercise engagement were significant factors that differentiated fallers and non-fallers. Therefore, an effective fall prevention programme should be focused on encouraging older adults to participate in regular exercise.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of vaping cannabis in a sample of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Connor B; Hill, Melanie L; Pardini, Dustin A; Meier, Madeline H

    2016-12-01

    Vaping nicotine (i.e., the use of e-cigarettes and similar devices to inhale nicotine) is becoming increasingly popular among young people. Though some vaporizers are capable of vaporizing cannabis, sparse research has investigated this method of cannabis administration. The present study examines the prevalence and correlates of vaping cannabis in a sample of 482 college students. Participants reported high lifetime rates of vaping nicotine (37%) and cannabis (29%). Men (r s = 0.09, p = .047) and individuals from higher socioeconomic status families (r s = 0.14, p = .003) vaped cannabis more frequently than women and individuals from lower SES families. In addition, those who vaped cannabis more frequently were more open to new experiences (r s = 0.17, p vaped cannabis, was convenience and discreetness for use in public places. Several correlates distinguished cannabis users who vaped from cannabis users who did not vape, most notably more frequent cannabis use (odds ratios [OR] = 3.68, p < .001), alcohol use (OR = 2.07, p < .001), nicotine vaping (OR = 1.73, p < .001), and greater approval of smoking cannabis regularly (OR = 2.15, p < .001). Findings suggest that cannabis vaping is prevalent among young adults, particularly among those who use other substances frequently and have more favorable attitudes toward smoking cannabis. Research is needed on the antecedents and potential harms and benefits of cannabis vaping in young adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Prevalence and correlates of depersonalization in students aged 12-18 years in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Matthias; Duven, Eva; Giralt, Sebastian; Dreier, Michael; Müller, Kai W; Adler, Julia; Beutel, Manfred E; Wölfling, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    Depersonalization (DP) involves unpleasant experiences of detachment from one's sense of self or unreality in the environment. DP may occur in a broad range of conditions, among healthy persons due to sleep loss, drug induced, secondary to anxiety disorders or primary in depersonalization disorder. Although DP has an early age of onset, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of DP among adolescents. Between January and June 2011, we conducted a questionnaire-based representative survey of pupils aged 12-18 years in the federal state Rhineland-Palatinate of Germany. The final sample comprised 3,809 pupils. We analyzed the prevalence of depersonalization and its correlates regarding sociodemographic characteristics, substance abuse, global mental distress and resilience factors. One-third of the sample showed severe global mental distress, and 11.9 % were in the range of clinically significant depersonalization. Depersonalized students were less often living with both parents (67.3 vs. 75.7 %), came more often from an disadvantaged socioeconomic background, had a very severe level of global mental distress (comparable to psychiatric inpatients), were more often smoking and abusing cannabis and they suffered from specific impairments regarding social insecurity, global self-efficacy and active coping abilities. Experiences of depersonalization were very common among adolescents and may indicate an increased risk for poor academic achievement and mental health in the long term. Prospective studies are needed to investigate the course and clinical relevance of depersonalization for the development of the adolescents.

  3. Internet Addiction Among College Students in China: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinli; Lin, Li; Zhang, Peichao

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of Internet addiction among college students in China and explored the correlations between Internet addiction and psychosocial factors. A total of 1,173 Chinese college students (62.1 percent males, Mage = 19.65 years) were invited to complete a questionnaire containing measures of demographic characteristics, psychosocial correlates, including the quality of the parent-child relationship, propensity for depression, and psychosocial competence, and Internet addictive behaviors. Among the participating students, 15.2 percent were classified as having Internet addiction. Furthermore, students who reported poorer parent-child relationships, higher levels of depression, and lower levels of psychosocial competence were more likely to report behaviors indicative of Internet addiction. Internet addiction was prevalent among college students in China. The significant predictors of Internet addiction were found to include the quality of the family environment (i.e., the quality of the parent-child relationship), personal mental health status (i.e., the existence of depression), and the level of developmental assets (i.e., psychosocial competence). These findings suggest that improving the quality of family life and promoting psychosocial competence among youth can be promising approaches for preventing or/and reducing Internet addiction among college students in China.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of forced sex perpetration and victimization in Botswana and Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alexander C; Leiter, Karen; Heisler, Michele; Iacopino, Vincent; Wolfe, William; Shannon, Kate; Phaladze, Nthabiseng; Hlanze, Zakhe; Weiser, Sheri D

    2011-06-01

    We sought to identify correlates of forced sex perpetration among men and victimization among women in Botswana and Swaziland. We surveyed a 2-stage probability sample of 2074 adults from the 5 districts of Botswana with the highest HIV prevalence rates and all 4 regions of Swaziland. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify correlates of forced sex victimization and perpetration. Lifetime prevalence rates of forced sex victimization of women were 10.3% in Botswana and 11.4% in Swaziland; among men, rates of perpetration were 3.9% in Botswana and 5.0% in Swaziland. Lifetime history of forced sex victimization was the strongest predictor of forced sex perpetration by men in Botswana (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 13.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.55, 41.50) and Swaziland (adjusted OR = 5.98; 95% CI = 1.08, 33.10). Problem or heavy drinking was the strongest predictor of forced sex victimization among women in Botswana (adjusted OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.19, 5.49) and Swaziland (OR = 14.70; 95% CI = 4.53, 47.60). Sexual violence in Botswana and Swaziland is a major public health and human rights problem. Ending codified gender discrimination can contribute to fundamentally changing gender norms and may be an important lever for gender-based violence prevention in these countries.

  5. Prevalence and correlates for psychosocial distress among in-school adolescents in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seter eSiziya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is scanty information on correlates for psychosocial distress in Zambia. Secondary analysis was conducted using data collected in 2004 in Zambia during the global school-based health survey to determine the prevalence and correlates for psychosocial distress. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate magnitudes of associations between exposure factors and the outcome, while the Yates’ corrected Chi-squared test was used to compare proportions at the 5% significance level. A total of 2257 students participated in the survey of which 54.2% were males. Males were generally older than females (p<0.001. Significantly more females than males were bullied (p=0.036, involved in a fight (p=0.019 and consumed alcohol (p=0.012. Psychosocial distress was detected in 15.7% of the participants (14.4% of males and 16.8% of females. Age less than 14 years, male gender, parental support for males and having close friends were protective factors against psychosocial distress. Risk factors for psychosocial distress were: being bullied, involvement in a fight, alcohol consumption, being physically active and parental support. . Age less than 14 years, male gender, parental support for males, having close friends, being bullied, involvement in a fight, alcohol consumption, being physically active and parental support were significantly associated with psychosocial distress. The prevalence of psychosocial distress among adolescents in Zambia appears to be common. There is a need to validate the psychosocial distress indicators that were used in the current study.

  6. Prevalence and correlates of sleep disturbance among older women in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao-Tran, Tiet-Hanh; Seib, Charrlotte

    2017-09-19

    To explore prevalence and correlates of sleep disturbance among women aged 60 and over in Vietnam. Sleep disturbance can negatively influence human's health. Sleep disturbance is likely to increase with age, and women appear to be more likely to experience sleep disturbance than men. Knowledge about sleep disturbance in women aged 60 and over in Vietnam is under-researched. The study presents results from a cross-sectional survey of 440 women aged 60 and over from 16 rural and urban suburbs in Vietnam from August 2014-January 2015 METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to gather data about residence, age, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, income, body mass index, physical activity, exercise, perceived stress, general health status, number of chronic diseases and sleep disturbance. Descriptive analysis, bivariate correlation and binary logistic generalised linear model were used for data analysis. Among older women in Vietnam, (i) the prevalence of sleep disturbance was 38.9%; (ii) the most commonly problem was difficulty maintaining sleep, followed by sleep latency, reduced sleep quality, early waking and daytime sleepiness, (iii) body mass index and physical health were significantly associated with sleep disturbance status. Sleep disturbance was relatively common among older women in Vietnam. Overweight increased their sleep disturbance while physical health was negatively associated with their sleep disturbance. This article provided evidence about sleep problems among older women in Vietnam and suggested that interventions targeting weight control and physical health promotion would be useful to improve their sleep problems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Morbidly Obese Patients Undergoing Sleeve Bariatric Surgery in Iran and Association With Other Comorbid Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi-Sari; Mousavi-Naeini; Ramezani-Binabaj; Najafizadeh-Sari; Mir-Jalili; Dolatimehr

    2015-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease including simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH could progress to cirrhosis and liver cancer. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing by increasing the prevalence of obesity. Objectives This study was designed to determine the prevalence of NASH in morbidly obese patients undergoing sleeve bariatric s...

  8. Burnout prevalence and correlates amongst Colombian dental students: the STRESSCODE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafla, A C; Villa-Torres, L; Polychronopoulou, A; Polanco, H; Moreno-Juvinao, V; Parra-Galvis, D; Durán, C; Villalobos, M J; Divaris, K

    2015-11-01

    Accumulating evidence amongst dental students indicates an alarming prevalence of stress, which can precipitate the development of burnout--a state of mental or physical exhaustion and disengagement. Understanding individual and educational correlates of burnout is necessary for its prevention. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of burnout amongst a large sample of Colombian dental undergraduates and investigate its psychosocial and educational correlates. Survey data collected from 5647 students participating in the Stress in Colombian Dental Education study were used for this analysis. Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS). Covariates included participants' socio-demographic characteristics and perceived stress, as well as educational environment factors. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate methods based on multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression modelling were used for data analysis. Seven per cent of the students surveyed met the criteria for burnout. The prevalence of burnout was higher amongst upper classes, older and married students, those who reported not having passed all required courses and not having dentistry as their first career choice, as well as students in public institutions and those with large class sizes. Moreover, students' perceived stress in the domains of workload and self-efficacy was significantly and positively associated with burnout. Both personal and educational environment characteristics were found to be associated with burnout. Irrespective of these factors, students' perceived stress with regard to workload and self-efficacy was a strong influence on burnout and its alleviation may be a promising avenue to prevent psychological morbidity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Prevalence, distribution, and correlates of hepatitis C virus infection among homeless adults in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, Lillian; Robertson, Marjorie J; Arangua, Lisa; Leake, Barbara D; Sumner, Gerald; Moe, Ardis; Andersen, Ronald M; Morgenstern, Hal; Nyamathi, Adeline

    2012-01-01

    We documented the prevalence, distribution, and correlates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among urban homeless adults. We sampled a community-based probability sample of 534 homeless adults from 41 shelters and meal programs in the Skid Row area of downtown Los Angeles, California. Participants were interviewed and tested for HCV, hepatitis B, and HIV. Outcomes included prevalence, distribution, and correlates of HCV infection; awareness of HCV positivity; and HCV counseling and treatment history. Overall, 26.7% of the sample tested HCV-positive and 4.0% tested HIV-positive. In logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of HCV infection for the total sample included older age, less education, prison history, and single- and multiple-drug injection. Among lifetime drug injectors, independent predictors of HCV infection included older age, prison history, and no history of intranasal cocaine use. Among reported non-injectors, predictors of HCV infection included older age, less education, use of non-injection drugs, and three or more tattoos. Sexual behaviors and snorting or smoking drugs had no independent relationship with HCV infection. Among HCV-infected adults, nearly half (46.1%) were unaware of their infection. Despite the high prevalence of HCV infection, nearly half of the cases were hidden and few had ever received any HCV-related treatment. While injection drug use was the strongest independent predictor, patterns of injection drug use, non-injection drug use, prison stays, and multiple tattoos were also independent predictors of HCV. Findings suggest that urgent interventions are needed to screen, counsel, and treat urban homeless adults for HCV infection.

  10. Prevalence of obesity and its correlates in school going adolescents of Haldwani, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India

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    Shantanu Aggarwal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: With a rising trend of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs in the present world, overweight and obesity has gained importance as it is not only a disease in itself but also risk factor for majority of other NCDs. A dramatic increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescent has raised the concern of various public health physicians especially in developing country like India. Aims & Objective: To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity & its correlates among school going adolescents of Haldwani block. Material & Methods: School based cross sectional study was done among the adolescents of 8th to 12th standard. To calculate the maximum sample size prevalence of obesity was assumed to be 50%, taking absolute error of 5%, design effect of 2 and 10% non-response rate the sample was calculated to be 880, rounded off to 900. Samples were collected from 30 clusters/schools using simple random sampling. Data was collected using a pre-designed, semi-structured and pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 13% (CI = 10.8 - 15.2%. Overweight and obesity was found to be significantly associated with urban area, private school, Socio-economic class I, non-vegetarian diet, physical inactivity and playing videogames, working on laptops and computer on univariate analysis. On applying binary logistic regression factors like private schools, socioeconomic class I, non-vegetarian diet and physical inactivity were again found to be significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Prevalence of obesity was found to be more in adolescents having modifiable risk factors. 

  11. Prevalence and correlates of hypertension among adults in the urban area of Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haresh Chandwani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reliable information on the prevalence of hypertension is crucial in the development of health policies for the prevention, early diagnosis, and control of this condition. This study describes the prevalence of hypertension among the adult population in the urban area of Jamnagar, Gujarat, India, and identifies correlates associated with it.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Patel colony area of Jamnagar Municipal Corporation. The study included 271 adults who reside in this area and who were 20 years old or older. The subjects were evaluated through one-hour interviews at their homes. After each subject was interviewed, three consecutive blood pressure measurements were conducted. The data were analyzed by proportions, F-ratios, chi-square tests, odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals.Results: Sixty-five of the 271 people (24% were found to have hypertension. Among the 65 people with hypertension, 54 (83.1% were aware of their hypertension and were undergoing treatment for the condition. However, among the 54 people being treated, only 31 people (57.4% had satisfactory control of their hypertension. A higher prevalence of hypertension was found among people who had a BMI greater than 25, were 40 years old or older, had a family history of hypertension, had a history of previous cerebrovascular or cardiovascular events, had diabetes, smoked, drank alcoholic beverages, and consumed excess salt. A comparatively higher prevalence was found among males, people whose diets were non-vegetarian, people with high saturated fat intake, and people who did not engage in physical exercise.Conclusions: Despite treatment, most of the hypertensives had not achieved satisfactory control of blood pressure. Health education programs are needed to teach the public how to control the various risk factors associated with hypertension.

  12. Symptomatological and cognitive correlates of vascular comorbidity in older-elderly (at least 75 years old men with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yuan Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a common geriatric psychiatric disorder increasing with age among elderly people (≥ 75 years old, especially those with medical comorbidities. They have higher suicide rates than younger men, but these are paid less attention. Elderly men (n=141 who were newly admitted residents of the Veterans' Home in Tainan, Taiwan from 2004 to 2006 were recruited and screened for major depression. Specialist physicians obtained past histories of medical illnesses through chart reviews, interview, and health examinations. Fifty-nine of the 141 elderly people had major depression and participated in this study. Thirty-nine men in the group with vascular comorbidities (VC, and 20 in the group without (NVC vascular comorbidities were compared. The VC group had more time-orientation impairment, greater psychomotor retardation, and diminished concentration/decision-making than did the NVC group. Psychomotor retardation and other cognitive function impairments (e.g., concentration and decision-making are characteristic manifestations among patients with major depression and vascular comorbidity compared with those without vascular comorbidity.

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of E-Cigarette Perceptions and Trial Among Early Adolescents in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Barrientos-Gutíerrez, Inti; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Miriam; Mejía, Raúl; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Sargent, James D

    2016-03-01

    Assess the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette perceptions and trial among adolescents in Mexico, where e-cigarettes are banned. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2015 from a representative sample of middle-school students (n = 10,146). Prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, relative harm, and trial were estimated, adjusting for sampling weights and school-level clustering. Multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for school-level clustering to assess correlates of e-cigarette awareness and trial. Finally, students who had tried only e-cigarettes were compared with students who had tried: (1) conventional cigarettes only; (2) both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes (dual triers); and (3) neither cigarette type (never triers). Fifty-one percent of students had heard about e-cigarettes, 19% believed e-cigarettes were less harmful than conventional cigarettes, and 10% had tried them. Independent correlates of e-cigarette awareness and trial included established risk factors for smoking, as well as technophilia (i.e., use of more media technologies) and greater Internet tobacco advertising exposure. Exclusive e-cigarette triers (4%) had significantly higher technophilia, bedroom Internet access, and Internet tobacco advertising exposure compared to conventional cigarette triers (19%) and never triers (71%) but not compared to dual triers (6%), although dual triers had significantly stronger conventional cigarette risk factors. This study suggests that adolescent e-cigarette awareness and use is high in Mexico, in spite of its e-cigarette ban. A significant number of medium-risk youth have tried e-cigarettes only, suggesting that e-cigarettes could lead to more intensive substance use. Strategies to reduce e-cigarette use should consider reducing exposures to Internet marketing. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette perceptions and trial among Mexican adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Abad-Vivero, Erika N.; Barrientos-Gutíerrez, Inti; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Miriam; Mejía, Raúl; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Assess the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette perceptions and trial among adolescents in Mexico, where e-cigarettes are banned. METHODS Cross-sectional data were collected in 2015 from a representative sample of middle school students (n=10,146). Prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, relative harm, and trial were estimated, adjusting for sampling weights and school-level clustering. Multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for school-level clustering to assess correlates of e-cigarette awareness and trial. Finally, students who had tried only e-cigarettes were compared with students who had tried: 1) conventional cigarettes only; 2) both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes (dual triers); 3) neither cigarette type (never triers). RESULTS 51% of students had heard about e-cigarettes, 19% believed e-cigarettes were less harmful than conventional cigarettes, and 10% had tried them. Independent correlates of e-cigarette awareness and trial included established risk factors for smoking, as well as technophilia (i.e., use of more media technologies) and greater Internet tobacco advertising exposure. Exclusive e-cigarette triers (4%) had significantly higher technophilia, bedroom Internet access, and Internet tobacco advertising exposure compared to conventional cigarette triers (19%) and never triers (71%), but not compared to dual triers (6%), even though dual triers had significantly stronger conventional cigarette risk factors. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that adolescent e-cigarette awareness and use is high in Mexico, in spite of its e-cigarette ban. A significant number of medium-risk youth have tried e-cigarettes only, suggesting that e-cigarettes could lead to more intensive substance use. Strategies to reduce e-cigarette use should consider reducing exposures to Internet marketing. PMID:26903433

  15. ADHD severity as it relates to comorbid psychiatric symptomatology in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Rosleen; Dovi, Allison T; Lane, David M; Loveland, Katherine A; Pearson, Deborah A

    2017-01-01

    Comorbid diagnoses identified in pediatric samples have been correlated with a range of outcomes, including greater levels of emotional, behavioral, and educational impairment and the need for more intensive treatment. Given that previous research has documented high levels of comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), this study closely examines the relationship between parent-reported ADHD symptoms (i.e., Conners' Parent Rating Scale, Revised [CPRS-R]) and the prevalence of additional comorbid psychiatric diagnoses in a pediatric ASD sample (n=99). Regression analyses revealed that greater severity of ADHD symptomatology was significantly related to a greater number of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, as identified using the Diagnostic Interview for Children and adolescents, 4th Edition (DICA-IV). Additionally, more severe ADHD symptoms were also associated with higher levels of symptom severity on Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) syndrome subscales. Interestingly, increasing severity of ASD symptomatology, as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Interview, Revised (ADI-R), was not associated with a higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses or CBCL syndrome severity. Our study concluded that higher levels of ADHD severity-not ASD severity-were associated with a higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptomatology in school-age children with ASD. These findings may encourage clinicians to thoroughly assess ADHD symptomatology in ASD children to better inform treatment planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trends in prevalence of allergic rhinitis and correlation with pollen counts in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Thomas; Gassner, Ewald

    2008-11-01

    In recent decades, a large number of epidemiological studies investigating the change of prevalence of hay fever showed an increase in the occurrence of this disease. However, other studies carried out in the 1990s yielded contradictory results. Many environmental factors have been hypothesized to contribute to the increasing hay fever rate, including both indoor and ambient air pollution, reduced exposure to microbial stimulation and changes in diets. However, the observed increase has not convincingly been explained by any of these factors and there is limited evidence of changes in exposure to these risk factors over time. Additionally, recent studies show that no further increase in asthma, hay fever and atopic sensitisation in adolescents and adults has been observed during the 1990s and the beginning of the new century. As the pattern of pollen counts has changed over the years, partly due to the global warming but also as a consequence of a change in the use of land, the changing prevalence of hay fever might partly be driven by this different pollen exposure. Epidemiological data for hay fever in Switzerland are available from 1926 until 2000 (with large gaps between 1926 and 1958 and 1958 to 1986) whereas pollen data are available from 1969 until the present. This allows an investigation as to whether these data are correlated provided the same time spans are compared. It would also be feasible to correlate the pollen data with meteorological data which, however, is not the subject of our investigation. Our study focuses on analyzing time series of pollen counts and of pollen season lengths in order to identify their trends, and to ascertain whether there is a relationship between these trends and the changes in the hay fever prevalence. It is shown in this paper that the pollen exposure has been decreasing in Basel since the beginning of the 1990s whereas the rate of the hay fever prevalence in Switzerland remained approximately unchanged in this period

  17. Co-morbidities in heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Vincent M.; Damman, Kevin; van der Meer, Peter; Wijkstra, Peter J.; Luijckx, Gert-Jan; van Beek, Andre; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Voors, Adriaan A.

    Heart failure is a clinical syndrome characterized by poor quality of life and high morbidity and mortality. Co-morbidities frequently accompany heart failure and further decrease in both quality of life and clinical outcome. We describe that the prevalence of co-morbidities in patients with heart

  18. Prevalence, heritability and genetic correlations of congenital sensorineural deafness and pigmentation phenotypes in the Border Collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Risio, Luisa; Lewis, Tom; Freeman, Julia; de Stefani, Alberta; Matiasek, Lara; Blott, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate prevalence, heritability and genetic correlations of congenital sensorineural deafness (CSD) and pigmentation phenotypes in the Border Collie. Entire litters of Border Collies that presented to the Animal Health Trust (1994-2008) for assessment of hearing status by brain stem auditory evoked response (BAER) at 4-10 weeks of age were included. Heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using residual maximum likelihood (REML). Of 4143 puppies that met the inclusion criteria, 97.6% had normal hearing status, 2.0% were unilaterally deaf and 0.4% were bilaterally deaf. Heritability of deafness as a trichotomous trait (normal/unilaterally deaf/bilaterally deaf) was estimated at 0.42 using multivariate analysis. Genetic correlations of deafness with iris colour and merle coat colour were 0.58 and 0.26, respectively. These results indicate that there is a significant genetic effect on CSD in Border Collies and that some of the genes determining deafness also influence pigmentation phenotypes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PTSD, cyberbullying and peer violence: prevalence and correlates among adolescent emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L; Patena, John V; Nugent, Nicole; Spirito, Anthony; Boyer, Edward; Zatzick, Douglas; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often underdiagnosed and undertreated among adolescents. The objective of this analysis was to describe the prevalence and correlates of symptoms consistent with PTSD among adolescents presenting to an urban emergency department (ED). A cross-sectional survey of adolescents aged 13-17 years presenting to the ED for any reason was conducted between August 2013 and March 2014. Validated self-report measures were used to measure mental health symptoms, violence exposure and risky behaviors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine adjusted differences in associations between symptoms consistent with PTSD and predicted correlates. Of 353 adolescents, 23.2% reported current symptoms consistent with PTSD, 13.9% had moderate or higher depressive symptoms and 11.3% reported past-year suicidal ideation. Adolescents commonly reported physical peer violence (46.5%), cyberbullying (46.7%) and exposure to community violence (58.9%). On multivariate logistic regression, physical peer violence, cyberbullying victimization, exposure to community violence, female gender and alcohol or other drug use positively correlated with symptoms consistent with PTSD. Among adolescents presenting to the ED for any reason, symptoms consistent with PTSD, depressive symptoms, physical peer violence, cyberbullying and community violence exposure are common and interrelated. Greater attention to PTSD, both disorder and symptom levels, and its cooccurring risk factors is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetic resonance images of patients with temporomandibular disorders: Prevalence and correlation between disk morphology and displacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Ruana de Oliveira, E-mail: ruana.amaral@hotmail.com [Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Damasceno, Naiana Nolasco de Lima, E-mail: naiananolasketi@yahoo.com.br [Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Azevedo de Souza, Lílian, E-mail: lilianazevedo@msn.com [Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Devito, Karina Lopes, E-mail: karina.devito@ufjf.edu.br [Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study aimed to evaluate the morphology of the articular disc of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). There were 218 TMJ of 109 assessed patients; 88 were females and 21 males, and all were diagnosed as symptomatic for temporomandibular disorder. The articular disc positions were classified in the normal position and with anterior disc displacement with and without reduction. Regarding the morphology, the discs were classified as follows: biconcave (normal), biplanar, rounded, biconvex, folded, thickening in the posterior band, thickening in the anterior band and hemiconvex. The results indicated that females were the most affected by morphological changes of the articular disc (p = 0.008/Cramer's V = 0.295). There was no statistical significance when correlating the disc morphology with the sides (right and left). There was a significant correlation between the position and morphology of the articular disc (p < 0.001/Cramer's V = 0.609), and in the normal position of the discs presenting biplanar and biconcave morphologies. In TMJ with anterior displacement of the disc with reduction (ADDR), there was a greater correlation with rounded, hemiconvex and biconvex morphologies. Already in the TMJ with displacement without reduction (ADDWR), there was a higher prevalence of folded discs. It can be concluded that morphological changes in the disc are influenced by the type of displacement, and more serious deformations are associated with ADDWR cases.

  1. Magnetic resonance images of patients with temporomandibular disorders: Prevalence and correlation between disk morphology and displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Ruana de Oliveira; Damasceno, Naiana Nolasco de Lima; Azevedo de Souza, Lílian; Devito, Karina Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study aimed to evaluate the morphology of the articular disc of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). There were 218 TMJ of 109 assessed patients; 88 were females and 21 males, and all were diagnosed as symptomatic for temporomandibular disorder. The articular disc positions were classified in the normal position and with anterior disc displacement with and without reduction. Regarding the morphology, the discs were classified as follows: biconcave (normal), biplanar, rounded, biconvex, folded, thickening in the posterior band, thickening in the anterior band and hemiconvex. The results indicated that females were the most affected by morphological changes of the articular disc (p = 0.008/Cramer's V = 0.295). There was no statistical significance when correlating the disc morphology with the sides (right and left). There was a significant correlation between the position and morphology of the articular disc (p < 0.001/Cramer's V = 0.609), and in the normal position of the discs presenting biplanar and biconcave morphologies. In TMJ with anterior displacement of the disc with reduction (ADDR), there was a greater correlation with rounded, hemiconvex and biconvex morphologies. Already in the TMJ with displacement without reduction (ADDWR), there was a higher prevalence of folded discs. It can be concluded that morphological changes in the disc are influenced by the type of displacement, and more serious deformations are associated with ADDWR cases

  2. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of stunting and thinness among Pakistani primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ubeera

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. Child under-nutrition is estimated to be the largest contributor to global burden of disease, and it clusters in South Asia but literature on under-nutrition among school-aged children is difficult to find in this region. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of stunting and thinness among Pakistani primary school children. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged 5-12 years in Lahore, Pakistan. Stunting ( Results Eight percent (95% CI 6.9-9.4 children were stunted and 10% (95% CI 8.7-11.5 children were thin. Stunting and thinness were not significantly associated with gender. Prevalence of stunting significantly increased with age among both boys and girls (both P 8 years, rural area and urban area with low SES, low-income neighborhoods, lower parental education, more siblings, crowded housing and smoking in living place (all P 10 years (P = 0.003, more siblings (P = 0.016 and crowded housing (P = 0.006. In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted simultaneously for all factors, older age (aOR 3.60, 95% CI 1.89-6.88, urban area with low SES (aOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.15-5.81 and low-income neighborhoods (aOR 4.62, 95% CI 1.63-13.10 were associated with stunting while urban area with low SES (aOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21-4.30 was associated with thinness. In linear regression analyses adjusted for all factors, low-income neighborhoods and older age were associated with lower height-for-age z-score while rural area with low/disadvantaged SES was associated with lower BMI-for-age z-score. Conclusions Relatively low prevalence of stunting and thinness depicted an improvement in the nutritional status of school-aged children in Pakistan. However, the inequities between the poorest and the

  3. Prevalence and correlates of coronary heart disease: first population-based study in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeidan RK

    2016-03-01

    mediated by biological RFs. Conclusion: This is the first nationwide endeavor conducted in Lebanon to assess the prevalence of CHD. This study also confirms the relevance of the classic RFs of CHD and their applicability to the Lebanese population, thus allowing for prevention strategies. Keywords: coronary heart disease, correlates, epidemiology, prevalence, risk factors

  4. The prevalence and correlates of risky driving behavior among National Guard soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Prescott, Marta R; Goldmann, Emily; Tamburrino, Marijo; Calabrese, Joseph R; Liberzon, Israel; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that risky driving is associated with deployment and combat exposure in military populations, but there is limited research on risky driving among soldiers in the National Guard and Reserves, a group increasingly deployed to active international conflicts. The goal of this analysis was to assess the prevalence of risky driving and its demographic, mental health, and deployment-related correlates among members of the Ohio Army National Guard (OHARNG). The study group comprised 2,616 eligible OHARNG soldiers enlisted as of June 2008, or who enlisted between June 2008 and February 2009. The main outcome of interest was the prevalence of risky driving behavior assessed using six questions: "How often do you use seat belts when you drive or ride in a car?"; "In the past 30 days, how many times have you driven when you've had perhaps too much to drink?"; "In the past year, have you ever become impatient with a slow driver in the fast lane and passed them on the right?"; "In the past year have you crossed an intersection knowing that the traffic lights have already changed from yellow to red?"; "In the past year have you disregarded speed limits late at night or early in the morning?"; and "In the past year have you underestimated the speed of an oncoming vehicle when attempting to pass a vehicle in your own lane?" We fit multiple logistic regression models and derived the adjusted prevalence of risky driving behavior for soldiers with mental health conditions, deployment experience, exposure to combat or trauma, and psychosocial stressors or supports. The prevalence of risky driving was higher in soldiers with a history of mental health conditions, deployment to a conflict area, deployment-related traumatic events, and combat or post-combat stressors. In contrast, the prevalence of risky driving was lower for soldiers who reported high levels of psychosocial support. Efforts to mitigate risky driving in military populations may be more

  5. Prevalence and correlates of smokeless tobacco consumption among married women in rural Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shakhawat Hossain

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of smokeless tobacco consumption among married rural women with a history of at least one pregnancy in Madaripur, Bangladesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey using an interviewer administered, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. All women living in the study area, aged 18 years and above with at least one pregnancy in their lifetime, who were on the electoral roll and agreed to participate were included in the study. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and smokeless tobacco consumption was collected. Smokeless tobacco consumption was categorized as 'Current', 'Ever but not current' and 'Never'. Associations between smokeless tobacco consumption and the explanatory variables were estimated using simple and multiple binary logistic regression. RESULTS: 8074 women participated (response rate 99.9%. The prevalence of 'Current consumption', 'Ever consumption but not current', and 'Never consumption' was 25%, 44% and 31%, respectively. The mean age at first use was 31.5 years. 87% of current consumers reported using either Shadapata or Hakimpuree Jarda. Current consumption was associated with age, level of education, religion, occupation, being an income earner, marital status, and age at first use of smokeless tobacco. After adjustment for demographic variables, current consumption was associated with being over 25 years of age, a lower level of education, being an income earner, being Muslim, and being divorced, separated or widowed. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco consumption is high among rural women in Bangladesh and the age of onset is considerably older than that for smoking. Smokeless tobacco consumption is likely to be producing a considerable burden of non-communicable disease in Bangladesh. Smokeless tobacco control strategies should be implemented.

  6. Smokeless tobacco consumption in the South Asian population of Sydney, Australia: prevalence, correlates and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shakhawat; Kypri, Kypros; Rahman, Bayzidur; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2014-01-01

    AIM.: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of smokeless tobacco consumption among the South Asian residents of Sydney, Australia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a pretested, self-administered mailed questionnaire among members of Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi community associations in Sydney. Of 1600 individuals invited to participate, 419 responded (26%). Prevalence rates of ever consumption, more than 100 times consumption and current consumption were 72.1%, 65.9% and 17.1%, respectively. Men (74.3%) were more likely to ever consume than women (67.6%). Over 96% of consumers reported buying smokeless tobacco products from ethnic shops in Sydney. Current consumption of smokeless tobacco products was associated with country of birth: Indians (odds ratio 5.7, 95% confidence interval 2.3-14.5) and Pakistanis (odds ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 1.5-6.5) were more likely to be current consumers than Bangladeshis after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. For ever consumption, there was a positive association with age (P for trend=0.013) and male gender (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.5-3.1). Given the availability of smokeless tobacco and the high prevalence and potential adverse health consequences of consumption, smokeless tobacco consumption may produce a considerable burden of non-communicable disease in Australia. Effective control measures are needed, in particular enforcement of existing laws prohibiting the sale of these products. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of latent tuberculosis infection among employees of a high security prison in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Tan, Cynthia; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2015-06-01

    Although prison employees share the same tuberculosis (TB) risk environment with prisoners, the magnitude of TB problems among prison employees is unknown in most resource-limited prisons. This survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence and correlates of tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity among employees in Malaysia's largest prison. Consented, full-time prison employees were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that included sociodemographic data, history of working in the correctional system and TB-related risk. TST was placed intradermally and read after 48-72 h. Induration size of ≥10 mm was considered positive. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore associations with TST positivity. Of the 445 recruited prison employees, 420 (94.4%) had complete data. Most were young (median=30.0 years) men (88.8%) who had only worked at this prison (76.4%) for a median total employment period of 60 months (IQR 34.5-132.0). The majority were correctional officers, while civilian employees represented only 7.6% of the sample. Only 26 (6.2%) reported having ever been screened for TB since employment. Prevalence of TST positivity was 81% and was independently associated with longer (≥12 months) prison employment (AOR 4.9; 95% CI 1.5 to 15.9) and current tobacco smoking (AOR=1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.2). Latent TB prevalence was high in this sample, approximating that of prisoners in this setting, perhaps suggesting within prison TB transmission in this facility. Formal TB control programmes for personnel and prisoners alike are urgently needed within the Malaysian correctional system. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. PREVALENCE AND CORRELATES OF JOB STRESS AMONG JUNIOR DOCTORS IN THE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE HOSPITAL, IBADAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeolu, J O; Yussuf, O B; Popoola, O A

    2016-12-01

    Doctors respond differently to their complex work environment, some find it stimulating while others find it stressful. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of stress among junior doctors in a teaching hospital in Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional survey of all junior doctors employed at the University College Hospital, Ibadan was carried out. Information was collected with a structured pretested questionnaire from 253 doctors. Descriptive statistics were generated. T-test, chi square and logistic regression analyses were conducted using SPSS version 16. Statistical significance was set at 5%. Mean age of respondents was 29.9 (±4.1) years, 61.3% were males, 59% had spent less than 5 years in medical practice, and 34.8% were married. Majority (79.4%) were resident doctors. Prevalence of stress, job dissatisfaction and poor mental health were 31.6%, 15.4% and 9.9% respectively. Age, gender, years of medical practice, religion, ethnicity and marital status were not significantly associated with job stress (p>0.05). Doctors who were stressed were more likely to be dissatisfied with their jobs (OR=2.33; CI=1.08-4.04) and to have poor mental health (OR=3.82; CI=1.47-9.95) than those who were not stressed. The prevalence of stress in this study is high, and job dissatisfaction and poor mental health have been implicated as determinants of stress. As such, there should be an improvement in doctors' welfare, health care facilities and delivery.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malespin, Miguel; Sleesman, Brett; Lau, Alan; Wong, Shirley S; Cotler, Scott J

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical correlates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children of Chinese immigrants. NAFLD is increasing in prevalence and is frequently identified in children. High rates of NAFLD were found in adult Chinese immigrants. However, there are limited data regarding NAFLD in Chinese American children. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from 407 children, aged 6 to 18 years, who had routine office visits at a Chinatown medical practice. Children were classified as having suspected NAFLD if common causes of liver disease were excluded, alanine aminotransferase levels exceeded established thresholds (>22.1 IU/L for girls and >25.8 IU/L for boys), and elevated alanine aminotransferase levels were confirmed by repeat measurement. 6.1% of Chinese American children had suspected NAFLD, including 33% of obese children. Seventeen percent of children were overweight, 14% were obese, and 52% had 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels <20 ng/mL. In univariable analysis, children with suspected NAFLD were more frequently male, had higher body mass index percentile and lipid levels, and lower vitamin D levels compared with children without evidence of NAFLD. In multivariable analysis, suspected NAFLD was associated with higher BMI percentile and lower vitamin D levels when adjusting for other factors. Chinese American children with obesity are at high risk for NAFLD. They should be screened accordingly, including testing for metabolic disorders and low vitamin D levels. Early identification of NAFLD in childhood will allow for intervention with lifestyle modification, providing a means to reduce the prevalence of NAFLD in children and adults.

  10. Prevalence and correlates for self-reported sleep problems among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, A M; Mattei, A; Sbarbati, M; Di Orio, F

    2011-12-01

    University students report significantly worse sleep quality than the general population. Sleep problems are related to increased health concerns, irritability, depression, fatigue, attention and concentration difficulties, along with poor academic performance. The aim of this paper is to conduct a survey based on a questionnaire that would characterize night time and daytime habits in nursing students to estimate the prevalence of chronic insomnia, sleep disturbance and their correlates. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 364 nursing students of the University of L'Aquila, in Italy. Self-reported sleep data were derived from Sleep and Daytime Habits Questionnaire" (S&DHQ) that covered sleep and daytime habits and academic progress. Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed by the Mental Health Inventory-5 (MHI-5) questionnaire. A supplement includes information about lifestyle, health status and physical activity. The overall prevalence of insomnia was 26.7%. It increased significantly from 10.3% for students aged 40 years. The prevalence of sleep problems were 9.4% for disorders of initiating sleep, 8.3% for disrupted sleep, 7.7% for early morning awakening and subjectively poor quality of sleep 22.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that greater age was significantly associated with an increased risk of insomnia. Other risk predictors of insomnia were headache, severe depression and self perception of poor quality of life. Daytime sleepiness and morning tiredness were significantly associated with current smoking habit and painful physical condition. The risk of unsatisfactory academic progress increased significantly in students reported poor sleep quality. Our study demonstrates that sleep problems are very common among students, and supports the need to assess sleep problems and identify students at risk regarding school achievement.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Elder Abuse in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Sergio L; Laks, Jerson; Marinho, Valeska; Figueira, Ivan; Maia, Deborah; Coutinho, Evandro S F; Quintana, Ines M; Mello, Marcelo F; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Mari, Jair J; Andreoli, Sergio B

    2017-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of elder abuse and to investigate potential sociodemographic, health behavior, and medical correlates. Cross-sectional data were collected in face-to-face assessments. São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Individuals aged 60 to 75. Information on elder abuse was obtained using the Brazil-adapted, nine-item Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test. Sampling design-adjusted descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used in analyses. The overall prevalence of abuse was 14.4% (n = 46/259, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 9.82-20.61) in São Paulo and 13.3% (n = 27/197, 95% CI = 8.76-19.74) in Rio de Janeiro. Unadjusted analyses indicated that poor education, low physical activity, unemployment, heart disease, and psychiatric problems were associated with abuse, but in adjusted analyses, self-reported elder abuse was significantly associated only with psychiatric problems (São Paulo: OR = 4.48, 95% CI = 1.75-11.45; Rio de Janeiro: OR = 21.61, 95% CI = 6.39-73.14). Elder abuse is prevalent in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, but whether concomitants of abuse are cause, effect, or both is unclear because this was a cross-sectional study. These findings highlight the importance of the problem, as well as the need to develop measures to increase awareness, facilitate prevention, and fight against abuse of elderly adults. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Southern Iran: Pars Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodamoradi, Zohre; Gandomkar, Abdullah; Poustchi, Hossein; Salehi, Alireza; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi; Etemadi, Arash; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is increasing worldwide. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of GERD in Pars Cohort Study (PCS) and to find its correlates. METHODS We used the baseline data from PCS. PCS was conducted in the district of Valashahr in Fars province in southern Iran from 2012 to 2014. 9264 inhabitants who were 40-75 years old, and agreed to participate were enrolled. Data were collected by a structured questionnaire and simple physical examination of all participants. RESULTS Generally, 58.50% (95% CI 57.49 - 59.51) of the participants had GERD and 25.10% (95% CI 24.22 - 25.99) experienced it at least weekly. Approximately, 32.0%, 52.0%, and 24.4% of the participants reported heart burn sensation, regurgitation, and both symptoms, respectively. Being female (OR: 1.45, 95% CI 1.27 - 1.65), being older (OR: 1.20, 95% CI 1.06 - 1.36), being divorced/ widowed/separated (OR: 1.38, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.91), and lower education (OR: 1.43, 95% CI 1.02 - 2.03) were associated with frequent GERD. CONCLUSION GERD is common in PCS and its prevalence is close to that in western countries. Being female, higher age, being divorced/widowed/separated, lower education, history of hypertension, anxiety, insomnia, and non-cigarette tobacco smoking were associated with frequent GERD. We are going to investigate the causal relationship between these risk factors and GERD in the next stages of PCS. PMID:28894514

  13. Comorbidity Influences Multiple Aspects of Well-Being of Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease

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    Shervin Assari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Comorbidity is prevalent among patients with Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD and may influence patients’ subjective and objective domains of well-being. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the associations between comorbidity and different measures of well-being (i.e. health related quality of life, psychological distress, sleep quality, and dyadic adjustment among patients with IHD. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 796 outpatients with documented IHD were enrolled from an outpatient cardiology clinic in 2006. Comorbidity (Ifudu index, quality of life (SF36, psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale; HADS, sleep quality (Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index; PSQI, and dyadic adjustment quality (Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale; RDAS were measured. Associations between comorbidity and different measures of well-being were determined. Results: Significant correlations were found between comorbidity score and all measures of well-being. Comorbidity score was correlated with physical quality of life (r = -0.471, P < 0.001, mental quality of life (r = -0.447, P < 0.001, psychological distress (r = 0.344, P < 0.001, sleep quality (r = 0.358, P < 0.001, and dyadic adjustment (r = -0.201, P < 0.001. Conclusions: This study showed a consistent pattern of associations between somatic comorbidities and multiple aspects of well-being among patients with IHD. Findings may increase cardiologists’ interest to identify and treat somatic conditions among IHD patients.

  14. Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates

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    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22566783

  16. Self-harm and suicidal behaviors in Hong Kong adolescents: prevalence and psychosocial correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of antibodies to Neospora caninum in dogs in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Carla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neosporosis, caused by Neospora caninum, is an important cause of abortion in cattle and of neurological disease in dogs. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of antibodies to N. caninum in 441 dogs from the five regions of mainland Portugal. A commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA was used and specific antibodies were detected in 35 (7.9% dogs. Seroprevalence levels were significantly different among some of the studied regions, as well as between stray dogs (13.6% and hunting dogs (1.7%. The difference between seropositivity in dogs presenting musculoskeletal or neurological signs (21.4% and that in animals without clinical signs compatible with neosporosis (5.6% was close to statistical significance. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of N. caninum in dogs in Portugal. Neosporosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurological disorders of dogs.

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W. C.; Ho, Rainbow T. H.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6%) identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed. PMID:25032242

  19. Prevalence and correlates of video and internet gaming addiction among Hong Kong adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W C; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6%) identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed.

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Wen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94% reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6% identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of antibodies to Neospora caninum in dogs in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Carla; Cortes, Helder; Brancal, Hugo; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Pimenta, Paulo; Campino, Lenea; Cardoso, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Neosporosis, caused by Neospora caninum, is an important cause of abortion in cattle and of neurological disease in dogs. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of antibodies to N. caninum in 441 dogs from the five regions of mainland Portugal. A commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was used and specific antibodies were detected in 35 (7.9%) dogs. Seroprevalence levels were significantly different among some of the studied regions, as well as between stray dogs (13.6%) and hunting dogs (1.7%). The difference between seropositivity in dogs presenting musculoskeletal or neurological signs (21.4%) and that in animals without clinical signs compatible with neosporosis (5.6%) was close to statistical significance. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of N. caninum in dogs in Portugal. Neosporosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurological disorders of dogs. PMID:24972327

  2. Prevalence of depression and its correlates among undergraduates in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasuriya, Santushi Devini; Jorm, Anthony Francis; Reavley, Nicola Jane

    2015-06-01

    There is a dearth of mental health research on undergraduates in Sri Lanka. This study examines the prevalence of depression in a sample of Sri Lankan undergraduates, their exposure to threatening life events and the predictors of their depression. Responses of 4304 undergraduates were obtained on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and a measure of exposure to threatening life events, with binary logistic regression models used to identify the demographic and life event correlates of screening positive for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). PHQ-9 diagnoses of 'Major' and 'Other' depression were obtained by 9.3% and 13.5% of undergraduates, respectively. A higher likelihood of MDD was seen among those who were older and those living in hostels (compared to home), although no differences were seen between genders or those studying in different faculties. Likelihood of MDD was higher in undergraduates exposed to multiple threatening life events as well as those exposed to physical threat; family deaths; romantic break-ups; a problem with a close associate; educational difficulties; unemployment and domestic violence, and among male undergraduates harassed by another student. MDD is prevalent in these undergraduates and universities need to develop services to assist them. Such services may also need to focus on supporting those who have experienced threatening life events, particularly those that arise as a result of being an undergraduate, as these may increase the risk of MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms in urban Chinese women during midlife.

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    Carmen K M Wong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Depression is common in women with much research focusing on hormonal changes and menopausal symptoms but with little exploration of psychosocial problems in midlife. This study investigates the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in midlife Chinese women and its association with psychosocial factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional, community-based household survey of women aged 45 to 64 years of age was conducted in Hong Kong from September 2010 to March 2011. The structured questionnaire included demographic data, educational status, marital status and household income, as well as perceived current stressful events and significant life events in the past 12 months. Information on clinically relevant depressive symptoms was measured by the validated chinese Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. RESULTS: A total of 402 participants were recruited in the study period. Of the 393 women who completed the questionnaire, the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score≧10 was 11.0%. In multiple regression analysis, being single/divorced/separated/widowed, having an educational level of primary school level or below, having multiple chronic diseases, loss of hobby or loss of close social support in the past 12 months in midlife were associated with clinically relevant depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Correlates of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in midlife Chinese women can be used to identify those at increased risk and potentiate further studies to explore early psychosocial and community interventions.

  4. Disordered eating attitudes and behaviours among adolescents in Hong Kong: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Carmen Km; Ng, Cherry Fn; Yu, Chak Man; Young, Betty Wy

    2007-12-01

    To study the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours among adolescents in Hong Kong and to examine the socio-demographic and behavioural correlates. Three secondary schools with different academic performance were selected from the Eastern District of Hong Kong. A total of 2382 students enrolled in Forms 1-7 at the three schools completed a specially designed questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions on socio-demographic information, body weight satisfaction, exposure to mass media, health behaviours as well as the Eating Attitudes Test - 26 (EAT-26). Data were analysed using Student's t-test, chi2 analysis and multivariate logistic regression models. Disordered eating (EAT score > or =20) was present in 52 (3.9%) adolescent boys and 68 (6.5%) adolescent girls. The youngest case was only 11 years old. A high degree of body weight dissatisfaction was shared by our adolescents. Teenage girls, overweight youths and those with poor academic performance were at increased risk of having disordered eating. Strong associations were found between disordered eating and other health-compromising behaviours including smoking, alcohol and soft drug use, delinquent behaviours, suicidal ideation and self-harm behaviours. Exposure to entertainment, beauty and youth magazines was positively related to disordered eating. Disordered eating is prevalent among adolescents in Hong Kong. It remains a significant public health challenge to our community. Prevention programmes targeting youths at the greatest risk should be considered.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among drug users in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Pal, Khuondyla; Choub, Sok Chamreun; Mburu, Gitau

    2016-10-01

    Compared to the general population, drug users are at increased risk of both poor mental health and HIV infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of high psychological distress among drug users in Cambodia. In April 2014, a two-stage cluster sampling method was used to randomly select 169 drug users from hotspots in Phnom Penh. Psychological distress was measured using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with levels of psychological distress among this population. Our study found high prevalence of attempted suicide (15.3%), drug related arrests (46.2%), and incarceration (31.4%). Of the 169 participants, 42.0% were found to have high levels of psychological distress, indicating poor mental health. After adjustment, high levels of psychological distress were independently associated with suicidal ideation (pCambodia. Health system interventions, such as screening, referral, and training of health providers, need to be strengthened. In addition, interventions addressing social determinants of mental health and mitigation of frequent arrests and improving conditions in rehabilitation centres are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Sexual Dysfunction in Men and Women With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutte, Anne; van Splunter, Maaike M I; van der Heijden, Amber A W A; Welschen, Laura M C; Elders, Petra J M; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Snoek, Frank J; Enzlin, Paul; Nijpels, Giel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of sexual dysfunction in a sample of Dutch men and women with type 2 diabetes. Patients with type 2 diabetes who were between the ages of 40 and 75 years from 4 Dutch diabetes centers were asked to complete self-report questionnaires covering sociodemographic characteristics, medical characteristics, clinical depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies), and sexual dysfunction (in men: International Index of Erectile Function; in women: Female Sexual Function Index). In total, 158 type 2 diabetes patients (68% men) completed the cross-sectional survey. On the basis of predefined criteria, 69% of men and 70% of women were classified with some degree of sexual dysfunction. Univariable logistic regression analyses revealed that sexual dysfunctions were associated with higher age, clinical depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies score ≥16), and one or more diabetes-related complications in both men and women. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that clinical depression was most strongly associated with both male (OR = 6.87, 95% CI [1.77, 26.63]) and female (OR = 9.33, 95% CI [1.03, 84.87]) sexual dysfunction. In conclusion, sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent in men and women with type 2 diabetes and is associated with higher age, clinical depression, and diabetes-related complications. These results suggest that addressing sexual dysfunction in diabetes care is important.

  7. High daily doses of benzodiazepines among Quebec seniors: prevalence and correlates

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    Moride Yola

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines is generally contraindicated for seniors. While both patient and physician factors may influence the use of high daily doses, previous research on the effect of patient factors has been extremely limited. The objectives of this study were to determine the one year prevalence of use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines, and examine physician and patient correlates of such use among Quebec community-dwelling seniors. Methods Patient information for 1423 community-dwelling Quebec seniors who participated in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging was linked to provincial health insurance administrative data bases containing detailed information on prescriptions received and prescribers. Results The standardized one year period prevalence of use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines was 7.9%. Use of high daily doses was more frequent among younger seniors and those who had reported anxiety during the previous year. Patients without cognitive impairment were more likely to receive high dose prescriptions from general practitioners, while those with cognitive impairment were more likely to receive high dose prescriptions from specialists. Conclusion High dose prescribing appears to be related to both patient and physician factors.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of delayed sleep phase in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxvig, Ingvild W; Pallesen, Ståle; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Molde, Helge; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2012-02-01

    To investigate prevalence and correlates of delayed sleep phase, characterized by problems falling asleep in the evening and rising at adequate times in the morning, in a large sample of Norwegian high school students. A randomized sample of 1285 high school students (aged 16-19 years) participated in an internet based study answering questions about sleep habits, height, weight, smoking, alcohol use, school grades, and anxiety and depression symptoms. Delayed sleep phase was operationalized as difficulties falling asleep before 2 a.m. at least three nights per week together with much or very much difficulty waking up in the morning. The results show a prevalence of delayed sleep phase of 8.4%. In all, 68% of these students (5.7% of the total sample) also reported problems advancing their sleep period as well as one daytime consequence (oversleeping at least two days a week or experiencing much/very much sleepiness at school). Delayed sleep phase was associated with lower average school grades, smoking, alcohol usage, and elevated anxiety and depression scores. Delayed sleep phase appears to be common amongst Norwegian adolescents and is associated with negative outcomes such as lower average school grades, smoking, alcohol usage, and elevated anxiety and depression scores. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of occupational stress and its correlates among firefighters, Tehran, Iran, 2013

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    Mahdi Sepidarkish

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among the various occupations, firefighters are exposed to stress due to the nature of their occupational. Hence, our aim in this study was to assess occupational stress and its correlates among Tehran’s firefighters, Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among firefighters of Tehran in 2013. A total of 312 staff of firefighting organization selected from five operating region through a multistage sampling. Demographic and occupational stress questionnaires were filled by subjects. Finally, data were analyzed with the help of SPSS for Windows. Results: Prevalence of overall stress was 2.2%. Stress levels were 5.8% in demand area, 41.0% in control area, 12.5% in communication area, 1.5% in role area, 17.0% in change area, 14.1% in manager support area, and 5.4% in peer support. The significant association was found between married status (P = 0.006, lower education (P = 0.011, number of medical visit (P = 0.044, career history (P = 0.047 with occupational stress. Conclusion: Prevalence of occupational stress in firefighters of Tehran is relatively low. It is suggested that stress-prone individuals should be identified and advised.

  10. Bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged youth: a prevalence and correlates study in Guangdong Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; He, Yuan; Lu, Ciyong; Deng, Xueqing; Gao, Xue; Guo, Lan; Wu, Hong; Chan, Fanfan; Zhou, Ying

    2015-02-28

    Bullying among school-aged youth is a common issue worldwide and is increasingly being recognized as an important problem affecting both victims and perpetrators. Most of the bullying studies have been conducted in western countries, and their implications in other regions are limited due to different cultural contexts. The goal of our study is to identify the prevalence of bullying and its correlates school-aged youth in Guangdong province. In total, 1098 (7.1%) students reported having bullied other students, 744 (4.8%) students reported having been bullied by other students and 396 (2.6%) students reported having both bullied other students and been bullied by other students. There was a strong association between bullying others as well as being bullied and suicidal ideations, suicidal attempts, and self-harm behaviors. The prevalence of bullying and its associations with delinquent behaviors warrant the importance of school facility based preventive intervention taking into account both victims and perpetrators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of excessive daytime sleepiness in high school students in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Soonjae; Shin, Chol; Kim, Jinkwan; Yi, Hyeryeon; Ahn, Yongkyu; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Jehyeong; Lee, SangDuck

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and its associations with sleep habits, sleep problems, and school performance in high school students in South Korea. A total of 3871 students (2703 boys and 1168 girls with a mean age of 16.8 years and 16.9 years, respectively) aged 15-18 years in the 11th grade of high school completed a questionnaire that contained items about individual sociodemographic characteristics, sleep habits, and sleep-related problems. The overall prevalence of EDS was 15.9% (14.9% for boys and 18.2% for girls). Mean reported total sleep time was similar in EDS and non-EDS (6.4 +/- 1.6 and 6.4 +/- 1.3 h/day, respectively). The increased risk of EDS was related to perceived sleep insufficiency (P or = 4 days/week (P or = 1-3 days/week (P or = 4 days/week (P performance (P performance had a 60% excess in the odds of EDS compared to those whose school performance was high. These findings suggest that EDS is associated with multiple sleep-related factors in adolescents. Whether interventions to modify associated correlates can alter EDS warrants consideration, especially because it may also improve academic performance in high school students.

  12. Prevalence and correlates of probable adolescent mental health problems reported by parents in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstadter, Ananda B; Richardson, Lisa; Meyer, Alicia; Sawyer, Genelle; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Gaboury, Mario; Acierno, Ron

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of probable mental health problems in an epidemiologic study of Vietnamese adolescents. A secondary aim was to examine the correlates of probable mental health caseness. Interviewers visited 1,914 households that were randomly selected to participate in a multi-agency study of mental health in select provinces of Vietnam. Semi-structured interviews assessed adolescent mental health problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) parent informant version, and additionally the interviewers collected information on demographic variables (age, gender, ethnic group, religious affiliation, social capital). The final sample included data on 1,368 adolescents (aged 11-18 years). The average score on the total problem composite of the SDQ scale was 6.66 (SD=4.89), and 9.1% of the sample was considered a case (n=124). Bivariate analyses were conducted to determine which demographic variables were related to the SDQ case/non-case score. All variables except gender were significant in bivariate analyses, and therefore were entered into a logistic regression. Results indicated that age, religion, and wealth remained significant predictors of probable caseness. Overall, prevalence estimates of mental health problems generated by the SDQ were consistent with those reported in the US and other Western and non-Western samples. Results of the current study suggest some concordance of risk and protective factors between Western and Vietnamese youth (i.e., age and SES).

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Disordered Sleep in Southeast Asian Indians with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarabalan Rajendran

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSleep disturbances are common in individuals with diabetes. Patients with diabetes have higher rates of insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness and increased incidence of restless leg syndrome. The purpose of our study was to investigate the prevalence and determine the predictors of sleep dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes in a southeast Asian Indian population.MethodsWe enrolled 120 patients with type 2 diabetes who attended an endocrinology clinic in a tertiary-care hospital. After we collected their demographic data, we recorded their anthropometric measurements. Fasting, postprandial blood glucose values and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c values were then obtained. Quality of sleep was evaluated in all the patients through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, which is a questionnaire that assesses sleep quality and disturbances over a monthlong period. A Global Sleep Quality score ≥5 discriminates between good and poor sleepers.ResultsThe mean global PSQI score was 7.08 (standard deviation, 3.89, which suggested poor sleep quality in this population. Sixty-nine percent of patients had a global PSQI score ≥5, indicating that they were "poor sleepers." The global PSQI score positively correlated with the duration of diabetes and was also independent of other variables such as age, gender, body mass index, HbA1c, or medications.ConclusionWe found a high prevalence of sleep dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. We also found a significant correlation between duration of diabetes and quality of sleep, independent of other variables. It is important for physicians to address the quality and duration of sleep in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of switching to another tobacco product to quit smoking cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Gillian L; Malarcher, Ann M; Babb, Stephen D

    2015-05-01

    Using nationally representative data, we assessed the prevalence and correlates of cigarette smokers who tried switching to smokeless tobacco (SLT) or to other combusted tobacco (OCT) products to quit. Data came from 12,400 current or former adult smokers who made a quit attempt in the past year and responded to the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Demographics and smoking characteristics were computed among those switching to SLT, switching to OCT, or trying to quit without using either strategy. Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression models identified correlates of using each strategy. Overall, 3.1% of smokers tried switching to SLT to quit, 2.2% tried switching to OCT, and 0.6% tried both strategies. Compared to those not using either switching strategy to try to quit, males were more likely than females to try switching to SLT or OCT; Blacks were less likely than Whites to try switching to SLT, but more likely to try switching to OCT; younger age groups were more likely to try switching to SLT or OCT; current someday smokers were more likely to have try switching to SLT (vs. everyday smokers), while recent former smokers were more likely to have tried switching to OCT. Both switching groups were more likely to have used cessation medication versus those not using switching strategies. Data suggest that switching to other tobacco products is a prevalent cessation approach; messages are needed to help clinicians encourage smokers who try to quit by switching to use evidence-based cessation approaches. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Prevalence and Symptom Correlation of Lactose Intolerance in the North East Part of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, M; Shil, B C; Saha, S K; Chowdhury, M; Perveen, I; Banik, R; Rahman, M H

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to see the prevalence of lactose intolerance and symptom correlation following oral lactose challenge in healthy volunteers in the north east part of Bangladesh. Symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea, borborygmi, flatulence, diarrhea and others were noted for 24 hours and blood glucose was estimated at 0 hour and 30 minutes after 50 gm oral lactose load to healthy volunteers. Failure to rise blood glucose level ≥1.1 mmol/l at 30 minutes after lactose intake from fasting level was taken as lactose malabsorption (LM) i.e., lactose intolerance. Sensitivity and specificity of different symptoms were then found out. A total of 171 volunteers (male 123, female 48) with a mean age 34.08 years participated in this study. Lactose intolerance was found among 82.5% (n=141, M=100, F=41) subjects. Symptoms mostly experience by the lactose malabsorbers were diarrhea 93(66.0%), borborygmi 80(56.7%), abdominal pain 31(22.0%) and flatulence 32(22.7%). LM prevalence was found to increase with increasing number of symptoms up to 3 symptoms. A week positive correlation (r=0.205, P=0.007) was found between the number of symptoms and proportion of subjects having positive lactose tolerance test. Lactose intolerance among healthy adults of North East part of our country is as common as in other Asian countries including China and Malaysia. But LM is higher than that of Europeans and south Indians. Diarrhea and borborygmi were mostly associated with LM.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of sleep-related problems in adults receiving medical cannabis for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, James A; Arnedt, J Todd; Conroy, Deirdre A; Bohnert, Kipling M; Bourque, Carrie; Blow, Frederic C; Ilgen, Mark

    2017-11-01

    To examine the prevalence and correlates of sleep problems in a sample of medical cannabis patients. Adults ages 21 and older (N=801,M age=45.8) who were seeking medical cannabis certification (either for the first time or as a renewal) for chronic pain at medical cannabis clinics in southern Michigan completed baseline measures of cannabis use, sleep, pain, and other related constructs. Over half of the sample (59%) met criteria for past 1-month sleep disturbance, defined as at least one sleep problem occurring on 15 or more nights in the past month. Most participants (86%) reported that sleep problems were due to their current pain. Approximately 80% of participants reported using cannabis in the past 6 months to improve sleep and, among these participants, cannabis was rated as helpful for improving sleep. Sleep-related cannabis side effects were rare (35%), but sleep-related cannabis withdrawal symptoms were relatively common (65%). Statistically significant correlates of past 1-month sleep disturbance included a) being female, b) being white, c) being on disability, d) not having a medical cannabis card, and e) frequency of using cannabis to help sleep. Sleep problems are highly prevalent and frequent in medical cannabis patients and are closely tied to pain. Sleep-related cannabis withdrawal symptoms are relatively common but their clinical relevance is unknown. The association between frequency of cannabis use to help sleep with higher odds of sleep problems will need to be clarified by longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of psychosocial conditions among people living with HIV in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Brian T; Pradeep, Amrose; Prasad, Lakshmi; Murugesan, Vinothini; Chandrasekaran, Ezhilarasi; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-06-01

    Psychosocial conditions such as depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), and history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have been associated with poor HIV-related outcomes. In India, which has the third largest HIV epidemic in the world, little is understood about the impact of psychosocial conditions on people living with HIV (PLHIV). We aimed to understand the prevalence and correlates of psychosocial conditions among PLHIV entering into HIV care at the Y.R. Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education in Chennai, India. Thirteen questions were added to the standard voluntary counseling and testing questionnaire, including the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (a depression scale) and questions assessing for CSA and IPV. We fitted logistic regression models, stratified by gender, with psychosocial condition as the outcome of interest and substance use variables and socio-demographic variables as the correlates of interest. Three hundred and eighty-three persons were enrolled into the study; of these, 253 (66%) tested positive for HIV, including 149 men and 104 women, and were included in the models. More than one-quarter (28%) of the men and 19% of the women reported at least one psychosocial condition (probable depression, CSA, or IPV). In adjusted analysis, current alcohol use was associated with greater than two times higher odds of a psychosocial condition (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 2.24, 95% CI, 1.04-4.85) among men. In conclusion, we estimated the prevalence of probable depression, CSA, and IPV among PLHIV presenting for HIV care in southern India and found that, among male PLHIV, alcohol use was associated with a markedly higher odds of reporting a psychosocial condition. Further study is needed to characterize alcohol use among male PLHIV and the possible deleterious impact of psychosocial conditions and alcohol use on HIV-related outcomes in India.

  18. Prevalence of insomnia and its clinical correlates in a general population in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbir, Gulcin; Demir, Ahmet Ugur; Aksu, Murat; Ardic, Sadik; Firat, Hikmet; Itil, Oya; Ozgen, Fuat; Yılmaz, Hikmet; Karadeniz, Derya

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of insomnia is influenced by environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of insomnia and its sociodemographic and clinical correlates in a general population-based survey in Turkey. This population-based study included 4758 subjects among 5021 who participated in the Turkish Adult Population Epidemiology of Sleep Disorders study. Questionnaire items evaluating insomnia were adapted from the International Classification of Sleep Disorders II and the DSM-IV-TR. Subjects with restless legs syndrome were excluded. Insomnia was found to be associated with older age (18-24 years, 9.8%; 25-44 years, 11.7%; 45-64 years, 13.8%; 65 years or older, 13.9%), lower income level (<500 USD, 16.5%), time spent watching TV (6-8 h or more, 18.4%), tea consumption in the evening (≥6 glasses, 14.5%) and smoking status (current and ex-smoker, both 14.2%) in multiple logistic regression analysis. In respect to other medical disorders, insomnia was significantly associated with the presence of hypertension, diabetes and heart diseases after the adjustment for relevant risk factors for each disease, across all age and sex groups. Insomnia is a major health problem in our population, affecting subjects in the working age group and those of lower socioeconomic status. It should especially be screened in patients with chronic diseases. A relatively low proportion of insomnia diagnosed as a sleep disorder suggests that this condition and its clinical correlates are possibly under-recognized. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  19. The Prevalence of HIV by Ethnic Group Is Correlated with HSV-2 and Syphilis Prevalence in Kenya, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Richard Kenyon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper investigates two issues: do ethnic/racial groups with high HIV prevalences also have higher prevalences of other STIs? and is HIV prevalence by ethnic group correlated with the prevalence of circumcision, concurrency, or having more than one partner in the preceding year? Methods. We used Spearman’s correlation to estimate the association between the prevalence of HIV per ethnic/racial group and HSV-2, syphilis, symptoms of an STI, having more than one partner in the past year, concurrency, and circumcision in Kenya, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Results. We found that in each country HSV-2, syphilis, and symptomatic STIs were positively correlated with HIV prevalence (HSV-2: Kenya rho = 0.50, P = 0.207; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; USA rho-1, P = 0.000, Syphilis: Kenya rho = 0.33, P = 0.420; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; USA rho-1, P = 0.000, and STI symptoms: Kenya rho = 0.92, P = 0.001; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; UK rho = 0.87, P = 0.058; USA rho-1, P = 0.000. The prevalence of circumcision was only negatively associated with HIV prevalence in Kenya. Both having more than one partner in the previous year and concurrency were positively associated with HIV prevalence in all countries (concurrency: Kenya rho = 0.79, P = 0.036; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; UK 0.87, P = 0.058; USA rho-1, P = 0.000 and multiple partners: Kenya rho = 0.82, P = 0.023; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; UK rho = 0.87, P = 0.058; USA rho-1, P = 0.000. Not all associations were statistically significant. Conclusion. Further attention needs to be directed to what determines higher rates of partner change and concurrency in communities with high STI prevalence.

  20. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in rheumatoid arthritis and its correlation with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prakash; Agarwal, Abhishek; Vyas, Sony; Kumar, Ravindra

    2017-01-01

    To analyse the prevalence of hypothyroidism in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to elucidate its correlation with disease activity. A total of 52 RA patients were enrolled in this study. All patients were assessed fully clinically and underwent routine laboratory investigation including thyroid function testing. Hypothyroidism (defined as having a TSH level >4.20 μIU/mL) was observed in 20/52 (38.4%). Erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR) were found significantly elevated in patients with hypothyroidism compared to those without (36.3 ± 24.2 vs. 24.6 ± 9.0 mm/h). Disease activity parameters such as DAS-28-ESR, tender joint count; VAS scores were also significantly higher in the former. A significant correlation with serum TSH levels was observed with ESR and DAS-28-ESR. Thyroid function test should be included in clinical evaluation of RA patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Lifetime Suicide Attempts Among Transgender Persons in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Brandon D L; Socías, María Eugenia; Kerr, Thomas; Zalazar, Virginia; Sued, Omar; Arístegui, Inés

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the lifetime prevalence and correlates of attempted suicide among transgender persons in Argentina. Data were derived from a nation-wide, cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013. We assessed individual, social, and structural correlates of reporting a history of attempting suicide using logistic regression. Among 482 participants, the median age was 30, 91% identified as transwomen, and 32% resided in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. A lifetime suicide attempt was reported by 159 (33%), among whom the median age at first attempt was 17. In a multivariate model, internalized stigma was positively associated with a history of suicidal behavior, while participants with stable housing had reduced odds of prior suicide attempt(s). These findings suggest that reducing stigma and mitigating structural vulnerabilities (through, for example, the enactment and enforcement of laws that prohibit discrimination based on gender identity to ensure equitable access to housing) could be effective targets for intervention to reduce suicide attempts among transgender individuals in Argentina.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of criminal victimization among new admissions to outpatient mental health services in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisanti, Annette S; Frueh, B Christopher; Archambeau, Olga; Steffen, John J; Wolff, Nancy

    2014-04-01

    Adults with serious mental illness (SMI) experience criminal victimization at rates higher than the general population whether they reside in the community or correctional settings. This study examines the past-six month prevalence and correlates of criminal victimization among a large community sample (N = 2,209) of consumers with SMI newly admitted to outpatient mental health services during 2005 through 2008. A cross-sectional design was used with self-report and clinical data collected from administrative records. Victimization was determined by responses to direct questions about experiences in the previous 6 months with respect to victimization of a non-violent and/or violent crime. Socio-demographic, clinical and criminal correlates of victimization were abstracted from a quality of life survey and clinical assessment interview conducted at admission. Overall, 25.4 % of consumers reported being a victim of any crime (violent or non-violent) in the past 6 months, with 20.3 % reporting non-violent and 12.3 % violent victimization. The risk of victimization was elevated for those who were female, White, not taking atypical psychotropic medication, not feeling safe in their living arrangement, and were arrested or homeless in the six-months prior to engaging in mental health outpatient treatment. Policy and practice implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Viewing child pornography: prevalence and correlates in a representative community sample of young Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Hermann, Chantal A; Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Most research on child pornography use has been based on selected clinical or criminal justice samples; risk factors for child pornography use in the general population remain largely unexplored. In this study, we examined prevalence, risk factors, and correlates of viewing depictions of adult-child sex in a population-representative sample of 1,978 young Swedish men (17-20 years, Mdn = 18 years, overall response rate, 77 %). In an anonymous, school-based survey, participants self-reported sexual coercion experiences, attitudes and beliefs about sex, perceived peer attitudes, and sexual interests and behaviors; including pornography use, sexual interest in children, and sexually coercive behavior. A total of 84 (4.2 %) young men reported they had ever viewed child pornography. Most theory-based variables were moderately and significantly associated with child pornography viewing and were consistent with models of sexual offending implicating both antisociality and sexual deviance. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, 7 of 15 tested factors independently predicted child pornography viewing and explained 42 % of the variance: ever had sex with a male, likely to have sex with a child aged 12-14, likely to have sex with a child 12 or less, perception of children as seductive, having friends who have watched child pornography, frequent pornography use, and ever viewed violent pornography. From these, a 6-item Child Pornography Correlates Scale was constructed and then cross-validated in a similar but independent Norwegian sample.

  4. Exploring the Prevalence and Correlates Associated With Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Jahirul; Mazerolle, Paul; Broidy, Lisa; Baird, Kathleen

    2017-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is known to have multiple detrimental consequences for the woman and potentially for her unborn child. However, little is known about the nature and extent of IPV during pregnancy, particularly in developing countries, which compromises efforts to address the problem. Relying on population-based data, this article examines the extent, patterns, and correlates associated with physical, sexual, and psychological IPV during pregnancy in Bangladesh. Cross-sectional survey data were collected between October 2015 and January 2016 from 426 new mothers, aged 15 to 49 years, who were in the first 6 months postpartum. IPV was assessed with a validated set of survey items. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate correlates associated with different types of IPV. Overall, 66.4% of women experienced any IPV during pregnancy. The prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological IPV was 35.2%, 18.5%, and 65%, respectively. These forms of IPV often overlap, particularly physical and psychological IPV. Pregnant women who report limited social support and have controlling husbands are at significantly increased risk for all three types of IPV during pregnancy. Women who cling to traditional gender roles and those with low self-esteem exhibit increased risk for physical and psychological IPV during pregnancy. Psychological IPV during pregnancy is also correlated with low decision-making autonomy and childhood exposure to violence. Women whose husband's demand a dowry at marriage are at increased risk of sexual IPV during pregnancy. Results reinforce the need to conduct routine screening during pregnancy to identify women with a history of IPV and to be able to offer help and support. The findings also reinforce calls for gender equity and women's equal access to family and social resources thereby increasing women's social support networks, their self-esteem, and autonomy, and reducing their risk of IPV

  5. The Prevalence and Correlates of Falling Down in the Older Adults Over 55 Years in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghanbary

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Falling down is one of the most common problems that involve old people. It may affect the physical, emotional and social aspects of individual’s health and may cause economical and social problems for individuals and society. Methods & Materials: In a cross sectional study, 750 old people with ages of 55 or more, living in the city of Shiraz (409 female, 341 male, mean ages 67.32 year with a convenience sampling method took part in this study. A questionnaire was designed to gather the information about the history of falling down on past year, its complications and the possible associated factors. Chi square and Mann_ Witeny test and logistic regression method was used to analyze the study data. Results: the prevalence of falling down was 33.6%. 20.4% of people had single falling down and 13.2% of them had recurrent falling down. There were significant correlations between falling down and age (P=0.016, sex (P<0.001, diabetes (P=0.008, vertigo (P<0.0001. However no significant correlation was found between falling down with arthritis, heart disease, nervous system disease, rheumatologic disease, hypertension and use of cane and glass. There were significant correlation between recurrent falling down and sex (P=0.021, vertigo (P<0.0001 and osteoporosis (P=0.024. Also, use of cane (P=0.023 and arthritis (P=0.048 were associated with falling down with injury. Conclusion: According to results of this study, one third of old people over 55 year living in the community experienced falling down within one year. Diabetes and vertigo increased the risk of falling down in elderly population. Planning for controlling these risk factors can reduce the rate of falling down and its associated problems and complications.

  6. Prevalence of Depression in Medical Students at the Lebanese University and Exploring its Correlation With Facebook Relevance: A Questionnaire Study

    OpenAIRE

    Naja, Wadih J; Kansoun, Alaa H; Haddad, Ramzi S

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of major depression is particularly high in medical students, affecting around one-third of this population. Moreover, online social media, in particular Facebook, is becoming an intrinsic part in the life of a growing proportion of individuals worldwide. Objective Our primary objective is to identify the prevalence of depression in medical students at the Lebanese University Faculty of Medicine, a unique state university in Lebanon, its correlation with the utilizat...

  7. A novel data-driven workflow combining literature and electronic health records to estimate comorbidities burden for a specific disease: a case study on autoimmune comorbidities in patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudié, Jean-Baptiste; Rance, Bastien; Malamut, Georgia; Khater, Sherine; Burgun, Anita; Cellier, Christophe; Jannot, Anne-Sophie

    2017-09-29

    Data collected in EHRs have been widely used to identifying specific conditions; however there is still a need for methods to define comorbidities and sources to identify comorbidities burden. We propose an approach to assess comorbidities burden for a specific disease using the literature and EHR data sources in the case of autoimmune diseases in celiac disease (CD). We generated a restricted set of comorbidities using the literature (via the MeSH® co-occurrence file). We extracted the 15 most co-occurring autoimmune diseases of the CD. We used mappings of the comorbidities to EHR terminologies: ICD-10 (billing codes), ATC (drugs) and UMLS (clinical reports). Finally, we extracted the concepts from the different data sources. We evaluated our approach using the correlation between prevalence estimates in our cohort and co-occurrence ranking in the literature. We retrieved the comorbidities for 741 patients with CD. 18.1% of patients had at least one of the 15 studied autoimmune disorders. Overall, 79.3% of the mapped concepts were detected only in text, 5.3% only in ICD codes and/or drugs prescriptions, and 15.4% could be found in both sources. Prevalence in our cohort were correlated with literature (Spearman's coefficient 0.789, p = 0.0005). The three most prevalent comorbidities were thyroiditis 12.6% (95% CI 10.1-14.9), type 1 diabetes 2.3% (95% CI 1.2-3.4) and dermatitis herpetiformis 2.0% (95% CI 1.0-3.0). We introduced a process that leveraged the MeSH terminology to identify relevant autoimmune comorbidities of the CD and several data sources from EHRs to phenotype a large population of CD patients. We achieved prevalence estimates comparable to the literature.

  8. Symptomatological and cognitive correlates of vascular comorbidity in older-elderly (at least 75 years old) men with major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Yuan Wang; Yun-Hsuan Chang; Sheng-Yu Lee; Chih-Chun Huang; I-Hui Lee; Tzung-Lieh Yeh; Yen-Kuang Yang; Yan-Chiou Ku; Ru-Band Lu

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a common geriatric psychiatric disorder increasing with age among elderly people (≥ 75 years old), especially those with medical comorbidities. They have higher suicide rates than younger men, but these are paid less attention. Elderly men (n=141) who were newly admitted residents of the Veterans' Home in Tainan, Taiwan from 2004 to 2006 were recruited and screened for major depression. Specialist physicians obtained past histories of medical illnesses through chart reviews, int...

  9. The prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C; Berglund, Patricia A; Chiu, Wai Tat; Deitz, Anne C; Hudson, James I; Shahly, Victoria; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Benjet, Corina; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Maria Haro, Josep; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; O'Neill, Siobhan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sasu, Carmen; Scott, Kate; Viana, Maria Carmen; Xavier, Miguel

    2013-05-01

    Little population-based data exist outside the United States on the epidemiology of binge eating disorder (BED). Cross-national BED data are presented here and compared with bulimia nervosa (BN) data in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys. Community surveys with 24,124 respondents (ages 18+) across 14 mostly upper-middle and high-income countries assessed lifetime and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Physical disorders were assessed with a chronic conditions checklist. Country-specific lifetime prevalence estimates are consistently (median; interquartile range) higher for BED (1.4%; .8-1.9%) than BN (.8%; .4-1.0%). Median age of onset is in the late teens to early 20s for both disorders but slightly younger for BN. Persistence is slightly higher for BN (6.5 years; 2.2-15.4) than BED (4.3 years; 1.0-11.7). Lifetime risk of both disorders is elevated for women and recent cohorts. Retrospective reports suggest that comorbid DSM-IV disorders predict subsequent onset of BN somewhat more strongly than BED and that BN predicts subsequent comorbid disorders somewhat more strongly than does BED. Significant comorbidities with physical conditions are due almost entirely to BN and to a somewhat lesser degree BED predicting subsequent onset of these conditions. Role impairments are similar for BN and BED. Fewer than half of lifetime BN or BED cases receive treatment. Binge eating disorder represents a public health problem at least equal to BN. Low treatment rates highlight the clinical importance of questioning patients about eating problems even when not included among presenting complaints. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical comorbidities increase the risk of psychiatric comorbidity in immune-mediated inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Walld, Randy; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender; Walker, John R; Patten, Scott B; Singer, Alexander; Lix, Lisa M; Hitchon, Carol A; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Katz, Alan; Fisk, John D; Bernstein, Charles N

    2018-01-11

    We tested the association between physical comorbidity and incident depression, anxiety disorder and bipolar disorder in three immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID): inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) versus age-, sex- and geographically-matched controls. Using population-based administrative data we identified 6119 persons with IBD, 3514 persons with MS, 10,206 persons with RA and 97,727 matched controls. We identified incident cases of depression, anxiety disorder and bipolar disorder in these populations. We evaluated the association of physical comorbidities with incident psychiatric comorbidity using Cox regression, adjusting for sociodemographic factors and index year. The risk of incident depression, anxiety disorders and bipolar disorder was higher in each IMID cohort versus their matched cohorts. The risk of incident psychiatric comorbidity increased with an increasing number of physical comorbidities for each psychiatric comorbidity evaluated, across all IMID. Adjustment for physical comorbidity did not attenuate the increased risk of psychiatric comorbidity in the IMID cohorts versus their matched cohorts. The increased incidence of psychiatric comorbidity in IMID versus matched general population cohorts is not accounted for by their increased prevalence of physical comorbidities. However, within IMID cohorts, physical comorbidity increases the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of hypertension in a semi-rural population of Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mandeep; Kotwal, Atul; Mittal, Chetan; Babu, S Ram; Bharti, Sahul; Ram, C Venkata S

    2017-12-01

    While elevated blood pressure is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the prevalence of hypertension still remains unclear for most populations. A door-to-door survey was conducted using modified WHO STEPS questionnaire in a group of villages under the Thavanampalle Mandal of Chittoor District in the state of Andhra Pradesh of South India. Data were collated and analyzed for 16,636 individuals (62.3% females and 37.7% males) above 15 years of age. Overall, prevalence of hypertension (as per JNC-7 classification) was found to be 27.0% (95% CI, 26.3, 27.7) in the surveyed community with 56.7% of the total hypertensives being diagnosed for the first time during the survey. An additional 39.1% had their blood pressure readings in the prehypertensive range. Among the known Hypertensives on treatment only 46.2% had a blood pressure recording within acceptable limits, with 31.2% in the prehypertensive range and only 15.0% in the normal range. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) of the surveyed population showed a continuous linear increase with age, but diastolic blood pressure (DBP) peaked and started reducing in early fifth decade in males. Male gender, increasing age, higher body mass index (BMI), increased waist-hip ratio, increased body weight, family history of hypertension, death of spouse, and diabetes were found to be positively correlated with hypertension. Risk factors of alcohol intake, use of ground nut/palm oil, and family history of diabetes lost their independent predictive ability for hypertension on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The level of physical activity was also not found to be a significant predictor of hypertension in the study population.

  12. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of spiritual healer use: findings from the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jeff; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates sociodemographic and health-related correlates of use of a spiritual healer for medical help. A large national, multiracial-multiethnic data source permits a more comprehensive investigation than was possible in previous studies. It also enables a closer focus on socioeconomic disadvantage and health need as determinants of utilization. Respondents are from the National Survey of American Life: Coping with Stress in the 21st Century (NSAL), a nationally representative multi-stage area-probability survey of U.S. adult African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites conducted from 2001 to 2003. The sample contains 6082 adults aged 18 and over. NSAL respondents were surveyed about lifetime use of alternative providers for medical care or advice. Response categories included two types of spiritual healers: faith healers and psychics. These outcomes were logistically regressed, separately, onto 10 sociodemographic or health-related indicators: race/ethnicity, age, gender, marital status, education, household income, region, medical care use, insurance coverage, and self-rated health. Lifetime utilization of a faith healer is more prevalent among respondents in good health and less prevalent among Caribbean Blacks and never married persons. Users of a psychic healer are more likely to be educated, residents of the Northeast or West, and previously married, and less likely to report excellent health. Use a spiritual healer is not due, on average, to poor education, marginal racial/ethnic or socioeconomic status, dire health straits, or lack of other healthcare options. To some extent, the opposite appears to be true. Use of a spiritual healer is not associated with fewer social and personal resources or limitations in health or healthcare. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  14. Comorbidity of Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuu-Jiun Wang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is a common neurological disorder and can cause severely disabling during attacks. The highest prevalence occurs between the ages of 25 and 55 years, potentially the most productive period of life. Migraine leads to a burden not only to the individual, but also to the family and society. Prior studies have found migraine occurs with some illness at a greater than coincidental rate than is seen in the general population. These occurrences are called “comorbidity”, which means that these disorders are interrelated with migraine. To delineate migraine comorbidity is important because it can help improve treatment strategies and understand the possible pathophysiology of migraine. The comorbid illnesses in patients with migraine include stroke, sub-clinical vascular brain lesions, coronary heart disease, hypertension, patent foramen ovale, psychiatric diseases (depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, and suicide, restless legs syndrome, epilepsy, and asthma. In this paper, we review the existing epidemiological and hospital based studies and illustrate the connections between these illness and migraine.

  15. Prevalência do transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade e suas comorbidades em uma amostra de escolares Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and its comorbidities in a sample of school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pastura

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH é comum em crianças na idade escolar e freqüentemente apresenta-se em comorbidade com outros distúrbios psiquiátricos. No Brasil, há escassez de estudos em amostras não-clínicas. OBJETIVO: Calcular a prevalência deste transtorno e suas comorbidades numa amostra de escolares. MÉTODO: Estudo observacional analítico seccional realizado numa amostra de escolares do Colégio de Aplicação da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Utilizou-se questionário de triagem seguido por entrevista clínica estruturada com os pais de crianças suspeitas de serem portadores do transtorno. RESULTADOS: A prevalência encontrada para o TDAH foi 8,6%. As comorbidades deste transtorno se mostraram presentes em 58% dos casos, sendo transtorno opositivo-desafiador, encontrado em 38,5% dos casos, o mais prevalente. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência do TDAH e suas comorbidades na amostra estudada é semelhante àquela observada na literatura internacional.Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a frequent condition in school-age children and commonly presents in comorbidity with other psychiatric diseases. In Brazil, there are few studies concerning non-clinical samples. PURPOSE: The present study aims to calculate the prevalence of this disorder and its comorbidities in a sample of school-age children. METHOD: Cross-sectional analytic study was conducted on a non-clinical sample of children and adolescents registered in 2003 in the elementary school of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. A screening questionnaire was used and parents of those possible affected children were invited for a clinical structured interview. RESULTS: The prevalence of ADHD was 8.6%. Comorbidities were present in 58% of the cases and oppositional-defiant disorder was the most common, found in 38.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of the ADHD and its comorbidities in this sample is similar to that observed in the

  16. Computed tomography (CT) findings in 88 neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) patients: Prevalence rates and correlations of thoracic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Ken, E-mail: k-ueda@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Honda, Osamu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Satoh, Yukihisa [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases (Japan); Kawai, Misa; Gyobu, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Toru; Hidaka, Shojiro; Yanagawa, Masahiro [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Sumikawa, Hiromitsu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Osaka Rosai Hospital (Japan); Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Various thoracic CT findings, including cysts, mediastinal masses, etc. were found. • Cysts show upper and peripheral dominant distribution. • The number, size, and distribution of the pulmonary cysts in NF-1 revealed significant correlation. • It is suspected that thoracic CT findings in NF-1 occur independently. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence rates and the correlations of thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) in 88 patients. Materials and methods: Chest CT images of 88 NF1 patients were independently reviewed by three observers, and the CT findings were evaluated. If abnormal findings were present, their number, size, and distribution were recorded. The prevalence rate of each CT finding was calculated, and the correlations between CT findings were analyzed. Results: Of the 88 cases, 13 were positive for cysts, 16 for emphysema, 8 for nodules, 8 for GGNs (ground glass nodules), 13 for mediastinal masses, 20 for scoliosis, 44 for subcutaneous nodules, and 34 for skin nodules. Cysts showed upper and peripheral dominant distributions. Regarding 13 mediastinal masses, 2 were diagnosed as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), 1 was diagnosed as primary lung cancer, 2 were diagnosed as lateral meningocele, 3 were diagnosed as neurofibromas, and the remaining 7 were considered neurofibromas. There was a significant correlation between the prevalence of subcutaneous nodules and that of skin nodules. Significant positive correlations were also seen between size and number, size and rate of central distribution, and number and rate of central distribution of cysts. Conclusion: Various CT findings were found in NF-1 patients, and the prevalence rates of subcutaneous and skin nodules were higher than other findings. Though the prevalence rates of subcutaneous nodules and skin nodules were significantly correlated, the other CT findings in NF-1 occurred independently. The number, size, and

  17. Prevalence and correlates of probable common mental disorders in a population with high prevalence of HIV in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibanda, Dixon; Cowan, Frances; Gibson, Lorna; Weiss, Helen A; Lund, Crick

    2016-02-29

    In 2014 close to 10 million people living with HIV (PLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa were on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). The incidence of non-communicable diseases has increased markedly in PLWH as mortality is reduced due to use of HAART. Common mental disorders (CMD) are highly prevalent in PLWH. We aimed to determine factors associated with probable CMD and depression, assessed by 2 locally validated screening tools in a population with high prevalence of HIV in Harare, Zimbabwe. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of a systematic random sample of patients utilizing the largest primary health care facility in Harare. Adults aged ≥18 years attending over a 2-week period were eligible, excluding those who were critically ill or unable to give written informed consent. Two locally validated screening tools the Shona symptom questionnaire (SSQ-14) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were administered by trained research assistants to identify probable CMD and depression. Of the 264 participants, 165 (62.5 %) were PLWH, and 92 % of these were on HAART. The prevalence of probable CMD (SSQ14 > = 9) and depression (PHQ9 > = 11) were higher among people living with HIV than among those without HIV (67.9 and 68.5 % vs 51.4 and 47.2 % respectively). Multivariable analysis showed female gender and recent negative life events to be associated with probable CMD and depression among PLWH (gender: OR = 2.32 95 % CI:1.07-5.05; negative life events: OR = 4.14; 95 % CI 1.17-14.49) and with depression (gender: OR = 1.84 95 % CI:0.85-4.02; negative life events: OR = 4.93.; 95 % CI 1.31-18.50) CONCLUSION: Elevated scores on self-report measures for CMD and depression are highly prevalent in this high HIV prevalence population. There is need to integrate packages of care for CMD and depression in existing primary health care programs for HIV/AIDS.

  18. Prevalence and Axis I Comorbidity of Full and Partial Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the United States: Results from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Southwick, Steven M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2010-01-01

    The present study used data from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=34,653) to examine lifetime Axis I psychiatric comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Lifetime prevalences±standard errors of PTSD and partial PTSD were 6.4%±0.18 and 6.6%±0.18, respectively. Rates of PTSD and partial PTSD were higher among women (8.6%±0.26 and 8.6%±0.26) than men (4.1%±0.19 and 4.5%±0.21). Respondents with both PTSD and partial PTSD most commonly reported unexpected death of someone close, serious illness or injury to someone close, and sexual assault as their worst stressful experiences. PTSD and partial PTSD were associated with elevated lifetime rates of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and suicide attempts. Respondents with partial PTSD generally had intermediate odds of comorbid Axis I disorders and psychosocial impairment relative to trauma controls and full PTSD. PMID:21168991

  19. Prevalence and correlates of "Vaping" as a route of cannabis administration in medical cannabis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, James A; Bohnert, Kipling M; Perron, Brian E; Bourque, Carrie; Ilgen, Mark

    2016-12-01

    To examine the prevalence and correlates of vaporization (i.e., "vaping") as a route of cannabis administration in a sample of medical cannabis patients. Adults ages 21 and older (N=1485M age=45.1) who were seeking medical cannabis certification (either for the first time or as a renewal) at medical cannabis clinics in southern Michigan completed a screening assessment. Participants completed measures of route of cannabis administration, cannabis use, alcohol and other substance use. An estimated 39% (n=511) of the sample reported past-month cannabis vaping, but vaping as the sole route of cannabis administration was rare. Specifically, only 30 participants (2.3% of the full sample and 5.9% of those who reported any vaping) indicated vaping as the sole route of cannabis administration. The majority (87.3%) of those who reported vaping also reported smoking (combustion) as a route of cannabis administration. Being younger than age 44, having more than a high school education, engaging in nonmedical stimulant use, being a returning medical cannabis patient, and greater frequency of cannabis use were associated with higher odds of vaping at the bivariate level and with all variables considered simultaneously. Vaping appears to be relatively common among medical cannabis patients, but is seldom used as the sole route of cannabis administration. highlight the importance of monitoring trends in vaping and other substance use behaviors in this population and underscore the need for longitudinal research into the motives, correlates, and consequences of cannabis vaping in medical cannabis patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of drink driving within patrons of Australian night-time entertainment precincts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ashlee; Coomber, Kerri; Hyder, Shannon; Droste, Nic; Pennay, Amy; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Mayshak, Richelle; Miller, Peter G

    2016-10-01

    Drink driving is a significant public health concern, and contributes to many road fatalities worldwide. The current study is the first to examine the prevalence and correlates of drink driving behavior in a sample of night-time entertainment precinct attendees in Australia. Interviews were conducted with 4214 night-time entertainment precinct attendees in two metropolitan and three regional cities in Australia. Seven correlates of self-reported drink driving were examined: gender, age, occupation, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), alcohol consumed prior to attending a licensed venue, energy drink consumption, and other drug consumption. Fourteen percent of night-time entertainment precinct attendees reported drink driving in the past three months. Bivariate logistic regression models indicated that males were significantly more likely than females to report drink driving in the past three months. Blue-collar workers and sales/clerical/administrative workers were significantly more likely to report drink driving behavior in the past three months than white-collar workers. The likelihood of reporting drink driving during the three months prior to interview significantly increased as BAC on the current night out increased, and when patrons reported engaging in pre-drinking or other drug use. The multivariate model presented a similar pattern of results, however BAC and pre-drinking on the night of the interview were no longer independent significant predictors. Males, blue collar/sales/clerical/administrative workers, and illicit drug consumers were more likely to report engaging in drink driving behavior than their counterparts. Interventions should focus on addressing the considerable proportion night-time entertainment precinct attendees who report engaging in drink driving behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.