WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevailing social norms

  1. Activation of social norms in social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Anders; Thøgersen, John

    Taking rational choice theory for granted, cooperation in social dilemmas may be seen as mysterious. In one-shot dilemmas where subjects unknown to one another interact and make their decisions anonymously, cooperation could even be regarded as lunacy. Several authors have challenged this view...... that rarely has been recognised in the social dilemma literature. Social norms imply that people should manifest a prescribed behaviour or not manifest a proscribed behaviour. Furthermore, social norms are often guiding behaviour in specific contexts, and many times they need to be activated....... Such an activation process is often unconscious and once a norm has been activated, people tend to keep following the norm that has been primed. We wish to add to the social dilemma literature by suggesting what kinds of norms that are likely to be activated under different conditions such as oneshot vs. iterated...

  2. Activation of social norms in social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Anders; Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    , though. Research has also identiWed various factors that imply why people cooperate or defect in social dilemmas and what motivations that might guide the decision in one way or the other. Here, a closer look will be taken at social norms as a reason for departure from rational choice, a factor...

  3. Social Groups and Children's Intergroup Attitudes: Can School Norms Moderate the Effects of Social Group Norms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Lawson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of social group norms (inclusion vs. exclusion vs. exclusion-plus-relational aggression) and school norms (inclusion vs. no norm) on 7- and 10-year-old children's intergroup attitudes were examined. Children (n = 383) were randomly assigned to a group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, and to 1 of the school norm conditions. Findings…

  4. Social and moral norms in the laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, A.; Charness, G.

    2011-01-01

    Norms involve a shared understanding about what one ought to do in certain situations. Social norms involve observation by others and external sanctions for violations, while moral norms are internal and involve introspection and internal sanctions; our design attempts to disentangle their effects

  5. Economical modelling of social and moral norms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyborg, Karine

    2001-01-01

    Social norms and moral motivations are often ignored in economic models. It is possible, however, to model social and moral norms within the framework of economical theory. This may be useful even if the exposition is necessarily simplified. The article gives some examples. An analysis shows how the ''No Smoking Act'' may have led to a change in social norms in Norway and indirectly changed the behaviour of smokers in places where this act does not apply. Behaviour with moral motivation may also be affected by changes in regulations, economic incentives or other external conditions. For example, a more efficient collection system for source-separated waste may induce people to sharpen the moral claim on their own efforts. Indeed, interviews show that imposing a fee upon people not volunteering in communal work may cause the attendance to drop further

  6. Social Norms Theory and Concussion Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily; Garnett, Bernice R.; Baugh, Christine M.; Calzo, Jerel P.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary prevention of harm from sport-related concussion is contingent on immediate removal from play post-injury. To date, educational efforts to reduce the prevalent risk behavior of continued play while symptomatic have been largely ineffective. Social norms theory may hold promise as a foundation for more effective concussion education aimed…

  7. Institutions, Social Norms, and Bargaining Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Stratton, VCU, Leslie

    We exploit time use data from Denmark and the United States to examine the impact institutions and social norms have on individuals’ bargaining power within a household, hypothesizing that the more generous social welfare system and more egalitarian social norms in Denmark will mitigate the impact...... standard economic power measures have upon couples’ time use. Further we posit that leisure time will be more sensitive to power considerations than housework time which may be more influenced by preferences regarding household public goods, to gendered notions of time use, and to censoring. Our results...... are generally supportive of these hypotheses, with leisure time on non-work days in the US being particularly responsive to economic power. In addition, we find some evidence that institutions matter as women in the US who are more likely to receive welfare benefits enjoy more leisure time than would...

  8. Eating by the Norm : The Influence of Social Norms on Young People's Eating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are social beings. Our identities are, for an important part, shaped by the different groups we belong to. Each social group has its own standards or norms for behavior, based upon what is considered good or correct behavior within that social group. Such socially shared norms are usually not

  9. The enhancement of social norm compliance: Prospects and caveats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Civai, C.; Ma, I.

    2017-01-01

    Societies are characterized by a shared system of social norms, which promotes cooperation among people. However, following social norms often means going against self-interest - imagine, for example, being required to choose whether or not to get richer from an unfair deal; ignoring social norms,

  10. Social anxiety and social norms in individualistic and collectivistic countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreier, S.S.; Heinrichs, N.; Alden, L.; Rapee, R.M.; Hofmann, S.G.; Chen, J.; Oh, K.Y.; Bogels, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Social anxiety is assumed to be related to cultural norms across countries. Heinrichs et al. [2006: Behav Res Ther 44:1187-1197] compared individualistic and collectivistic countries and found higher social anxiety and more positive attitudes toward socially avoidant behaviors in

  11. When It's Okay That I Don't Play: Social Norms and the Situated Construal of Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudert, Selma C; Greifeneder, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    Being excluded and ignored has been shown to threaten fundamental human needs and cause pain. Such reflexive reactions to social exclusion have been conceptualized as direct and unmoderated (temporal need threat model of ostracism). Here, we propose an extension and argue that reflexive reactions depend on how social exclusion situations are construed. If being excluded is understood as a violation of an inclusion norm, individuals will react with pain and threat. In contrast, if being excluded is consistent with the prevailing norm, the exclusion situation is interpreted as less threatening, and negative reflexive reactions to ostracism should be attenuated. Four studies empirically support this conceptual model. Studies 3 and 4 further show that to guide situated construal, the norm has to be endorsed by the individual. In both Studies 1 and 3, the effect of the norm is mediated by the objective situation's subjective construal. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  12. Digital Social Norm Enforcement: Online Firestorms in Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Katja; Stahel, Lea; Frey, Bruno S

    2016-01-01

    Actors of public interest today have to fear the adverse impact that stems from social media platforms. Any controversial behavior may promptly trigger temporal, but potentially devastating storms of emotional and aggressive outrage, so called online firestorms. Popular targets of online firestorms are companies, politicians, celebrities, media, academics and many more. This article introduces social norm theory to understand online aggression in a social-political online setting, challenging the popular assumption that online anonymity is one of the principle factors that promotes aggression. We underpin this social norm view by analyzing a major social media platform concerned with public affairs over a period of three years entailing 532,197 comments on 1,612 online petitions. Results show that in the context of online firestorms, non-anonymous individuals are more aggressive compared to anonymous individuals. This effect is reinforced if selective incentives are present and if aggressors are intrinsically motivated.

  13. Digital Social Norm Enforcement: Online Firestorms in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Katja; Stahel, Lea; Frey, Bruno S.

    2016-01-01

    Actors of public interest today have to fear the adverse impact that stems from social media platforms. Any controversial behavior may promptly trigger temporal, but potentially devastating storms of emotional and aggressive outrage, so called online firestorms. Popular targets of online firestorms are companies, politicians, celebrities, media, academics and many more. This article introduces social norm theory to understand online aggression in a social-political online setting, challenging the popular assumption that online anonymity is one of the principle factors that promotes aggression. We underpin this social norm view by analyzing a major social media platform concerned with public affairs over a period of three years entailing 532,197 comments on 1,612 online petitions. Results show that in the context of online firestorms, non-anonymous individuals are more aggressive compared to anonymous individuals. This effect is reinforced if selective incentives are present and if aggressors are intrinsically motivated. PMID:27315071

  14. The Neural Basis of Changing Social Norms through Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomogida, Yukihito; Matsumoto, Madoka; Aoki, Ryuta; Sugiura, Ayaka; Phillips, Adam N; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2017-11-24

    Social norms regulate behavior, and changes in norms have a great impact on society. In most modern societies, norms change through interpersonal communication and persuasive messages found in media. Here, we examined the neural basis of persuasion-induced changes in attitude toward and away from norms using fMRI. We measured brain activity while human participants were exposed to persuasive messages directed toward specific norms. Persuasion directed toward social norms specifically activated a set of brain regions including temporal poles, temporo-parietal junction, and medial prefrontal cortex. Beyond these regions, when successful, persuasion away from an accepted norm specifically recruited the left middle temporal and supramarginal gyri. Furthermore, in combination with data from a separate attitude-rating task, we found that left supramarginal gyrus activity represented participant attitude toward norms and tracked the persuasion-induced attitude changes that were away from agreement.

  15. Social Norms in the Ancient Athenian Courts

    OpenAIRE

    Lanni, Adriaan M.

    2013-01-01

    Ancient Athens was a remarkably peaceful and well-ordered society by both ancient and contemporary standards. Scholars typically attribute Athens’ success to internalized norms and purely informal enforcement mechanisms. This article argues that the formal Athenian court system played a vital role in maintaining order by enforcing informal norms. This peculiar approach to norm enforcement compensated for apparent weaknesses in the state system of coercion. It mitigated the effects of under-e...

  16. Women in Corrections: Competence, Competition, and the Social Responsibility Norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowersox, Michael S.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated male and female officers' attitudes toward women employed as correctional officers in a male penitentiary. Confirmed the hypothesis, that men enact the social responsibility norm in the presence of women, and that women find the social responsibility norm groundless. Suggests expansion of women's limited correctional role. (Author)

  17. Social Norms and Adolescents' Sexual Health: An Introduction for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Keywords: Health Interventions; Health Promotion; Social Norms; Low-income countries; Adolescents; Sexual and. Reproductive ... Scholars and practitioners from high-income countries are increasingly integrating social norms strategies to address a variety of health-related behaviours. ..... them, and less on health risk.

  18. Social norms of cigarette and hookah smokers in Iranian universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shahnam, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: First experiences of tobacco use usually occur in adolescence. The recognition of social norms leading to youth smoking is hence necessary. We tried to assess the social norms among Iranian young cigarette and hookah smokers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 451...... girls and 361 boys aging 20-25 years old who entered Isfahan and Kashan Universities (Iran) in 2007. Demographic factors (age, gender, and age at smoking onset) cigarette and hookah smoking status, having a smoking father or smoking friends and four related social norms were recorded. Binary logistic...... regression analysis was used to separately determine associations between hookah and cigarette smoking and the four social norm variables. RESULTS: CIGARETTE AND HOOKAH SMOKERS HAD SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WITH NONSMOKERS IN TWO SOCIAL NORMS: "Perceived smoking by important characters" [odds ratio (OR) = 1...

  19. Social norms of cigarette and hookah smokers in Iranian universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shahnam, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    regression analysis was used to separately determine associations between hookah and cigarette smoking and the four social norm variables. RESULTS: CIGARETTE AND HOOKAH SMOKERS HAD SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WITH NONSMOKERS IN TWO SOCIAL NORMS: "Perceived smoking by important characters" [odds ratio (OR) = 1......BACKGROUND: First experiences of tobacco use usually occur in adolescence. The recognition of social norms leading to youth smoking is hence necessary. We tried to assess the social norms among Iranian young cigarette and hookah smokers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 451...... girls and 361 boys aging 20-25 years old who entered Isfahan and Kashan Universities (Iran) in 2007. Demographic factors (age, gender, and age at smoking onset) cigarette and hookah smoking status, having a smoking father or smoking friends and four related social norms were recorded. Binary logistic...

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TECHNICAL AND SOCIAL NORMS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Jasminka Lažnjak

    1992-01-01

    In the article the relationship between system of technical and system of social norms in ecological project has been considered from constructivist standpoint in sociology of technology. For adequate solution of technological problem of enviromental pollution by hydrocarbons is necessary to define beside technical also system of social norms. Sociological analysis of accidents in transportation of hydrocarbons is suggested in purpose of clear definition of responsibilities of certain social ...

  1. Modeling social norms and social influence in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, David A; Hammond, Ross; Rahmandad, Hazhir; Wang, Youfa; Hovmand, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The worldwide increase in obesity has led to changes in what is considered "normal" or desirable weight, especially among populations at higher risk. We show that social norms are key to understanding the obesity epidemic, and that social influence mechanisms provide a necessary linkage between individual obesity-related behaviors and population-level characteristics. Because influence mechanisms cannot be directly observed, we show how three complex systems tools may be used to gain insights into observed epidemiologic patterns: social network analysis, agent-based modeling, and systems dynamics modeling. However, simulation and mathematical modeling approaches raise questions regarding acceptance of findings, especially among policy makers. Nevertheless, we point to modeling successes in obesity and other fields, including the NIH-funded National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) Envison project.

  2. Modeling social norms and social influence in obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, David A.; Hammond, Ross; Rahmandad, Hazhir; Wang, Youfa; Hovmand, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide increase in obesity has led to changes in what is considered “normal” or desirable weight, especially among populations at higher risk. We show that social norms are key to understanding the obesity epidemic, and that social influence mechanisms provide a necessary linkage between individual obesity-related behaviors and population-level characteristics. Because influence mechanisms cannot be directly observed, we show how three complex systems tools may be used to gain insights into observed epidemiologic patterns: social network analysis, agent-based modeling, and systems dynamics modeling. However, simulation and mathematical modeling approaches raise questions regarding acceptance of findings, especially among policy makers. Nevertheless, we point to modeling successes in obesity and other fields, including the NIH-funded National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) Envison project. PMID:26576335

  3. Social norms and cooperation in real-life social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis that injunctive and descriptive norms interact positively or synergistically to promote cooperation in social dilemmas is tested in the context of a survey study focusing on environmentally responsible behaviour. Measurement error and strong and positive correlations between the two...... types of normative beliefs make it difficult to test the interaction hypothesis. By using structural equation modelling with residual centering these problems are overcome and the interaction hypothesis is confirmed. The result is stable across three replications spanning a two-year period....

  4. Peer punishment promotes enforcement of bad social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbink, Klaus; Gangadharan, Lata; Handfield, Toby; Thrasher, John

    2017-09-20

    Social norms are an important element in explaining how humans achieve very high levels of cooperative activity. It is widely observed that, when norms can be enforced by peer punishment, groups are able to resolve social dilemmas in prosocial, cooperative ways. Here we show that punishment can also encourage participation in destructive behaviours that are harmful to group welfare, and that this phenomenon is mediated by a social norm. In a variation of a public goods game, in which the return to investment is negative for both group and individual, we find that the opportunity to punish led to higher levels of contribution, thereby harming collective payoffs. A second experiment confirmed that, independently of whether punishment is available, a majority of subjects regard the efficient behaviour of non-contribution as socially inappropriate. The results show that simply providing a punishment opportunity does not guarantee that punishment will be used for socially beneficial ends, because the social norms that influence punishment behaviour may themselves be destructive.Punishment by peers can enforce social norms, such as contributing to a public good. Here, Abbink and colleagues show that individuals will enforce norms even when contributions reduce the net benefit of the group, resulting in the maintenance of wasteful contributions.

  5. Diversity-induced resonance in the response to social norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessone, Claudio J.; Sánchez, Angel; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we focus on diversity-induced resonance, which was recently found in bistable, excitable, and other physical systems. We study the appearance of this phenomenon in a purely economic model of cooperating and defecting agents. An agent's contribution to a public good is seen as a social norm, so defecting agents face a social pressure, which decreases if free riding becomes widespread. In this model, diversity among agents naturally appears because of the different sensitivities towards the social norm. We study the evolution of cooperation as a response to the social norm (i) for the replicator dynamics and (ii) for the logit dynamics by means of numerical simulations. Diversity-induced resonance is observed as a maximum in the response of agents to changes in the social norm as a function of the degree of heterogeneity in the population. We provide an analytical, mean-field approach for the logit dynamics and find very good agreement with the simulations. From a socioeconomic perspective, our results show that, counterintuitively, diversity in the individual sensitivity to social norms may result in a society that better follows such norms as a whole, even if part of the population is less prone to follow them.

  6. Cannabis use behaviors and social anxiety: the roles of perceived descriptive and injunctive social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Anthony H; Buckner, Julia D

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social anxiety are particularly vulnerable to cannabis-related impairment. Descriptive norms (beliefs about others' use) and injunctive norms (beliefs regarding others' approval of risky use) may be particularly relevant to cannabis-related behaviors among socially anxious persons if they use cannabis for fear of evaluation for deviating from what they believe to be normative behaviors. Yet, little research has examined the impact of these social norms on the relationships between social anxiety and cannabis use behaviors. The current study investigated whether the relationships of social anxiety to cannabis use and use-related problems varied as a function of social norms. The sample comprised 230 (63.0% female) current cannabis-using undergraduates. Injunctive norms (regarding parents, not friends) moderated the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problem severity. Post hoc probing indicated that among participants with higher (but not lower) social anxiety, those with greater norm endorsement reported the most severe impairment. Injunctive norms (parents) also moderated the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis use frequency such that those with higher social anxiety and lower norm endorsement used cannabis less frequently. Descriptive norms did not moderate the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis use frequency. Socially anxious cannabis users appear to be especially influenced by beliefs regarding parents' approval of risky cannabis use. Results underscore the importance of considering reference groups and the specific types of norms in understanding factors related to cannabis use behaviors among this vulnerable population.

  7. Cannabis Use Behaviors and Social Anxiety: The Roles of Perceived Descriptive and Injunctive Social Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Anthony H.; Buckner, Julia D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with greater social anxiety are particularly vulnerable to cannabis-related impairment. Descriptive norms (beliefs about others’ use) and injunctive norms (beliefs regarding others’ approval of risky use) may be particularly relevant to cannabis-related behaviors among socially anxious persons if they use cannabis for fear of evaluation for deviating from what they believe to be normative behaviors. Yet, little research has examined the impact of these social norms on the relationships between social anxiety and cannabis use behaviors. Method: The current study investigated whether the relationships of social anxiety to cannabis use and use-related problems varied as a function of social norms. The sample comprised 230 (63.0% female) current cannabis-using undergraduates. Results: Injunctive norms (regarding parents, not friends) moderated the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problem severity. Post hoc probing indicated that among participants with higher (but not lower) social anxiety, those with greater norm endorsement reported the most severe impairment. Injunctive norms (parents) also moderated the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis use frequency such that those with higher social anxiety and lower norm endorsement used cannabis less frequently. Descriptive norms did not moderate the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis use frequency. Conclusions: Socially anxious cannabis users appear to be especially influenced by beliefs regarding parents’ approval of risky cannabis use. Results underscore the importance of considering reference groups and the specific types of norms in understanding factors related to cannabis use behaviors among this vulnerable population. PMID:24411799

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TECHNICAL AND SOCIAL NORMS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Lažnjak

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the relationship between system of technical and system of social norms in ecological project has been considered from constructivist standpoint in sociology of technology. For adequate solution of technological problem of enviromental pollution by hydrocarbons is necessary to define beside technical also system of social norms. Sociological analysis of accidents in transportation of hydrocarbons is suggested in purpose of clear definition of responsibilities of certain social actors and for modification of existing laws for enviromental protection (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. A quantitative exploration of attitudes out of line with the prevailing norms toward alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use among European students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, François; Legleye, Stéphane; Chomynova, Pavla; Miller, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The study examines groups of 15-16-year-old students whose attitudes toward drug use are out of line with the prevailing norms. It analyzes data from eight countries from the 2003 European School Survey on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD): Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, France, Malta, Slovenia, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. In those countries, 22,900 15-16-year-old pupils answered the ESPAD questionnaire. Groups of subjects whose responses are far removed from the modal value are sought and studied. The aim is to explore "rare answers" compared to what is perceived by the majority of students. In order to explore what can lead a pupil to an atypical perception of risk, a cluster analysis, based on the risk perceptions of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use, was run to isolate the groups in which pupils tend to answer differently. Six clusters were established classifying students into those who failed to respond, deny the risks, do not know about the risks, see any drug use as great risk, see regular use as great risk, and who see a moderate risk for most frequencies of use. The nonresponders, risk deniers, and those ignorant of the risks are infrequent making up, in all, only 16.9% of the total sample. Gender, country, alcohol use, cannabis use, tobacco use, and friends' consumption were used to describe both the individual risk perceptions and the clusters based on them. Both global context (country) and "micro" context (frequencies of drug use, peers lifestyle, and parental permissiveness) appear to play a major role in the risk perception of drug use.

  10. Social norms and family planning decisions in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kane

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a maternal mortality ratio of 789 per 100,000 live births, and a contraceptive prevalence rate of 4.7%, South Sudan has one of the worst reproductive health situations in the world. Understanding the social norms around sexuality and reproduction, across different ethnic groups, is key to developing and implementing locally appropriate public health responses. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in the state of Western Bahr el Ghazal (WBeG in South Sudan to explore the social norms shaping decisions about family planning among the Fertit community. Data were collected through five focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel. Results Among the Fertit community, the social norm which expects people to have as many children as possible remains well established. It is, however, under competitive pressure from the existing norm which makes spacing of pregnancies socially desirable. Young Fertit women are increasingly, either covertly or overtly, making family planning decisions themselves; with resistance from some menfolk, but also support from others. The social norm of having as many children as possible is also under competitive pressure from the emerging norm that equates taking good care of one’s children with providing them with a good education. The return of peace and stability in South Sudan, and people’s aspirations for freedom and a better life, is creating opportunities for men and women to challenge and subvert existing social norms, including but not limited to those affecting reproductive health, for the better. Conclusions The sexual and reproductive health programmes in WBeG should work with and leverage existing and emerging social norms on spacing in their health promotion activities. Campaigns should focus on promoting a family ideal in which children become the object of parental investment, rather than

  11. Managing social norms for persuasive impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.B. Cialdini; L.J. Demaine; B.J. Sagarin; D.W. Barrett; K. Rhoads; P.L. Winter

    2006-01-01

    In order to mobilise action against a social problem, public service communicators often include normative information in their persuasive appeals. Such messages can be either effective or ineffective because they can normalise either desirable or undesirable conduct. To examine the implications in an environmental context, visitors to Arizona's Petrified Forest...

  12. Institutions, Social Norms, and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Crystal

    2017-01-01

    Informal institutions are defined as socially shared rules that guide individuals' behaviors outside of officially sanctioned channels. This paper investigates the link between individual educational attainment and education-related informal institutions by examining second-generation immigrants in the USA. I measure the education-related informal…

  13. Students' Concern about Indebtedness: A Rank Based Social Norms Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrovandi, Silvio; Wood, Alex M.; Maltby, John; Brown, Gordon D. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new model of students' concern about indebtedness within a rank-based social norms framework. Study 1 found that students hold highly variable beliefs about how much other students will owe at the end of their degree. Students' concern about their own anticipated debt--and their intention of taking on a part-time job during…

  14. Recognizing, explaining and countering norm transgressive behaviour on social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padje, E.D.H.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, it is researched how norm transgressive behaviour exhibited on the Dutch domains of social media can be recognized, explained and countered. An analysis of four comment threads is conducted, of which the comments can be found on the Facebook pages of three Dutch news sites and on a

  15. On strategic ignorance of environmental harm and social norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; van’t Veld, Klaas; Shogren, Jason. F.

    2014-01-01

    people feel internal pressure (“guilt”) from causing harm to the environment (e.g., emitting carbon dioxide) as well as external pressure to conform to the social norm for pro-environmental behavior (e.g., offsetting carbon emissions). Our model predicts that people may benefit from avoiding information...

  16. On strategic ignorance of environmental harm and social norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; van 't Veld, Klaas; Shogren, Jason

    people feel guilt from causing harm to the environment (e.g., emitting carbon dioxide) and from deviating from the social norm for pro-environmental behavior (e.g., offsetting carbon emissions). Our model predicts that people may benefit from avoiding information on their harm to the environment...

  17. Conceptualizing Academic Norms in Middle School: A Social Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise

    2015-01-01

    A wide body of research has documented the relationship between social norms and individual behaviors. There is growing evidence that academic behaviors in early adolescence--when most children begin middle school--may be subject to normative influence as well. However, the structure and composition of peer relationships within middle schools have…

  18. Setting a social norm regarding food intake in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    People use other's food intake as a social norm indicating how much they are 'allowed' to eat. Ample experimental research showed the impact of peer modeling on food intake in adolescents and adults, whereas few studies focused on young children. This study used an innovative design in a

  19. Abstinence, Social Norms, and Drink Responsibly Messages: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Kruger, Jessica Sloan; Deakins, Bethany A.; Paprzycki, Peter; Blavos, Alexis A.; Hutzelman, Erin N.; Diehr, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine which type of prevention message (abstinence, social norms, or responsible drinking) was most effective at reducing alcohol consumption. Participants: The subjects from this study included 194 college students from a public university. Methods: Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design,…

  20. Social norms and family planning decisions in South Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kane, Sumit; Kok, Maryse; Rial, Matilda; Matere, Anthony; Dieleman, Marjolein; Broerse, Jacqueline EW

    2016-01-01

    Background: With a maternal mortality ratio of 789 per 100,000 live births, and a contraceptive prevalence rate of 4.7%, South Sudan has one of the worst reproductive health situations in the world. Understanding the social norms around sexuality and reproduction, across different ethnic groups, is

  1. Seeding Social Norms about Energy Conservation among Girl Scouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Debra; Puttick, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Three studies examined whether a social norm message (SNM) to Girl Scouts who had completed an energy conservation program would impact behavior and attitudes. Studies 1 and 2 were conducted with girls recently completing the program, study 3 was conducted with girls completing the program one year earlier. Results suggest that the SNM may impact…

  2. House of Obedience: Social Norms, Individual Agency and Historical Contingency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.Y. Shehada (Nahda)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBased on 14 months of fieldwork, this paper examines the influence of social norms, individual agency, and historical contingency on the practice of House of Obedience (bayt al-ta‘a) in the shari‘a courts of the Gaza Strip. It argues that the text of Islamic family law is only one

  3. The Influence of Social Norms in Consumer Decision Making: A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melnyk, V.; Herpen, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although social norms can substantially impact consumer decision making, understanding of how the specification of the norm determines its impact is limited. This meta-analysis (200 independent studies, 659 effect sizes) examines how aspects of social norm specification determine the effect of norms

  4. The dark side of solidarity: social norms and social relations in the aftermath of strikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thommes, Kirsten; Akkerman, Agnes; Torenvlied, René; Born, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies how employees anticipate change in social relations after a strike in their organisation. We hypothesise that two group norms affect employees' fear that a strike deteriorates the social relations with their colleagues. We distinguish between two different norms associated with a

  5. What is normal to do? : social norms as determinants of consumer decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melnyk, V.

    2011-01-01

    Social norms are major drivers of human behaviour and crucial in consumer decision making. Consumers often take expectations and behaviour of others into consideration when they decide what is appropriate and social norms thus profoundly influence their preferences and behaviour.

  6. Norm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria Meneses, Luis Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Related studies with the presence of NORMs in Costa Rica were developed. CICANUM has had equipment and personnel to perform analysis using gamma spectroscopy (for solid and liquid samples), beta spectroscopy (for liquid milk samples and water), alpha spectroscopy (water samples). These techniques are frequently used in the analysis for food purchased from stores, monitoring, export (safety certicates), directly from the farm (research and projects ARCAL), several matrices (meristems, iron, etc..). The CICANUM supported by the Universidad de Costa Rica and the Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Gamma has participated in various projects by the IAEA, in research on food, marine species, quality assurance, development of reference material. The term NORMs is used to distinguish natural radioactive elements of radioactive elements of anthropogenic origin, among which are those produced by: terrestrial, mediums cosmogenic and industrial. One conclusion is that human activity has been responsible for increasing exposure of people to ionizing radiation. This increase has resulted of the production of coal, natural gas, mining and fossil fuels, and the use of fertilizers. Radon trapped in the rocks is released when performing scans or during extraction. (author) [es

  7. Following family or friends: Social norms in adolescent healthy eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. Our theoretical...... framework builds on social cognitive theory and the focus theory of normative conduct, and data are analysed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The study reveals that when it comes to adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, parents remain the main influencer......, with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self...

  8. Effects of front-of-pack social norm messages on food choice and liking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, Elizabeth H.; Carvalho, Álvaro H.P.; Herpen, Van Erica

    2017-01-01

    Social norms refer to what most people do or approve of. Perceived social norms can influence food choice and intake behaviour. However, whether social norms can increase liking and taste perception of food products has not been studied so far. Across two studies, we investigated the impact of

  9. Relational Networks, Social Trust, and Norms: A Social Capital Perspective on Students' Chances of Academic Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Roger D.

    2003-01-01

    Elaborated a theoretical rationale for relational networks, norms, and trust as structural and functional norms of social capital that facilitate student achievement. Results of hierarchical generalized linear modeling show that the odds of fourth graders passing state-mandated assessments are modestly increased in urban schools (n=49)…

  10. Social capital as norms and resources: Focus groups discussing alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Järvinen, Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse the relationship between peer-group social capital and the use of alcohol among young people – as this relationship is expressed in focus group interviews. The main point to be made is that social capital affects alcohol use in two different ways: it incites...... some forms of drinking (‘controlled drunkenness’) while restricting others (drinking alone, drinking ‘for the wrong reason’, losing control often). Furthermore, the idea behind this article is that social capital is both a background factor influencing participants’ relationship to alcohol...... and an effect of their drinking experience. We apply Coleman's micro-oriented perspective on local network mechanisms – with a specific focus on collective norms negotiated in the focus groups – in combination with Bourdieu's definition of social capital as resources. The data used in this article come from...

  11. Unraveling the mystery of Brazilian jeitinho: a cultural exploration of social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Fischer, Ronald; Porto, Juliana Barreiros; Pilati, Ronaldo; Milfont, Taciano L

    2012-03-01

    Two studies explore the structure and psychological makeup of jeitinho, a Brazilian indigenous construct associated with problem-solving strategies in strong hierarchies. Study 1 used a scenario approach with nonstudent participants and demonstrated that jeitinho can be described by a three-dimensional structure: corruption, creativity, and social norm breaking. Study 2 used individual and social norm scenarios in nonstudent samples and demonstrated that moral leniency is associated with more corruption and social norm breaking. Furthermore, only in the personal but not the social norm condition was greater social dominance orientation associated with more corruption and social norm breaking. Jeitinho is not a monolitical construct, but it is a complex sociocultural strategy that has distinct functional components at the personal and normative levels. Theoretical advances in the understanding of social norms and indigenous psychology by examining both culture-specific and general social-psychological processes are outlined.

  12. Corruption, Norm Violation and Decay in Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik

    The paper studies the interplay between corruption and social capital (measured as trust), using data from a lab experiment. Subjects play either a harassment bribery game or a strategically identical but differently framed ultimatum game, followed by a trust game. In a second experiment, the trust...... game is followed by the bribery game. Our experimental design allows us to examine whether subjects, who have been asked to pay a bribe, are less likely to trust and subjects, who have been trusted less in the first place, are more likely to demand bribe. Results suggest that a) there is a negative...... spillover effect of corruption on trust, but not vice-versa, and the effect increases with decrease in social appropriateness norm of the bribe demand; b) lower trust in the bribery game treatment is explained by lower expected return on trust; c) surprisingly, for both the bribery and the ultimatum game...

  13. Young Children Enforce Social Norms Selectively Depending on the Violator's Group Affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marco F. H.; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To become cooperative members of their cultural groups, developing children must follow their group's social norms. But young children are not just blind norm followers, they are also active norm enforcers, for example, protesting and correcting when someone plays a conventional game the "wrong" way. In two studies, we asked whether young children…

  14. Is healthy behavior contagious: associations of social norms with physical activity and healthy eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNaughton Sarah A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social norms are theoretically hypothesized to influence health-related behaviors such as physical activity and eating behaviors. However, empirical evidence relating social norms to these behaviors, independently of other more commonly-investigated social constructs such as social support, is scarce and findings equivocal, perhaps due to limitations in the ways in which social norms have been conceptualized and assessed. This study investigated associations between clearly-defined social norms and a range of physical activity and eating behaviors amongst women, adjusting for the effects of social support. Methods Self-report survey data about particular physical activity (leisure-time moderate-vigorous activity; volitional walking; cycling for transport and eating behaviors (fast food, soft drink and fruit and vegetable consumption, and social norms and support for these, were provided by 3,610 women aged 18-46 years living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. Results Results of regression analyses showed that social norms for physical activity and eating behaviors predicted these respective behaviors relatively consistently; these associations generally remained significant after adjustment for social support. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional study design, these data confirm theoretical accounts of the importance of social norms for physical activity and eating behaviors, and suggest that this is independent from social support. Intervention strategies aimed at promoting physical activity and healthy eating could incorporate strategies aimed at modifying social norms relating to these behaviors.

  15. Quantifying social norms: by coupling the ecosystem management concept and semi-quantitative sociological methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Xu, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over recent decades, human-induced environmental changes have steadily and rapidly grown in intensity and impact to where they now often exceed natural impacts. As one of important components of human activities, social norms play key roles in environmental and natural resources management. But the lack of relevant quantitative data about social norms greatly limits our scientific understanding of the complex linkages between humans and nature, and hampers our solving of pressing environmental and social problems. In this study, we built a quantified method by coupling the ecosystem management concept, semi-quantitative sociological methods and mathematical statistics. We got the quantified value of social norms from two parts, whether the content of social norms coincide with the concept of ecosystem management (content value) and how about the performance after social norms were put into implementation (implementation value) . First, we separately identified 12 core elements of ecosystem management and 16 indexes of social norms, and then matched them one by one. According to their matched degree, we got the content value of social norms. Second, we selected 8 key factors that can represent the performance of social norms after they were put into implementation, and then we got the implementation value by Delph method. Adding these two parts values, we got the final value of each social norms. Third, we conducted a case study in Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river in China, by selecting 12 official edicts related to the river basin ecosystem management of Heihe River Basin. By doing so, we first got the qualified data of social norms which can be directly applied to the research that involved observational or experimental data collection of natural processes. Second, each value was supported by specific contents, so it can assist creating a clear road map for building or revising management and policy guidelines. For example, in this case study

  16. How culture gets embrained: Cultural differences in event-related potentials of social norm violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yan; Kitayama, Shinobu; Han, Shihui; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-12-15

    Humans are unique among all species in their ability to develop and enforce social norms, but there is wide variation in the strength of social norms across human societies. Despite this fundamental aspect of human nature, there has been surprisingly little research on how social norm violations are detected at the neurobiological level. Building on the emerging field of cultural neuroscience, we combine noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) with a new social norm violation paradigm to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the detection of norm violations and how they vary across cultures. EEG recordings from Chinese and US participants (n = 50) showed consistent negative deflection of event-related potential around 400 ms (N400) over the central and parietal regions that served as a culture-general neural marker of detecting norm violations. The N400 at the frontal and temporal regions, however, was only observed among Chinese but not US participants, illustrating culture-specific neural substrates of the detection of norm violations. Further, the frontal N400 predicted a variety of behavioral and attitudinal measurements related to the strength of social norms that have been found at the national and state levels, including higher culture superiority and self-control but lower creativity. There were no cultural differences in the N400 induced by semantic violation, suggesting a unique cultural influence on social norm violation detection. In all, these findings provided the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the neurobiological foundations of social norm violation detection and its variation across cultures.

  17. Modeling the contribution of personality, social identity and social norms to problematic Facebook use in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Claudia; Vieno, Alessio; Pastore, Massimiliano; Albery, Ian P; Frings, Daniel; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2016-12-01

    Facebook is the most popular social networking site in the world providing the opportunity to maintain and/or establish relationships, to share media contents and experiences with friends, and to easily communicate with them. Despite the resources and the innovative social features offered by Facebook research has emerged indicating that its use may become problematic, with negative consequences on personal psycho-social well-being, especially among adolescents and young adults. The main aim of this study was to examine the unique contribution of personality traits and social influence processes (i.e. subjective norms, group norms, and social identity) to perceived frequency of Facebook Use and Problematic Facebook Use in a sample of adolescents. A total of 968 Italian adolescents participated in the study. Structural equation modeling showed that emotional stability, extraversion, conscientiousness and norms directly predicted Problematic Facebook Use, whereas gender, group norms and social identity predicted perceived frequency of Facebook use. In conclusion, both personal and social variables appear to explain perceived frequency of Facebook use and Problematic Facebook Use among adolescents, and should be taken into account by researchers and educational practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Situation-specific social norms as mediators of social influence on snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Benjamin; Papadakis, Thalia; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2018-02-01

    Social factors are among the most powerful and pervasive influences on eating behavior, snacking in particular. Previous research has shown that being in the presence of people who are eating significantly increases the likelihood of eating and affects the types as well as the amount of food consumed. Much less is known about the processes underlying social influence, but previous research has suggested social norms as mediators. In this study, we extended this perspective to everyday settings and examined whether the presence of other people eating leads to a change in perceived momentary norms, and whether this change predicts snack consumption in real life. We applied ecological momentary assessment to study 61 individuals in the normal-obese weight range (M BMI = 24.97 kg/m²; SD = 4.07) over a 14-day monitoring period. We used a combination of event-based snacking reports and randomly timed assessments. The presence of others eating and momentary perceptions of injunctive norms (facets of perceived appropriateness and encouragement) were measured for both assessment types. Mediated, multilevel logistic regression showed that social cues predict snacking (OR = 3.06), and that momentary perceptions of appropriateness (a*b = 0.14) and encouragement (a*b = 0.18) partially mediated these effects. Perceptions of momentary norms mediated the effects of social influence on everyday snacking, which highlights the importance of the social environment for understanding eating behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The potential of peer social norms to shape food intake in adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, Marijn F.; Vet, de Emely; Ridder, de Denise T.D.; Wit, de John B.F.

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review aims to assess the role that peer social norms play in shaping young people's food intake, focusing on the important questions of for whom and when peer social norms are related to how much young people eat. Thirty-three eligible studies were reviewed (17 correlational, 16

  20. Do "Clicker" Educational Sessions Enhance the Effectiveness of a Social Norms Marketing Campaign?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killos, Lydia F.; Hancock, Linda C.; McGann, Amanda Wattenmaker; Keller, Adrienne E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Social norms campaigns are a cost-effective way to reduce high-risk drinking on college campuses. This study compares effectiveness of a "standard" social norms media (SNM) campaign for those with and without exposure to additional educational sessions using audience response technology ("clickers"). Methods: American College Health…

  1. The power of regression to the mean: A social norm study revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, K.T.; Stok, F.M.; Mollen, S.

    2015-01-01

    This research follows up on a study by Schultz et al. (2007), in which the effect of a social norm intervention on energy consumption was examined. The present studies included control groups to examine whether social norm effects would persist beyond regression to the mean. Both studies had a 2

  2. The role of issue familiarity and social norms: findings on new college students’ alcohol use intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rimal, R.N.; Mollen, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Scholars in a variety of disciplines are interested in understanding the conditions under which social norms affect human behavior. Following the distinction made between descriptive and injunctive norms by the focus theory of normative conduct, the theory of normative social behavior

  3. Social Anxiety among Young Adult Drinkers: The Role of Perceived Norms and Drinking Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ashley N.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the separate and combined influence of perceived norms, negative reinforcement drinking motives, and social anxiety on alcohol outcomes. Participants (N = 250) completed measures of injunctive norms, social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Data collection occurred in 2010.…

  4. Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…

  5. College cannabis use: the unique roles of social norms, motives, and expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D

    2013-09-01

    Given that the majority of college cannabis use occurs in social situations, descriptive norms (beliefs about others' use) and injunctive norms (others' approval of risky use) may be particularly relevant to cannabis-related behaviors. Yet, little research has examined the unique impact of these norms on one's own behaviors when accounting for the variance attributable to other relevant cognitive factors. The current study is the first known investigation of the unique impact of social norms, cannabis use motives, and cannabis effect expectancies on cannabis use. Data came from 223 (64.1% female) current cannabis-using undergraduates who completed an online questionnaire in exchange for psychology-course research credit. Descriptive norms regarding friends (not students in general) and injunctive norms (friends and parents) were related to cannabis use frequency. Descriptive norms (friends, not students in general) and injunctive norms (friends, not parents) were related to cannabis problems. Relevant norms, expectancies, and motives accounted for 66.8% of the variance in cannabis use frequency and 28.7% of the variance in cannabis problems. In multivariate analyses, descriptive norms (friends) accounted for the greatest amount of unique variance in cannabis use frequency, whereas coping motives accounted for the greatest amount of unique variance in cannabis-related problems. Descriptive norms (friends) and coping motives may be two cognitive vulnerability factors that could be particularly important targets for interventions.

  6. Effects of a social norm feedback campaign on the drinking norms and behavior of Division I student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Dennis L; Hamilton, Monair J

    2002-01-01

    Social norm feedback is a promising strategy for reducing alcohol misuse on college campuses. However, little is known about the impact of these interventions on at-risk populations, such as student-athletes. This study examined the effects of a campus-wide media campaign on Division I student-athletes at three universities. A discriminant function analysis revealed that a composite measure of perceived campus drinking norms distinguished between two campaign exposure groups. With the exception of one perceived norm measure (closest friends), the campaign-exposed group reported more conservative estimates of alcohol use in peers. However, there was no evidence that the campaign had reduced alcohol use. The inability of the campaign to reduce perceptions of alcohol use among one's closest friends may have accounted for the lack of change in drinking behavior. Discussion is directed to the potential limitations of using social norm feedback campaigns to reduce alcohol misuse in high-risk groups, such as student-athletes.

  7. Designing feedback to mitigate teen distracted driving: A social norms approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrikhpour, Maryam; Donmez, Birsen

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate teens' perceived social norms and whether providing normative information can reduce distracted driving behaviors among them. Parents are among the most important social referents for teens; they have significant influences on teens' driving behaviors, including distracted driving which significantly contributes to teens' crash risks. Social norms interventions have been successfully applied in various domains including driving; however, this approach is yet to be explored for mitigating driver distraction among teens. Forty teens completed a driving simulator experiment while performing a self-paced visual-manual secondary task in four between-subject conditions: a) social norms feedback that provided a report at the end of each drive on teens' distracted driving behavior, comparing their distraction engagement to their parent's, b) post-drive feedback that provided just the report on teens' distracted driving behavior without information on their parents, c) real-time feedback in the form of auditory warnings based on eyes of road-time, and d) no feedback as control. Questionnaires were administered to collect data on these teens' and their parents' self-reported engagement in driver distractions and the associated social norms. Social norms and real-time feedback conditions resulted in significantly smaller average off-road glance duration, rate of long (>2s) off-road glances, and standard deviation of lane position compared to no feedback. Further, social norms feedback decreased brake response time and percentage of time not looking at the road compared to no feedback. No major effect was observed for post-drive feedback. Questionnaire results suggest that teens appeared to overestimate parental norms, but no effect of feedback was found on their perceptions. Feedback systems that leverage social norms can help mitigate driver distraction among teens. Overall, both social norms and real-time feedback induced

  8. The Social Norms of Suicidal and Self-Harming Behaviours in Scottish Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody Quigley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the suicidal and self-harming behaviour of individuals is often associated with similar behaviours in people they know, little is known about the impact of perceived social norms on those behaviours. In a range of other behavioural domains (e.g., alcohol consumption, smoking, eating behaviours perceived social norms have been found to strongly predict individuals’ engagement in those behaviours, although discrepancies often exist between perceived and reported norms. Interventions which align perceived norms more closely with reported norms have been effective in reducing damaging behaviours. The current study aimed to explore whether the Social Norms Approach is applicable to suicidal and self-harming behaviours in adolescents. Participants were 456 pupils from five Scottish high-schools (53% female, mean age = 14.98 years, who completed anonymous, cross-sectional surveys examining reported and perceived norms around suicidal and self-harming behaviour. Friedman’s ANOVA with post-hoc Wilcoxen signed-ranks tests indicated that proximal groups were perceived as less likely to engage in or be permissive of suicidal and self-harming behaviours than participants’ reported themselves, whilst distal groups tended towards being perceived as more likely to do so. Binary logistic regression analyses identified a number of perceived norms associated with reported norms, with close friends’ norms positively associated with all outcome variables. The Social Norms Approach may be applicable to suicidal and self-harming behaviour, but associations between perceived and reported norms and predictors of reported norms differ to those found in other behavioural domains. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are considered.

  9. The Social Norms of Suicidal and Self-Harming Behaviours in Scottish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Jody; Rasmussen, Susan; McAlaney, John

    2017-03-15

    Although the suicidal and self-harming behaviour of individuals is often associated with similar behaviours in people they know, little is known about the impact of perceived social norms on those behaviours. In a range of other behavioural domains (e.g., alcohol consumption, smoking, eating behaviours) perceived social norms have been found to strongly predict individuals' engagement in those behaviours, although discrepancies often exist between perceived and reported norms. Interventions which align perceived norms more closely with reported norms have been effective in reducing damaging behaviours. The current study aimed to explore whether the Social Norms Approach is applicable to suicidal and self-harming behaviours in adolescents. Participants were 456 pupils from five Scottish high-schools (53% female, mean age = 14.98 years), who completed anonymous, cross-sectional surveys examining reported and perceived norms around suicidal and self-harming behaviour. Friedman's ANOVA with post-hoc Wilcoxen signed-ranks tests indicated that proximal groups were perceived as less likely to engage in or be permissive of suicidal and self-harming behaviours than participants' reported themselves, whilst distal groups tended towards being perceived as more likely to do so. Binary logistic regression analyses identified a number of perceived norms associated with reported norms, with close friends' norms positively associated with all outcome variables. The Social Norms Approach may be applicable to suicidal and self-harming behaviour, but associations between perceived and reported norms and predictors of reported norms differ to those found in other behavioural domains. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are considered.

  10. National Institute of Mental Health Roundtable Discussion: Promissory Notes and Prevailing Norms in Social and Behavioral Sciences Research

    OpenAIRE

    Richters, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Most workshops convened by the National Institute's of Health are devoted to the puzzle-solving activities of normal science, where the puzzles themselves and the strategies available for solving them are determined largely in advance by the shared paradigmatic assumptions, frameworks, and priorities of the scientific community's research paradigm. They are designed to facilitate what Thomas Kuhn referred to as elucidating topological detail within a map whose main outlines are av...

  11. Using social norms theory for health promotion in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cislaghi, Beniamino; Heise, Lori

    2018-03-22

    Social norms can greatly influence people's health-related choices and behaviours. In the last few years, scholars and practitioners working in low- and mid-income countries (LMIC) have increasingly been trying to harness the influence of social norms to improve people's health globally. However, the literature informing social norm interventions in LMIC lacks a framework to understand how norms interact with other factors that sustain harmful practices and behaviours. This gap has led to short-sighted interventions that target social norms exclusively without a wider awareness of how other institutional, material, individual and social factors affect the harmful practice. Emphasizing norms to the exclusion of other factors might ultimately discredit norms-based strategies, not because they are flawed but because they alone are not sufficient to shift behaviour. In this paper, we share a framework (already adopted by some practitioners) that locates norm-based strategies within the wider array of factors that must be considered when designing prevention programmes in LMIC.

  12. Can money heal all wounds? Social exchange norm modulates the preference for monetary versus social compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yulong; Yu, Hongbo; Wu, Yanhong; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Compensation is a kind of pro-social behavior that can restore a social relationship jeopardized by interpersonal transgression. The effectiveness of a certain compensation strategy (e.g., repaying money, sharing loss, etc.) may vary as a function of the social norm/relationship. Previous studies have shown that two types of norms (or relationships), monetary/exchange and social/communal, differentially characterize people's appraisal of and response to social exchanges. In this study, we investigated how individual differences in preference for these norms affect individuals' perception of others' as well as the selection of their own reciprocal behaviors. In a two-phase experiment with interpersonal transgression, we asked the participant to perform a dot-estimation task with two partners who occasionally and unintentionally inflicted noise stimulation upon the participant (first phase). As compensation one partner gave money to the participant 80% of the time (the monetary partner) and the other bore the noise for the participant 80% of the time (the social partner). Results showed that the individuals' preference for compensation (repaying money versus bearing noise) affected their relationship (exchange versus communal) with the partners adopting different compensation strategies: participants tended to form communal relationships and felt closer to the partner whose compensation strategy matched their own preference. The participants could be differentiated into a social group, who tended to form communal relationship with the social partner, and a monetary group, who tended to form communal relationship with the monetary partner. In the second phase of the experiment, when the participants became transgressors and were asked to compensate for their transgression with money, the social group offered more compensation to the social partners than to the monetary partners, while the monetary group compensated less than the social group in general and showed no

  13. Can money heal all wounds? Social exchange norm modulates the preference for monetary versus social compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong eCao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Compensation is a kind of pro-social behavior that can restore a social relationship jeopardized by interpersonal transgression. The effectiveness of a certain compensation strategy (e.g., repaying money, sharing loss, etc. may vary as a function of the social norm/relationship. Previous studies have shown that two types of norms (or relationships, monetary/exchange and social/communal, differentially characterize people’s appraisal of and response to social exchanges. In this study, we investigated how individual differences in preference for these norms affect individuals’ perception of others’ as well as the selection of their own reciprocal behaviors. In a two-phase experiment with interpersonal transgression, we asked the participant to perform a dot-estimation task with two partners who occasionally and unintentionally inflict noise stimulation upon the participant (first phase. As compensation one partner give money to the participant 80% of the time (the monetary partner and the other bear the noise for the participant 80% of the time (the social partner. Results showed that the individuals’ preference for compensation (repaying money versus bearing harm affected their relationship (exchange versus communal with the partners adopting different compensation strategies: participants tended to form communal relationships and felt closer to the partner whose compensation strategy matched their own preference. The participants could be differentiated into a social group, who tended to form communal relationship with the social partner, and a monetary group, who tended to form communal relationship with the monetary partner. In the second phase of the experiment, when the participants became transgressors and were asked to compensate for their transgression with money, the social group offered more compensation to the social partners than to the monetary partners, while the monetary group compensated less than the social group in

  14. Healthy and unhealthy social norms and food selection: findings from a field-experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollen, S.; Rimal, R.N.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Kok, G.

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of others in people’s social environment (i.e., descriptive norms), as well as their opinions regarding appropriate actions (i.e., injunctive norms) strongly influence people’s decisions and actions. The goal of this study was to extend prior laboratory research on the influence of

  15. Perceived Norms and Social Values to Capture School Culture in Elementary and Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Adriana; Spatzier, Agnieszka; Juvonen, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    The current study was designed to gain insights into shifting school culture by examining perceived peer group norms and social values across elementary and middle school grades. Perceived norms were assessed by asking participants (N = 605) to estimate how many grade mates were academically engaged, disengaged, and antisocial. To capture social…

  16. The Influence of Social Norms on Flu Vaccination among African American and White Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Hilyard, Karen M.; Jamison, Amelia M.; An, Ji; Hancock, Gregory R.; Musa, Donald; Freimuth, Vicki S.

    2017-01-01

    Adult influenza vaccination rates remain suboptimal, particularly among African Americans. Social norms may influence vaccination behavior, but little research has focused on influenza vaccine and almost no research has focused on racially-specific norms. This mixed methods investigation utilizes qualitative interviews and focus groups (n = 118)…

  17. Attitude ambivalence, social norms, and behavioral intentions: Developing effective antitobacco persuasive communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Zachary P; Crano, William D; Niedbala, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the moderating effects of attitude ambivalence on the relationship between social norms, attitudes, and behavioral intentions to use tobacco. It was predicted that people would use social norms to reduce attitude ambivalence, and that reduced ambivalence would lead to changes in attitudes and behavioral intentions. To test this hypothesis, participants (N = 152) were exposed to persuasive communications designed to influence attitude ambivalence and perceived social norms regarding tobacco use. Analysis indicated that providing a social norm antagonistic to tobacco use significantly reduced ambivalence among participants reading the ambivalence message (p < .001). Examining changes in tobacco attitudes from pre- to postpersuasive communications demonstrated a significant decrease in tobacco attitudes only for participants reading the ambivalence message who were provided with the antitobacco use norm (p < .001). Ambivalent message participants also expressed significantly lower intentions to use tobacco when provided with social norms indicating antitobacco sentiments (p < .02), and this significant decrease in intentions was associated with changes in attitudes toward tobacco. These results point to the important role of social norms in mediating the effects of attitude ambivalence on subsequent behavior in preventative programs targeting tobacco use. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Attitude Ambivalence, Social Norms, and Behavioral Intentions: Developing Effective Antitobacco Persuasive Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Zachary P.; Crano, William D.; Niedbala, Elizabeth M.

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the moderating effects of attitude ambivalence on the relationship between social norms, attitudes, and behavioral intentions to use tobacco. It was predicted that people would use social norms to reduce attitude ambivalence, and that reduced ambivalence would lead to changes in attitudes and behavioral intentions. To test this hypothesis, participants (N =152) were exposed to persuasive communications designed to influence attitude ambivalence and perceived social norms regarding tobacco use. Analysis indicated that providing a social norm antagonistic to tobacco use significantly reduced ambivalence among participants reading the ambivalence message (p <.001). Examining changes in tobacco attitudes from pre- to postpersuasive communications demonstrated a significant decrease in tobacco attitudes only for participants reading the ambivalence message who were provided with the antitobacco use norm (p <.001). Ambivalent message participants also expressed significantly lower intentions to use tobacco when provided with social norms indicating antitobacco sentiments (p <.02), and this significant decrease in intentions was associated with changes in attitudes toward tobacco. These results point to the important role of social norms in mediating the effects of attitude ambivalence on subsequent behavior in preventative programs targeting tobacco use. PMID:26460476

  19. Social norms and efficacy beliefs drive the Alarmed segment’s public-sphere climate actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Kathryn L.; Webler, Thomas N.

    2016-09-01

    Surprisingly few individuals who are highly concerned about climate change take action to influence public policies. To assess social-psychological and cognitive drivers of public-sphere climate actions of Global Warming’s Six Americas `Alarmed’ segment, we developed a behaviour model and tested it using structural equation modelling of survey data from Vermont, USA (N = 702). Our model, which integrates social cognitive theory, social norms research, and value belief norm theory, explains 36-64% of the variance in five behaviours. Here we show descriptive social norms, self-efficacy, personal response efficacy, and collective response efficacy as strong driving forces of: voting, donating, volunteering, contacting government officials, and protesting about climate change. The belief that similar others took action increased behaviour and strengthened efficacy beliefs, which also led to greater action. Our results imply that communication efforts targeting Alarmed individuals and their public actions should include strategies that foster beliefs about positive descriptive social norms and efficacy.

  20. Using Facebook to deliver a social norm intervention to reduce problem drinking at university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridout, Brad; Campbell, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    University students usually overestimate peer alcohol use, resulting in them 'drinking up' to perceived norms. Social norms theory suggests correcting these inflated perceptions can reduce alcohol consumption. Recent findings by the current authors show portraying oneself as 'a drinker' is considered by many students to be a socially desirable component of their Facebook identity, perpetuating an online culture that normalises binge drinking. However, social networking sites have yet to be utilised in social norms interventions. Actual and perceived descriptive and injunctive drinking norms were collected from 244 university students. Ninety-five students screened positive for hazardous drinking and were randomly allocated to a control group or intervention group that received social norms feedback via personalised Facebook private messages over three sessions. At 1 month post-intervention, the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumed by intervention group during the previous month had significantly reduced compared with baseline and controls. Reductions were maintained 3 months post-intervention. Intervention group perceived drinking norms were significantly more accurate post-intervention. This is the first study to test the feasibility of using Facebook to deliver social norms interventions. Correcting misperceptions of peer drinking norms resulted in clinically significant reductions in alcohol use. Facebook has many advantages over traditional social norms delivery, providing an innovative method for tackling problem drinking at university. These results have implications for the use of Facebook to deliver positive messages about safe alcohol use to students, which may counter the negative messages regarding alcohol normally seen on Facebook. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  1. Condomless Sex Among Homeless Youth: The Role of Multidimensional Social Norms and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Hsu, Hsun-Ta; Begun, Stephanie; Portillo, Andrea Perez; Rice, Eric

    2017-03-01

    Most studies of condomless sex among homeless youth have focused on peer norms, while excluding other potentially pertinent influences. This study explored how different types of relationships contributed to norms about condomless sex and whether such norms were associated with engagement in condomless sex among homeless youth. Additionally, because recent work has noted gender differences in social networks of male and female homeless youth, gender differences in social network norms of condomless sex were also assessed. Egocentric network data were collected from homeless youth accessing services at two drop-in centers in Los Angeles, CA (N = 976). Multivariate analyses (non-stratified and stratified by gender) assessed associations between descriptive, injunctive, and communicative norms and participants' engagement in condomless sex. Multivariate analyses indicated that perception of peer condom use and communication with sexual partners were significantly associated with not engaging in condomless sex. These relationships, however, varied by gender. Implications for interventions are discussed.

  2. Globalization and eating disorder risk: peer influence, perceived social norms, and adolescent disordered eating in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbasi, Margaret E; Richards, Lauren K; Thomas, Jennifer J; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Gilman, Stephen E; Becker, Anne E

    2014-11-01

    The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change. We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n = 523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q). We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p global scores in a fully adjusted linear regression model. Study findings support the possibility that peer influence as well as perceived social norms relevant to disordered eating may elevate risk for disordered eating in Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition--and where globalization is also influencing local social norms--may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions: Social norms on grocery carts increase produce spending without increasing shopper budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin R. Payne

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Descriptive and provincial social norm messages (i.e., on grocery cart placards may be an overlooked tool to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability and increasing shopper budgets.

  4. Relationship of social norms and self-efficacy with physical activity in Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Soojin

    2015-01-01

    The study identified the physical activity distribution among a random sample of Korean adolescents and investigated relationship of selfefficacy and social norms with physical activity. Participants included 488 students enrolled in 7th to 12th grade (Male: 255, Female: 233, Mage = 15.13, SD = ± 1.56). Three Korean-version questionnaires were used to explore a possible association of self-efficacy and social norms with physical activity among adolescents. Crosstab analysis, correlation analy...

  5. Effectiveness of social norms media marketing in reducing drinking and driving: A statewide campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkenbach, Jeffrey W.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated the efficacy of a high-intensity social norms media marketing campaign aimed at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing the prevalence of drinking and driving among 21-to-34-year-olds in Montana. A quasi-experimental design was used, such that regions of Montana were assigned to one of three experimental groups: social norms media marketing campaign, buffer, and control. Four random samples of Montanans between the ages of 21 and 34 were assessed at four time points over 18 months via phone surveys. Findings suggest that the social norms media campaign was successful at exposing the targeted population to social norms messages in the counties within the intervention region. Moreover, results demonstrate the campaign reduced normative misperceptions, increased use of designated drivers, and decreased drinking and driving among those young adults in counties within the intervention region. Social norms media marketing can be effective at changing drinking-related behaviors at the population level. This research provides a model for utilizing social norms media marketing to address other behaviors related to public health. PMID:20619177

  6. Effectiveness of social norms media marketing in reducing drinking and driving: A statewide campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, H Wesley; Linkenbach, Jeffrey W; Lewis, Melissa A; Neighbors, Clayton

    2010-10-01

    This research evaluated the efficacy of a high-intensity social norms media marketing campaign aimed at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing the prevalence of drinking and driving among 21-to-34-year-olds in Montana. A quasi-experimental design was used, such that regions of Montana were assigned to one of three experimental groups: social norms media marketing campaign, buffer, and control. Four random samples of Montanans between the ages of 21 and 34 were assessed at four time points over 18 months via phone surveys. Findings suggest that the social norms media campaign was successful at exposing the targeted population to social norms messages in the counties within the intervention region. Moreover, results demonstrate the campaign reduced normative misperceptions, increased use of designated drivers, and decreased drinking and driving among those young adults in counties within the intervention region. Social norms media marketing can be effective at changing drinking-related behaviors at the population level. This research provides a model for utilizing social norms media marketing to address other behaviors related to public health. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of issue familiarity and social norms: findings on new college students’ alcohol use intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv N. Rimal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Scholars in a variety of disciplines are interested in understanding the conditions under which social norms affect human behavior. Following the distinction made between descriptive and injunctive norms by the focus theory of normative conduct, the theory of normative social behavior predicts that the influence of descriptive norms on behavior is moderated by injunctive norms, outcome expectations, and group identity. We extended the theory by testing the proposition that the influence of descriptive norms on behavior would be greater under conditions of greater issue familiarity, defined as the ease with which one can cognitively access the behavior or behavioral issue. Design and Methods. The model was tested in the domain of alcohol consumption intentions by conducting a survey among incoming students (n=719 to a large university in the United States. Data indicated that students in the sample were well representative of the university population. Results. The influence of descriptive norms on behavioral intentions was moderated by issue familiarity, as predicted. Familiarity was a facilitator of behavior: the influence of descriptive norms on behavioral intentions was greater under conditions of high, rather than low, familiarity. The overall model explained 53% of the variance in alcohol consumption intentions. Conclusions. Public health interventions promoting health behaviors need to take into account the extent to which the behaviors are familiar to the target audience. The influence of norms appears to be weaker when the behavior is unfamiliar or novel. Implications for theory and interventions for reducing alcohol consumption are discussed.

  8. Shared Values and Socio-Cultural Norms: E-Learning Technologies from a Social Practice Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Patti; Velan, Gary M.; Shulruf, Boaz

    2017-01-01

    From a perspective of social practice, learning is a socially constituted practice that is imbued with socio-culturally significant meanings and shaped by the values and norms shared within a community of learners. This focus group study examines the role of e-learning technologies in mediating the social practice of learning among coursework…

  9. Social anxiety and cannabis cravings: The influences of parent injunctive norms and tension reduction expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Dawn W; Ecker, Anthony H; Zvolensky, Michael J; Buckner, Julia D

    2015-11-01

    Socially anxious cannabis users are influenced by cannabis expectancies and normative perceptions. The present study examines the influence of psychosocial factors on cannabis use vulnerability factors as the result of interactions between norms perceptions, social anxiety, and expectancies. Participants were 149 (36.2% female) current cannabis users aged 18-36 ( M =21.01, SD =3.09). Hierarchical multiple regressions were employed to investigate the predictive value of the social anxiety X injunctive norms X expectancies interaction on cannabis cravings. A three-way interaction emerged in the prediction of cannabis cravings. Simple slopes analyses showed that among individuals with perceptions of greater parent approval of cannabis use (higher injunctive norms), social anxiety was associated with greater cannabis craving when expectancies regarding relaxation and tension reduction were greater ( t =2.54, p =.01, β=1.12). Among cannabis users with perceptions of greater injunctive norms, social anxiety was associated with greater cannabis craving when tension reduction expectancies were greater. However, social anxiety was unrelated to cannabis craving when expectances were low. This suggests that cannabis craving among socially anxious adults was greatest when cannabis use was viewed as acceptable and expected to reduce tension, and highlights the importance of considering norms, expectancies, and social anxiety in understanding cannabis-related behaviors.

  10. Scientists in a Changed Institutional Environment: Subjective Adaptation and Social Responsibility Norms in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

    2008-06-05

    How do scientists react when the institutional setting in which they conduct their work changes radically? How do long-standing norms regarding the social responsibility of scientists fare? What factors influence whether scientists embrace or reject the new institutions and norms? We examine these questions using data from a unique survey of 602 scientists in Russia, whose science system experienced a sustained crisis and sweeping changes in science institutions following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We develop measures of how respondents view financing based on grants and other institutional changes in the Russian science system, as well as measures of two norms regarding scientists social responsibility. We find that the majority of scientists have adapted, in the sense that they hold positive views of the new institutions, but a diversity of orientations remains. Social responsibility norms are common among Russian scientists, but far from universal. The main correlates of adaptation are age and current success at negotiating the new institutions, though prospective success, work context, and ethnicity have some of the hypothesized associations. As for social responsibility norms, the main source of variation is age: younger scientists are more likely to embrace individualistic rather than socially-oriented norms.

  11. How norm violations shape social hierarchies : Those who stand on top block norm violators from rising up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamkou, E.; van Kleef, G.A.; Homan, A.C.; Galinsky, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Norm violations engender both negative reactions and perceptions of power from observers. We addressed this paradox by examining whether observers’ tendency to grant power to norm followers versus norm violators is moderated by the observer’s position in the hierarchy. Because norm violations

  12. Autonomy and social norms in a three factor grief model predicting perinatal grief in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa R; Lee, Jerry W

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal grief following stillbirth is a significant social and mental health burden. We examined associations among the following latent variables: autonomy, social norms, self-despair, strained coping, and acute grief-among poor, rural women in India who experienced stillbirth. A structural equation model was built and tested using quantitative data from 347 women of reproductive age in Chhattisgarh. Maternal acceptance of traditional social norms worsens self-despair and strained coping, and increases the autonomy granted to women. Greater autonomy increases acute grief. Greater despair and acute grief increase strained coping. Social and cultural factors were found to predict perinatal grief in India.

  13. Perceived eating norms and children's eating behaviour: An informational social influence account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, Maxine; Robinson, Eric

    2017-06-01

    There is initial evidence that beliefs about the eating behaviour of others (perceived eating norms) can influence children's vegetable consumption, but little research has examined the mechanisms explaining this effect. In two studies we aimed to replicate the effect that perceived eating norms have on children's vegetable consumption, and to explore mechanisms which may underlie the influence of perceived eating norms on children's vegetable consumption. Study 1 investigated whether children follow perceived eating norms due to a desire to maintain personal feelings of social acceptance. Study 2 investigated whether perceived eating norms influence eating behaviour because eating norms provide information which can remove uncertainty about how to behave. Across both studies children were exposed to vegetable consumption information of other children and their vegetable consumption was examined. In both studies children were influenced by perceived eating norms, eating more when led to believe others had eaten a large amount compared to when led to believe others had eaten no vegetables. In Study 1, children were influenced by a perceived eating norm regardless of whether they felt sure or unsure that other children accepted them. In Study 2, children were most influenced by a perceived eating norm if they were eating in a novel context in which it may have been uncertain how to behave, as opposed to an eating context that children had already encountered. Perceived eating norms may influence children's eating behaviour by removing uncertainty about how to behave, otherwise known as informational social influence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Ignoring Norms with a Little Help from My Friends: Social Support Reduces Normative Influence on Drinking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullum, Jerry; O'Grady, Megan; Sandoval, Patricia; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol norms are strong predictors of drinking. However, the extent to which norms influence behavior depends on how closely people attend to them; people are more likely to attend to norms when their affiliation needs are unfulfilled by members of their social networks (Cullum, O'Grady, & Tennen, 2011). Therefore, we predicted that Perceived Social Support (PSS) would moderate the relationship between norms and drinking such that people with low levels of PSS would be more motivated to attend to norms. College students ( N = 498) completed measures of PSS and peer alcohol norms and then reported on their drinking behavior daily for 30 days. As predicted, we found when PSS was low, student drinking was strongly influenced by peer norms, but there was no relationship between norms and drinking when PSS was high. Findings suggest that when affiliation needs are high, norms are more influential on drinking behavior.

  15. Exploration of the Independent and Joint Influences of Social Norms and Drinking Motives on Korean College Students' Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jounghwa; Park, Dong-Jin; Noh, Ghee-Young

    2016-06-01

    Understanding what types of social norms are more or less influential and how they operate with respect to other psychological variables can provide valuable insights into the design of effective social norm campaigns. To this end, this study explores the roles of two types of social norms (injunctive norms and descriptive norms) and two types of drinking motives (social motives and conformity motives) in collegiate drinking behavior in South Korea. A survey of Korean college students (N = 569) revealed significant positive effects of injunctive norms, descriptive norms, and social motives on students' drinking frequency and quantity. Conformity motives were positively related to the frequency of drinking but negatively related to the quantity of drinking. Furthermore, the results revealed significant effects of the interactions between descriptive norms and social motives (on both the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption), such that the positive effect of descriptive norms was more pronounced among individuals with stronger social motives. A similar pattern was observed in the interaction between injunctive norms and conformity motives (on frequency). Theoretical and practical implications of the findings for social norm campaigns seeking to curb drinking among college students are discussed.

  16. Linking social norms to efficient conservation investment in payments for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Lupi, Frank; He, Guangming; Liu, Jianguo

    2009-07-14

    An increasing amount of investment has been devoted to protecting and restoring ecosystem services worldwide. The efficiency of conservation investments, including payments for ecosystem services (PES), has been found to be affected by biological, political, economic, demographic, and social factors, but little is known about the effects of social norms at the neighborhood level. As a first attempt to quantify the effects of social norms, we studied the effects of a series of possible factors on people's intentions of maintaining forest on their Grain-to-Green Program (GTGP) land plots if the program ends. GTGP is one of the world's largest PES programs and plays an important role in global conservation efforts. Our study was conducted in China's Wolong Nature Reserve, home to the world-famous endangered giant pandas and >4,500 farmers. We found that, in addition to conservation payment amounts and program duration, social norms at the neighborhood level had significant impacts on program re-enrollment, suggesting that social norms can be used to leverage participation to enhance the sustainability of conservation benefits from PES programs. Moreover, our results demonstrate that economic and demographic trends also have profound implications for sustainable conservation. Thus, social norms should be incorporated with economic and demographic trends for efficient conservation investments.

  17. Young children's inclusion decisions in moral and social-conventional group norm contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Michael T; Cooley, Shelby; Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    Being a member of a peer group involves making decisions about whom to include in or exclude from the group. Sometimes these decisions are related to whether members of the group support or challenge the norms of the group. To examine how young children weigh concerns for group norms and group membership in both moral and social-conventional norm contexts, children (3- to 6-year-olds; N=73) were asked to decide between including an ingroup member who challenged the group's norm or an outgroup member who supported the norm. Groups held either moral (equal or unequal resource allocation) or social-conventional (traditional or nontraditional) norms. In the moral contexts, children were more likely to include the peer who advocated for the moral concern for equality regardless of the peer's group membership or their group's specific norm. In the social-conventional contexts, however, children were more likely to include the peer who advocated for the conventional concern for maintaining traditions but only at the group-specific level. Furthermore, with age children increasingly based their inclusion decisions on normative concerns, rather than on group membership concerns, and differed in their inclusion decisions for ingroups and outgroups. Finally, children reasoned about their decisions by referencing concerns for fairness, group norms, and group membership, suggesting that preschool children weigh multiple concerns when deciding whom to include in their groups. Overall, the current study revealed differences in how preschool children weigh moral and social-conventional concerns in intergroup contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Do social norms play a role in explaining involvement in medical decision-making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabers, Anne E M; van Dijk, Liset; Groenewegen, Peter P; de Jong, Judith D

    2016-12-01

    Patients' involvement in medical decision-making is crucial to provide good quality of care that is respectful of, and responsive to, patients' preferences, needs and values. Whether people want to be involved in medical decision-making is associated with individual patient characteristics, and health status. However, the observation of differences in whether people want to be involved does not in itself provide an explanation. Insight is necessary into mechanisms that explain people's involvement. This study aims to examine one mechanism, namely social norms. We make a distinction between subjective norms, that is doing what others think one ought to do, and descriptive norms, doing what others do. We focus on self-reported involvement in medical decision-making. A questionnaire was sent to members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel in May 2015 (response 46%; N = 974). A regression model was used to estimate the relationship between socio-demographics, social norms and involvement in medical decision-making. In line with our hypotheses, we observed that the more conservative social norms are, the less people are involved in medical decision-making. The effects for both types of norms were comparable. This study indicates that social norms play a role as a mechanism to explain involvement in medical decision-making. Our study offers a first insight into the possibility that the decision to be involved in medical decision-making is not as individual as it at first seems; someone's social context also plays a role. Strategies aimed at emphasizing patient involvement have to address this social context. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. Normative Beliefs, Attitudes, and Social Norms: People Reduce Waste as an Index of Social Relationships When Spending Leisure Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ta Fang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study has adopted and refined Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior, theory of reasoned action, and the value–belief–norm theory by Stern et al. to investigate the effects of normative beliefs, attitudes, and social norms on pro-environmental behavioral intentions. A total of 391 valid responses were collected from visitors to a theme park in Taiwan. A structure equation analysis indicated that the overall fit of the proposed model was supported. It was also found that both attitudes and social norms had positive and significant influence on waste reduction. While the results did not reveal any direct relation between normative beliefs and behavioral intentions, normative beliefs had positive direct influence on social norms and attitudes, which in turn had an impact on behavioral intentions. The findings provided further insights about pro-environmental behavioral intentions from an Asia perspective and highlighted important implications for environmental policies and education to reduce waste.

  20. The influence of social norms on the dynamics of vaccinating behaviour for paediatric infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraby, Tamer; Thampi, Vivek; Bauch, Chris T

    2014-04-07

    Mathematical models that couple disease dynamics and vaccinating behaviour often assume that the incentive to vaccinate disappears if disease prevalence is zero. Hence, they predict that vaccine refusal should be the rule, and elimination should be difficult or impossible. In reality, countries with non-mandatory vaccination policies have usually been able to maintain elimination or very low incidence of paediatric infectious diseases for long periods of time. Here, we show that including injunctive social norms can reconcile such behaviour-incidence models to observations. Adding social norms to a coupled behaviour-incidence model enables the model to better explain pertussis vaccine uptake and disease dynamics in the UK from 1967 to 2010, in both the vaccine-scare years and the years of high vaccine coverage. The model also illustrates how a vaccine scare can perpetuate suboptimal vaccine coverage long after perceived risk has returned to baseline, pre-vaccine-scare levels. However, at other model parameter values, social norms can perpetuate depressed vaccine coverage during a vaccine scare well beyond the time when the population's baseline vaccine risk perception returns to pre-scare levels. Social norms can strongly suppress vaccine uptake despite frequent outbreaks, as observed in some small communities. Significant portions of the parameter space also exhibit bistability, meaning long-term outcomes depend on the initial conditions. Depending on the context, social norms can either support or hinder immunization goals.

  1. Perceived legitimacy of normative expectations motivates compliance with social norms when nobody is watching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, Giulia; Grieco, Daniela; Tummolini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Three main motivations can explain compliance with social norms: fear of peer punishment, the desire for others' esteem and the desire to meet others' expectations. Though all play a role, only the desire to meet others' expectations can sustain compliance when neither public nor private monitoring is possible. Theoretical models have shown that such desire can indeed sustain social norms, but empirical evidence is lacking. Moreover it is unclear whether this desire ranges over others' “empirical” or “normative” expectations. We propose a new experimental design to isolate this motivation and to investigate what kind of expectations people are inclined to meet. Results indicate that, when nobody can assign either material or immaterial sanctions, the perceived legitimacy of others' normative expectations can motivate a significant number of people to comply with costly social norms. PMID:26500568

  2. Perceived legitimacy of normative expectations motivates compliance with social norms when nobody is watching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, Giulia; Grieco, Daniela; Tummolini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Three main motivations can explain compliance with social norms: fear of peer punishment, the desire for others' esteem and the desire to meet others' expectations. Though all play a role, only the desire to meet others' expectations can sustain compliance when neither public nor private monitoring is possible. Theoretical models have shown that such desire can indeed sustain social norms, but empirical evidence is lacking. Moreover it is unclear whether this desire ranges over others' "empirical" or "normative" expectations. We propose a new experimental design to isolate this motivation and to investigate what kind of expectations people are inclined to meet. Results indicate that, when nobody can assign either material or immaterial sanctions, the perceived legitimacy of others' normative expectations can motivate a significant number of people to comply with costly social norms.

  3. Predicting Australian adults' sun-safe behaviour: examining the role of personal and social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Starfelt, Louise C; Young, Ross McD; Hawkes, Anna L; Leske, Stuart; Hamilton, Kyra

    2015-05-01

    To address the scarcity of comprehensive, theory-based research in the Australian context, this study, using a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework, investigated the role of personal and social norms to identify the key predictors of adult Australians' sun-safe intentions and behaviour. The study used a prospective design with two waves of data collection, 1 week apart. Participants were 816 adults (48.2% men) aged between 18 and 88 years recruited from urban, regional, and rural areas of Australia. At baseline, participants completed a questionnaire assessing the standard TPB predictors (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control [PBC]), past behaviour, behavioural intention, and additional measures of group norm for the referent groups of friends and family, image norm, personal norm, personal choice/responsibility, and Australian identity. Seventy-one per cent of the participants (n = 577) reported on their sun-safe behaviour in the subsequent week. Via path modelling, past behaviour, attitude, group norm (friends), personal norm, and personal choice/responsibility emerged as independent predictors of intentions which, in turn, predicted sun-safe behaviour prospectively. Past behaviour, but not PBC, had direct effects on sun-safe behaviour. The model explained 61.6% and 43.9% of the variance in intention and behaviour, respectively. This study provides support for the use of a comprehensive theoretical decision-making model to explain Australian adults' sun-safe intentions and behaviours and identifies viable targets for health-promoting messages in this high-risk context. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Identifying determinants of sun-safe behaviour is vital in high-risk cancer areas like Australia. For young Australians, friendship group norm is a key influence of intentions and behaviour. Little is known about drivers of sun safety, especially norms, among Australian adults in general. What does this

  4. Globalization and eating disorder risk: Peer influence, perceived social norms, and adolescent disordered eating in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbasi, Margaret E.; Richards, Lauren K.; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Gilman, Stephen E.; Becker, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change. Method We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n=523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q). Results We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p disordered eating may elevate risk for disordered eating in Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition—and where globalization is also influencing local social norms—may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk. PMID:25139374

  5. Social models provide a norm of appropriate food intake for young women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny R Vartanian

    Full Text Available It is often assumed that social models influence people's eating behavior by providing a norm of appropriate food intake, but this hypothesis has not been directly tested. In three experiments, female participants were exposed to a low-intake model, a high-intake model, or no model (control condition. Experiments 1 and 2 used a remote-confederate manipulation and were conducted in the context of a cookie taste test. Experiment 3 used a live confederate and was conducted in the context of a task during which participants were given incidental access to food. Participants also rated the extent to which their food intake was influenced by a variety of factors (e.g., hunger, taste, how much others ate. In all three experiments, participants in the low-intake conditions ate less than did participants in the high-intake conditions, and also reported a lower perceived norm of appropriate intake. Furthermore, perceived norms of appropriate intake mediated the effects of the social model on participants' food intake. Despite the observed effects of the social models, participants were much more likely to indicate that their food intake was influenced by taste and hunger than by the behavior of the social models. Thus, social models appear to influence food intake by providing a norm of appropriate eating behavior, but people may be unaware of the influence of a social model on their behavior.

  6. Social networks and the communication of norms about prenatal care in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Cruz, Shannon; Lapine, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many normative beliefs are shared and learned through interpersonal communication, yet research on norms typically focuses on their effects rather than the communication that shapes them. This study focused on interpersonal communication during pregnancy to uncover (a) the nature of pregnancy-related communication and (b) normative information transmitted through such communication. Results from interviews with pregnant women living in rural Mexico revealed limited social networks; often, only a woman's mother or the baby's father were consulted about prenatal care decisions. However, women also indicated that communication with others during pregnancy provided important normative information regarding prenatal care. First, most referents believed that women should receive prenatal care (injunctive norm), which was conceptualized by participants as biomedical, nonmedical, or a blend of both. Second, family members often received prenatal care, whereas friends did not (descriptive norms). These findings highlight the key role of personal and social networks in shaping personal pregnancy-related beliefs and behaviors.

  7. Developmental relations between alcohol expectancies and social norms in predicting alcohol onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Tim; Treloar Padovano, Hayley; Merrill, Jennifer E; Jackson, Kristina M

    2018-02-01

    Expectations about alcohol's effects and perceptions of peers' behaviors and beliefs related to alcohol use are each shown to strongly influence the timing of drinking onset during adolescence. The present study builds on prior work by examining the conjoint effects of within-person changes in these social-cognitive factors on age of adolescent drinking onset. We related youths' alcohol status (i.e., alcohol-naive, initiation during study, prior initiation) to increases in positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies (AOEs), as well as increases in perceived peer/close friend alcohol use and acceptance, during adolescence. We also investigated whether changes in AOEs and perceived social norms prospectively predicted alcohol onset in alcohol-naïve adolescents. Participants were 1,023 adolescents aged 12.2 years on average at enrollment (SD = 0.98), 52% female, participating in an ongoing longitudinal survey on substance use and health behaviors. Positive AOEs, close friends' norms, and same-age peer norms increased linearly, whereas negative AOEs decreased linearly. Changes were attenuated for participants who remained alcohol-naïve and increased for participants who experienced initiation during the study. Furthermore, we found associations between individual changes in AOEs and perceived social norms. Finally, survival models revealed that onset of alcohol use was prospectively predicted by stronger initial positive AOEs, as well as increases in close friends' norms and decreases in negative AOEs over time. These findings emphasize codevelopment of AOEs and perceived social norms, coinciding with, and predictive of, onset of alcohol use, and point toward a unique role for within-individual changes in identifying youth at risk for early onset of alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Access, engagement, networks, and norms: Dimensions of social capital at work in a first grade classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler-Robock, Stephanie

    Social capital refers to access and use of resources available through one's networks to solve problems, and the norms that reflect inclusive or exclusive access to those networks and resources. Research has found positive relationships between social capital, academic achievement, and attainment. Studies, however, have generally examined social capital through factors that occur outside the classroom; students who have social capital, acquired through their family and community relationships, seem to be more successful academically. Limited research has explored what if any factors within the classroom might impact the production, and nature of social capital, or its workings in a classroom. The purpose of this study was to explore the workings and nature of classroom social capital, including its possible relationships to engagement and cognition among 5 student participants. Using methods of qualitative data collection, mixed methods were used to analyze information resources, participants' networking, student work, and classroom discourse. Eight interdependent networking factors and 3 overarching patterns of norms were discovered. The networking factors reflected the structure, content, processes, purposes, and acceptability of participants' networking. The norms, also working interdependently, appeared to promote or inhibit among other things, engagement in networking, help seeking, access, sharing, and intertextual use of diverse, often complex sources of information. Through interaction of the 8 factors and 3 overarching norms, ongoing outcomes of networking appeared to include the creation of bridging (inclusive) and bonding (exclusive) forms of social capital, and depth of scientific conceptual understanding, in this case, about birds. Bridging social capital appeared related to willingness to engage in strong and weak tie networking, help seeking, intertextuality, and possibly to mastery goal orientation for all participants, regardless of reading level

  9. Changing Collective Social Norms in Favour of Reduced Harmful Use of Alcohol: A Review of Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter; Jané-Llopis, Eva; Hasan, Omer Syed Muhammad; Rehm, Jürgen

    2018-01-16

    Public sector bodies have called for policies and programmes to shift collective social norms in disfavour of the harmful use of alcohol. This article aims to identify and summarize the evidence and propose how policies and programmes to shift social norms could be implemented and evaluated. Review of reviews for all years to July 2017. Searches on OVID Medline, Healthstar, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Social Work Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Mental Measurements Yearbook, Joanna Briggs Institute EBP, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, International Political Science Abstracts, NASW Clinical Register and Epub Ahead of Print databases. All reviews, without language or date restrictions resulting from combining the terms ((review or literature review or review literature or data pooling or comparative study or systematic review or meta-analysis or pooled analysis) and (social norms or culture) and (alcohol drinking)). Two relevant reviews were identified. One review of community-based interventions found one study that demonstrated small changes in parental disapproval of under-age drinking. One review stressed that collective social norms about drinking are malleable and not uniform in any one country. Three factors are proposed to inform programmes: provide information about the consequences of the harmful use of alcohol, and their causes and distribution; act on groups, not individuals; and strengthen environmental laws, regulations and approaches. Purposeful policies and programmes could be implemented to change collective social norms in disfavour of the harmful use of alcohol; they should be evidence-based and fully evaluated for their impact. © The Author(s) 2018. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  10. Curriculum Infusion of the Social Norms Approach: Information Only vs. Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Mark A.; Carter, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    A two-group pretest-post-test quasi-experiment was conducted to analyze the impact of curriculum infusion of the social norms approach on students' alcohol perceptions and behaviors. This study extended previous research by examining two types of curriculum infusion, information only (IO) and service learning (SL). Also, owing to variations in…

  11. Creative innovation or crazy irrelevance? The contribution of group norms and social identity to creative behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adarves-Yorno, I; Postmes, T.; Haslam, S.A.

    This paper develops an analysis of innovative behavior and creativity that is informed by the social identity perspective. Two studies manipulated group norms and analyzed their impact on creative behavior. The results of Study I show that when people are asked to make a creative product

  12. A Social Norms Approach to Changing School Children's Perceptions of Tobacco Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Afzal; Vadera, Sunil; Ravey, Michael; Lovatt, Gary; Kelly, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Over 200,000 young people in the UK embark on a smoking career annually, thus continued effort is required to understand the types of interventions that are most effective in changing perceptions about smoking amongst teenagers. Several authors have proposed the use of social norms programmes, where correcting misconceptions of what is…

  13. (Re)Considering Normal: Queering Social Norms for Parents and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Laura; Klecka, Cari

    2009-01-01

    Recent debates regarding same-sex marriage and gay and lesbian adoption highlight the role of schools as sociopolitical institutions. Accordingly, teachers operating within social norms have considerable influence through their interactions with students and their families. Previous research points to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)…

  14. Promoting Social Norms for Scientific Discourse: Planning Decisions of an Urban Elementary Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiante, Elaine Silva

    2015-01-01

    This case study examined planning decisions made and challenges faced by an elementary teacher in a high-poverty urban district to promote students' adoption of social norms of interaction for scientific discourse. Through interviews, document analyses, and observations during a science unit, the findings indicated that the teacher's planning…

  15. RECOGNIZE: A Social Norms Campaign to Reduce Rumor Spreading in a Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jennifer E.; Peisner, William

    2009-01-01

    This article studied changes in rumor spreading and perceptions of peers' rumor spreading among students at one public junior high school following a social norms marketing campaign. Results of the study show that perceptions of peer rumor spreading fell following the campaign, but self-reports of rumor spreading did not decrease. Results suggest…

  16. Encouraging children to eat more fruit and vegetables: Health vs. descriptive social norm-based messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, Maxine; Robinson, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Traditional intervention approaches to promote fruit and vegetable consumption outline the health benefits of eating fruit and vegetables. More recently, social norm-based messages describing the healthy eating habits of others have been shown to increase fruit and vegetable intake in adults. Here we report two experimental studies which investigated whether exposure to descriptive social norm-based messages about the behaviour of other children and health-based messages increased fruit and vegetable intake in young children. In both studies children were exposed to messages whilst playing a board-game. After exposure to the messages, children were able to consume fruit and vegetables, as well as high calorie snack foods. Although findings were inconsistent across the two individual studies, in a pooled analysis we found evidence that both health messages and descriptive social norm-based messages increased children's fruit and vegetable intake, relative to control condition messages (p < .05). Whether descriptive social norm-based messages can be used to promote meaningful changes to children's dietary behaviour warrants further study. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Breadwinning Moms, Caregiving Dads: Double Standard in Social Judgments of Gender Norm Violators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the role of gender ideologies in moderating social judgments of gender norm violators. Three hundred and eleven participants evaluated a male or a female target who was either a primary breadwinner or a primary caregiver. Attributions of personal traits, moral emotions, and marital emotions were examined. Results showed that…

  18. College Binge Drinking and Social Norms: Advancing Understanding through Statistical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Mikyoung; Agley, Jon; Huang, Chunfeng; Gassman, Ruth A.

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which social norms (injunctive and descriptive) are associated with collegiate alcohol use--including binge drinking--has been examined at length, but studies examining the efficacy of interventions derived thereof have reported mixed outcomes. This study examines data from 5,124 college students at 13 different colleges collected by…

  19. Sexual Orientation and Alcohol Use among College Students: The Influence of Drinking Motives and Social Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Jana L.; Ford, Jason A.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence indicates GLB individuals may be at greater risk for high rates of alcohol consumption; however, few studies have identified specific factors explaining why differences exist. Using data from the 2001 College Alcohol Study, we examined the ability of drinking motives and social norms to explain the relationship between sexual orientation…

  20. Social Norms and Self-Presentation: Children's Implicit and Explicit Intergroup Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Milne, Alan; McGeorge, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined whether social norms and children's concern for self-presentation affect their intergroup attitudes. Study 1 examined racial intergroup attitudes and normative beliefs among children aged 6 to 16 years (n=155). Accountability (i.e., public self-focus) was experimentally manipulated, and intergroup attitudes were assessed using…

  1. Effects of Achievement Motivation, Social Identity, and Peer Group Norms on Academic Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…

  2. Using a descriptive social norm to increase vegetable selection in workplace restaurant settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jason M; Ursell, Amanda; Robinson, Eric L; Aveyard, Paul; Jebb, Susan A; Herman, C Peter; Higgs, Suzanne

    2017-11-01

    Recent work has shown that exposure to social norm messages may enhance the consumption of vegetables. However, the majority of this work has been conducted in laboratories, often with student populations. Little is known about whether this approach can be successfully used in other contexts. In this study, a poster featuring a message based on social norms was tested to examine whether it could increase and maintain the purchase of meals with vegetables in workplace restaurants. A pretest-posttest design with 3 phases was used in 3 workplace restaurants in the United Kingdom. The first 2 weeks formed the preintervention phase, the second 2 weeks the intervention phase, and the last 2 weeks the postintervention phase. During the intervention phase only, posters containing a social norm message relaying information about vegetable purchases of other diners were placed in each restaurant. The main outcome measure was the percentage of meals purchased with vegetables, which was analyzed using Pearson's chi-squared test. Participants were judged to be male (57%), not overweight (75%), and under the age of 60 (98%). The intervention was positively associated with the percentage of meals purchased with vegetables: baseline versus intervention (60% vs. 64% of meals purchased with vegetables; p < .01); intervention versus postintervention (64% vs. 67% of meals purchased with vegetables; p < .01); and baseline versus postintervention (60% vs. 67% of meals purchased with vegetables; p < .001). Social norm messages may increase the purchase of vegetables in workplace settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Identification of trajectories of social network composition change and the relationship to alcohol consumption and norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartini, Kelly S; Prince, Mark A; Carey, Kate B

    2013-09-01

    College drinking is embedded in a social context, drawing attention to the effects of social network composition on consumption. The presence of heavy drinking friends in social networks predicts later alcohol misuse, but little is known about how the composition of one's social network composition changes over time. This study identified changes in social network composition in a sample of at-risk students and examined the relationship among network trajectories, alcohol consumption, and descriptive norms. Participants were 503 students (64% male) mandated to participate in an alcohol prevention intervention for residence hall alcohol policy violations. At baseline, students provided self-report data about alcohol consumption, perceived peer drinking norms, and peer alcohol involvement. Parallel assessments were completed at 6- and 12-months post-baseline. Growth-mixture models identified four groups of individuals with similar levels of heavy drinkers in their social networks. The majority of students had stable or decreasing numbers of heavy drinkers in their networks across the study, whereas two groups reported relatively stable densities of heavy drinkers from baseline to 6-months and increasing densities from 6- to 12-months. At baseline, the four groups were generally equivalent on consumption and normative perceptions. At 6- and 12-months, however, the groups differed significantly on consumption and norms. These results suggest that changes in the number of heavy drinkers in college students' social networks may have significant implications for at-risk drinking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perception and reality: a national evaluation of social norms marketing interventions to reduce college students' heavy alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Henry; Nelson, Toben E; Lee, Jae Eun; Seibring, Mark; Lewis, Catherine; Keeling, Richard P

    2003-07-01

    To evaluate a widely used intervention to reduce college student alcohol use, we studied student drinking patterns at colleges that employed social norms marketing programs and those that did not. We examined responses of students in the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (CAS) 1997, 1999 and 2001 data sets at 37 colleges that employed social norms marketing programs and at 61 that did not. Information about the students' drinking behavior and their familiarity with social norms marketing messages at their schools was analyzed, as were college administrators' reports about the implementation of social norms marketing campaigns. Schools were grouped on the basis of student reports of exposure to programmatic materials. Trend analyses were conducted on seven standard measures of alcohol consumption, including annual and 30-day use, frequency, usual quantity and volume consumed, heavy episodic use, and drunkenness. Almost half of the CAS colleges sampled adopted social norms programs. Those that did were more likely to have large enrollments, not to be religiously affiliated and to have high rates of alcohol use. No decreases were noted in any of the seven measures of alcohol use at schools with social norms programs, even when student exposure and length of program existence were considered. Increases in measures of monthly alcohol use and total volume consumed, however, were observed at schools employing social norms programs. This study does not provide evidence to support the effectiveness of social norms marketing programs, as currently utilized, in reducing alcohol use among college students.

  5. The Minnesota Income Tax Compliance Experiment: Replication of the Social Norms Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This research note reports the results of a follow-up experiment conducted to validate an earlier experiment showing that if taxpayers overestimate the prevalence of tax evasion, their voluntary compliance can be increased by informing them about the true rate of cheating. The result confirms that tax compliance is influenced partly by social conformity with perceived social norms against cheating. The experiments were done by the Minnesota Department of Revenue in 1995 and 1996, but only the...

  6. Verbal Venting in the Social Web: Effects of Anonymity and Group Norms on Aggressive Language Use in Online Comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Rösner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Scholars often blame the occurrence of aggressive behavior in online discussions on the anonymity of the Internet; however, even on today’s less anonymous platforms, such as social networking sites, users write plenty of aggressive comments, which can elicit a whole wave of negative remarks. Drawing on the social identity and deindividuation effects (SIDE model, this research conducts a laboratory experiment with a 2 (anonymity vs. no anonymity × 2 (aggressive norm vs. non-aggressive norm between-subjects design in order to disentangle the effects of anonymity, social group norms, and their interactions on aggressive language use in online comments. Results reveal that participants used more aggressive expressions in their comments when peer comments on a blog included aggressive wording (i.e., the social group norm was aggressive. Anonymity had no direct effect; however, we found a tendency that users’ conformity to an aggressive social norm of commenting is stronger in an anonymous environment.

  7. A cross-cultural study on emotion expression and the learning of social norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo eHareli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When we do not know how to correctly behave in a new context, the emotions that people familiar with the context show in response to the behaviors of others, can help us understand what to do or not to do. The present study examined cross-cultural differences in how group emotional expressions (anger, sadness, neutral can be used to deduce a norm violation in four cultures (Germany, Israel, Greece and the US, which differ in terms of decoding rules for negative emotions. As expected, in all four countries, anger was a stronger norm violation signal than sadness or neutral expressions. However, angry and sad expressions were perceived as more intense and the relevant norm was learned better in Germany and Israel than in Greece and the US. Participants in Greece were relatively better at using sadness as a sign of a likely norm violation. The results demonstrate both cultural universality and cultural differences in the use of group emotion expressions in norm learning. In terms of cultural differences they underscore that the social signal value of emotional expressions may vary with culture as a function of cultural differences, both in emotion perception, and as a function of a differential use of emotions.

  8. A cross-cultural study on emotion expression and the learning of social norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareli, Shlomo; Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Hess, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    When we do not know how to correctly behave in a new context, the emotions that people familiar with the context show in response to the behaviors of others, can help us understand what to do or not to do. The present study examined cross-cultural differences in how group emotional expressions (anger, sadness, neutral) can be used to deduce a norm violation in four cultures (Germany, Israel, Greece, and the US), which differ in terms of decoding rules for negative emotions. As expected, in all four countries, anger was a stronger norm violation signal than sadness or neutral expressions. However, angry and sad expressions were perceived as more intense and the relevant norm was learned better in Germany and Israel than in Greece and the US. Participants in Greece were relatively better at using sadness as a sign of a likely norm violation. The results demonstrate both cultural universality and cultural differences in the use of group emotion expressions in norm learning. In terms of cultural differences they underscore that the social signal value of emotional expressions may vary with culture as a function of cultural differences, both in emotion perception, and as a function of a differential use of emotions. PMID:26483744

  9. Fragile Social Norms: (Un Sustainable Exploration of Forest Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decio Zylbersztajn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhaustion of natural resources is a central problem in the international agenda. The particular case of Amazon forest is at the top on the international environmental debate. Two related problems are keys to be considered in the discussion of sustainable development in this region. First the predatory use of the natural resources of the forest mainly timber and genetic resources. Second the recognition of the existence of a population of around 20 million inhabitants in the region defined as “Legal Amazon Area”, aiming the improvement on the living conditions, enhancement of income level and acceleration of development. How to match both objectives is a puzzle faced by the present generation.The region is populated by initiatives of international non-governmental-organizations, most of them carrying good intentions but lacking the necessary knowledge on local formal and informal institutions to find ways to reach sustainable development. The result is the accelerated process of natural resources depletion, and social disorganization. The case of the production of Brazilian Nuts stands as a corollary of the lack of an institutional structure of property rights that does not provide incentives for sustainable development. The opposite effect is being observed as a result of the fragility of observable institutional arrangements.The case provides the counterfactual for the analysis of Ostrom (1990; 2008, where she presents virtuous cases of sustainable exploration of natural resources, mostly based on informal but solid institutions.

  10. The role of social norms on preferences towards climate change policies: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alló, Maria; Loureiro, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides a review of existing assessments of preferences for climate change mitigation and adaptation policies through a worldwide meta-analysis. In this study, we analyze the impact of social values and norms on preferences towards climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. In a sample of 58 international studies, we found that mitigation actions were preferred over adaptation actions, and that preferences towards climate change policies are affected by attitudes towards time and social norms. In particular, societies with a long-term orientation display greater support towards climate change policies. These results therefore reveal the role of social factors as being crucial in order to understand the acceptability of climate change policies at a worldwide level. - highlights: • Effective policy design is required in order to curb climate change. • Using a meta-analysis, we find that mitigation actions are preferred over adaptation actions. • Economic conditions play a crucial role for supporting efforts to combat climate change. • Cultural and social dimensions are relevant for the acceptability of climate policies. • Understanding social norms and cultural variables may help with the climate change debate

  11. Social influence in the theory of planned behaviour: the role of descriptive, injunctive, and in-group norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Smith, Joanne R; Terry, Deborah J; Greenslade, Jaimi H; McKimmie, Blake M

    2009-03-01

    The present research investigated three approaches to the role of norms in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Two studies examined the proposed predictors of intentions to engage in household recycling (Studies 1 and 2) and reported recycling behaviour (Study 1). Study 1 tested the impact of descriptive and injunctive norms (personal and social) and the moderating role of self-monitoring on norm-intention relations. Study 2 examined the role of group norms and group identification and the moderating role of collective self on norm-intention relations. Both studies demonstrated support for the TPB and the inclusion of additional normative variables: attitudes; perceived behavioural control; descriptive; and personal injunctive norms (but not social injunctive norm) emerged as significant independent predictors of intentions. There was no evidence that the impact of norms on intentions varied as a function of the dispositional variables of self-monitoring (Study 1) or the collective self (Study 2). There was support, however, for the social identity approach to attitude-behaviour relations in that group norms predicted recycling intentions, particularly for individuals who identified strongly with the group. The results of these two studies highlight the critical role of social influence processes within the TPB and the attitude-behaviour context.

  12. Social Roles, Social Norms, and Self-Presentation in the Quiz Effect of Ross, Amabile, and Steinmetz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Iain; Gibbins, Keith

    1996-01-01

    Recounts an experiment where two groups of college students composed questions for a simulated quiz show and then answered each other's questions. They then answered questions comparing their performance with other groups. Proposes a social norm rather than attribution error explanation for the fact that groups consistently will underestimate…

  13. Are social norms associated with smoking in French university students? A survey report on smoking correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riou França Lionel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the correlates of smoking is a first step to successful prevention interventions. The social norms theory hypothesises that students' smoking behaviour is linked to their perception of norms for use of tobacco. This study was designed to test the theory that smoking is associated with perceived norms, controlling for other correlates of smoking. Methods In a pencil-and-paper questionnaire, 721 second-year students in sociology, medicine, foreign language or nursing studies estimated the number of cigarettes usually smoked in a month. 31 additional covariates were included as potential predictors of tobacco use. Multiple imputation was used to deal with missing values among covariates. The strength of the association of each variable with tobacco use was quantified by the inclusion frequencies of the variable in 1000 bootstrap sample backward selections. Being a smoker and the number of cigarettes smoked by smokers were modelled separately. Results We retain 8 variables to predict the risk of smoking and 6 to predict the quantities smoked by smokers. The risk of being a smoker is increased by cannabis use, binge drinking, being unsupportive of smoke-free universities, perceived friends' approval of regular smoking, positive perceptions about tobacco, a high perceived prevalence of smoking among friends, reporting not being disturbed by people smoking in the university, and being female. The quantity of cigarettes smoked by smokers is greater for smokers reporting never being disturbed by smoke in the university, unsupportive of smoke-free universities, perceiving that their friends approve of regular smoking, having more negative beliefs about the tobacco industry, being sociology students and being among the older students. Conclusion Other substance use, injunctive norms (friends' approval and descriptive norms (friends' smoking prevalence are associated with tobacco use. University-based prevention campaigns

  14. Are social norms associated with smoking in French university students? A survey report on smoking correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou França, Lionel; Dautzenberg, Bertrand; Falissard, Bruno; Reynaud, Michel

    2009-04-02

    Knowledge of the correlates of smoking is a first step to successful prevention interventions. The social norms theory hypothesises that students' smoking behaviour is linked to their perception of norms for use of tobacco. This study was designed to test the theory that smoking is associated with perceived norms, controlling for other correlates of smoking. In a pencil-and-paper questionnaire, 721 second-year students in sociology, medicine, foreign language or nursing studies estimated the number of cigarettes usually smoked in a month. 31 additional covariates were included as potential predictors of tobacco use. Multiple imputation was used to deal with missing values among covariates. The strength of the association of each variable with tobacco use was quantified by the inclusion frequencies of the variable in 1000 bootstrap sample backward selections. Being a smoker and the number of cigarettes smoked by smokers were modelled separately. We retain 8 variables to predict the risk of smoking and 6 to predict the quantities smoked by smokers. The risk of being a smoker is increased by cannabis use, binge drinking, being unsupportive of smoke-free universities, perceived friends' approval of regular smoking, positive perceptions about tobacco, a high perceived prevalence of smoking among friends, reporting not being disturbed by people smoking in the university, and being female. The quantity of cigarettes smoked by smokers is greater for smokers reporting never being disturbed by smoke in the university, unsupportive of smoke-free universities, perceiving that their friends approve of regular smoking, having more negative beliefs about the tobacco industry, being sociology students and being among the older students. Other substance use, injunctive norms (friends' approval) and descriptive norms (friends' smoking prevalence) are associated with tobacco use.University-based prevention campaigns should take multiple substance use into account and focus on the

  15. Sexual orientation, minority stress, social norms, and substance use among racially diverse adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H; Goldbach, Jeremy T; Burgess, Claire; DiBello, Angelo M

    2017-09-01

    Sexual minority adolescents are more likely than their heterosexual peers to use substances. This study tested factors that contribute to sexual orientation disparities in substance use among racially and ethnically diverse adolescents. Specifically, we examined how both minority stress (i.e., homophobic bullying) and social norms (i.e., descriptive and injunctive norms) may account for sexual orientation disparities in recent and lifetime use of four substances: tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and prescription drugs. A probability sample of middle and high school students (N=3012; aged 11-18 years old; 71.2% racial and ethnic minorities) using random cluster methods was obtained in a mid-size school district in the Southeastern United States. Sexual minority adolescents were more likely than heterosexual adolescents to use substances, experience homophobic bullying, and report higher descriptive norms for close friends and more permissive injunctive norms for friends and parents. While accounting for sociodemographic characteristics, multiple mediation models concurrently testing all mediators indicated that higher descriptive and more permissive injunctive norms were significant mediators of the associations between sexual orientation and recent and lifetime use of the four substances, whereas homophobic bullying was not a significant mediator of the associations between sexual orientation and recent and lifetime use of any of the substances. Descriptive and injunctive norms, in conjunction with minority stress, are important to consider in explaining sexual orientation disparities in substance use among racially diverse adolescents. These results have implications for substance use interventions among sexual minority adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Diffusion and Spatial Equilibrium of a Social Norm: Voting Participation in the United States, 1920-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Social conformity can spread social norms and behaviors through a society. This research examines such a process geographically and over time for voting, which is strongly influenced by the norm that citizens should vote. A mathematical model for the spread of voting participation under the influence of social conformity is developed based on the diffusion equation, and predictions are tested with spatial analysis of state-level voter turnout in American presidential elections from 1920 to 20...

  17. Perceptions of Social Norms and Exposure to Pro-Marijuana Messages Are Associated with Adolescent Marijuana Use

    OpenAIRE

    Roditis, Maria L.; Delucchi, Kevin; Chang, Audrey; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Despite consistent declines in rates of cigarette use among adolescents in the last five years, rates of marijuana use have remained constant, with marijuana being the most widely used illegal drug among adolescents. More work is needed to understand how social norms, perceived risks and benefits, and social media messaging impact use of marijuana. This study compared perceptions and social norms related to marijuana, blunts and cigarettes. Additionally, we assessed how perceptions related to...

  18. How do hunter-gatherer children learn social and gender norms? A meta-ethnographic review

    OpenAIRE

    Lew-Levy, S; Lavi, N; Reckin, R; Cristobal-Azkarate, J; Ellis-Davies, K

    2017-01-01

    Forager societies tend to value egalitarianism, cooperative autonomy, and sharing. Furthermore, foragers exhibit a strong gendered division of labor. However, few studies have employed a cross-cultural approach to understand how forager children learn social and gender norms. To address this gap, we perform a meta-ethnography, which allows for the systematic extraction, synthesis, and comparison of quantitative and qualitative publications. In all, 77 publications met our inclusion criteria. ...

  19. Impact of alcohol checks and social norm on driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesmann, Uta; Martensen, Heike; Dupont, Emmanuelle

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the influence of alcohol checks and social norm on self-reported driving under the influence of alcohol above the legal limit (DUI). The analysis was based on the responses of 12,507 car drivers from 19 European countries to the SARTRE-4 survey (2010). The data were analysed by means of a multiple logistic regression-model on two levels: (1) individual and (2) national level. On the individual level the results revealed that driving under the influence (DUI) was positively associated with male gender, young age (17-34), personal experience with alcohol checks, the perceived likelihood of being checked for alcohol, perceived drunk driving behaviour of friends (social norm) and was negatively associated with higher age (55+). On a national level, the results showed a negative association with a lower legal alcohol limit (BAC 0.2g/l compared with BAC 0.5g/l) and the percentage of drivers checked for alcohol. DUI was positively associated with the percentage of respondents in the country that reported that their friends drink and drive (social norm). The comparison of the results obtained on national and individual levels shows a paradoxical effect of alcohol checks: Countries with more alcohol checks show lower DUI (negative association) but respondents who have been personally checked for alcohol show a higher chance of DUI (positive association). Possible explanations of this paradox are discussed. The effects of the social norm variable (perceived drunk driving behaviour of friends) are positively associated with DUI on both levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [The impact of social norm and susceptibility on drug use among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jie; Zeng, Jing; Xingiang, Chen; Li, Fang; Zhou, Dun-jin; Wang, Zeng-zhen

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the role of knowledge, attitude and perceived social norm on the use of New Type of Drugs (NTD) and to construct the mediated model among these factors. With stratified random group sampling, 3018 students from 3 middle schools, 3 high schools, 3 vocational high schools and a municipal-own university in Wuhan city completed questionnaires under anonymous and voluntary practice. A conceptual model was developed based on Reasoned Behavior Theory. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the proposed model. The overall prevalent rate of NTD was 3.28%, with 4.81% for males, 1.94% for females,1.80% for middle school students, 2.91% for general high school students, 7.83% for vocational school students and 3.25% for college students. SEM seemed to have been fixed nicely into the model. Adolescent NTD was significantly predicted by knowledge, attitude, perceived social norm which were all directly affecting or medicated by the susceptibility of drugs. Knowledge, attitude, perceived social norm might increase the risks for NTD use among adolescents, suggesting that preventive education on drug use among adolescents should be paid to improve the knowledge on drugs.

  1. A Multisite Randomized Trial of Social Norms Marketing Campaigns to Reduce College Student Drinking: A Replication Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; Murphy, Melissa J.; Doerr, Emily E.; Simonsen, Neal R.; Mason, Karen E.; Scribner, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    A 14-site randomized trial tested the effectiveness of social norms marketing (SNM) campaigns, which present accurate student survey data in order to correct misperceptions of subjective drinking norms and thereby drive down alcohol use. Cross-sectional student surveys were conducted by mail at baseline and at posttest 3 years later. Hierarchical…

  2. Grammar of Difference? the Dutch Colonial State, Labour Policies, and Social Norms on Work and Gender, c.1800-1940

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederveen Meerkerk, van Elise

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates developments in labour policies and social norms on gender and work from a colonial perspective. It aims to analyse the extent to which state policies and societal norms influenced gendered labour relations in the Netherlands and its colony, the Netherlands Indies

  3. College Student Alcohol Use and Abuse: Social Norms, Health Beliefs, and Selected Socio-Demographic Variables as Explanatory Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Denisha A.; Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General described college alcohol abuse as the most significant public health concern on university campuses (DHHS, 2007). Social norms have been identified as a strong predictor of college drinking and yet programs based on norms have had limited effectiveness in changing drinking behavior. Other theoretical explanations, such as…

  4. Understanding maternal dietary choices during pregnancy: The role of social norms and mindful eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, A D; Charters, M; Prichard, I; Fletcher, C; Wilson, C

    2017-05-01

    Serious health complications associated with excessive weight have been documented for pregnant women and their babies during pregnancy, birth and beyond. Whilst research has focused on identifying particular foods that can be either detrimental or essential for the developing baby, pregnant women's food choices are likely determined by broader considerations. This study examined social influences as represented in reports of descriptive and injunctive social norms related to healthy eating during pregnancy, and individual differences in mindfulness while eating, as important potential correlates of pregnant women's self-reported diet. Pregnant women (N = 139) completed a questionnaire that measured self-reported consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods, descriptive and injunctive norms related to healthy eating during pregnancy and the Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ). Hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to assess the extent to which norms and mindful eating accounted for variance in consumption of both foods. No significant associations were observed between perceived social norms related to diet during pregnancy and self-reported dietary behaviour. Mindful eating was found to play a role in pregnant women's eating behaviour, with the awareness subscale of the MEQ significantly associated with healthy eating and the emotional subscale associated with unhealthy eating. Age was also associated with consumption of unhealthy foods; younger pregnant women reported consuming more unhealthy snacks and fast food meals. The associations between mindful eating and dietary behaviour suggests that improving mindfulness related to food consumption before and during pregnancy may provide a strategy to address excessive gestational weight gain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A New Norm: Using Social Science to Create Disruptive Innovations for Broadening Participation in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessi L.

    2016-03-01

    Norms often operate outside conscious awareness and limit broad participation in physics and STEM fields more generally. This presentation identifies several of these norms and provides empirically tested disruptions at three academic points: faculty, graduate, and undergraduate. First, is a focus on broadening the participation of women science faculty through an intervention aimed at supporting faculty search committees. Using a randomized control trail design, results show searches in the intervention were 6.3 times more likely to make an offer to a woman candidate, and these women were 5.8 times more likely to accept the offer from an intervention search. A diverse faculty can help disrupt the norms of their field's understanding about brilliance and effort, which can appeal to -or repel- potential graduate students. Using a randomized control trial design, recruitment materials for a science graduate program were manipulated to emphasize effort versus innate ability as the norm. Results show emphasizing effort as normal to achieve success in the male-dominated graduate program elevated women's motivation to purse and persist in graduate studies. Of course, before a student will consider graduate school, they must see themselves as a scientist. Data from a survey at three universities showed undergraduate women in physics lab classes were less likely to identify as a scientist when they were concerned about being stereotyped and could not see how physics was useful or helpful to society. Identifying and disrupting social norms can help create an inclusive learning and working context with far-reaching benefits. National Science Foundation Award HRD-1208831 and HRD-1036767.

  6. Changing norms, strategies, and systems to support behavioral health and social justice: A call to action and introduction to the special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeigh, Jill D; Kilmer, Ryan P

    2017-01-01

    This editorial introduces this special section of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry . The Global Alliance for Behavioral Health and Social Justice (formerly the American Orthopsychiatric Association) has developed the theme for its track at the 2016 Annual Research and Policy Conference on Child, Adolescent, and Young Adult Behavioral Health. The Global Alliance, the parent organization of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry , has long sought to address prevailing social conditions by treating them as problems to be solved through multilevel, contextually grounded social interventions. Indeed, throughout the organization's history, it has advocated for focusing on the effects of social determinants of health (e.g., racism, violence, poverty, oppression, war) on behavioral health and for doing so across contexts, such as the family, community, and broader social environment. In keeping with the organization's history and the current social context, the theme for the Global Alliance's track was "Changing norms, strategies, and systems to support behavioral health and social justice." This special section includes articles that build on four of the presentations and two award addresses delivered as part of the Global Alliance's track. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Social norms, trust and control of power theft in Uganda: Does bulk metering work for MSEs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Never, Babette

    2015-01-01

    Power theft is still rampant in many developing countries. Governments and utility providers tend to favor technical solutions, neglecting the socio-economic dimension. This article analyzes the interaction between the socio-economic factors trust, informal social norms, awareness and electricity pricing effect and technical control measures in Uganda. After reforming its power sector, Uganda introduced two technical innovations: bulk metering for micro and small enterprises (MSE) and prepaid metering for households. The bulk metering system imposes a strong form of social control among MSEs. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 29 MSEs and 16 experts in Uganda, this article shows how well bulk metering works in practice. It finds that trust is key in the relations between electricity user and utility provider, between citizens and government overseeing the energy sector as well as within bulk metering groups of MSEs. The electricity price impacts MSEs' ability to pay and to some extent also their willingness to pay. Finally, power theft used to be accepted as an informal social norm. Change is happening, but is currently undermined by corruption and patronage networks in the energy sector and the political system, impacting people's attitude to compliance – regardless of the privatization of the electricity sector. -- Highlights: •Socio-economic factors impact the control of power theft. •Bulk metering works well for those MSE groups with high trust and information. •Sub-meters need to be available and energy recordings possible. •Prepaid metering more suitable for areas with a lot of social tension. •Long-term norm change and social acceptance depends on perceptions of political economy

  8. A Piece Of Cake – How Social Norms Govern Organization In The Community Of Dutch Cake Bakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, C.; Groenewegen, P.; Huysman, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research shows that professionals exchange knowledge via online communities. However, the question of how communities are governed in the absence of formal regulations and hierarchies remains lingering. We propose that social norms replace traditional organizational control mechanisms. We

  9. A Special Role for Lawyers in a Social Norm Change Movement: From Tobacco Control to Childhood Obesity Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Graff, Samantha; Ackerman, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) has committed $500 million to reverse the childhood obesity epidemic by 2015. To accomplish this ambitious goal, RWJF and its partners have developed a movement to tackle childhood obesity as a societal problem, calling for population-based solutions. The movement is borrowing from the "social norm change" approach that has yielded tremendous public health gains in tobacco control. The goal of a social norm change movement is to influence behavior ind...

  10. Healthcare services consumer behavior in the light of social norms influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Adrian GÂRDAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare services consumers’ behavior represents an multidimensional concept, that implies the cumulative effects of different factors. The process of consumption is very different and complex in the case of healthcare services due to the nature of the needs and consumption motivations on one hand and because of the complexity of the services itself on the other hand. Amongst the factors that are influencing the consumer’s behaviour, the social ones represent a particular type. In the case of healthcare services this is because the social interactions of the patients can contribute to their own perception regarding the post consumption satisfaction, or can influence the buying decision in the first place. The influence of social factors can be analysed on multiple layers – from the effect of the affiliation and adhesion groups to the effect of social norms and regulations.

  11. Intimate partner violence norms cluster within households: an observational social network study in rural Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Holly B; Hughes, D Alex; Stafford, Derek; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H; Silverman, Jay G

    2016-03-08

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a complex global problem, not only because it is a human rights issue, but also because it is associated with chronic mental and physical illnesses as well as acute health outcomes related to injuries for women and their children. Attitudes, beliefs, and norms regarding IPV are significantly associated with the likelihood of both IPV experience and perpetration. We investigated whether IPV acceptance is correlated across socially connected individuals, whether these correlations differ across types of relationships, and whether social position is associated with the likelihood of accepting IPV. We used sociocentric network data from 831 individuals in rural Honduras to assess the association of IPV acceptance between socially connected individuals across 15 different types of relationships, both within and between households. We also investigated the association between network position and IPV acceptance. We found that having a social contact that accepts IPV is strongly associated with IPV acceptance among individuals. For women the clustering of IPV acceptance was not significant in between-household relationships, but was concentrated within households. For men, however, while IPV acceptance was strongly clustered within households, men's acceptance of IPV was also correlated with people with whom they regularly converse, their mothers and their siblings, regardless of household. We also found that IPV was more likely to be accepted by less socially-central individuals, and that the correlation between a social contact's IPV acceptance was stronger on the periphery, suggesting that, as a norm, it is held on the periphery of the community. Our results show that differential targeting of individuals and relationships in order to reduce the acceptability and, subsequently, the prevalence of IPV may be most effective. Because IPV norms seem to be strongly held within households, the household is probably the most logical unit to

  12. To Think or Not to Think:The Effect of Cognitive Deliberation on the Influence of Injunctive Versus Descriptive Social Norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melnyk, V.; Herpen, van E.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Trijp, van H.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Consumers can process information containing social norms at different cognitive deliberation levels. This paper investigates the effect of cognitive deliberation for both descriptive and injunctive norms. The experimental study examines the consequences for attitudes and behavioral intentions of

  13. Social norms and women's risk of intimate partner violence in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cari Jo; Ferguson, Gemma; Shrestha, Binita; Shrestha, Prabin Nanicha; Oakes, J Michael; Gupta, Jhumka; McGhee, Susi; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Yount, Kathryn M

    2018-04-01

    Social norms increasingly are the focus of intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention strategies but are among the least examined contextual factors in quantitative violence research. This study assesses the within-community, between-community, and contextual effect of a new measure of social norms (PVNS: Partner Violence Norms Scale) on women's risk of IPV. Data come from baseline surveys collected from 1435 female, married, reproductive-age participants, residing in 72 wards in three districts (Chitwan, Kapilvastu, Nawalparasi) in Nepal who were enrolled in a cluster randomized trial testing the impact of a social behavioral change communication intervention designed to prevent IPV. Results of unconditional multilevel logistic regression models indicated that there was cluster-level variability in the 12-month prevalence of physical (ICC = 0.07) and sexual (ICC = 0.05) IPV. Mean PVNS scores also varied across wards. When modeled simultaneously, PVNS scores aggregated to the ward-level and at the individual-level were associated with higher odds of physical (OR ind  = 1.12, CI = 1.04, 1.20; OR ward  = 1.40, CI = 1.15, 1.72) and sexual (OR ind  = 1.15, CI = 1.08, 1.24; OR ward  = 1.47, CI = 1.24, 1.74) IPV. The contextual effect was significant in the physical (0.23, se = 0.11, t = 2.12) and sexual (0.24, se = 0.09, t = 2.64) IPV models, suggesting that the ward-level association was larger than that at the individual-level. Adjustment for covariates slightly attenuated the ward-level association and eliminated the contextual association, suggesting that individual perceptions and the collective community phenomena were equally strong predictors of women's risk of IPV and should be taken into consideration when planning interventions. PVNS is a promising measure of social norms underpinning women's risk of IPV and warrants further psychometric testing. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  14. Alcohol-related incident guardianship and undergraduate college parties: enhancing the social norms marketing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Troy A

    2006-01-01

    This randomized experiment examines the effects of contextual information on undergraduate college student's levels of alcohol-related incident guardianship at college parties. The research is conceptualized using routine activities theory and the theory of planned behavior. The experiment examines attitudinal variations about heavy drinking differentiated by sex, athletic status, and location of the drinking event. The sex and athletic status variables produce statistically effects on the dependent variables, while location of the drinking event is not significant. The article concludes by discussing the importance of context as it pertains to the social norms marketing strategy utilized in much college alcohol programming, and suggests a more directed marketing approach.

  15. Masculine norms about emotionality and social constraints in young and older adult men with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabos, Katie; Hoyt, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    Beliefs that men should restrict their display of emotions, or restrictive emotionality, might contribute to adjustment to cancer and this might be sensitive to social receptivity to disclosure. The present research examined relationships of restrictive emotionality, social constraints, and psychological distress in young adults with testicular cancer (N = 171; Study 1) and older men with prostate cancer (N = 66; Study 2). Study 1: positive associations were observed for social constraints and restrictive emotionality with depressive symptoms. Social constraints moderated the relationship, such that high restrictive emotionality was associated with higher depressive symptoms in those with high constraints. Study 2: only social constraints (and not restrictive emotionality) was positively associated with depressive symptoms and cancer-related intrusive thoughts. The social constraints × restrictive emotionality interaction approached significance with depressive symptoms, such with high social constraints low restrictive emotionality was associated with higher depressive symptoms compared to those with less constraints. No significant associations were found for intrusive thoughts in either study. Findings demonstrate unique relationships with psychological distress across the lifespan of men with cancer given perception of constraints and adherence to masculine norms about emotionality.

  16. Perceived social norms, expectations, and attitudes toward corporal punishment among an urban community sample of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet; Newman, Denise L; DeJong, William

    2011-04-01

    Despite the fact that corporal punishment (CP) is a significant risk factor for increased aggression in children, child physical abuse victimization, and other poor outcomes, approval of CP remains high in the United States. Having a positive attitude toward CP use is a strong and malleable predictor of CP use and, therefore, is an important potential target for reducing use of CP. The Theory of Planned Behavior suggests that parents' perceived injunctive and descriptive social norms and expectations regarding CP use might be linked with CP attitudes and behavior. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents from an urban community sample (n = 500) was conducted. Perceived social norms were the strongest predictors of having positive attitudes toward CP, as follows: (1) perceived approval of CP by professionals (β = 0.30), (2) perceived descriptive norms of CP use (β = 0.22), and (3) perceived approval of CP by family and friends (β = 0.19); also, both positive (β = 0.13) and negative (β = -0.13) expected outcomes for CP use were strong predictors of these attitudes. Targeted efforts are needed to both assess and shift the attitudes and practices of professionals who influence parents regarding CP use; universal efforts, such as public education campaigns, are needed to educate parents and the general public about the high risk/benefit ratio for using CP and the effectiveness of non-physical forms of child discipline.

  17. Examining how presumed media influence affects social norms and adolescents' attitudes and drinking behavior intentions in rural Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shirley S; Poorisat, Thanomwong; Neo, Rachel L; Detenber, Benjamin H

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the influence of presumed media influence model as the theoretical framework to examine how perceived social norms (i.e., descriptive, subjective, and injunctive norms) will mediate the influence of pro- and antidrinking media messages on adolescents' intention to consume alcohol in rural Thailand. Data collected from 1,028 high school students indicate that different mechanisms underlie drinking intentions between nondrinkers and those who have consumed alcohol or currently drink. Among nondrinkers, perceived peer attention to prodrinking messages indirectly influenced adolescents' prodrinking attitudes and intentions to consume alcohol through all three types of perceived social norms. Among drinkers, perceived peer attention to pro- and antidrinking messages indirectly influenced adolescents' prodrinking attitudes and intentions to drink alcohol through perceived subjective norm. The findings provide support for the extended influence of presumed media influence model and have practical implications for how antidrinking campaigns targeted at teenagers in Thailand might be designed.

  18. Social Norms and the Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables across New York City Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Donglan; Pagán, José A

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of developing many chronic health conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While five or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day are recommended, only 50 % of New York City (NYC) residents consume two or more servings per day. In addition, there is wide variation in dietary behaviors across different neighborhoods in NYC. Using a validated agent-based model and data from 34 NYC neighborhoods, we simulate how a mass media and nutrition education campaign strengthening positive social norms about food consumption may potentially increase the proportion of the population who consume two or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day in NYC. We found that the proposed intervention results in substantial increases in daily fruit and vegetable consumption, but the campaign may be less effective in neighborhoods with relatively low education levels or a relatively high proportion of male residents. A well-designed, validated agent-based model has the potential to provide insights on the impact of an intervention targeting social norms before it is implemented and shed light on the important neighborhood factors that may affect the efficacy of the intervention.

  19. Transitional justice as social control: political transitions, human rights norms and the reclassification of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudai, Ron

    2017-09-12

    This article offers an interpretation of transitional justice policies - the efforts of post-conflict and post-dictatorship societies to address the legacy of past abuses - as a form of social control. While transitional justice is commonly conceptualized as responding to a core problem of impunity, this article argues that such formulation is too narrow and leads to lack of coherence in the analysis of the diverse array of transitional mechanisms, which include among others trials, truth commissions, reparations for victims and apologies. Building on the work of Stanley Cohen, the article contends that the core transitional problem is the denial of human rights violations, and consequently that the common purpose of all transitional justice mechanisms is to reclassify the past: redefining as deviant some acts and individuals which prior to the transition were considered 'normal'. The article identifies and analyses three themes in the application of a social control framework to transitional justice: (1) truth, memory and retroactive social control, pertains to the way truth-seeking transitional justice mechanisms reclassify past events by engaging in social control of and through memory; (2) censure, celebration and transitional social control refers to the reclassification of categories of individuals through expressions of both social disapproval and praise; and (3) civil society and social control from below concerns the role of social movements, organizations and groups as informal agents of social control during transitions. The concluding section recaps and briefly explores the concept of 'good moral panic' in the context of political transitions. While the concept of social control tends to have negative connotations for critical sociologists, this work suggests that efforts to categorize, punish and disapprove certain behaviours as deviant may not only be viewed as supporting a conservative status-quo, but also as promoting fledging human rights norms.

  20. Young People's Joint Leisure Activities in Traditional Karelian Culture: Norms and Social Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Mironova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers common youth leisure activities in traditional Karelian culture, from the point of view both of the culturally prescribed norms and the actual behaviour. Special attention is paid to official and social adolescent development frameworks and to reflection of these age-related stages in folk vocabulary. The paper uses a large number of recently published and unpublished ethnographic and folkloristic sources. The authors come to the conclusion that in Karelian culture there is a specific age-group framework for adolescence, as well as gender-related differences between male and female behavioural patterns. The paper shows that girls had to undertake more varied tasks than boys as, on the one hand, they were to play socially prescribed roles and follow moral obligations, remaining modest and, on the other hand, had to be active in order to get married and give birth to children.

  1. Individual and Social Network Sexual Behavior Norms of Homeless Youth at High Risk for HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A; Melander, Lisa A

    2012-12-01

    Although previous research shows that homeless youth engage in numerous risky sexual behaviors, little is known about whether or not specific rules govern this conduct within their social networks and how group norms influence subsequent sexual actions. The current study utilizes 19 in-depth interviews with homeless youth to investigate different elements of their sexual behavior. Findings reveal that their decision to have sex generally depends on chemistry and physical appearance whereas a potential partner's risky sexual history and heavy substance use discourages youth from engaging in sex. Both males and females discuss condom usage as it relates to unknown sexual history, availability, pregnancy, and the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sixteen homeless youth indicate that they do not discuss safe sex practices with their partners or social network members.

  2. Measures of condom and safer sex social norms and stigma towards HIV/AIDS among Beijing MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yifei; Lu, Hongyan; Raymond, H Fisher; Sun, Yanming; Sun, Jiangping; Jia, Yujiang; He, Xiong; Fan, Song; Xiao, Yan; McFarland, Willi; Ruan, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    Social norms around condom use and safe sex as well as HIV/AIDS stigma are used to identify persons at higher risk for HIV. These measures have been developed and tested in a variety of settings and populations. While efforts have been undertaken to develop context specific measures of these domains among Chinese MSM, the feasibility of using existing measures is unknown. A survey of MSM, based on respondent-driven sampling, was conducted in Beijing. Existing measures of condom social norms, attitudes towards safer sex and HIV/AIDS stigma were piloted. Internal consistency of all measures was high. As expected higher levels of condom social norms and positive attitudes towards safer sex were associated with condom use. HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination had a significant relationship with never having an HIV test and lack of discussion of HIV/AIDS with male partners. Correlates of low condom social norms were age, education, employment and resident status. Existing measures of condom social norms, attitudes towards safer sex and HIV/AIDS stigma appear to be appropriate for use among Chinese MSM. Using existing measures as opposed to developing new measures has the potential to expedite investigations into psychosocial correlates of HIV risk behavior.

  3. Several roads lead to international norms, but few via international socialization. A case study of the European Commission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghe, E.A.E.B.

    2005-01-01

    Can an international organization socialize those who work within it? The European Commission of the European Union is a crucial case because it is an autonomous international organization with a vocation to defend supranational norms. If this body cannot socialize its members, which international

  4. The moderating role of classroom descriptive norms in the association of student behavior with social preference and popularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boor-Klip, H.J.; Segers, P.C.J.; Hendrickx, M.M.H.G.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2017-01-01

    This study addressed the moderating role of classroom descriptive norms for overt and relational aggression, social withdrawal, prosocial behavior, and academic reputation in the association of behavior with social preference and popularity in early adolescence. Participants were 1,492 fifth-grade

  5. The Moderating Role of Classroom Descriptive Norms in the Association of Student Behavior With Social Preference and Popularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boor-klip, H. J.; Segers, E.; Hendrickx, M. M. H. G.; Cillessen, A. H. N.

    2017-01-01

    This study addressed the moderating role of classroom descriptive norms for overt and relational aggression, social withdrawal, prosocial behavior, and academic reputation in the association of behavior with social preference and popularity in early adolescence. Participants were 1,492 fifth-grade

  6. To View or Not To View: The Influence of Social Networks and Subjective Norms on Online Pornography Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ying Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of social networks and subjective norms on an individual’s online pornography consumption. The empirical survey results of 324 voluntary participants indicated that the individual’s positive outcome evaluation was associated with a higher level of online pornography exposure. Social pressure also plays a significant, but negative, role in one’s viewing decision.

  7. Implicit attitudes predict drinking onset in adolescents: Shaping by social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, B Keith; Lee, Kent M; Giletta, Matteo; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2016-08-01

    Implicit attitudes toward alcohol predict drinking among adults and adolescents. If implicit attitudes reflected associations learned through direct experience with drinking, then they would likely only predict drinking among individuals who have previously consumed alcohol. In contrast, if implicit attitudes reflected indirect experience through social messages, they might also then predict future drinking, even among individuals with no drinking experience. In this study, we tested whether implicit attitudes would predict initiation of drinking for the first time, and whether parents' and friends' norms toward alcohol would influence the development of implicit attitudes. For this study, we followed 868 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 15 years for 3 years. Implicit attitudes were measured using the affect misattribution procedure (Payne, Cheng, Govorun, & Stewart, 2005; Payne, Govorun, & Arbuckle, 2008). Explicit intentions to drink and the frequency of drinking and binge drinking were measured at each of 3 annual waves. Implicit attitudes toward alcohol predicted future drinking behavior 1 year later, and effects were similar for adolescents who had previously tried alcohol and for those who had not. To understand what factors might shape implicit attitudes among participants without drinking experience, we examined the role of parental norms and friends' norms toward drinking. Parental approval of drinking predicted the development of more positive implicit attitudes, which in turn predicted later drinking. Implicit attitudes toward alcohol can develop in advance of direct experience drinking alcohol. Results have implications for the implicit processes underpinning adolescent drinking, and the processes by which implicit associations are learned. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions: Social norms on grocery carts increase produce spending without increasing shopper budgets☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin R.; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R.; Kelly, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the efficacy of an easy-to-implement shopper marketing nutrition intervention in a pilot and two additional studies to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability or increasing shopper budgets. Methods We created grocery cart placards that detailed the number of produce items purchased (i.e., descriptive norm) at particular stores (i.e., provincial norm). The effect of these placards on produce spending was assessed across 971,706 individual person grocery store transactions aggregated by day. The pilot study designated a baseline period (in both control and intervention store) followed by installation of grocery cart placards (in the intervention store) for two weeks. The pilot study was conducted in Texas in 2012. In two additional stores, we designated baseline periods followed by 28 days of the same grocery cart placard intervention as in the pilot. Additional interventions were conducted in New Mexico in 2013. Results The pilot study resulted in a significant difference between average produce spending per day per person across treatment periods (i.e., intervention versus same time period in control) (16%) and the difference between average produce spending per day per person across stores in the control periods (4%); Furthermore, the same intervention in two additional stores resulted in significant produce spending increases of 12.4% and 7.5% per day per person respectively. In all stores, total spending did not change. Conclusions Descriptive and provincial social norm messages (i.e., on grocery cart placards) may be an overlooked tool to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability and increasing shopper budgets. PMID:26844084

  9. Networks, Norms, and Trust: The Social Psychology of Social Capital. 2004 Cooley Mead Award Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Karen Schweers

    2005-01-01

    Networks of trust relations often emerge under conditions of uncertainty or risk to facilitate social exchange. Under some conditions, such networks represent a form of social capital that can be mobilized in support of general social cooperation in the society. Under other conditions, however, such networks may have negative effects on the degree…

  10. On the Effectiveness of Social Norms Intervention in College Drinking: The Roles of Identity Verification and Peer Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Ben G; Martinez, Jason; Polidan, Elizabeth; Angelis, Ekaterini

    2016-01-01

    The application of social norms theory in the study of college drinking centers on the ideas that incorrect perceptions of drinking norms encourage problematic drinking behavior and that correcting misperceptions can mitigate problems. The design and execution of social norms interventions can be improved with a deeper understanding of causal mechanisms connecting misperception to drinking behavior. We develop an agent-based computational simulation that uses identity control theory and peer influence (PI) to model interactions that affect drinking. Using data from the College Alcohol Survey and Social Norms Marketing Research Project, we inform model parameters for agent drinking identities and perceptions. We simulate social norms campaigns that reach progressively larger fractions of the student population, and we consider the strength of the campaign in terms of changing student perception and resulting behavior. We observe a general reduction in heavy episodic drinking (HED) as students are affected by the intervention. As campaigns reached larger fractions of students, the reduction rate diminishes, in some cases actually making a slight reverse. The way in which students "take the message to heart" can have a significant impact as well: The psychological factors involved in identity control and PI have both positive and negative effects on HED rates. With whom agents associate at drinking events also impacts drinking behavior and intervention effectiveness. Simulations suggest that reducing misperception can reduce HED. When agents adhere strongly to identity verification and when misperceptions affect identity appraisals, social norms campaigns can bring about large reductions. PI, self-monitoring, and socializing with like-drinking peers appear to moderate the effect. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. Perceptions of social norms and exposure to pro-marijuana messages are associated with adolescent marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditis, Maria L; Delucchi, Kevin; Chang, Audrey; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2016-12-01

    Despite consistent declines in rates of cigarette use among adolescents in the last five years, rates of marijuana use have remained constant, with marijuana being the most widely used illegal drug among adolescents. More work is needed to understand how social norms, perceived risks and benefits, and social media messaging impact use of marijuana. This study compared perceptions and social norms related to marijuana, blunts and cigarettes. Additionally, we assessed how perceptions related to social norms, risks and benefits, and exposure to pro- versus anti-marijuana messaging is related to use. Participants were 786 adolescents from Southern and Northern California (36.7% male, 63.21% females; mean age=16.1years; SD=1.6). Participants came from diverse ethnic backgrounds, with 207 (26.61%) White, 171 (21.98%) Asian/Pacific Islander, 232 (29.82%) Hispanic, and 168 (21.59%) other. Results indicated that marijuana and blunts were consistently perceived as more socially acceptable and less risky than cigarettes (padolescents' perceptions of risks, benefits, social norms, and peer influences into account as they implement strategies to reduce youth use of marijuana and blunts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Examining Social and Sociomathematical Norms in Different Classroom Microcultures: Mathematics Teacher Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, N. Dilsad; Dede, Yüksel

    2017-01-01

    Each classroom has its own microculture with its own norms that belong to this microculture. It is these norms that characterize every kind of activity and discussion in the classroom. What makes a mathematics classroom different from any other classroom is the nature of norms, rather than their existence or absence. This study aims to identify…

  13. The game you are in: Misleading through social norms and what’s wrong with it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzog Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the phenomenon of misleading about “the game you are in.” Individuals who mislead others in this way draw on the fact that we rely on social norms for regulating the levels of alertness, openness, and trust we use in different epistemic situations. By pretending to be in a certain game with a certain epistemic situation, they can entice others to reveal information or to exhibit low levels of alertness, thereby acting against their own interests. I delineate this phenomenon from direct lies and acts of misleading by implication, and discuss some variations of it. I then ask why and under what conditions it is morally wrong to mislead others about the game they are in. I distinguish three normative angles for understanding the phenomenon: deontological constraints, free-riding on a shared cultural infrastructure, and implicit discrimination against outsiders and atypical candidates. I conclude by briefly discussing some practical implications.

  14. Acceptability of alcohol supply to children - associations with adults' own age of initiation and social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Conor; Ward, Bernadette; Kippen, Rebecca; Buykx, Penny; Chapman, Kathy

    2017-08-01

    Issue addressed The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of adults' perceived acceptability of introducing alcohol to children less than 18 years of age. Methods An online survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, and social norms and adults' own age of initiation. Results Alcohol consumption, age of initiation and perception of the acceptability of drunkenness were all correlated with the acceptability of introducing children to alcohol. The strongest predictor was adults' own age of initiation. Conclusions Adults who began drinking before the age of 18, and those who drink more heavily, are more likely to perceive the provision of alcohol to children as acceptable. So what? Policy and research should continue to focus on and monitor efforts to delay adolescent alcohol initiation and reduce consumption levels among adults. A shift in awareness and perceptions about alcohol use among adults has the potential to influence initiation and heavy drinking among adolescents.

  15. Impact of social norms and social support on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour of adolescents: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, C E; Grobler, L; Micklesfield, L K; Norris, S A

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood is rapidly increasing, and it is essential that risk factors for NCDs be addressed in adolescence, both for the health of individuals during adolescence and for their health in later life. These risk factors include diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. No literature has been published that comprehensively summarizes the impact of social norms and social support on these behaviours among adolescents. Therefore, a scoping review was conducted to determine the extent of recent (since 2000) literature available on this topic. A comprehensive search strategy was used to search PubMed and EMBASE for eligible reviews. Review papers (narrative reviews, systematic and non-systematic reviews) published in English in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to February 2013 were included in the overview. Two of the authors screened the titles and abstracts of the search results independently. Thirty reviews were included in the scoping review. This scoping review has shown sufficient evidence for parental influences, and especially the positive impact of an authoritative parenting style, on healthy behaviours of adolescents, although the evidence is somewhat more compelling for diet than for physical activity and sedentary behaviour. More research is needed to investigate parental and family influences on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. And the effect of peer influences on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour of adolescents requires further investigation. The evidence presented affirms the consideration of social norms and social support in the development of interventions to address these behaviours in adolescents. The evidence regarding parenting style provides some concrete guidance for such interventions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The GOOD life: Study protocol for a social norms intervention to reduce alcohol and other drug use among Danish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Christiane; Vallentin-Holbech, Lotte; Rasmussen, Birthe Marie

    2016-08-03

    It is currently unknown if school-based social norms interventions are effective in preventing harmful alcohol consumption and other drug use among adolescents in Denmark. This paper describes the social norms-based programme The GOOD life and the design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial to test its effectiveness. The intervention The GOOD life is composed of three social norms components representing three different communication channels, namely face-to-face communication (normative feedback session), print communication (posters) and interactive media (web application). The intervention period of 8 weeks is preceded and followed by data collection, with the follow-up taking place 3 months after baseline. Public schools in the Region of Southern Denmark with grades 8 and 9 are invited to participate in the study and participating schools are randomly allocated to either intervention or control schools. The aim is to recruit a total of 39 schools and a sample of 1.400 pupils for the trial. An online questionnaire is conducted to examine the use of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana as well as the perceived frequency of use among peers of their own grade, which is measured before and after the intervention. Baseline data is used to develop social norms messages which are included in the three intervention components. Primary outcomes are binge drinking (more than 5 units at one occasion) and perceived frequency of binge drinking among peers, while smoking, marijuana use and alcohol-related harm will be assessed as secondary outcomes. The GOOD life study will provide necessary insights on descriptive and injunctive norms regarding alcohol and other drug use among Danish adolescents. In addition, it will provide new knowledge and insight on the feasibility, implementation context and effectiveness of a newly developed social norms intervention in the Danish school context. Date of registration: 17 February 2016 (retrospectively registered) at Current Controlled

  17. The GOOD life: Study protocol for a social norms intervention to reduce alcohol and other drug use among Danish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Stock

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is currently unknown if school-based social norms interventions are effective in preventing harmful alcohol consumption and other drug use among adolescents in Denmark. This paper describes the social norms-based programme The GOOD life and the design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial to test its effectiveness. Methods/Design The intervention The GOOD life is composed of three social norms components representing three different communication channels, namely face-to-face communication (normative feedback session, print communication (posters and interactive media (web application. The intervention period of 8 weeks is preceded and followed by data collection, with the follow-up taking place 3 months after baseline. Public schools in the Region of Southern Denmark with grades 8 and 9 are invited to participate in the study and participating schools are randomly allocated to either intervention or control schools. The aim is to recruit a total of 39 schools and a sample of 1.400 pupils for the trial. An online questionnaire is conducted to examine the use of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana as well as the perceived frequency of use among peers of their own grade, which is measured before and after the intervention. Baseline data is used to develop social norms messages which are included in the three intervention components. Primary outcomes are binge drinking (more than 5 units at one occasion and perceived frequency of binge drinking among peers, while smoking, marijuana use and alcohol-related harm will be assessed as secondary outcomes. Discussion The GOOD life study will provide necessary insights on descriptive and injunctive norms regarding alcohol and other drug use among Danish adolescents. In addition, it will provide new knowledge and insight on the feasibility, implementation context and effectiveness of a newly developed social norms intervention in the Danish school context. Trial registration Date of

  18. A multisite randomized trial of social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college student drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; Murphy, Melissa J; Doerr, Emily E; Simonsen, Neal R; Mason, Karen E; Scribner, Richard A

    2006-11-01

    An 18-site randomized trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of social norms marketing (SNM) campaigns in reducing college student drinking. The SNM campaigns are intended to correct misperceptions of subjective drinking norms and thereby drive down alcohol consumption. Institutions of higher education were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. At the treatment group institutions, SNM campaigns delivered school-specific, data-driven messages through a mix of campus media venues. Cross-sectional student surveys were conducted by mail at baseline (n = 2,771) and at posttest 3 years later (n = 2,939). Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to examine multiple drinking outcomes, taking intraclass correlation into account. Controlling for other predictors, having an SNM campaign was significantly associated with lower perceptions of student drinking levels and lower alcohol consumption, as measured by a composite drinking scale, recent maximum consumption, blood alcohol concentration for recent maximum consumption, drinks consumed when partying, and drinks consumed per week. A moderate mediating effect of normative perceptions on student drinking was demonstrated by an attenuation of the Experimental Group x Time interaction, ranging from 16.4% to 39.5% across measures. Additional models that took into account the intensity of SNM campaign activity at the treatment institutions suggested that there was a dose-response relationship. This study is the most rigorous evaluation of SNM campaigns conducted to date. Analysis revealed that students attending institutions that implemented an SNM campaign had a lower relative risk of alcohol consumption than students attending control group institutions.

  19. Behavioral Norms, Moral Judgments, and Social Approval of Participant Roles in School Bullying in a Singapore Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Tan, Melinda Meizhen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines behavioral norms, moral judgments, and social approval of participant roles in classroom physical, verbal, and relational bullying, including a relatively new reporter role (where nothing is done during the bullying but there is subsequent reporting to a teacher). A sample of 1,131 Secondary 1 (mean age = 12 years 7 months) and…

  20. Perceptions of Risk and Sex-Specific Social Norms in Explaining Alcohol Consumption among College Students: Implications for Campus Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to expand the assessment of two explanatory models of drinking behavior--perceptions of risk and social norms--and determine their relationship to dimensions of alcohol involvement in a multivariate evaluation. The Alcohol and Drug Survey was administered to a sample (N = 235) of college students from a university in the…

  1. Evaluating the Effect of a Campus-Wide Social Norms Marketing Intervention on Alcohol-Use Perceptions, Consumption, and Blackouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jinni; Hancock, Linda; Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda; Alshagra, Mariam; Ericson, Rhianna; Niazi, Zackaria; Dick, Danielle M.; Adkins, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of a campus-wide social norms marketing intervention on alcohol-use perceptions, consumption, and blackouts at a large, urban, public university. Participants: 4,172 college students (1,208 freshmen, 1,159 sophomores, 953 juniors, and 852 seniors) who completed surveys in Spring 2015 for the Spit for Science…

  2. The role of social message using norm abstraction level and ecological value orientation to achieve sustainable consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekasari, A.

    2018-01-01

    Pro-environmental behavior is one of human activities to achieve sustainability. In order to encourage people to do so, it needs contribution from marketing discipline using social message. The research aims to investigate the effect of social message framed by norm abstraction level and ecological value orientation on attitude and intention to act pro-environmental behavior in the context of littering. This study implemented a 3 (message framing: biospheric/altruistic/egoistic) × 2 (norm abstraction level : abstract/concrete) between subject experimental design to collect the data. An independent sample t test was used to analyze the data. The results indicate that a social message using concrete norm combined with the three ecological value orientation gains more positive response than the use of abstract norm with the same ecological value orientations. Findings of the research are expected to help government or other institutions to create an appropriate social message in anti littering campaign and motivates people to change their behavior in practicing sustainable consumption.

  3. The Intention to Quit Smoking: The Impact of Susceptibility, Self-Efficacy, Social Norms and Emotional Intelligence Embedded Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Mannan, Mahafuz; Rahman, Mohammad Mahboob

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: From the perspective of developing countries, studies regarding the behavioral effects of quitting tobacco consumption on emerging psychological determinants are limited. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of emotional intelligence (EI), social norms, susceptibility and self-efficacy on the behavioral effects of…

  4. Individual Empowerment Is Not Enough: Using a Social Norms Lens to Understand the Limited Educational Uptake of Vietnam's Hmong Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nicola; Presler-Marshall, Elizabeth; Van Anh, Tran Thi

    2016-01-01

    While on a national level Vietnam has achieved--and surpassed--gender parity in education, restrictive social norms that value Hmong girls primarily for their future roles as wives, daughters-in-law and mothers have largely precluded their advancement to high school. Drawing on qualitative data collected in the country's Hmong homeland in Ha Giang…

  5. Performance-based vs socially supportive culture : A cross-national study of descriptive norms and entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ute, S.; Uhlaner, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a cross-national study testing a framework relating cultural descriptive norms to entrepreneurship in a sample of 40 nations. Based on data from the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness project, we identify two higher-order dimensions of culture – socially

  6. The potential of peer social norms to shape food intake in adolescents and young adults : a systematic review of effects and moderators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F Marijn; de Vet, Emely; de Ridder, Denise T D; de Wit, John B F

    This systematic review aims to assess the role that peer social norms play in shaping young people's food intake, focusing on the important questions of for whom and when peer social norms are related to how much young people eat. Thirty-three eligible studies were reviewed (17 correlational, 16

  7. The impact of information about the prevalence of aids-preventive behavior among men and women : The mediating role of social norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Eynden, R.J.J.M.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Bakker, A.B.; Siero, F.W.

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of information about the high prevalence of safe sex on condom use intention, and to investigate the possible mediating role of the perceived social norm of friends, and the perceived social norm of future sexual partners. Participants were

  8. “Learning it the Hard Way”: Social safeguards norms in Chinese-led dam projects in Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, Julian; Matthews, Nathanial; Charles, Katrina J.; Walton, Matthew J.

    Chinese dam developers claim to construct at least every second dam worldwide. However, scholarly literature comprehensively investigating the social safeguard norms in these projects is rare. This paper analyses social safeguard norms in Chinese-led dam projects in Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia,

  9. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Wu, Zunyou; Wen, Yi

    2009-12-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals,18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor–nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary,anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs.

  10. Alcohol Prevention on College Campuses: The Moderating Effect of the Alcohol Environment on the Effectiveness of Social Norms Marketing Campaigns*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Richard A.; Theall, Katherine P.; Mason, Karen; Simonsen, Neal; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; DeJong, William

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Evaluations of social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college student drinking have produced conflicting results. This study examines whether the effectiveness of such campaigns may be moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density in the surrounding community. Method: Multilevel analyses were conducted of student survey responses (N = 19,838) from 32 U.S. colleges that took part in one of two 4-year randomized, controlled trials completed for the Social Norms Marketing Research Project (SNMRP). In the models, students by year were nested within treatment (n = 16) and control group (n = 16) campuses, which were characterized by the on-premise outlet density in their surrounding community. The moderating effect of outlet density was introduced into the models as an interaction between the treatment effect (i.e., the effect of the social norms marketing campaigns over time) and outlet density. The models were also stratified by campus alcohol outlet density (high vs. low) to examine the effect of the intervention in each type of setting. Results: There was a significant interaction between the treatment effect and on-premise alcohol outlet density for one of the drinking outcomes targeted by the SNMRP intervention, the number of drinks when partying, and marginal evidence of interaction effects for two other outcomes, maximum recent consumption and a composite drinking scale. In stratified analyses, an intervention effect was observed for three of the four outcomes among students from campuses with lower on-premise alcohol outlet density, whereas no intervention effect was observed among students from campuses with higher on-premise alcohol outlet density. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the campus alcohol environment moderates the effect of social norms marketing interventions. Social norms marketing intervention may be less effective on campuses with higher densities of on-sale alcohol outlets. PMID:21388596

  11. Alcohol prevention on college campuses: the moderating effect of the alcohol environment on the effectiveness of social norms marketing campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Richard A; Theall, Katherine P; Mason, Karen; Simonsen, Neal; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; DeJong, William

    2011-03-01

    Evaluations of social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college student drinking have produced conflicting results. This study examines whether the effectiveness of such campaigns may be moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density in the surrounding community. Multilevel analyses were conducted of student survey responses (N= 19,838) from 32 U.S. colleges that took part in one of two 4-year randomized, controlled trials completed for the Social Norms Marketing Research Project (SNMRP). In the models, students by year were nested within treatment (n = 16) and control group (n = 16) campuses, which were characterized by the on-premise outlet density in their surrounding community. The moderating effect of outlet density was introduced into the models as an interaction between the treatment effect (i.e., the effect of the social norms marketing campaigns over time) and outlet density. The models were also stratified by campus alcohol outlet density (high vs. low) to examine the effect of the intervention in each type of setting. There was a significant interaction between the treatment effect and on-premise alcohol outlet density for one of the drinking outcomes targeted by the SNMRP intervention, the number of drinks when partying, and marginal evidence of interaction effects for two other outcomes, maximum recent consumption and a composite drinking scale. In stratified analyses, an intervention effect was observed for three of the four outcomes among students from campuses with lower on-premise alcohol outlet density, whereas no intervention effect was observed among students from campuses with higher on-premise alcohol outlet density. The findings suggest that the campus alcohol environment moderates the effect of social norms marketing interventions. Social norms marketing intervention may be less effective on campuses with higher densities of on-sale alcohol outlets.

  12. Social norms interventions to reduce alcohol misuse in university or college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Maria Teresa; Smith, Lesley A; Foxcroft, David

    2009-07-08

    Drinking is influenced by youth (mis)perceptions of how their peers drink. If misperceptions can be corrected, young people may drink less. To determine whether social norms feedback reduces alcohol misuse in university or college students. Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Register of Trials; Central; MEDLINE; EMBASE; PsyInfo; CINAHL (up to March 2008). RCT or cluster RCT that evaluate social normative intervention with no intervention, alcohol education leaflet or other non-normative feedback intervention 2/3 authors extracted data. Included studies were assessed against criteria indicated in the Cochrane Reviewers Handbook version 5.0.0. Twenty-two studies were included (7,275 participants).Alcohol related problems: Significant reduction with Web/computer feedback (WF) (SMD -0.31 95% Cl -0.59 to -0.02), three studies, 278 participants. No significant effect of mailed feedback (MF), individual face-to-face feedback (IFF) or group face-to-face feedback (GFF).Peak Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) : Significant reduction with WF (SMD -0.77 95% Cl -1.25 to -0.28), two studies, 198 participants. No significant effect of MF or IFF.Drinking Frequency: Significant reduction with WF (SMD -0.38 95% Cl -0.63 to -0.13), two studies, 243 participants and IFF (SMD -0.39 95% Cl -0.66 to -0.12), two studies, 217 participants. No significant effect of MF.Drinking Quantity: Significant reduction with WF (SMD -0.35 95% Cl -0.51 to -0.18), five studies, 556 participants and GFF (SMD -0.32 95% Cl -0.63 to -0.02) three studies, 173 participants. No significant effect of MF or IF.Binge drinking: Significant reduction with WF (SMD -0.47 95% Cl -0.92 to -0.03) one study, 80 participants, IFF (SMD -0.25 95% Cl -0.49 to -0.02) three studies, 278 participants and and GFF (SMD -0.38 95% Cl -0.62 to -0.14) four studies, 264 participants. No significant effect for MF.BAC: No significant effect of MF and IFFDrinking norms: Significant reduction with WF (SMD -0.75 95% Cl -0.98 to -0.52 ) three studies

  13. Combining Social Norms and Social Marketing to Address Underage Drinking: Development and Process Evaluation of a Whole-of-Community Intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C Jones

    Full Text Available Youth alcohol consumption has been steadily declining in Australia, as in other countries; fewer young people are drinking and the age of initiation is increasing. However, young people, their parents and others in their communities continue to believe that adolescent (excessive drinking is the norm. This perception, and the concurrent misperception that the majority of parents are happy to provide their underage children with alcohol, creates a perceived culture of acceptance of youth alcohol consumption. Young people believe that it is accepted, and even expected, that they will drink; and parents perceive that not providing their adolescent children with alcohol will lead to social exclusion. There is evidence that shifting social norms can have an immediate and lasting effect adolescents' (and adults' alcohol related attitudes and behaviors. This paper reports on a novel, community based social marketing intervention designed to correct misperceptions of alcohol related social norms in an Australian community. The project utilized a social marketing approach, informed by the full complement of Andreasen's social marketing benchmarking criteria, and concurrently targeted adolescents, parents of adolescents and the broader community. Using extensive formative research and multiple evaluation techniques, the study demonstrates that shifts in community social norms are possible and suggests that this approach could be used more widely to support the positive trends in youth alcohol consumption and parental supply.

  14. Combining Social Norms and Social Marketing to Address Underage Drinking: Development and Process Evaluation of a Whole-of-Community Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Kelly; Francis, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Youth alcohol consumption has been steadily declining in Australia, as in other countries; fewer young people are drinking and the age of initiation is increasing. However, young people, their parents and others in their communities continue to believe that adolescent (excessive) drinking is the norm. This perception, and the concurrent misperception that the majority of parents are happy to provide their underage children with alcohol, creates a perceived culture of acceptance of youth alcohol consumption. Young people believe that it is accepted, and even expected, that they will drink; and parents perceive that not providing their adolescent children with alcohol will lead to social exclusion. There is evidence that shifting social norms can have an immediate and lasting effect adolescents’ (and adults’) alcohol related attitudes and behaviors. This paper reports on a novel, community based social marketing intervention designed to correct misperceptions of alcohol related social norms in an Australian community. The project utilized a social marketing approach, informed by the full complement of Andreasen’s social marketing benchmarking criteria, and concurrently targeted adolescents, parents of adolescents and the broader community. Using extensive formative research and multiple evaluation techniques, the study demonstrates that shifts in community social norms are possible and suggests that this approach could be used more widely to support the positive trends in youth alcohol consumption and parental supply. PMID:28107374

  15. Combining Social Norms and Social Marketing to Address Underage Drinking: Development and Process Evaluation of a Whole-of-Community Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Andrews, Kelly; Francis, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Youth alcohol consumption has been steadily declining in Australia, as in other countries; fewer young people are drinking and the age of initiation is increasing. However, young people, their parents and others in their communities continue to believe that adolescent (excessive) drinking is the norm. This perception, and the concurrent misperception that the majority of parents are happy to provide their underage children with alcohol, creates a perceived culture of acceptance of youth alcohol consumption. Young people believe that it is accepted, and even expected, that they will drink; and parents perceive that not providing their adolescent children with alcohol will lead to social exclusion. There is evidence that shifting social norms can have an immediate and lasting effect adolescents' (and adults') alcohol related attitudes and behaviors. This paper reports on a novel, community based social marketing intervention designed to correct misperceptions of alcohol related social norms in an Australian community. The project utilized a social marketing approach, informed by the full complement of Andreasen's social marketing benchmarking criteria, and concurrently targeted adolescents, parents of adolescents and the broader community. Using extensive formative research and multiple evaluation techniques, the study demonstrates that shifts in community social norms are possible and suggests that this approach could be used more widely to support the positive trends in youth alcohol consumption and parental supply.

  16. How Do Perceived Descriptive Norms Influence Indoor Tanning Intentions? An Application of the Theory of Normative Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcioppolo, Nick; Orrego Dunleavy, Victoria; Yang, Qinghua

    2017-02-01

    Indoor tanning bed use is highly influenced by perceived norms about a tanned appearance. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB) details the many ways in which norms can impact intentions and behavior, but has never been assessed in the context of indoor tanning. Considering this, we conducted a survey among female university students (N = 274) to determine the extent to which the TNSB predicted intentions to use indoor tanning beds. Overall, the path model predicted about 46% of the variance in intentions, and the majority of significant indirect effects were witnessed through the outcome expectation variables included in the TNSB, suggesting that these may be the most salient mechanisms-as predicted by the TNSB-through which norms can impact tanning intentions. In light of these results, theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and specific recommendations are given to extend the predictive utility of the TNSB in the context of indoor tanning.

  17. Social groups and children´s intergroup prejudice: Just how influential are social group norms?

    OpenAIRE

    Nesdale, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Teniendo como referencia la Teoría Evolutiva de la Identidad Social (SIDT, Nesdale, 2007), en este trabajo se presenta una serie de estudios en los que se examina la influencia de las normas grupales sobre el prejuicio intergrupal de los miembros del grupo. Los estudios 1 al 3, realizados en niños desde Educación Infantil hasta 9 años, mostraron que una norma interna de exclusión promueve la antipatía hacia el exogrupo mientras que una norma de inclusión promueve la simpatía por el exogrupo. ...

  18. Decompensation: A Novel Approach to Accounting for Stress Arising From the Effects of Ideology and Social Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Damien W; Treharne, Gareth J

    2017-01-01

    To date, research that has drawn on Meyer's (2003) minority stress model has largely taken for granted the premises underpinning it. In this article we provide a close reading of how "stress" is conceptualized in the model and suggest that aspects of the model do not attend to the institutionalized nature of stressors experienced by people with marginalized identities, particularly lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals. As a counter to this, we highlight the importance of a focus on the effects of ideology and social norms in terms of stress, and we argue why an intersectional approach is necessary to ensure recognition of multiple axes of marginalization and privilege. The article then outlines the concept of decompensation and suggests that it may offer one way to reconsider the effects of ideology and social norms. The decompensation approach centers on the need for social change rather than solely relying on individuals to be resilient.

  19. Conducting Social Network and Social Norm Research in Low-Resource Settings: Food Insecurity, Depression, and HIV Testing in Rural Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines the role of social networks and social norms in health outcomes and behaviors among low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), with a particular focus on Uganda. Paper 1 presents a systematic review of sociocentric network studies conducted in LMICs on health-related outcomes and other development topics. I first discuss the sociocentric network study designs employed in 36 selected papers, and provide a catalog of 105 name generator questions used to measure social t...

  20. Leveraging Social Norms to Improve Leak Resolution Outcomes Across Meter Classes:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran, W.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decade, utilities, governments, businesses, and nonprofits have come to realize that more than just financial considerations and information drive behavior. Social and psychological factors also play a significant role in shaping consumers' decisions and behaviors around resource use. Stakeholders have consequently turned their interest to behavioral science, a multidisciplinary field that draws from psychology, sociology, public health, and behavioral economics to explain the complex mechanisms that shape human behavior. When used strategically, behavioral science holds the potential to drive down resource use, drive up profits, and generate measurable gains in conservation and efficiency. WaterSmart will present on how the water sector can employ behavioral science to nudge residential rate-payers to use water more efficiently and help them save money. Utilities can use behavioral science to influence people's reaction to leaks. 5% of Single Family Residential (SFR) metered water use can be attributed to leaks. This value potentially skews even higher for MultiFamily (MF) and Commercial accounts given that it can get lost in the noise of daily consumption. Existing leak detection algorithms in the market are not sophisticated enough to detect leaks for a MF or Commercial property. Leveraging data from utilities on known leak events at MF and Commercial buildings allowed WaterSmart to train a machine learning model to identify key features in the load shape and accurately detect these types of water use events. The outcome of the model is a leak amount and confidence level for each irregular usage event. The model also incorporates record feedback from users on the type of leak event, and the accuracy of the alert. When WaterSmart leverages this data model with social norms messaging, we've been able to improve water demand management for MF and Commercial properties. Experiences from leak detection and resolution in the SFR space will also be

  1. Brief report: parent-adolescent child concordance in social norms related to gender equity in marriage - findings from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ritter, Julie; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Silverman, Jay G; Balaiah, Donta

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess parent-adolescent child concordance on social norms related to gender equity in marriage in rural Maharashtra, India. Survey data on marital norms related to girl's marital age and choice, contraception, and marital violence (MV) were collected from unmarried adolescents (n = 113 girls, 116 boys) and their parents (n = 227 mothers, 203 fathers). Concordance was assessed using a Cohen's unweighted Kappa statistic, with analyses stratified by sex of parent and child. Analyses revealed fair (K = .25-.27) mother-daughter concordance on girls' right to choose when to marry, contraception use, and acceptability of MV. Father-son concordance was seen on girls' right to choose when (K = .22, slight) and who (K = .20, fair) to marry and MV acceptability (K = .53, moderate). No opposite sex parent-child concordance was revealed. Results indicate same but not opposite sex parent-child concordance on gender equity social norms related to marriage, suggesting same sex transfer of these norms. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Parent-Adolescent Child Concordance in Social Norms related to Gender Equity in Marriage- Findings from Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ritter, Julie; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Silverman, Jay; Balaiah, Donta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess parent-adolescent child concordance on social norms related to gender equity in marriage in rural Maharashtra, India. Survey data on marital norms related to girl’s marital age and choice, contraception, and marital violence (MV) were collected from unmarried adolescents (n=113 girls, 116 boys) and their parents (n=227 mothers, 203 fathers). Concordance was assessed using a Cohen’s unweighted Kappa statistic, with analyses stratified by sex of parent and child. Analyses revealed fair (K=.25-.27) mother-daughter concordance on girls’ right to choose when to marry, contraception use, and acceptability of MV. Father-son concordance was seen on girls’ right to choose when (K=.22, slight) and who (K=.20, fair) to marry and MV acceptability (K=.53, moderate). No opposite sex parent-child concordance was revealed. Results indicate same but not opposite sex parent-child concordance on gender equity social norms related to marriage, suggesting same sex transfer of these norms. PMID:25173179

  3. “Learning it the Hard Way”: Social safeguards norms in Chinese-led dam projects in Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchherr, Julian; Matthews, Nathanial; Charles, Katrina J.; Walton, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese dam developers claim to construct at least every second dam worldwide. However, scholarly literature comprehensively investigating the social safeguard norms in these projects is rare. This paper analyses social safeguard norms in Chinese-led dam projects in Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia, hotspots of Chinese-led dam construction. We find that social safeguard norms adopted have significantly changed in the past 15 years. While Chinese dam developers claimed to adopt standards of the host countries upon the launch of China's Going Out Policy in 2001, with occasional adoption of more demanding Chinese standards, they did not adopt international norms. In recent years, however, they increasingly take into account international norms. We argue that the root cause for this change is social mobilization, with the suspension of the Myitsone Dam in 2011 as a particular game changer. Enhanced social safeguard legislation in host countries and China, stricter rules of Chinese funders and cooperation of Chinese dam developers with international players have also facilitated this change. - Highlights: • Very first regional case study on social safeguard norms in Chinese-led dam projects in Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia. • Found that Chinese dam developers increasingly take into account international social safeguards norms. • Root cause is social mobilization, with the suspension of the Myitsone Dam in 2011 as a particular game changer.

  4. Reducing high calorie snack food in young adults: a role for social norms and health based messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumption of high calorie junk foods has increased recently, especially among young adults and higher intake may cause weight gain. There is a need to develop public health approaches to motivate people to reduce their intake of junk food. Objective To assess the effect of health and social norm messages on high calorie snack food intake (a type of junk food) as a function of usual intake of junk food. Design In a between-subjects design, 129 young adults (45 men and 84 women, mean age = 22.4 years, SD = 4.5) were assigned to one of three conditions: 1) a social norm condition, in which participants saw a message about the junk food eating habits of others; 2) a health condition, in which participants saw a message outlining the health benefits of reducing junk food consumption and; 3) a control condition, in which participants saw a non-food related message. After exposure to the poster messages, participants consumed a snack and the choice and amount of snack food consumed was examined covertly. We also examined whether usual intake of junk food moderated the effect of message type on high calorie snack food intake. Results The amount of high calorie snack food consumed was significantly lower in both the health and the social norm message condition compared with the control message condition (36% and 28%, both p food or energy intake between the health and social norm message conditions. There was no evidence that the effect of the messages depended upon usual consumption of junk food. Conclusions Messages about the health effects of junk food and social normative messages about intake of junk food can motivate people to reduce their consumption of high calorie snack food. PMID:23738741

  5. Reducing high calorie snack food in young adults: a role for social norms and health based messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Harris, Ellis; Thomas, Jason; Aveyard, Paul; Higgs, Suzanne

    2013-06-05

    Consumption of high calorie junk foods has increased recently, especially among young adults and higher intake may cause weight gain. There is a need to develop public health approaches to motivate people to reduce their intake of junk food. To assess the effect of health and social norm messages on high calorie snack food intake (a type of junk food) as a function of usual intake of junk food. In a between-subjects design, 129 young adults (45 men and 84 women, mean age = 22.4 years, SD = 4.5) were assigned to one of three conditions: 1) a social norm condition, in which participants saw a message about the junk food eating habits of others; 2) a health condition, in which participants saw a message outlining the health benefits of reducing junk food consumption and; 3) a control condition, in which participants saw a non-food related message. After exposure to the poster messages, participants consumed a snack and the choice and amount of snack food consumed was examined covertly. We also examined whether usual intake of junk food moderated the effect of message type on high calorie snack food intake. The amount of high calorie snack food consumed was significantly lower in both the health and the social norm message condition compared with the control message condition (36% and 28%, both p food or energy intake between the health and social norm message conditions. There was no evidence that the effect of the messages depended upon usual consumption of junk food. Messages about the health effects of junk food and social normative messages about intake of junk food can motivate people to reduce their consumption of high calorie snack food.

  6. Evaluating the effect of a campus-wide social norms marketing intervention on alcohol-use perceptions, consumption, and blackouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jinni; Hancock, Linda; Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda; Alshagra, Mariam; Ericson, Rhianna; Niazi, Zackaria; Dick, Danielle M; Adkins, Amy

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of a campus-wide social norms marketing intervention on alcohol-use perceptions, consumption, and blackouts at a large, urban, public university. 4,172 college students (1,208 freshmen, 1,159 sophomores, 953 juniors, and 852 seniors) who completed surveys in Spring 2015 for the Spit for Science Study, a longitudinal study of students' substance use and emotional health. Participants were e-mailed an online survey that queried campaign readership, perception of peer alcohol use, alcohol consumption, frequency of consumption, and frequency of blackouts. Associations between variables were evaluated using path analysis. We found that campaign readership was associated with more accurate perceptions of peer alcohol use, which, in turn, was associated with self-reported lower number of drinks per sitting and experiencing fewer blackouts. This evaluation supports the use of social norms marketing as a population-level intervention to correct alcohol-use misperceptions and reduce blackouts.

  7. Peer Influence on IPV by Young Adult Males: Investigating the Case for a Social Norms Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKool, Marissa; Stephenson, Rob; Winskell, Kate; Teten Tharp, Andra; Parrott, Dominic

    2017-08-01

    Nearly 32% of women report experiencing physical violence from an intimate partner and more than 8% report being raped by a significant other in their lifetime. Young people's perceptions that their peers perpetrate relationship violence have been shown to increase the odds of self-reported perpetration. Yet, limited research has been conducted on this relationship as individuals begin to age out of adolescence. The present study sought to examine the link between the perception of peer perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) and self-reported IPV perpetration among a sample of predominately young adult (21-35 years) males. This study also explored the discordance between the perception of peer IPV behavior and self-reported perpetration. Data from 101 male peer dyads ( n = 202) were taken from a study on the effects of alcohol and bystander intervention in Atlanta, Georgia. Thirty-six percent ( n = 73) of men reported perpetrating physical IPV and 67% ( n = 135) reported perpetrating sexual IPV in the past 12 months. Nearly 35% ( n = 55) of the sample reported that none of their peers had perpetrated physical IPV, which contradicted their friend's self-report of physical IPV perpetration. Similarly, 68% ( n = 115) of the men perceived none of their peers to have perpetrated sexual IPV, which contradicted their friend's self-report of sexual IPV perpetration. Discordance variables were significantly associated with self-reported perpetration for both physical (χ 2 = 152.7, p social norms approach to IPV prevention, which seeks to persuade individuals that negative behaviors are less common than perceived, may not be the best approach given a significant number of men believed their friends were nonviolent when they had perpetrated violence.

  8. Social norms information for alcohol misuse in university and college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, David R; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Almeida Santimano, Nerissa M L; Smith, Lesley A

    2015-12-29

    Drinking is influenced by youth perceptions of how their peers drink. These perceptions are often incorrect, overestimating peer drinking norms. If inaccurate perceptions can be corrected, young people may drink less. To determine whether social norms interventions reduce alcohol-related negative consequences, alcohol misuse or alcohol consumption when compared with a control (ranging from assessment only/no intervention to other educational or psychosocial interventions) among university and college students. The following electronic databases were searched up to July 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) only to March 2008. Reference lists of included studies and review articles were manually searched. No restriction based on language or date was applied. Randomised controlled trials or cluster-randomised controlled trials that compared a social normative intervention versus no intervention, alcohol education leaflet or other 'non-normative feedback' alcohol intervention and reported on alcohol consumption or alcohol-related problems in university or college students. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by Cochrane. Each outcome was analysed by mode of delivery: mailed normative feedback (MF); web/computer normative feedback (WF); individual face-to-face normative feedback (IFF); group face-to-face normative feedback (GFF); and normative marketing campaign (MC). A total of 70 studies (44,958 participants) were included in the review, and 63 studies (42,784 participants) in the meta-analyses. Overall, the risk of bias assessment showed that these studies provided moderate or low quality evidence.Outcomes at four or more months post-intervention were of particular interest to assess when effects were sustained beyond the immediate short term. We have reported pooled effects across delivery modes

  9. Student estimations of peer alcohol consumption: links between the Social Norms Approach and the Health Promoting University concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Christiane; Mcalaney, John; Pischke, Claudia; Vriesacker, Bart; Van Hal, Guido; Akvardar, Yildiz; Orosova, Olga; Kalina, Ondrej; Guillen-Grima, Francisco; Bewick, Bridgette M

    2014-11-01

    The Social Norms Approach, with its focus on positive behaviour and its consensus orientation, is a health promotion intervention of relevance to the context of a Health Promoting University. In particular, the approach could assist with addressing excessive alcohol consumption. This article aims to discuss the link between the Social Norms Approach and the Health Promoting University, and analyse estimations of peer alcohol consumption among European university students. A total of 4392 students from universities in six European countries and Turkey were asked to report their own typical alcohol consumption per day and to estimate the same for their peers of same sex. Students were classified as accurate or inaccurate estimators of peer alcohol consumption. Socio-demographic factors and personal alcohol consumption were examined as predictors for an accurate estimation. 72% of male and 51% of female students were identified as having accurate estimations about the amount of alcoholic drinks consumed per day by their peers. Male students, older students, those studying year 3 and above, and Turkish and Danish students were more likely to accurately estimate their peers' alcohol consumption. Independent from these factors, students' accurate estimation of peers' drinking decreased significantly with increasing personal consumption. As accurate estimates of peer alcohol consumption appear to affect personal drinking behaviour positively, social norms interventions targeted at correcting possible misperceptions about peer alcohol use among students may be a useful health promotion tool in the context of a health promoting university. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  10. Assessment of perceived and actual alcohol norms in varying contexts: Exploring Social Impact Theory among college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Lac, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The social norms approach to college drinking suggests that students misperceive the drinking behavior and attitudes of their peers. While much is known about these misperceptions, research is sparse regarding the context in which perceived and actual norms are assessed. As social influence is pronounced in college, the principles of Social Impact Theory may contribute to differences between assessments performed individually and those completed when surrounded by members of one’s salient reference group. The current study examines 284 members of campus organizations in two contexts (online and group) to determine if individuals endorse different responses to questions of perceived and actual drinking norms across contexts. All participants endorsed higher responses on questions of actual and perceived group behavior and of perceived group attitudes towards drinking during the group assessment. Men and students in Greek organizations may be more influenced by the proximity of their peers when presented with questions regarding perceived alcohol use. These results suggest that context of assessment needs to be considered when collecting self-report data from college students. PMID:18068308

  11. Influencing College Student Drinking Intentions With Social Norms and Self-Schema Matched Messages: Differences Between Low and High Self-Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Megan M; Brannon, Laura A

    2015-01-01

    College students were exposed to either a self-schema matched message (emphasizing how binge drinking is inconsistent with personal values) or a social norms message (highlighting the true normative drinking behavior of peers). As predicted, low self-monitors intended to drink significantly less alcohol if they received the self-schema matched message versus the social norms message, and high self-monitors intended to drink less if they received the social norms message versus a self-schema message. While previous research supports both techniques for marketing responsible college student drinking, the current results suggest that each method may be especially effective for certain audiences.

  12. A rank based social norms model of how people judge their levels of drunkenness whilst intoxicated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Moore

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A rank based social norms model predicts that drinkers’ judgements about their drinking will be based on the rank of their breath alcohol level amongst that of others in the immediate environment, rather than their actual breath alcohol level, with lower relative rank associated with greater feelings of safety. This study tested this hypothesis and examined how people judge their levels of drunkenness and the health consequences of their drinking whilst they are intoxicated in social drinking environments. Methods Breath alcohol testing of 1,862 people (mean age = 26.96 years; 61.86 % male in drinking environments. A subset (N = 400 also answered four questions asking about their perceptions of their drunkenness and the health consequences of their drinking (plus background measures. Results Perceptions of drunkenness and the health consequences of drinking were regressed on: (a breath alcohol level, (b the rank of the breath alcohol level amongst that of others in the same environment, and (c covariates. Only rank of breath alcohol level predicted perceptions: How drunk they felt (b 3.78, 95 % CI 1.69 5.87, how extreme they regarded their drinking that night (b 3.7, 95 % CI 1.3 6.20, how at risk their long-term health was due to their current level of drinking (b 4.1, 95 % CI 0.2 8.0 and how likely they felt they would experience liver cirrhosis (b 4.8. 95 % CI 0.7 8.8. People were more influenced by more sober others than by more drunk others. Conclusion Whilst intoxicated and in drinking environments, people base judgements regarding their drinking on how their level of intoxication ranks relative to that of others of the same gender around them, not on their actual levels of intoxication. Thus, when in the company of others who are intoxicated, drinkers were found to be more likely to underestimate their own level of drinking, drunkenness and associated risks. The implications of these results, for example

  13. Association between perceived social norm and condom use among people living with HIV/AIDS in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Wu, Yan; Hong, Yan Alicia; Yang, Cui; Cai, Weiping; Zhu, Yajing; Guo, Zihan; Guo, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has been increasing in China. Previous studies have examined the association between social norms and risk behaviors among high-risk populations for HIV infection. However, little is known about social norms and condom use among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study sought to investigate the relationship between perceived social norms on condom use and inconsistent condom use among PLWHA. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through convenience sampling among 412 PLWHA between March and June 2013 in Guangzhou, China. Descriptive norm of condom use was measured as perception of number of friends thinking it necessary to use condoms when having sex. About three-fourths (n = 301, 73.1%) of the PLWHA were sexually active since HIV diagnosis. Among the sexually active PLWHA, the average age was 36.5 years; about two-thirds were male; the majority was Han ethnic (92.7%); 55.5% discussed condom use with their friends and the rate of inconsistent condom use in the last three sexual encounters was 29.2%. In the multivariate logistic regression, PLWHA who perceived more of their friends' approval of condom use were less likely to engage in unprotected sex than their counterparts (aOR = 0.25, p = .001). Those whose family members were aware of their HIV infection status were less likely to engage in unprotected sex than their counterparts (aOR = 0.17, p condom use among PLWHA.

  14. Friends' Alcohol-Related Social Networking Site Activity Predicts Escalations in Adolescent Drinking: Mediation by Peer Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Jacqueline; Rothenberg, W Andrew; Hussong, Andrea M; Jackson, Kristina M

    2017-06-01

    Adolescents' increased use of social networking sites (SNS) coincides with a developmental period of heightened risk for alcohol use initiation. However, little is known regarding associations between adolescents' SNS use and drinking initiation nor the mechanisms of this association. This study examined longitudinal associations among adolescents' exposure to friends' alcohol-related SNS postings, alcohol-favorable peer injunctive norms, and initiation of drinking behaviors. Participants were 658 high-school students who reported on posting of alcohol-related SNS content by self and friends, alcohol-related injunctive norms, and other developmental risk factors for alcohol use at two time points, 1 year apart. Participants also reported on initiation of three drinking behaviors: consuming a full drink, becoming drunk, and heavy episodic drinking (three or more drinks per occasion). Probit regression analyses were used to predict initiation of drinking behaviors from exposure to alcohol-related SNS content. Path analyses examined mediation of this association by peer injunctive norms. Exposure to friends' alcohol-related SNS content predicted adolescents' initiation of drinking and heavy episodic drinking 1 year later, controlling for demographic and known developmental risk factors for alcohol use (i.e., parental monitoring and peer orientation). In addition, alcohol-favorable peer injunctive norms statistically mediated the relationship between alcohol-related SNS exposure and each drinking milestone. Results suggest that social media plays a unique role in contributing to peer influence processes surrounding alcohol use and highlight the need for future investigative and preventive efforts to account for adolescents' changing social environments. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigating the Potential Impact of Social Talk on Prevention Through Social Networks: the Relationships Between Social Talk and Refusal Self-Efficacy and Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Jeong; Hecht, Michael; Smith, Rachel A

    2017-05-01

    Interpersonal communication among participants plays an important role in the impact and effectiveness of prevention programs (Southwell & Yzer, Communication Theory 19:1-8, 2009). This study focused on adolescents' informal conversations about a prevention program, referred to as social talk, from a social network perspective. We provide both a conceptualization of social talk in relation to prevention programs and an operationalization of it by examining adolescents' social networks. Participants (N = 185) were eighth-grade students attending a middle school substance-abuse prevention program called keepin' it REAL (kiR). Participants engaged in both positive and negative social talk about kiR. Students with higher friendship indegree centrality were more likely to have greater positive social talk indegree centrality (r = .23 p social talkers by their peers appeared to have less personal anti-substance injunctive norms (b = -0.92, p < .05). Furthermore, youth who were more likely to talk negatively about kiR were less likely to perceive that their best friends (b = -1.66, p < .05) or most youth in their age (b = -1.49, p < .05) disapprove of substance use.

  16. Predicting sexual coercion in early adulthood: The transaction among maltreatment, gang affiliation, and adolescent socialization of coercive relationship norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships.

  17. Social Norms and Stigma Regarding Unintended Pregnancy and Pregnancy Decisions: A Qualitative Study of Young Women in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Whitney; Turan, Janet M; White, Kari; Stringer, Kristi L; Helova, Anna; Simpson, Tina; Cockrill, Kate

    2016-06-01

    Social norms and stigma may play important roles in reproductive health behavior and decision making among young women in the U.S. South, who disproportionately experience unintended pregnancies. No research has described the presence and manifestations of social norms and stigmas associated with unintended pregnancy and related decision making from the perspective of this population. Six focus groups and 12 cognitive interviews were conducted between December 2013 and July 2014 with 46 low-income women aged 19-24 living in Birmingham, Alabama; respondents were recruited from two public health department centers and a community college. Semistructured interview guides were used to facilitate discussion about social perceptions of unintended pregnancy and related pregnancy decisions. Sessions were audio-recorded, and transcripts were analyzed using a theme-based approach. Participants described community expectations that pregnancy occur in the context of monogamous relationships, in which both partners are mature, educated and financially stable. However, respondents reported that unintended pregnancy outside of these circumstances was common, and that the community expected young women faced with unintended pregnancies to bear and raise their children. Women who chose to do so were viewed more positively than were women who chose abortion or adoption. The community generally considered these alternatives to parenting unacceptable, and participants discussed them in terms of negative labels, social judgment and nondisclosure. Findings suggest a need to reduce stigma and create a social environment in which young women are empowered to make the best reproductive decisions for themselves. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  18. The Role of Perceived Social Norms in Rural Sanitation: An Explorative Study from Infrastructure-Restricted Settings of South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, Josef; Kolomazníková, Jana; Humňalová, Helena

    2017-07-17

    The perception of social sanitation norms (PSSNs) around unacceptability of open defecation has been a key aspect of recent sanitation interventions. However, underlying mechanisms through which "reconstructed" PSSNs affect sanitation outcomes have been a black box. This explorative cross-sectional study examines direct and indirect links between PSSNs and sanitation safety using data from structured interviews and observations in 368 households in rural South Ethiopia. In addition to a positive association between PSSNs and sanitation safety, we propose and examine the following two mechanisms: First, we confirm a potentially adverse feedback of PSSNs on future sanitation safety by enhancing the emotional satisfaction with current sanitation practice (satisfaction independent of the functionality of sanitation facilities). Second, inspired by the social amplification/attenuation of risk framework, we demonstrate that PSSNs work as a "social filter" that can amplify or attenuate the effects of other variables targeted in sanitation interventions such as perceived health-related and non-health risks and benefits associated with open defecation and private latrine ownership, respectively, and factual hygiene and sanitation knowledge. These findings imply that PSSNs are not only important per se, but they are also important instrumentally because sanitation outcomes depend upon the capacity of social influences to shape the perception of sanitation risks and benefits and sanitation-related awareness in desirable ways. The mechanisms outlined in this paper as well as the sustainability of sanitation outcomes depend on whether and how social sanitation norms are internalized.

  19. Social Norms for Intimate Partner Violence in Situations Involving Victim Infidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Tricia H.; Mulla, Mazheruddin M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated perceived descriptive norms (i.e., perceived prevalence) for male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) following victim infidelity (i.e., girlfriend had sex with another man). While watching a video-taped vignette of a young, dating couple in an argument that escalated to male-to-female violence, male…

  20. Identities in the Commons: The Dynamics of Norms and Social Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Horan, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a formal analysis of the evolution of cooperation in the management of common property resources. We develop a dynamic model that includes moral norms or a sense of 'identity,' and show that cooperation may – but need not – be an equilibrium outcome in the absence of intervention

  1. The importance of social norms for uptake of catch-up human papillomavirus vaccination in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Richard; Waites, Louisa; Parikh, Chandni; Lawrie, Aaron

    2011-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of almost all cases of cervical cancer. The current UK government immunisation program includes free routine HPV vaccination of girls aged 12-13, with a catch-up vaccination program for 13-18-year-old girls. The aim of this study was to identify correlates of intended and actual uptake of catch-up HPV vaccination. An online questionnaire was completed by 591 young women aged 16-20. Of the 350 women who had been offered catch-up HPV vaccination, 90.6% had accepted. In multivariate analyses, vaccine uptake was significantly correlated with subjective norms more supportive of HPV vaccination, and greater uptake of other childhood vaccinations (χ²(3))=39.34, Pvaccination, the average intention was 3.70 on a five-point scale. Multivariate analyses revealed four significant independent predictors of stronger intentions to accept vaccination: subjective norms more supportive of HPV vaccination, greater worry about sexually transmissible infections, greater support for young people's sexual health services and greater support for childhood vaccination (F((4,236))=18.67, Pways to encourage uptake of HPV vaccination. Uptake of HPV vaccination may be increased if interventions use appropriate media to promote social norms supportive of HPV vaccination.

  2. Reducing high calorie snack food in young adults: a role for social norms and health based messages

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Eric; Harris, Ellis; Thomas, Jason; Aveyard, Paul; Higgs, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Consumption of high calorie junk foods has increased recently, especially among young adults and higher intake may cause weight gain. There is a need to develop public health approaches to motivate people to reduce their intake of junk food. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of health and social norm messages on high calorie snack food intake (a type of junk food) as a function of usual intake of junk food. DESIGN: In a between-subjects design, 129 young adults (45 men and 84 women,...

  3. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes

  4. A feasibility trial to examine the social norms approach for the prevention and reduction of licit and illicit drug use in European University and college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pischke Claudia R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incorrect perceptions of high rates of peer alcohol and tobacco use are predictive of increased personal use in student populations. Correcting misperceptions by providing feedback has been shown to be an effective intervention for reducing licit drug use. It is currently unknown if social norms interventions are effective in preventing and reducing illicit drug use in European students. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of a multi-site cluster controlled trial of a web-based social norms intervention aimed at reducing licit and preventing illicit drug use in European university students. Methods/Design An online questionnaire to assess rates of drug use will be developed and translated based on existing social norms surveys. Students from sixteen universities in seven participating European countries will be invited to complete the questionnaire. Both intervention and control sites will be chosen by convenience. In each country, the intervention site will be the university that the local principal investigator is affiliated with. We aim to recruit 1000 students per site (baseline assessment. All participants will complete the online questionnaire at baseline. Baseline data will be used to develop social norms messages that will be included in a web-based intervention. The intervention group will receive individualized social norms feedback. The website will remain online during the following 5 months. After five months, a second survey will be conducted and effects of the intervention on social norms and drug use will be measured in comparison to the control site. Discussion This project is the first cross-national European collaboration to investigate the feasibility of a social norms intervention to reduce licit and prevent illicit drug use among European university students. Final trial registration number DRKS00004375 on the ‘German Clinical Trials Register’.

  5. Social and moral norm differences among Portuguese 1st and 6th year medical students towards their intention to comply with hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Magda S; Mearns, Kathryn; Silva, Silvia A

    2012-01-01

    This study examines social and moral norms towards the intention to comply with hand hygiene among Portuguese medical students from 1st and 6th years (N = 175; 121 from the 1st year, 54 from the 6th year). The study extended the theory of planned behaviour theoretical principles and hypothesised that both subjective and moral norms will be the best predictors of 1st and 6th year medical students' intention to comply with hand hygiene; however, these predictors ability to explain intention variance will change according to medical students' school year. Results indicated that the subjective norm, whose referent focuses on professors, is a relevant predictor of 1st year medical students' intention, while the subjective norm that emphasises the relevance of colleagues predicts the intentions of medical students from the 6th year. In terms of the moral norm, 6th year students' intention is better predicted by a norm that interferes with compliance; whereas intentions from 1st year students are better predicted by a norm that favours compliance. Implications of the findings highlight the importance of role models and mentors as key factors in teaching hand hygiene in medical undergraduate curricula.

  6. Closing or Reproducing the Gender Gap? Parental Transmission, Social Norms and Education Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria; Nandrup, Anne Brink; Smith, Nina

    Over the last decade, the economic literature has increasingly focused on the importance of gender identity and sticky gender norms in an attempt to explain the persistence of the gender gaps. Using detailed register data on the latest cohorts of Danish labour market entrants, this paper examines...... the intergenerational correlation in gender-stereotypical choice of education. Although to some extent picking up inherited and acquired skills, our results suggest that if parents exhibit gender stereotypical labour market behaviour, children of the same sex are more likely to choose a gender stereotypical education....... The associations are strongest for sons. Exploiting the detailed nature of our data, we use birth order and sibling sex composition to shed light on the potential channels through which gender differences in educational preferences are transmitted across generations. We propose that such transmissions may...

  7. Linking Magazine Exposure to Social Appearance Anxiety: The Role of Appearance Norms in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trekels, Jolien; Eggermont, Steven

    2017-12-01

    Early adolescents (N = 1,591; M age  = 11.698; SD = 0.892) participated in a two-wave panel study (6-month interval) to examine the longitudinal association between appearance-focused magazine exposure and social appearance anxiety. We revealed that magazine exposure positively correlated with the internalization of appearance ideals and the attribution of social rewards to attractiveness which, in turn, related to social appearance anxiety. Internalization and attribution of social rewards formed a reinforcing spiral; once internalized, early adolescents associate positive things with appearance ideals (e.g., peer acceptance) and the perception of rewards increases early adolescents' inclination to internalize ideals. Given the adverse consequences of social appearance anxiety, the findings warrant research on the role of media in the occurrence of social appearance anxiety. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  8. Great expectations: neural computations underlying the use of social norms in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Luke J; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-03-01

    Social expectations play a critical role in everyday decision-making. However, their precise neuro-computational role in the decision process remains unknown. Here we adopt a decision neuroscience framework by combining methods and theories from psychology, economics and neuroscience to outline a novel, expectation-based, computational model of social preferences. Results demonstrate that this model outperforms the standard inequity-aversion model in explaining decision behavior in a social interactive bargaining task. This is supported by fMRI findings showing that the tracking of social expectation violations is processed by anterior cingulate cortex, extending previous computational conceptualizations of this region to the social domain. This study demonstrates the usefulness of this interdisciplinary approach in better characterizing the psychological processes that underlie social interactive decision-making.

  9. Transnational Corporations in Education: Filling the Governance Gap through New Social Norms and Market Multilateralism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanji, Zahra

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the rising presence of transnational corporations (TNCs) in education and their mobilisation of global corporate social discourses to legitimise their private authority in education. The rising presence of TNCs is explored in the paper in two parts. First, through a taxonomy of global corporate social engagement (GCSE)…

  10. Community Dialogue to Shift Social Norms and Enable Family Planning: An Evaluation of the Family Planning Results Initiative in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanga, Andreea A.; Galavotti, Christine; Wamalwa, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Use of family planning (FP) is powerfully shaped by social and gender norms, including the perceived acceptability of FP and gender roles that limit women’s autonomy and restrict communication and decision-making between men and women. This study evaluated an intervention that catalyzed ongoing community dialogues about gender and FP in Siaya county, Nyanza Province, Kenya. Specifically, we explored the changes in perceived acceptability of FP, gender norms and use of FP. Methods We used a mixed-method approach. Information on married men and women’s socio-demographic characteristics, pregnancy intentions, gender-related beliefs, FP knowledge, attitudes, and use were collected during county-representative, cross-sectional household surveys at baseline (2009; n11 = 650 women; n12 = 305 men) and endline (2012; n21 = 617 women; n22 = 317 men); exposure to the intervention was measured at endline. We assessed changes in FP use at endline vs. baseline, and fitted multivariate logistic regression models for FP use to examine its association with intervention exposure and explore other predictors of use at endline. In-depth, qualitative interviews with 10 couples at endline further explored enablers and barriers to FP use. Results At baseline, 34.0% of women and 27.9% of men used a modern FP method compared to 51.2% and 52.2%, respectively, at endline (p<0.05). Exposure to FP dialogues was associated with 1.78 (95% CI: 1.20–2.63) times higher odds of using a modern FP method at endline for women, but this association was not significant for men. Women’s use of modern FP was significantly associated with higher spousal communication, control over own cash earnings, and FP self-efficacy. Men who reported high approval of FP were significantly more likely to use modern FP if reporting high approval of FP and more equitable gender beliefs. FP dialogues addressed persistent myths and misconceptions, normalized FP discussions, and increased its

  11. Beliefs and social norms about sildenafil citrate (Viagra) misuse and perceived consequences among Houstonian teenage males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ronald J; Johnson, Regina J; Kelder, Steve; Meshack, Angela F; Jefferson, Troy

    2007-09-01

    In the current study, a qualitative approach was used to investigate relevant beliefs and norms associated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) consumption, initiation, and perceived consequences. Focus groups were conducted with 43 young men aged 18 and 19 years who identified themselves as lifetime sildenafil citrate users. The majority of focus group participants believed that "curiosity" and "peer pressure" contributed to their initial use. Most revealed that they first heard about sildenafil citrate from television advertisements, family members, friends, or sporting events, and they were able to obtain the drug from their friends and family members or they stole it from their father or grandfather. These findings may highlight the relative importance of exposure to prescription drug messages among those to whom the message is not specifically targeted, that is, young men. It is possible that the sildenafil citrate television messages are recalled by not only older male audiences but also by teenagers and younger men, producing similar cognitive processing and curiosity in both age cohorts.

  12. Young adults' experiences of neighbourhood smoking-related norms and practices: A qualitative study exploring place-based social inequalities in smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Nicole M; Lapalme, Josée; McCready, Geneviève; Frohlich, Katherine L

    2017-09-01

    In this qualitative exploratory study we asked how smoking among young adults relates to the local neighbourhood context to better understand place-based social inequalities in smoking. We used data collected through focus groups with young adults from four economically diverse neighbourhoods in Montreal, Canada. Using the collective lifestyles framework to guide data analysis, we examined within and between neighbourhood social norms, practices, and agency. We found that some smoking-related social norms, practices and agency were particular to neighbourhoods of the same socio-economic status (SES). For example, permissive smoking-related social norms in low-SES neighbourhoods made it difficult to avoid smoking but also reduced local experiences of smoking-related stigma and isolation. In high-SES neighbourhoods, strong anti-smoking norms led to smoking in secret and/or amidst 'acceptable' social settings. Findings may inform future investigations and local-level interventions focused on this age group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Endorsement of sexist ideology in Taiwan and the United States: social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, and deferential family norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Despite close relationships between men and women in daily lives, gender inequality is ubiquitous and often supported by sexist ideology. The understanding of potential bases of sexist ideology is thus important. According to Duckitt's dual-process model (2001), different worldviews may explain different types of sexist ideology. Individuals who hold a "competitive world" worldview tend to endorse group-based dominance. This lends itself to the endorsement of hostile sexism, because hostile sexism is an obvious form of male dominance. Conversely, individuals who hold a "dangerous world" worldview tend to adhere to social cohesion, collective security, and social traditions. This lends itself to the endorsement of benevolent sexism, because benevolent sexism values women who conform to gender norms. As predicted by Duckitt's model, research has shown that social dominance orientation, a general orientation towards the endorsement of group-based dominance, is closely associated with hostile sexism. Furthermore, right-wing authoritarianism, which measures adherence to social traditions, is closely associated with benevolent sexism. Due to the interdependent nature of gender relationships, the current research proposed that a relationship-based belief in hierarchy, deferential family norms, and norms depicting proper manners among family members should predict the endorsement of hostile and benevolent sexism, after controlling for social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism. As predicted, according to student samples collected in Taiwan and the US, the endorsement of deferential family norms predicted the endorsement of hostile sexism and of benevolent sexism, respectively. In addition, among men and women, social dominance orientation predicted hostile sexism more strongly (as opposed to benevolent sexism), whereas right-wing authoritarianism predicted benevolent sexism more strongly (as opposed to hostile sexism). Implications regarding relationship

  14. Science Student Role: Evidence of Social Structural Norms Specific to School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Marie-Claire; Nieswandt, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Sociocultural studies of science education have consistently recognized the dialectic nature of students' agency to create and author positions for themselves and the structural constraints that may influence them. This mixed-methods study explores one particular aspect of these potential constraints: the possibility of a social structure specific…

  15. Cognition and norms: toward a developmental account of moral agency in social dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Leandro F. F.; Braga, Marcelo J.

    2015-01-01

    Most recent developments in the study of social dilemmas give an increasing amount of attention to cognition, belief systems, valuations, and language. However, developments in this field operate almost entirely under epistemological assumptions which only recognize the instrumental form of rationality and deny that “value judgments” or “moral questions” have cognitive content. This standpoint erodes the moral aspect of the choice situation and obstructs acknowledgment of the links connecting cognition, inner growth, and moral reasoning, and the significance of such links in reaching cooperative solutions to many social dilemmas. Concurrently, this standpoint places the role of communication and mutual understanding in promoting cooperation in morally relevant conflicts of action in a rather mysterious situation. This paper draws on Habermas’s critique of instrumental action, and on the most recent developments in institutional and behavioral economics with a view to enhancing our knowledge of the interventions used to cope with social dilemmas. We conclude the paper with a brief presentation of a research strategy for examining the capacity of alternative developmental models to predict dissimilar choices under similar incentive conditions in social dilemmas. PMID:25610414

  16. Social Norms and the Relationship between Cigarette Use and Religiosity among Adolescents in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryczynski, Jan; Ward, Brian W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the social dynamics that underlie the negative association between religiosity and cigarette use among U.S. adolescents. Using data from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the authors used a theory-based conceptual model (vicarious learning networks [VLN]) to examine the role that key reference group norms…

  17. Social norms in food intake among normal weight and overweight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschütz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study investigated whether children’s food intake is influenced by a peer’s intake directly and over time and whether this depends upon weight status. The study consisted of two sessions taking place at Dutch primary schools. During the first (social modeling) session, the

  18. Conflict between constitutional norms: monopoly of nuclear ore and the social function of property in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa-de-Moura, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This monograph broaches about the conflict existing between the social Constitution of 1988, in relation to what is disposed in the Article 5, XXIII and XXIV, entrenchment clause of immediate application that determines the social function of property in Brazil, and articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, that stipulate the monopoly of ores containing nuclear elements, i.e., those containing the chemical elements uranium, thorium, and plutonium in economically exploitable amounts. Initially, the work deals with legal definitions for nuclear ore, nuclear policy of some countries, the economical concepts of the social function of property and the negative aspects related to the maintenance of the nuclear ore in the state monopole regime in confrontation with the economic and social interest also expressed in the Constitutional Valance of 1988. Finally, it is presented an actualized compilation of nuclear laws related to the Brazilian nuclear policy and a glossary of terms used in the nuclear policy conducted by the Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Agency (CNEN). (author)

  19. Developmental Relations between Alcohol Expectancies and Social Norms in Predicting Alcohol Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Tim; Treloar Padovano, Hayley; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2018-01-01

    Expectations about alcohol's effects and perceptions of peers' behaviors and beliefs related to alcohol use are each shown to strongly influence the timing of drinking onset during adolescence. The present study builds on prior work by examining the conjoint effects of within-person changes in these social-cognitive factors on age of adolescent…

  20. Discipline Social Identification, Study Norms and Learning Approach in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Lillian; Mavor, Kenneth I.; Platow, Michael J.; Grace, Diana M.; Reynolds, Katherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a deep approach to learning is associated with positive academic outcomes. In the current paper, we extend this analysis in a university context by recognising that learners are not isolated individuals, but share important social identifications with others. Using online surveys at an Australian university, we examine the effects of…

  1. Language Adjustment of International Students in the US: A Social Network Analysis on the Effects of Language Resources, Language Norm and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The study explores factors that enhance or inhibit the language adjustment of international students in the U.S. Using social network influence model, the study examines the effects of language resources, language norm, and technology use on international students' self-confidence in overall English skills and four subskills, namely, listening,…

  2. Employees' Perceptions of Social Norms as a Result of Implementing the Participatory Approach at Supervisor Level : Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, S M; Schaafsma, F G; Geldof, M F; Boot, C R L; Kraaijeveld, R A; Shaw, W S; Bültmann, U; Twisk, J; Anema, J R

    Purpose A multifaceted implementation strategy was targeted at supervisors to encourage them to apply a participatory approach (PA) in dealing with employees' work functioning problems due to health concerns. This paper assesses the effect on employees' perceived social norms regarding the use of

  3. Reasoning behind choices: rationality and social norms in the housing market behaviour of first-time buyers in the Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lux, Martin; Gibas, Petr; Boumová, Irena; Hájek, Martin; Sunega, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2017), s. 517-539 ISSN 0267-3037 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/12/1446 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : housing market * social norms * housing system Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography OBOR OECD: Sociology Impact factor: 1.513, year: 2016

  4. The effect of social networks and norms on the inter-regional migration intentions of knowledge-workers: The case of Saxony, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Gruenwald, Luise; Hirte, Georg

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the migration intentions of current and future knowledge-workers in Saxony, Germany. A structural equation model (SEM) is applied to analyze the impact of social networks and norms on inter-regional migration, in addition to lifestyle and utilitarian location factors...

  5. The Role of Knowledge, Social Norms, and Attitudes toward Organic Products and Shopping Behavior: Survey Results from High School Students in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotschi, Elisabeth; Vogel, Stefan; Lindenthal, Thomas; Larcher, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    In 2005 a survey was used to investigate social norms and attitudes of Viennese high school students (14-20 years, n = 340) toward organic products. Young people, who already participate in household decisions and consume organic products, have not yet been recognized sufficiently in research. The Theory of Reasoned Action and discriminant…

  6. Education as investment, consumption or adapting to social norm: Implications for educational mismatch among graduates

    OpenAIRE

    SELLAMI, Sana; VERHAEST, Dieter; NONNEMAN, Walter; VAN TRIER, Walter

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role of four motives to participate in higher education – investment, educational consumption, student life consumption and social pressure – on field of study choices and academic performance and on three labour market outcomes – over-education, wages and job satisfaction. We use data on three cohorts of about 3000 Flemish individuals documenting the transition from education to work. Principal components are used to identify the four study motives. Effects of study motive...

  7. How Newcomers Learn the Social Norms of an Organization: A Case Study of the Socialization of Newly Hired Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Russell F.

    2009-01-01

    Current scholarship views organizational socialization as a learning process that is primarily the responsibility of the newcomer. Yet recent learning research recognizes the importance of the social interactions in the learning process. This study investigated how newly hired engineers at a large manufacturing company learned job-related tasks…

  8. Exploring social norms around cohabitation: The life course, individualization, and culture: Introduction to Special Collection: "Focus on Partnerships: Discourses on cohabitation and marriage throughout Europe and Australia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brienna Perelli-Harris

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Explanations of the increase in cohabitation often rely on the concept of ideational change and shifting social norms. While researchers have investigated cohabitation and the role of social norms from a quantitative perspective, few studies have examined how people discuss the normative context of cohabitation, especially in cross-national comparison. Objective: This article introduces a Special Collection that uses focus group research to compare social norms relating to cohabitation and marriage in 8 countries in Europe. The Introduction explicates the concept of social norms, describes the focus group project, reflects on the method's advantages and limitations, and summarizes the theoretical and methodological contributions of the project. Methods: Collaborators conducted 7−8 focus groups in each country using a standardized questionnaire. They coded each discussion, analyzed the results, and produced a country-specific chapter on a particular theme. They also collaborated on an overview paper that synthesized the overall findings of the project. Results: The articles provide insights into the meanings of partnership formation in each country. In addition, their findings contribute to three main theoretical themes: 1 life courses, sequencing, and intersections; 2 individualization, freedom, and commitment; and 3 culture, religion, and the persistence of the past. Conclusions: This Special Collection contributes to and challenges current explanations of family change by pointing out how social norms shape partnership behavior. The project informs quantitative research by emphasizing the need for a culturally informed interpretation of demographic behavior. We urge researchers to recognize the multiple meanings of cohabitation within each context and across countries.

  9. Gaps between breastfeeding awareness and practices in Vietnamese mothers result from inadequate support in health facilities and social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Nguyen T; Nguyen, Phuong H; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A

    2014-11-01

    Although gaps between breastfeeding awareness and practices have been described, determinants of the gaps have not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to examine determinants of the gap between breastfeeding awareness and practices in Vietnam. We interviewed 10,834 mothers with children aged 0-23 mo in 11 of 63 Vietnam provinces about breastfeeding practices, awareness, barriers, and support. A gap between awareness and practice was defined when a mother was aware of the benefit but did not perform the corresponding practice. Logistic regression models were used to examine determinants associated with the gaps. The percentages of mothers with an awareness-practice gap for early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), continued breastfeeding at 1 y, and continued breastfeeding at 2 y were 34%, 66%, 19%, and 49%, respectively. Mothers had a lower awareness-practice gap in early initiation of breastfeeding if they received breastfeeding support from a health worker during pregnancy (OR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.92) or at birth (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.88). This gap was more likely to occur among those with a natural birth in the hospital (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.50, 2.45), cesarean delivery (OR: 28.95; 95% CI: 20.1, 44.7), and breastfeeding difficulties (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.90). For EBF, the gap was lower among mothers with a higher social norm (OR: 0.20; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.27) or when they received breastfeeding support at birth by a health worker (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.95). In addition, intention of feeding infant formula at birth and having breastfeeding difficulties were associated with an increased gap in EBF [ORs (95% CIs): 1.28 (1.08, 1.51) and 1.29 (1.06, 1.57), respectively]. For continued breastfeeding at 1 y, social norms were associated with a lower gap (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.91), whereas breastfeeding difficulties were associated with an increased gap (OR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.57). Reducing breastfeeding awareness

  10. Sensation seeking and drunk driving: the mediational role of social norms and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Iglesias, Beatriz; Gómez-Fraguela, José Antonio; Luengo, Ma Ángeles

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the role of sensation seeking in drunk driving by youths, and the potential mediational effect of social, cognitive and emotional variables on their relationship. To this end, a survey was conducted on 274 drivers (164 females and 110 males) aged 24.36±2.96 years (range 18-30 years). The results obtained confirm the significance of sensation seeking to drunk driving by youths and the mediating role of biased self-efficacy perceptions in their relationship. The important practical implications of this finding on the development of effective interventions to prevent the risks of drunk driving in youths are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An exploratory cluster randomised trial of a university halls of residence based social norms marketing campaign to reduce alcohol consumption among 1st year students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Graham F; Williams, Annie; Moore, Laurence; Murphy, Simon

    2013-04-18

    This exploratory trial examines the feasibility of implementing a social norms marketing campaign to reduce student drinking in universities in Wales, and evaluating it using cluster randomised trial methodology. Fifty residence halls in 4 universities in Wales were randomly assigned to intervention or control arms. Web and paper surveys were distributed to students within these halls (n = 3800), assessing exposure/contamination, recall of and evaluative responses to intervention messages, perceived drinking norms and personal drinking behaviour. Measures included the Drinking Norms Rating Form, the Daily Drinking Questionnaire and AUDIT-C. A response rate of 15% (n = 554) was achieved, varying substantially between sites. Intervention posters were seen by 80% and 43% of students in intervention and control halls respectively, with most remaining materials seen by a minority in both groups. Intervention messages were rated as credible and relevant by little more than half of students, though fewer felt they would influence their behaviour, with lighter drinkers more likely to perceive messages as credible. No differences in perceived norms were observed between intervention and control groups. Students reporting having seen intervention materials reported lower descriptive and injunctive norms than those who did not. Attention is needed to enhancing exposure, credibility and perceived relevance of intervention messages, particularly among heavier drinkers, before definitive evaluation can be recommended. A definitive evaluation would need to consider how it would achieve sufficient response rates, whilst hall-level cluster randomisation appears subject to a significant degree of contamination. ISRCTN: ISRCTN48556384.

  12. NORM management; Gerencia de NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Rocio dos

    2016-07-01

    In the chapter 9 concepts and examples for helping to solve the NORM question in the industries are presented. The challenge is to handle with radioactivity questions and many industries do not know that are producing radioactivity material besides having to learn and match the nuclear concepts and legislation with the conventional pollutants. The risks associated to NORM and a methodology to handle with the question are mentioned. The need for establishing responsibilities is also highlighted. Finally, a planning to manage NORM is suggested. The equation for determination os minerals activity and concentrates in secular equilibrium is annexed in A.

  13. Social norms and private ethics: women’s adultery in Cervantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Hutchinson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to what has often been assumed, honor plays, more than an involuted literary subgenre, respond to a widely documented social reality of wife murders. Delving into a vital problem of his times, Cervantes differs from many other contemporary writers in that he explores the causes of women’s adultery in a very complex domain of affective dysfunctionalities that are usually ignored from the postulates of honor, which privileges above all the unquestionability of marriage as an institution. Quite remarkably, in El celoso extremeño blame is distributed among all the characters except the «adulteress» herself. Although something similar occurs in El curioso impertinente, critics have most often either blamed or belittled Camila, without taking seriously her subjectivity or her exceptional capacity for love and survival. It turns out that she is the only character in this story whose actions are coherent. In these and other Cervantine texts we see that marriage possesses no absolute value and that in certain circumstances a woman’s adultery is more than justifiable.

  14. Social Norms in Water Services: Exploring the Fair Price of Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossi Heino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse price fairness in water services. Although a considerable amount of literature has been published on water pricing, these studies have mainly approached the question from instrumental and rational perspectives. Little attention has been paid to the human side of water pricing. Therefore, the general objective of this research is to shed light on these softer factors, filling the gap in knowledge of the emotional connections with water services. In this research, we explored peopleʼs ideas and views about water pricing by conducting 74 interviews in 11 municipalities in Finland. The results suggest that people are not just rational consumers of a good but also have emotional ties to water utilities and municipal decision-making. The general attitude towards a water utility is confident and sympathetic if its operations and municipal decision-making processes are considered as fair, and conversely, unsympathetic if operations and decision-making are considered unfair. This is a topical issue as many water utilities are facing pressures to increase water prices; being fair appeared to be a crucial way to gain appreciation and support through difficult times. Because fairness seems to be an emergent property of social experiences, special attention should be paid to the 'soft side' of water services.

  15. The effect of social norms messaging regarding skin carotenoid concentrations among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengreen, Heidi J; Nix, Elizabeth; Madden, Gregory J

    2017-09-01

    Descriptive social-normative messaging positively influences short-term dietary choices and healthy food intake. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of descriptive normative messages on college students' skin carotenoid concentrations (a biomarker of carotenoid-containing fruit and vegetable [FV] intake) over an 8-week period. 251 college students consented to participate and 74% completed the study. Students were randomly assigned to groups who, following a baseline evaluation of skin-carotenoid levels, were told how their score ranked within a peer group of college students attending the same university (Individualized Normative group), that their score was in the lower 20th percentile of the peer group (Manipulated Normative group), or were given no information about their score or the peer group (Control group). Skin carotenoid concentrations were reassessed 8 weeks after the normative messages were presented or withheld. Skin carotenoid levels of those in the Manipulated Normative group increased significantly more than did scores of those in the Control group (t (126) = 3.74, p students' self-reported FV intake did not increase. This finding suggests normative messaging can influence behavior for up to 8 weeks, but future research must better evaluate if the increase in skin carotenoids reflects increased FV consumption, increased consumption of carotenoid-containing FV (with decreased consumption of other FV), or is accounted for by some other behavior change (e.g., increased use of supplements). These findings support further exploration of normative messaging as a technique for producing the long-term behavior change needed to impact public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Growth reaction norms of domesticated, wild and hybrid Atlantic salmon families in response to differing social and physical environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Directional selection for growth has resulted in the 9-10th generation of domesticated Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. outgrowing wild salmon by a ratio of approximately 3:1 when reared under standard hatchery conditions. In the wild however, growth of domesticated and wild salmon is more similar, and seems to differ at the most by a ratio of 1.25:1. Comparative studies of quantitative traits in farmed and wild salmon are often performed by the use of common-garden experiments where salmon of all origins are reared together to avoid origin-specific environmental differences. As social interaction may influence growth, the large observed difference in growth between wild and domesticated salmon in the hatchery may not be entirely genetically based, but inflated by inter-strain competition. This study had two primary aims: (i) investigate the effect of social interaction and inter-strain competition in common-garden experiments, by comparing the relative growth of farmed, hybrid and wild salmon when reared together and separately; (ii) investigate the competitive balance between wild and farmed salmon by comparing their norm of reaction for survival and growth along an environmental gradient ranging from standard hatchery conditions to a semi-natural environment with restricted feed. Results The main results of this study, which are based upon the analysis of more than 6000 juvenile salmon, can be summarised as; (i) there was no difference in relative growth between wild and farmed salmon when reared together and separately; (ii) the relative difference in body weight at termination between wild and farmed salmon decreased as mortality increased along the environmental gradient approaching natural conditions. Conclusions This study demonstrates that potential social interactions between wild and farmed salmon when reared communally are not likely to cause an overestimation of the genetic growth differences between them. Therefore, common-garden experiments

  17. Linking Norms and Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBreen, J.; Tosto, Di G.; Dignum, F.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to propose a method of modelling the evolution of social norms in different cultural settings. We analyse the role of culture in shaping agents' normative reasoning and hence their behaviour. The general notion of 'value' is discussed from the perspective of the BDI

  18. Social norms as solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyborg, K.; Anderies, J.M.; Dannenberg, A.; Lindahl, T.; Schill, C.; Schluter, M.; Adger, W.N.; Arrow, K.J.; Barrett, S.; Scheffer, M.; Nes, van E.H.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change, biodiversity loss, antibiotic resistance, and other global challenges pose major collective action problems: A group benefits from a certain action, but no individual has sufficient incentive to act alone. Formal institutions, e.g., laws and treaties, have helped address issues like

  19. Norm Change in Genetic Services. How the Discourse of Choice Replaced the Discourse of Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane B. Paul

    Full Text Available Abstract In the 1960s and '70s, it was generally assumed that reproductive choices have social consequences and thus are a matter of social concern. Socially-responsible reproductive behavior, in turn, was assumed to entail minimizing the risk of transmitting grave genetic diseases. Over time, such a view came increasingly to be labelled "eugenics," a term that would in much of the world acquire strongly negative connotations. By the 1990s, the old view had been largely replaced in the West by the tenet that procreation is a private matter, and that there are no right or wrong reproductive decisions. The primary aim of this essay is to explain and interpret this transformation, which was largely a product of the 1980s. Drawing on social-norms theory, which assumes that norms are always to some degree contested, it asks how those with an interest in changing prevailing attitudes were able to achieve such apparent rapid success.

  20. The reference group perspective for smoking cessation: an examination of the influence of social norms and social identification with reference groups on smoking cessation self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Joe J

    2013-03-01

    This study proposed the Reference Group Perspective for smoking cessation, examining smokers' identification with three reference groups: best friends, colleagues, and family members, and hypothesizing that identification with each group would moderate the relationship between injunctive and descriptive norms of the group and smoking cessation self-efficacy. Results of an online questionnaire (N = 208) indicated that injunctive and descriptive norms of all three reference groups significantly affected smoking cessation self-efficacy, and this relationship was moderated by identification. Injunctive norms were stronger in predicting smoking cessation self-efficacy than descriptive norms, with injunctive norms of family members and descriptive norms of best friends having the most significant effect. Positive attitude toward smoking was also significantly associated with smoking cessation self-efficacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Seasonal prevailing surface winds in Northern Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Ivana; Gavrilov, Milivoj B.; Marković, Slobodan B.; Ruman, Albert; Putniković, Suzana

    2018-02-01

    Seasonal prevailing surface winds are analyzed in the territory of Northern Serbia, using observational data from 12 meteorological stations over several decades. In accordance with the general definition of prevailing wind, two special definitions of this term are used. The seasonal wind roses in 16 directions at each station are analyzed. This study shows that the prevailing winds in Northern Serbia have northwestern and southeastern directions. Circulation weather types over Serbia are presented in order to determine the connections between the synoptic circulations and prevailing surface winds. Three controlling pressure centers, i.e., the Mediterranean cyclone, Siberian high, and the Azores anticyclone, appear as the most important large-scale factors that influence the creation of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia. Beside the synoptic cause of the prevailing winds, it is noted that the orography of the eastern Balkans has a major influence on the winds from the second quadrant. It was found that the frequencies of circulation weather types are in agreement with those of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia.

  2. [Psychometric properties and clinical norms for the German version (SPAIK) of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfsen, Siebke; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas

    2011-11-01

    The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAIK) is a frequently used German questionnaire. The study investigates its psychometric properties and norms in a clinical study. The questionnaire was presented to a clinical sample of n = 320 school-age children (7 to 18 years) prior to beginning therapy. The items indicated a high internal consistency and homogeneity. With regard to dimensions, a one-factor solution was preferred. As to validity, there was a significant difference in total score between the normal and the clinical sample. The sample was also used to provide some normative data. The SPAIK appears to be a reliable and valid measure of childhood social anxiety.

  3. The moderating effect of conformism values on the relations between other personal values, social norms, moral obligation, and single altruistic behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Walkowitz, Gari; Wichardt, Philipp; Lindeman, Marjaana; Verkasalo, Markku

    2009-09-01

    Three studies predicted and found that the individual's conformism values are one determinant of whether behaviour is guided by other personal values or by social norms. In Study 1 (N=50), pro-gay law reform participants were told they were either in a minority or a majority in terms of their attitude towards the law reform. Only participants who were high in conformism values conformed to the group norm on public behaviour intentions. In studies 2 (N=42) and 3 (N=734), participants played multiple choice prisoner's dilemma games with monetary incentives. Only participants who considered conformism values to be relatively unimportant showed the expected connections between universalism values and altruistic behaviour. Study 3 also established that the moderating effect of conformism values on the relation between universalism values and altruistic behaviour was mediated through experienced sense of moral obligation.

  4. Are perceptions of social norms regarding peer alcohol and other drug use associated with personal use in Danish adolescents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallentin-Holbech, Lotte; Rasmussen, Birthe Marie; Stock, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: This study aims to describe norm perceptions among Danish pupils aged 13-17 years related to the prevalence of personal lifetime use of alcohol and other drugs (AODs). Further we examined if norm perceptions were associated with personal lifetime AOD use. METHOD: The data were collected...... of their own grade were measured. Lifetime AOD outcome variables were alcohol consumption (at least one drink, being drunk and had five or more drinks on one occasion), smoking, and cannabis use. RESULTS: Pupils' perceptions of peer approval were significantly higher than pupils' personal approval of AOD use...... that overestimated their peers' AOD use and also for pupils that perceived peers to approve of AOD use. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight that pupils' exaggerated perceptions regarding their peers' use and approval of AOD use are related to personal experience with AODs....

  5. Changing social norms: The impact of normative feedback included in motivational enhancement therapy on cannabis outcomes among heavy-using adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Claire E; Walker, Denise D; Stephens, Robert S; Banes, Kelsey E; Roffman, Roger A

    2018-01-01

    Heavy cannabis use is a problematic behavior, particularly among some adolescents. Adolescents are particularly prone to social influence. As such, injunctive norms (perceptions of others' approval of cannabis use) and descriptive norms (perception of frequency of others' cannabis use) influence cannabis behavior. Given that norms are not always accurate, motivational enhancement therapy aims to reduce cannabis use through normative feedback and correction of normative misconceptions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between perceived norms (descriptive and injunctive) and cannabis-related outcomes (use, cannabis-related problems, and cannabis use disorder symptoms) in a heavy cannabis-using adolescent population receiving motivational enhancement therapy. Heavy cannabis-using individuals (n=252, 68% male, mean age 13.38, 59% Caucasian) were recruited from six Seattle high schools for a motivational enhancement therapy-based intervention involving normative feedback. Participants perceived higher rates of cannabis use among close friends than other same age teens and reported a higher perception of approval for cannabis use from close friends as compared to perceived approval of other same aged peers. Personal approval and the perceived approval of other same age teens were reduced following the intervention but there was no evidence of change in normative perceptions for close friends following the normative feedback interventions. Changes in normative perceptions were related to decreases in cannabis use and -related outcomes. Results suggest the importance of normative feedback in changing behavior in adolescent cannabis users, but also highlight the ongoing influence of close friends. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Normative misperceptions of tobacco use among university students in seven European countries: baseline findings of the 'Social Norms Intervention for the prevention of Polydrug usE' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischke, Claudia R; Helmer, Stefanie M; McAlaney, John; Bewick, Bridgette M; Vriesacker, Bart; Van Hal, Guido; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Akvardar, Yildiz; Guillen-Grima, Francisco; Salonna, Ferdinand; Orosova, Olga; Dohrmann, Solveig; Dempsey, Robert C; Zeeb, Hajo

    2015-12-01

    Research conducted in North America suggests that students tend to overestimate tobacco use among their peers. This perceived norm may impact personal tobacco use. It remains unclear how these perceptions influence tobacco use among European students. The two aims were to investigate possible self-other discrepancies regarding personal use and attitudes towards use and to evaluate if perceptions of peer use and peer approval of use are associated with personal use and approval of tobacco use. The EU-funded 'Social Norms Intervention for the prevention of Polydrug usE' study was conducted in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Slovak Republic, Spain, Turkey and United Kingdom. In total, 4482 students (71% female) answered an online survey including questions on personal and perceived tobacco use and personal and perceived attitudes towards tobacco use. Across all countries, the majority of students perceived tobacco use of their peers to be higher than their own use. The perception that the majority (>50%) of peers used tobacco regularly in the past two months was significantly associated with higher odds for personal regular use (OR: 2.66, 95% CI: 1.90-3.73). The perception that the majority of peers approve of tobacco use was significantly associated with higher odds for personal approval of tobacco use (OR: 6.49, 95% CI: 4.54-9.28). Perceived norms are an important predictor of personal tobacco use and attitudes towards use. Interventions addressing perceived norms may be a viable method to change attitudes and tobacco use among European students, and may be a component of future tobacco control policy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Provision of social norm feedback to high prescribers of antibiotics in general practice: a pragmatic national randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallsworth, Michael; Chadborn, Tim; Sallis, Anna; Sanders, Michael; Berry, Daniel; Greaves, Felix; Clements, Lara; Davies, Sally C

    2016-04-23

    practices were re-assigned to patient-focused intervention (n=777) or control (n=804) groups. The patient-focused intervention did not significantly affect the primary outcome measure between December, 2014, and March, 2015 (antibiotic items dispensed per 1000 population: 135.00 [95% CI 133.77-136.22] in the patient-focused intervention group and 133.98 [133.06-134.90] in the control group; IRR for difference between groups 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02; p=0.105). Social norm feedback from a high-profile messenger can substantially reduce antibiotic prescribing at low cost and at national scale; this outcome makes it a worthwhile addition to antimicrobial stewardship programmes. Public Health England. Copyright © 2016 Hallsworth et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Providing web-based feedback and social norms information to reduce student alcohol intake: a multisite investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Bridgette M; West, Robert; Gill, Jan; O'May, Fiona; Mulhern, Brendan; Barkham, Michael; Hill, Andrew J

    2010-12-19

    Unhealthy alcohol use among university students is cause for concern, yet the level of help seeking behavior for alcohol use is low within the student population. Electronic brief interventions delivered via the Internet present an alternative to traditional treatments and could enable the delivery of interventions on a population basis. Further evidence is needed of the effectiveness of Internet-delivered interventions and of their generalizability across educational institutions. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness across 4 UK universities of a Web-based intervention for student alcohol use. In total, 1112 participants took part. Participants were stratified by educational institution, gender, age group, year of study, and self-reported weekly consumption of alcohol and randomly assigned to either the control arm or to the immediate or delayed intervention arms. Intervention participants gained access to the intervention between weeks 1 to 7 or weeks 8 to 15, respectively. The intervention provided electronic personalized feedback and social norms information on drinking behavior accessed by logging on to a website. Participants registered interest by completing a brief screening questionnaire and were then asked to complete 4 further assessments across the 24 weeks of the study. Assessments included a retrospective weekly drinking diary, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and a readiness-to-change algorithm. The outcome variable was the number of units of alcohol consumed in the last week. The effect of treatment arm and time on units consumed last week and average units consumed per drinking occasion were investigated using repeated measures multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). In addition, the data were modeled using a longitudinal regression with time points clustered within students. MANCOVA revealed a main effect of time on units of alcohol consumed over the last week. A longitudinal regression model showed an

  9. NOSOTROS Y LOS OTROS. ¿CÓMO SE REPRESENTAN LOS NIÑOS Y LAS NIÑAS LAS NORMAS SOCIALES? (US AND OTHERS. HOW DO BOYS AND GIRLS REPRESENT SOCIAL NORMS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmeneta Garrido Ana Rebeca

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Los resultados presentados en este texto son el fruto de una investigación cualitativa sobre el mundo social infantil. Su principal objetivo es conocer y comprender las representaciones sociales infantiles sobre las normas y la cohesión social. El artículo reflexiona sobre las siguientes cuestiones: ¿Cómo definen la norma social los niños y las niñas? ¿En qué valores y motivos la fundamentan? ¿Cómo se sostiene el orden y la cohesión social desde la perspectiva infantil? La metodología de investigación se basa en una técnica cualitativa innovadora y de elaboración propia: el Cuento Inconcluso. Se trata de un relato inacabado en el que se plantea un conflicto normativo (la desobediencia a una norma social y que los participantes deben desarrollar y finalizar.Estudiamos una muestra de 150 relatos, escritos por estudiantes de 8 a 14 años de diez escuelas de la ciudad de Barcelona (España, 3 de nivel socioeconómico medio-alto y 7 de nivel bajo. El análisis estructural de contenido de estos textos revela la existencia de tres modelos básicos de representación social infantil de la norma: 1 la norma como núcleo de la identidad y la pertenencia a la comunidad; 2 la norma como salvaguardia del bien común; y 3 la norma como forma de racionalidad y madurez. Comentamos las principales características deestos modelos e ilustramos el análisis con algunos casos concretos.Abstract:The findings exposed in this paper are the outcome of a qualitative study into the social world of children. Its main objective is to identify and comprehend children's social representations of norms and social cohesion. The article seeks answers to the following questions: How do boys and girls define the social norm?What values and motives do they base it on? How are order and social cohesion upheld from a children's point of view? The research methodology is based on a novel qualitative technique we developed ourselves: the Unfinished Story. It

  10. Variation, structure and norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Peter

    2014-01-01

    After a period when the focus was essentially on mental architecture, the cognitive sciences are increasingly integrating the social dimension. The rise of a cognitive sociolinguistics is part of this trend. The article argues that this process requires a re-evaluation of some entrenched positions...... in linguistics: those that see linguistic norms as antithetical to a descriptive and variational linguistics. Once such a re-evaluation has taken place, however, the social recontextualization of cognition will enable linguistics (including sociolinguistics as an integral part), to eliminate the cracks...

  11. The influencing role of social capital in the formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    hindered by certain socio-cultural practices, values and norms prevailing in the environment (Krueger, Liñán ... An individual's social networks and relationships may include people who play different roles such as family ... role with regard to an individual's entrepreneurial career choice, especially through exposure to ...

  12. Knowledge, Beliefs, Behaviors, and Social Norms Related to Use of Alternative Tobacco Products Among Undergraduate and Graduate Nursing Students in an Urban U.S. University Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDevanter, Nancy; Zhou, Sherry; Katigbak, Carina; Naegle, Madeline; Sherman, Scott; Weitzman, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess nursing students' knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms regarding use of alternative tobacco products (ATPs). This anonymous online survey was conducted with all students enrolled in a college of nursing. The survey utilized measures from several national tobacco studies to assess knowledge and beliefs about ATPs (hookahs, cigars or cigarillos, bidis, kreteks, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes) compared to cigarettes, health effects of ATPs, personal use of ATPs, and social norms. Data were analyzed in SPSS 22.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Descriptive statistics and frequencies were performed for basic sociodemographic data. Paired samples t tests were performed to determine differences for scaled measures. Nursing students demonstrated very low levels of knowledge about ATPs and their health consequences, despite high rates of ATP personal use. About 76% of participants reported use of one or more ATPs once or more in their lifetimes. A greater proportion of students had used hookahs or waterpipes (39.6%) compared to cigarettes (32.7%). Nurses' lack of knowledge about the emerging use and health threats associated with ATPs may undermine their ability to provide appropriate tobacco cessation counseling. Research is needed to identify gaps in nurses' education regarding tobacco cessation counseling and to develop new counseling approaches specific to use of ATPs. Nurses play critical roles in counseling their patients for tobacco cessation. Further research and education about the risks presented by ATPs are critical to reducing excess tobacco-related mortality. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  13. Do children overestimate the extent of smoking among their peers? A feasibility study of the social norms approach to prevent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey, Helen; Owiredu, Elizabeth; Thomson, Heather; Mann, Gemma; Mehta, Rashesh; Siddiqi, Kamran

    2015-02-01

    Social norms approaches (SNA) are based on the premise that we frequently overestimate risk behaviours among our peers. By conducting campaigns to reduce these misperceptions, SNAs aim to reduce risk behaviours. This study examines the extent to which 12 to 13year old pupils overestimate smoking among their peers and explores the appropriateness of using SNA in secondary schools to prevent smoking uptake. The extent of overestimation of smoking among peers was assessed through an on-line SNA questionnaire in five schools (n=595). Based on questionnaire results, pupils developed SNA campaigns in each school. Qualitative methods of focus groups (7), interviews (7) and observation were used to explore in-depth, from the perspective of staff and pupils, the appropriateness and feasibility of the SNA to prevent smoking uptake in secondary schools. A quarter of pupils, 25.9% (95% CI 25.6% to 26.1%) believed that most of their peers smoked, however, only 3% (95% CI 2.8% to 3.3%) reported that they actually did; a difference of 22.9% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%). Self-reported smoking was not significantly different between schools (X(2)=8.7 p=0.064), however, perceptions of year group smoking was significantly different across schools (X(2)=63.9 ppeers in secondary schools, thus supporting a key premise of social norms theory. Implementing SNAs and studying effects is feasible within secondary schools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Michelle E; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Swan, Suzanne C; Billings, Deborah L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the negotiation strategies of college women as they interpret ambiguous rape scenarios. In focus groups, 1st- and 4th-year college women were presented with a series of three vignettes depicting incidents that meet the legal criteria for rape yet are ambiguous due to the presence of cultural rape myths, contexts involving alcohol consumption, varying degrees of consent, and a known perpetrator. These contexts are critical in understanding how college women define rape. Key findings indicated many of these college women utilized rape myths and norms within their peer groups to interpret rape scenarios.

  15. Development and evaluation of the efficacy of a web-based 'social norms'-intervention for the prevention and reduction of substance use in a cluster-controlled trial conducted at eight German universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, Stefanie M; Muellmann, Saskia; Zeeb, Hajo; Pischke, Claudia R

    2016-03-11

    Previous research suggests that perceptions of peer substance use are associated with personal use. Specifically, overestimating use in the peer group is predictive of higher rates of personal substance use. 'Social norms'-interventions are based on the premise that changing these misperceived social norms regarding substance use by providing feedback on actual norms is associated with a reduction in personal substance use. Studies conducted in the U.S.A. suggest that 'social norms'-feedback is an effective strategy for reducing substance use among university students. It is unknown whether the effects of a 'social norms'-feedback on substance use can be replicated in a sample of German university students. The objective of this article is to describe the study design and aims of the 'INternet-based Social norms-Intervention for the prevention of substance use among Students' (INSIST)-study, a cluster-controlled trial examining the effects of a web-based 'social norms'- intervention in students enrolled at four intervention universities with those enrolled at four delayed intervention control universities. The INSIST-study is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Health. Eight universities in four regions in Germany will take part in the study, four serving as intervention and four as delayed intervention control universities (randomly selected within a geographic region). Six hundred students will be recruited at each university and will be asked to complete a web-based survey assessing personal and perceived substance use/attitudes towards substance use at baseline. These data will be used to develop the web-based 'social norms'-feedback tailored to gender and university. Three months after the baseline survey, students at intervention universities will receive the intervention. Two months after the launch of the intervention, students of all eight universities will be asked to complete the follow-up questionnaires to assess changes in perceptions of

  16. « Se montrer prévoyant » : une norme sociale diversement appropriée

    OpenAIRE

    Comby, Jean‑Baptiste; Grossetête, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    À partir de statistiques et d’entretiens, cet article entend montrer que la norme de prévoyance, à laquelle tout un chacun est prié de se conformer dans le cadre de ses déplacements et de ses consommations énergétiques, définit un nouvel horizon de la citoyenneté devant lequel les groupes sociaux sont inégaux. L’analyse de la mise en forme statistique et de la communication publique sur la « sécurité routière » et les « changements climatiques » montre tout d’abord comment le principe de prév...

  17. The Role of Social Norms in the Portion Size Effect: Reducing normative relevance reduces the effect of portion size on consumption decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eVersluis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available People typically eat more from large portions of food than from small portions. An explanation that has often been given for this so-called portion size effect is that the portion size acts as a social norm and as such communicates how much is appropriate to eat. In this paper, we tested this explanation by examining whether manipulating the relevance of the portion size as a social norm changes the portion size effect, as assessed by prospective consumption decisions. We conducted one pilot experiment and one full experiment in which participants respectively indicated how much they would eat or serve themselves from a given amount of different foods. In the pilot (N = 63, we manipulated normative relevance by allegedly basing the portion size on the behavior of either students of the own university (in-group or of another university (out-group. In the main experiment (N = 321, we told participants that either a minority or majority of people similar to them approved of the portion size. Results show that in both experiments, participants expected to serve themselves and to eat more from larger than from smaller portions. As expected, however, the portion size effect was less pronounced when the reference portions were allegedly based on the behavior of an out-group (pilot or approved only by a minority (main experiment. These findings suggest that the portion size indeed provides normative information, because participants were less influenced by it if it communicated the behaviors or values of a less relevant social group. In addition, in the main experiment, the relation between portion size and the expected amount served was partially mediated by the amount that was considered appropriate, suggesting that concerns about eating an appropriate amount indeed play a role in the portion size effect. However, since the portion size effect was weakened but not eliminated by the normative relevance manipulations and since mediation was only partial

  18. Liberal Norms and Their Discontents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Deborah A

    2012-09-01

    Recent analyses of the predominance of liberals in personality and social psychology have raised the possibility that this ideological imbalance is driven in part by active discrimination against conservatives. In this article, I review empirical evidence relevant to this possibility and find little support for it. The evidence points instead to a predominance of liberal views in academia more generally, driven by multiple factors including the consonance of academic work with the goals and values of liberals. Within the field of personality and social psychology, this concentration of liberal views has fostered strong liberal norms, which both intensify and exaggerate the field's ideological homogeneity. These liberal norms have unfortunate narrowing effects on research in personality and social psychology; remedies for these effects should focus on weakening the norms. © The Author(s) 2012.

  19. The Criticality of Norms to the Functional Imperatives of the Social Action System of College and University Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braxton, John M.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I assert that the work of colleges and universities forms a social action system. I array the critical positions represented in this issue according to the four functional imperatives of social action systems: adaptation, goal attainment, integration, and pattern maintenance. I discuss the role of normative structures for these…

  20. Quotient normed cones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    general setting of the space CL(X, Y ) of all continuous linear mappings from a normed cone (X, p) to a normed cone (Y, q), extending several well-known results related to open continuous linear mappings between normed linear spaces. Keywords. Normed cone; extended quasi-metric; continuous linear mapping; bicom-.

  1. Expectancy and Professional Norms in Legal Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Dorrit; Hjort-Pedersen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a qualitative study seeking to generate hypotheses about norms as psycho-social entities amongst professional producers and commissioners of legal translations, and to shed light on the reasons underlying these norms. In particular, we wish to investigate how...... training to heighten student translators’ awareness that norms are not a uniform entity, but subject to different perceptions depending on discourse community membership....

  2. Consumer Preferences for Local Food: Testing an Extended Norm Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Wenzig

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumer attitudes toward consuming and buying locally produced food are well studied. By contrast, the topic of consumer preferences for local food, with a special emphasis on the role of norms, still lacks empirical evidence. To study the influence of norms and morals on the intention to buy local food products, a quantitative study (N = 327 focusing on external social and internalized moral norms was conducted using the constructs of the theory of planned behavior in combination with an extended norm taxonomy and the perceived consumer effectiveness measure. The norm constructs consisted of two different personal norms, integrated and introjected, and two social norms, descriptive and injunctive. In a factor analysis, two factors for social norms but only one for personal norms were obtained. Multiple regressions explained 50 percent of the variance in intentions and 29 percent of the variance in past behavior. Norm constructs were proven important in the model, as personal norms had the largest effect among all constructs on intentions, and descriptive norms strongly influenced past behavior. An additional mediation analysis showed that personal norms were internalized social injunctive norms and that intentions mediated the relationship between all constructs. The implications of the findings and recommendations for future research are given accordingly.

  3. ELSA 2016 Cohort: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana Use and Their Association with Age of Drug Use Onset, Risk Perception, and Social Norms in Argentinean College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatti, Angelina; Read, Jennifer P.; Pautassi, Ricardo M.

    2017-01-01

    The transition from high school to college is a high-risk stage for the initiation and escalation of substance use. Substance use and its associated risk factors have been thoroughly described in developed countries, such as the United States, but largely neglected in Argentina, a South American country with patterns of a collectivist culture. The present cross-sectional study describes the occurrence of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use and the association between these behaviors and the age of onset of substance use and cognitive (i.e., risk perception) and social (i.e., prescriptive) variables in a large sample of Argentinean college freshmen (n = 4083, 40.1% men; mean age = 19.39 ± 2.18 years). The response rate across courses was ≥90% and was similarly distributed across sex. Participants completed a survey that measured substance use (alcohol [with a focus on heavy drinking and binge drinking behaviors], tobacco, and marijuana), age of onset of the use of each substance, perceived risk associated with various substance use behaviors, prescriptive norms associated with substance use, and descriptive norms for alcohol use (AU). The results indicated that AU is nearly normative (90.4 and 80.3% with last year and last month use, respectively) in this population, and heavy drinking is highly prevalent (68.6 and 54.9% with heavy episodic and binge drinking, respectively), especially among those with an early drinking onset (97.8 and 93.6% with last year and last month use and 87.8 and 76.3% with heavy episodic and binge drinking, respectively). The last-year occurrence of tobacco and marijuana use was 36 and 28%, respectively. Early substance use was associated with the greater use of that specific substance. The students overestimated their same-sex friend’s AU, and women overestimated the level of AU of their best male friend. At the multivariate level, all of the predictors, with the exception of the parents’ prescriptive norms, significantly explained

  4. ELSA 2016 Cohort: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana Use and Their Association with Age of Drug Use Onset, Risk Perception, and Social Norms in Argentinean College Freshmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Pilatti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The transition from high school to college is a high-risk stage for the initiation and escalation of substance use. Substance use and its associated risk factors have been thoroughly described in developed countries, such as the United States, but largely neglected in Argentina, a South American country with patterns of a collectivist culture. The present cross-sectional study describes the occurrence of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use and the association between these behaviors and the age of onset of substance use and cognitive (i.e., risk perception and social (i.e., prescriptive variables in a large sample of Argentinean college freshmen (n = 4083, 40.1% men; mean age = 19.39 ± 2.18 years. The response rate across courses was ≥90% and was similarly distributed across sex. Participants completed a survey that measured substance use (alcohol [with a focus on heavy drinking and binge drinking behaviors], tobacco, and marijuana, age of onset of the use of each substance, perceived risk associated with various substance use behaviors, prescriptive norms associated with substance use, and descriptive norms for alcohol use (AU. The results indicated that AU is nearly normative (90.4 and 80.3% with last year and last month use, respectively in this population, and heavy drinking is highly prevalent (68.6 and 54.9% with heavy episodic and binge drinking, respectively, especially among those with an early drinking onset (97.8 and 93.6% with last year and last month use and 87.8 and 76.3% with heavy episodic and binge drinking, respectively. The last-year occurrence of tobacco and marijuana use was 36 and 28%, respectively. Early substance use was associated with the greater use of that specific substance. The students overestimated their same-sex friend’s AU, and women overestimated the level of AU of their best male friend. At the multivariate level, all of the predictors, with the exception of the parents’ prescriptive norms

  5. The Protective Role of Social Capital and Cultural Norms in Latino Communities: A Study of Adolescent Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Jill; Kirby, Douglas; Coyle, Karin; Brindis, Claire

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated how communities limit teenage childbearing among Latinas, despite high rates of poverty. Data from documents and 167 interviews in eight California communities with low or high birthrates for Latinas aged 15-17 found that communities with low adolescent birthrates had more Latino residents, stronger social networks, and…

  6. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    This paper investigates whether norms guiding environmentally desirable behaviour are genuinely internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures or just shallowly "introjected" social norms. Internet-based questionnaires were administered to a stratified sample of Danish...... to the studied behaviour differ significantly depending on the strength of their norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. The behavioural influence of subjective social norms and expressed reasons and motives is mediated through personal norms...

  7. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates whether norms guiding environmentally desirable behaviour are genuinely internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures or just shallowly "introjected" social norms. Internet-based questionnaires were administered to a stratified sample of Danish...... to the studied behaviour differ significantly depending on the strength of their norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. The behavioural influence of subjective social norms and expressed reasons and motives is mediated through personal norms...

  8. Exploration of Gender Norms and Socialization Among Early Adolescents: The Use of Qualitative Methods for the Global Early Adolescent Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmari, Kristin; Blum, Robert W; Atnafou, Rebkha; Chilet, Elisa; de Meyer, Sara; El-Gibaly, Omaima; Basu, Sharmistha; Bello, Bamidele; Maina, Beatrice; Zuo, Xiayun

    2017-10-01

    The Global Early Adolescent Study (GEAS) was launched in 2014 with the primary goal of understanding the factors in early adolescence that predispose young people to subsequent sexual risks, and conversely, those that promote healthy sexuality across different cultural contexts. The present article describes the methodology that was used for the first phase of GEAS, which consisted of conducting qualitative research to understand the gendered transitions into adolescence and the role that gender norms play within the key relationships of adolescents. Researchers from each of the sites that had completed data collection were also elicited for their feedback on the key strengths, challenges, and lessons learned from conducting research among 11- to 14-year-old adolescents. The purpose of this article is to present the description of each of the methods that were used in GEAS, as well as the researchers' perspectives of using the methods among early adolescents in their sites. The GEAS is being implemented through a collaboration of university and nongovernmental institutions from 15 cities: Assiut (Egypt) Baltimore (U.S.), Blantyre (Malawi), Cape Town (South Africa), Cochabomba (Bolivia), Cuenca (Ecuador), Edinburgh (Scotland), Ghent (Belgium), Hanoi (Vietnam), Ile-Ife (Nigeria), Kinshasa (DRC), Nairobi (Kenya), New Delhi (India), Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), and Shanghai (China). Approximately 30 in-depth interviews among adolescents and 30 in-depth interviews with their parent/guardian were conducted at each site, with adults and adolescents interviewed separately. To build trust and increase engagement among the adolescent participants, we used two different visual research methods: (1) timeline exercise which was small group based and (2) the Venn diagram exercise which was conducted individually and used at the start of the in-depth interview. The visual aspects of both the timeline and the Venn diagrams not only helped to produce data for the purposes of the

  9. Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC) Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Annual reports of the Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC), which studies the prevailing (market) rate system for wages and other matters pertinent to...

  10. Waardes as norme en as meta-norme/beginsels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Van Niekerk

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available The fruitfulness and the necessity of the distinction between values and norms and as principles are investigated by way of the theory of political development, the legal philosophical issue surrounding natural law and positivism and the views of Habermas. In political developmental theory questions centring on value gained legitimate relevancy under the influ­ ence of the post-behaviorist approach. The quest for cultural universalia or values as principles became important in this sphere because it seems to be the only way to escape from the syndrome of modernity. Through the rejection of the oppositions and one-sidedness of legal positivism and natural law and with the aid of the distinction between values, norms and principles the productive contribution of this spurious dilemma is high­ lighted and a clearer delineation is given of the concepts legal develop­ ment and structural violence. In conclusion Habermas's distinction between norms and meta-norms is investigated critically and immanent contradictions in his views are pointed out. The central place which this issue has in his thought can be seen as a confirmation of the importance of this distinction. It is relevant for all the normative disciplines which - in contrast to the natural sciences - focus on the role of linguistic, social, ethical, legal and artistic norms valid for human societies.

  11. Music to whose ears? The effect of social norms on young people′s risk perceptions of hearing damage resulting from their music listening behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Gilliver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional and community concerns about the potentially dangerous noise levels for common leisure activities has led to increased interest on providing hearing health information to participants. However, noise reduction programmes aimed at leisure activities (such as music listening face a unique difficulty. The noise source that is earmarked for reduction by hearing health professionals is often the same one that is viewed as pleasurable by participants. Furthermore, these activities often exist within a social setting, with additional peer influences that may influence behavior. The current study aimed to gain a better understanding of social-based factors that may influence an individual′s motivation to engage in positive hearing health behaviors. Four hundred and eighty-four participants completed questionnaires examining their perceptions of the hearing risk associated with listening to music listening and asking for estimates of their own and their peer′s music listening behaviors. Participants were generally aware of the potential risk posed by listening to personal stereo players (PSPs and the volumes likely to be most dangerous. Approximately one in five participants reported using listening volumes at levels perceived to be dangerous, an incidence rate in keeping with other studies measuring actual PSP use. However, participants showed less awareness of peers′ behavior, consistently overestimating the volumes at which they believed their friends listened. Misperceptions of social norms relating to listening behavior may decrease individuals′ perceptions of susceptibility to hearing damage. The consequences of hearing health promotion are discussed, along with suggestions relating to the development of new programs.

  12. A comprehensive examination of hookah smoking in college students: use patterns and contexts, social norms and attitudes, harm perception, psychological correlates and co-occurring substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Giedgowd, Grace E; Crane, Natania A; Veilleux, Jennifer C; Conrad, Megan; Braun, Ashley R; Olejarska, Natalia A; Kassel, Jon D

    2013-11-01

    The practice of waterpipe smoking (hookah) has rapidly increased in popularity among young adults yet burgeoning research suggests that its use is associated with nicotine dependence and other negative smoking-related health consequences. Moreover, descriptive studies indicate that consumers may hold the belief that hookah smoking is safer than smoking cigarettes. The current study extended previous work by conducting a comprehensive assessment of patterns and contexts of hookah use, psychological correlates of use, co-occurring substance use as well as social norms and health perceptions surrounding the practice. Participants were 143 ethnically diverse undergraduate students at a large urban US university. Approximately half of the sample (48%) reported life-time use of hookah and 22% reported use within the past 30days. Relative to cigarette smoking, hookah smoking was associated with less perceived harm and addiction potential and higher social approval. Participants who reported life-time hookah use, as compared to those who did not, perceived less associated harm, had a greater number of friends who had tried and approved of hookah, were more likely to use cigarettes, marijuana, and alcohol and in higher frequencies and quantities and were at higher risk for problem tobacco and alcohol use. Among participants who were not current smokers, those with hookah experience were more likely to endorse intent to try a cigarette soon. Hookah users did not differ from non-users on measures of trait anxiety, depression and impulsivity though they were more likely to drink alcohol for coping, social and enhancement purposes than non-users. Implications are discussed for public health initiatives to educate young adults about the potential consequences of hookah smoking. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Social History of Ascariasis in the 1960s Korea : From a Norm to a Shameful Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junho JUNG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Until the 1950s, Ascaris was regarded as an essential part of life which controls every aspect of human physiology among Koreans. Therefore, Ascaris should not be removed from human body. Efforts from medical professionals and the Korean government officials who wished to push forward the parasite control program, had to constantly contest with this perception of Ascaris among ordinary Koreans. In 1966, the ‘Parasitic Disease Prevention Act’ was promulgated and ‘the Korean Association for Parasite Eradication (KAPE’ established in Korea. From the 1970s, Korea mobilized 15 million people each year to achieve the eradication goal. Such mass mobilization could not be possible without public awareness on necessity of parasite eradication. Until the early 1960s, however, Korean people were not sympathetic to the needs of eradication of parasites, especially that of Ascaris. Then, what changed the social perception towards Ascaris during the 1960s? What contributing factors allowed the mass mobilization and public involvement for that campaign? Employing newspaper articles and periodicals, this paper analyzes how social perception on Ascariasis changed during the 1960s, when the ‘Parasitic Disease Prevention Act’ was established. During the 1960s, Ascariasis became a shameful disease for Koreans. A series of events made Ascariasis more visible and shameful to Koreans. First event happened with Korean miners who were dispatched to Germany in 1963. When the miners turned out to have been infected with intestinal parasites, they were prohibited from work at the mines by the authorities in Germany and quarantined for several weeks. This humiliating experience of Korean expatriate people having bodies swarmed with parasites became a national shame to Koreans. The parasite infected bodies of Korean workers were revealed to the World through German newspapers. Second event happened when a child died of intestinal obstruction due to Ascariasis

  14. NORM - practical guide; NORM - guia pratico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Rocio dos (ed.)

    2016-07-01

    The experience of the authors and a literature review on the evaluation of national and international regulatory guides are presented. The objective is to help understand the need to implement the best practices for NORM management in the industries that produce the NORM wastes. The book should act as a reference point, basic, friendly and useful to assist the reader in NORM management activities. The reader should be warned that management requires consultation and involvement of a significant number of stakeholders, in addition to the approval of competent authorities. A list and the technical biography of the authors are also described.

  15. Families of Norms Generated By 2-Norm

    OpenAIRE

    Risto Malčeski; Katerina Anevska

    2016-01-01

    In [1] S. Gähler proof that for any linearly independent vector a b L , ,  the equality || || || , || || , || x x a x b   , x L  defines a norm on L . This result is generalized by A. Misiak in [2], and in [3] is presented other proof of this result. Moreover, H. Gunawan in [4] generalized these results. In this paper we’ll generalize the S. Gähler’s result of 2-normed space, which can easy be generalized on n-normed space. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. ...

  16. The association between parents' perceived social norms for toothbrushing and the frequency with which they report brushing their child's teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubey, R J; Moore, S C; Chestnutt, I G

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether parents' judgements on how often other parents brush their children's teeth are associated with the frequency with which they brush their own children's teeth, and their satisfaction with their child's brushing routine. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey completed by 297 parents of children aged 3-6. Parents were asked how often they brushed their own child's teeth per week, how often they thought other parents did so, and how satisfied they were with their child's toothbrushing routine. Demographic data were also collected. The mean frequency that parents brushed their children's teeth was 12.5 times per week. Multiple regression analysis tested the relationship between parents' perceptions of other parents brushing frequency (mean 10.5 times per week) and how often they brushed their own child's teeth, controlling for socio-demographic factors, and yielded a positive association (p parents' satisfaction with their child's brushing routine and the extent to which they thought it was better than that of the average child (p Parents' judgements on how frequently other parents brush their children's teeth are associated with their own behaviour and satisfaction. Re-framing oral health messages to include some form of social normative information ("most parents do this") may prove more persuasive than simple prescriptive advice ("you should do this").

  17. Resistance to peer influence moderates the relationship between perceived (but not actual) peer norms and binge drinking in a college student social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGuiseppi, Graham T; Meisel, Matthew K; Balestrieri, Sara G; Ott, Miles Q; Cox, Melissa J; Clark, Melissa A; Barnett, Nancy P

    2018-05-01

    Adolescent and young adult binge drinking is strongly associated with perceived social norms and the drinking behavior that occurs within peer networks. The extent to which an individual is influenced by the behavior of others may depend upon that individual's resistance to peer influence (RPI). Students in their first semester of college (N=1323; 54.7% female, 57% White, 15.1% Hispanic) reported on their own binge drinking, and the perceived binge drinking of up to 10 important peers in the first-year class. Using network autocorrelation models, we investigated cross-sectional relationships between participant's binge drinking frequency and the perceived and actual binge drinking frequency of important peers. We then tested the moderating role of RPI, expecting that greater RPI would weaken the relationship between perceived and actual peer binge drinking on participant binge drinking. Perceived and actual peer binge drinking were statistically significant predictors of participant binge drinking frequency in the past month, after controlling for covariates. RPI significantly moderated the association between perceptions of peer binge drinking and participant's own binge drinking; this association was weaker among participants with higher RPI compared to those with lower RPI. RPI did not interact with the actual binge drinking behavior of network peers. RPI may function to protect individuals from the effect of their perceptions about the binge drinking of peers, but not from the effect of the actual binge drinking of peers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Management of NORM/TENORM Waste from Non Nuclear Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djarot S Wisnubroto

    2003-01-01

    Management of NORM/TENORM waste is now to be an issue and discussed in many international conferences and seminars. This paper describes the status of the management of NORM/TENORM waste including the origin of the waste, regulations and assessment of waste disposal. Several countries have established the regulation for NORM/TENORM waste; however the IAEA has not yet published guideline for management of NORM/TENORM. There are many options for disposal of NORM/TENORM waste based on standard of the radioactive waste disposal. The decision and policy on management of NORM/TENORM waste must be conducted carefully due to the social and economical impacts. (author)

  19. Energizing and de-motivating effects of norm-conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Rachel I; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2013-01-01

    Norms have a pervasive influence on behavior, yet previous research has not addressed that people often face conflicting norms from multiple ingroups. The current research addresses this gap in the context of proenvironmental behavior and demonstrates two effects predicted by the novel theoretical position we offer: People can be de-motivated by norm-conflict, or conversely, norm-conflict can encourage people to take action. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that norm-conflict is associated with increased perceived effectiveness for those with positive attitudes to the issue and reduced perceived effectiveness for those with moderate attitudes, and effectiveness perceptions mediated an indirect effect on behavioral intentions. Study 3 found that perceived effectiveness also moderates the effects of norm-conflict such that norm-conflict only influences intentions when perceived effectiveness is high. Norm-conflict is both positively and negatively related to behavioral decision making, suggesting additional considerations in the design of social norms-based interventions.

  20. A Review of Norms and Normative Multiagent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud, Moamin A.; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Mohd Yusoff, Mohd Zaliman; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental con...

  1. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2009-01-01

    How internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures are norms guiding environmentally desirable behavior? In two surveys (N = 206 and N = 200), subjective social norms and personal norms for a specific behavior (the purchase of organic food or recycling) as well as self-reported...... of really low-cost behaviors (e.g., recycling in many contexts), environmentally responsible behavior is guided by what seems to be truly internalized and integrated (personal) norms....

  2. Employment status and mortality in the context of high and low regional unemployment levels in Belgium (2001–2011): A test of the social norm hypothesis across educational levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedoorn, Paulien; Vanroelen, Christophe; Gadeyne, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    Because of compositional effects (more highly educated unemployed) and differences in the vulnerability towards the health consequences of unemployment (i.e. disappointment paradox hypothesis and/or status inconsistency for highly educated unemployed), it is argued that indicators of educational attainment need to be included when investigating the social norm of unemployment. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001–2011 are used, selecting all Belgian employed and unemployed between 30 and 59-year-old at time of the census. Poisson multilevel modelling was used to account for clustering of respondents within sub-districts. For individuals with low education levels, the relative difference in mortality rate ratios between the unemployed and employed is smallest in those regions where aggregate unemployment levels are high. For highly educated, this social norm effect was not found. This study suggest that the social norm effect is stronger for workers with low education levels, while highly educated workers suffer from disappointment and status inconsistency. PMID:29420646

  3. Adaptation and perceptual norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

    2007-02-01

    We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

  4. A psychosocial analysis of parents' decisions for limiting their young child's screen time: An examination of attitudes, social norms and roles, and control perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Spinks, Teagan; White, Katherine M; Kavanagh, David J; Walsh, Anne M

    2016-05-01

    Preschool-aged children spend substantial amounts of time engaged in screen-based activities. As parents have considerable control over their child's health behaviours during the younger years, it is important to understand those influences that guide parents' decisions about their child's screen time behaviours. A prospective design with two waves of data collection, 1 week apart, was adopted. Parents (n = 207) completed a Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)-based questionnaire, with the addition of parental role construction (i.e., parents' expectations and beliefs of responsibility for their child's behaviour) and past behaviour. A number of underlying beliefs identified in a prior pilot study were also assessed. The model explained 77% (with past behaviour accounting for 5%) of the variance in intention and 50% (with past behaviour accounting for 3%) of the variance in parental decisions to limit child screen time. Attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, parental role construction, and past behaviour predicted intentions, and intentions and past behaviour predicted follow-up behaviour. Underlying screen time beliefs (e.g., increased parental distress, pressure from friends, inconvenience) were also identified as guiding parents' decisions. Results support the TPB and highlight the importance of beliefs for understanding parental decisions for children's screen time behaviours, as well as the addition of parental role construction. This formative research provides necessary depth of understanding of sedentary lifestyle behaviours in young children which can be adopted in future interventions to test the efficacy of the TPB mechanisms in changing parental behaviour for their child's health. What is already known on this subject? Identifying determinants of child screen time behaviour is vital to the health of young people. Social-cognitive and parental role constructions are key influences of parental decision-making. Little is known about the

  5. "Be Nice": Wikipedia norms for supportive communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagle, Joseph M.

    2010-04-01

    Wikipedia is acknowledged to have been home to "some bitter disputes." Indeed, conflict at Wikipedia is said to be "as addictive as cocaine." Yet, such observations are not cynical commentary but motivation for a collection of social norms. These norms speak to the intentional stance and communicative behaviors Wikipedians should adopt when interacting with one another. In the following pages, I provide a survey of these norms on the English Wikipedia and argue that they can be characterized as supportive based on Jack Gibb's classic communication article "Defensive Communication."

  6. A review of norms and normative multiagent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Moamin A; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Yusoff, Mohd Zaliman Mohd; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work.

  7. Caste and Punishment: The Legacy of Caste Culture in Norm Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Karla; Kshetramade, Mayuresh; Fehr, Ernst

    2010-01-01

    Well-functioning groups enforce social norms that restrain opportunism, but the social structure of a society may encourage or inhibit norm enforcement. This paper studies how the exogenous assignment to different positions in an extreme social hierarchy - the caste system - affects individuals' willingness to punish violations of a cooperation norm. Although the analysis controls for indi...

  8. Gender Norms, Poverty and Armed Conflict in Côte D'Ivoire: Engaging Men in Women's Social and Economic Empowerment Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falb, K. L.; Annan, J.; King, E.; Hopkins, J.; Kpebo, D.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging men is a critical component in efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Little is known regarding men's perspectives of approaches that challenge inequitable gender norms, particularly in settings impacted by armed conflict. This article describes men's experiences with a women's empowerment program and highlights men's…

  9. RxNorm

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — RxNorm provides normalized names for clinical drugs and links its names to many of the drug vocabularies commonly used in pharmacy management and drug interaction...

  10. What Do Older People Think That Others Think of Them, and Does It Matter? The Role of Meta-Perceptions and Social Norms in the Prediction of Perceived Age Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Psychological theories of aging highlight the importance of social context. However, very little research has distinguished empirically between older people’s perception of how others in their social context perceive them (personal meta-perceptions) and the shared perceptions in society (societal meta-perceptions). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping and using a multilevel perspective, this article examines how well older people’s perceptions of age discrimination (PAD) are predicted by (a) older people’s personal meta-perceptions, (b) societal meta-perceptions, and (c) social norms of intolerance toward age prejudice. Aging meta-perceptions are differentiated into the cognitive and affective components of ageism. Multilevel analyses of data from the European Social Survey (Nover 70 years of age = 8,123, 29 countries; European Social Survey (ESS) Round 4 Data, 2008) confirmed that older people’s personal meta-perceptions of negative age stereotypes and specific intergroup emotions (pity, envy, contempt) are associated with higher PAD. However, at the societal-level, only paternalistic meta-perceptions were consistently associated with greater PAD. The results show that a few meta-perceptions operate only as a psychological phenomenon in explaining PAD, some carry consonant, and others carry contrasting effects at the societal-level of analysis. This evidence extends previous research on aging meta-perceptions by showing that both the content of meta-perceptions and the level of analysis at which they are assessed make distinct contributions to PAD. Moreover, social norms of intolerance of age prejudice have a larger statistical effect than societal meta-perceptions. Social interventions would benefit from considering these differential findings. PMID:27831711

  11. Quotient normed cones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: o.valero@uib.es. MS received 16 December 2005. Abstract. Given a normed cone (X, p) and a subcone Y, we construct and study the quotient normed cone (X/Y, ˜p) generated by Y. In particular we characterize the bicompleteness of (X/Y, ˜p) in terms of the bicompleteness of (X, p), and prove that the dual quotient ...

  12. Norms and customs: causally important or causally impotent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Todd

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I argue that norms and customs, despite frequently being described as being causes of behavior in the social sciences and ordinary conversation, cannot really cause behavior. Terms like "norms" and the like seem to refer to philosophically disreputable disjunctive properties. More problematically, even if they do not, or even if there can be disjunctive properties after all, I argue that norms and customs still cannot cause behavior. The social sciences would be better off without referring to properties like norms and customs as if they could be causal.

  13. Addressing social barriers and closing the gender knowledge gap: exposure to road shows is associated with more knowledge and more positive beliefs, attitudes and social norms regarding exclusive breastfeeding in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Alison L; Tavengwa, Naume V; Chasekwa, Bernard; Chatora, Kumbirai; Taruberekera, Noah; Mushayi, Wellington; Madzima, Rufaro C; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N

    2012-10-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is rarely practiced despite its significant child survival benefits. A key constraint to increasing EBF rates in Zimbabwe and most of the developing world is that key decision makers (fathers/partners and other family members) are often poorly informed about EBF and do not attend antenatal clinics where health information is routinely provided. Informed by formative research, a district-wide campaign was conducted in rural Zimbabwe to encourage EBF and expressing and heat treating (EHT) breast milk as a means to maintain EBF. The campaign combined traditional strategies of education, counselling and outreach through health service delivery with a novel road show 'edutainment' intervention to reach men and other community members. A post campaign evaluation measured the association of road show exposure with 20 knowledge items and summative scores of social norms, beliefs and attitudes obtained through exploratory factor analysis. In adjusted models, road show exposure was associated with correct EBF knowledge (β=1.0, 0.001), EHT knowledge (β=1.3, Pcondom use during pregnancy and breastfeeding (β=0.5, Pcondom use during breastfeeding (β=0.6, P<0.001). Road show exposure was more strongly associated with EBF knowledge among men (P-value for gender×exposure group interaction=0.03), suggesting that it also closed the knowledge gap between men and women. Longitudinal studies will determine whether road shows were associated with changes in EBF practices. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Bundles of Norms About Teen Sex and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie

    2015-09-01

    Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Gender norms, poverty and armed conflict in Côte D’Ivoire: engaging men in women’s social and economic empowerment programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falb, K. L.; Annan, J.; King, E.; Hopkins, J.; Kpebo, D.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging men is a critical component in efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Little is known regarding men’s perspectives of approaches that challenge inequitable gender norms, particularly in settings impacted by armed conflict. This article describes men’s experiences with a women’s empowerment program and highlights men’s perceptions of gender norms, poverty and armed conflict, as they relate to achieving programmatic goals. Data are from 32 Ivorian men who participated in indepth interviews in 2012. Interviews were undertaken as part of an intervention that combined gender dialogue groups for both women and their male partners with women’s only village savings and loans programs to reduce IPV against women. Findings suggested that in the context of armed conflict, traditional gender norms and economic stressors experienced by men challenged fulfillment of gender roles and threatened men’s sense of masculinity. Men who participated in gender dialogue groups discussed their acceptance of programming and identified improvements in their relationships with their female partners. These men further discussed increased financial planning along with their partners, and attributed such increases to the intervention. Addressing men’s perceptions of masculinity, poverty and armed conflict may be key components to reduce men’s violence against women in conflict-affected settings. PMID:25274720

  16. Une industrie normée ? Gouvernement par les normes, jeu sur les normes et internationalisation des chaînes de valeur dans le secteur pharmaceutique

    OpenAIRE

    Labrousse, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    Dans le secteur pharmaceutique, les normes sont présentes à chaque maillon de la chaîne de valeur. Ces normes, loin d’être de simples énoncés scientifiques ou techniques socialement inertes sont des construits politiques et sociaux dont se saisissent des acteurs divers au pouvoir variable. Est examiné ici, dans une perspective d’économie politique des normes, le cycle des normes pharmaceutiques (bonnes pratiques cliniques, de laboratoire et de fabrication), de leur négociation à leur mise en ...

  17. Prevailing Torque Locking Feature in Threaded Fasteners Using Anaerobic Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alan; Hess, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests to assess the use of anaerobic adhesive for providing a prevailing torque locking feature in threaded fasteners. Test procedures are developed and tests are performed on three fastener materials, four anaerobic adhesives, and both unseated assembly conditions. Five to ten samples are tested for each combination. Tests for initial use, reuse without additional adhesive, and reuse with additional adhesive are performed for all samples. A 48-hour cure time was used for all initial use and reuse tests. Test data are presented as removal torque versus removal angle with the specification required prevailing torque range added for performance assessment. Percent specification pass rates for the all combinations of fastener material, adhesive, and assembly condition are tabulated and reveal use of anaerobic adhesive as a prevailing torque locking feature is viable. Although not every possible fastener material and anaerobic adhesive combination provides prevailing torque values within specification, any combination can be assessed using the test procedures presented. Reuse without additional anaerobic adhesive generally provides some prevailing torque, and in some cases within specification. Reuse with additional adhesive often provides comparable removal torque data as in initial use.

  18. Norms and practices within marriage which shape gender roles, HIV/AIDS risk and risk reduction strategies in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandali, S

    2011-09-01

    Despite increasing HIV/AIDS rates among married individuals, minimal research has been conducted on how men and women respond to risk in a marriage. This paper examines strategies used by married individuals to combat HIV/AIDS risk against prevailing gender norms. Qualitative data were gathered in four villages of Cabo Delgado province, Mozambique. Group discussions were held with 160 men and women to explore gender norms, HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk determinants. From the group discussions, 29 individuals were selected for further in-depth interviews to explore relationships between gender norms and risk reduction efforts within marriages. Findings illustrate how infidelity and social limitations placed on condom use not only increase HIV/AIDS risk but also entrench gender disparities. Although power differences between genders can make it difficult to negotiate safe sex, men and women are taking measures to reduce perceived HIV/AIDS risk in their marriage. Married men are reconstructing norms and taking responsibility to protect their family from HIV/AIDS by remaining faithful. For women, responses to HIV/AIDS risk in a marriage are more closely related to their ability to generate an income. Financially dependent women tend to leave a risky marriage altogether in contrast to financially autonomous women who will negotiate condom use with their husband. Factors such as experience with a risky partner, the desire to maintain a good social standing, fear of HIV/AIDS acquisition and parental guidance and support influence men and women to reduce perceived HIV/AIDS risk, despite constraining gender norms and power imbalances in a marriage. Nuanced understandings of the ways in which men and women are already taking measures to decrease noted HIV/AIDS risk, despite gender norms that make this a challenge, should be incorporated into localised responses.

  19. From work with men and boys to changes of social norms and reduction of inequities in gender relations: a conceptual shift in prevention of violence against women and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Flood, Michael; Lang, James

    2015-04-18

    Violence perpetrated by and against men and boys is a major public health problem. Although individual men's use of violence differs, engagement of all men and boys in action to prevent violence against women and girls is essential. We discuss why this engagement approach is theoretically important and how prevention interventions have developed from treating men simply as perpetrators of violence against women and girls or as allies of women in its prevention, to approaches that seek to transform the relations, social norms, and systems that sustain gender inequality and violence. We review evidence of intervention effectiveness in the reduction of violence or its risk factors, features commonly seen in more effective interventions, and how strong evidence-based interventions can be developed with more robust use of theory. Future interventions should emphasise work with both men and boys and women and girls to change social norms on gender relations, and need to appropriately accommodate the differences between men and women in the design of programmes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Group Norms, Threat, and Children's Racial Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Maass, Anne; Durkin, Kevin; Griffiths, Judith

    2005-01-01

    To assess predictions from social identity development theory (SIDT; Nesdale, 2004) concerning children's ethnic/racial prejudice, 197 Anglo-Australian children ages 7 or 9 years participated in a minimal group study as a member of a team that had a norm of inclusion or exclusion. The team was threatened or not threatened by an out-group that was…

  1. Is the Economic Crisis Challenging the Prevailing Gender Regime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Jepsen, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether the current economic and financial crisis is challenging the prevailing gender-equality model in four European countries: Denmark, Germany, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom. After situating the countries in relation to the underlying gender regime...... and analysing the corresponding position of women and men in paid and unpaid work, the paper contains an in-depth discussion of the short- and medium-term policy responses to the crisis. Our analysis shows that independent of the prevailing gender regime, scant public attention has been directed to gender...

  2. Epistemological Norms and Companion Meanings in Science Classroom Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Almqvist, Jonas; Ostman, Leif

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe two central epistemological norms related to the importance of making investigations and to scientific language and its logic. These norms have been identified in empirical material consisting of 200 video-recorded lessons in three different science classes. With regard to the learning of science and socialization, we…

  3. Morality salience increases adherence to salient norms and values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gailliot, M.T.; Stillman, T.F.; Schmeichel, B.J.; Maner, J.K.; Plant, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Four studies indicate that mortality salience increases adherence to social norms and values, but only when cultural norms and values are salient. In Study 1, mortality salience coupled with a reminder about cultural values of egalitarianism reduced prejudice toward Blacks among non-Black

  4. Norms as Group-Level Constructs: Investigating School-Level Teen Pregnancy Norms and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-09-01

    Social norms are a group-level phenomenon, but past quantitative research has rarely measured them in the aggregate or considered their group-level properties. We used the school-based design of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to measure normative climates regarding teen pregnancy across 75 U.S. high schools. We distinguished between the strength of a school's norm against teen pregnancy and the consensus around that norm. School-level norm strength and dissensus were strongly (r = -0.65) and moderately (r = 0.34) associated with pregnancy prevalence within schools, respectively. Normative climate partially accounted for observed racial differences in school pregnancy prevalence, but norms were a stronger predictor than racial composition. As hypothesized, schools with both a stronger average norm against teen pregnancy and greater consensus around the norm had the lowest pregnancy prevalence. Results highlight the importance of group-level normative processes and of considering the local school environment when designing policies to reduce teen pregnancy.

  5. Induced Norm Control Toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, Eric Bengt

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the basic nature of the InducedNorm Control Toolbox (INCT). The toolbox is a set of Matlab-filesusing LMITOOL and the Semidefinite Programming package(SP). Thetoolbox is public domain. The INCT provides a series of analysisand synthesis tools for continuous time...

  6. Juggling with the norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    2017-01-01

    ’. However, as the case of the emergency service of Niamey National Hospital suggests the interactions between civil servants and users in health facilities have little to do with a traditional culture. They are better understood through the lens of practical norms. Furthermore, as the authors demonstrates...

  7. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  8. Italian Word Association Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-07-01

    Ricerche Istituto Nazionale I Psicologia , Roma Italy. A different, but not unrelated, approach is to use word association norms to study other types of... Psicologia , 1961 , 55, 1,13-155. Chiari, S. 11 comportamento associative nell’eta ovolutiva, Rivista di Psicologia , 1 96 1b , 55, 175-189. Cofer, C.N

  9. Main industries generating NORM; Principais industrias geradoras de NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, Dejanira da Costa; Mazzilli, Barbara Paci; Feliciano, Vanusa Maria Delage; Borges, Flavia Luiza Soares; Cruz, Paulo Roberto; Matta, Luiz Ernesto Santos de Carvalho

    2016-07-01

    This chapter 5 the industrial activities related to NORM question is presented. Besides, some industries that in Brazil have higher probability of occurrence de NORM are covered. Economic activities related to mining and its processing are listed.

  10. Cephalometric norms of Saudi boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashashibi, I. A.; Shaikh, H. S.; Sarhan, O. A.

    1990-01-01

    The present study was conducted to establish cephalometric norms of Saudi boys based on the Steiners analysis, and to compare the results of the present study with similar studies conducted on other racial or ethnic groups. For this purpose, fifty-five healthy Saudi boys, with a mean age of 12.04 years, were selected from different schools of Riyadh. Female Saudis were not used for this study due to social restrictions with respect to the Kingdom's customs and traditions. Selection was made on the basis of normal occlusion, balanced and pleasing profile with no obvious facial asymmetry. None of the boys have undergone orthodontic treatment prior to this study. Lateral skull cephaiograms were taken and traced using a standardized technique. Each cephalogram was traced twice with a one week interval by the authors. All angular and linear measurements were calculated to the nearest 0.5 degree and 0.5 mm, respectively. Steiners method of cephalometric analysis was used to establish cephalometric norms. The result of the study demonstrated that the Saudi boys differed from other racial and ethnic groups in some skeletal and dental measurements. Generally, the Saudi boys revealed a more protrusive maxillary apical base and double dental protrusion. (author)

  11. NORM Survey in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    A survey programme was initiated several years ago with the aim of estimating the incidence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) exposure for workers in the oil and gas industry, gold mining, spas, and a tourist cavern in Argentina. This work presents the procedures, methods employed, and results to date from the survey, including protection and remedial actions recommended when deemed necessary. Radium isotope concentrations measured in some samples were well above the exemption values established by IAEA Standards. Elevated radon levels (above the action level established for workplaces) were detected in the gas facilities, the gold mine, and the tourist cavern. The pertinent authorities and the facilities were informed of the detected values in order to take actions to reduce concentrations. In terms of the spas, almost all values for geothermal waters were below the corresponding guidance levels. Some regulatory aspects for the management of NORM are suggested.

  12. Juggling with the norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    2015-01-01

    The chapter investigates the inhospitality of Nigerien hospitals. Based on participant observation with the National Hospital of Niamey, the author describes the daily functioning of the emergency services. He points out the crucial role played by the patients' attendants in oiling the functionin...... of health facilities and the provision of care. The article explores how medical staff interact with patients and how they both contribute in producing the practical norms that shape the functioning of the emergency service....

  13. Helping Citizens Help Themselves : Neighborhood Improvement Programs and the Impact of Social Networks, Trust, and Norms on Neighborhood-Oriented Forms of Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveldt, H.T.

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between social capital and neighborhood-oriented forms of participation within the context of an innovative Dutch neighborhood improvement program. On the basis of a survey among 307 residents, the author studies the link between three dimensions of social

  14. Advancing Global Health – The Need for (Better Social Science; Comment on “Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Hanefeld

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In his perspective “Navigating between stealth advocacy and unconscious dogmatism: the challenge of researching the norms, politics and power of global health,” Ooms argues that actions taken in the field of global health are dependent not only on available resources, but on the normative premise that guides how these resources are spent. This comment sets out how the application of a predominately biomedical positivist research tradition in global health, has potentially limited understanding of the value judgements underlying decisions in the field. To redress this critical social science, including health policy analysis has much to offer, to the field of global health including on questions of governance.

  15. Advancing Global Health - The Need for (Better) Social Science Comment on "Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna

    2016-02-06

    In his perspective "Navigating between stealth advocacy and unconscious dogmatism: the challenge of researching the norms, politics and power of global health," Ooms argues that actions taken in the field of global health are dependent not only on available resources, but on the normative premise that guides how these resources are spent. This comment sets out how the application of a predominately biomedical positivist research tradition in global health, has potentially limited understanding of the value judgements underlying decisions in the field. To redress this critical social science, including health policy analysis has much to offer, to the field of global health including on questions of governance. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  16. Group Norms and the Attitude-Behavior Relationship: A Role for Group Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Deborah J.; Hogg, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Two studies provided support for the proposal that the role of norms in attitude-behavior relations can be useful reconceptualized for the perspective of social identity/self- categorization theory. Study one examined group norms as they influenced subjects to engage in regular exercise. Study two examined group norms as they influenced subjects…

  17. Human rights versus societal norms: a mixed methods study among healthcare providers on social stigma related to adolescent abortion and contraceptive use in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Miranda; Oguttu, Monica; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Makenzius, Marlene

    2018-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy represents a serious public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa, and stigmatising attitudes are contributing factors. This study investigates stigmatising attitudes related to adolescent pregnancy, abortion and contraceptive use among healthcare providers working with postabortion care (PAC) in a low-resource setting in Kenya. A mixed methods approach in a convergent design was utilised to capture attitudes related to abortion and contraceptive use among 86 (f=62; m=19) PAC providers in Kisumu, Kenya. Two Likert-scale questionnaires were used: the 18-item Stigmatising Attitudes, Beliefs and Actions Scale (SABAS) and the 7-item Contraceptive Use Stigma Scale (CUSS). 74 PAC providers responded to the SABAS, 44 to the CUSS and 12 participated in two focus group discussions. Descriptive statistics, psychometric tests of instruments and qualitative content analysis were conducted and reported in accordance with Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research. Cronbach's α coefficients for the total instrument was 0.88 (SABAS) and 0.84 (CUSS). The majority, 92% (68/74) agreed that a woman who has had an abortion should be treated equally to everyone else, 27% (20/74) considered abortion a sin and 30% (22/74) believed she will make abortion a habit. Contraceptive use among adolescent women was associated with promiscuity (39%; 17/44), hence contraceptives should only be available to married women (36%; 16/44), and 20% (9/44) believed that contraceptive use causes infertility. The providers encouraged women's autonomy and their rights to sexual and reproductive health; however, unclear regulations reinforce religious and cultural beliefs, which hampers implementation of evidence-based contraceptive counselling. Stigmatising attitudes towards young women in need of abortion and contraception is common among PAC providers. Their work is characterised by a conflict between human rights and societal norms, thus highlighting the need for

  18. Human rights versus societal norms: a mixed methods study among healthcare providers on social stigma related to adolescent abortion and contraceptive use in Kisumu, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguttu, Monica; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    norms, thus highlighting the need for interventions targeting PAC providers to reduce stigma and misconceptions related to abortion and contraception among adolescent women. PMID:29527357

  19. Education and training as prerequisites for overcoming the difficulties in the implementation of ethical and legal norms concerning gender equality in a social environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Danijela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author advances the thesis that in today's Serbia there is no social consensus concerning the unequal treatment of men and women, and that 'patriarchal syndrome', stereotypes and prejudices are still widely present and are greatly influencing the functioning of social mechanisms and the achievement of gender equality. In Serbia the process of achieving the equal treatment of women de jure is still in progress. With the absence of consensus, which is a prerequisite for 'transmitting' social values encompassed by gender equality, the chances are little that equality will be attained de facto. This paper is meant as a warning that not all types of women's inequality are easily noticeable, as well as that on the social scene there are many different and intertwined social actors which influence dealing with the problem of inequality, implementation of international and domestic legal acts, ethical standards, and taking steps to introduce mechanisms for achieving women's equality in society. One of the prerequisites for overcoming these difficulties is a system of education and educational resources, which promote the idea of gender equality.

  20. Evaluating Theory-Based Evaluation: Information, Norms, and Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, W. Jake; Sisco, Melissa; Hill, Dawn; Malter, Frederic; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose

    2012-01-01

    Programmatic social interventions attempt to produce appropriate social-norm-guided behavior in an open environment. A marriage of applicable psychological theory, appropriate program evaluation theory, and outcome of evaluations of specific social interventions assures the acquisition of cumulative theory and the production of successful social…

  1. Making Whole-Child Education the Norm: How Research and Policy Initiatives Can Make Social and Emotional Skills a Focal Point of Children's Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Emma; Weiss, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    The importance of so-called noncognitive skills--which include abilities and traits such as critical thinking skills, problem solving skills, social skills, persistence, creativity, and self-control--manifests itself in multiple ways throughout life. This policy brief, which focuses on a set of skills that can and should be taught in schools, is…

  2. Privacy, technology, and norms: the case of Smart Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Christine; Darras, Brice; Bean, Elyse; Srivastava, Anurag; Frickel, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Norms shift and emerge in response to technological innovation. One such innovation is Smart Meters - components of Smart Grid energy systems capable of minute-to-minute transmission of consumer electricity use information. We integrate theory from sociological research on social norms and privacy to examine how privacy threats affect the demand for and expectations of norms that emerge in response to new technologies, using Smart Meters as a test case. Results from three vignette experiments suggest that increased threats to privacy created by Smart Meters are likely to provoke strong demand for and expectations of norms opposing the technology and that the strength of these normative rules is at least partly conditional on the context. Privacy concerns vary little with actors' demographic characteristics. These findings contribute to theoretical understanding of norm emergence and have practical implications for implementing privacy protections that effectively address concerns of electricity users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Responsible Communication between the Judicial and Deontological Norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aurelia Popa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Confronting with numerous problems related to moral judgment, the responsibility and irresponsibility in what concerns the vast domain of communication, we are interested in forming a correct and complete vision that crosses the judicial and deontological domain of the profession. The deontological norms are meant to guarantee, by their freely consented acceptance, the good fulfillment of the mission of the journalists, recognized as being indispensable for the god functioning of any human society. The laws do not expressly refer to the deontological norms, but these norms exist according to the law order and are necessary for its guarantee in this social context, which is chaotic from the point of view of the legislation in communication. The aspects analyzed here aremeant to indicate the manner in which passing from deontological norm to the judicial norm creates an external constraint for the communicator which brings more responsibility in view of avoiding the journalistic conflicts.

  4. “By slapping their laps, the patient will know that you truly care for her”: A qualitative study on social norms and acceptability of the mistreatment of women during childbirth in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan A. Bohren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many women experience mistreatment during childbirth in health facilities across the world. However, limited evidence exists on how social norms and attitudes of both women and providers influence mistreatment during childbirth. Contextually-specific evidence is needed to understand how normative factors affect how women are treated. This paper explores the acceptability of four scenarios of mistreatment during childbirth. Methods: Two facilities were identified in Abuja, Nigeria. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews (IDIs and focus group discussions (FGDs were used with a purposive sample of women, midwives, doctors and administrators. Participants were presented with four scenarios of mistreatment during childbirth: slapping, verbal abuse, refusing to help the woman and physical restraint. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize findings, which were interpreted within the study context and an existing typology of mistreatment during childbirth. Results: Eighty-four IDIs and 4 FGDs are included in this analysis. Participants reported witnessing and experiencing mistreatment during childbirth, including slapping, physical restraint to a delivery bed, shouting, intimidation, and threats of physical abuse or poor health outcomes. Some women and providers considered each of the four scenarios as mistreatment. Others viewed these scenarios as appropriate and acceptable measures to gain compliance from the woman and ensure a good outcome for the baby. Women and providers blamed a woman's “disobedience” and “uncooperativeness” during labor for her experience of mistreatment. Conclusions: Blaming women for mistreatment parallels the intimate partner violence literature, demonstrating how traditional practices and low status of women potentiate gender inequality. These findings can be used to facilitate dialogue in Nigeria by engaging stakeholders to discuss how to challenge these norms and hold providers accountable for their

  5. "By slapping their laps, the patient will know that you truly care for her": A qualitative study on social norms and acceptability of the mistreatment of women during childbirth in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Meghan A; Vogel, Joshua P; Tunçalp, Özge; Fawole, Bukola; Titiloye, Musibau A; Olutayo, Akinpelu Olanrewaju; Oyeniran, Agnes A; Ogunlade, Modupe; Metiboba, Loveth; Osunsan, Olubunmi R; Idris, Hadiza A; Alu, Francis E; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Hindin, Michelle J

    2016-12-01

    Many women experience mistreatment during childbirth in health facilities across the world. However, limited evidence exists on how social norms and attitudes of both women and providers influence mistreatment during childbirth. Contextually-specific evidence is needed to understand how normative factors affect how women are treated. This paper explores the acceptability of four scenarios of mistreatment during childbirth. Two facilities were identified in Abuja, Nigeria. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs)) were used with a purposive sample of women, midwives, doctors and administrators. Participants were presented with four scenarios of mistreatment during childbirth: slapping, verbal abuse, refusing to help the woman and physical restraint. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize findings, which were interpreted within the study context and an existing typology of mistreatment during childbirth. Eighty-four IDIs and 4 FGDs are included in this analysis. Participants reported witnessing and experiencing mistreatment during childbirth, including slapping, physical restraint to a delivery bed, shouting, intimidation, and threats of physical abuse or poor health outcomes. Some women and providers considered each of the four scenarios as mistreatment. Others viewed these scenarios as appropriate and acceptable measures to gain compliance from the woman and ensure a good outcome for the baby. Women and providers blamed a woman's "disobedience" and "uncooperativeness" during labor for her experience of mistreatment. Blaming women for mistreatment parallels the intimate partner violence literature, demonstrating how traditional practices and low status of women potentiate gender inequality. These findings can be used to facilitate dialogue in Nigeria by engaging stakeholders to discuss how to challenge these norms and hold providers accountable for their actions. Until women and their families are able to freely condemn

  6. Normas sociais e preconceito: o impacto da igualdade e da competição no preconceito automático contra os negros Social norms and prejudice: the impact of egalitarianism and competition on the automatic prejudice against blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Eugênio O. Lima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de analisar o papel dos contextos de resposta no preconceito automático, realizamos três estudos. No primeiro estudo, investigamos os efeitos de dois contextos normativos (igualitário e meritocrático sobre o preconceito automático contra os Negros. Verificou-se que o contexto meritocrático aumenta o preconceito dos participantes; mas o contexto igualitário não reduz o preconceito. No segundo estudo, investigamos que sentidos as pessoas atribuem à "igualdade". Dois sentidos principais foram encontrados: solidária e formal. Essas duas formas de igualdade foram utilizadas como priming no terceiro estudo, juntamente com contexto meritocrático. Os resultados indicaram que o contexto meritocrático torna os indivíduos mais preconceituosos. No entanto, o contexto da igualdade solidária anulou a ativação automática do preconceito contra os Negros. A igualdade formal situou-se numa posição intermediária entre os dois outros primes. Estes resultados são discutidos à luz das teorias sobre o papel das normas sociais nos processos inconscientes ou automáticos de preconceito.The present studies examined the effects of social norms on the automatic prejudice against Black people. Study 1 assessed the effects of egalitarianism and competitive meritocracy on automatic racial prejudice. The results showed that the competitive meritocracy context increases prejudice. But, the egalitarian context didn't reduce the prejudice. Study 2 investigated the meanings that people assign to "equality". A content analysis denoted two main social representations: equality in the law (Rights and Duties and equality as solidarity in relationships (fraternity, respect to differences, solidarity, etc.. We named the first representation of equality as "Formal Egalitarianism" and the second as "Solidarity Egalitarianism". Those two forms of equality were used as priming in the third study, together with the competitive meritocracy norm. Results

  7. Tensor norms and operator ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Defant, A; Floret, K

    1992-01-01

    The three chapters of this book are entitled Basic Concepts, Tensor Norms, and Special Topics. The first may serve as part of an introductory course in Functional Analysis since it shows the powerful use of the projective and injective tensor norms, as well as the basics of the theory of operator ideals. The second chapter is the main part of the book: it presents the theory of tensor norms as designed by Grothendieck in the Resumé and deals with the relation between tensor norms and operator ideals. The last chapter deals with special questions. Each section is accompanied by a series of exer

  8. Anàlisi de les modificacions estatutàries per adaptar el règim de reemborsament del capital social a les normes comptables de les cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Montegut

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objecte: L’objectiu del treball és analitzar les modificacions realitzades en els Estatuts de les cooperatives per adaptar el capital social a les normes comptables i veure quins han estats els efectes econòmics de l’adaptació del capital social en la situació patrimonial i econòmica de les cooperatives. Disseny/metodologia: Per dur a terme l’estudi s’ha demanat al Registre de Cooperatives  els Estatuts i els comptes anuals, per al període 2010-2011, de les cooperatives objecte de l’estudi. En primer lloc s’han revisat els Estatuts per veure quins articles han modificat o han introduït en relació a la nova normativa comptable. En segon lloc s’ha creat una base de dades amb els comptes anuals de les cooperatives per tal d’analitzar la situació econòmica i financera de les mateixes a través d’un anàlisi de les masses del balanç i de ràtios. Aportacions i resultats: S’ha identificat el percentatge de cooperatives que han decidit adaptar els Estatuts a la reforma comptable i el criteri adoptat per les mateixes. Els resultats mostren que les cooperatives han adaptat majoritàriament els seus Estatuts i que els efectes de l’aplicació de les normes comptables adaptades a la NIC 32 consisteixen en una disminució del patrimoni net i un augment de l’endeutament. Limitacions: La dificultat temporal per anar obtenint els comptes anuals i els Estatuts de les diferents cooperatives existents a Catalunya. Implicacions pràctiques i socials: Degut a que des de 2011 totes les cooperatives espanyoles han d'aplicar les normes comptables adaptades a la NIC 32, els resultats d'aquest treball de recerca poden ser útils per a diferents grups d'interès, no solament per a les pròpies cooperatives, sinó també per altres organismes cooperatius per a què puguin realitzar les valoracions que creguin convenients i per a les entitats financeres, per tal que puguin tenir-los en compte a l'hora de prendre decisions. Valor afegit

  9. On the norm and the essential norm of weighted composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to use known properties of the associated weight to give new estimations of the norm and essential norm of the weighted composition operators acting between weighted Banach spaces of analytic functions, in terms of composition with certain special functions in these spaces.

  10. Clinical ethics and values: how do norms evolve from practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranzi, Marta

    2013-02-01

    Bioethics laws in France have just undergone a revision process. The bioethics debate is often cast in terms of ethical principles and norms resisting emerging social and technological practices. This leads to the expression of confrontational attitudes based on widely differing interpretations of the same principles and values, and ultimately results in a deadlock. In this paper I would like to argue that focusing on values, as opposed to norms and principles, provides an interesting perspective on the evolution of norms. As Joseph Raz has convincingly argued, "life-building" values and practices are closely intertwined. Precisely because values have a more indeterminate meaning than norms, they can be cited as reasons for action by concerned stakeholders, and thus can help us understand how controversial practices, e.g. surrogate motherhood, can be justified. Finally, norms evolve when the interpretations of the relevant values shift and cause a change in the presumptions implicit in the norms. Thus, norms are not a prerequisite of the ethical solution of practical dilemmas, but rather the outcome of the decision-making process itself. Struggling to reach the right decision in controversial clinical ethics situations indirectly causes social and moral values to change and principles to be understood differently.

  11. Perceived injunctive norms and cannabis-related problems: The interactive influence of parental injunctive norms and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Anthony H; Dean, Kimberlye E; Buckner, Julia D; Foster, Dawn W

    2017-07-05

    Cannabis use among college students is associated with negative consequences, including those that can negatively affect academic functioning. Perceived descriptive and injunctive norms are among the strongest predictors of college cannabis use and related problems, and perceived norms differentially relate to cannabis outcomes depending on the reference group (e.g., close friends, family members). However, no known studies have examined the effect of race on these relationships. Yet, given that African American students are more strongly affected by parental influence than Caucasian students and that they endorse more social motives for cannabis use, African American students may be affected by perceived norms regarding parents and friends differentially from Caucasian students. The current study tested the moderational role of race on the relationship between perceived norms and cannabis use and related problems. Cannabis-using undergraduates (N = 103; 78.6% female) completed an online survey. Race moderated the relationship between injunctive norms regarding parents and cannabis-related problem severity such that among African American students (but not Caucasian students), endorsement of more permissive perceived parental injunctive norms was related to greater cannabis-related problem severity (but not cannabis use frequency). Interactions were not significant between race and descriptive norms or between race and peer injunctive norms. African American students who perceive that their parents are more accepting of cannabis use may be especially at risk for cannabis-related problems. Results underscore the importance of considering cultural factors in identification of vulnerability factors related to cannabis problems.

  12. Adolescents' physical activities and peer norms: the mediating role of self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Frank J H; Lin, Ju-Han; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chou, Chien-Chih; Wang, Erica T W; Yeh, Li-Chin

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among adolescents' self-efficacy and social norms, and physical activity and whether self-efficacy mediated the relationship between social norms and physical activity. 400 junior high school students (202 boys, 198 girls, 2 not identified; M age = 15.3yr., SD = 0.6) completed a demographic questionnaire, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the Perceived Self-Efficacy in Physical Activity Scale, and the Physical Activity Social Norms Scale. Regression analyses indicated that both self-efficacy and social norms predicted physical activity. Self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between peer norms and physical activity for boys but partially mediated the relationship for girls. An application of the results may be to foster self-efficacy and peer norms as a motivational strategy for supporting increased physical activity.

  13. Understanding the antecedents of consumers' attitudes towards doggy bags in restaurants: Concern about food waste, culture, norms and emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Sirieix, Lucie; Lála , Jan; Kocmanová, Klára

    2017-01-01

    Based on a qualitative study with 20 respondents in France and 20 respondents from the Czech Republic, this study aims to better understand how consumers’ concern about food waste, culture, social norms and emotions contribute to consumers’ attitudes and behaviors related to doggy bags. Results highlight a double paradox between conflicting norms and emotions: personal norms encourage not to waste while salient social norms encourage leaving leftovers; asking for a doggy bag generates immedia...

  14. Farmers prevailing perception profiles regarding GM crops: A classification proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Carla; Massarani, Luisa

    2018-04-01

    Genetically modified organisms have been at the centre of a major public controversy, involving different interests and actors. While much attention has been devoted to consumer views on genetically modified food, there have been few attempts to understand the perceptions of genetically modified technology among farmers. By investigating perceptions of genetically modified organisms among Brazilian farmers, we intend to contribute towards filling this gap and thereby add the views of this stakeholder group to the genetically modified debate. A comparative analysis of our data and data from other studies indicate there is a complex variety of views on genetically modified organisms among farmers. Despite this diversity, we found variations in such views occur within limited parameters, concerned principally with expectations or concrete experiences regarding the advantages of genetically modified crops, perceptions of risks associated with them, and ethical questions they raise. We then propose a classification of prevailing profiles to represent the spectrum of perceptions of genetically modified organisms among farmers.

  15. 'Global' norms and 'local' agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Gusic, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    in post-conflict Kosovo provides the backdrop for the theoretical discussion that identifies friction in norm diffusion processes and the different agencies that are generated through encounters between global norms and local practices. We unpack the interplay between the 'global' and the 'local...

  16. All-Norm Approximation Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azar, Yossi; Epstein, Leah; Richter, Yossi; Woeginger, Gerhard J.; Penttonen, Martti; Meineche Schmidt, Erik

    2002-01-01

    A major drawback in optimization problems and in particular in scheduling problems is that for every measure there may be a different optimal solution. In many cases the various measures are different ℓ p norms. We address this problem by introducing the concept of an All-norm ρ-approximation

  17. The Norm___ and the Pathological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Gotkin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I read The Normal and the Pathological by French philosopher Georges Canguilhem for what it can offer disability theory. I examine how the field has already taken up the text but further, I argue for The Normal and the Pathological as a keystone of disability theory (currently taken up with curiously reserved energy. I start with a précis on the text before offering a condensed citation analysis of the book. In the latter part of the paper, I suggest how the monograph might inform current conversations and I offer possibilities for it to deepen and complicate core notions about disability, including the social model, norms, normalcy, and the normate. I conclude by suggesting that Canguilhem’s philosophical intervention can be understood as "propulsive atavism" – an excavation of medical epistemology in order to map and reconfigure its legacies – and I propose this as one methodological template for disability scholarship.

  18. The Effect of Group Norms on Bystander Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Irwin A.

    1971-01-01

    Forty members of service and social groups were compared for intervention in a simulated emergency situation during the experimental discussion. Service group members were more likely to intervene than social group members, and intervention was made more probable when group norms were made salient in the discussion. (Author/SD)

  19. Uncodified safety norms and procedural compliance in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, M.

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism of procedural compliance in operational teams is analysed. It is investigated the interrelationship between codified (institutional or officials) rules and uncodified safety norm and their influence on the job performance, social behaviour and social interaction of the operational personnel

  20. The networked minority: How a small group prevailed in a local windfarm conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Carmel

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explain through a qualitative case study how a small protest group prevailed during a local windfarm conflict in south-eastern Australia. A social capital analytical framework was developed to analyse the data. The analysis found that two communities inhabited the area for which the windfarm development was proposed. The public participation process failed to address the concerns of both communities and led to the emergence of a social network of resistance. The network had high stocks of bridging social capital, which enabled an effective protest that led to the abandonment of the development. Their effectiveness was inadvertently aided by the windfarm supporters who were unable to act collectively to defend their interests because socio-economic changes in the community among other factors had led to a depletion of their social capital. In this context, different democratic participatory processes were needed to address the concerns of the two communities. Guidance and tools for researching and developing the types of participatory processes needed for vulnerable communities with low social capital and those similar to the social network with high social capital are provided. These will inform community-appropriate public participation processes and participatory planning policy. - Highlights: ► A case study of a local social network's resistance to a windfarm is undertaken. ► The link between high social capital and resistance is confirmed. ► Successful protest groups can be aided by passive windfarm supporters. ► Protesters are likely to participate in well-designed participatory processes. ► Guidance for developing community-specific participatory processes is provided

  1. 77 FR 34854 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Special Wage Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ...-AM63 Prevailing Rate Systems; Special Wage Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics... for the Department of Defense's (DOD's) nonappropriated fund (NAF) automotive mechanics. These special... practice for compensating NAF automotive mechanics with current prevailing pay practices in the private...

  2. The dark side of solidarity. The impact of norms on the aftermath of strikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thommes, K; Akkerman, A.; Torenvlied, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies how employees anticipate change in social relations after a strike in their organisation. We hypothesise that two group norms affect employees' fear that a strike deteriorates the social relations with their colleagues. We distinguish between two different norms associated with a

  3. Society of the Alone: Freedom, Privacy, and Utilitarianism as Dominant Norms in the SRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Joyce

    1975-01-01

    The social world of the aged SRO tenant is described and analyzed. Characteristic features include an impoverishment of social roles and relationships which result in a "world of strangers." Dominant norms of SRO life which preclude the establishment of intimacy are examined; these include prescriptive norms of privacy, freedom, and…

  4. Associations between Adolescents' Perceptions of Alcohol Norms and Alcohol Behaviors: Incorporating Within-School Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Amir; Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; Parker, Elizabeth M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Social norm interventions have been implemented in schools to address concerns of alcohol use among high school students; however, research in this area has not incorporated measures of variability that may better reflect the complexity of social influences. Purpose: To examine the association between perceived alcohol norms, the…

  5. Radioactive waste management / NORM wastes; Gerenciamento de residuos / rejeitos NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenato, Flavia; Ruperti Junior, Nerbe Jose Ruperti

    2016-07-01

    The chapter 8 presents the waste management of the mineral industries as the main problem pointed out by the inspections, due to the the inadequate deposition with consequences to the human populations and the environment. The concepts about the criteria of exemption and the related legislation are also presented. Several different technical solutions for de NORM waste deposition are mentioned. Finally, the reutilization and recycling of NORM are covered.

  6. Genetics of Schizophrenia: Historical Insights and Prevailing Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Leemput, J; Hess, J L; Glatt, S J; Tsuang, M T

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia's (SZ's) heritability and familial transmission have been known for several decades; however, despite the clear evidence for a genetic component, it has been very difficult to pinpoint specific causative genes. Even so genetic studies have taught us a lot, even in the pregenomic era, about the molecular underpinnings and disease-relevant pathways. Recurring themes emerged revealing the involvement of neurodevelopmental processes, glutamate regulation, and immune system differential activation in SZ etiology. The recent emergence of epigenetic studies aimed at shedding light on the biological mechanisms underlying SZ has provided another layer of information in the investigation of gene and environment interactions. However, this epigenetic insight also brings forth another layer of complexity to the (epi)genomic landscape such as interactions between genetic variants, epigenetic marks-including cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone modification processes-, gene expression regulation, and environmental influences. In this review, we seek to synthesize perspectives, including limitations and obstacles yet to overcome, from genetic and epigenetic literature on SZ through a qualitative review of risk factors and prevailing hypotheses. Encouraged by the findings of both genetic and epigenetic studies to date, as well as the continued development of new technologies to collect and interpret large-scale studies, we are left with a positive outlook for the future of elucidating the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying SZ and other complex neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Familiar units prevail over statistical cues in word segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Perruchet, Pierre; Tillmann, Barbara; Peereman, Ronald

    2017-09-01

    In language acquisition research, the prevailing position is that listeners exploit statistical cues, in particular transitional probabilities between syllables, to discover words of a language. However, other cues are also involved in word discovery. Assessing the weight learners give to these different cues leads to a better understanding of the processes underlying speech segmentation. The present study evaluated whether adult learners preferentially used known units or statistical cues for segmenting continuous speech. Before the exposure phase, participants were familiarized with part-words of a three-word artificial language. This design allowed the dissociation of the influence of statistical cues and familiar units, with statistical cues favoring word segmentation and familiar units favoring (nonoptimal) part-word segmentation. In Experiment 1, performance in a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) task between words and part-words revealed part-word segmentation (even though part-words were less cohesive in terms of transitional probabilities and less frequent than words). By contrast, an unfamiliarized group exhibited word segmentation, as usually observed in standard conditions. Experiment 2 used a syllable-detection task to remove the likely contamination of performance by memory and strategy effects in the 2AFC task. Overall, the results suggest that familiar units overrode statistical cues, ultimately questioning the need for computation mechanisms of transitional probabilities (TPs) in natural language speech segmentation.

  8. Exceptions and Norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauta, Kristian Cedervall

    2011-01-01

    hvordan den sociale drejning, udfordrer de retlige modeller staten traditionelt har brugt til at håndtere naturkatastrofer, herunder særligt undtagelsestilstanden, og i stigende grad erstatter disse med omfattende lovgivning. Ændringen i vores forståelse af hvad en katastrofe er skaber således en retlig...

  9. Civilsamfundets ABC: N for Norm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink; Meyer, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Bogstaveligt talt: Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til N for Norm.......Bogstaveligt talt: Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til N for Norm....

  10. Branching geodesics in normed spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A O; Tuzhilin, A A

    2002-01-01

    We study branching extremals of length functionals on normed spaces. This is a natural generalization of the Steiner problem in normed spaces. We obtain criteria for a network to be extremal under deformations that preserve the topology of networks as well as under deformations with splitting. We discuss the connection between locally shortest networks and extremal networks. In the important particular case of the Manhattan plane, we get a criterion for a locally shortest network to be extremal

  11. Norm Emergence and Humanitarian Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    the international system that is shaping the behavior of states. Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink propose that norms develop in a three-stage...Action (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2007), 66-67. 50 Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink , “International Norm Dynamics and Political Change...890. 86 Ibid., 894. 87 Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink , “Taking Stock: The Constructivist Research Program in International Relations and

  12. La précarité : une catégorie d’analyse pertinente des enjeux de la norme d’emploi et des situations sociales « d’entre-deux »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryse Bresson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article propose de prolonger le débat sur « La précarité » commencé dans la livraison de SociologieS mise en ligne le 27 septembre 2010. Il met en perspective les analyses d’Henri Eckert et Mircea Vultur, et propose une grille d’analyse de la précarité ou plus exactement, ici, des emplois dits « atypiques ». L’auteure invite à distinguer d’une part, les représentations sociales et les ressentis « subjectifs » des individus ; d’autre part, les processus économiques et sociaux associés aux transformations du marché du travail, afin de mieux articuler ensuite ces deux dimensions, en insistant sur l’enjeu de la norme d’emploi, et sur l’idée « d’entre-deux » proposée comme clé de lecture de la précarité.Precariousness: a pertinent analysis of the standard of employment issues and of "in-between" social situationsThis paper proposes to extend the debate on "Precariousness" started in SociologieS online on September 27, 2010. It puts into perspective analyses of Henry Eckert and Mircea Vultur, and offers an analysis of precariousness, or more precisely, here, jobs as "atypical". The author invites to distinguish, on the one hand, social representations and how individualsfeel subjectively the precariousness; on the other hand, economic and social processes associated to changes in the labour market, in order to better articulate these two dimensions, with particular emphasis on the issue of the standard of employment, and on the idea of "in-between" proposed as a key to reading the precariousness.¿Es la precariedad un concepto pertinente en lo que concierne la problemática del empleo y des situaciones sociales ambiguas?Este artículo es la continuación del debate sobe la precariedad publicado en la red en Sociologies el 27 septiembre de 2010. Pone en perspectiva los análisis de Henri Eckert y de Mircea Vultur y presenta un panel de análisis de la precariedad en particular de los

  13. Social Practice in the Public Space. Uses Beyond the Social Norms and the Design of Space Prácticas sociales en el espacio público. Usos que sobrepasan las normas y el diseño del espacio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Dary Ríos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper aims at presenting people’s practices in the urban public space of Barcelona. It is about the way people find their space in places through its use. In other words, it describes the way people make relationships and links between each other and the urban space.

    We present a qualitative study from an ethnographic approach. It identifies three basic types of practices associated with the urban space: one type practice was connected to the work concept, another one to the idea of transit, and the last type to the tourists practice.  These urban social practices show that the public space is used in a different way than it was designed for because the designers make public space for other functions. The urban social practices are linked with psychosocial processes such as identity, social cohesion, social norms and mobility.

    Furthermore, the practices presented in this investigation go beyond urban social law and the structure function of public space without altering coexistence and sociability.

    En este artículo pretendemos describir  las prácticas sociales y urbanas de las personas en un espacio público, concretamente en la ciudad de Barcelona. Las personas, cuando usan el espacio público lo transforman en lugar, es decir, generan ciertas relaciones y vínculos  entre ellas y el espacio urbano, de tal forma que, éste,  se modifica paulatinamente.

    Para la descripción de esas prácticas sociales y urbanas utilizamos una metodología cualitativa, específicamente una etnografía. Se identificaron y se eligieron tres tipos básicos de prácticas asociadas al espacio urbano: un tipo de esas prácticas se relaciona con el concepto de trabajo, otro con la idea de transitar (movimiento y el último tipo con la práctica turística. Dichas prácticas sociales y urbanas evidenciaron el uso que llega a hacerse de los espacios públicos, uso que, la mayoría de las veces

  14. Perceptual dehumanization of faces is activated by norm violations and facilitates norm enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Katrina M; Tetlock, Philip E

    2016-02-01

    This article uses methods drawn from perceptual psychology to answer a basic social psychological question: Do people process the faces of norm violators differently from those of others--and, if so, what is the functional significance? Seven studies suggest that people process these faces different and the differential processing makes it easier to punish norm violators. Studies 1 and 2 use a recognition-recall paradigm that manipulated facial-inversion and spatial frequency to show that people rely upon face-typical processing less when they perceive norm violators' faces. Study 3 uses a facial composite task to demonstrate that the effect is actor dependent, not action dependent, and to suggest that configural processing is the mechanism of perceptual change. Studies 4 and 5 use offset faces to show that configural processing is only attenuated when they belong to perpetrators who are culpable. Studies 6 and 7 show that people find it easier to punish inverted faces and harder to punish faces displayed in low spatial frequency. Taken together, these data suggest a bidirectional flow of causality between lower-order perceptual and higher-order cognitive processes in norm enforcement. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. El suicidio: Una conducta antisocial que prevalece/Suicide: An antisocial behavior that prevails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alejandro De León Palomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The suicide has existed throughout history and has prevailed as a behavior that was contrary to the rules of the society in terms of preservation of life itself; the objective of this research was to make emphasis on the nature of antisocial behavior of this behavior and show its prevalence in the years 2006 to 2010 in Mexico and Tamaulipas, as well as from 1999 to 2008 in Reynosa, Tamaulipas. For which the data were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography to the country and the State and the books of the register of deaths by cause violent of the Regional Unit of Expert Services of the Attorney General of Justice, which has its headquarters in Reynosa; developed a theoretical framework on the impact of the conduct in society and the means to prevent it, The data obtained we revealed the continued presence of this conduct year-on-year, 23.554 cases appearing in Mexico and 819 in Tamaulipas in the period from 2006 to 2010; in Reynosa, Tamaulipas were presented 278 suicides in the period 1999 to 2008. The results show us a conduct stable in numbers, but without excessive overflows that prevails year-on-year, suicide, and the attempt of the same should be viewed as a social problem and not detract from the importance that it deserves a conduct of these dimensions, that is no more than a reflection of the situation in which are the means of social control toward the preservation of life itself.

  16. How did Trade Norms Evolve in Scandinavia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2016-01-01

    in the world today, we argue that one possible historical root of social trust may be the long-distance trade practices of the Viking age. To manage the risk of being cheated, trade between strangers in an oral world required a strong informal institution of trust-based trade norms out of necessity to deal...... with the risk of being cheated. In contrast to similar cases like the famous medieval Maghribi traders, who counted on writing (Greif, 1989), the punishment of cheaters could not be supported by written documents such as legal documents and letters, as the large majority of Vikings were non...

  17. Mobility, contact and an accent norm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper will focus on various facets of RP as an accent norm. In the first part of the paper I will set the stage for a renewed sociolinguistic view of RP, and examine some of the effects of social and geographical mobility and contact on RP. At the same time, one of my concerns will be to bring....... The phonetic data have been gleaned from sociolinguistic interviews, while the attitudinal data derive from interviews, subjective evaluation questionnaires and the popular press. By thus exploring the current and changing status of RP in the wider sociolinguistic landscape of Britain, the discussion will also...

  18. Exploring the potential for changing gender norms among cricket coaches and athletes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Das, Madhumita; Verma, Ravi; O'Connor, Brian; Ghosh, Sancheeta; Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L

    2015-02-01

    This study explored gender norms with cricket coaches and athletes in India to adapt a coach-delivered gender violence prevention program from the United States for the urban Indian context. Interviews and focus groups conducted among coaches and adolescent cricketers highlight the extent to which coaches and athletes articulate prevailing inequitable notions about gender and recognition of the power coaches wield. Adapting a violence prevention program that emphasizes gender norms change may be feasible with Indian cricket coaches but is likely to require attention to defining gender equity and challenging cultural assumptions with coaches prior to implementing the program with athletes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Norms, Culture and Local Infrastructure: Evidence from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmistha Pal

    2009-01-01

    The present paper explores the role of religious and social norms on a community’s access to public infrastructure. Distinguishing between social and physical infrastructure, we argue that investment in social infrastructural goods (e.g., health, education) could contribute to exchange both within and outside the community, while that in physical infrastructure (e.g., road, transport, communications) could only improve exchange outside the community. Accordingly, traditional communities may p...

  20. Reliance on God, prayer, and religion reduces influence of perceived norms on drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Brown, Garrett A; Dibello, Angelo M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Foster, Dawn W

    2013-05-01

    Previous research has shown that perceived social norms are among the strongest predictors of drinking among young adults. Research has also consistently found religiousness to be protective against risk and negative health behaviors. The present research evaluates the extent to which reliance on God, prayer, and religion moderates the association between perceived social norms and drinking. Participants (n = 1,124 undergraduate students) completed a cross-sectional survey online, which included measures of perceived norms, religious values, and drinking. Perceived norms were assessed by asking participants their perceptions of typical student drinking. Drinking outcomes included drinks per week, drinking frequency, and typical quantity consumed. Regression analyses indicated that religiousness and perceived norms had significant unique associations in opposite directions for all three drinking outcomes. Significant interactions were evident between religiousness and perceived norms in predicting drinks per week, frequency, and typical quantity. In each case, the interactions indicated weaker associations between norms and drinking among those who assigned greater importance to religiousness. The extent of the relationship between perceived social norms and drinking was buffered by the degree to which students identified with religiousness. A growing body of literature has shown interventions including personalized feedback regarding social norms to be an effective strategy in reducing drinking among college students. The present research suggests that incorporating religious or spiritual values into student interventions may be a promising direction to pursue.

  1. Social network characteristics, perceived drinking norms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efforts by researchers, policy makers and other stakeholders to bring about significant reductions in alcohol use among the youth appears not to be yielding desired results, as the problem of hazardous drinking among the youth has persisted. One possible problem is that studies and policies on alcohol have not adequately ...

  2. Social influence and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ross A

    2010-10-01

    To review a selection of research published in the last 12 months on the role of social influence in the obesity epidemic. Recent papers add evidence to previous work linking social network structures and obesity. Social norms, both eating norms and body image norms, are identified as one major source of social influence through networks. Social capital and social stress are additional types of social influence. There is increasing evidence that social influence and social network structures are significant factors in obesity. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms of action and dynamics of social influence, and its link with other factors involved in the obesity epidemic, is an important goal for further research.

  3. MORALNE NORME KAO REGULATOR SPORTSKIH ODNOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasoje Bjelica

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Moral is one of the very old forms of social conscience, which have been progressively interiorized in the way of living of the community, as well as of the individuals. There are different comprehensions of the notion of moral. Here we will not let us involve into interpretation of these concepts, but, holding to the most acceptable concept of moral, we will emphasize that by moral one can consider the collection of norms, which determine behavior of people, as well as their notion of good and evil. Moral is a normative conscience, as well as a value attitude. Values represent standards, which govern our behavior, and the permanent belief that the specific way of behavior and existence is socially or personally desirable. Prof. dr

  4. Age norms, family relationships, and home leaving in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tosi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research has shown that social norms have an influence on young adults' life course transitions. However, few studies have explicitly and directly tested the idea that perceived age norms affect the decision to leave the parental home. Objective: I ask whether normative factors are correlated with the decision to leave the family nest in Italy, and whether this association depends on a system of perceived costs and benefits, parental approval of their children's decisions, and the quality of parent-child relationships. Methods: Using the panel component of Family and Social Subjects data (2003 and 2007, logit and multinomial logit models were adopted to analyze the connection between perceived norms and behavior. The Karlson, Holm, and Breen (2012 decomposition method was used to test the relevance of confounding and mediating factors. Results: The findings show that young adults who consider themselves as too young to leave the parental home are less likely to move out of the family nest in order to marry. The interaction between a 'stay' norm, the perceived benefits of leaving home, and parental approval significantly affects the transition to independence. Contribution: In Italy, decision-making about leaving home and getting married is shaped by age norms concerning extended coresidence. Young adults tend to comply with age norms when they perceive that their decision implies benefits and/or a violation will lead to penalties. Perceived parental disapproval reduces the influence of normative factors on individual actual behaviors, which suggests that young adults adhere to norms that are supported by parents.

  5. Conflict between constitutional norms: monopoly of nuclear ore and the social function of property in Brazil; Conflito entre normas constitucionais: monopolio do minerio nuclear e a funcao social da propriedade no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa-de-Moura, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    This monograph broaches about the conflict existing between the social Constitution of 1988, in relation to what is disposed in the Article 5, XXIII and XXIV, entrenchment clause of immediate application that determines the social function of property in Brazil, and articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, that stipulate the monopoly of ores containing nuclear elements, i.e., those containing the chemical elements uranium, thorium, and plutonium in economically exploitable amounts. Initially, the work deals with legal definitions for nuclear ore, nuclear policy of some countries, the economical concepts of the social function of property and the negative aspects related to the maintenance of the nuclear ore in the state monopole regime in confrontation with the economic and social interest also expressed in the Constitutional Valance of 1988. Finally, it is presented an actualized compilation of nuclear laws related to the Brazilian nuclear policy and a glossary of terms used in the nuclear policy conducted by the Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Agency (CNEN). (author)

  6. The Role of Indian Caste Identity and Caste Inconsistent Norms on Status Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Sekerdej, Maciek; von Hecker, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The Indian caste system is a complex social structure wherein social roles like one’s profession became ‘hereditary,’ resulting in restricted social mobility and fixed status hierarchies. Furthermore, we argue that the inherent property of caste heightens group identification with one’s caste. Highly identified group members would protect the identity of the group in situations when group norms are violated. In this paper, we were interested in examining the consequence of caste norm violatio...

  7. The implications of the National Norms and Standards for School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords:access, equity, financial management, funding, inequality, National Norms and Standards, no-fee schools, policy, school fees, social justice .... capita spending; the largest disparities being accounted for in the 'skewed' distribution ... lation of “third-generation activity theory”, also called the cultural-historical activity ...

  8. Reactivating Nigerian norms and values through religious studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Societal norms and values play important roles in the social lives of individuals and society at large. This is because they deal with values, behaviours and attitudes exhibited and encouraged by members of the society. Thus Religious Education is essential for activating Nigerian moral values in order to infuse sanity into ...

  9. Pilot study of a multi-pronged intervention using social norms and priming to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy and retention in care among adults living with HIV in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra I McCoy

    Full Text Available Interventions incorporating constructs from behavioral economics and psychology have the potential to enhance HIV 'treatment as prevention' (TasP strategies. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated an intervention to improve antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence based on the concepts of social norms and priming.We used tools from marketing research and patient-centered design to develop a combination intervention that included visual feedback about clinic-level retention in care, a self-relevant prime, and useful take-home items with the priming image. The intervention was implemented at two HIV primary clinics in Shinyanga, Tanzania in 2-week intervals for six months. We conducted a quasi-experimental pilot study with a random sample of exposed and unexposed adult patients living with HIV infection (PLHIV to compare retention and the proportion of patients with medication possession ratio (MPR ≥95% after six months. Intervention acceptability was determined with a convenience sample of 405 PLHIV at baseline (n = 189 and endline (n = 216.Medical records were reviewed for 438 PLHIV (320 intervention, 118 standard of care. In adjusted analyses, PLHIV exposed to the intervention were significantly more likely to be in care after 6 months (87% vs. 79%, adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.08, 2.78, p<0.05 and were more likely to achieve MPR≥95% (70% vs. 59%, OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 0.96, 2.37, p = 0.07. The intervention was associated with increases in staff support of treatment goals (100% vs. 95%, p = 0.01 and life goals (66% vs. 50%, p<0.01, the perceived likelihood of other patients' adherence (54% vs. 32%, p<0.01, support from other patients (71% vs. 60%, p = 0.03, and being very satisfied with care (53% vs. 35%, p<0.01.This novel intervention has the potential to improve the clinic experience, short-term retention in care, and ART adherence. Future studies are needed to expand the generalizability of the approach and evaluate effectiveness

  10. Pilot study of a multi-pronged intervention using social norms and priming to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy and retention in care among adults living with HIV in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Sandra I; Fahey, Carolyn; Rao, Aarthi; Kapologwe, Ntuli; Njau, Prosper F; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Interventions incorporating constructs from behavioral economics and psychology have the potential to enhance HIV 'treatment as prevention' (TasP) strategies. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated an intervention to improve antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence based on the concepts of social norms and priming. We used tools from marketing research and patient-centered design to develop a combination intervention that included visual feedback about clinic-level retention in care, a self-relevant prime, and useful take-home items with the priming image. The intervention was implemented at two HIV primary clinics in Shinyanga, Tanzania in 2-week intervals for six months. We conducted a quasi-experimental pilot study with a random sample of exposed and unexposed adult patients living with HIV infection (PLHIV) to compare retention and the proportion of patients with medication possession ratio (MPR) ≥95% after six months. Intervention acceptability was determined with a convenience sample of 405 PLHIV at baseline (n = 189) and endline (n = 216). Medical records were reviewed for 438 PLHIV (320 intervention, 118 standard of care). In adjusted analyses, PLHIV exposed to the intervention were significantly more likely to be in care after 6 months (87% vs. 79%, adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.08, 2.78, p<0.05) and were more likely to achieve MPR≥95% (70% vs. 59%, OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 0.96, 2.37, p = 0.07). The intervention was associated with increases in staff support of treatment goals (100% vs. 95%, p = 0.01) and life goals (66% vs. 50%, p<0.01), the perceived likelihood of other patients' adherence (54% vs. 32%, p<0.01), support from other patients (71% vs. 60%, p = 0.03), and being very satisfied with care (53% vs. 35%, p<0.01). This novel intervention has the potential to improve the clinic experience, short-term retention in care, and ART adherence. Future studies are needed to expand the generalizability of the approach and evaluate effectiveness on

  11. Should I stay or should I go?: the impact of age norms on leaving home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billari, F.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    This article studies the association between social norms and the timing of leaving home. Although largely overlooked by most recent studies on leaving home, life-course theory suggests that age norms and age grading infl uence life-course decisions in general and leaving home in particular. We use

  12. Silence and table manners : When environments activate norms (Retracted article. See vol. 38, pg. 1378, 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joly, Janneke F.; Stapel, Diederik A.; Lindenberg, Siegwart M.

    Two studies tested the conditions under which an environment (e. g., library, restaurant) raises the relevance of environment-specific social norms (e. g., being quiet, using table manners). As hypothesized, the relevance of such norms is raised when environments are goal relevant ("I am going there

  13. Believe It or Not: Examining to the Emergence of New Drinking Norms in College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granfield, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Paper examines impact of a six-month social norms marketing intervention designed to reduce alcohol use among students attending a small, private university. Results indicate that little change in student alcohol use or perception of drinking norms occurred following the intervention. Gender effect was noted in the analysis with female students…

  14. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...

  15. Current approaches to norms research

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Heywood

    2000-01-01

    The dialogue session was a continuation of a debate about norms and the application of normative standards to wilderness management that has taken place throughout the 1990s at national meetings and in the research literature. Researchers who have made significant contributions to the normative approach to wilderness recreation management presented three approaches to...

  16. Endogenous mobility-reducing norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, R.; Koning, N.B.J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a model where a mobility-reducing norm arises in response to adverse economic conditions. Our example is the classical farm problem of low returns. A temporary transition barrier induces cognitive dissonance in farm youths, which they try to reduce by developing a belief that revalues

  17. Weighted norm inequalities and indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Martín

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend and simplify several classical results on weighted norm inequalities for classical operators acting on rearrangement invariant spaces using the theory of indices. As an application we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for generalized Hardy type operators to be bounded on ?p(w, ?p,8(w, Gp(w and Gp,8(w.

  18. Compilation of Pilot Personality Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Weaknesses of Typical Air Force Pilots in 1968 (Ref 5). Their compiled norms on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory ( MMPI ) were subsequently...often confused and have difficulty concentrating. .73 Borderline Features (BOR) Measures many elements relating to severe personality disorders...Battery-Second Edition MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory NEO PI-R Revised NEO Personality Inventory PAI Personality

  19. Norms and values in sociohydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roobavannan, Mahendran; van Emmerik, Tim H. M.; Elshafei, Yasmina; Kandasamy, Jaya; Sanderson, Matthew R.; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Pande, Saket; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2018-02-01

    Sustainable water resources management relies on understanding how societies and water systems coevolve. Many place-based sociohydrology (SH) modeling studies use proxies, such as environmental degradation, to capture key elements of the social component of system dynamics. Parameters of assumed relationships between environmental degradation and the human response to it are usually obtained through calibration. Since these relationships are not yet underpinned by social-science theories, confidence in the predictive power of such place-based sociohydrologic models remains low. The generalizability of SH models therefore requires major advances in incorporating more realistic relationships, underpinned by appropriate hydrological and social-science data and theories. The latter is a critical input, since human culture - especially values and norms arising from it - influences behavior and the consequences of behaviors. This paper reviews a key social-science theory that links cultural factors to environmental decision-making, assesses how to better incorporate social-science insights to enhance SH models, and raises important questions to be addressed in moving forward. This is done in the context of recent progress in sociohydrological studies and the gaps that remain to be filled. The paper concludes with a discussion of challenges and opportunities in terms of generalization of SH models and the use of available data to allow future prediction and model transfer to ungauged basins.

  20. Norms and values in sociohydrological models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Roobavannan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water resources management relies on understanding how societies and water systems coevolve. Many place-based sociohydrology (SH modeling studies use proxies, such as environmental degradation, to capture key elements of the social component of system dynamics. Parameters of assumed relationships between environmental degradation and the human response to it are usually obtained through calibration. Since these relationships are not yet underpinned by social-science theories, confidence in the predictive power of such place-based sociohydrologic models remains low. The generalizability of SH models therefore requires major advances in incorporating more realistic relationships, underpinned by appropriate hydrological and social-science data and theories. The latter is a critical input, since human culture – especially values and norms arising from it – influences behavior and the consequences of behaviors. This paper reviews a key social-science theory that links cultural factors to environmental decision-making, assesses how to better incorporate social-science insights to enhance SH models, and raises important questions to be addressed in moving forward. This is done in the context of recent progress in sociohydrological studies and the gaps that remain to be filled. The paper concludes with a discussion of challenges and opportunities in terms of generalization of SH models and the use of available data to allow future prediction and model transfer to ungauged basins.

  1. Direct experience and the strength of the personal norm - behaviour relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2002-01-01

    norms on behavior, and (ii) direct experience is a stronger moderator in this case than in the attitude-behavior case. The case in question is the purchase of organic red wine. It is found that the outcome of consumers' choice between organic and non-organic wine depends on their personal (moral) norms......, after controlling for attitudes and subjective social norms. However, the influence of personal norms, though not of attitude, depends on whether the consumer has direct experience of buying organic red wine. Hence, both hypotheses are confirmed....

  2. The mediated influences of perceived norms on pro-environmental behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    Research on the influence of social norms on pro-environmental behavior often reaches very different conclusions depending on whether the research is experimental or survey based. I propose that the main reason is that survey-based research applying popular social cognitive theories often...... underestimates the influence of social norms due to various errors of omission. In this article, I particularly focus on a too narrow conception of the process through which perceived social norms influence decisionmaking (i.e., intention formation) and behavior. Research suggesting a number of different paths...... through which perceived social norms influence behavior is reviewed, followed by a reanalysis of previously published data sets from research on proenvironmental and other types of behavior to test hypotheses derived from this literature. The results confirm that survey studies that include perceived...

  3. A Meta-Analysis of the Relations Between Three Types of Peer Norms and Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Sandfort, Theo; Deković, Maja

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the associations between three types of peer norms-descriptive norms (peer sexual behaviors), injunctive norms (peer sexual attitudes), and peer pressure to have sex-and two adolescent sexual behavior outcomes (sexual activity and sexual risk behavior). Adolescent sexual activity was more strongly associated with descriptive norms (ESrfixed=.40) than with injunctive norms (ESrfixed=.22) or peer pressure (ESrfixed=.10). Compared with the sexual activity outcome, the effect size for descriptive norms (peer sexual risk behavior) for sexual risk behavior was smaller (ESrfixed=.11). Age, gender, peer type, and socio-cultural context significantly moderated these associations. Additional analyses of longitudinal studies suggested that selection effects were stronger than socialization effects. These findings offer empirical support for the conceptual distinction between three types of peer norms and hold important implications for theory, research, and intervention strategies. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. Calculation of the CIPW norm: New formulas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    days norms are usu- ally calculated using digital computers. The clas- sic norm calculation procedure (Cross et al 1902) and its later modifications (Washington 1917;. Johannsen 1931; Hutchison 1974; Cox et al 1979;. Le Maitre 1982; Ragland ...

  5. Privacy and Social Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessler, B.; Mokrosinska, D.

    2013-01-01

    This article joins in and extends the contemporary debate on the right to privacy. We bring together two strands of the contemporary discourse on privacy. While we endorse the prevailing claim that norms of informational privacy protect the autonomy of individual subjects, we supplement it with an

  6. "Take one for the team!" individual heterogeneity and the emergence of latent norms in a volunteer's dilemma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Przepiorka, Wojtek

    2016-01-01

    The tension between individual and collective interests and the provision of sanctioning mechanisms have been identified as important building blocks of a theory of norm emergence. Correspondingly, most investigations focus on how social norms emerge through explicit bargaining and social exchange

  7. Longitudinal associations between descriptive and injunctive norms of youngsters and heavy drinking and problem drinking in late adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, C.V.; Larsen, H.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectionally, social norms are related to heavy and problem drinking in late adolescence. A better understanding is needed regarding the longitudinal associations between social norms in younger populations and heavy and problem drinking over time. This study distinguished between descriptive

  8. Why is it Bad to Make a Mess? Preschoolers’ Conceptions of Pragmatic Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Audun; Kim, Lizbeth

    2016-01-01

    A common type of transgression in early childhood involves creating inconvenience, for instance by spilling, playing with breakable objects, or otherwise interfering with people’s ongoing activities. Despite the prevalence of such pragmatic transgressions, little is known about children’s conceptions of norms prohibiting these acts. The present study investigated whether 3-to 5-year-olds (N = 58) see pragmatic norms as distinct from first-order moral (welfare and rights of others), prudential (welfare of agent), and social conventional norms. Children judged all four types of transgressions to be wrong. Justifications for pragmatic transgressions focused on inconvenience to the transgressor, inconvenience to others, or material disorder. Children rated pragmatic and conventional transgressions as less serious than moral and prudential transgressions. Latent Class Analysis provided further support for the conclusion that preschoolers see pragmatic norms as a category distinct from first-order moral, prudential, and social conventional norms. PMID:28154468

  9. BIO Logical Agents: Norms, Beliefs, Intentions in Defeasible Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Governatori, Guido; Rotolo, Antonino

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we follow the BOID (Belief, Obligation, Intention, Desire) architecture to describe agents and agent types in Defeasible Logic. We argue, in particular, that the introduction of obligations can provide a new reading of the concepts of intention and intentionality. Then we examine the notion of social agent (i.e., an agent where obligations prevail over intentions) and discuss some computational and philosophical issues related to it. We show th...

  10. The influence of unemployment on the norm of obedience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Gangloff

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The social value attributed to certain behavior and the rejection towards its opposing behavior characterize social norms. Recent studies carried out in Buenos Aires, Argentina, have shown that top-level chiefs approve of obedience o “aligned behavior” among their subordinates. This evidences the existence of an obedience social norm that subordinates are aware of. Thus three main questions arise: 1 Are mid-level chiefs (i. e. subordinates managers conscious of this ‘alignment’ norm in a global or in a selective way?, 2 Is this norm followed spontaneously or deliberately? and 3 Does this behavior vary depending on the subject being employed or unemployed? The paradigm of spontaneous versus over-normative versus counter-normative self-report was employed to find answers to these questions. One hundred and eighty mid-level chiefs were divided into three groups. Within these groups, half of them were employed, the other half were unemployed. Each group was asked to answer considering three different attitudes: the first group was asked to answer spontaneously, the second group was asked to answer considering a good impression wanted to be given, and the third group had to answer as if giving a bad impression of themselves was their intention. Each participant within these groups was presented with a list of options from which to choose how they would behave. It was observed that aligned behavior is valued depending on the given context. However, there is no consciousness of the norm when subordinates behave in that way due to self-censorship or due to respect towards legitimacy. This specific aspect shows up in each and every paradigm presented: spontaneous, over-normative, counter-normative and also, even though to a lesser extent, independently of the fact of being employed or unemployed at the moment of the study. Further from these concrete findings, it becomes evident the need for an item-by-item analysis which avoids making quick

  11. The Norm-Activating Power of Celebrity : The Dynamics of Success and Influence (Retracted article. See vol. 75, pg. 289, 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Joly, Janneke F.; Stapel, Diederik A.

    On the basis of previous evidence, we reasoned that even if people do not identify with celebrities, these celebrities can influence their behavior by activating bundles of social norms. Activating a norm means making both content and ''oughtness'' of the norm more directly relevant for behavior. We

  12. Alcohol expectancies, perceived norms, and drinking behavior among college students: examining the reciprocal determinism hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2013-03-01

    Social learning mechanisms, such as descriptive norms for drinking behavior (norms) and positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs), play a major role in college student alcohol use. According to the principle of reciprocal determinism (Bandura, 1977), norms and PAEs should be reciprocally associated with alcohol use, each influencing one another over time. However, the nature of these prospective relationships for college students is in need of further investigation. This study provided the first examination of the unique reciprocal associations among norms, PAEs, and drinking together in a single model. PAEs become more stable with age, whereas norms are likely to be more dynamic upon college entry. Thus, we hypothesized that alcohol use would show stronger reciprocal associations with norms than with PAEs for college students. Students (N = 557; 67% women) completed online measures of PAEs, norms, and quantity and frequency of alcohol use in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. Reciprocal associations were analyzed using a cross-lagged panel design. PAEs had unidirectional influences on frequency and quantity of alcohol use, with no prospective effects from alcohol use to PAEs. Reciprocal associations were observed between norms and alcohol use, but only for quantity and not for frequency. Specifically, drinking quantity prospectively predicted quantity norms and quantity norms prospectively predicted drinking quantity. This effect was observed across both years in the model. These findings support the reciprocal determinism hypothesis for norms but not for PAEs in college students and may help to inform norm-based interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Concave 1-norm group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dingfeng; Huang, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Grouping structures arise naturally in many high-dimensional problems. Incorporation of such information can improve model fitting and variable selection. Existing group selection methods, such as the group Lasso, require correct membership. However, in practice it can be difficult to correctly specify group membership of all variables. Thus, it is important to develop group selection methods that are robust against group mis-specification. Also, it is desirable to select groups as well as individual variables in many applications. We propose a class of concave [Formula: see text]-norm group penalties that is robust to grouping structure and can perform bi-level selection. A coordinate descent algorithm is developed to calculate solutions of the proposed group selection method. Theoretical convergence of the algorithm is proved under certain regularity conditions. Comparison with other methods suggests the proposed method is the most robust approach under membership mis-specification. Simulation studies and real data application indicate that the [Formula: see text]-norm concave group selection approach achieves better control of false discovery rates. An R package grppenalty implementing the proposed method is available at CRAN. © Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Low-income women's navigation of childbearing norms throughout the reproductive life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Hawkins, Laurie; Sennott, Christie

    2015-01-01

    Shifts in family structure have affected age norms about both teenage childbearing and reproductive sterilization, but we lack research examining how childbearing norms are connected across the reproductive life course. Drawing on interviews from 40 low-income women in Colorado, we explored linkages between early childbearing and the desire for early sterilization. Specifically, we examined two narratives women use to negotiate competing norms throughout the reproductive life course. The low-income women in our study characterized their teenage childbearing experiences negatively and justified them using a "young and dumb" narrative. Women also asserted that reversible contraceptives do not work for them, using a "hyper-fertility" narrative to explain both their early childbearing and their desire for early sterilization. Our results illustrate the influence of mainstream social norms about childbearing timing on low-income women's lives and provide evidence of how women use narratives to explain and justify their violation of childbearing norms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. The relationship between faculty characteristics and the use of norm- and criteria-based grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Robst

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Norm-based grading has been associated with a reduction in student incentives to learn. Thus, it is important to understand faculty incentives for using norm-based grading. This paper used two waves of the National Study of Postsecondary Faculty to examine faculty characteristics related to the use of norm-based grading. Results suggest that norm-based grading is more likely when faculty and departments are more research oriented. Faculty who are at lower rank, male, younger, in science and social science departments are more likely to use norm-based grading, while faculty who feel that teaching should be the primary promotion criterion use criteria-based grading.

  16. IOs as Social Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Susan M.; Vetterlein, Antje

    Norms research has made significant inroads into examining their emergence and influence in international relations, while recognizing international organizations (IOs) as key social sites for norms to be created and/or disseminated. This paper interrogates how IOs as “organizational platforms......” (Finnemore 1996) influence the norm building process. Going beyond state-centric approaches to norm construction, it argues that the process of taking up a norm by an IO does affect the norm’s power. A norm’s strength is determined by the extent to which it is uncontested and taken for granted as appropriate...... the norm building process in this way provides insight into the effect of IOs as social sites in strengthening a norm....

  17. Norm Attaining Arens Extensions on ℓ1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Falcó

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study norm attaining properties of the Arens extensions of multilinear forms defined on Banach spaces. Among other related results, we construct a multilinear form on ℓ1 with the property that only some fixed Arens extensions determined a priori attain their norms. We also study when multilinear forms can be approximated by ones with the property that only some of their Arens extensions attain their norms.

  18. Descriptive and injunctive network norms associated with nonmedical use of prescription drugs among homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Al Tayyib, Alia; Begun, Stephanie; Bowen, Elizabeth; Rice, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) among youth and young adults is being increasingly recognized as a significant public health problem. Homeless youth in particular are more likely to engage in NMUPD compared to housed youth. Studies suggest that network norms are strongly associated with a range of substance use behaviors. However, evidence regarding the association between network norms and NMUPD is scarce. We sought to understand whether social network norms of NMUPD are associated with engagement in NMUPD among homeless youth. 1046 homeless youth were recruited from three drop-in centers in Los Angeles, CA and were interviewed regarding their individual and social network characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to evaluate the significance of associations between social norms (descriptive and injunctive) and self-reported NMUPD. Approximately 25% of youth reported past 30-day NMUPD. However, more youth (32.28%) of youth believed that their network members engage in NMUPD, perhaps suggesting some pluralistic ignorance bias. Both descriptive and injunctive norms were associated with self-reported NMUPD among homeless youth. However, these varied by network type, with presence of NMUPD engaged street-based and home-based peers (descriptive norm) increasing the likelihood of NMUPD, while objections from family-members (injunctive norm) decreasing that likelihood. Our findings suggest that, like other substance use behaviors, NMUPD is also influenced by youths' perceptions of the behaviors of their social network members. Therefore, prevention and interventions programs designed to influence NMUPD might benefit from taking a social network norms approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Peer pressure and incentive mechanisms in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chuang; Ye, Chao; Wang, Lin; Rong, Zhihai; Wang, Xiaofan

    2018-01-01

    Cooperation can be viewed as a social norm that is expected in our society. In this work, a framework based on spatial public goods game theory is established to study how peer pressure and incentive mechanisms can influence the evolution of cooperation. A unified model with adjustable parameters is developed to represent the effects of pure Personal Mechanism, Personal Mechanism with peer pressure and Social Mechanism, which demonstrates that when the sum of rewards plus the peer pressure felt by defectors is larger than the effective cost of cooperation, cooperation can prevail. As the peer pressure is caused by other cooperators in a game, group size and network structure play an important role. In particular, larger group size and more heterogeneous structured population can make defectors feel more peer pressure, which will promote the evolution and sustainment of cooperation.

  20. The Role of Neighborhood and Community in Building Developmental Assets for Children and Youth: A National Study of Social Norms Among American Adults El Rol del Vecindario y la Comunidad en la Promoción de Competencias Evolutivas en Niños y Jóvenes: Un Estudio Nacional de Normas Sociales en Adultos Norteamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C Scales

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Unrelated adults play potentially important roles in the positive socialization of children and youth, but studies of adolescents suggest the majority of adults do not engage positively with young people on an intentional, frequent, and deep basis. As a result, only a minority of young people report experiencing key developmental assets that have been associated with reduced risk-taking behaviors and increased thriving. Social norms theory suggests that adults will be more likely to get deeply involved with young people outside their family if that involvement is viewed as highly important, and if they perceive a social expectation to do so. A nationally representative sample of 1,425 U.S. adults was surveyed to determine the degree of importance American adults ascribed to 19 positive asset-building actions, and the degree to which the adults they knew actually engaged with young people outside their own families in those positive ways. The results showed that only a minority of Americans experience consistent normative motivation for engaging with other people's children. There is a large gap between what adults consider important and what they actually do to construct positive, intentional relationships with children and youth. Community stability and extent of community-building activities in which adults engage, including participation in religious services, volunteering, and neighborhood meetings, are associated with differences among adults in the degree of normative motivation for engaging with young people. In addition to these group differences, however, there also are nine asset-building actions -two functioning as genuine social norms and seven as social values- that great majorities of American adults consider highly important. The foundation therefore exists in public opinion to make explicit greater permission for adults to become more deeply engaged in the lives of children outside their families and to thereby define new

  1. How gender- and violence-related norms affect self-esteem among adolescent refugee girls living in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, L; Asghar, K; Seff, I; Cislaghi, B; Yu, G; Tesfay Gessesse, T; Eoomkham, J; Assazenew Baysa, A; Falb, K

    2018-01-01

    Evidence suggests adolescent self-esteem is influenced by beliefs of how individuals in their reference group perceive them. However, few studies examine how gender- and violence-related social norms affect self-esteem among refugee populations. This paper explores relationships between gender inequitable and victim-blaming social norms, personal attitudes, and self-esteem among adolescent girls participating in a life skills program in three Ethiopian refugee camps. Ordinary least squares multivariable regression analysis was used to assess the associations between attitudes and social norms, and self-esteem. Key independent variables of interest included a scale measuring personal attitudes toward gender inequitable norms, a measure of perceived injunctive norms capturing how a girl believed her family and community would react if she was raped, and a peer-group measure of collective descriptive norms surrounding gender inequity. The key outcome variable, self-esteem, was measured using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Girl's personal attitudes toward gender inequitable norms were not significantly predictive of self-esteem at endline, when adjusting for other covariates. Collective peer norms surrounding the same gender inequitable statements were significantly predictive of self-esteem at endline ( ß  = -0.130; p   =  0.024). Additionally, perceived injunctive norms surrounding family and community-based sanctions for victims of forced sex were associated with a decline in self-esteem at endline ( ß  = -0.103; p   =  0.014). Significant findings for collective descriptive norms and injunctive norms remained when controlling for all three constructs simultaneously. Findings suggest shifting collective norms around gender inequity, particularly at the community and peer levels, may sustainably support the safety and well-being of adolescent girls in refugee settings.

  2. Discourse norms as default rules: structuring corporate speech to multiple stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosifon, David G

    2011-01-01

    This Article analyzes corporate speech problems through the framework of corporate law. The focus here is on the "discourse norms" that regulate corporate speech to various corporate stakeholders, including shareholders, workers, and consumers. I argue that these "discourse norms" should be understood as default terms in the "nexus-of-contracts" that comprises the corporation. Having reviewed the failure of corporate law as it bears on the interests of non-shareholding stakeholders such as workers and consumers, I urge the adoption of prescriptive discourse norms as an approach to reforming corporate governance in a socially useful manner.

  3. The Role of Indian Caste Identity and Caste Inconsistent Norms on Status Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Sekerdej, Maciek; von Hecker, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The Indian caste system is a complex social structure wherein social roles like one's profession became 'hereditary,' resulting in restricted social mobility and fixed status hierarchies. Furthermore, we argue that the inherent property of caste heightens group identification with one's caste. Highly identified group members would protect the identity of the group in situations when group norms are violated. In this paper, we were interested in examining the consequence of caste norm violation and how an individual's status is mentally represented. High caste norms are associated with moral values while the lower caste norms are associated with immorality. We predicted a 'black sheep effect,' that is, when high caste individuals' group identity (caste norm violation condition) is threatened their salient high caste identity would increase, thereby resulting in devaluing the status of their fellow in-group member if the latter is perceived as perpetrator. We presented participants with a social conflict situation of a victim and a perpetrator that is ' Caste norm consistent' (Lower caste individual as a perpetrator and higher caste individual as a victim) and vice versa 'Caste norm inconsistent' condition (higher caste individual as perpetrator and lower caste individual as a victim). Then, participants had to choose from nine pictorial depictions representing the protagonists in the story on a vertical line, with varying degrees of status distance. Results showed evidence for the black sheep effect and, furthermore, revealed that no other identity (religious, national, and regional) resulted in devaluing the status of fellow in-group member. These results help us understand the 'black sheep' effect in the context of moral norms and status representation and are discussed in the framework of the Indian society.

  4. Frontcountry encounter norms among three cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry J. Vaske; Maureen P. Donnelly; Robert M. Doctor; James P. Petruzzi

    1995-01-01

    Existing normative studies have focused on backcountry encounter norms reported by North Americans. This study extends previous research by comparing encounter norms reported by three different cultures - North Americans, Europeans, and Japanese - in a frontcountry day use recreation area. Data were obtained from on-site surveys distributed at the Columbia Icefield in...

  5. NORM Management in the Oil & Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Michael; Mously, Khalid; Fageeha, Osama; Nassar, Rafat

    2008-08-01

    It has been established that Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) accumulates at various locations along the oil/gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become NORM contaminated, and NORM can accumulate in sludge and other waste media. Improper handling and disposal of NORM contaminated equipment and waste can create a potential radiation hazard to workers and the environment. Saudi Aramco Environmental Protection Department initiated a program to identify the extent, form and level of NORM contamination associated with the company operations. Once identified the challenge of managing operations which had a NORM hazard was addressed in a manner that gave due consideration to workers and environmental protection as well as operations' efficiency and productivity. The benefits of shared knowledge, practice and experience across the oil & gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance on NORM management. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.

  6. Norm based design of fault detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The design of fault detectors for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in dynamic systems is considered in this paper from a norm based point of view. An analysis of norm based threshold selection is given based on different formulations of FDI problems. Both the nominal FDI problem as well...

  7. Norms and economic motivation in the Swedish green electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, Kristina; Soederholm, Patrik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an econometric analysis of the most important determinants of Swedish households' choice to pay a price premium for 'green' electricity. We draw on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behavior into neoclassical consumer theory, and assume that individuals have a preference for keeping a self-image as a morally responsible person. Consumer behavior in the 'green market place' will then be heavily determined by how purchases of different goods affect this self-image. The analysis is based on postal survey responses from 655 Swedish households, which are analyzed within a binary choice econometric framework. The results indicate that the impact of choosing 'green' on the household budget largely influences the choice between 'green' and 'brown' electricity, as does the degree of perceived personal responsibility for the issue and the felt ability to affect the outcome in a positive way. We find limited support for the notion that perceptions about others' behavior in general affect individual moral norms and ultimately expressed behavior, but this is also complemented by the influence of explicit social influence. The difficulty in observing others' purchases makes it however difficult to distinguish between social and moral norms in the case of 'green' electricity. (author)

  8. Norms and economic motivation in the Swedish green electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, Kristina; Soederholm, Patrik [Luleaa University of Technology, Economics Unit, 971 87 Luleaa (Sweden)

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an econometric analysis of the most important determinants of Swedish households' choice to pay a price premium for 'green' electricity. We draw on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behavior into neoclassical consumer theory, and assume that individuals have a preference for keeping a self-image as a morally responsible person. Consumer behavior in the 'green market place' will then be heavily determined by how purchases of different goods affect this self-image. The analysis is based on postal survey responses from 655 Swedish households, which are analyzed within a binary choice econometric framework. The results indicate that the impact of choosing 'green' on the household budget largely influences the choice between 'green' and 'brown' electricity, as does the degree of perceived personal responsibility for the issue and the felt ability to affect the outcome in a positive way. We find limited support for the notion that perceptions about others' behavior in general affect individual moral norms and ultimately expressed behavior, but this is also complemented by the influence of explicit social influence. The difficulty in observing others' purchases makes it however difficult to distinguish between social and moral norms in the case of 'green' electricity. (author)

  9. Gender violence and sexism in Italy. Norms, control and sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Peroni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender-based violence and prostitution are social facts that historically in the way they are represented and socially constructed processes produce ethnicization, essentialism, culturalization of female bodies and deviant than the heterosexual norm. In this paper we compare two different waves discourse, on the one hand that securitarian (2007-2009 that has seen violence and prostitution both devices to agitate social alarms, justify repressive measures, reproduce rhetorical securitarian and at the same time reaffirm social gender roles essentialized, on the other the next (2010-2012, in which violence against women, in part thanks to the power of word of Italian feminists, yes is given in the home, but how did outstanding and without questioning the state of relations gender in our society, while the sex scandals linked to Berlusconi and the spread of a discursive order distorts neo-moralistic terms such as prostitution, violence, selfdetermination and freedom. These two cases are epiphenomena of a trend that sees women's bodies and their sexuality object of devices and discursive orders useful to reaffirm the heterosexual norm, asymmetrical gender relations, and more generally a given social order based on the control of body.

  10. A meta-analysis of the relations between three types of peer norms and adolescent sexual behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Sandfort, Theo; Deković, Maja

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the associations between three types of peer norms–descriptive norms (peer sexual behaviors), injunctive norms (peer sexual attitudes), and peer pressure to have sex–and two adolescent sexual behavior outcomes (sexual activity and sexual risk behavior). Adolescent sexual activity was more strongly associated with descriptive norms (ESrfixed = .40) than with injunctive norms (ESrfixed = .22) or peer pressure (ESrfixed = .10). Compared with the sexual activity outcome, the effect size for descriptive norms (peer sexual risk behavior) for sexual risk behavior was smaller (ESrfixed = .11). Age, gender, peer type, and socio-cultural context significantly moderated these associations. Additional analyses of longitudinal studies suggested that selection effects were stronger than socialization effects. These findings offer empirical support for the conceptual distinction between three types of peer norms and hold important implications for theory, research, and intervention strategies. PMID:25217363

  11. Suicidality, Economic Shocks, and Egalitarian Gender Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2016-02-01

    Durkheim conceived of suicide as a product of social integration and regulation. Although the sociology of suicide has focused on the role of disintegration, to our knowledge, the interaction between integration and regulation has yet to be empirically evaluated. In this article we test whether more egalitarian gender norms, an important form of macro-regulation, protects men and women against suicidality during economic shocks. Using cross-national data covering 20 European Union countries from the years 1991 to 2011, including the recent economic crises in Europe, we first assessed the relation between unemployment and suicide. Then we evaluated potential effect modification using three measures of gender equality, the gender ratio in labour force participation, the gender pay gap, and women's representation in parliament using multiple measures. We found no evidence of a significant, direct link between greater gender equality and suicide rates in either men or women. However, a greater degree of gender equality helped protect against suicidality associated with economic shocks. At relatively high levels of gender equality in Europe, such as those seen in Sweden and Austria, the relationship between rising unemployment rates and suicide in men disappeared altogether. Our findings suggest that more egalitarian forms of gender regulation may help buffer the suicidal consequences of economic shocks, especially in men.

  12. Norm, gender, and bribe-giving: Insights from a behavioral game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying-yi

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that bribery is more normative in some countries than in others. To understand the underlying process, this paper examines the effects of social norm and gender on bribe-giving behavior. We argue that social norms provide information for strategic planning and impression management, and thus would impact participants’ bribe amount. Besides, males are more agentic and focus more on impression management than females. We predicted that males would defy the norm in order to win when the amount of their bribe was kept private, but would conform to the norm when it was made public. To test this hypothesis, we conducted two studies using a competitive game. In each game, we asked three participants to compete in five rounds of creative tasks, and the winner was determined by a referee’s subjective judgment of the participants’ performance on the tasks. Participants were allowed to give bribes to the referee. Bribe-giving norms were manipulated in two domains: norm level (high vs. low) and norm context (private vs. public), in order to investigate the influence of informational and affiliational needs. Studies 1 and 2 consistently showed that individuals conformed to the norm level of bribe-giving while maintaining a relative advantage for economic benefit. Study 2 found that males gave larger bribes in the private context than in the public, whereas females gave smaller bribes in both contexts. We used a latent growth curve model (LGCM) to depict the development of bribe-giving behaviors during five rounds of competition. The results showed that gender, creative performance, and norm level all influence the trajectory of bribe-giving behavior. PMID:29272291

  13. Norm, gender, and bribe-giving: Insights from a behavioral game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Lan

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that bribery is more normative in some countries than in others. To understand the underlying process, this paper examines the effects of social norm and gender on bribe-giving behavior. We argue that social norms provide information for strategic planning and impression management, and thus would impact participants' bribe amount. Besides, males are more agentic and focus more on impression management than females. We predicted that males would defy the norm in order to win when the amount of their bribe was kept private, but would conform to the norm when it was made public. To test this hypothesis, we conducted two studies using a competitive game. In each game, we asked three participants to compete in five rounds of creative tasks, and the winner was determined by a referee's subjective judgment of the participants' performance on the tasks. Participants were allowed to give bribes to the referee. Bribe-giving norms were manipulated in two domains: norm level (high vs. low and norm context (private vs. public, in order to investigate the influence of informational and affiliational needs. Studies 1 and 2 consistently showed that individuals conformed to the norm level of bribe-giving while maintaining a relative advantage for economic benefit. Study 2 found that males gave larger bribes in the private context than in the public, whereas females gave smaller bribes in both contexts. We used a latent growth curve model (LGCM to depict the development of bribe-giving behaviors during five rounds of competition. The results showed that gender, creative performance, and norm level all influence the trajectory of bribe-giving behavior.

  14. Norm, gender, and bribe-giving: Insights from a behavioral game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian; Hong, Ying-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that bribery is more normative in some countries than in others. To understand the underlying process, this paper examines the effects of social norm and gender on bribe-giving behavior. We argue that social norms provide information for strategic planning and impression management, and thus would impact participants' bribe amount. Besides, males are more agentic and focus more on impression management than females. We predicted that males would defy the norm in order to win when the amount of their bribe was kept private, but would conform to the norm when it was made public. To test this hypothesis, we conducted two studies using a competitive game. In each game, we asked three participants to compete in five rounds of creative tasks, and the winner was determined by a referee's subjective judgment of the participants' performance on the tasks. Participants were allowed to give bribes to the referee. Bribe-giving norms were manipulated in two domains: norm level (high vs. low) and norm context (private vs. public), in order to investigate the influence of informational and affiliational needs. Studies 1 and 2 consistently showed that individuals conformed to the norm level of bribe-giving while maintaining a relative advantage for economic benefit. Study 2 found that males gave larger bribes in the private context than in the public, whereas females gave smaller bribes in both contexts. We used a latent growth curve model (LGCM) to depict the development of bribe-giving behaviors during five rounds of competition. The results showed that gender, creative performance, and norm level all influence the trajectory of bribe-giving behavior.

  15. Sociometric network structure and its association with methamphetamine use norms among homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Begun, Stephanie; Rice, Eric; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Perez-Portillo, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Homeless youths' social networks are consistently linked with their substance use. Social networks influence behavior through several mechanisms, especially social norms. This study used sociometric analyses to understand whether social norms of drug use behaviors are clustered in network structures and whether these perceived norms (descriptive and injunctive) influence youths' drug use behaviors. An event-based approach was used to delineate boundaries of the two sociometric networks of homeless youth, one in Los Angeles, CA (n = 160) and the other in Santa Monica, CA (n = 130). Network characteristics included centrality (i.e., popularity) and cohesiveness (location in dense subnetworks). The primary outcome was recent methamphetamine use. Results revealed that both descriptive and injunctive norms influenced methamphetamine use. Network cohesion was found to be associated with perception of both descriptive and injunctive norms in both networks, however in opposite directions. Network interventions therefore might be effective if designed to capitalize on social influence that naturally occurs in cohesive parts of networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nasalance norms in Greek adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal sentences and four sets of oral sentences and (3) repetitions of each of 12 syllable types (8 oral and 4 nasal). The last two sets of material corpus were based on an adaptation of the Simplified Nasometric Assessment Procedures Test (SNAP test) test ( MacKay and Kummer, 1994 ) in Greek, called the G-SNAP test. Eighty monolingual healthy young adult speakers of Greek, 40 males (mean age = 21 years) and 40 females (mean age = 20.5 years), with normal hearing and speech characteristics and unremarkable history were included in the study. The Nasometer (model 6200-3) was used to derive nasalance scores. Mean normative nasalance for spoken Greek was 25.50%, based on the G-oronasal text (with 8.6% nasals). Nasalance scores did not differ significantly with respect to gender. Finally, spoken Greek consistently yielded lower nasalance scores than other languages examined in past work. The aforementioned normative data on nasalance of young adult speakers of Greek are valid across gender and have direct clinical utility as they provide valuable reference information for the diagnosis and management of Greek adults with resonance disorders caused by velar dysfunction.

  17. 78 FR 60181 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Clayton-Cobb-Fulton, Georgia, Nonappropriated Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM84 Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition.... Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM..., from the wage area definition. The name of the wage area will be Cobb, GA. These changes are necessary...

  18. 20 CFR 656.40 - Determination of prevailing wage for labor certification purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... association of six or more professional sports teams whose total combined revenues exceed $10,000,000 per year... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of prevailing wage for labor certification purposes. 656.40 Section 656.40 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION...

  19. 78 FR 60182 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of Broward County, Florida, to a Nonappropriated Fund Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM83 Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of... Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing a final rule to define Broward County, FL, as an area of application county to the Miami-Dade, FL...

  20. 78 FR 29658 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of Broward County, Florida, to a Nonappropriated Fund Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Management is issuing a proposed rule that would define Broward County, Florida, as an area of application... Management (OPM) is issuing a proposed rule that would define Broward County, Florida, as an area of... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM83 Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of...

  1. 76 FR 9640 - Prevailing Rate Systems: Santa Clara, CA, Tulsa County, OK, and Angelina County, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ...: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing a final rule to define Tulsa... Management (OPM) issued a proposed rule (75 FR 45557) to define Tulsa County, Oklahoma, as an area of... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM22 Prevailing Rate Systems: Santa Clara...

  2. Working memory moderates the association between perceived norms and heavy episodic drinking among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahaney, K D; Palfai, T P

    2018-06-01

    Heavy episodic drinking (4+/5+ drinks/occasion for females/males) is highly prevalent among college students and is influenced by social factors. Among these social risk factors, perceived peer drinking norms have been shown to significantly predict heavy episodic drinking across a number of studies. However, there is little known about which students may be most and least susceptible to these influences or why individual differences may moderate the impact of norms on heavy drinking. Recent work has suggested self-control may be an important individual difference factor in this regard. Working memory (WM) is a central component of self-control that has been shown to buffer the effect of social influence variables. This study examined whether WM, as measured by memory span tasks, moderates the relationship between perceived drinking norms and alcohol use among college students reporting one or more past month drinking occasions (n = 98). Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to examine whether WM significantly moderated the relationship between perceived norms and heavy drinking episodes (HDEs) as well as number of drinking days in the past month. Analyses revealed a significant WM x norms interaction for both drinking indices. Simple slopes analyses suggested a buffering effect of WM as higher perceived norms predicted more HDEs and drinking days at low (-1SD) and mean WM scores but not high (+1SD) WM. These results suggest WM serves as a protective factor for the influence of norms such that individuals high in WM may be more able to inhibit the impact of norms on alcohol use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Necessary, yet dissociable contributions of the insular and ventromedial prefrontal cortices to norm adaptation: computational and lesion evidence in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaosi; Wang, Xingchao; Hula, Andreas; Wang, Shiwei; Xu, Shuai; Lohrenz, Terry M; Knight, Robert T; Gao, Zhixian; Dayan, Peter; Montague, P Read

    2015-01-14

    Social norms and their enforcement are fundamental to human societies. The ability to detect deviations from norms and to adapt to norms in a changing environment is therefore important to individuals' normal social functioning. Previous neuroimaging studies have highlighted the involvement of the insular and ventromedial prefrontal (vmPFC) cortices in representing norms. However, the necessity and dissociability of their involvement remain unclear. Using model-based computational modeling and neuropsychological lesion approaches, we examined the contributions of the insula and vmPFC to norm adaptation in seven human patients with focal insula lesions and six patients with focal vmPFC lesions, in comparison with forty neurologically intact controls and six brain-damaged controls. There were three computational signals of interest as participants played a fairness game (ultimatum game): sensitivity to the fairness of offers, sensitivity to deviations from expected norms, and the speed at which people adapt to norms. Significant group differences were assessed using bootstrapping methods. Patients with insula lesions displayed abnormally low adaptation speed to norms, yet detected norm violations with greater sensitivity than controls. Patients with vmPFC lesions did not have such abnormalities, but displayed reduced sensitivity to fairness and were more likely to accept the most unfair offers. These findings provide compelling computational and lesion evidence supporting the necessary, yet dissociable roles of the insula and vmPFC in norm adaptation in humans: the insula is critical for learning to adapt when reality deviates from norm expectations, and that the vmPFC is important for valuation of fairness during social exchange. Copyright © 2015 Gu et al.

  4. The role of norms in explaining attitudes, intention and consumption of a common food (fish) in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuu, Ho Huy; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Thao, Duong Tri; Anh, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the conceptual framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain the consumption of a common food (fish) in Vietnam. We seek to understand the role of norms in explaining intention to consume, and descriptive norms is included as extensions of traditional constructs such as attitude, social norms, and perceived behavioral control. The data were derived from a cross-sectional sample of 612 consumers. Structural equation modeling was applied to test the relationships between constructs, and evaluate the reliability and the validity of the constructs. The results indicate that the models fit well with the data. Attitude, social norms, descriptive norms and behavioral control all had significantly positive effect on behavioral intention. Finally, both intention and perceived behavioral control were highly associated with the frequency of consumption of the common food investigated.

  5. Norm based Threshold Selection for Fault Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind; Niemann, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The design of fault detectors for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in dynamic systems is considered from a norm based point of view. An analysis of norm based threshold selection is given based on different formulations of FDI problems. Both the nominal FDI problem as well as the uncertain FDI...... problem are considered. Based on this analysis, a performance index based on norms of the involved transfer functions is given. The performance index allows us also to optimize the structure of the fault detection filter directly...

  6. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2006-01-01

    and shopping. Also the frequency of the four behaviours was measured. The revised taxonomy has content, discriminant, predictive, and nomological validity and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The most internalized of the new norm constructs, integrated norms, is most strongly correlated with conventional...... measures of personal and moral norms. However, other constructs in the proposed taxonomy still contribute significantly to predicting conventional norm measures after controlling for integrated norms. This documents the motivational ambiguity of the conventional personal norm construct. The patterns...

  7. How gender- and violence-related norms affect self-esteem among adolescent refugee girls living in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, L.; Asghar, K.; Seff, I.; Cislaghi, B.; Yu, G.; Tesfay Gessesse, T.; Eoomkham, J.; Assazenew Baysa, A.; Falb, K.

    2018-01-01

    Background. Evidence suggests adolescent self-esteem is influenced by beliefs of how individuals in their reference group perceive them. However, few studies examine how gender- and violence-related social norms affect self-esteem among refugee populations. This paper explores relationships between gender inequitable and victim-blaming social norms, personal attitudes, and self-esteem among adolescent girls participating in a life skills program in three Ethiopian refugee camps. Methods. Ordi...

  8. From Blame to Punishment: Disrupting Prefrontal Cortex Activity Reveals Norm Enforcement Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Martin, Justin W; Treadway, Michael T; Jan, Katherine; Zald, David H; Jones, Owen; Marois, René

    2015-09-23

    The social welfare provided by cooperation depends on the enforcement of social norms. Determining blameworthiness and assigning a deserved punishment are two cognitive cornerstones of norm enforcement. Although prior work has implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in norm-based judgments, the relative contribution of this region to blameworthiness and punishment decisions remains poorly understood. Here, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and fMRI to determine the specific role of DLPFC function in norm-enforcement behavior. DLPFC rTMS reduced punishment for wrongful acts without affecting blameworthiness ratings, and fMRI revealed punishment-selective DLPFC recruitment, suggesting that these two facets of norm-based decision making are neurobiologically dissociable. Finally, we show that DLPFC rTMS affects punishment decision making by altering the integration of information about culpability and harm. Together, these findings reveal a selective, causal role for DLPFC in norm enforcement: representational integration of the distinct information streams used to make punishment decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender Norm Salience Across Middle Schools: Contextual Variations in Associations Between Gender Typicality and Socioemotional Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Danielle Sayre; Schacter, Hannah L; Enders, Craig; Juvonen, Jaana

    2018-05-01

    Youth who feel they do not fit with gender norms frequently experience peer victimization and socioemotional distress. To gauge differences between schools, the current study examined the longitudinal effects of school-level gender norm salience-a within-school association between gender typicality and peer victimization-on socioemotional distress across 26 ethnically diverse middle schools (n boys  = 2607; n girls  = 2805). Boys (but not girls) reporting lower gender typicality experienced more loneliness and social anxiety in schools with more salient gender norms, even when accounting for both individual and school level victimization. Greater gender norm salience also predicted increased depressed mood among boys regardless of gender typicality. These findings suggest particular sensitivity among boys to environments in which low gender typicality is sanctioned.

  10. The consequences of the heterosexual norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Johansson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Librarians may exclude people accidentally. This is so because there is a widespread use of classifications and subject headings reflecting the heterosexual norm. Critical classification theory tackles this norm for the reason that it affects the retrieval of gay literature. In order to allow a reconsideration of this exclusive practice in the LIS community I challenge two main questions: Firstly, how does the heterosexual norm appear in classification systems and subject headings lists? And secondly, what are the consequences of that practice for the retrieval of gay literature?This paper focuses on the professional practise in Swedish public libraries. If subject cataloguing prevents Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals and Transgender (LGBT finding their literatures, then Swedish public libraries are upholders of the exclusive heterosexual norm in society.

  11. Egalitarian norms, economic development, and ethnic polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, R.; Mouche, van P.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Economic development generally implies that traditional egalitarian norms and beliefs are replaced by modern individualistic values. Particularly when opportunities for advancement are unequally presented to people, this transformation may be accompanied by polarization and violent conflict. We

  12. Human health and stoic moral norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lawrence C

    2003-04-01

    For the philosophy of medicine, there are two things of interest about the stoic account of moral norms, quite apart from whether the rest of stoic ethical theory is compelling. One is the stoic version of naturalism: its account of practical reasoning, its solution to the is/ought problem, and its contention that norms for creating, sustaining, or restoring human health are tantamount to moral norms. The other is the stoic account of human agency: its description of the intimate connections between human health, rational agency, and moral norms. There is practical guidance to be gained from exploring those connections, whether or not one is ready to follow stoic moral theory all the way to its austere end.

  13. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts.

  14. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  15. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  16. College-Bound Teens’ Decisions about the Transition to Sex: Negotiating Competing Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    The normative influence of parents, close friends, and other peers on teens’ sexual behavior has been well documented. Yet, we still know little about the processes through which these oftentimes competing norms impact teens’ own sexual norms and behaviors. Drawing on qualitative data from 47 interviews conducted with college-bound teens, we investigate the processes through which perceived parental, close friend, and other peer norms about sex influenced teens’ decisions about whether and when to have sex. Although virtually all teens perceived that most of their peers were having sex and that parents were almost universally against teen sex, some teens had sex and others did not. Our findings demonstrate that teens who remained virgins and those who were sexually active during high school often negotiated different sets of competing norms. Differences in understandings of age norms, in close friends’ sexual norms and behaviors, and in communication about sex with parents, close friends and other peers were related to different levels of sexual behavior for teens who otherwise shared many similarities in social location (e.g.. class, race, and educational status). While virgins reported an individualized process of deciding whether they were ready for sex, we find that their behavior fits within a traditional understanding of an age norm because of the emphasis on avoiding negative sanctions. Sexually experienced teens, on the other hand, explicitly reported abiding by a group age norm that prescribed sex as normal during high school. Finally, parents’ normative objections to teen sex – either moral or practical – and the ways they communicated with their teen about sex had important influence on teens’ own sexual norms and behaviors during high school. PMID:22439133

  17. College-Bound Teens' Decisions about the Transition to Sex: Negotiating Competing Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennott, Christie; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2011-06-01

    The normative influence of parents, close friends, and other peers on teens' sexual behavior has been well documented. Yet, we still know little about the processes through which these oftentimes competing norms impact teens' own sexual norms and behaviors. Drawing on qualitative data from 47 interviews conducted with college-bound teens, we investigate the processes through which perceived parental, close friend, and other peer norms about sex influenced teens' decisions about whether and when to have sex. Although virtually all teens perceived that most of their peers were having sex and that parents were almost universally against teen sex, some teens had sex and others did not. Our findings demonstrate that teens who remained virgins and those who were sexually active during high school often negotiated different sets of competing norms. Differences in understandings of age norms, in close friends' sexual norms and behaviors, and in communication about sex with parents, close friends and other peers were related to different levels of sexual behavior for teens who otherwise shared many similarities in social location (e.g.. class, race, and educational status). While virgins reported an individualized process of deciding whether they were ready for sex, we find that their behavior fits within a traditional understanding of an age norm because of the emphasis on avoiding negative sanctions. Sexually experienced teens, on the other hand, explicitly reported abiding by a group age norm that prescribed sex as normal during high school. Finally, parents' normative objections to teen sex - either moral or practical - and the ways they communicated with their teen about sex had important influence on teens' own sexual norms and behaviors during high school.

  18. 75 FR 11935 - Technical Change to the Filing Location of Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the H-1B, H...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... (Australia), and Permanent Labor Certification Programs; Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the... (Australia), and Permanent Labor Certification Programs; Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the...

  19. NEIGHBORHOOD NORMS AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG TEENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598

  20. Intermediaries in Trust: Indirect Reciprocity, Incentives, and Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giangiacomo Bravo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Any trust situation involves a certain amount of risk for trustors that trustees could abuse. In some cases, intermediaries exist who play a crucial role in the exchange by providing reputational information. To examine under what conditions intermediary opinion could have a positive impact on cooperation, we designed two experiments based on a modified version of the investment game where intermediaries rated the behaviour of trustees under various incentive schemes and different role structures. We found that intermediaries can increase trust if there is room for indirect reciprocity between the involved parties. We also found that the effect of monetary incentives and social norms cannot be clearly separable in these situations. If properly designed, monetary incentives for intermediaries can have a positive effect. On the one hand, when intermediary rewards are aligned with the trustor’s interest, investments and returns tend to increase. On the other hand, fixed monetary incentives perform less than any other incentive schemes and endogenous social norms in ensuring trust and fairness. These findings should make us reconsider the mantra of incentivization of social and public conventional policy.

  1. Benthic diversity of River Gomti in relation to the prevailing environmental conditions in Lucknow

    OpenAIRE

    Varshney, P.K.; Agrahari, R.K.; Singh, S.K.; Jain, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the benthic diversity of River Gomti in relation to the prevailing environmental conditions, four stations, viz., Maa Chandrika Devi, Daliganj, Ambedkar Park and Aquaduct, were identified from upstream to downstream along the course of the river in Lucknow. Dissolved oxygen was low on many occasions at all the stations except Maa Chandrika Devi and chemical oxygen demand values were high. There was a gradual increase in mean nitrite and phosphate values from up to downstream. Bent...

  2. Why nature prevails over nurture in the making of the elite athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiades, Evelina; Klissouras, Vassilis; Baulch, Jamie; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2017-01-01

    While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes...

  3. Contradictory sexual norms and expectations for young people in rural Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Daniel; Plummer, Mary L; Mshana, Gerry; Wamoyi, Joyce; Shigongo, Zachayo S; Ross, David A

    2006-02-01

    There has been a long-running debate as to whether sexual cultures in sub-Saharan Africa are permissive or characterised by restrictive rules, rituals and self-restraint. This paper, based on participant observation data, outlines the main features of sexual culture in rural northern Tanzania and highlights both permissive and restrictive norms and expectations for young people. It also illustrates how sexual beliefs are socially constructed and subject to social change. Sexual activity is constrained by clear norms of school pupil abstinence, female sexual respectability and taboos around the discussion of sex. However, these norms are incompatible with several widely held expectations: that sexual activity is inevitable unless prevented, sex is a female resource to be exploited, restrictions on sexual activity are relaxed at festivals, and masculine esteem is boosted through sexual experience. Differential commitment to these norms and expectations reflects conflicts between generations and genders. Young people appear to manage the contradictions in these norms by concealing their sexual relationships. This almost certainly contributes to their short duration and the high levels of partner change, since relationships are not reinforced through social recognition and there is little scope to develop intimacy through non-sexual contacts.

  4. Gender and Social Remittances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe

    is on the surprise of finding, upon return, that social norms had changed in Yemen, in terms of a more restrictive approach to practices defined by gender. The return migrants all came to Yemen when they were still in their youth and they have had to accommodate to new gender norms upon their return in spite...

  5. Smoothing-Norm Preconditioning for Regularizing Minimum-Residual Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Jensen, Toke Koldborg

    2006-01-01

    take into account a smoothing norm for the solution. This technique is well established for CGLS, but it does not immediately carry over to minimum-residual methods when the smoothing norm is a seminorm or a Sobolev norm. We develop a new technique which works for any smoothing norm of the form $\\|L...

  6. Local Pragmatic Norms in Students' English: An Identity to Unleash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local Pragmatic Norms in Students' English: An Identity to Unleash. Chinelo Nwokolo ... discussed the meaning and nature of pragmatic norms. Then it revealed the local pragmatic norms of various kinds, which students usually incorporate into their use of English. It further argued to what extent these local pragmatic norms ...

  7. "Boys Should Have the Courage to Ask a Girl Out": Gender Norms in Early Adolescent Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Sara; Kågesten, Anna; Mmari, Kristin; McEachran, Juliet; Chilet-Rosell, Elisa; Kabiru, Caroline W; Maina, Beatrice; Jerves, Elena M; Currie, Candace; Michielsen, Kristien

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore how gender norms emerge in romantic relationships among early adolescents (EAs) living in five poor urban areas. Data were collected as part of the Global Early Adolescent Study. The current research analyzed data from interviews with 30 EAs (aged 11-13 years) living in five poor urban sites: Baltimore, Cuenca, Edinburgh, Ghent, and Nairobi. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in English using Atlas.ti, focusing on how EAs experience and perceive gender norms in romantic relationships. Across the five sites, only a few respondents described having been in love, the majority of whom were boys. Findings indicate that stereotypical gender norms about romantic relationships prevail across these cultural settings, depicting boys as romantically/sexually active and dominant, and girls as innocent with less (romantic) agency. In spite of the similarities, Nairobi was unique in that respondents referred to how sexual behavior and violence can occur within EA relationships. In all countries, heterosexuality was perceived to be the norm. Nevertheless, there were examples of EAs accepting homosexuality and expressing supportive attitudes toward equality between the sexes. While EAs across five different cultural settings seem to endorse stereotypical gender norms in romantic relationships, a few stories also illustrate more gender-equal attitudes. As stereotypical gender norms have a demonstrated negative effect on adolescent sexual and reproductive health and well-being, additional research is needed to understand which factors-at the interpersonal and structural level-contribute to the construction of these norms among EAs. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 5 CFR 532.205 - The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates. 532.205 Section 532.205 Administrative... Determinations § 532.205 The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing... amended, or (2) The highest State or local minimum wage rate in the local wage area which is applicable to...

  9. Die vraag na norme vir moraliteit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Heyns

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available The demand for norms for morality This article is a short investigation of the existence and the character of norms for morality. Owing to the secularized society in which we live today the well known Martin Buber once spoke of the eclipse of the light of heaven as an eclipse of God and, we may add, an eclipse also of moral norms. A theocentric basis for moral norms should be accepted as well as the fact that the whole of creation is subject unconditionally to his cosmonomic order. Consequently there is a concrete demand or claim on man in the situation he confronts, which cannot be reduced to an application of general moral norms to the situation concerned. God does speak to us through historical situations as well. We shall have to judge the concrete historical situation in its immediate hic et nunc call on us in the light of the will and law of God, as they are revealed to us in his Word.

  10. Geochemical signature of radioactive waste: oil NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Gilberto T. de Paula; Costa-de-Moura, Jorge; Gomes, Carlos de Almeida; Sampaio, Emidio A. Lopes

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Agency (CNEN) rules all nuclear activity in Brazil as demanded by the Federal Constitution, articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, and by the Federal Acts 4.118/62 and 10.308/2001. Therefore, the CNEN is responsible for any radioactive waste disposal in the country. Oil Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Oil NORM) in this paper refers to waste coming from oil exploration. Oil NORM has called much attention during the last decades, mostly because it is not possible to determine its primary source due to the actual absence of regulatory control mechanism. There is no efficient regulatory tool which allows determining the origin of such NORM wastes even among those facilities under regulatory control. This fact may encourage non-authorized radioactive material transportation, smuggling and terrorism. The aim of this project is to provide a geochemical signature for each oil NORM waste using its naturally occurring isotopic composition to identify its origin. The here proposed method is a specific geochemical modeling of oil sludge NORM samples which are analyzed for radioisotopes normally present in oil pipes, such as 228 Ac, 214 Bi and 214 Pb. The activity ratios are plotted in scatter diagrams. This method was successfully tested with data of different sources obtained from analysis reports from the Campos Basin/Brazil and from literature. (author)

  11. EQ-5D Portuguese population norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lara Noronha; Ferreira, Pedro L; Pereira, Luis N; Oppe, Mark

    2014-03-01

    The EQ-5D is a widely used preference-based measure. Normative data can be used as references to analyze the effects of healthcare, determine the burden of disease and enable regional or country comparisons. Population norms for the EQ-5D exist for other countries but have not been previously published for Portugal. The purpose of this study was to derive EQ-5D Portuguese population norms. The EQ-5D was applied by phone interview to a random sample of the Portuguese general population (n = 1,500) stratified by age, gender and region. The Portuguese value set was used to derive the EQ-5D index. Mean values were computed by gender and age groups, marital status, educational attainment, region and other variables to obtain the EQ-5D Portuguese norms. Health status declines with advancing age, and women reported worse health status than men. These results are similar to other EQ-5D population health studies. This study provides Portuguese population health-related quality of life data measured by the EQ-5D that can be used as population norms. These norms can be used to inform Portuguese policy makers, health care professionals and researchers in issues related to health care policy and planning and quantification of treatment effects on health status.

  12. Cyber Norms for Civilian Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spirito, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The international community agrees that the safe operation of civilian nuclear infrastructure is in every population’s best interest. One challenge each government must address is defining and agreeing to a set of acceptable norms of behavior in cyberspace as they relate to these facilities. The introduction of digital systems and networking technologies into these environments has led to the possibility that control and supporting computer systems are now accessible and exploitable, especially where interconnections to global information and communications technology (ICT) networks exist. The need for norms of behavior in cyberspace includes what is expected of system architects and cyber defenders as well as adversaries who should abide by rules of engagement even while conducting acts that violate national and international laws. The goal of this paper is to offer three behavioral cyber norms to improve the overall security of the ICT and Operational Technology (OT) networks and systems that underlie the operations of nuclear facilities. These norms of behavior will be specifically defined with the goals of reducing the threats associated to the theft of nuclear materials, accidental release of radiation and sabotage of nuclear processes. These norms would also include instances where an unwitting attacker or intelligence collection entity inadvertently makes their way into a nuclear facility network or system and can recognize they are in a protected zone and an approach to ensuring that these zones are not exploitable by bad actors to place their sensitive cyber effect delivery systems.

  13. Geochemical signature of radioactive waste: oil NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Gilberto T. de Paula; Costa-de-Moura, Jorge; Gomes, Carlos de Almeida; Sampaio, Emidio A. Lopes, E-mail: gilberto.costa@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jcmoura@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: cgomes@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Controle de Rejeitos e Transporte de Materiais Radioativos

    2017-07-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Agency (CNEN) rules all nuclear activity in Brazil as demanded by the Federal Constitution, articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, and by the Federal Acts 4.118/62 and 10.308/2001. Therefore, the CNEN is responsible for any radioactive waste disposal in the country. Oil Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Oil NORM) in this paper refers to waste coming from oil exploration. Oil NORM has called much attention during the last decades, mostly because it is not possible to determine its primary source due to the actual absence of regulatory control mechanism. There is no efficient regulatory tool which allows determining the origin of such NORM wastes even among those facilities under regulatory control. This fact may encourage non-authorized radioactive material transportation, smuggling and terrorism. The aim of this project is to provide a geochemical signature for each oil NORM waste using its naturally occurring isotopic composition to identify its origin. The here proposed method is a specific geochemical modeling of oil sludge NORM samples which are analyzed for radioisotopes normally present in oil pipes, such as {sup 228}Ac, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb. The activity ratios are plotted in scatter diagrams. This method was successfully tested with data of different sources obtained from analysis reports from the Campos Basin/Brazil and from literature. (author)

  14. Effects of perceived descriptive norms on corrupt intention: The mediating role of moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huanhuan; Zhang, Heyun; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-31

    The present study attempts to examine the effect of perceived descriptive norms on corrupt intention (e.g., bribe-taking intention) and then further explore the psychological mechanism underlying this effect. Based on social cognitive theory, we established a mediation model in which moral disengagement partially mediated the link between perceived descriptive norms and corrupt intention. In Study 1, participants (N = 690) completed a series of questionnaires, and the results demonstrated that, while perceived descriptive norms were positively associated with corrupt intention, it was partially mediated by moral disengagement. In Study 2, we conducted a priming experiment (N = 161) to test the causal relationship and psychological mechanism between perceived descriptive norms and corrupt intention. The results revealed that perceived descriptive norms triggered the propensity of individuals to morally disengage, which in turn, partially increased their corrupt intention. This study not only extends previous research by providing evidence that moral disengagement may be one of the reasons why perceived descriptive norms facilitate corrupt intention, but also suggests that reshaping normative beliefs and preventing the moral disengagement of individuals may be the effective ways to curb corrupt behaviours. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. "Who Doesn't?"--The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils C Köbis

    Full Text Available Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior--both when measured before (Study 1 or after (Study 2 the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3. Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research.

  16. Willingness to Drink as a Function of Peer Offers and Peer Norms in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina M; Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Abar, Caitlin C; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the effect of subjective peer norms on adolescents’ willingness to drink and whether this association was moderated by sensitivity to peer approval, prior alcohol use, and gender. Method: The sample was 1,023 middle-school students (52% female; 76% White; 12% Hispanic; Mage = 12.22 years) enrolled in a prospective study of drinking initiation and progression. Using web-based surveys, participants reported on their willingness to drink alcohol if offered by (a) a best friend or (b) a classmate, peer norms for two referent groups (close friends and classmates), history of sipping or consuming a full drink of alcohol, and sensitivity to peer approval (extreme peer orientation). Items were re-assessed at two follow-ups (administered 6 months apart). Results: Multilevel models revealed that measures of peer norms were significantly associated with both willingness outcomes, with the greatest prediction by descriptive norms. The association between norms and willingness was magnified for girls, those with limited prior experience with alcohol, and youths with low sensitivity to peer approval. Conclusions: Social norms appear to play a key role in substance use decisions and are relevant when considering more reactive behaviors that reflect willingness to drink under conducive circumstances. Prevention programs might target individuals with higher willingness, particularly girls who perceive others to be drinking and youths who have not yet sipped alcohol but report a higher perceived prevalence of alcohol consumption among both friends and peers. PMID:24766752

  17. "Who Doesn't?"--The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbis, Nils C; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context) influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior--both when measured before (Study 1) or after (Study 2) the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3). Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research.

  18. “Who Doesn’t?”—The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbis, Nils C.; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context) influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior—both when measured before (Study 1) or after (Study 2) the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3). Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research. PMID:26121127

  19. Dissemination of Cultural Norms and Values: Agent-Based Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Andreevich Degterev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how agent-based modeling allows us to explore the mechanisms of the dissemination of cultural norms and values both within one country and in the whole world. In recent years, this type of simulation is particularly prevalent in the analysis of international relations, becoming more popular than the system dynamics and discrete event simulation. The use of agent-based modeling in the analysis of international relations is connected with the agent-structure problem in international relations. Structure and agents act as interdependent and dynamically changing in the process of interaction between entities. Agent-structure interaction could be modeled by means of the theory of complex adaptive systems with the use of agent-based modeling techniques. One of the first examples of the use of agent-based modeling in political science is a model of racial segregation T. Shellinga. On the basis of this model, the author shows how the change in behavioral patterns at micro-level impacts on the macro-level. Patterns are changing due to the dynamics of cultural norms and values, formed by mass-media and other social institutes. The author shows the main areas of modern application of agent-based modeling in international studies including the analysis of ethnic conflicts, the formation of international coalitions. Particular attention is paid to Robert Axelrod approach based on the use of genetic algorithms to the spread of cultural norms and values. Agent-based modeling shows how to how to create such conditions that the norms that originally are not shared by a significant part of the population, eventually spread everywhere. Practical application of these algorithms is shown by the author of the article on the example of the situation in Ukraine in 2015-2016. The article also reveals the mechanisms of international spread of cultural norms and values. The main think-tanks using agent-based modeling in international studies are

  20. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eGarnham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality.

  1. Mixed Marriages in the Jewish Community: An Aberration or a Social Norm? [Małżeństwa mieszane w społeczności żydowskiej – aberracja czy norma społeczna?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna CUKRAS-STELĄGOWSKA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the specific nature of mixed marriages in the Jewish community. According to many community leaders and representatives of social sciences, this issue should be taken into account in the first place, especially in the context of questions about changes, challenges and threats faced by the Jewish community today. This article examines several research reports on the effects of intermarriages on children in the United States, Britain, France, the Netherlands and Germany. Reference is also made to the situation of Polish Jewry – the main features of the cultural awareness of Jewish families: their attitude toward their cultural capital in the context of the history of Polish-Jewish relations and problems such as intermarriage, the generation gap or emigration to Israel.

  2. Digital norms and extitution: the case of telehome care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel López Gómez

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The deinstitutionalization of society is in part associated with the growing implementation of new information and communication technologies. These new technologies bring about new collective formations. if the social sciences are succesfully to understand the impact of these technologies, we will need new ways of thinking about institutions and power. We shall take the case of telephone helplines as a test-bed for Foucault's proposals for understanding institutions' operation of power. Specifically, we use the Foucaultian notion that space, body and norms are constitutive elements of the corporeality of institutions. We report how this applies to the case of telephone helplines, and we claim that Foucault's concepts do not go far enough. Instead, we propose the new concept of 'extitution'. Extuition helps understand new anatomies of power anatomy and new kinds of social practices.

  3. Careers in Industry: Pioneering Spirit Prevails at the Carlsberg Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skadhauge, Birgitte; Haldrup, Anna; Olsen, Ole

    2016-10-01

    The founder of the Carlsberg brewery, J.C Jacobsen, recognized the value of private-public partnership and established the Carlsberg Foundation in 1876 with the single aim of applying research and innovation to brew the best beer. One hundred and forty years on, Jacobsen's vision still prevails, and in this interview three scientists from the Carlsberg Research Laboratory (Birgitte Skadhauge, Anna Haldrup, and Ole Olsen) share their experience about finding a career at the crossroads between industry and basic research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Smoothing-norm preconditioning for GMRES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Jensen, Toke Koldborg

    2004-01-01

    When GMRES is applied to a discrete ill-posed problem with a square matrix, then the iterates can be considered as regularized solutions. We show how to precondition GMRES in such a way that the iterations take into account a smoothing norm for the solution. This technique is well established...... for CGLS, but it does not apply directly to GMRES. We develop a similar technique that works for GMRES, without the need for modifications of the smoothing norm, and which preserves symmetry if the coefficient matrix is symmetric. We also discuss the efficient implementation of our algorithm, and we...

  5. Evolutionary change in continuous reaction norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murren, Courtney J; Maclean, Heidi J; Diamond, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of reaction norms remains a major challenge in ecology and evolution. Investigating evolutionary divergence in reaction norm shapes between populations and closely related species is one approach to providing insights. Here we use a meta-analytic approach to compare...... or species. These results show that evolutionary divergence of curvature is common and should be considered an important aspect of plasticity, together with slope. Biological details about traits and environments, including cryptic variation expressed in novel environmental conditions, may be critical...

  6. Making Norms to Tackle Global Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    by mandates, moral standing and technical expertise, IGOs act in two ways: operating with high level of political support, these organisations guide priority setting and norm development through the definition of collective problems and solutions, including STI aspects, establishing a shared vision; involving...... public and private actors, IGOs implement and protect novel practices that reinforce the new norms, from legally binding agreements to the creation of new spaces for international collaboration. These processes are examined here in the field of global health, where outside pressure directed...

  7. NORM and the Risk of Internal Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syaifudin, Mukh; Iin Kurnia; Yanti Lusiyanti; Siti Nurhayati; Iwiq Indrawati

    2003-01-01

    The earth and its atmosphere contain various natural radioactive materials known as NORM (naturally occurring radioactive materials) as sources of external and internal radiation exposures to human. The main radionuclides of NORM are uranium and thorium chairs and their progenies. In this paper, it will be discussed briefly about effects of internal contamination these elements which could enter into the body through inhalation and ingestion as well as absorption on the skin. The distribution, excretion and decontamination methods of the radionuclide incorporated in the body are also discussed. (author)

  8. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE INTERPRETATION OF LEGAL NORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia IGNĂTESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The legal norm represents an intellectual creation of the legislator. It is expressed in legal language, according to certain rules of preparation, respecting the grammar rules specific to the language in which it is drawn up, as well as the legislative technique. The final result, thought out and wanted by the author, must be understood in direct relation to his intention. Interpretation of the law concerns the particular significance of the general form and the cognitive value of the information, of grammatical construction that expresses the legal norm.

  9. MATNORM: Calculating NORM using composition matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruseth, Kamal L.

    2009-09-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of an entirely new set of formulas to calculate the CIPW norm. MATNORM does not involve any sophisticated programming skill and has been developed using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet formulas. These formulas are easy to understand and a mere knowledge of the if-then-else construct in MS-Excel is sufficient to implement the whole calculation scheme outlined below. The sequence of calculation used here differs from that of the standard CIPW norm calculation, but the results are very similar. The use of MS-Excel macro programming and other high-level programming languages has been deliberately avoided for simplicity.

  10. Relationship between Norm-internalization and Cooperation in N-person Prisoners' Dilemma Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsutaka

    In this paper, I discuss the problems of ``order in social situations'' using a computer simulation of iterated N-person prisoners' dilemma game. It has been claimed that, in the case of the 2-person prisoners' dilemma, repetition of games and the reciprocal use of the ``tit-for-tat'' strategy promote the possibility of cooperation. However, in cases of N-person prisoners' dilemma where N is greater than 2, the logic does not work effectively. The most essential problem is so called ``sanctioning problems''. In this paper, firstly, I discuss the ``sanctioning problems'' which were introduced by Axelrod and Keohane in 1986. Based on the model formalized by Axelrod, I propose a new model, in which I added a mechanism of players' payoff changes in the Axelrod's model. I call this mechanism norm-internalization and call our model ``norm-internalization game''. Second, by using the model, I investigated the relationship between agents' norm-internalization (payoff-alternation) and the possibilities of cooperation. The results of computer simulation indicated that unequal distribution of cooperating norm and uniform distribution of sanctioning norm are more effective in establishing cooperation. I discuss the mathematical features and the implications of the results on social science.

  11. Interethnic Interaction, Strategic Bargaining Power, and the Dynamics of Cultural Norms : A Field Study in an Amazonian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, John Andrew; McElreath, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Ethnic groups are universal and unique to human societies. Such groups sometimes have norms of behavior that are adaptively linked to their social and ecological circumstances, and ethnic boundaries may function to protect that variation from erosion by interethnic interaction. However, such interaction is often frequent and voluntary, suggesting that individuals may be able to strategically reduce its costs, allowing adaptive cultural variation to persist in spite of interaction with out-groups with different norms. We examine five mechanisms influencing the dynamics of ethnically distinct cultural norms, each focused on strategic individual-level choices in interethnic interaction: bargaining, interaction-frequency-biased norm adoption, assortment on norms, success-biased interethnic social learning, and childhood socialization. We use Bayesian item response models to analyze patterns of norm variation and interethnic interaction in an ethnically structured Amazonian population. We show that, among indigenous Matsigenka, interethnic education with colonial Mestizos is more strongly associated with Mestizo-typical norms than even extensive interethnic experience in commerce and wage labor is. Using ethnographic observations, we show that all five of the proposed mechanisms of norm adoption may contribute to this effect. However, of these mechanisms, we argue that changes in relative bargaining power are particularly important for ethnic minorities wishing to preserve distinctive norms while engaging in interethnic interaction in domains such as education. If this mechanism proves applicable in a range of other ethnographic contexts, it would constitute one cogent explanation for when and why ethnically structured cultural variation can either persist or erode given frequent, and often mutually beneficial, interethnic interaction.

  12. School connectedness and daily smoking among boys and girls: the influence of parental smoking norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Damsgaard, Mogens T; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2005-01-01

    of school life on adolescent smoking behaviour needs to consider the family smoking norms. Additionally, the results stress the important role of gender by indicating that the smoking behaviour of girls may be more sensitive to restricting social influences than the smoking behaviour of boys....

  13. Examining Masculinity Norms, Problem Drinking, and Athletic Involvement as Predictors of Sexual Aggression in College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Benjamin D.; Mahalik, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Male sexual aggression toward women is a serious social problem, particularly on college campuses. In this study, college men's sexually aggressive behavior and rape myth acceptance were examined using conformity to 11 masculine norms and 2 variables previously linked to sexual aggression: problem drinking and athletic involvement. Results…

  14. The transmission of sustainable harvesting norms when agents are conditionally cooperative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, Andries; Grasman, J.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental and observational studies have highlighted the importance of agents being conditionally cooperative when facing a social dilemma. We formalize this mechanism in a theoretical model that portrays a small community having joint access to a common pool resource. The diffusion of norms of

  15. Application of Agent-based Modelling for Estimation of Norm-based Dynamics of Housing Systems.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lux, Martin; Hájek, Martin; Kážmér, Ladislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2017), s. 379-398 ISSN 1403-6096 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-06335S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : housing market * social norms * housing system Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography OBOR OECD: Sociology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2016

  16. Sociomathematical Norms and the Regulation of Problem Solving in Classroom Microcultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Lucie Mottier; Allal, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The perspective of situated learning offers a theoretical framework for understanding the dialectical relations between the social and the individual dimensions of classroom microculture. The purpose of this article is to show how sociomathematical norms constructed during whole-class discussions provide a reference for the elaboration of…

  17. Parenting, Peers, and Perceived Norms: What Predicts Attitudes toward Sex among Early Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Ronald B., Jr.; Shreffler, Karina M.; Merten, Michael J.; Schwerdtfeger Gallus, Kami L.; Dowdy, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    Although attitudes strongly predict later sexual behaviors, few studies have investigated the factors that influence early adolescent attitudes toward sex. Using a general population sample of urban seventh-grade students (N = 1,736), we examined how supportive parenting, television viewing, perceived social norms, and having a friend and/or…

  18. The Role of Perceived Peer Norms in the Relationship Between Media Violence Exposure and Adolescents' Aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, Karin M.; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Lugtig, Peter; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the role of a social context variable, perceived peer norms, in the relationship between media violence exposure and adolescents' aggressive behavior. This was informed by a need to better understand whether, how, and for whom, media violence exposure may affect aggression.

  19. The role of perceived peer norms in the relationship between media violence exposure and adolescents’ aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, K.M.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Lugtig, P.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the role of a social context variable, perceived peer norms, in the relationship between media violence exposure and adolescents' aggressive behavior. This was informed by a need to better understand whether, how, and for whom, media violence exposure may affect aggression.

  20. Perceived norms of premarital heterosexual relationships and sexuality among female college students in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalajabadi Farahani, Farideh; Cleland, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes perceptions of the societal acceptability and acceptability among peers of different types of premarital heterosexual relationships in Iran. Sources of variation in subjective norms are assessed. Results derive from a survey conducted in 2005 of a representative sample of 1743 female college students from four multidisciplinary universities in Tehran using two-stage random cluster sampling. An anonymous pilot-tested questionnaire was used. Respondents displayed remarkable heterogeneity and ambiguity concerning the social acceptability of premarital heterosexual friendship, dating and physical contact, but expressed greater certainty about the unacceptability of premarital sex. The majority (77.5%) reported that premarital sex was socially prohibited, while about one third (33.1%) were unsure about the social acceptability of having a boyfriend and dating before marriage. Peer norms were perceived to be more liberal but, nevertheless, very few peers were thought to be in favour of premarital intercourse. Older students, those with educated fathers and those studying in a mixed-sex university perceived norms to be more liberal than their counterparts. Access to satellite television, a major source of exposure to new information and values about sexuality, was a major predictor of liberal peer norms. It appears that a significant proportion of young people in Tehran have broken with tradition with regard to premarital social interaction and romantic friendships, but the majority still conforms to traditional cultural and religious values regarding abstinence before marriage.