WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevailing meteorological situation

  1. MONITORING AND EARLY-WARNING OF METEOROLOGICAL RISK SITUATIONS IN OLTENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURADA CRISTINA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the natural hazards affecting the human well-being and properties, meterological events are first to come in mind, due to their frequency, (immediate effects and (improving predictability. Assesment of these components are the first step in risk management, when the knowledge on the hazard type and characteristics is essential for defining the vulnerability and exposure and thus for preparing the mitigation plans. The spatial scale of dangerous meteorological situations is, in most cases, the regional one, but sometimes the area of major intensity or even the area of manifestation is small enough (e.g. hail, heavy rain showers to be classifed as ‚local’. Furthermore, other factors like the local geographical features, population density, goods and properties at risk (e.g. cultivated areas, buildings, infrastructure etc come into play in defining the severity of the weather event and/or the needs for interventions aiming to reduce the effects of the weather situation. In this context, the monitoring of potentially dangerous meteorological conditions and the improved forecasting capabilities and accuracy become increasingly important. In this paper, we present a short overview of the severe meteorological events affecting the Oltenia region along with aspects regarding their monitoring, early-warning and socio-economical impact in the area of interest, with a focus on the Dolj county during the 2013-2015 period.

  2. Muscle strength in athletes-hand kettlebell sport for different meteorological situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulthickiy Z.I.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Considered indicators of the strength of muscles of hands of students of general physical training and weightlifting athletes. The study involved 16 students of general physical training, 16 weightlifting athletes (III level and 16 athletes (II level. Age 18-23 years of study (men. Investigations were carried out at meteorological situations I and type III. It is established that muscle strength depends on the athletes and sports category varies for different types of weather. When the type III weather in all surveyed groups of athletes, a decrease of muscle strength.

  3. Estimation of rice situation index in Japan using remotely sensed and meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, D.

    2006-01-01

    This research aims to develop a remote sensing method for monitoring rice production in Japan. A photosynthesis-based crop production index CPI for rice is proposed that takes into consideration the solar radiation, the effective air temperature, and normalized vegetation index NDVI as a factor representing vegetation biomass. The CPI index incorporates temperature influences such as the effect of temperature on photosynthesis by grain plant leaves, low-temperature effects of sterility, cool summer damage due to delayed growth, and high-temperature injury. These latter factors are significant at around the heading period of rice. The CPI index for rice was modeled at ten monitoring sites in the Kanto, Tohoku, and Hokkaido districts, which occasionally tend to suffer poor harvests as a result of low temperatures. The photosynthesis-based crop production index CPI proposed here can predict the crop situation index of rice by using NDVI, solar radiation at meteorological observatories and air temperature at AMeDAS sites. The method is based on routine observation data, allowing automated monitoring of rice situation index at arbitrary sites in Japan. However, it is possible to further refine the estimation formula for the rice situation index for early monitoring

  4. Agro-meteorological Bulletin for South and East Mediterranean Countries. Overview for summer crops. Situation at the end of September 2007

    OpenAIRE

    SAVIN IGOR

    2007-01-01

    The Bulletin is dedicated to the analysis of the agro-meteorological situation in the non-European countries of the Mediterranean basin (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Israel, Jordan, Palestine Auth., Lebanon and Syria) during the period from the beginning of April to the end of September 2007. The monitoring of the agro-meteorological situation is based on the analysis of the dekadal meteorological data, and maps of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Indexes. The fi...

  5. Seasonal prevailing surface winds in Northern Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Ivana; Gavrilov, Milivoj B.; Marković, Slobodan B.; Ruman, Albert; Putniković, Suzana

    2018-02-01

    Seasonal prevailing surface winds are analyzed in the territory of Northern Serbia, using observational data from 12 meteorological stations over several decades. In accordance with the general definition of prevailing wind, two special definitions of this term are used. The seasonal wind roses in 16 directions at each station are analyzed. This study shows that the prevailing winds in Northern Serbia have northwestern and southeastern directions. Circulation weather types over Serbia are presented in order to determine the connections between the synoptic circulations and prevailing surface winds. Three controlling pressure centers, i.e., the Mediterranean cyclone, Siberian high, and the Azores anticyclone, appear as the most important large-scale factors that influence the creation of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia. Beside the synoptic cause of the prevailing winds, it is noted that the orography of the eastern Balkans has a major influence on the winds from the second quadrant. It was found that the frequencies of circulation weather types are in agreement with those of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia.

  6. Effects of the "New Climate" warmed in North Africa and Western Mediterranean: the situation of recent meteorological droughts and floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrouk, Mohammed-Said

    2017-04-01

    "New Climate" subjected to North Africa, Western Mediterranean and geoclimatic midlatitude space atmospheric effects of the new regime characterized by the supremacy of the meridian circulation (MAC: Meridian Atmospheric Circulation), by alternating cool conditions (humidity) heat (drought) along the year, and imposes situation of anxiety and perplexity vis-a-vis their socio-economic activities; shoved agricultural calendar, hesitant policymakers, uncertainty and waiting, ... etc. The recent example of the fall-winter 2015-2016 is indicative of the conditions that have left a deep psychological imprint on economic and social Moroccans. During this period, the summer heat has extended to the end of autumn and even winter. And precipitation contracted by more than 51% of accumulated rainfall autumn, compared with the same period a normal year. A slowdown in economic growth has been felt since last December and was extended until the rains return (and snow!) In mid February 2016. Weather conditions during this period were marked by the succession and persistence of very active planetary peaks, projected to the northern borders of Western Europe (Heat Christmas 2015!), Rejecting the negative waves to the east: Algeria, Tunisia, Italy, the Balkans, Anatolia, and even the Middle East. These conditions are the consequences of the "New Climate" warmed, strengthened by the strong El Niño event in 2015 decennial. The identification of hemispheric and regional climate mechanisms of these atmospheric regime systems based on energy balance and atmospheric circulation will be defined, with links of cause and effect, in view of integrating these characters to extreme events in the New Climate Warmed.

  7. Is the Economic Crisis Challenging the Prevailing Gender Regime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Jepsen, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether the current economic and financial crisis is challenging the prevailing gender-equality model in four European countries: Denmark, Germany, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom. After situating the countries in relation to the underlying gender regime...... and analysing the corresponding position of women and men in paid and unpaid work, the paper contains an in-depth discussion of the short- and medium-term policy responses to the crisis. Our analysis shows that independent of the prevailing gender regime, scant public attention has been directed to gender...

  8. METRODOS: Meteorological preprocessor chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Deme, S.

    2001-01-01

    The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain combines measured tower data and coarse grid numerical weather prediction (NWP) data with local scale flow models and similarity scaling to give high resolution approximations of the meteorological situation. Based on available wind velocity...... - heat flux related measurement, e.g. a temperature gradient, are used to give local values of friction velocity and Monin-Obukhov length plus an estimate of the mixing height. The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain is an integral part of the RODOS - Real Time On Line Decision Support - program...

  9. Motivational Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Lee

    1993-01-01

    Describes an introductory meteorology course for nonacademic high school students. The course is made hands-on by the use of an educational software program offered by Accu-Weather. The program contains a meteorology database and instructional modules. (PR)

  10. Pseudo-croup (acute stenosing laryngotracheitis). Investigation into its relation to the meteorological situation and to the air pollution on the basis of a temporal evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haupt, H.; Bory, J.; Muehling, P.

    1988-12-01

    The investigations comprised the meteorological influence of the lowest daily temperature, the relative air humidity and the atmospheric pressure as well as weather phases according to Ungeheuer. The morbidity rate changed significantly at temperatures below 0/sup 0/C. The results of three separate studies showed increased pseudocroup affections on days with high air pollution (SO/sub 2/, NO, NO/sub 2/ and fine dust), with numbers still rising when a combination of air pollutants reached high levels. This correlation also occurred in periods of differing frequencies of infection. One day after an ambient air pollution maximum the morbidity rate was still increased.

  11. Meteorological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multi-year summaries of one or more meteorological elements at a station or in a state. Primarily includes Form 1078, a United States Weather Bureau form designed...

  12. Meteorology (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Meteorology data collected on an hourly basis from stations located near the OTTER sites in 1990 and summarized to monthly data--see also: Canopy Chemistry (OTTER)

  13. Meteorology (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Meteorology data collected on an hourly basis from stations located near the OTTER sites in 1990 and summarized to monthly data--see also: Canopy Chemistry...

  14. Meteorology Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity to learn about meteorology and weather using the internet. Discusses the National Weather Service (NWS) internet site www.weather.gov. Students examine maximum and minimum daily temperatures, wind speed, and direction. (SAH)

  15. METRODOS: Meteorological preprocessor chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Deme, S.

    2001-01-01

    The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain combines measured tower data and coarse grid numerical weather prediction (NWP) data with local scale flow models and similarity scaling to give high resolution approximations of the meteorological situation. Based on available wind velocity...... - heat flux related measurement, e.g. a temperature gradient, are used to give local values of friction velocity and Monin-Obukhov length plus an estimate of the mixing height. The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain is an integral part of the RODOS - Real Time On Line Decision Support - program...... and direction measurements/NWP predictions, the LINCOM or the MCF flow model determines the wind field on a 1/2 to 1 km grid over the area of interest, taking the influence of orography and mixed roughness into consideration. For each grid point the obtained wind and the most appropriate - normally the nearest...

  16. Situated University, Situated Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that teaching as a situated, civic activity must be a core intellectual activity in the engaged metropolitan university. Situated writing provides the key pedagogy for the Chicago Civic Leadership Certificate Program at the University of Illinois at Chicago, an engaged public research university. The role of writing, or…

  17. Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC) Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Annual reports of the Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC), which studies the prevailing (market) rate system for wages and other matters pertinent to...

  18. Airline meteorological requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, C. L.; Pappas, J.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review of airline meteorological/flight planning is presented. The effects of variations in meteorological parameters upon flight and operational costs are reviewed. Flight path planning through the use of meteorological information is briefly discussed.

  19. Meteorological tracers in regional planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.H.

    1974-11-01

    Atmospheric tracers can be used as indicators to study both the ventilation of an urban region and its dispersion meteorology for air pollutants. A correlation analysis applied to the space-time dependent tracer concentrations is able to give transfer functions, the structure and characteristic parameters of which describe the meteorological and topographical situation of the urban region and its surroundings in an integral manner. To reduce the number of persons usually involved in a tracer experiment an automatic air sampling system had to be developed

  20. Agro-meteorological Bulletin for South and East Mediterranean Countries

    OpenAIRE

    SAVIN IGOR

    2007-01-01

    The Bulletin is dedicated to the analysis of the agro-meteorological situation in the non-European countries of the Mediterranean basin (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Israel, Jordan, Palestine Auth., Lebanon and Syria) during the period from the beginning of October to the end of November 2007. The monitoring of the agro-meteorological situation is based on the analysis of the dekadal meteorological data, and maps of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Indexes. The f...

  1. Nord Stream 2: May Cooler Heads Prevail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    Since the announcement of the Nord Stream 2 project in June 2015, the debate around the benefits of this project for Europe is raging, putting forward political, economic and commercial arguments. Within the space of a few months, Russia has conducted a radical strategic change towards Europe in its gas policy. Following the announcements in 2014 of a major shift towards Asia, the cancellation of the South Stream project and its replacement by the Turkish Stream, relations with European gas companies have been strengthened since mid-2015. Russia's initiatives to replace its European partners are now to be viewed as part of a transformed international gas landscape. Tensions in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) market following Fukushima have given way to market surpluses. These are characterised on the one hand by lower growth in Asian demand for LNG gas, and on the other hand by the arrival on the market of new major exporters such as Australia and the United States. A new era, more favourable to gas importing countries, has opened up since the end of 2014. Moreover, the key pivot to Asia, expected by Moscow in 2014, is still far off. Discussions with Beijing about the project for a Western route proved to be more difficult than expected. Similarly, negotiations between Turkey and Russia on the Turkish Stream project have been very laborious, having been interrupted for several months because of diplomatic rows between the two countries. Finally, Russia's room for manoeuvre has narrowed, given the collapse in oil and gas prices and Western economic sanctions, which are weighing heavily on its economy. And the increased competitiveness of Russian oil companies due to the ruble devaluation will not transform this situation sustainably

  2. Ionospheric irregularities in periods of meteorological disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchevkina, O. P.; Karpov, I. V.

    2017-09-01

    The results of observations of the total electron content (TEC) in periods of storm disturbances of meteorological situation are presented in the paper. The observational results have shown that a passage of a meteorological storm is accompanied by a substantial decrease in values of TEC and critical frequencies of the ionospheric F2 region. The decreases in values of these ionospheric parameters reach 50% and up to 30% in TEC and critical frequency of the F2 layer, respectively, as compared to meteorologically quiet days. Based on qualitative analysis, it is found that the processes related to formation of local regions of thermospheric heating due to a dissipation of AGW coming into the upper atmosphere from the region of the meteorological disturbance in the lower atmosphere are a possible cause of these ionospheric disturbances.

  3. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, H.A. Jr. [ed.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program.

  4. Lectures in Micro Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling

    This report contains the notes from my lectures on Micro scale meteorology at the Geophysics Department of the Niels Bohr Institute of Copenhagen University. In the period 1993-2012, I was responsible for this course at the University. At the start of the course, I decided that the text books...... available in meteorology at that time did not include enough of the special flavor of micro meteorology that characterized the work of the meteorology group at Risø (presently of the Institute of wind energy of the Danish Technical University). This work was focused on Boundary layer flows and turbulence...

  5. Meteorological influences on coastal new particle formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Kunz, G.J.; Buzorius, G.; O`Dowd, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    The meteorological situation at the midlatitude coastal station of Mace Head, Ireland, is described based on observations during the New Particle Formation and Fate in the Coastal Environment (PARFORCE) experiments in September 1998 and June 1999. Micrometeorological sensors were mounted near the

  6. Prevailing Torque Locking Feature in Threaded Fasteners Using Anaerobic Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alan; Hess, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests to assess the use of anaerobic adhesive for providing a prevailing torque locking feature in threaded fasteners. Test procedures are developed and tests are performed on three fastener materials, four anaerobic adhesives, and both unseated assembly conditions. Five to ten samples are tested for each combination. Tests for initial use, reuse without additional adhesive, and reuse with additional adhesive are performed for all samples. A 48-hour cure time was used for all initial use and reuse tests. Test data are presented as removal torque versus removal angle with the specification required prevailing torque range added for performance assessment. Percent specification pass rates for the all combinations of fastener material, adhesive, and assembly condition are tabulated and reveal use of anaerobic adhesive as a prevailing torque locking feature is viable. Although not every possible fastener material and anaerobic adhesive combination provides prevailing torque values within specification, any combination can be assessed using the test procedures presented. Reuse without additional anaerobic adhesive generally provides some prevailing torque, and in some cases within specification. Reuse with additional adhesive often provides comparable removal torque data as in initial use.

  7. Fire and forest meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan

    2005-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  8. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  9. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  10. US Marine Meteorological Journals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This series consists of volumes entitled 'Meteorological Journal' (a regulation Navy-issue publication) which were to be completed by masters of merchant vessels...

  11. Lasting Impressions in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes activities integrating science and art education in which students examine slides of impressionist paintings or photographs of meteorological phenomena to determine the weather conditions depicted and to make and defend weather predictions. Includes a reproducible worksheet. (MDH)

  12. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  13. Emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear activities are exercised so as to prevent the accidents. They are subjected to a rule whom application is controlled by the Asn. The risk of grave accident is so limited to a very low level of probability. He cannot be however completely pushed aside. The expression ' radiological emergency situation ' indicates a situation which ensues from an incident or of an accident risking to lead to an emission of radioactive materials or a level of radioactivity susceptible to strike a blow at the public health. The term ' nuclear crisis ' is used for the events which can lead to a radiological emergency situation on a nuclear basic installation or during a transport of radioactive materials. The preparation and the management of emergency situations, that they are of natural, accidental or terrorist origin, became a major concern of our society. We propose you of to know more about it in this file. (N.C.)

  14. Situated Transgressiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Sullivan, Katie Rose; Rich, Craig

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the lived experience of one transwoman, Claire, a public advocate and a manager with client services responsibilities. We examine Claire's story in order to discuss how situated contexts, such as different roles, locales and interactions, shape the way she experiences...... and perceives her trans body and gender identity. In particular, our analysis centres on how Claire's lived experience of personal and professional life shift across three different situated contexts, each enabling and constraining opportunities for political transgression. Our findings contribute to existing...... conversations within queer theory, transgender and organization studies by highlighting how situated contexts mediate the political potential of queer bodies at work. By developing the concept ‘situated transgressiveness’, this article challenges notions of transgender as a stable, ideal disruptive category...

  15. Situating Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    Our mobile phone is with us at all times. Habitually, we pick it up in the morning and carry it around on our daily routes and routines. Increasingly, we use it to locate ourselves and the things and people around us. With ubiquitous computing, technology is moving into the very fabric of our...... through design’ approach is applied across four participatory design experiments to explore how to design for situated engagement in land use planning. A notion of a situated engagement infrastructure made up of mobile, stationary, ubiquitous, and remote systems frames the design experiments suggesting....... First, situationally appropriate forms of engagement that align well with citizens’ own conceptions are necessary in order to provide relevance and meaning of issues in the moment. Second, situated engagement requires a technological setup which facilitates the co-location of people, place...

  16. Situational Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Süttö, Marián

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is focused on field of leadership, particularly situational leadership model by Hersey and Blanchard. Thesis is mostly theoretical framework aimed to offer the possibility for reader to get overview in leadership issues. Theoretical framework of the thesis is focused on leadership definition, the most important leadership theories in the past, and especially to situational leadership approach. The focus of this thesis is to get detailed insight in this model and therefore offer in...

  17. Meteorological Situations Favouring the Development of Dust Plumes over Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepanski, K.; Szodry, K.

    2017-12-01

    The knowledge on mineral dust emitted at high latitudes is limited, but its impact on the polar environments is divers. Within a warming climate, dust emitted from regions in cold climates is expected to increase due to the retreat of the ice sheet and increasing melting rates. Therefore, and for its extensive impacts on different aspects of the climate system, a better understanding of the atmospheric dust life-cycle at high latitudes/cold climates in general, and the spatio-temporal distribution of dust sources in particular, are essential. At high-latitudes, glacio-fluvial sediments as found on river flood plains e.g. supplied by glaciers are prone to wind erosion when dry and bare. In case of the occurrence of strong winds, sediments are blown out and dust plumes develop. As dust uplift is controlled by soil surface characteristics, the availability of suitable sediments, and atmospheric conditions, an interannual variability in dust source activity is expected. We investigated atmospheric circulation patterns that favour the development of dust plumes over Iceland, which presents a well-known dust source at high latitudes. Using the atmosphere model COSMO (COnsortium for Small-scale MOdeling), we analysed the wind speed distribution over the Iceland region for identified and documented dust cases. As one outcome of the study, the position of the Icelandic low, the anticyclones located over Northern Europe, and the resulting pressure gradients are of particular relevance. The interaction of the synoptic-scale winds with the Icelandic orography may locally enhance the wind speeds and thus foster local dust emission. Results from this study suggest that the atmospheric circulation determined by the pressure pattern is of particular relevance for the formation of dust plumes entering the North Atlantic.

  18. Meteorology in site operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    During the site selection and design phases of a plant, meteorological assistance must be based on past records, usually accumulated at stations not actually on the site. These preliminary atadvices will be averages and extremes that might be expected. After a location has been chosen and work has begun, current and forecast weather conditions become of immediate concern. On-site meteorological observations and forecasts have many applications to the operating program of an atomic energy site. Requirements may range from observations of the daily minimum temperatures to forecasts of radiation dosages from airborne clouds

  19. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 (October - December 2009). A detailed project schedule is included in the Appendix. Included tasks are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool, Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Phase II, (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS), (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) Update and Maintainability, (5) Verify 12-km resolution North American Model (MesoNAM) Performance, and (5) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Graphical User Interface.

  20. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  1. Situation Songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolar-Borsky, Agnes; Holck, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the various therapeutic intentions behind the use of one particular improvisation method applied in pediatric music therapy, called the situation song (from the German term “Situationslied”- Plahl & Koch-Temming, 2008, p. 180). According to Plahl & Koch...... the therapeutic relationship; to enhance experience and development in the fields of emotion, behavior, expression and social skills; to express messages in language and to give structure to the child. The overall aim behind the use of situation songs is to offer essential experiences to the child in order...... to support his or her development. This study attempts to give an impulse to more international exchange of clinical terms applied in music therapy. The study was submitted as the first author’s master thesis in Music Therapy at the Aalborg University in Denmark. The second author supervised the process...

  2. Global empirical wind model for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. I. Prevailing wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Portnyagin

    Full Text Available An updated empirical climatic zonally averaged prevailing wind model for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (70-110 km, extending from 80°N to 80°S is presented. The model is constructed from the fitting of monthly mean winds from meteor radar and MF radar measurements at more than 40 stations, well distributed over the globe. The height-latitude contour plots of monthly mean zonal and meridional winds for all months of the year, and of annual mean wind, amplitudes and phases of annual and semiannual harmonics of wind variations are analyzed to reveal the main features of the seasonal variation of the global wind structures in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Some results of comparison between the ground-based wind models and the space-based models are presented. It is shown that, with the exception of annual mean systematic bias between the zonal winds provided by the ground-based and space-based models, a good agreement between the models is observed. The possible origin of this bias is discussed.

    Key words: Meteorology and Atmospheric dynamics (general circulation; middle atmosphere dynamics; thermospheric dynamics

  3. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy data - over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters, monthly averaged from 22 years of data, global solar...

  4. Farmers prevailing perception profiles regarding GM crops: A classification proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Carla; Massarani, Luisa

    2018-04-01

    Genetically modified organisms have been at the centre of a major public controversy, involving different interests and actors. While much attention has been devoted to consumer views on genetically modified food, there have been few attempts to understand the perceptions of genetically modified technology among farmers. By investigating perceptions of genetically modified organisms among Brazilian farmers, we intend to contribute towards filling this gap and thereby add the views of this stakeholder group to the genetically modified debate. A comparative analysis of our data and data from other studies indicate there is a complex variety of views on genetically modified organisms among farmers. Despite this diversity, we found variations in such views occur within limited parameters, concerned principally with expectations or concrete experiences regarding the advantages of genetically modified crops, perceptions of risks associated with them, and ethical questions they raise. We then propose a classification of prevailing profiles to represent the spectrum of perceptions of genetically modified organisms among farmers.

  5. Virtual Meteorological Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Brinzila

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A virtual meteorological center, computer based with Internet possibility transmission of the information is presented. Circumstance data is collected with logging field meteorological station. The station collects and automatically save data about the temperature in the air, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed and wind direction, rain gauge, solar radiation and air quality. Also can perform sensors test, analyze historical data and evaluate statistical information. The novelty of the system is that it can publish data over the Internet using LabVIEW Web Server capabilities and deliver a video signal to the School TV network. Also the system performs redundant measurement of temperature and humidity and was improved using new sensors and an original signal conditioning module.

  6. Meteorological instrumentation for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.L. da.

    1983-01-01

    The main requirements of regulatory agencies, concerning the meteorological instrumentation needed for the licensing of nuclear facilities are discussed. A description is made of the operational principles of sensors for the various meteorological parameters and associated electronic systems. Finally, it is presented an analysis of the problems associated with grounding of a typical meteorological station. (Author) [pt

  7. Meteorological instrumentation for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.L. da.

    1983-01-01

    The main requirements of regulatory agencies, concerning the meteorological instrumentation needed for the licensing of nuclear facilities are discussed. A description is made of the operational principles of sensors for the various meteorological parameters and associated electronic systems. An analysis of the problems associated with grounding of a typical meteorological station is presented. (Author) [pt

  8. Meteorological satellite accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, L. J.; Arking, A.; Bandeen, W. R.; Shenk, W. E.; Wexler, R.

    1975-01-01

    Meteorological satellites include experimental satellites operated by NASA and operational satellites operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The operational system currently provides pictures of the entire globe, temperature measurements throughout the world, and wind measurements in selected parts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Aspects of vertical sounding are discussed along with questions of parameter extraction technique development, macroscale phenomena, the heat budget of the earth-atmosphere system and the climate, and studies of ocean surface and hydrology.

  9. Extreme meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinger de Schwarzkopf, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Different meteorological variables which may reach significant extreme values, such as the windspeed and, in particular, its occurrence through tornadoes and hurricanes that necesarily incide and wich must be taken into account at the time of nuclear power plants' installation, are analyzed. For this kind of study, it is necessary to determine the basic phenomenum of design. Two criteria are applied to define the basic values of design for extreme meteorological variables. The first one determines the expected extreme value: it is obtained from analyzing the recurence of the phenomenum in a convened period of time, wich may be generally of 50 years. The second one determines the extreme value of low probability, taking into account the nuclear power plant's operating life -f.ex. 25 years- and considering, during said lapse, the occurrence probabilities of extreme meteorological phenomena. The values may be determined either by the deterministic method, which is based on the acknowledgement of the fundamental physical characteristics of the phenomena or by the probabilistic method, that aims to the analysis of historical statistical data. Brief comments are made on the subject in relation to the Argentine Republic area. (R.J.S.) [es

  10. Women in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized

  11. 77 FR 34854 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Special Wage Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ...-AM63 Prevailing Rate Systems; Special Wage Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics... for the Department of Defense's (DOD's) nonappropriated fund (NAF) automotive mechanics. These special... practice for compensating NAF automotive mechanics with current prevailing pay practices in the private...

  12. A Case for 'Prevailing Ecology' as Premium Determinant in Home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If the quantitative terminology 'indices' can be used to define them, then those human acts ... The paper proposes a re-evaluation of the tools of assessment of home-based child care costs in order to be able to .... aggravated the situation where poor households barely have enough good food to eat. Migration of men and ...

  13. Genetics of Schizophrenia: Historical Insights and Prevailing Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Leemput, J; Hess, J L; Glatt, S J; Tsuang, M T

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia's (SZ's) heritability and familial transmission have been known for several decades; however, despite the clear evidence for a genetic component, it has been very difficult to pinpoint specific causative genes. Even so genetic studies have taught us a lot, even in the pregenomic era, about the molecular underpinnings and disease-relevant pathways. Recurring themes emerged revealing the involvement of neurodevelopmental processes, glutamate regulation, and immune system differential activation in SZ etiology. The recent emergence of epigenetic studies aimed at shedding light on the biological mechanisms underlying SZ has provided another layer of information in the investigation of gene and environment interactions. However, this epigenetic insight also brings forth another layer of complexity to the (epi)genomic landscape such as interactions between genetic variants, epigenetic marks-including cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone modification processes-, gene expression regulation, and environmental influences. In this review, we seek to synthesize perspectives, including limitations and obstacles yet to overcome, from genetic and epigenetic literature on SZ through a qualitative review of risk factors and prevailing hypotheses. Encouraged by the findings of both genetic and epigenetic studies to date, as well as the continued development of new technologies to collect and interpret large-scale studies, we are left with a positive outlook for the future of elucidating the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying SZ and other complex neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Familiar units prevail over statistical cues in word segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Perruchet, Pierre; Tillmann, Barbara; Peereman, Ronald

    2017-09-01

    In language acquisition research, the prevailing position is that listeners exploit statistical cues, in particular transitional probabilities between syllables, to discover words of a language. However, other cues are also involved in word discovery. Assessing the weight learners give to these different cues leads to a better understanding of the processes underlying speech segmentation. The present study evaluated whether adult learners preferentially used known units or statistical cues for segmenting continuous speech. Before the exposure phase, participants were familiarized with part-words of a three-word artificial language. This design allowed the dissociation of the influence of statistical cues and familiar units, with statistical cues favoring word segmentation and familiar units favoring (nonoptimal) part-word segmentation. In Experiment 1, performance in a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) task between words and part-words revealed part-word segmentation (even though part-words were less cohesive in terms of transitional probabilities and less frequent than words). By contrast, an unfamiliarized group exhibited word segmentation, as usually observed in standard conditions. Experiment 2 used a syllable-detection task to remove the likely contamination of performance by memory and strategy effects in the 2AFC task. Overall, the results suggest that familiar units overrode statistical cues, ultimately questioning the need for computation mechanisms of transitional probabilities (TPs) in natural language speech segmentation.

  15. Texas situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avant, R.V. Jr.; Bowmer, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was formed in 1981 to address the Texas low-level radioactive waste problem consistent with the direction of P.L. 96-573. The Authority has completed technical tasks, including source term evaluations, preliminary conceptual designs, economic assessments, and long-range planning, and has work in progress on facility design, site selection, operating procedures, and licensing. Site selection has been the major technical activity and will be completed in 1987 after on-site evaluations of potential sites. The Authority expects to have its site licensed and operating in 1992. Texas has been the leader in site selection. Political concerns and the uncertainty of the national agenda led Texas policy makers to slow down the state's progress. The lessons learned through the Texas situation should be instructive to other states and compacts and may well be a prediction of events for these other groups. This paper discusses the background and status of Texas development activities, future plans, and lessons learned

  16. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M.; Ross, J. D.; Solomon, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6microb level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. El suicidio: Una conducta antisocial que prevalece/Suicide: An antisocial behavior that prevails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alejandro De León Palomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The suicide has existed throughout history and has prevailed as a behavior that was contrary to the rules of the society in terms of preservation of life itself; the objective of this research was to make emphasis on the nature of antisocial behavior of this behavior and show its prevalence in the years 2006 to 2010 in Mexico and Tamaulipas, as well as from 1999 to 2008 in Reynosa, Tamaulipas. For which the data were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography to the country and the State and the books of the register of deaths by cause violent of the Regional Unit of Expert Services of the Attorney General of Justice, which has its headquarters in Reynosa; developed a theoretical framework on the impact of the conduct in society and the means to prevent it, The data obtained we revealed the continued presence of this conduct year-on-year, 23.554 cases appearing in Mexico and 819 in Tamaulipas in the period from 2006 to 2010; in Reynosa, Tamaulipas were presented 278 suicides in the period 1999 to 2008. The results show us a conduct stable in numbers, but without excessive overflows that prevails year-on-year, suicide, and the attempt of the same should be viewed as a social problem and not detract from the importance that it deserves a conduct of these dimensions, that is no more than a reflection of the situation in which are the means of social control toward the preservation of life itself.

  18. Air pollution meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirvaikar, V.V.; Daoo, V.J.

    2002-06-01

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  19. Salt fortification with iodine: Sudan situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzeldin, S H; Crawford, M A; Ghebremeskel, K

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute a severe public health problem in Sudan. IDD affects children and women throughout life. More than 2 out of 10 school age children have goiter. The prevalence reaches 40% in some regions of the country. Several interventional measures were introduced to control the IDD problem. While the situation with regard to production and supply of iodized salt was thus deteriorating, an Emergency Food Security and Nutrition Assessment Survey (EFSNA) revealed that the prevalence of IDD among adult women, as reflected in the presence of visible goiter, was as high as 25.5%. We have conducted a situation analysis survey in the Republic of Sudan to review the prevailing situation and suggest a benchmark that would help in developing effective control measures and in monitoring their implementations. SWOT analysis, questionnaire, focus groups discussion beside a combination of rapid assessment approach and qualitative method were used to critically evaluate the salt iodization situation in the country and assess the prevailing IDD situation in and propose a plan of action to overcome the bottlenecks. The survey concluded that Iodine deficiency affects children and women all through Sudan. The prevalence is even greater in some regions of the country and there is no supportive policy environment for successful universal salt iodization. To overcome this aggravated situation Sudan will need to conduct a baseline study to provide data on the prevalence of IDD, geographic distribution, knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to iodine deficiency. This will provide a benchmark that will help in developing effective control measures and in monitoring their implementation. The study recommended a set of actions to the government to overcome the prevailing situation and strengthening the current policy and implementation.

  20. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  1. Grid-based Meteorological and Crisis Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hluchy, Ladislav; Bartok, Juraj; Tran, Viet; Lucny, Andrej; Gazak, Martin

    2010-05-01

    We present several applications from domain of meteorology and crisis management we developed and/or plan to develop. Particularly, we present IMS Model Suite - a complex software system designed to address the needs of accurate forecast of weather and hazardous weather phenomena, environmental pollution assessment, prediction of consequences of nuclear accident and radiological emergency. We discuss requirements on computational means and our experiences how to meet them by grid computing. The process of a pollution assessment and prediction of the consequences in case of radiological emergence results in complex data-flows and work-flows among databases, models and simulation tools (geographical databases, meteorological and dispersion models, etc.). A pollution assessment and prediction requires running of 3D meteorological model (4 nests with resolution from 50 km to 1.8 km centered on nuclear power plant site, 38 vertical levels) as well as running of the dispersion model performing the simulation of the release transport and deposition of the pollutant with respect to the numeric weather prediction data, released material description, topography, land use description and user defined simulation scenario. Several post-processing options can be selected according to particular situation (e.g. doses calculation). Another example is a forecasting of fog as one of the meteorological phenomena hazardous to the aviation as well as road traffic. It requires complicated physical model and high resolution meteorological modeling due to its dependence on local conditions (precise topography, shorelines and land use classes). An installed fog modeling system requires a 4 time nested parallelized 3D meteorological model with 1.8 km horizontal resolution and 42 levels vertically (approx. 1 million points in 3D space) to be run four times daily. The 3D model outputs and multitude of local measurements are utilized by SPMD-parallelized 1D fog model run every hour. The fog

  2. Instruments for meteorological measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. This present rule has for objective to determine the means for meteorological measurement near a site of nuclear facility in which there is not a PWR power plant [fr

  3. The meteorological data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouharrour, S.; Thomas, P.

    1975-07-01

    The 200 m meteorological tower of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center has been equipped with 45 instruments measuring the meteorological parameters near the ground level. Frequent inquiry of the instruments implies data acquisition with on-line data reduction. This task is fulfilled by some peripheral units controlled by a PDP-8/I. This report presents details of the hardware configuration and a short description of the software configuration of the meteorological data acquisition system. The report also serves as an instruction for maintenance and repair work to be carried out at the system. (orig.) [de

  4. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  5. Meteorological Processors and Accessory Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface and upper air data, provided by NWS, are important inputs for air quality models. Before these data are used in some of the EPA dispersion models, meteorological processors are used to manipulate the data.

  6. Mathematical problems in meteorological modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Csomós, Petra; Faragó, István; Horányi, András; Szépszó, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with mathematical problems arising in the context of meteorological modelling. It gathers and presents some of the most interesting and important issues from the interaction of mathematics and meteorology. It is unique in that it features contributions on topics like data assimilation, ensemble prediction, numerical methods, and transport modelling, from both mathematical and meteorological perspectives. The derivation and solution of all kinds of numerical prediction models require the application of results from various mathematical fields. The present volume is divided into three parts, moving from mathematical and numerical problems through air quality modelling, to advanced applications in data assimilation and probabilistic forecasting. The book arose from the workshop “Mathematical Problems in Meteorological Modelling” held in Budapest in May 2014 and organized by the ECMI Special Interest Group on Numerical Weather Prediction. Its main objective is to highlight the beauty of the de...

  7. Mathematics and Meteorology: Perfect Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomeli, Cynthia L.

    1991-01-01

    The integration of science and mathematics in the middle school using the topic of meteorology is discussed. Seven selected activities for this approach are suggested. Lists of materials and resources for use in this teaching approach are appended. (CW)

  8. Variation trends of meteorological variables and their impacts on potential evaporation in Hailar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-liang Ren

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation, which is an important factor in the water balance at the basin scale, is a critical variable in the determination of local available water resources. Since the potential evaporation is mainly influenced by meteorological variables, it is necessary to investigate the extent to which different meteorological variables affect the potential evaporation. The aim of this study was to explore the variation trends of different meteorological variables, and their impacts on the potential evaporation. This study selected the Hailar Meteorological Station of the Hailar region, which is situated in a cold, semi-arid, and sub-humid region, as a case study site. Based on observed daily meteorological data from 1951 to 2009, the potential evaporation was calculated with the Penman formula, and the variations of meteorological variables were investigated with the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test. The correlation between the potential evaporation and each meteorological variable at annual and seasonal scales was also analyzed. The results show that the annual and seasonal potential evaporation and air temperature present increasing trends, whereas the wind speed, sunshine duration, and relative humidity present decreasing trends. Among the meteorological variables, the air temperature and relative humidity are the key factors that affect potential evaporation at different time scales, and the impacts of other meteorological variables on the potential evaporation are not significant and vary with time scales.

  9. Meteorological Test Reference Case - Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Mikkel Kristian

    1997-01-01

    The report describes a case study. Actual weather data is converted into input for hygrothermal calculations. A survey of the literature on calculation of driving rain is reported and a ‘driving rain potential’ is generated on the basis of hourly meteorological data for selected years. The study...

  10. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  11. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the

  12. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the Daeduk nuclear complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Han; Lee, Yung Bok; Han, Moon Heui; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang Won Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-01

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done. Wireless data transmission to MIPS(Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity, at 67 m, 27 m, and 10 m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. At the site, the prevailing wind directions were SW in spring and summer, N and NW in autumn and winter season. The calm distributed 13.6% at 67 m, 24.5% at 27 m, 40.8% at 10 m height. 4 figs, 9 tabs, 6 refs. (Author).

  13. Monthly mean climatology of the prevailing winds and tides in the Arctic mesosphere/lower thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Portnyagin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic MLT wind regime parameters measured at the ground-based network of MF and meteor radar stations (Andenes 69° N, Tromsø 70° N, Esrange 68° N, Dixon 73.5° N, Poker Flat 65° N and Resolute Bay 75° N are discussed and compared with those observed in the mid-latitudes. The network of the ground-based MF and meteor radars for measuring winds in the Arctic upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere provides an excellent opportunity for study of the main global dynamical structures in this height region and their dependence from longitude. Preliminary estimates of the differences between the measured winds and tides from the different radar types, situated 125-273km apart (Tromsø, Andenes and Esrange, are provided. Despite some differences arising from using different types of radars it is possible to study the dynamical wind structures. It is revealed that most of the observed dynamical structures are persistent from year to year, thus permitting the analysis of the Arctic MLT dynamics in a climatological sense. The seasonal behaviour of the zonally averaged wind parameters is, to some extent, similar to that observed at the moderate latitudes. However, the strength of the winds (except the prevailing meridional wind and the diurnal tide amplitudes in the Arctic MLT region is, in general, less than that detected at the moderate latitudes, decreasing toward the pole. There are also some features in the vertical structure and seasonal variations of the Arctic MLT winds which are different from the expectations of the well-known empirical wind models CIRA-86 and HWM-93. The tidal phases show a very definite longitudinal dependence that permits the determination of the corresponding zonal wave numbers. It is shown that the migrating tides play an important role in the dynamics of the Arctic MLT region. However, there are clear indications with the presence in some months of non-migrating tidal modes of significant appreciable amplitude.

  14. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Film

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) is a polar orbiting meteorological sensor with two...

  15. Dynamics of Situation Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dongseop; Moro, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    Situation definition is the process and product of actors' interpretive activities toward a given situation. By reviewing a number of psychological studies conducted in experimental settings, we found that the studies have only explicated a part of the situation definition process and have neglected its dynamic aspects. We need to focus on the…

  16. Meteorological factors and dengue fever transmission in South Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Lin, Yuan-Chien; Cheng, Ming-Hung; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2013-04-01

    The variations in meteorological conditions induced by climate change causes the diffusion pattern of infectious disease and serious epidemic situation. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of meteorological variables to the temporal variation of dengue fever epidemic in weekly basis in south Taiwan. Several extreme and average index of meteorological variables, i.e. temperature and humidity, were used for this analysis, including averaged, maximum and minimum temperature, and average rainfall, maximum 1-hr rainfall, and maximum 24-hr rainfall. This study applies the distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) to reveal the significant meteorological variables and their temporal lag effects to the dengue fever epidemic by analyzing the dengue fever records from 1998-2011. Results show that the weekly minimum temperature (minT) and 1-hr maximum rainfall (maxR) are significantly important to the dengue fever spread. Among them, once minT is higher than 20°C, the relative risk of dengue fever of nine-fourteen week later will be significantly elevated. On the other hand, the incidences of maxR higher than 80mm can also increase the relative risk of dengue fever occurrences around nine-fourteen weeks afterwards.

  17. Intercomparison of mesoscale meteorological models for precipitation forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Richard

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the RAPHAEL EU project, a series of past heavy precipitation events has been simulated with different meteorological models. Rainfall hindcasts and forecasts have been produced by four models in use at various meteorological services or research centres of Italy, Canada, France and Switzerland. The paper is focused on the comparison of the computed precipitation fields with the available surface observations. The comparison is carried out for three meteorological situations which lead to severe flashflood over the Toce-Ticino catchment in Italy (6599 km2 or the Ammer catchment (709 km2 in Germany. The results show that all four models reproduced the occurrence of these heavy precipitation events. The accuracy of the computed precipitation appears to be more case-dependent than model-dependent. The sensitivity of the computed rainfall to the boundary conditions (hindcast v. forecast was found to be rather weak, indicating that a flood forecasting system based upon a numerical meteo-hydrological simulation could be feasible in an operational context. Keywords: meteorological models, precipitation forecast

  18. Immediate occlusal loading of NanoTite PREVAIL implants: a prospective 1-year clinical and radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostman, Pär-Olov; Wennerberg, Ann; Albrektsson, Tomas

    2010-03-01

    Recently, a new implant surface texture, featuring application of nanometer-scale calcium phosphate has been shown to enhance early bone fixation and formation in preclinical studies and in human histomorphometric studies, which may be beneficial in immediate loading situations. The purpose of the present prospective clinical study was to, during 1 year, clinically and radiographically evaluate a nanometer scale surface modified implant placed for immediate loading of fixed prostheses in both maxillary and mandibular regions. Thirty-five out of 38 patients who needed implant treatment and met inclusion criteria agreed to participate in the study and were consecutively enrolled. Surgical implant placement requirements consisted of a final torque of a least 25 Ncm prior to final seating and an implant stability quotient above 55. A total of 102 NanoTite PREVAIL (NTP) implants (BIOMET 3i, Palm Beach Gardens, FL, USA) (66 maxillary and 36 mandibular) were placed by one investigator, and the majority of these were placed in posterior regions (65%) and in soft bone (69%). A total of 44 prosthetic constructions were evaluated consisting of 14 single-tooth restorations, 26 fixed partial dentures, and four complete fixed restorations. All provisional constructions were delivered within 1 hour, and the final constructions placed after 4 months. Implants were monitored for clinical and radiographic outcomes at follow-up examinations scheduled for 3, 6, and 12 months. Of the 102 study implants, one implant failed. The simple cumulative survival rate value at 1 year was 99.2%. The average marginal bone resorption was 0.37 mm (SD 0.39) during the first year in function. According to the success criteria of Albrektsson and Zarb, success grade 1 was found with 93% of the implants. Although limited to the short follow-up, immediate loading of NanoTite Prevail implants seems to be a viable option in implant rehabilitation, at least when a good initial fixation is achieved.

  19. Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science publishes rigorous theoretical reasoning and advanced empirical research in all areas of Meteorology and Climate Sciences. We welcome articles or proposals from all perspectives and on all subjects pertaining to Meteorology, Agriculture, Humanity, Physics, Geography, ...

  20. Technology and Meteorology. An Action Research Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Raymond F.

    Meteorology, the science of weather and weather conditions, has traditionally been taught via textbook and rote demonstration. This study was intended to determine to what degree utilizing technology in the study of meteorology improves students' attitudes towards science and to measure to what extent technology in meteorology increases…

  1. Syllabi for Instruction in Agricultural Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Villiers, G. D. B.; And Others

    A working group of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology has prepared this report to fill a need for detailed syllabi for instruction in agricultural meteorology required by different levels of personnel. Agrometeorological personnel are classified in three categories: (1) professional meteorological personnel (graduates with basic training…

  2. Epicurean Meteorology: Sources, method, scope and organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    In Epicurean Meteorology Frederik Bakker discusses the meteorology as laid out by Epicurus (341-270 BCE) and Lucretius (1st century BCE). Although in scope and organization their ideas are clearly rooted in the Peripatetic tradition, their meteorology sets itself apart from this tradition by its

  3. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the theory. Further, special conditions in evaporation are considered, followed by a fotmulation of the difficulties in determining evaporation, The last part of the paper gives a short discussion about ...

  4. Typical meteorological conditions associated with extreme nitrogen dioxide (NO2 pollution events over Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing typical meteorological conditions associated with extreme pollution events helps to better understand the role of local meteorology in governing the transport and distribution of pollutants in the atmosphere. The knowledge of their co-variability could further help to evaluate and constrain chemistry transport models. Hence, in this study, we investigate the statistical linkages between extreme nitrogen dioxide (NO2 pollution events and meteorology over Scandinavia using observational and reanalysis data. It is observed that the south-westerly winds dominated during extreme events, accounting for 50–65 % of the total events depending on the season, while the second largest annual occurrence was from south-easterly winds, accounting for 17 % of total events. The specific humidity anomalies showed an influx of warmer and moisture-laden air masses over Scandinavia in the free troposphere. Two distinct modes in the persistency of circulation patterns are observed. The first mode lasts for 1–2 days, dominated by south-easterly winds that prevailed during 78 % of total extreme events in that mode, while the second mode lasted for 3–5 days, dominated by south-westerly winds that prevailed during 86 % of the events. The combined analysis of circulation patterns, their persistency, and associated changes in humidity and clouds suggests that NO2 extreme events over Scandinavia occur mainly due to long-range transport from the southern latitudes.

  5. 78 FR 60181 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Clayton-Cobb-Fulton, Georgia, Nonappropriated Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM84 Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition.... Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM..., from the wage area definition. The name of the wage area will be Cobb, GA. These changes are necessary...

  6. 20 CFR 656.40 - Determination of prevailing wage for labor certification purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... association of six or more professional sports teams whose total combined revenues exceed $10,000,000 per year... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of prevailing wage for labor certification purposes. 656.40 Section 656.40 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION...

  7. 78 FR 60182 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of Broward County, Florida, to a Nonappropriated Fund Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM83 Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of... Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing a final rule to define Broward County, FL, as an area of application county to the Miami-Dade, FL...

  8. 78 FR 29658 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of Broward County, Florida, to a Nonappropriated Fund Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Management is issuing a proposed rule that would define Broward County, Florida, as an area of application... Management (OPM) is issuing a proposed rule that would define Broward County, Florida, as an area of... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM83 Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of...

  9. 76 FR 9640 - Prevailing Rate Systems: Santa Clara, CA, Tulsa County, OK, and Angelina County, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ...: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing a final rule to define Tulsa... Management (OPM) issued a proposed rule (75 FR 45557) to define Tulsa County, Oklahoma, as an area of... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM22 Prevailing Rate Systems: Santa Clara...

  10. Situational method engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson-Sellers, Brian; Ågerfalk, Pär J; Rossi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    While previously available methodologies for software ? like those published in the early days of object technology ? claimed to be appropriate for every conceivable project, situational method engineering (SME) acknowledges that most projects typically have individual characteristics and situations. Thus, finding the most effective methodology for a particular project needs specific tailoring to that situation. Such a tailored software development methodology needs to take into account all the bits and pieces needed for an organization to develop software, including the software process, the

  11. A Situational Maintenance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxhoj, James T.; Thorsteinsson, Uffe; Riis, Jens Ove

    1997-01-01

    An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance.......An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance....

  12. Laterally situated sinus pericranii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshu, K.; Takahashi, S.

    1981-01-01

    Sinus pericranii has been reported to be situated usually along the midline. Two cases of laterally situated sinus pericranii are presented. Venous blood was obtained by puncturing the tumors directly. Injection of contrast medium into the tumors demonstrated a communication between the tumors and the intracranial venous sinuses through marked diploic veins. (orig.)

  13. Assessing Operational Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin

    In spite of the high level of automation commonly applied to today’s engineering system, humans’ skill and knowledge still plays a central role in the systems’ daily operation, critical decision making, and accident management. The complexity of the engineered system poses great challenge for human...... operators to perceive and understand the operational situation. The research domain of situation awareness approaches the operational challenges from the human cognition perspective while the presented thesis aims at supporting situation assessment from the system perspective. The thesis has reviewed...... different perspectives on situation awareness in the human factor studies and uses the knowledge reflectively for system representation and analysis. The human cognitive activities during complex plant operation and how they perceive a situation and what kind of knowledge has to be established in the human...

  14. The cross wavelet analysis of dengue fever variability influenced by meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chien; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Lee, Chieh-Han

    2015-04-01

    The multiyear variation of meteorological conditions induced by climate change causes the changing diffusion pattern of infectious disease and serious epidemic situation. Among them, dengue fever is one of the most serious vector-borne diseases distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Dengue virus is transmitted by several species of mosquito and causing lots amount of human deaths every year around the world. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of meteorological variables to the temporal variation of dengue fever epidemic in southern Taiwan. Several extreme and average indices of meteorological variables, i.e. temperature and humidity, were used for this analysis, including averaged, maximum and minimum temperature, and average rainfall, maximum 1-hr rainfall, and maximum 24-hr rainfall. This study plans to identify and quantify the nonlinear relationship of meteorological variables and dengue fever epidemic, finding the non-stationary time-frequency relationship and phase lag effects of those time series from 1998-2011 by using cross wavelet method. Results show that meteorological variables all have a significant time-frequency correlation region to dengue fever epidemic in frequency about one year (52 weeks). The associated phases can range from 0 to 90 degrees (0-13 weeks lag from meteorological factors to dengue incidences). Keywords: dengue fever, cross wavelet analysis, meteorological factor

  15. 75 FR 11935 - Technical Change to the Filing Location of Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the H-1B, H...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... (Australia), and Permanent Labor Certification Programs; Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the... (Australia), and Permanent Labor Certification Programs; Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the...

  16. Benthic diversity of River Gomti in relation to the prevailing environmental conditions in Lucknow

    OpenAIRE

    Varshney, P.K.; Agrahari, R.K.; Singh, S.K.; Jain, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the benthic diversity of River Gomti in relation to the prevailing environmental conditions, four stations, viz., Maa Chandrika Devi, Daliganj, Ambedkar Park and Aquaduct, were identified from upstream to downstream along the course of the river in Lucknow. Dissolved oxygen was low on many occasions at all the stations except Maa Chandrika Devi and chemical oxygen demand values were high. There was a gradual increase in mean nitrite and phosphate values from up to downstream. Bent...

  17. Why nature prevails over nurture in the making of the elite athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiades, Evelina; Klissouras, Vassilis; Baulch, Jamie; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2017-01-01

    While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes...

  18. ATTREX-Aircraft_navigational_and_meteorological_Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This collection consists of the observational data from the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) aircraft navigational and meteorological measurements...

  19. Unique Family Living Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of neglect, or because the parents are in prison. Others live with their grandparents (and one or ... Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and ...

  20. Colloborative Situation Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Szczerbak , Michal

    2013-01-01

    Situation awareness and collective intelligence are two technologies used in smart systems. The former renders those systems able to reason upon their abstract knowledge of what is going on. The latter enables them learning and deriving new information from a composition of experiences of their users. In this dissertation we present a doctoral research on an attempt to combine the two in order to obtain, in a collaborative fashion, situation-based rules that the whole community of entities wo...

  1. 5 CFR 532.205 - The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates. 532.205 Section 532.205 Administrative... Determinations § 532.205 The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing... amended, or (2) The highest State or local minimum wage rate in the local wage area which is applicable to...

  2. Meteorological Factors Affecting Evaporation Duct Height Climatologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Italy Maritime Meteorology Division Japan Meteorological Agency Ote-Machi 1-3-4 Chiyoda-Ku Tokyo, Japan Instituto De Geofisica U.N.A.M. Biblioteca ...Torre De Ciencias, 3ER Piso Ciudad Universitaria Mexico 20, D.F. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituu. Postbus 201 3730 AE Debilt Netherlands

  3. Lloyd Berkner: Catalyst for Meteorology's Fabulous Fifties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    In the long sweep of meteorological history - from Aristotle's Meteorologica to the threshold of the third millennium - the 1950s will surely be recognized as a defining decade. The contributions of many individuals were responsible for the combination of vision and institution building that marked this decade and set the stage for explosive development during the subsequent forty years. In the minds of many individuals who were active during those early years, however, one name stands out as a prime mover par excellence: Lloyd Viel Berkner. On May 1, 1957, Berkner addressed the National Press Club. The address was entitled, "Horizons of Meteorology". It reveals Berkner's insights into meteorology from his position as Chairman of the Committee on Meteorology of the National Academy of Sciences, soon to release the path-breaking report, Research and Education in Meteorology (1958). The address also reflects the viewpoint of an individual deeply involved in the International Geophysical Year (IGY). It is an important footnote to meteorological history. We welcome this opportunity to profile Berkner and to discuss "Horizons of Meteorology" in light of meteorology's state-of-affairs in the 1950s and the possible relevance to Berkner's ideas to contemporary issues.

  4. Mutual Coupling Between Meteorological Parameters and Secondary Microseisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Holub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic scientific question of this study was: do other mechanisms exist for excitation of secondary microseisms aside from the widely accepted mechanism by non-linear interactions of respective ocean waves. Here we use continuous broadband data from secondary microseisms recorded at the Ostrava-Krásné Pole, Czech Republic (OKC seismic station to create a massive seismological database. Except for seismological data, various meteorological features and their mutual relations were analysed: temperature, the so called ¡§shifted¡¨ temperature, air density, changes of atmospheric pressure, and synoptic situations. These analyses prove that maximum amplitudes of microseisms were observed during winter, while minimum amplitudes occured in summer months. The annual variations of microseisms amplitudes could not be explained by annual variations of storm activity above the North Atlantic. In addition, current analyses also aim at quantitative and quantitative evaluation of synoptic situations for triggering individual microseismic anomalies. Some of the meteorological features, namely the distribution of low pressures above northern Europe and high-pressure areas in Central Europe make it easy to explain most of the microseismic extremes. Here we pay special attention to the influence of large earthquakes, which usually induce slow deformation waves. We conclude that at least three mechanisms of microseism generation are possible: (1 the function of atmospheric pressure at sea level in the North Atlantic, (2 the effects of spreading of thermoelastic waves in the rock mass and (3 deformation waves induced by large earthquakes.

  5. Careers in Industry: Pioneering Spirit Prevails at the Carlsberg Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skadhauge, Birgitte; Haldrup, Anna; Olsen, Ole

    2016-10-01

    The founder of the Carlsberg brewery, J.C Jacobsen, recognized the value of private-public partnership and established the Carlsberg Foundation in 1876 with the single aim of applying research and innovation to brew the best beer. One hundred and forty years on, Jacobsen's vision still prevails, and in this interview three scientists from the Carlsberg Research Laboratory (Birgitte Skadhauge, Anna Haldrup, and Ole Olsen) share their experience about finding a career at the crossroads between industry and basic research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Personalizing situation awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Linn Marks [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Powell, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roman, Jorge R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Mark L B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mane, Ketan K [RENCI

    2009-01-01

    Emergency responders need access to information but what counts as actionable information depends on their role, task, location, and other variables. For example, experts who have unique knowledge and experience and are called on to serve as scientific and teclmical responders, require correspondingly unique situation awareness in order to do their work. In our research-in-progress we leverage emerging and evolving web and digital library technologies to create personalized situation awareness tools that address the needs of these scientific and technical responders in real time, through focused information collection, extraction, integration, representation, and dissemination. We describe three personalized situation awareness tools in this paper: the Theme Awareness Tool (THEMAT), Social Awareness Tool (SAT), and Expertise Awareness Tool (EXPAT). The concepts and technologies we are developing in collaboration with experts apply to those who use the Web, in general, and offer an approach to the general issue of HCI design for emergencies.

  7. Planning as situated design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    and situated, too. In this presentation it will be argued that the investigation of systematic planning as conflictual cooperation will help us see that situated activity is not only based on the present conditions, but also relates them to events spread out in time and space, thereby opening up for another......It is common to associate situated activity with concrete, craftlike or manual activity here and now and to reserve theoretical and abstract thinking for activities like theoretical experimentation and systematic planning. Much work has gone into demonstrating that these activities are concrete...... understanding of theoretical thinking. Some material from the empirical research project developed with Klaus Nielsen on the design and engineering of a house will be presented. On this basis a conception of planning will be unfolded. It will be understood differently from the way it is understood...

  8. Situational theory of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D J; Smith, S R; Warnock, J T

    1989-11-01

    The situational theory of leadership and the LEAD instruments for determining leadership style are explained, and the application of the situational leadership theory to the process of planning for and implementing organizational change is described. Early studies of leadership style identified two basic leadership styles: the task-oriented autocratic style and the relationship-oriented democratic style. Subsequent research found that most leaders exhibited one of four combinations of task and relationship behaviors. The situational leadership theory holds that the difference between the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the four leadership styles is the appropriateness of the leader's behavior to the particular situation in which it is used. The task maturity of the individual or group being led must also be accounted for; follower readiness is defined in terms of the capacity to set high but attainable goals, willingness or ability to accept responsibility, and possession of the necessary education or experience for a specific task. A person's leadership style, range, and adaptability can be determined from the LEADSelf and LEADOther questionnaires. By applying the principles of the situational leadership theory and adapting their managerial styles to specific tasks and levels of follower maturity, the authors were successful in implementing 24-hour pharmacokinetic dosing services provided by staff pharmacists with little previous experience in clinical services. The situational leadership model enables a leader to identify a task, set goals, determine the task maturity of the individual or group, select an appropriate leadership style, and modify the style as change occurs. Pharmacy managers can use this model when implementing clinical pharmacy services.

  9. Meteorological determinants of air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turoldo, F.; Del Frate, S.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Montanari, F.; Stel, F.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    Air quality is the result of complex phenomena, among which the major role is played by human emissions of pollutants. Atmospheric processes act as determinants, e.g., modulating, dumping or amplifying the effects of emissions as an orchestra's director does with musical instruments. In this work, a series of small-scale and meso-scale meteorological determinants of air-quality are presented as they are observed in an area characterized by complex orography (Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the north-eastern side of Italy). In particular, attention is devoted to: i) meso-scale flows favouring the persistence of high concentrations of particulate matter; ii) meso-scale periodic flows (breezes) favouring high values of particulate matter; iii) local-scale thermodynamic behaviour favouring high atmospheric values of nitrogen oxides. The effects of these different classes of determinants are shown through comparisons between anthropic emissions (mainly traffic) and ground-based measurements. The relevance of complex orography (relatively steep relieves near to the sea) is shown for the meso-scale flows and, in particular, for local-scale periodic flows, which favour the increase of high pollutants concentrations mainly in summer, when the breezes regime is particularly relevant. Part of these results have been achieved through the ETS - Alpine Space EU project iMONITRAF!

  10. Energy situation August 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    The monthly situation analysis in France is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  11. Situational Behavior Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-30

    dealt with a notion of ``context’’, which, according to Akman and Surav [9], stands for the same concept as ``situation’’. This line of AI research...Networks of Plausible Inference. Morgan Kaufmann, 1988. 9 V. Akman and M. Surav. Steps toward formalizing context. AI Magazine, 17(3):55– 72, 1996. 10

  12. Dealing with Problematic Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to outline a holistic answer to the following question: How to deal with problematic situations? A framework of a modern approach, a new meta-discipline, based on knowledge and experience from several other disciplines will be presented. We are focusing in those...

  13. The France energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  14. Energy situation August 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-08-01

    This publication presents a monthly report of the French energy situation: primary energy consumption, energy independence and CO 2 emissions, national production, imports, exports, energy costs, average and spot prices. Data are presented separately for solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electricity in the form of tables and graphs

  15. Energy situation July 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    This publication presents a monthly report of the French energy situation: primary energy consumption, energy independence and CO 2 emissions, national production, imports, exports, energy costs, average and spot prices. Data are presented separately for solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electricity in the form of tables and graphs

  16. Meteorological Data Analysis Using MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability.

  17. Description of the RDCDS Meteorological Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.

    2007-10-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the Rapidly Deployable Chemical Defense System (RDCDS) Meteorological Component. The Meteorological Component includes four surface meteorological stations, miniSODAR, laptop computers, and communications equipment. This report describes the equipment that is used, explains the operation of the network, and gives instructions for setting up the Component and replacing defective parts. A detailed description of operation and use of the individual sensors, including the data loggers is not covered in the current document, and the interested reader should refer to the manufacturer’s documentation.

  18. Communicating meteorology through popular music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sally; Aplin, Karen; Jenkins, Katie; Mander, Sarah; Walsh, Claire; Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of weather-inspired classical music showed that all forms of music (as well as visual arts and literature) reflect the significance of the environment in society. Here we quantify the extent to which weather has inspired popular musicians, and how weather is represented in English-language pop music. Our work is in press at Weather. Over 750 songs have been identified which were found to refer to meteorological phenomena, mainly in their lyrics, but also in the title of the song, name of the band or songwriter and occasionally in the song's music or sound effects. Over one third of the songs analysed referred to either sun or rain, out of a possible 20 weather categories. It was found that artists use weather to describe emotion, for example, to mirror the changes in a relationship. In this context, rain was broadly seen negatively, and might be used to signify the end of a relationship. Rain could also be perceived in a positive way, such as in songs from more agricultural communities. Wind was the next most common weather phenomenon, but did not represent emotions as much as sun or rain. However, it was the most frequently represented weather type in the music itself, such as in instrumental effects, or non-verbally in choruses. From the limited evidence available, we found that artists were often inspired by a single weather event in writing lyrics, whereas the outcomes were less clearly identifiable from longer periods of good or bad weather. Some artists were influenced more by their environment than others, but they were often inspired to write many songs about their surroundings as part of every-day life, rather than weather in particular. Popular singers and songwriters can therefore emotionally connect their listeners to the environment; this could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broad audience.

  19. Inversion of GPS meteorology data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hocke

    Full Text Available The GPS meteorology (GPS/MET experiment, led by the Universities Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR, consists of a GPS receiver aboard a low earth orbit (LEO satellite which was launched on 3 April 1995. During a radio occultation the LEO satellite rises or sets relative to one of the 24 GPS satellites at the Earth's horizon. Thereby the atmospheric layers are successively sounded by radio waves which propagate from the GPS satellite to the LEO satellite. From the observed phase path increases, which are due to refraction of the radio waves by the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere, the atmospheric parameter refractivity, density, pressure and temperature are calculated with high accuracy and resolution (0.5–1.5 km. In the present study, practical aspects of the GPS/MET data analysis are discussed. The retrieval is based on the Abelian integral inversion of the atmospheric bending angle profile into the refractivity index profile. The problem of the upper boundary condition of the Abelian integral is described by examples. The statistical optimization approach which is applied to the data above 40 km and the use of topside bending angle profiles from model atmospheres stabilize the inversion. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared with corresponding profiles which have already been calculated by scientists of UCAR and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, using Abelian integral inversion too. The comparison shows that in some cases large differences occur (5 K and more. This is probably due to different treatment of the upper boundary condition, data runaways and noise. Several temperature profiles with wavelike structures at tropospheric and stratospheric heights are shown. While the periodic structures at upper stratospheric heights could be caused by residual errors of the ionospheric correction method, the periodic temperature fluctuations at heights below 30 km are most likely caused by atmospheric waves (vertically

  20. Modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    This book deals with modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century. It is divided into twelve chapters, which mention meteorological services before the Joseon Dynasty period, meteorological observation about surface weather observation, aero logical observation, meteorological satellite, seismometry, observation on yellow dust, and observation on the falling of thunderbolt, weather forecast, meteorological telecommunication, education for weather, research for weather, promotion on weather, international cooperation, main events, special aid on meteorological services, meteorological disaster and the list of the offices for meteorological services.

  1. Atmospheric Model Evaluation Tool for meteorological and air quality simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Atmospheric Model Evaluation Tool compares model predictions to observed data from various meteorological and air quality observation networks to help evaluate meteorological and air quality simulations.

  2. Interim report on the meteorological database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stage, S.A.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Simonen, C.A.; Burk, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is estimating radiation doses that individuals may have received from operations at Hanford from 1944 to the present. An independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) directs the project, which is being conducted by the Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The goals of HEDR, as approved by the TSP, include dose estimates and determination of confidence ranges for these estimates. This letter report describes the current status of the meteorological database. The report defines the meteorological data available for use in climate model calculations, describes the data collection procedures and the preparation and control of the meteorological database. This report also provides an initial assessment of the data quality. The available meteorological data are adequate for atmospheric calculations. Initial checks of the data indicate the data entry accuracy meets the data quality objectives

  3. A marine meteorological data acquisition system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, E.; Vithayathil, G.

    A marine meteorological data acquisition system has been developed for long term unattended measurements at remote coastal sites, ocean surface platforms and for use on board research vessels. The system has an open and modular configuration...

  4. CLPX-Ground: ISA Main Meteorological Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains meteorological observations at ten sites throughout the Small Regional Study Area (SRSA) of the Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX) in...

  5. Index of Meteorological Observations Publication (Before 1890)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Index of meteorological observations in the United States made prior to January 1, 1890, organized by state. Includes station name, coordinates, elevation, period of...

  6. NDBC Standard Meteorological Buoy Data, 1970-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) distributes meteorological data from moored buoys maintained by NDBC and others. Moored buoys are the weather sentinels of the...

  7. Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. K.O Ogunjobi Editor-in-Chief Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) Department of Meteorology Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State Nigeria Phone: +234-7031145866. Email: jobik2000@yahoo.com ...

  8. Learning through Situated Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Eriksén, Sara; Wessels, Bridgette

    2014-01-01

    and in which ways the specificity and situatedness of PD practices are crucial for PD research. We do so by developing the notion of PD as situated innovation based on a pragmatic epistemology. PD research aims at devel oping and continuously unfolding what PD can, might and should be. We show implications......Specific, situated participatory design (PD) practices have always been at the heart of Participatory Design research. The role of the very situatedness and specificity of PD practice for theory-building within PD research is, however, seldom discussed explicitly. In this article, we explore why...... of such a pragmatic epistemology of PD on understanding and arguing for PD research approaches. These concepts are illustrated referring to PD practices as experienced in PD research projects. Our epistemological argumentation supports the emphasis on exploring new PD practices and learning and theorizing about PD...

  9. Situations of dwelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen; Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2006-01-01

    This article explores changeable dwellings that offer the possibility of satisfying spontaneous activities and needs arising from today's changing family patterns. It deals with dwellings that provide people with room for development and flexibility - an open framework, which can be adapted to new...... values and needs in differnet situations, lifestyles and stages. The study is based on information from users in new housing schemes in and around Copenhagen - 'open building' dwellings that reveal a variety of approaches to these problems? The analysis of the dwellings show that the architecture...... of the 'open dwelling' is dependent on three basic conditions: the static condition, the suitable condition and the situational condition. Each condition has its own powerful way of articulation. Our aim is to translate the observations of the projects in concepts and models that are applicable in new projects....

  10. The 1989 progress report: dynamic meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadourny, R.

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The aim of the research programs is the dynamic study of climate and environment in relationship with the global athmospheric behavior. The investigations reported were performed in the fields of: climate modelling, dynamic study of Turbulence, analysis of atmospheric radiation and nebulosity, tropical meteorology and climate, Earth radioactive balance, lidar measurements, middle atmosphere studies. The published papers, the conferences and Laboratory staff are listed [fr

  11. Nuclear situation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This analysis takes stock on the nuclear situation in Japan. It discusses the ambitious equipment program in collaboration with the France, the destabilization of the japanese nuclear industry following the accidents and the energy policy evolutions. It presents the projects of the japanese nuclear industry: the Monju reactor restart, the Pluthermal project, the reprocessing power plant of Rokkasho Mura, the new reactors, the russian weapons dismantling, the ITER site selection and the buy out of Westinghouse by Toshiba. (A.L.B.)

  12. Situational Lightning Climatologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred

    2010-01-01

    Research has revealed distinct spatial and temporal distributions of lightning occurrence that are strongly influenced by large-scale atmospheric flow regimes. It was believed there were two flow systems, but it has been discovered that actually there are seven distinct flow regimes. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) has recalculated the lightning climatologies for the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), and the eight airfields in the National Weather Service in Melbourne (NWS MLB) County Warning Area (CWA) using individual lightning strike data to improve the accuracy of the climatologies. The software determines the location of each CG lightning strike with 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-nmi (.9.3-, 18.5-, 37-, 55.6-km) radii from each airfield. Each CG lightning strike is binned at 1-, 3-, and 6-hour intervals at each specified radius. The software merges the CG lightning strike time intervals and distance with each wind flow regime and creates probability statistics for each time interval, radii, and flow regime, and stratifies them by month and warm season. The AMU also updated the graphical user interface (GUI) with the new data.

  13. Situated Formative Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Niels Bech; Wahl, Christian; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    This study addresses the conceptual challenge of providing students with good quality feedback to enhance student learning in an online community of practice (COP). The aim of the study is to identify feedback mechanisms in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and to create a full formative...... refer to this type of feedback as, Situated Formative Feedback (SFF). As a basis for exploring, identifying and discussing relevant aspects of SFF the paper analyses qualitative data from a Moodle dialogue. Data are embedded in the qualitative analytic program Nvivo and are analysed with a system...

  14. Situations of dwelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen; Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2006-01-01

    This article explores changeable dwellings that offer the possibility of satisfying spontaneous activities and needs arising from today's changing family patterns. It deals with dwellings that provide people with room for development and flexibility - an open framework, which can be adapted to new...... of the 'open dwelling' is dependent on three basic conditions: the static condition, the suitable condition and the situational condition. Each condition has its own powerful way of articulation. Our aim is to translate the observations of the projects in concepts and models that are applicable in new projects....

  15. Situation based housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Welling, Helen; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2007-01-01

    of approaches to these goals. This working paper reviews not only a selection of new housing types, but also dwellings from the past, which each contain an aspect of changeability. Our study is based on information from users in the selected housing schemes, gathered from questionnaires, information about...... for living. The suitable condition consists of the dwelling's ability for physical displacement, spatial changes that can suit changing life styles. The situational condition is the not defined, the unfinished and the transitory, which continuously challenges the imagination and calls for the experiment. Our...

  16. Assessing measurement uncertainty in meteorology in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, S.; Lavecchia, C.; Frustaci, G.; Paolini, R.; Pilati, S.; Paganelli, C.

    2017-10-01

    Measurement uncertainty in meteorology has been addressed in a number of recent projects. In urban environments, uncertainty is also affected by local effects which are more difficult to deal with than for synoptic stations. In Italy, beginning in 2010, an urban meteorological network (Climate Network®) was designed, set up and managed at national level according to high metrological standards and homogeneity criteria to support energy applications. The availability of such a high-quality operative automatic weather station network represents an opportunity to investigate the effects of station siting and sensor exposure and to estimate the related measurement uncertainty. An extended metadata set was established for the stations in Milan, including siting and exposure details. Statistical analysis on an almost 3-year-long operational period assessed network homogeneity, quality and reliability. Deviations from reference mean values were then evaluated in selected low-gradient local weather situations in order to investigate siting and exposure effects. In this paper the methodology is depicted and preliminary results of its application to air temperature discussed; this allowed the setting of an upper limit of 1 °C for the added measurement uncertainty at the top of the urban canopy layer.

  17. METHODOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Tetyana KOVALCHUK

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the investigation of theoretical and methodological principles of situational analysis. The necessity of situational analysis is proved in modern conditions. The notion “situational analysis” is determined. We have concluded that situational analysis is a continuous system study which purpose is to identify dangerous situation signs, to evaluate comprehensively such signs influenced by a system of objective and subjective factors, to search for motivated targeted action...

  18. Meteorological Drivers of Extreme Air Pollution Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, D. E.; Schnell, J.; Callahan, C. W.; Suo, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The accumulation of pollutants in the near-surface atmosphere has been shown to have deleterious consequences for public health, agricultural productivity, and economic vitality. Natural and anthropogenic emissions of ozone and particulate matter can accumulate to hazardous concentrations when atmospheric conditions are favorable, and can reach extreme levels when such conditions persist. Favorable atmospheric conditions for pollutant accumulation include optimal temperatures for photochemical reaction rates, circulation patterns conducive to pollutant advection, and a lack of ventilation, dispersion, and scavenging in the local environment. Given our changing climate system and the dual ingredients of poor air quality - pollutants and the atmospheric conditions favorable to their accumulation - it is important to characterize recent changes in favorable meteorological conditions, and quantify their potential contribution to recent extreme air pollution events. To facilitate our characterization, this study employs the recently updated Schnell et al (2015) 1°×1° gridded observed surface ozone and particulate matter datasets for the period of 1998 to 2015, in conjunction with reanalysis and climate model simulation data. We identify extreme air pollution episodes in the observational record and assess the meteorological factors of primary support at local and synoptic scales. We then assess (i) the contribution of observed meteorological trends (if extant) to the magnitude of the event, (ii) the return interval of the meteorological event in the observational record, simulated historical climate, and simulated pre-industrial climate, as well as (iii) the probability of the observed meteorological trend in historical and pre-industrial climates.

  19. Molecular-based mechanisms of Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension: questioning the prevailing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Theodore W; Dominiczak, Anna F; DiCarlo, Stephen E; Pravenec, Michal; Morris, R Curtis

    2015-05-01

    This critical review directly challenges the prevailing theory that a transient increase in cardiac output caused by genetically mediated increases in activity of the ENaC in the aldosterone sensitive distal nephron, or of the NCC in the distal convoluted tubule, accounts entirely for the hemodynamic initiation of all Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension (Figure 1). The prevailing theory of how genetic mutations enable salt to hemodynamically initiate Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension in humans (Figure 1) depends on the results of salt-loading studies of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance in nongenetic models of hypertension that lack appropriate normal controls. The theory is inconsistent with the results of studies that include measurements of the initial hemodynamic changes induced by salt loading in normal, salt-resistant controls. The present analysis, which takes into account the results of salt-loading studies that include the requisite normal controls, indicates that mutation-induced increases in the renal tubular activity of ENaC or NCC that lead to transient increases in cardiac output will generally not be sufficient to enable increases in salt intake to initiate the increased BP that characterizes Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension (Table). The present analysis also raises questions about whether mutation-dependent increases in renal tubular activity of ENaC or NCC are even necessary to account for increased risk for salt-dependent hypertension in most patients with such mutations. We propose that for the genetic alterations underlying Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension to enable increases in salt intake to initiate the increased BP, they must often cause vasodysfunction, ie, an inability to normally vasodilate and decrease systemic vascular resistance in response to increases in salt intake within dietary ranges typically observed in most modern societies. A subnormal ability to vasodilate in

  20. Management Re-situated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    The purpose of this paper is to examine ways to situate management within philosophy, that is, ways to analyze the philosophical assumptions in management history, theory and practice. Since Burrell and Morgan suggested the idea that “all theories of organization are based upon philosophy...... of science“ (Burrell & Morgan, 1979:1), philosophical reflections in terms of a series of “isms” informed by different schools or paradigms (such as positivism, structuralism, phenomenology, critical theory, and so on and so forth) have been a central part of management studies. Thus, today, it has become...... common sense to categorize different approaches to management according to their assumptions of ontology, epistemology and methodology. My paper will argue first (1) that, although sometimes very abstract and obtuse writing that seems to owe more to competition among academics than to illumination...

  1. The satellite situation center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teague, M.J.; Sawyer, D.M.; Vette, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    Considerations related to the early planning for the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) took into account the desirability of an establishment of specific entities for generating and disseminating coordination information for both retrospective and predictive periods. The organizations established include the IMS/Satellite Situation Center (IMS/SSC) operated by NASA. The activities of the SSC are related to the preparation of reports on predicted and actually achieved satellite positions, the response to inquiries, the compilation of information on satellite experiments, and the issue of periodic status summaries. Attention is given to high-altitude satellite services, other correlative satellite services, non-IMS activities of the SSC, a summary of the SSC request activity, and post-IMS and future activities

  2. Meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiester, T.R.; Pennell, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report, which focuses on the meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines (turbines with a rated output exceeding 100 kW), has four main goals. The first is to outline the elements of a siting strategy that will identify the most favorable wind energy sites in a region and that will provide sufficient wind data to make responsible economic evaluations of the site wind resource possible. The second is to critique and summarize siting techniques that were studied in the Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program. The third goal is to educate utility technical personnel, engineering consultants, and meteorological consultants (who may have not yet undertaken wind energy consulting) on meteorological phenomena relevant to wind turbine siting in order to enhance dialogues between these groups. The fourth goal is to minimize the chances of failure of early siting programs due to insufficient understanding of wind behavior.

  3. Artificial stereo presentation of meteorological data fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, A. F.; Desjardins, M.; Negri, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The innate capability to perceive three-dimensional stereo imagery has been exploited to present multidimensional meteorological data fields. Variations on an artificial stereo technique first discussed by Pichel et al. (1973) are used to display single and multispectral images in a vivid and easily assimilated manner. Examples of visible/infrared artificial stereo are given for Hurricane Allen and for severe thunderstorms on 10 April 1979. Three-dimensional output from a mesoscale model also is presented. The images may be viewed through the glasses inserted in the February 1981 issue of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, with the red lens over the right eye. The images have been produced on the interactive Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System (AOIPS) at Goddard Space Flight Center. Stereo presentation is an important aid in understanding meteorological phenomena for operational weather forecasting, research case studies, and model simulations.

  4. Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2008-03-01

    The Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) mostly uses conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute, 30-minute, and 1440-minute (daily) averages of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity (RH), barometric pressure, and precipitation at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) climate research site. The SMOSs are not calibrated as systems. The sensors and the data logger (which includes the analog-to-digital converter, or A/D) are calibrated separately. All systems are installed using components that have a current calibration. SMOSs have not been installed at extended facilities located within about 10 km of existing surface meteorological stations, such as those of the Oklahoma Mesonet. The Surface Meteorological Observation Systems are used to create climatology for each particular location, and to verify the output of numerical weather forecast and other model output. They are also used to “ground-truth” other remote sensing equipment.

  5. On the prevailing construction waste recycling practices: a South East Queensland study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Kotrayothar, Duangthidar; Loo, Yew-Chaye

    2009-03-01

    Waste generated from construction and building demolition work constitutes about 68% of all solid waste generated each year in South East Queensland. Consequently, it has created a serious waste management problem. The State Governments of Victoria and New South Wales have been encouraging the use of recycled materials from construction and related waste; they have also promulgated specifications for their use. In Queensland, however, similar regulations are not anticipated in the near future, which explains the lack of funded research conducted in this important arena. This paper presents an evaluation of the prevailing waste recycling practices in Queensland. Nine sites were visited, including two construction sites, three demolition sites, three recycling plants and one landfill in South East Queensland. The difficulties encountered by the recycling programme operators and their associates at these sites are described and the benefits of recycling construction materials are presented. One of the major barriers is that the local councils disallow the use of recycled materials in new construction work. To help rectify these impediments to recycling, recommendations are given to increase the use of recycled construction waste in South East Queensland.

  6. Prevailing practices in airway management: a prospective single-centre observational study of endotracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Geraldine Pei Chin; Kannan, Anusha; Koh, Kwong Fah; Venkatesan, Kumaresh; Seet, Edwin

    2018-03-01

    Airway management during anaesthesia has potential difficulties and risks. We aimed to investigate the utility of routine airway assessment for predicting difficult tracheal intubation, review the prevailing practice of videolaryngoscope use amongst anaesthetists in a teaching hospital and determine the incidence of intraoperative and postoperative airway-related complications. A prospective observational study of 1,654 patients undergoing general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation over a seven-month period was performed. Data regarding airway and anaesthetic management was collected and analysed. Videolaryngoscopes were used as the first-choice equipment in 60.5% of the cohort. The incidence of difficult intubation was 2.1%, of which 45.7% of cases were unanticipated. The sensitivity of airway assessment was 54.3%, with a positive predictive value of 8.1%. When difficult intubation was anticipated, more videolaryngoscopes were used as the first equipment of choice compared to the Macintosh laryngoscope (p < 0.001). In the Macintosh group, more patients required a change of airway equipment (p = 0.015), but the number of intubation attempts was similar (p = 0.293). The incidence of intraoperative (p = 0.920) and postoperative complications (p = 0.380) were similar in both groups. Using the current predictors of difficult intubation, half of the difficult airways we encountered were unanticipated. Videolaryngoscopes were preferred when difficulty was anticipated and were also used in routine tracheal intubation. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  7. Appreciation of the nature of light demands enhancement over the prevailing scientific epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar

    2011-09-01

    Based on attempts to resolve the problem of various self contradictory assumptions behind the prevailing belief on single photon interference, we have analyzed the process steps behind our experimental measurements and named the process as the Interaction Process Mapping Epistemology (IPM-E). This has helped us recognize that the quantum mechanical Measurement Problem has a much universal and deeper root in nature. Our scientific theorization process suffers from a Perpetual Information Challenge (PIC), which cannot be overcome by elegant and/or sophisticated mathematical theories alone. Iterative imaginative application of IPM-E needs to be used as a metaphorical analytical continuation to fill up the missing information gaps. IPM-E has also guided us to recognize the generic NIW-principle (Non-Interaction of Waves) in the linear domain, not explicitly recognized in current books and literature. Superposition effects become manifest through light-matter interactions. Detecting dipoles gets stimulated by multiple superposed beams; it sums the simultaneous multiple stimulations into a single resultant undulation, which then guides the resultant energy exchange. The consequent transformation in the detector corresponds to observed fringes. They neither represent interference of light; nor represent selective arrival or non-arrival of photons on the detector. Photons do not possess any force of mutual interaction to generate their redistribution. Implementation of IPM-E requires us to recognize our subjective interpretation propensity with which we are burdened due to our evolutionary successes.

  8. Why nature prevails over nurture in the making of the elite athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Evelina; Klissouras, Vassilis; Baulch, Jamie; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2017-11-14

    While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes and the environment. It is widely accepted that superior performers are endowed with a high genetic potential actualised through hard and prodigious effort. Heritability studies using the twin model have provided the basis to disentangle genetic and environmental factors that contribute to complex human traits and have paved the way to the detection of specific genes for elite sport performance. Yet, the heritability for most phenotypes essential to elite human performance is above 50% but below 100%, meaning that the environment is also important. Furthermore, individual differences can potentially also be explained not only by the impact of DNA sequence variation on biology and behaviour, but also by the effects of epigenetic changes which affect phenotype by modifying gene expression. Despite this complexity, the overwhelming and accumulating evidence, amounted through experimental research spanning almost two centuries, tips the balance in favour of nature in the "nature" and "nurture" debate. In other words, truly elite-level athletes are built - but only from those born with innate ability.

  9. Phylogenomics resolves a spider backbone phylogeny and rejects a prevailing paradigm for orb web evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Jason E; Garrison, Nicole L; Hamilton, Chris A; Godwin, Rebecca L; Hedin, Marshal; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2014-08-04

    Spiders represent an ancient predatory lineage known for their extraordinary biomaterials, including venoms and silks. These adaptations make spiders key arthropod predators in most terrestrial ecosystems. Despite ecological, biomedical, and biomaterial importance, relationships among major spider lineages remain unresolved or poorly supported. Current working hypotheses for a spider "backbone" phylogeny are largely based on morphological evidence, as most molecular markers currently employed are generally inadequate for resolving deeper-level relationships. We present here a phylogenomic analysis of spiders including taxa representing all major spider lineages. Our robust phylogenetic hypothesis recovers some fundamental and uncontroversial spider clades, but rejects the prevailing paradigm of a monophyletic Orbiculariae, the most diverse lineage, containing orb-weaving spiders. Based on our results, the orb web either evolved much earlier than previously hypothesized and is ancestral for a majority of spiders or else it has multiple independent origins, as hypothesized by precladistic authors. Cribellate deinopoid orb weavers that use mechanically adhesive silk are more closely related to a diverse clade of mostly webless spiders than to the araneoid orb-weaving spiders that use adhesive droplet silks. The fundamental shift in our understanding of spider phylogeny proposed here has broad implications for interpreting the evolution of spiders, their remarkable biomaterials, and a key extended phenotype--the spider web. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cuticle Structure in Relation to Chemical Composition: Re-assessing the Prevailing Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Victoria; Guzmán-Delgado, Paula; Graça, José; Santos, Sara; Gil, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The surface of most aerial plant organs is covered with a cuticle that provides protection against multiple stress factors including dehydration. Interest on the nature of this external layer dates back to the beginning of the 19th century and since then, several studies facilitated a better understanding of cuticular chemical composition and structure. The prevailing undertanding of the cuticle as a lipidic, hydrophobic layer which is independent from the epidermal cell wall underneath stems from the concept developed by Brongniart and von Mohl during the first half of the 19th century. Such early investigations on plant cuticles attempted to link chemical composition and structure with the existing technologies, and have not been directly challenged for decades. Beginning with a historical overview about the development of cuticular studies, this review is aimed at critically assessing the information available on cuticle chemical composition and structure, considering studies performed with cuticles and isolated cuticular chemical components. The concept of the cuticle as a lipid layer independent from the cell wall is subsequently challenged, based on the existing literature, and on new findings pointing toward the cell wall nature of this layer, also providing examples of different leaf cuticle structures. Finally, the need for a re-assessment of the chemical and structural nature of the plant cuticle is highlighted, considering its cell wall nature and variability among organs, species, developmental stages, and biotic and abiotic factors during plant growth.

  11. Situational simulations in interactive video

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.J.

    1991-07-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company Advanced Training Technologies section is using situational simulations in several Interactive Video training courses. Two applications of situational simulations will be discussed. In the first, used in the Hanford General Employee Training course, the student evaluates employee's actions in simulations of possible workplace situations. In the second, used in the Criticality Safety course, students must follow well-defined procedures to complete tasks. Design and incorporation of situational simulations will be discussed. 3 refs

  12. Problem situations in management activity

    OpenAIRE

    N.A. DUBINKO

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews contemporary methodological and theoretical approaches to the problem situations in management activity. Revealed and analyzed the types of problem situations managers dealing with in their activity. Rank correlation of problem situations shows distinctions depending on management work experience. Revealed gender distinctions in the managers' ideas of management problems.

  13. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback Environm......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...... and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces: Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become...

  14. Carsharing situation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Erceg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carsharing is becoming very popular in the western world as an effective method to contain rising prices of fuel and vehicles. It was brought about as a possible solution to the changing condition of growing economies and population where there is an increased need for travel but there is also a need for expense economizing. Due to its role in reducing fuel consumption, controlling pollution and traffic congestion, there is an increased usage of carsharing services as an alternative transportation option in big cities. Today, worldwide several different carsharing methods are being used. This paper examines the current situation of carsharing in the world and two initiatives for starting carsharing programs in Croatia. The main goal of this paper is to define what carsharing is, how successful it is in the world and if there is potential for it in Croatia. The most developed carsharing regions in the world are Western Europe and North America. In the last several years Asia, Australia and South America have started carsharing projects and have the biggest growth in members and vehicles. Carsharing is still not recognized in Croatia. There were a few initiatives for starting the program but they failed. In order to determine the possibility and potential of carsharing in Croatia it is necessary to conduct further market research.

  15. DEBATING ABOUT SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen CÎRSTEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the cirumstances of every day life which requires the need to adapt the leadership style. Leadership needs a lot of abilities and skills, including the capability to communicate. The paper deals with leader’s need of changing the style of leading as organizational circumstances change. The process is efficient only when the leaders and the followers have the right climate. The importance of this process is reflected in the productivity of the organization. As the economic climate changes the leadership style needs to be changed and also the style of communication throughout the leader coaches, coordinates, evaluates and supervises. Leadership is about organizing a group of people to achieve a goal. The leader may or may not have any formal authority. Students of leadership have produced theories involving traits, situational interaction, function, behavior, power, vision and values, charisma, and intelligence, among others. This paper describes the styles of leadership which the leaders must use and switch when is needed in comparison with what leadership is about.

  16. [Mental health in situations of armed conflict].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jorge; De La Torre, Alejandro; Miranda, Claudio T

    2002-12-01

    Mental health is a serious problem in Latin America where many communities have been directly affected by armed conflict, communities in which large population groups have been displaced or have sought refuge. Research studies and epidemiological statistics are summarized to emphasize the psychosocial consequences of traumatic events associated with armed conflict. In addition to specific psychological disorders, other more generalized are considered such as fear, affliction, diseases, social disorder, violence and psychoactive substance consumption. Finally, the main points of a mental health plan for emergency situations are described which include the following: (1) preliminary diagnosis, (2) increase, decentralize and strengthen mental health public services, (3) psychosocial attention to the prevailing disorders--with emphasis on childhood problems, (4) initiate training and use of non-specialized personnel, and (5) identification of special needs requiring attention by psychologists and psychiatrists. Other aspects emphasized were community education, training, social communication, community organization, social participation, interinstitutional coordination, flexibility, sustainability, and specific actions in accordance with local needs.

  17. Prevailing theories of consciousness are challenged by novel cross-modal associations acquired between subliminal stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ryan B; Samaha, Jason; Chrisley, Ron; Dienes, Zoltan

    2018-06-01

    While theories of consciousness differ substantially, the 'conscious access hypothesis', which aligns consciousness with the global accessibility of information across cortical regions, is present in many of the prevailing frameworks. This account holds that consciousness is necessary to integrate information arising from independent functions such as the specialist processing required by different senses. We directly tested this account by evaluating the potential for associative learning between novel pairs of subliminal stimuli presented in different sensory modalities. First, pairs of subliminal stimuli were presented and then their association assessed by examining the ability of the first stimulus to prime classification of the second. In Experiments 1-4 the stimuli were word-pairs consisting of a male name preceding either a creative or uncreative profession. Participants were subliminally exposed to two name-profession pairs where one name was paired with a creative profession and the other an uncreative profession. A supraliminal task followed requiring the timed classification of one of those two professions. The target profession was preceded by either the name with which it had been subliminally paired (concordant) or the alternate name (discordant). Experiment 1 presented stimuli auditorily, Experiment 2 visually, and Experiment 3 presented names auditorily and professions visually. All three experiments revealed the same inverse priming effect with concordant test pairs associated with significantly slower classification judgements. Experiment 4 sought to establish if learning would be more efficient with supraliminal stimuli and found evidence that a different strategy is adopted when stimuli are consciously perceived. Finally, Experiment 5 replicated the unconscious cross-modal association achieved in Experiment 3 utilising non-linguistic stimuli. The results demonstrate the acquisition of novel cross-modal associations between stimuli which are not

  18. The networked minority: How a small group prevailed in a local windfarm conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Carmel

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explain through a qualitative case study how a small protest group prevailed during a local windfarm conflict in south-eastern Australia. A social capital analytical framework was developed to analyse the data. The analysis found that two communities inhabited the area for which the windfarm development was proposed. The public participation process failed to address the concerns of both communities and led to the emergence of a social network of resistance. The network had high stocks of bridging social capital, which enabled an effective protest that led to the abandonment of the development. Their effectiveness was inadvertently aided by the windfarm supporters who were unable to act collectively to defend their interests because socio-economic changes in the community among other factors had led to a depletion of their social capital. In this context, different democratic participatory processes were needed to address the concerns of the two communities. Guidance and tools for researching and developing the types of participatory processes needed for vulnerable communities with low social capital and those similar to the social network with high social capital are provided. These will inform community-appropriate public participation processes and participatory planning policy. - Highlights: ► A case study of a local social network's resistance to a windfarm is undertaken. ► The link between high social capital and resistance is confirmed. ► Successful protest groups can be aided by passive windfarm supporters. ► Protesters are likely to participate in well-designed participatory processes. ► Guidance for developing community-specific participatory processes is provided

  19. Prevailing trends of climatic extremes across Indus-Delta of Sindh-Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Farhat; Rehman, Iqra; Adrees, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Saleem, Farhan; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Salik, Muhammad Raza

    2018-02-01

    This study examines the variability and change in the patterns of climatic extremes experienced in Indus-Delta of Sindh province of Pakistan, comprising regions of Karachi, Badin, Mohenjodaro, and Rohri. The homogenized daily minimum and maximum temperature and precipitation data for a 36-year period were used to calculate 13 and 11 indices of temperature and precipitation extremes with the help of RClimDex, a program written in the statistical software package R. A non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimates were used to determine the statistical significance and magnitude of the calculated trend. Temperatures of summer days and tropical nights increased in the region with overall significant warming trends for monthly maximum temperature as well as for warm days and nights reflecting dry conditions in the study area. The warm extremes and nighttime temperature indices showed greater trends than cold extremes and daytime indices depicting an overall warming trends in the Delta. Historic decrease in the acreage of major crops and over 33% decrease in agriculture credit for Sindh are the indicators of adverse impacts of warmer and drier weather on Sindh agriculture. Trends reported for Karachi and Badin are expected to decrease rice cultivation, hatching of fisheries, and mangroves forest surrounding these cities. Increase in the prevailing temperature trends will lead to increasingly hotter and drier summers resulting to constraints on cotton, wheat, and rice yield in Rohri and Mohenjodaro areas due to increased crop water requirements that may be met with additional groundwater pumping; nonetheless, the depleted groundwater resources would have a direct impact on the region's economy.

  20. Projected changes in prevailing winds for transatlantic migratory birds under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    A number of terrestrial bird species that breed in North America cross the Atlantic Ocean during autumn migration when travelling to their non-breeding grounds in the Caribbean or South America. When conducting oceanic crossings, migratory birds tend to associate with mild or supportive winds, whose speed and direction may change under global warming. The implications of these changes for transoceanic migratory bird populations have not been addressed. We used occurrence information from eBird (1950-2015) to estimate the geographical location of population centres at a daily temporal resolution across the annual cycle for 10 transatlantic migratory bird species. We used this information to estimate the location and timing of autumn migration within the transatlantic flyway. We estimated how prevailing winds are projected to change within the transatlantic flyway during this time using daily wind speed anomalies (1996-2005 and 2091-2100) from 29 Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models implemented under CMIP5. Autumn transatlantic migrants have the potential to encounter strong westerly crosswinds early in their transatlantic journey at intermediate and especially high migration altitudes, strong headwinds at low and intermediate migration altitudes within the Caribbean that increase in strength as the season progresses, and weak tailwinds at intermediate and high migration altitudes east of the Caribbean. The CMIP5 simulations suggest that, during this century, the likelihood of autumn transatlantic migrants encountering strong westerly crosswinds will diminish. As global warming progresses, the need for species to compensate or drift under the influence of strong westerly crosswinds during the initial phase of their autumn transatlantic journey may be diminished. Existing strategies that promote headwind avoidance and tailwind assistance will likely remain valid. Thus, climate change may reduce time and energy requirements and the chance of mortality or

  1. Surface tension prevails over solute effect in organic-influenced cloud droplet activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Zuend, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Sanchez, Kevin J.; Roberts, Greg; Ceburnis, Darius; Decesari, Stefano; Rinaldi, Matteo; Hodas, Natasha; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Seinfeld, John H.; O' Dowd, Colin

    2017-06-01

    The spontaneous growth of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) into cloud droplets under supersaturated water vapour conditions is described by classic Köhler theory. This spontaneous activation of CCN depends on the interplay between the Raoult effect, whereby activation potential increases with decreasing water activity or increasing solute concentration, and the Kelvin effect, whereby activation potential decreases with decreasing droplet size or increases with decreasing surface tension, which is sensitive to surfactants. Surface tension lowering caused by organic surfactants, which diminishes the Kelvin effect, is expected to be negated by a concomitant reduction in the Raoult effect, driven by the displacement of surfactant molecules from the droplet bulk to the droplet-vapour interface. Here we present observational and theoretical evidence illustrating that, in ambient air, surface tension lowering can prevail over the reduction in the Raoult effect, leading to substantial increases in cloud droplet concentrations. We suggest that consideration of liquid-liquid phase separation, leading to complete or partial engulfing of a hygroscopic particle core by a hydrophobic organic-rich phase, can explain the lack of concomitant reduction of the Raoult effect, while maintaining substantial lowering of surface tension, even for partial surface coverage. Apart from the importance of particle size and composition in droplet activation, we show by observation and modelling that incorporation of phase-separation effects into activation thermodynamics can lead to a CCN number concentration that is up to ten times what is predicted by climate models, changing the properties of clouds. An adequate representation of the CCN activation process is essential to the prediction of clouds in climate models, and given the effect of clouds on the Earth’s energy balance, improved prediction of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions is likely to result in improved assessments of future

  2. Surface tension prevails over solute effect in organic-influenced cloud droplet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Zuend, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Sanchez, Kevin J; Roberts, Greg; Ceburnis, Darius; Decesari, Stefano; Rinaldi, Matteo; Hodas, Natasha; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Seinfeld, John H; O' Dowd, Colin

    2017-06-29

    The spontaneous growth of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) into cloud droplets under supersaturated water vapour conditions is described by classic Köhler theory. This spontaneous activation of CCN depends on the interplay between the Raoult effect, whereby activation potential increases with decreasing water activity or increasing solute concentration, and the Kelvin effect, whereby activation potential decreases with decreasing droplet size or increases with decreasing surface tension, which is sensitive to surfactants. Surface tension lowering caused by organic surfactants, which diminishes the Kelvin effect, is expected to be negated by a concomitant reduction in the Raoult effect, driven by the displacement of surfactant molecules from the droplet bulk to the droplet-vapour interface. Here we present observational and theoretical evidence illustrating that, in ambient air, surface tension lowering can prevail over the reduction in the Raoult effect, leading to substantial increases in cloud droplet concentrations. We suggest that consideration of liquid-liquid phase separation, leading to complete or partial engulfing of a hygroscopic particle core by a hydrophobic organic-rich phase, can explain the lack of concomitant reduction of the Raoult effect, while maintaining substantial lowering of surface tension, even for partial surface coverage. Apart from the importance of particle size and composition in droplet activation, we show by observation and modelling that incorporation of phase-separation effects into activation thermodynamics can lead to a CCN number concentration that is up to ten times what is predicted by climate models, changing the properties of clouds. An adequate representation of the CCN activation process is essential to the prediction of clouds in climate models, and given the effect of clouds on the Earth's energy balance, improved prediction of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions is likely to result in improved assessments of future

  3. Prevailing negative soil biota effect and no evidence for local adaptation in a widespread Eurasian grass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Wagner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil biota effects are increasingly accepted as an important driver of the abundance and distribution of plants. While biogeographical studies on alien invasive plant species have indicated coevolution with soil biota in their native distribution range, it is unknown whether adaptation to soil biota varies among populations within the native distribution range. The question of local adaptation between plants and their soil biota has important implications for conservation of biodiversity and may justify the use of seed material from local provenances in restoration campaigns.We studied soil biota effects in ten populations of the steppe grass Stipa capillata from two distinct regions, Europe and Asia. We tested for local adaptation at two different scales, both within (ca. 10-80 km and between (ca. 3300 km regions, using a reciprocal inoculation experiment in the greenhouse for nine months. Generally, negative soil biota effects were consistent. However, we did not find evidence for local adaptation: both within and between regions, growth of plants in their 'home soil' was not significantly larger relative to that in soil from other, more distant, populations.Our study suggests that negative soil biota effects can prevail in different parts of a plant species' range. Absence of local adaptation points to the possibility of similar rhizosphere biota composition across populations and regions, sufficient gene flow to prevent coevolution, selection in favor of plasticity, or functional redundancy among different soil biota. From the point of view of plant--soil biota interactions, our findings indicate that the current practice of using seeds exclusively from local provenances in ecosystem restoration campaigns may not be justified.

  4. Probabilistic Meteorological Characterization for Turbine Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2014-01-01

    layer. Based on both data from multiple sites as well as theoretical bases from boundary-layer meteorology and atmospheric turbulence, we offer probabilistic descriptions of shear and turbulence intensity, elucidating the connection of each to the other as well as to atmospheric stability and terrain...

  5. Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziani, G.; Zarimpas, N.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display

  6. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined “core” set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg).

  7. Meteorological Development Laboratory Student Career Experience Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, C., Sr.

    2007-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy. The NWS's Meteorological Development Laboratory (MDL) supports this mission by developing meteorological prediction methods. Given this mission, NOAA, NWS, and MDL all have a need to continually recruit talented scientists. One avenue for recruiting such talented scientist is the Student Career Experience Program (SCEP). Through SCEP, MDL offers undergraduate and graduate students majoring in meteorology, computer science, mathematics, oceanography, physics, and statistics the opportunity to alternate full-time paid employment with periods of full-time study. Using SCEP as a recruiting vehicle, MDL has employed students who possess some of the very latest technical skills and knowledge needed to make meaningful contributions to projects within the lab. MDL has recently expanded its use of SCEP and has increased the number of students (sometimes called co- ops) in its program. As a co-op, a student can expect to develop and implement computer based scientific techniques, participate in the development of statistical algorithms, assist in the analysis of meteorological data, and verify forecasts. This presentation will focus on describing recruitment, projects, and the application process related to MDL's SCEP. In addition, this presentation will also briefly explore the career paths of students who successfully completed the program.

  8. Integrating meteorological and indigenous knowledge-based ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    SCF seasonal climate forecasts developed by national meteorological services. SUA. Sokoine University of Agriculture (Tanzania) ..... city names were given on the weather map as reference points. This example .... Observing stars, wind patterns, cloud movement, and the position of the moon and sun allows weather and ...

  9. Sparse canopy parameterizations for meteorological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, van den B.J.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Meteorological models for numerical weather prediction or climate simulation require a description of land surface exchange processes. The degree of complexity of these land-surface parameterization schemes - or SVAT's - that is necessary for accurate model predictions, is yet unclear. Also, the

  10. 30. 1988 meteorological year book of Ispra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, B.; Galva, A.; Gandino, C.; Porrati, E.

    1989-01-01

    After a short description of the methods for measuring and elaborating atmospheric phenomena, many tables and graphics for the meteorological year 1988 are reported with English titles too. The measurements of solar irradiation are marked with the final hour following Italian winter time

  11. 31. 1989 meteorological year book of Ispra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, G.; Gandino, C.; Maranzana, E.

    1990-01-01

    After a short description of the methods for measuring and elaborating atmospheric phenomena, many tables and graphics for the meteorological year 1989 are reported with English titles too. The measurements of solar irradiation are marked with the final hour following Italian winter time

  12. Meteorological features associated with unprecedented precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Due to this event, huge loss to agricultural and horticultural crops occurred in several parts of India. In the present study, an attempt is made to understand the various meteorological features associated with this unprecedented precipitation event over India. It occurred due to the presence of an intense western disturbance ...

  13. assessment and monitoring of meteorological and hydrological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the last century, Algeria experienced a rainfall deficit was recorded in 1944, then successive drought periods since 1975 to the present day in Northen and Eastern. The most recent has repercussions on water resources and on agriculture. In this paper, we focus on the meteorological and hydrological drought.

  14. Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We welcome articles or proposals from all perspectives and on all subjects pertaining to Meteorology, Agriculture, Physics, Geography, Oceanography and ... of manuscripts is strongly encouraged, provided that the text, tables, and figures are included in a single Microsoft Word file (preferably in Arial or Time Romains font).

  15. Integrating meteorology into research on migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E Emiel

    2010-09-01

    Atmospheric dynamics strongly influence the migration of flying organisms. They affect, among others, the onset, duration and cost of migration, migratory routes, stop-over decisions, and flight speeds en-route. Animals move through a heterogeneous environment and have to react to atmospheric dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Integrating meteorology into research on migration is not only challenging but it is also important, especially when trying to understand the variability of the various aspects of migratory behavior observed in nature. In this article, we give an overview of some different modeling approaches and we show how these have been incorporated into migration research. We provide a more detailed description of the development and application of two dynamic, individual-based models, one for waders and one for soaring migrants, as examples of how and why to integrate meteorology into research on migration. We use these models to help understand underlying mechanisms of individual response to atmospheric conditions en-route and to explain emergent patterns. This type of models can be used to study the impact of variability in atmospheric dynamics on migration along a migratory trajectory, between seasons and between years. We conclude by providing some basic guidelines to help researchers towards finding the right modeling approach and the meteorological data needed to integrate meteorology into their own research. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.

  16. Atmospheric Science: It's More than Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Krockover, Gerald H.

    1988-01-01

    Indicates that atmospheric science is not just forcasting the weather. Gives an overview of current topics in meteorology including ozone depletion, acid precipitation, winter cyclones, severe local storms, the greenhouse effect, wind shear and microbursts. Outlines the Atmospheric Sciences Education Program at Purdue University to produce…

  17. How To...Activities in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmer, Donald N.; Sagness, Richard L.

    This series of experiments seeks to provide laboratory exercises which demonstrate concepts in Earth Science, particularly meteorology. Materials used in the experiments are easily obtainable. Examples of experiments include: (1) making a thermometer; (2) air/space relationship; (3) weight of air; (4) barometers; (5) particulates; (6) evaporation;…

  18. Problem-Based Learning Approaches in Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Perez, Andrew James

    2013-01-01

    Problem-Based Learning, despite recent controversies about its effectiveness, is used extensively as a teaching method throughout higher education. In meteorology, there has been little attempt to incorporate Problem-Based Learning techniques into the curriculum. Motivated by a desire to enhance the reflective engagement of students within a…

  19. Synoptic situations and pollutant concentrations in fog water samples from the Milešovka Mt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav; Řezáčová, Daniela; Weignerová, Veronika; Tesař, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 48, - (2004), s. 469-481 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : synoptic situation * steering flow * fog /cloud water Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2004

  20. The Ellsberg psychoanalytic situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, V

    1976-01-01

    The author proposes to explore an event that received nationwide publicity through the Watergate investigation: the burglary of the office of a Los Angeles psychoanalyst believed to be treating Dr. Daniel Ellsberg. A brief questionnaire, with an accompanying letter, was mailed to all members of the American Psychoanalytic Association. It requested voluntary information on the reaction of their patients to the aforesaid particular event. The results of the study was then evaluated as serving hopefully an indirect inquiry into psychoanalytic practice. This paper is based on an adjusted sample of 861 respondent psychoanalysts, who reported on a total of 5,074 analysands. The resultant figures indicate that a high percentage of the analysand sample was silent concerning the office break-in during the eight-week period following the national publicity given the event. Of the small percentage of analysands that did present material concerning the event, the survey found that they were the patients of only 84 analysts of the entire sample of 861. The absence of reference to the Ellsberg Affair in so many patients may have been due to (1) the fact that analysts create an analytic situation which has a basic quality of interference such that events of this kind do not get communicated, and (2), more important, the fact that analysts through some defensive need failed to take cognizance of references to the Ellsberg Affair in dreams or in the latent content of the associations of their patients. A "natural" psychoanalytic experiment has been studied, and the results are offered for consideration.

  1. METHODOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana KOVALCHUK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of theoretical and methodological principles of situational analysis. The necessity of situational analysis is proved in modern conditions. The notion “situational analysis” is determined. We have concluded that situational analysis is a continuous system study which purpose is to identify dangerous situation signs, to evaluate comprehensively such signs influenced by a system of objective and subjective factors, to search for motivated targeted actions used to eliminate adverse effects of the exposure of the system to the situation now and in the future and to develop the managerial actions needed to bring the system back to norm. It is developed a methodological approach to the situational analysis, its goal is substantiated, proved the expediency of diagnostic, evaluative and searching functions in the process of situational analysis. The basic methodological elements of the situational analysis are grounded. The substantiation of the principal methodological elements of system analysis will enable the analyst to develop adaptive methods able to take into account the peculiar features of a unique object which is a situation that has emerged in a complex system, to diagnose such situation and subject it to system and in-depth analysis, to identify risks opportunities, to make timely management decisions as required by a particular period.

  2. Meteorological Message and Test Analysis Software for an Army Meteorological System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cogan, James

    2004-01-01

    ... were derived. This report also provides some sample results using real data. The message generation algorithms have become part of the overall software package for the Meteorological Measuring Set Profiler (MMS-P...

  3. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. 1427.25 Section 1427.25 Agriculture Regulations of the..., PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.25 Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. (a) CCC will...

  4. Prevailing climatic trends and runoff response from Hindukush–Karakoram–Himalaya, upper Indus Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. U. Hasson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Largely depending on the meltwater from the Hindukush–Karakoram–Himalaya, withdrawals from the upper Indus Basin (UIB contribute half of the surface water availability in Pakistan, indispensable for agricultural production systems, industrial and domestic use, and hydropower generation. Despite such importance, a comprehensive assessment of prevailing state of relevant climatic variables determining the water availability is largely missing. Against this background, this study assesses the trends in maximum, minimum and mean temperatures, diurnal temperature range and precipitation from 18 stations (1250–4500 m a.s.l. for their overlapping period of record (1995–2012 and, separately, from six stations of their long-term record (1961–2012. For this, a Mann–Kendall test on serially independent time series is applied to detect the existence of a trend, while its true slope is estimated using the Sen's slope method. Further, locally identified climatic trends are statistically assessed for their spatial-scale significance within 10 identified subregions of the UIB, and the spatially (field- significant climatic trends are then qualitatively compared with the trends in discharge out of corresponding subregions. Over the recent period (1995–2012, we find warming and drying of spring (field-significant in March and increasing early melt season discharge from most of the subregions, likely due to a rapid snowmelt. In stark contrast, most of the subregions feature a field-significant cooling within the monsoon period (particularly in July and September, which coincides well with the main glacier melt season. Hence, a decreasing or weakly increasing discharge is observed from the corresponding subregions during mid- to late melt season (particularly in July. Such tendencies, being largely consistent with the long-term trends (1961–2012, most likely indicate dominance of the nival but suppression of the glacial melt regime

  5. NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  6. NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  7. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  8. Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  9. NOAA Ship Miller Freeman Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Miller Freeman Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  10. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  11. NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  12. NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  13. Research Ship Healy Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Healy Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  14. Research Ship Nathaniel B. Palmer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Nathaniel B. Palmer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  15. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  16. Research Ship New Horizon Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship New Horizon Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  17. NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  18. Research Ship Knorr Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Knorr Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  19. Research Ship Oceanus Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Oceanus Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  20. Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  1. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  2. NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  3. Research Ship Melville Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Melville Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  4. Research Ship Kilo Moana Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Kilo Moana Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  5. Research Ship Tangaroa Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Tangaroa Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  6. Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  7. NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  8. NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  9. Research Ship T. G. Thompson Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship T. G. Thompson Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  10. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  11. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  12. NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  13. Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  14. NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  15. NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  16. Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  17. NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  18. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  19. ICON - North Norman's Patch Reef 2004 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  20. Frequency modulator. Transmission of meteorological signals in LVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero G, P.T.; Ramirez S, R.; Gonzalez M, J.L.; Rojas N, P.; Celis del Angel, L.

    2007-01-01

    The development of the frequency modulator and demodulator circuit for transmission of meteorological signals by means of fiber optics of the meteorology station to the nuclear reactor unit 1 in the Laguna Verde Central in Veracruz is described. (Author)

  1. Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  2. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  3. NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  4. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  5. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  6. Research Ship Roger Revelle Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Roger Revelle Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  7. NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  8. NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  9. ICON - Salt River Bay 2010 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  10. ICON - Media Luna Reef 2009 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  11. ICON - Port Everglades 2012 Meteorological Observations (NODC Accession 0117727)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  12. ICON - Salt River Bay 2009 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  13. ICON - Port Everglades 2015 Meteorological Observations (NCEI Accession 0156578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  14. GRIP DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP DC-8 Meteorological measurement System (MMS) dataset was collected by the Meteorological Measurement System (MMS), which provides high-resolution, accurate...

  15. ICON - Media Luna Reef 2010 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  16. ICON - Salt River Bay 2005 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  17. ICON - Little Cayman, Cayman Islands 2010 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  18. ICON - Little Cayman, Cayman Islands 2009 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  19. ICON - Port Everglades 2013 Meteorological Observations (NODC Accession 0124002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  20. ICON - Port Everglades 2014 Meteorological Observations (NCEI Accession 0137094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  1. Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. SITUATION ASSESSMENT THROUGH MULTI-MODAL SENSING OF DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTS TO SUPPORT COGNITIVE ROBOT CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Badii

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of emerging situations in a dynamic operational environment of a robotic assistive device is an essential capability of such a cognitive system, based on its effective and efficient assessment of the prevailing situation. This allows the system to interact with the environment in a sensible (semiautonomous / pro-active manner without the need for frequent interventions from a supervisor.  In this paper, we report a novel generic Situation Assessment Architecture for robotic systems directly assisting humans as developed in the CORBYS project. This paper presents the overall architecture for situation assessment and its application in proof-of-concept Demonstrators as developed and validated within the CORBYS project. These include a robotic human follower and a mobile gait rehabilitation robotic system. We present an overview of the structure and functionality of the Situation Assessment Architecture for robotic systems with results and observations as collected from initial validation on the two CORBYS Demonstrators.

  3. 100 Years of Army Artillery Meteorology: A Brief Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    history , meteorological observation systems, meteorological model applications, operational meteorological systems 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...effects on artillery, and aspects of meteorological models. The MM5 was initialized with data from a large-scale model (the Navy Operational Global ...who have other primary duties. In addition the Global Forecast System (GFS), also sent from the AFWA/557 WW, replaced the NOGAPS as the large scale

  4. Meteorological services annual data report for 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-01-25

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2015. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  5. Meteorological services annual data report for 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, S.

    2017-01-18

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2016. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  6. Meteorological observatory for Antarctic data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigioni, P.; De Silvestri, L.

    1996-01-01

    In the last years, a great number of automatic weather stations was installed in Antarctica, with the aim to examine closely the weather and climate of this region and to improve the coverage of measuring points on the Antarctic surface. In 1987 the Italian Antarctic Project started to set up a meteorological network, in an area not completely covered by other countries. Some of the activities performed by the meteorological observatory, concerning technical functions such as maintenance of the AWS's and the execution of radio soundings, or relating to scientific purposes such as validation and elaboration of collected data, are exposed. Finally, some climatological considerations on the thermal behaviour of the Antarctic troposphere such as 'coreless winter', and on the wind field, including katabatic flows in North Victoria Land are described

  7. Meteorological Services Annual Data Report for 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-21

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2014. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  8. Meteorological services annual data report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Environmental Research & Technology Division, Environmental Sciences Dept.; Smith, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Environmental Research & Technology Division, Environmental Sciences Dept.

    2013-02-01

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2012. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  9. Meteorological services annual data report for 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John

    2018-01-18

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2017. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  10. Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdridge, Donna J [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kyrouac, Jenni A [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) is a surface meteorological station, manufactured by Vaisala, Inc., dedicated to the balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS), providing surface measurements of the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere and the wind speed and direction for each radiosonde profile. These data are automatically provided to the BBSS during the launch procedure and included in the radiosonde profile as the surface measurements of record for the sounding. The MAWS core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (hPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable.

  11. Situational Awareness and Logistics Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Situational Awareness and Logistics Division researches, develops, implements, and analyzes advanced systems to protect, enhance, and ensure resilienceof the...

  12. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  13. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  14. Meteorological features associated with unprecedented precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    56

    India during 1st week of March 2015. Keywords: Meteorological features, Western Disturbance and Unprecedented precipitation. Manuscript. Click here to view linked References. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9 ...... Mean Omega (Pa/s) at 500 hPa of (a) 28.02.2015, (b) 01.03.2015 and (c) 02.03.2015. Fig.10. 925 hPa GFS model wind ...

  15. Meteorological experiments for emergency preparedness. part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, I.L.B.; Nicolli, D.

    1993-12-01

    Since the preliminary studies for the Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) siting, by an American consultant company, it was verified that the micro scale and mesoscale meteorological conditions in the region show a unique complex pattern, so that no similar nuclear installation site could be found for reference. Therefore, it was recommended to install onsite a correspondingly complex meteorological data acquisition system which comprises a 100-meter tower with instruments at three different levels and three 15-meter satellite towers on the hills around. In this report, are described the equipment and instruments sent by the IAEA to CNEN as well as the procedures and particular computer programming developed by the staff. It is also reported on the bureaucratic problems and meager budget allocation for the Project which delayed the installation of the two meteorological stations and hindered the implementation of the Project. The equipment for the atmospheric boundary layer sounding were used for the first time in September 1993, when CNEN provided some resource for the purchase of gas and batteries. The first atmospheric sounding campaign showed the occurrence of strong night winds and intense thermal inversion at the higher level of the boundary layer, until now unknown by the Brazilian meteorologists. By way of this report, the staff of meteorologists tries to show the status of Project BRA/09/031 and the know-how gained with it. (author)

  16. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    the purpose to do science and not to participate in polemics or litigations. For this reason, ESO has until now been silent in these matters, but we have now become obliged to make our opinion known". The ESO representative also made it clear, that "ESO does not question the rights of the claimants to recur to the Chilean Tribunals which must decide on the matter of ownership, and that ESO cannot be party to this lawsuit". He added that "ESO fully trusts that the Chilean Government will do whatever is necessary to defend the immunity of ESO". THE CURRENT SITUATION During the past few days, declarations from high officials at the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs have been made which clearly confirm ESO's immunity of jurisdiction from Chilean Courts. The same opinion has been ventured by Chilean experts in international law, quoted in various Chilean newspapers. On Friday, February 17, the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose M. Insulza, made a similar, very eloquent statement. ESO welcomes these articulate expressions that support its official position and trusts that the current situation will be speedily resolved by the competent Chilean authorities, so that the construction work at Paranal will not be stopped. During the past three decades, ESO's presence in Chile has been characterised by good relations to all sides. The development of astronomy in Chile during the past decades has reached such a level that it will now benefit from a new quality of cooperation. In addition to its past and numerous services to Chilean astronomy, ESO has recently considered to establish a "guaranteed" observing time for astronomers from this country, both at La Silla and the future VLT observatory on Paranal. With a proposed 10 percent quota for the VLT, Chilean astronomers will in fact have free access to the equivalent of 40 percent of one 8.2-metre telescope; the associated, not insignificant cost is entirely carried by ESO. ESO has also considered to incorporate

  17. Does a more skilful meteorological input lead to a more skilful flood forecast at seasonal timescales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Jessica; Arnal, Louise; Magnusson, Linus; Cloke, Hannah

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal river flow forecasts are important for many aspects of the water sector including flood forecasting, water supply, hydropower generation and navigation. In addition to short term predictions, seasonal forecasts have the potential to realise higher benefits through more optimal and consistent decisions. Their operational use however, remains a challenge due to uncertainties posed by the initial hydrologic conditions (e.g. soil moisture, groundwater levels) and seasonal climate forcings (mainly forecasts of precipitation and temperature), leading to a decrease in skill with increasing lead times. Here we present a stakeholder-led case study for the Thames catchment (UK), currently being undertaken as part of the H2020 IMPREX project. The winter of 2013-14 was the wettest on record in the UK; driven by 12 major Atlantic depressions, the Thames catchment was subject to compound (concurrent) flooding from fluvial and groundwater sources. Focusing on the 2013-14 floods, this study aims to see whether increased skill in meteorological input translates through to more accurate forecasting of compound flood events at seasonal timescales in the Thames catchment. An earlier analysis of the ECMWF System 4 (S4) seasonal meteorological forecasts revealed that it did not skilfully forecast the extreme event of winter 2013-14. This motivated the implementation of an atmospheric experiment by the ECMWF to force the S4 to more accurately represent the low-pressure weather conditions prevailing in winter 2013-14 [1]. Here, we used both the standard and the "improved" S4 seasonal meteorological forecasts to force the EFAS (European Flood Awareness System) LISFLOOD hydrological model. Both hydrological forecasts were started on the 1st of November 2013 and run for 4 months of lead time to capture the peak of the 2013-14 flood event. Comparing the seasonal hydrological forecasts produced with both meteorological forcing data will enable us to assess how the improved meteorology

  18. How to lead complex situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Pingel

    2013-01-01

    The military leader is experiencing increasingly more complex situations, whether it is as leader in a foreign combat environment or in the home-based public administration. Complex situations like these call for a special set of managerial responses and a special way of leading organisations...

  19. False-positive findings in mammography screening induces short-term distress - breast cancer-specific concern prevails longer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Pilvikki Absetz, S; van Elderen, T M

    2000-01-01

    -ups at 2 and 12 months postscreening. At 2 months, there was a moderate multivariate effect of group on distress; and intrusive thinking and worry about breast cancer, in particular, were most frequent amongst the false positives. Intrusive thinking still prevailed at 12 months, in addition to a higher...... findings (n=1407), false-positive findings (n=492) and referents from outside the screening programme (n=1718, age 48-49 years). Distress was measured as illness worry, anxiety, depression, cancer beliefs and early detection behaviour. Measurements were one month before screening invitation with follow...... perceived breast cancer risk and susceptibility. Distress related to screening and false-positive findings seems to be moderate, but prevailing cancer-specific concerns call for improvements in screening programmes....

  20. Emergency situations; Les situations d'urgence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The nuclear activities are exercised so as to prevent the accidents. They are subjected to a rule whom application is controlled by the Asn. The risk of grave accident is so limited to a very low level of probability. He cannot be however completely pushed aside. The expression ' radiological emergency situation ' indicates a situation which ensues from an incident or of an accident risking to lead to an emission of radioactive materials or a level of radioactivity susceptible to strike a blow at the public health. The term ' nuclear crisis ' is used for the events which can lead to a radiological emergency situation on a nuclear basic installation or during a transport of radioactive materials. The preparation and the management of emergency situations, that they are of natural, accidental or terrorist origin, became a major concern of our society. We propose you of to know more about it in this file. (N.C.)

  1. Meteorological Effects of Land Cover Changes in Hungary during the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drüszler, Á.; Vig, P.; Csirmaz, K.

    2012-04-01

    Geological, paleontological and geomorphologic studies show that the Earth's climate has always been changing since it came into existence. The climate change itself is self-evident. Therefore the far more serious question is how much does mankind strengthen or weaken these changes beyond the natural fluctuation and changes of climate. The aim of the present study was to restore the historical land cover changes and to simulate the meteorological consequences of these changes. Two different land cover maps for Hungary were created in vector data format using GIS technology. The land cover map for 1900 was reconstructed based on statistical data and two different historical maps: the derived map of the 3rd Military Mapping Survey of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Synoptic Forestry Map of the Kingdom of Hungary. The land cover map for 2000 was derived from the CORINE land cover database. Significant land cover changes were found in Hungary during the 20th century according to the examinations of these maps and statistical databases. The MM5 non-hydrostatic dynamic model was used to further evaluate the meteorological effects of these changes. The lower boundary conditions for this mesoscale model were generated for two selected time periods (for 1900 and 2000) based on the reconstructed maps. The dynamic model has been run with the same detailed meteorological conditions of selected days from 2006 and 2007, but with modified lower boundary conditions. The set of the 26 selected initial conditions represents the whole set of the macrosynoptic situations for Hungary. In this way, 2×26 "forecasts" were made with 48 hours of integration. The effects of land cover changes under different weather situations were further weighted by the long-term (1961-1990) mean frequency of the corresponding macrosynoptic types, to assume the climatic effects from these stratified averages. The detailed evaluation of the model results were made for three different meteorological

  2. Defense meteorological satellite measurements of total ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Luther, F.M.; Sullivan, R.J.; Weichel, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    A multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) on Defense Meteorological Satellites (DMS) that measured total ozone on a global-scale from March 1977 - February 1980 is described. The total ozone data measured by the MFR were compared with total ozone data taken by surfaced-based Dobson spectrophotometers. When comparisons were made for five months, the Dobson spectrophotometer measured 2-5% more total ozone than the MFR. Comparisons between the Dobson spectrophotometer and the MFR showed a reduced RMS difference as the comparisons were made at closer proximity. A Northern Hemisphere total ozone distribution obtained from MFR data is presented

  3. On viewing culture as situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    alphabet can be used across languages, and emic tools which are specific to context of a single culture as phonemic rules can explain the sound system in a given language. In linguistics, phonetics describe articulation behaviours of a single sound-a micro unit which is then combined with other phonetic......, I propose that we focus on culture as situation. Using a situational frame, we can then approach culture as a series of observable behaviours in the interaction between audiences and communicators-behaviours which crystallize in genres, yet change dynamically as communicators and their audiences...... participate in social action (Bazerman 1988 & Miller 1984, 1994). To begin to define culture as situation, I will engage the cultural systems perspective (Kampf & Kastberg 2005). This perspective is based on the interaction between norms of behaviour and context in which Hofstede situated his dimensions...

  4. Adaptive Synthetic Forces: Situation Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Randall

    2001-01-01

    ...: perception, comprehension, and prediction. Building on these ideas, we developed techniques for improving the situation awareness in synthetic helicopter pilots for the ModSAF military simulation by giving them more human-like perception...

  5. Plan for radiological emergencies situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada Figueroa, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    The objective for the Emergencies plan it is to reestablish the stock that they should be executed by the regulatory Entity in Guatemala during a real potential radiological emergency situation in the national territory

  6. ROMANIA’S UNEMPLOYMENT SITUATION

    OpenAIRE

    CARMEN MARIA GUT

    2007-01-01

    The present paper aims to analyze the situation of Romania’s unemployment, beginning with 1990, when our country began its transition from a centralized economy towards a market economy. Romanian’s unemployment major problems are: youth unemployment, respectively long-term unemployment. The author intends to analyze the reasons of this situation and to identify the necessary directions of action for the purpose of the improvement of efficient usage of human capital in Romania

  7. The layperson in emergency situations

    OpenAIRE

    Pergola, AM; Araujo, IEM

    2008-01-01

    The layperson's qualification to provide early care in emergency situations and basic life support (BLS) is fundamental to save lives and prevent sequels. The objective was to identify the level of knowledge of lay people about approaching an emergency victim. Structured interviews in non-technical language were used with a 385-subject sample, average age 35.4 (+/- 14.55) years, with more than 50% having a high school or university education. Over 55% of these observed situations with loss of...

  8. Envisioning trust: Metaphors and situations

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Svein Tvedt; Espedal, Bjarne; Grønhaug, Kjell; Selart, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Paper presented at the FINT workshop on trust within and between organizations, Singapore, November 2013 In this article we argue that the experience and effects of trust are influenced by how people construe trust in specific situations – people are not merely passive receptacles of information but bring their own understanding of trust to social situations (Bandura, 1989). Drawing on the literature on conceptual metaphors we describe these as three trust-metaphors. These trust-metaphors ...

  9. The influence of meteorological variables on CO2 and CH4 trends recorded at a semi-natural station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Isidro A; Sánchez, M Luisa; García, M Ángeles; Pardo, Nuria; Fernández-Duque, Beatriz

    2018-03-01

    CO 2 and CH 4 evolution is usually linked with sources, sinks and their changes. However, this study highlights the role of meteorological variables. It aims to quantify their contribution to the trend of these greenhouse gases and to determine which contribute most. Six years of measurements at a semi-natural site in northern Spain were considered. Three sections are established: the first focuses on monthly deciles, the second explores the relationship between pairs of meteorological variables, and the third investigates the relationship between meteorological variables and changes in CO 2 and CH 4 . In the first section, monthly outliers were more marked for CO 2 than for CH 4 . The evolution of monthly deciles was fitted to three simple expressions, linear, quadratic and exponential. The linear and exponential are similar, whereas the quadratic evolution is the most flexible since it provided a variable rate of concentration change and a better fit. With this last evolution, a decrease in the change rate was observed for low CO 2 deciles, whereas an increasing change rate prevailed for the rest and was more accentuated for CH 4 . In the second section, meteorological variables were provided by a trajectory model. Backward trajectories from 1-day prior to reaching the measurement site were used to calculate distance and direction averages as well as the recirculation factor. Terciles of these variables were determined in order to establish three intervals with low, medium and high values. These intervals were used to classify the variables following their interval widths and skewnesses. The best correlation between pairs of meteorological variables was observed for the average distance, in particular with horizontal wind speed. Sinusoidal relationships with the average direction were obtained for average distance and for vertical wind speed. Finally, in the third section, the quadratic evolution was considered in each interval of all the meteorological variables

  10. Situational Management Of Critical Infrastructure Resources Under Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Tadeusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of knowledge about safety management procedures for critical infrastructure in the context of risk management theory and the provisions of the Polish law on emergency management launched on of April 26, 2007. In this paper, the inadequacy of the accepted procedures at present is highlighted, as well as their continuous improvement and adaptation to prevailing political, legal, social, and economic conditions. This paper proposes using the concept of situational management and knowledge management to develop a new method of predicting, preventing, and responding to emerging crises within critical infrastructure. The considerations presented in this paper lead to a proposed concept system supporting critical infrastructure safety management through the implementation of knowledge management methods.

  11. [Current situation with abortion in Colombia: between illegality and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Vélez, Ana Cristina

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the illegality of abortion in Colombia, situating this country within the 0.4% of the world population where abortion is completely banned. Absolute criminalization of abortion turns it into a public health matter and produces social inequality. The Colombian legislation has always disregarded women as individuals and as persons in full possession of their legal rights. In contrast to a comprehensive conceptualization of sexual and reproductive rights, the various abortion bills merely refer either to "morally unacceptable" situations such as pregnancy resulting from rape or to therapeutic motives. Contradictions between illegality and reality give rise to a public discourse that features rejection of abortion practices, in keeping with the prevailing stance of the ecclesiastic hierarchy, while in practice, and at the private level, people resort to voluntary interruption of pregnancy under conditions of safety and confidentiality, at least for women from the higher socioeconomic strata. This situation not only causes social inequality but also reflects how laws lose meaning and create the collective impression of being useless or unnecessary, thus undermining the state's governing role.

  12. Maize transpiration in response to meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimešová, Jana; Stŕedová, Hana; Stŕeda, Tomáš

    2013-09-01

    Differences in transpiration of maize (Zea mays L.) plants in four soil moisture regimes were quantified in a pot experiment. The transpiration was measured by the "Stem Heat Balance" method. The dependence of transpiration on air temperature, air humidity, global solar radiation, soil moisture, wind speed and leaf surface temperature were quantified. Significant relationships among transpiration, global radiation and air temperature (in the first vegetation period in the drought non-stressed variant, r = 0.881**, r = 0.934**) were found. Conclusive dependence of transpiration on leaf temperature (r = 0.820**) and wind speed (r = 0.710**) was found. Transpiration was significantly influenced by soil moisture (r = 0.395**, r = 0.528**) under moderate and severe drought stress. The dependence of transpiration on meteorological factors decreased with increasing deficiency of water. Correlation between transpiration and plant dry matter weight (r = 0.997**), plant height (r = 0.973**) and weight of corn cob (r = 0.987**) was found. The results of instrumental measuring of field crops transpiration under diverse moisture conditions at a concurrent monitoring of the meteorological elements spectra are rather unique. These results will be utilized in the effort to make calculations of the evapotranspiration in computing models more accurate.

  13. The solar eclipse: a natural meteorological experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R Giles; Hanna, Edward

    2016-09-28

    A solar eclipse provides a well-characterized reduction in solar radiation, of calculable amount and duration. This captivating natural astronomical phenomenon is ideally suited to science outreach activities, but the predictability of the change in solar radiation also provides unusual conditions for assessing the atmospheric response to a known stimulus. Modern automatic observing networks used for weather forecasting and atmospheric research have dense spatial coverage, so the quantitative meteorological responses to an eclipse can now be evaluated with excellent space and time resolution. Numerical models representing the atmosphere at high spatial resolution can also be used to predict eclipse-related changes and interpret the observations. Combining the models with measurements yields the elements of a controlled atmospheric experiment on a regional scale (10-1000 km), which is almost impossible to achieve by other means. This modern approach to 'eclipse meteorology' as identified here can ultimately improve weather prediction models and be used to plan for transient reductions in renewable electricity generation. During the 20 March 2015 eclipse, UK electrical energy demand increased by about 3 GWh (11 TJ) or about 4%, alongside reductions in the wind and photovoltaic electrical energy generation of 1.5 GWh (5.5 TJ).This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. © 2016 The Authors.

  14. Automated data system for emergency meteorological response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) releases small amounts of radioactive nuclides to the atmosphere as a consequence of the production of radioisotopes. The potential for larger accidental releases to the atmosphere also exists, although the probability for most accidents is low. To provide for emergency meteorological response to accidental releases and to conduct research on the transport and diffusion of radioactive nuclides in the routine releases, a series of high-quality meteorological sensors have been located on towers in and about SRP. These towers are equipped with instrumentation to detect and record temperature and wind turbulence. Signals from the meterological sensors are brought by land-line to the SRL Weather Center-Analysis Laboratory (WC-AL). At the WC-AL, a Weather Information and Display (WIND) system has been installed. The WIND system consists of a minicomputer with graphical displays in the WC-AL and also in the emergency operating center (EOC) of SRP. In addition, data are available to the system from standard weat []er teletype services, which provide both routine surface weather observations and routine upper air wind and temperature observations for the southeastern United States. Should there be an accidental release to the atmosphere, available recorded data and computer codes would allow the calculation and display of the location, time, and downwind concentration of the atmospheric release. These data are made available to decision makers in near real-time to permit rapid decisive action to limit the consequences of such accidental releases. (auth)

  15. [Prediction model of meteorological grade of wheat stripe rust in winter-reproductive area, Sichuan Basin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Wang, Ming Tian; Zhang, Guo Zhi

    2017-12-01

    The winter reproductive areas of Puccinia striiformis var. striiformis in Sichuan Basin are often the places mostly affected by wheat stripe rust. With data on the meteorological condition and stripe rust situation at typical stations in the winter reproductive area in Sichuan Basin from 1999 to 2016, this paper classified the meteorological conditions inducing wheat stripe rust into 5 grades, based on the incidence area ratio of the disease. The meteorological factors which were biologically related to wheat stripe rust were determined through multiple analytical methods, and a meteorological grade model for forecasting wheat stripe rust was created. The result showed that wheat stripe rust in Sichuan Basin was significantly correlated with many meteorological factors, such as the ave-rage (maximum and minimum) temperature, precipitation and its anomaly percentage, relative humidity and its anomaly percentage, average wind speed and sunshine duration. Among these, the average temperature and the anomaly percentage of relative humidity were the determining factors. According to a historical retrospective test, the accuracy of the forecast based on the model was 64% for samples in the county-level test, and 89% for samples in the municipal-level test. In a meteorological grade forecast of wheat stripe rust in the winter reproductive areas in Sichuan Basin in 2017, the prediction was accurate for 62.8% of the samples, with 27.9% error by one grade and only 9.3% error by two or more grades. As a result, the model could deliver satisfactory forecast results, and predicate future wheat stripe rust from a meteorological point of view.

  16. Frequency analysis of critical meteorological conditions in a changing climate

    OpenAIRE

    Kellermann, Patric; Bubeck, Philip; Kundela, Günther; Dosio, Alessandro; Thieken, Annegret H.

    2017-01-01

    Meteorological extreme events have great potential for damaging railway infrastructure and posing risks to the safety of train passengers. In the future, climate change will presumably have serious implications on meteorological hazards in the Alpine region. Hence, attaining insights on future frequencies of meteorological extremes with relevance for the railway operation in Austria is required in the context of a comprehensive and sustainable natural hazard management plan of the railway ope...

  17. Types of analysis of trompenaar's (1994 organizational culture prevailing in the area of controllership in family businesses in textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to identify the types of analysis of Trompenaar's (1994 organizational culture prevailing in the area of controllership in family businesses in textile industry. Descriptive research was performed, with quantitative and qualitative approach, using a multiple case study. Data were collected through interviews with the controller of the companies. In the four basic culture types suggested by Trompenaars (1994, it is concluded that there isn´t a pure kind, but there is a strong presence of family culture among the companies surveyed in dimensions relationship between employees, attitude in relation to the ways of change, forms of motivation and reward

  18. Assorted interactions of amino acids prevailing in aqueous vitamin C solutions probed by physicochemical and ab-initio contrivances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Koyeli; Roy, Milan Chandra; Rajbanshi, Biplab; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2017-11-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of molecular interaction prevailing in tyrosine and tryptophan in aqueous solution of vitamin C have been probed by thermophysical properties. The apparent molar volume (ϕV), viscosity B-coefficient, molal refraction (RM) of tyrosine and tryptophan have been studied in aqueous vitamin C solutions at diverse temperatures via Masson equation which deduced solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, respectively. Spectroscopic study along with physicochemical and computational techniques provides lots of interesting and highly significant insights of the model biological systems. The overall results established strong solute-solvent interactions between studied amino acids and vitamin C mixture in the ternary solutions.

  19. Urban meteorological modelling for nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Sorensen, Jens Havskov; Hoe, Steen Cordt; Amstrup, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    The main objectives of the current EU project 'Integrated Systems for Forecasting Urban Meteorology, Air Pollution and Population Exposure' (FUMAPEX) are the improvement of meteorological forecasts for urban areas, the connection of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to urban air pollution and population dose models, the building of improved urban air quality information and forecasting systems, and their application in cities in various European climates. In addition to the forecast of the worst air-pollution episodes in large cities, the potential use of improved weather forecasts for nuclear emergency management in urban areas, in case of hazardous releases from nuclear accidents or terror acts, is considered. Such use of NWP data is tested for the Copenhagen metropolitan area and the Oresund region. The Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) is running an experimental version of the HIRLAM NWP model over Zealand including the Copenhagen metropolitan area with a horizontal resolution of 1.4 km, thus approaching the city-scale. This involves 1-km resolution physiographic data with implications for the urban surface parameters, e.g. surface fluxes, roughness length and albedo. For the city of Copenhagen, the enhanced high-resolution NWP forecasting will be provided to demonstrate the improved dispersion forecasting capabilities of the Danish nuclear emergency preparedness decision-support system, the Accident Reporting and Guidance Operational System (ARGOS), used by the Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA). Recently, ARGOS has been extended with a capability of real-time calculation of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material from accidental releases. This is effectuated through on-line interfacing with the Danish Emergency Response Model of the Atmosphere (DERMA), which is run at DMI. For local-scale modelling of atmospheric dispersion, ARGOS utilises the Local-Scale Model Chain (LSMC), which makes use of high-resolution DMI

  20. Urban meteorological modelling for nuclear emergency preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Sørensen, Jens Havskov; Hoe, Steen Cordt; Amstrup, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    The main objectives of the current EU project "Integrated Systems for Forecasting Urban Meteorology, Air Pollution and Population Exposure" (FUMAPEX) are the improvement of meteorological forecasts for urban areas, the connection of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to urban air pollution and population dose models, the building of improved urban air quality information and forecasting systems, and their application in cities in various European climates. In addition to the forecast of the worst air-pollution episodes in large cities, the potential use of improved weather forecasts for nuclear emergency management in urban areas, in case of hazardous releases from nuclear accidents or terror acts, is considered. Such use of NWP data is tested for the Copenhagen metropolitan area and the Øresund region. The Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) is running an experimental version of the HIRLAM NWP model over Zealand including the Copenhagen metropolitan area with a horizontal resolution of 1.4km, thus approaching the city-scale. This involves 1-km resolution physiographic data with implications for the urban surface parameters, e.g. surface fluxes, roughness length and albedo. For the city of Copenhagen, the enhanced high-resolution NWP forecasting will be provided to demonstrate the improved dispersion forecasting capabilities of the Danish nuclear emergency preparedness decision-support system, the Accident Reporting and Guidance Operational System (ARGOS), used by the Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA). Recently, ARGOS has been extended with a capability of real-time calculation of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material from accidental releases. This is effectuated through on-line interfacing with the Danish Emergency Response Model of the Atmosphere (DERMA), which is run at DMI. For local-scale modelling of atmospheric dispersion, ARGOS utilises the Local-Scale Model Chain (LSMC), which makes use of high-resolution DMI

  1. GPM GROUND VALIDATION METEOROLOGICAL TOWER ENVIRONMENT CANADA GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Meteorological Tower Environment Canada GCPEx dataset provides temperature, relative humidity, 10m winds, pressure and solar radiation data...

  2. IMS Meteorological Data, Current Status and Improvement of Data Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martysevich, Pavel; Marty, Julien; Polzer, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the poster is to present the efforts made by the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) over the last 3 years to assess and improve the quality of the meteorological data recorded at International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations. This includes the processing and assessment of the data recorded since 2000, the organization of Expert Group Meetings, comparison of the IMS and World Meteorological Organization requirements to the meteorological data and the list of actions taken/to be taken for improving the reliability and accuracy of IMS meteorological data.

  3. GRIP DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MMS provides high-resolution and accurate meteorological parameters (pressure, temperature, turbulence index, and the 3-dimensional wind vector). The MMS...

  4. Monitoring Forsmark. Meteorological monitoring at Forsmark, January-December 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Cari; Jones, Joergen (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    In the Forsmark area, SKB's meteorological monitoring started in 2003 at the sites Storskaeret and Hoegmasten. However, since July 1, 2007 measurements are only performed at Hoegmasten. Measured and calculated parameters at Hoegmasten are precipitation and corrected precipitation, air temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction, air humidity, global radiation and potential evapotranspiration. The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, has been responsible for planning and design, as well as for the operation of the stations used for meteorological monitoring. In general, the quality of the meteorological measurements during the period concerned, starting January 1, 2010, and ending December 31, 2010, has shown to be good

  5. GPM GROUND VALIDATION METEOROLOGICAL TOWER ENVIRONMENT CANADA GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Meteorological Tower Environment Canada GCPEx dataset provides temperature, relative humidity, 10 m winds, pressure and solar radiation...

  6. The France energy situation; La situation energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  7. Cyber situation awareness and teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Cooke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyber analysis is a complex task that requires the coordination of a large sociotechnical system of human analysts working together with technology. Adequate situation awareness of such a complex system requires more than aggregate situation awareness of individuals. Teamwork in the form of communication and information coordination is at the heart of team-level situation awareness. In this position paper, we report observations from previously conducted cognitive task analyses that suggest that teamwork is lacking in many cyber analysis organizations. Communication is ineffective, team roles are inconsistent across organizations, reward structures and selection may thwart collaboration, and the environment is conducive to individual work. Suggestions for improving teamwork in the cyber domain are offered.

  8. Studies of vorticity imbalance and stability, moisture budget, atmospheric energetics, and gradients of meteorological parameters during AVE 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoggins, J. R. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Four diagnostic studies of AVE 3. are presented. AVE 3 represents a high wind speed wintertime situation, while most AVE's analyzed previously represented springtime conditions with rather low wind speeds. The general areas of analysis include the examination of budgets of vorticity, moisture, kinetic energy, and potential energy and a synoptic and statistical study of the horizontal gradients of meteorological parameters. Conclusions are integrated with and compared to those obtained in previously analyzed experiments (mostly springtime weather situations) so as to establish a more definitive understanding of the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere under a wide range of synoptic conditions.

  9. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined “core” set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable: • Winds: 10 meters • Temperature and Relative Humidity: 2 meters • Barometric Pressure: 1 meter. Depending upon the geographical location, different models and types of sensors may be used to measure the core variables due to the conditions experienced at those locations. Most sites have additional sensors that measure other variables that are unique to that site or are well suited for the climate of the location but not at others.

  10. Meteorological research studies at Jervis Bay, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.; Bendun, E.O.K.

    1974-07-01

    A climatological study of the winds and temperature from the Jervis Bay region which commenced in October 1970 has shown the presence of a coastal sea breeze and secondary bay breeze circulation system. In an attempt to define the influence of the Murray's Beach site on the local atmospheric dispersion, special smoke plume photography studies were conducted in the lower atmosphere. In June 1972 a meteorological acoustic sounding research programme was initiated at the Jervis Bay settlement. The aims of the research are to calibrate the sounder in terms of surface wind, turbulence and temperature measurements pertinent to a description of the lower atmospheric dispersion potential. Preliminary results on six months' data have shown encouraging correlations between the acoustic sounder patterns and particularly the wind direction turbulence traces. (author)

  11. Meteorología y clima

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcón Jordán, Marta; Casas Castillo, M. del Carmen

    1999-01-01

    Este libro constituye una introducción al estudio de la atmósfera en los campos de la meteorología y la climatología. Se ha concebido especialmente como herramienta de apoyo para los estudiantes de ciencias y tecnología que inician los estudios de estos temas. El libro incorpora un programa informático de simulación del cambio climático. En él se exponen las características generales de la atmósfera, su estructura física y la composición química y también se hace una introducción al proble...

  12. Configuring the HYSPLIT Model for National Weather Service Forecast Office and Spaceflight Meteorology Group Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    For expedience in delivering dispersion guidance in the diversity of operational situations, National Weather Service Melbourne (MLB) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) are becoming increasingly reliant on the PC-based version of the HYSPLIT model run through a graphical user interface (GUI). While the GUI offers unique advantages when compared to traditional methods, it is difficult for forecasters to run and manage in an operational environment. To alleviate the difficulty in providing scheduled real-time trajectory and concentration guidance, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) configured a Linux version of the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) (HYSPLIT) model that ingests the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) guidance, such as the North American Mesoscale (NAM) and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) models. The AMU configured the HYSPLIT system to automatically download the NCEP model products, convert the meteorological grids into HYSPLIT binary format, run the model from several pre-selected latitude/longitude sites, and post-process the data to create output graphics. In addition, the AMU configured several software programs to convert local Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model output into HYSPLIT format.

  13. HIV drug adherence: special situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, C

    1997-01-01

    Among the highly diverse population of persons living with HIV/AIDS are individuals with particularly challenging life circumstances that can be called "special situations." Substance abuse and homelessness are examples of special situations that require additional consideration when attempting to determine the appropriateness of prescribing complex antiretroviral regimens. When individual cases are examined in the context of relevant models of care and the principles of those models applied, such clinical decisions can be made with the patient. Withholding protease inhibitors from an entire population group, it is argued, is the epitome of practicing bad medicine.

  14. Cyber defense and situational awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Kott, Alexander; Erbacher, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first publication to give a comprehensive, structured treatment to the important topic of situational awareness in cyber defense. It presents the subject in a logical, consistent, continuous discourse, covering key topics such as formation of cyber situational awareness, visualization and human factors, automated learning and inference, use of ontologies and metrics, predicting and assessing impact of cyber attacks, and achieving resilience of cyber and physical mission. Chapters include case studies, recent research results and practical insights described specifically for th

  15. Multifractal Conceptualisation of Hydro-Meteorological Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrology and more generally sciences involved in water resources management, technological or operational developments face a fundamental difficulty: the extreme variability of hydro-meteorological fields. It clearly appears today that this variability is a function of the observation scale and yield hydro-meteorological hazards. Throughout the world, the development of multifractal theory offers new techniques for handling such non-classical variability over wide ranges of time and space scales. The resulting stochastic simulations with a very limited number of parameters well reproduce the long range dependencies and the clustering of rainfall extremes often yielding fat tailed (i.e., an algebraic type) probability distributions. The goal of this work was to investigate the ability of using very short or incomplete data records for reliable statistical predictions of the extremes. In particular we discuss how to evaluate the uncertainty in the empirical or semi-analytical multifractal outcomes. We consider three main aspects of the evaluation, such as the scaling adequacy, the multifractal parameter estimation error and the quantile estimation error. We first use the multiplicative cascade model to generate long series of multifractal data. The simulated samples had to cover the range of the universal multifractal parameters widely available in the scientific literature for the rainfall and river discharges. Using these long multifractal series and their sub-samples, we defined a metric for parameter estimation error. Then using the sets of estimated parameters, we obtained the quantile values for a range of excedance probabilities from 5% to 0.01%. Plotting the error bars on a quantile plot enable an approximation of confidence intervals that would be particularly important for the predictions of multifractal extremes. We finally illustrate the efficiency of such concept on its application to a large database (more than 16000 selected stations over USA and

  16. Meteorological Drought Assessment in Wonogiri District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlina Karlina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of natural disaster occurrences that affect many life aspects such as agricultural and economy. Drought is one of hazard that affected by extreme condition due to climate change. Wonogiri is one of districts in Indonesia that has a high risk of meteorological drought. This area tends to have less rainfall than other areas that make the condition drier. This study is aimed to provide some information required in determining the drought disaster mitigation through analysis of the drought characteristics, for both historical and future condition. For the historical condition analysis, the input is 12 years of daily rainfall recorded data from 1990 to 2001 in 15 rain gauges. In case of the future assessment, the meteorological drought was analyzed by using Effective Drought Index (EDI and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI methods. Input data for the future assessment is 90 years of daily rainfall which was generated by using climate model HadCM3 scenario A2 and B2. The future data prediction was done by using Automated Statistical Downscaling software. Statistical criteria i.e. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, regression coefficient and standard deviation were used for testing the model accuracy. The drought coefficient obtained from the analysis using EDI and SPI then was applied to draw drought risk map using GIS software in Wonogiri District for historical and future condition. The results show that for the historical condition, the most severe drought occurred in 1997-1998. This extreme condition related to ENSO phenomenon that happened in this area. Compared with the historical condition, the number of future drought event in 2080 period is less than the historical one. This result agree with the rainfall prediction. The generated rainfall for both scenarios are increase from existing period to 2080’s.

  17. Situativity theory: a perspective on how participants and the environment can interact: AMEE Guide no. 52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R

    2011-01-01

    Situativity theory refers to theoretical frameworks which argue that knowledge, thinking, and learning are situated (or located) in experience. The importance of context to these theories is paramount, including the unique contribution of the environment to knowledge, thinking, and learning; indeed, they argue that knowledge, thinking, and learning cannot be separated from (they are dependent upon) context. Situativity theory includes situated cognition, situated learning, ecological psychology, and distributed cognition. In this Guide, we first outline key tenets of situativity theory and then compare situativity theory to information processing theory; we suspect that the reader may be quite familiar with the latter, which has prevailed in medical education research. Contrasting situativity theory with information processing theory also serves to highlight some unique potential contributions of situativity theory to work in medical education. Further, we discuss each of these situativity theories and then relate the theories to the clinical context. Examples and illustrations for each of the theories are used throughout. We will conclude with some potential considerations for future exploration. Some implications of situativity theory include: a new way of approaching knowledge and how experience and the environment impact knowledge, thinking, and learning; recognizing that the situativity framework can be a useful tool to "diagnose" the teaching or clinical event; the notion that increasing individual responsibility and participation in a community (i.e., increasing "belonging") is essential to learning; understanding that the teaching and clinical environment can be complex (i.e., non-linear and multi-level); recognizing that explicit attention to how participants in a group interact with each other (not only with the teacher) and how the associated learning artifacts, such as computers, can meaningfully impact learning.

  18. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Reuder, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    of them are situated in quite homogeneous and gentle terrain. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used as either an extension of current masts or to build a network of very high 'masts' in a region of complex terrain or coastal flow conditions. In comparison to a multitude of masts...

  19. [Supporting women in vulnerable situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Precarity causes those concerned to neglect their health. The role of caregivers consists not only in guiding the patients along the treatment pathway but also in supporting them in order to encourage them to take an interest in their health. In particular, women in a situation of precarity, pregnant or with children, must be given personalised support and monitoring.

  20. Air Force Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-13

    future technology in meaningful ways. We look to transfer, license , and share promising prototypes, solutions, and knowledge with our partners to...time sensitivity and CyberWorx capacity. One method, which maximizes solution agility and the educational benefit to warfighters and industry... Benefits The proposal presented in this report corrects many underlying issues the AF faces when ingesting space situational awareness data

  1. The demographic situation in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, J W

    1991-12-01

    The demographic situation in Cambodia is described. Various estimates made by official bodies are used, since very little statistical data exists for the country. Estimates are provided for age and sex distribution, spatial distribution, the disabled population, widowed and separated women, numbers of displaced persons by province, and number of returnees expected from camps in neighboring Thailand.

  2. Air cleaning in accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Although safe operation of nuclear facilities requires containment behind suitable barriers of the radiotoxic and/or chemitoxic materials involved, it is sometimes necessary to breach the containment, in particular to provide ventilation. This book reviews the performance of off-gas cleaning systems in accident situations, and outlines outstanding problems and their safety significance

  3. Situational Awareness in Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-31

    of situational awareness developed by Harwood, Barnett, and Wickens. These authors distilled four, primary parameters to describe a model of...A9.16 Eye" a tv* J Bette, Phght *Better CG omw Figue 3. "Agie Eye - a HUD-on-thehead witou penaltie to the pilot. "Agsk Eye" Payoff In A/A, there are

  4. The Language Situation in Macao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xi

    2017-01-01

    In postcolonial societies, forces associated with globalization operate along with local geopolitical changes. The complex and multifaceted interactions between local, national, and global forces may take different sociolinguistic shapes in postcolonial societies. This study provides an overview of the language situation in Macao. The Portuguese…

  5. Triage in mass casualty situations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    universally accepted tool that allows health professionals to achieve this goal in a mass casualty situation. ... Head, Disaster Medicine, Western Cape Department of Health and Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Cape Town and .... This means that a new card has to be filled out with clinical data each time the ...

  6. Upper secondary students’ situational interest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    ’ interest was investigated by a descriptive interpretive approach, based on data from classroom and field trip observations, video recording, and interviews. The findings provided evidence that substantial situational interest can be generated during a fieldtrip to a zoo. Students’ interest was triggered...

  7. Energy situation - Forth quarter 2016. Energy situation October 2016; Energy situation November 2016; Energy situation December 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggemos, Fabien; Misak, Evelyne; Mombel, David; Moreau, Sylvain

    2017-02-01

    This publication presents, first, a quarterly report of the French energy situation: primary energy consumption, energy independence and CO 2 emissions, national production, imports, exports, energy costs, average and spot prices. Data are presented separately for solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electricity. Month-to-month details are summarized in a second part, in the form of tables and graphs

  8. Energy situation - First quarter 2017. Energy situation January 2017; Energy situation February 2017; Energy situation March 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggemos, Fabien; Misak, Evelyne; Mombel, David; Moreau, Sylvain

    2017-05-01

    This publication presents, first, a quarterly report of the French energy situation: primary energy consumption, energy independence and CO 2 emissions, national production, imports, exports, energy costs, average and spot prices. Data are presented separately for solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electricity. Month-to-month details are summarized in a second part, in the form of tables and graphs

  9. Situated Learning: Conceptualization and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Lakshmi; Johnson, Norman; Junglas, Iris; Ives, Blake

    2010-01-01

    A focus on the interaction between cognitive schemas and context in situ has been suggested as fundamental in organizational decision making and information interpretation. Past research suggests that the situation and the social interaction that occur during learning at the cognitive level consist of factors that affect the process, but the…

  10. Using climate derivatives for assessment of meteorological parameter relationships in RCM and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timuhins, Andrejs; Bethers, Uldis; Bethers, Peteris; Klints, Ilze; Sennikovs, Juris; Frishfelds, Vilnis

    2017-04-01

    In a changing climate it is essential to estimate its impacts on different economic fields. In our study we tried to create a framework for climate change assessment and climate change impact estimation for the territory of Latvia and to create results which are also understandable for non-scientists (stakeholder, media and public). This approach allowed us to more carefully assess the presentation and interpretation of results and their validation, for public viewing. For the presentation of our work a website was created (www.modlab.lv/klimats) containing two types of documents in a unified framework, meteorological parameter analysis of different easily interpretable derivative values. Both of these include analysis of the current situation as well as illustrate the projection for future time periods. Derivate values are calculated using two data sources: the bias corrected regional climate data and meteorological observation data. Derivative documents contain description of derived value, some interesting facts and conclusions. Additionally, all results may be viewed in temporal and spatial graphs and maps, for different time periods as well as different seasons. Bias correction (Sennikovs and Bethers, 2009) for the control period 1961-1990 is applied to RCM data series. Meteorological observation data of the Latvian Environment, Geology, and Meteorology Agency and ENSEMBLES project daily data of 13 RCM runs for the period 1960-2100 are used. All the documents are prepared in python notebooks, which allow for flexible changes. At the moment following derivative values have been published: forest fire risk index, wind energy, phenology (Degree days), road condition (friction, ice conditions), daily minimal meteorological visibility, headache occurrence rate, firs snow date and meteorological parameter analysis: temperature, precipitation, wind speed, relative humidity, and cloudiness. While creating these products RCM ability to represent the actual climate was

  11. Assessment of Meteorological Drought Hazard Area using GIS in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to make a model of the meteorological drought hazard area using GIS. A set of meteorological drought ... in the GIS, deploying the new model. The final Hazard Map shows that moderate hazard areas (67% of the basin) are much widespread than areas under severe hazard (37% of the basin)

  12. Annual report of the Dynamic Meteorology Laboratory, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Research on climate simulation; data assimilation and forecasting; nonlinear dynamics and atmospheric turbulence; wave dynamics in the middle atmosphere; African and tropical meteorology and climatology; spectroscopy and modeling of atmospheric radiation; satellite meteorology and climatology; and active lidar remote sensing is presented [fr

  13. Meteorological Observations Available for the State of Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-12

    The National Weather Service’s Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS) contains a large number of station networks of surface and upper air meteorological observations for the state of Utah. In addition to MADIS, observations from individual station networks may also be available. It has been confirmed that LLNL has access to the data sources listed below.

  14. Climatic condition of Calabar as typified by some meteorological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims at analysing some meteorological data collected by the meteorological department of the Margaret Ekpo International Airport, Calabar between 1985 and 2003. The main objectives were to provide average figures and curves of Calabar climate, and to identify possible trends since 1985. Results show that ...

  15. Annual report of the Dynamic Meteorology Laboratory, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Research on climate simulation; data assimilation and forecasting; nonlinear dynamics and atmospheric turbulence; wave dynamics in the middle atmosphere; African and tropical meteorology and climatology; spectroscopy and modeling of atmospheric radiation; satellite meteorology and climatology; and active lidar remote sensing is presented [fr

  16. Trends and variability of meteorological drought over the districts of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 8 ... Meteorological drought during the southwest monsoon season and for the northeast monsoon season over five meteorological subdivisions of India for the period 1901–2015 has been examined using district and all India standardized precipitation ...

  17. Brookhaven National Laboratory meteorological services instrument calibration plan and procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2013-02-16

    This document describes the Meteorological Services (Met Services) Calibration and Maintenance Schedule and Procedures, The purpose is to establish the frequency and mechanism for the calibration and maintenance of the network of meteorological instrumentation operated by Met Services. The goal is to maintain the network in a manner that will result in accurate, precise and reliable readings from the instrumentation.

  18. climate change: assessment and monitoring of meteorological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. Djellouli, A. Bouanani and K. Babahamed

    2016-09-01

    Sep 1, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. During the last century, Algeria experien successive drought periods since 1975 to recent has repercussions on water resource meteorological and hydrological drought. periods, we used meteorological and hydro. Index (SPI), effective Drought Index (ED was recording for the period of 30 ...

  19. Formative Evaluation of a Web-Based Course in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Julia; Reynolds, Ross

    1999-01-01

    Describes the formative-evaluation process for the EuroMET (European Meteorological Education and Training) project, Web-Based university courses in meteorology that were created to address the education and training needs of professional meteorologists and students throughout Europe. Usability and interactive and multimedia elements are…

  20. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a) Qualifying...

  1. Similarities In Periods Of Meteorological Variables Over Kenya And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, we determined the spectral characteristics of some meteorological variables over Kenya and identified the prominent periodicities associated with the variables. The meteorological variables studied are the maximum temperature, mini-mum temperature, average temperature, ...

  2. Compendium of Lecture Notes for Training Class III Meteorological Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallack, B. J.

    This compendium of lecture notes provides a course of study for persons who may be involved in a variety of specialized meteorological tasks. The course is considered to be advanced and assumes students have had introductory experiences in meteorology and earth science (covered in a similar compendium). The material is presented in seven units…

  3. Nuclear situation in Japan; La situation du nucleaire au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis takes stock on the nuclear situation in Japan. It discusses the ambitious equipment program in collaboration with the France, the destabilization of the japanese nuclear industry following the accidents and the energy policy evolutions. It presents the projects of the japanese nuclear industry: the Monju reactor restart, the Pluthermal project, the reprocessing power plant of Rokkasho Mura, the new reactors, the russian weapons dismantling, the ITER site selection and the buy out of Westinghouse by Toshiba. (A.L.B.)

  4. General aspects of meteorology and wind flow patterns at the National Medical Cyclotron site, Camperdown, NSW, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.; Bartsch, F.J.K.

    1994-06-01

    As part of an assessment into the consequences of a potential accident at the National Medical Cyclotron, Camperdown, NSW., Australia, two meteorological stations were installed to monitor the winds, temperatures and atmospheric dispersion conditions. The data will be used to assess environmental impacts of the Cyclotron's operation. In spite of the relatively poor performance of the stations, the wind data indicated significant effects of local buildings and the general urban surface roughness features. The prevailing winds during the study were from the north-north-west at night and south-south-west or north-east sea breezes during the day. Atmospheric stability/dispersion categories were typical of an urban heat island location. 11 refs., 10 tabs, 6 figs

  5. Determination of weather types and associated diffusion conditions by statistical treatment of the meteorological data of a site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, A.

    1982-01-01

    A statistical analysis of meteorological data collected at the Grenoble Nuclear Research Center during several years showed they were distributed into 5 homogeneous classes, demonstrating that 5 types of weather prevailed on the site. By means of the usual resolution method of the diffusion equation, average values of atmospheric diffusion coefficients were given to these various weather conditions. For each weather condition and each pollutant release point, the variations of the atmospheric transfer coefficients were plotted vs the distance from the release point. Pollutant concentration values at various points in the environment can thus be predicted in case of planned or accidental release as a function of the diffusion conditions applying to the specific site, and not from universal graphs valid for any kind of site. Two experimental investigations showed a good agreement between predicted and field measurements. More fullscale field experiments shoud be made to confirm the results of this method [fr

  6. Influence of meteorological elements on balance control and pain in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peultier, Laetitia; Lion, Alexis; Chary-Valckenaere, Isabelle; Loeuille, Damien; Zhang, Zheng; Rat, Anne-Christine; Gueguen, René; Paysant, Jean; Perrin, Philippe P.

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to determine if pain and balance control are related to meteorological modifications in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). One hundred and thirteen patients with knee OA (mean age = 65 ± 9 years old, 78 women) participated in this study. Static posturography was performed, sway area covered and sway path traveled by the center of foot pressure being recorded under six standing postural conditions that combine three visual situations (eyes open, eyes closed, vision altered) with two platform situations (firm and foam supports). Knee pain score was assessed using a visual analog scale. Balance control and pain measurements recorded in the morning were correlated with the meteorological data. Morning and daily values for temperature, precipitation, sunshine, height of rain in 1 h, wind speed, humidity, and atmospheric pressure were obtained from the nearest data collecting weather station. The relationship between postural control, pain, and weather variations were assessed for each patient on a given day with multiple linear regressions. A decrease of postural stability was observed when atmospheric pressure and maximum humidity decreased in the morning ( p knee pain was more enhanced when it is warmer in the morning ( p < 0.05) and when it is wetter and warmer within a day ( p < 0.05). The relationship between weather, pain, and postural control can help patients and health professionals to better manage daily activities.

  7. Skill of a global seasonal streamflow forecasting system, relative roles of initial conditions and meteorological forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yossef, Naze Candogan; Winsemius, Hessel; Weerts, Albrecht; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2013-08-01

    We investigate the relative contributions of initial conditions (ICs) and meteorological forcing (MF) to the skill of the global seasonal streamflow forecasting system FEWS-World, using the global hydrological model PCRaster Global Water Balance. Potential improvement in forecasting skill through better climate prediction or by better estimation of ICs through data assimilation depends on the relative importance of these sources of uncertainty. We use the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) and reverse ESP (revESP) procedure to explore the impact of both sources of uncertainty at 78 stations on large global basins for lead times upto 6 months. We compare the ESP and revESP forecast ensembles with retrospective model simulations driven by meteorological observations. For each location, we determine the critical lead time after which the importance of ICs is surpassed by that of MF. We analyze these results in the context of prevailing hydroclimatic conditions for larger basins. This analysis suggests that in some basins forecast skill may be improved by better estimation of initial hydrologic states through data assimilation; whereas in others skill improvement depends on better climate prediction. For arctic and snowfed rivers, forecasts of high flows may benefit from assimilation of snow and ice data. In some snowfed basins where the onset of melting is highly sensitive to temperature changes, forecast skill depends on better climate prediction. In monsoonal basins, the variability of the monsoon dominates forecasting skill, except for those where snow and ice contribute to streamflow. In large basins, initial surface water and groundwater states are important sources of skill.

  8. Regional and local meteorology influences high-resolution tropospheric ozone concentration in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutzoukis, S.; Jenerette, D.; Chandler, M.; Wang, J.; Ge, C.; Ripplinger, J.

    2017-12-01

    Urban air quality and climate directly affect resident health. The Los Angeles (LA) Basin is a highly populated metropolitan area, with widespread point sources of ozone (O3) precursors (NOx , Volatile Organic Compounds, CO) from fossil fuel combustion. The LA basin exists on a coast-to-mountain gradient, with increasing temperatures towards the Transverse Ranges, which rise to 1700m. Frequently not compliant with 8-hour O3 standards, the LA and South Coast Air Basins are designated as severe and extreme non-attainment areas. Summer weather in the LA basin is characterized by a persistent high pressure system, creating an inversion that traps air pollutants, including O3 precursors, coupled with physical geography that blocks prevailing upper atmosphere air flow. These interactions make neighborhood-level O3 levels more variable than common regional models. Over the summer of 2017, we investigated the importance of local meteorology, wind patterns and air temperature, in transporting and mixing ozone precursors from point sources along the coast-to-mountain gradient. We deployed a network of six EPA federal equivalent method ozone and meteorological sensors in three campaigns in the LA basin along the coast-to-mountain transect. Each campaign, we collaborated with citizen scientists to deploy three sensor stations in two, 4 km2 quadrats, for a total of six high-resolution 4 km2 pixels. O3 concentrations vary greatly along the transect. At the coastal sites, daily O3 ranges from 0ppm to 60ppm and the range increases at the inland sites, to 100ppm. At all sites, there was a positive relationship between wind speed, air temperature, and O3 concentration, with increasing correlation inland. The Pearson correlation coefficient between wind speed and O3 concentration doubles from the coast to inland, and triples between air temperature and O3. The site-specific relationships between O3 and wind direction and temperature vary, suggesting neighborhood-effects from local

  9. Observations of atmospheric pollutants at Lhasa during 2014-2015: Pollution status and the influence of meteorological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duo, Bu; Cui, Lulu; Wang, Zhenzhen; Li, Rui; Zhang, Liwu; Fu, Hongbo; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Huifang; Qiong, A

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric pollutants including SO 2 , NO 2 , CO, O 3 and inhalable particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) were monitored continuously from March 2014 to February 2015 to investigate characteristics of air pollution at Lhasa, Tibetan Plateau. Species exhibited similar seasonal variations except O 3 , with the peaks in winter but low valleys in summer. The maximum O 3 concentration was observed in spring, followed by summer, autumn, and winter. The positive correlation between O 3 and PM 10 in spring indicated similar sources of them, and was assumed to be turbulent transport. Temperature was the dominant meteorological factor for most species in spring. High temperature accelerates O 3 photochemistry, and favors air disturbance which is conductive to dust resuspension in spring. Relative humidity (RH) and atmospheric pressure were the main meteorological factors in summer. RH showed negative correlations with species, while atmospheric pressure posed opposite situation. Wind speed (WS) was the dominant meteorological factor in autumn, the negative correlations between WS and species indicated diffusion by wind. Most species showed non-significant correlations with meteorological factors in winter, indicating the dependence of pollution on source emission rather than restriction by meteorology. Pollution weather character indicated that emissions were from biomass burning and dust suspension, and meteorological factors also played an important role. Air stream injection from the stratosphere was observed during O 3 pollution period. Air parcels from Southwest Asia were observed during air pollution period in winter. An enhancement in air pollutants such as O 3 would be expected in the future, more attention should be given to countermeasures for prevention of air pollution in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. ASAT will create an Advanced Situation...

  11. Situational Analysis of Engineering Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    STS inspired studies of engineering work practices provide new material for a richer understanding of engineering culture. However, the specific and strictly situated focus of many of these studies threatens to limit discussions of engineering practices to departmental and discrete institutional...... settings. This micro perspective potentially overlooks the inherent and overarching normativities that inform engineering culture. Furthermore, the micro perspective has difficulties in transgressing institutional boundaries in order to investigate the dynamics of cultural reproduction in engineering....... The paper will propose a research agenda that – inspired by George Marcus’ multi-sited ethnographic methodology (Marcus 1998) and Adele Clarke’s situational analysis (Clarke 2005) – analyze (and contrasts) engineering practices in diverse settings (e.g. engineering education and engineering work) in order...

  12. Relationship between Prevailing Redox Conditions, Water Type, Topographic Location and Methane Concentrations in Susquehanna County, NE Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molofsky, L. J.; McHugh, T. E.; Connor, J. A.; Richardson, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Historical occurrence of methane in residential water wells in parts of the Appalachian basin (Pennsylvania, New York, West Virginia) has long been recognized as a natural phenomenon. The recent increase in shale gas extraction activities in these areas has highlighted the need to distinguish between baseline methane concentrations and those that may results from gas extraction activities. For the first time, this study shows that natural dissolved methane in Northeastern Pennsylvania exhibits a relationship with prevailing redox conditions of groundwater, though this relationship is not entirely as predicted. Specifically, methane concentrations in 806 pre-drill samples from residential water wells in Susquehanna County, NE Pennsylvania, were found to be highest in samples with low SO4 concentrations but low Fe(II) concentrations. This is opposite from what would be expected if high methane concentrations were associated with a reduction of insoluble Fe(III)-minerals resulting in the release of soluble Fe(II) (and therefore, an increase in measurable dissolved iron). The water type (i.e., Na-rich vs. Ca-rich), and topographic location (i.e., valley vs. upland) was also evaluated for each of the prevailing redox states to identify associations and potential driving factors. Based on this information, this talk identifies a combination of easily identifiable natural environmental "risk" factors (i.e., advanced redox state, Na-rich water type, and valley setting) that are highly predictive of naturally elevated methane concentrations in water wells. These findings highlight simple and meaningful relationships that may be used to infer whether methane in residential water sources is natural or associated with stray gas migration.

  13. Radiographic progression with nonrising PSA in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: post hoc analysis of PREVAIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, A H; Alumkal, J J; Armstrong, A; Higano, C S; Iversen, P; Sternberg, C N; Rathkopf, D; Loriot, Y; de Bono, J; Tombal, B; Abhyankar, S; Lin, P; Krivoshik, A; Phung, D; Beer, T M

    2017-06-01

    Advanced prostate cancer is a phenotypically diverse disease that evolves through multiple clinical courses. PSA level is the most widely used parameter for disease monitoring, but it has well-recognized limitations. Unlike in clinical trials, in practice, clinicians may rely on PSA monitoring alone to determine disease status on therapy. This approach has not been adequately tested. Chemotherapy-naive asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic men (n=872) with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who were treated with the androgen receptor inhibitor enzalutamide in the PREVAIL study were analyzed post hoc for rising versus nonrising PSA (empirically defined as >1.05 vs ⩽1.05 times the PSA level from 3 months earlier) at the time of radiographic progression. Clinical characteristics and disease outcomes were compared between the rising and nonrising PSA groups. Of 265 PREVAIL patients with radiographic progression and evaluable PSA levels on the enzalutamide arm, nearly one-quarter had a nonrising PSA. Median progression-free survival in this cohort was 8.3 months versus 11.1 months in the rising PSA cohort (hazard ratio 1.68; 95% confidence interval 1.26-2.23); overall survival was similar between the two groups, although less than half of patients in either group were still at risk at 24 months. Baseline clinical characteristics of the two groups were similar. Non-rising PSA at radiographic progression is a common phenomenon in mCRPC patients treated with enzalutamide. As restaging in advanced prostate cancer patients is often guided by increases in PSA levels, our results demonstrate that disease progression on enzalutamide can occur without rising PSA levels. Therefore, a disease monitoring strategy that includes imaging not entirely reliant on serial serum PSA measurement may more accurately identify disease progression.

  14. [The demographic situation and settlement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaionchkovskaya, Z A

    1986-01-01

    The impact of different rates of population growth on settlement patterns in the various republics of the USSR is examined. The focus is on regions with very low rates of population growth. The consequences of such low levels of growth include a decline in urban growth as the reservoirs of rural-urban migration are depleted and a failure to achieve satisfactory levels of socioeconomic development. Some areas situated far from urban centers are currently experiencing decreases in population.

  15. The solar eclipse: a natural meteorological experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A solar eclipse provides a well-characterized reduction in solar radiation, of calculable amount and duration. This captivating natural astronomical phenomenon is ideally suited to science outreach activities, but the predictability of the change in solar radiation also provides unusual conditions for assessing the atmospheric response to a known stimulus. Modern automatic observing networks used for weather forecasting and atmospheric research have dense spatial coverage, so the quantitative meteorological responses to an eclipse can now be evaluated with excellent space and time resolution. Numerical models representing the atmosphere at high spatial resolution can also be used to predict eclipse-related changes and interpret the observations. Combining the models with measurements yields the elements of a controlled atmospheric experiment on a regional scale (10–1000 km), which is almost impossible to achieve by other means. This modern approach to ‘eclipse meteorology’ as identified here can ultimately improve weather prediction models and be used to plan for transient reductions in renewable electricity generation. During the 20 March 2015 eclipse, UK electrical energy demand increased by about 3 GWh (11 TJ) or about 4%, alongside reductions in the wind and photovoltaic electrical energy generation of 1.5 GWh (5.5 TJ). This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550768

  16. When politics prevails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Snaith, Holly

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses Britain’s quest to negotiate its future membership of the European Union (EU) through the lens of Liberal intergovernmentalism. The article demonstrates that despite the significant economic consequences of a potential Brexit, party political factors have hitherto proven mor...... significant in defining the terrain of the debate than lobby group influence where a cross section of United Kingdom (UK) lobby groups are either actively or passively in favour of remaining within the EU ahead of the referendum....

  17. Can Cooler Heads Prevail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The significant correlation between dropping temperatures throughout the Pliocene and the concomitant explosive expansion of the Hominid brain has led a number of workers to postulate climate change drove human evolution. Our brain (that of Homo sapiens), comprises 1-2 percent of our body weight but consumes 20 -25 percent of the body's caloric intake. We are "hotheads". Brains are extremely sensitive to overheating but we are endowed with unparalleled thermal regulation, much of it given over to protecting the Central Nervous System (CNS). Will there be reversed trends with global warming? The human brain has been shrinking since the end of the Ice Ages, losing about 150cc over the past 10,000 years. Polar bear skulls have been downsizing as well. Almost all mass extinctions or evolutionary upheavals are attributed to global warming: e.g. the Permian/Triassic (P/T) event, i.e., "The Great Dying", 250 million years ago (~90% of all life forms wiped out); the Paleocene/ Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) 55 million years ago. They may be analogs for what might await us. Large creatures, whose body size inhibits cooling, melted away during the PETM. Horses, initially the size of dogs then, reduced to the size of cats. An unanticipated hazard for humans that may attend extreme global warming is dumbing down or needing to retreat to the Poles as did those creatures that survived the P/T event (some references: http://johnhawks.net/research/hawks-2011-brain-size-selection-holocene; Kandel, E. et al Principles of Neural Science 4th ed. New York (US): McGraw-Hill, 2000; Selective Brain Cooling in Early Hominids:phylogenetic and evolutionary implications, Reeser, H., reeser@flmnh.ufl.edu; How the body controls brain temperature; the temperature shielding effect of cerebral blood flow, Mingming Z. et al. J Appl Physiol. 2006 November; 101(5): 1481-1488; news.nationalgeographic.com/ news/2014/03/140327-climate-change-shrinks-salamanders-global-warming-science/; Heat illness and heat stroke, www.ozemedicine.com/wiki/doku.php?id=heat illness 7/3/2010)

  18. Where the signs prevail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardo Scavino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose to show in our paper that through his semiotic theory, Barthes developed a theory of subjectivity and society continued with the anti-utilitarian tradition of the Collège de Sociologie where George Bataille, Carl Einstein or Michel Leiris had favored the mythical and ritual dimension of collective life.

  19. European meteorological data: contribution to research, development, and policy support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biavetti, Irene; Karetsos, Sotiris; Ceglar, Andrej; Toreti, Andrea; Panagos, Panos

    2014-08-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has developed Interpolated Meteorological Datasets available on a regular 25x25km grid both to the scientific community and the general public. Among others, the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets include daily maximum/minimum temperature, cumulated daily precipitation, evapotranspiration and wind speed. These datasets can be accessed through a web interface after a simple registration procedure. The Interpolated Meteorological Datasets also serve the Crop Growth Monitoring System (CGMS) at European level. The temporal coverage of the datasets is more than 30 years and the spatial coverage includes EU Member States, neighboring European countries, and the Mediterranean countries. The meteorological data are highly relevant for the development, implementation and assessment of a number of European Union (EU) policy areas: agriculture, soil protection, environment, agriculture, food security, energy, climate change. An online user survey has been carried out in order to assess the impact of the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets on research developments. More than 70% of the users have used the meteorological datasets for research purposes and more than 50% of the users have used those sources as main input for their models. The usefulness of the data scored more than 70% and it is interesting to note that around 25% of the users have published their scientific outputs based on the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets. Finally, the user feedback focuses mostly on improving the data distribution process as well as the visibility of the web platform.

  20. On the early history of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevanlinna, H.

    2014-03-01

    This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.

  1. BOREAS AES Canadian Hourly and Daily Surface Meteorological Data, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains hourly and daily meteorological data from 23 meteorological stations across Canada from January 1975 to January 1997. The surface meteorology...

  2. Meteorology and lidar data from the URAHFREP field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2002-01-01

    to the HF release. The instrumentation included various types of HF sensors, thermocouple arrays, a fully instrumented release rig, a passive smokemachine, a meteorological mast and a lidar backscatter system. This report deals exclusively with the meteorological data and the lidar data. The trials cover...... a range meteorological conditions. These include neutral conditions with relatively highwindspeed and low humidity as well as unstable conditions with low windspeed and high humidity, the most favorable conditions for lift-off to occur. The lidar was used to scan vertical cross-plume slices 100 meter...

  3. Comparison of satellite orbit ephemerides for use in GPS meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kačmařík, Michal; Skřivánková, Pavla

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses GPS (Global Position System) meteorology. The research presented is based on a comparison of values of precipitable water vapour PWV, based on GPS measurements using final and predicted ephemerides of satellite orbits. We analysed recent year's improvement in predicting ephemerides. We compared the data outputs from a radiosonde using GPS receiver measurements directly from the meteorological station from which the radiosondes were launched. The results indicate a high quality of the predicted ephemerides. This finding makes predicted ephemerides highly usable for near real-time estimations of PWV. To use PWV in meteorological forecast applications, this high speed of PWV values supply is necessary.

  4. Measurement of thermal transmittance of opaque facade wall relationship with meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunović Biljana S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of measurements of thermal transmittance or as otherwise called U-value [W/m2⋅K] of opaque facade wall of preschool institution built in 1977. The building has an incomplete technical documentation according to which considered wall was built of brick and masonry mortar. Thermal characteristics of the incorporated materials have not been specified. Considering that in the period of building construction JUS standards was used, a possible range of calculated U-vales was obtained (1,241-1,404 W/m2·K. Measurements were performed in accordance with ISO 9869 during three time periods with the resulting U-values (1,269±0,276 W/m2·K; 1,025±0,175 W/m2·K; 1,200±0,212 W/m2·K that do not differ from each other within experimental uncertainty. Furthermore, the correlation of the measured U-values and meteorological conditions that prevailed during the measurements was analyzed. In the second measurement period, the average values of the total cloud cover and low cloud cover were less, and the average duration of sunshine was longer than in the other two measurement periods.

  5. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bange, Jens

    2012-01-01

    measurements of the wake and wake structure are not easy to come by, especially offshore. Very few measurement masts exist to verify our knowledge of atmospheric physics, and most of them are situated in quite homogeneous and gentle terrain. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used...... built a lighter-than-air kite with a long tether and nano-synchronised sensors, Bergen University flies the SUMO, a pusher airplane of 580g total weight equipped with a 100Hz Pitot tube, Tübingen University in conjunction with the TU Braunschweig flies the Carolo, a 2m wide two prop model with a 5-hole...

  6. Evolutionary Forecast Engines for Solar Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, C. F.

    2012-12-01

    A detailed comparison of non-stationary regression and stochastic learning methods based on k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) approaches is carried out in order to develop high-fidelity solar forecast engines for several time horizons of interest. A hybrid GA/ANN method emerges as the most robust stochastic learning candidate. The GA/ANN approach In general the following decisions need to be made when creating an ANN-based solar forecast model: the ANN architecture: number of layers, numbers of neurons per layer; the preprocessing scheme; the fraction and distribution between training and testing data, and the meteorological and radiometric inputs. ANNs are very well suited to handle multivariate forecasting models due to their overall flexibility and nonlinear pattern recognition abilities. However, the forecasting skill of ANNs depends on a new set of parameters to be optimized within the context of the forecast model, which is the selection of input variables that most directly impact the fidelity of the forecasts. In a data rich scenario where irradiation, meteorological, and cloud cover data are available, it is not always evident which variables to include in the model a priori. New variables can also arise from data preprocessing such as smoothing or spectral decomposition. One way to avoid time-consuming trial-and-error approaches that have limited chance to result in optimal ANN topology and input selection is to couple the ANN with some optimization algorithm that scans the solution space and "evolves" the ANN structure. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are well suited for this task. Results and Discussion The models built upon the historical data of 2009 and 2010 are applied to the 2011 data without modifications or retraining. We consider 3 solar variability seasons or periods, which are subsets of the total error evaluation data set. The 3 periods are defined based on the solar variability study as: - a high

  7. Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. D.; Aplin, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact, but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant, because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for Monet, Constable, and Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies. But to what extent does weather inspire composers? The authors of this presentation, who are atmospheric scientists by day but amateur classical musicians by night, have been contemplating this question. We have built a systematic musical database, which has allowed us to catalogue and analyze the frequencies with which weather is depicted in a sample of classical orchestral music. The depictions vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. We have found that composers are generally influenced by their own environment in the type of weather they choose to represent. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Reference: Aplin KL and Williams PD (2011) Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music. Weather, 66(11), pp 300-306. doi:10.1002/wea.765

  8. Study of meteorological aspects and urban concentration of SO2 in atmospheric environment of La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, Gustavo; Videla, Fabián; Almandos, J Reyna; Maronna, Ricardo; Schinca, Daniel

    2006-10-01

    This article presents and discusses SO(2) (ppbv) concentration measurements combined with meteorological data (mainly wind speed and direction) for a five-year campaign (1996 to 2000), in a site near an oil refinery plant close to the city of La Plata and surroundings (aprox. 740.000 inh.), considered one of the six most affected cities by air pollution in the country. Since there is no monitoring network in the area, the obtained results should be considered as medium term accumulated data that enables to determine trends by analyzing together gas concentrations and meteorological parameters. Preliminary characterization of the behaviour of the predominant winds of the region in relation with potential atmospheric gas pollutants from seasonal wind roses is possible to carry out from the data. These results are complemented with monthly averaged SO(2) measurements. In particular, for year 2000, pollutant roses were determined which enable predictions about contamination emission sources. As a general result we can state that there is a clear increase in annual SO(2) concentration and that the selected site should be considered as a key site for future survey monitoring network deployment. Annual SO(2) average concentration and prevailing seasonal winds determined in this work, together with the potential health impact of SO(2) reveals the need for a comprehensive and systematic study involving particulate matter an other basic pollutant gases.

  9. Environmental monitoring in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    This manual gives technical guidance on emergency monitoring procedures to those who would have to assess the situation after an accident leading to the uncontrolled release of radioactive substances to the environment. Its aim is to draw attention to the important factors that should be considered in formulating emergency plans. The seven annexes contain inventories of fission products and possible releases; dispersion, deposition and dose-exposure relationships for airborne releases; α-, β- and γ-radiation surveys; information on sample collection and field evaluation; and brief descriptions of the environmental monitoring procedures adopted in previous emergencies (Windscale 1957, AERE Harwell 1961 and NRTS Idaho 1961).

  10. The Gravity of the Situation

    OpenAIRE

    Scalettar, Joyce; Mathias, Theoren

    2014-01-01

    Summary: In The Gravity of the Situation, you play the role of a squirrel who is born into a tribe of squirrels. This tribe is gathering nuts for the winter when it is discovered that our newly born protagonist can create nuts out of thin air. The leaders of the tribe are ecstatic when they discover this, and quickly tell the squirrel to begin creating nuts for their food stock. The moment our young friend releases one of his magically crafted nuts, a huge well of gravity engulfs the acorn st...

  11. Japanese situations to emerging themes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji

    2011-01-01

    Japanese regulatory body has audited more than ten cases of licensee's RCA since December 2007. We approve of opinions to emerging themes in 'CSNI Activity Plan', and based on achievements of these audits, Japanese situations to emerging themes are explained. As our conclusion, the more experience to identify HOF licensees have, the more problems may be solved. But as CA is difficult to measure for effectiveness, we propose to develop the outcome indicators such as the frequency of events. (author)

  12. Developing the Model for the GIS Applications in National Hydro-Meteorological Service in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubacka, D.; Barszczynska, M.; Madej, P.

    2003-04-01

    historic data access. These layers are also sufficient for a hydro-meteorological situation visualisations suitable for the country and division maps. The existing data and thematic layers were used to develop an Internet service providing the information concerning the hydro-meteorological posts. It also allowed presenting the results of the numerical weather forecast model in the Internet. It is planned to perform the visualisation of the hydro-meteorological phenomena in the monthly IMWM bulletin.

  13. Tornado frequency in the USA - meteorological and non-meteorological factors of a downward trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Citing numerical simulations, climate alarmists believe that global warming will lead to more frequent and more intensive tornadoes. Considering temperature increase data in the contiguous USA, this study has investigated the trend of strong tornadoes in F3+ category in the 1954-2012 period. Statistically significant decrease of tornadoes per year at an average rate of 0.44 has been recorded, that is, 4.4 tornadoes per decade. Tornado increase has been recorded with F0 and F1 categories and the cause of this increase lies in meteorological and non-meteorological factors. By using upper and lower standard deviation values, the stages of tornado activity have been singled out. The 1957-1974 period may be considered as an active stage and the 1978-2009 period as an inactive stage. Upward trend of air temperature increase does not correspond with the downward trend of the number of F3+ tornado category, while the correlation coefficient between these two variables is R = −0.14. This fact does not correspond with the simulation results and output data of various numerical models anticipating an increase in the number and intensity of tornado events in the conditions of surface air temperature growth.

  14. [The layperson in emergency situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, Aline Maino; Araujo, Izilda Esmenia Muglia

    2008-12-01

    The layperson's qualification to provide early care in emergency situations and basic life support (BLS) is fundamental to save lives and prevent sequels. The objective was to identify the level of knowledge of lay people about approaching an emergency victim. Structured interviews in non-technical language were used with a 385-subject sample, average age 35.4 (+/- 14.55) years, with more than 50% having a high school or university education. Over 55% of these observed situations with loss of consciousness, but only 31% called for specialized help. 34% underwent a first-aid course, but only 13% feel prepared. The most often cited place of learning was the driving school (DS), 35.9%. Other training places were higher when compared to the DS (p = 0.048). Almost 17% do not know how to recognize the presence of vital signs. Almost 31% do not know the telephone number of the emergency service. Laypersons have incomplete or incorrect knowledge about care for unconscious victims.

  15. The German power supply situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, K.

    2005-01-01

    The first key statement of this paper runs like this: The situation of power supply in Germany basically is good. However, two qualifications should be added: The current situation is still good. Power outages as a consequence of power plant failures of the kind experienced in other countries must not be expected to occur in Germany. German utilities work hard to offer this assurance also for the future. This is where politics comes in with the need to guarantee reliable framework conditions. After deregulation of the electricity market, reregulation resulting from government interventions is becoming potentially more and more problematic. Energy issues remain at the top of the political agenda, e.g. with the amendment to the Power Economy Act. This is a matter involving a variety of questions and projects on the part of legislators which require delicate handling because, in addition to the prices to be paid by consumers, they also involve as the most important factor the continuity of supply. Nuclear power today covers a major part of our baseload supply, in addition to lignite and hard coal which are used mainly in the medium-load range. Supported by the findings of recent studies, such as the dena Study, the Prognos and EWI Energy Report, the problem is how to replace this share reliably, in a way protecting the climate and economically viable, in line with the political conditions stipulating residual electricity outputs of nuclear power plants. Other countries can be seen to pursue different policies in using nuclear power. (orig.)

  16. Prevailing hyperglycemia is critical in the regulation of glucose metabolism during exercise in poorly controlled alloxan-diabetic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Michael J; Rantzau, Christian; McConell, Glenn; Kemp, Bruce E; Alford, Frank P

    2005-03-01

    The separate impacts of the chronic diabetic state and the prevailing hyperglycemia on plasma substrates and hormones, in vivo glucose turnover, and ex vivo skeletal muscle (SkM) during exercise were examined in the same six dogs before alloxan-induced diabetes (prealloxan) and after 4-5 wk of poorly controlled hyperglycemic diabetes (HGD) in the absence and presence of approximately 300-min phlorizin-induced (glycosuria mediated) normoglycemia (NGD). For each treatment state, the approximately 15-h-fasted dog underwent a primed continuous 150-min infusion of [3-(3)H]glucose, followed by a 30-min treadmill exercise test (approximately 65% maximal oxygen capacity), with SkM biopsies taken from the thigh (vastus lateralis) before and after exercise. In the HGD and NGD states, preexercise hepatic glucose production rose by 130 and 160%, and the metabolic clearance rate of glucose (MCRg) fell by 70 and 37%, respectively, compared with the corresponding prealloxan state, but the rates of glucose uptake into peripheral tissues (Rd(tissue)) and total glycolysis (GF) were unchanged, despite an increased availability of plasma free fatty acid in the NGD state. Exercise-induced increments in hepatic glucose production, Rd(tissue), and plasma-derived GF were severely blunted by approximately 30-50% in the NGD state, but increments in MCRg remained markedly reduced by approximately 70-75% in both diabetic states. SkM intracellular glucose concentrations were significantly elevated only in the HGD state. Although Rd(tissue) during exercise in the diabetic states correlated positively with preexercise plasma glucose and insulin and GF and negatively with preexercise plasma free fatty acid, stepwise regression analysis revealed that an individual's preexercise glucose and GF accounted for 88% of Rd(tissue) during exercise. In conclusion, the prevailing hyperglycemia in poorly controlled diabetes is critical in maintaining a sufficient supply of plasma glucose for SkM glucose

  17. Constructing catalogue of temporal situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Constructing catalogue of temporal situations The paper is aiming to create a common basis for description, comparing, and analysis natural languages. As a subject of comparison we have chosen temporal structures of some languages. For such a choice there exists a perfect tool, describing basic temporal phenomena, namely an ordering of states and events in time, certainty and uncertainty, independency of histories of separate objects, necessity and possibility. This tool is supported by the Petri nets formalism, which seems to be well suited for expressing the above mentioned phenomena. Petri nets are built form three primitive notions: of states, of events that begin or end the states, and so-called flow relation indicating succession of states and events. This simple constituents give rise to many possibilities of representing temporal phenomena; it turns out that such representations are sufficient for many (clearly, not necessarily all temporal situations appearing in natural languages. In description formalisms used till now there is no possibility of expressing such reality phenomena as temporal dependencies in compound statement, or combination of temporality and modality. Moreover, using these formalisms one cannot distinguish between two different sources of uncertainty of the speaker while describing the reality: one, due to the lack of knowledge of the speaker what is going on in outside world, the second, due to objective impossibility of foreseen ways in which some conflict situations will be (or already have been resolved. Petri net formalism seems to be perfectly suited for such differentiations. There are two main description principles that encompassed this paper. First, that assigns meaning to names of grammatical structures in different languages may lead to misunderstanding. Two grammatical structures with apparently close names may describe different reality. Additionally, some grammatical terms used in one language may be

  18. Meteorological effects on the incidence of pneumococcal bacteremia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Thomsen, Reimar W.

    perform an 8-year longitudinal population-based ecological study in a Danish county to examine whether foregoing changes in meteorological parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and wind velocity, predicted variations in pneumococcal bacteremia (PB) incidence....

  19. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    . However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent uncertainties......The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario...... of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological obser-vations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observa-tional data, an ensemble of meteorological forecasts is produced...

  20. CLPX-Ground: ISA Corner Site Meteorological Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains meteorological observations at 36 sites throughout the Small Regional Study Area (SRSA) of the NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment...

  1. CAMEX-3 DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-3 Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) aboard the NASA DC-8 consists of three major systems: an air-motion sensing system to measure air velocity with...

  2. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) - Space Weather Sensors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) maintains a constellation of sun-synchronous, near-polar orbiting satellites. The orbital period is 101 minutes...

  3. PHOENIX MARS METEOROLOGICAL PRESSURE / TEMPERATURE RDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The PHX METEOROLOGICAL DATA product contains calibrated temperature and pressure data. The temperature data was collected at 250, 500 and 1000mm above the Phoenix...

  4. Meteorological Data from the Russian Arctic, 1961-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains monthly means of meteorological observation data from Russian stations from 1961-2000 (for most stations). The Russian station observations...

  5. ISLSCP II Reanalysis Near-Surface Meteorology Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set for the ISLSCP Initiative II data collection provides near surface meteorological variables, fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum at the surface, and...

  6. ISLSCP II Reanalysis Near-Surface Meteorology Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set for the ISLSCP Initiative II data collection provides near surface meteorological variables, fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum at the...

  7. Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) Daily Snow Depth Analysis Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of Northern Hemisphere snow depth analysis data processed by the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC). Snow depth data obtained from surface...

  8. Arctic Sea Ice Charts from Danish Meteorological Institute, 1893 - 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1893 to 1956, the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) created charts of observed and inferred sea ice extent for each summer month. These charts are based on...

  9. CLPX-Ground: ISA Corner Site Meteorological Data, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains meteorological observations at 36 sites throughout the Small Regional Study Area (SRSA) of the NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment...

  10. CLPX-Ground: ISA Main Meteorological Data, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains meteorological observations at ten sites throughout the Small Regional Study Area (SRSA) of the Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX) in...

  11. Environmental Working Group Arctic Meteorology and Climate Atlas, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Arctic Meteorology and Climate Atlas was developed by specialists from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), St. Petersburg, Russia, the University...

  12. NAMMA DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA DC-8 Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) dataset used the MMS, which consists of three major systems: an air-motion sensing system to measure air...

  13. CAMEX-4 DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA DC-8 Meteorological Measurement System consists of three major systems: an air-motion sensing system to measure air velocity with respect to the aircraft,...

  14. CAMEX-3 DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-3 Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) dataset consists of atmospheric parameters measured by the MMS instruments aboard NASA DC-8 aircraft. The MMS...

  15. CAMEX-4 DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 DC-8 Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) was collected by the MMS, which consists of three major systems: an air-motion sensing system to measure air...

  16. Meteorology and electric power demand; Variabili meteorologici e fabbisogno elettrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonelli, P. [CESI Rubattino, Milan (Italy); Starita, S. [Associazione Ingegneri per l' Ambiente e il Territorio, Partecipazione a iniziative di terzi, Milan (Italy)

    2001-06-01

    A predictable correlation between electric power demand and meteorology variation is analyzed. [Italian] Esiste una correlazione prevedibile tra l'anadamento del fabbisogno elettrico e le variabili meteorologiche.

  17. Variability of surface meteorological parameters over the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Fernandes, A.A.

    The trends and periodicities of surface meteorological parameters (sea surface temperature, air temperature, cloudiness, wind speed and sea level pressure) over the western, central, eastern and southern Arabian Sea regions are studied...

  18. ISLSCP II ECMWF Near-Surface Meteorology Parameters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set for the ISLSCP Initiative II data collection provides meteorology data with fixed, monthly, monthly-6-hourly, 6-hourly, and 3-hourly temporal...

  19. ISLSCP II ECMWF Near-Surface Meteorology Parameters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set for the ISLSCP Initiative II data collection provides meteorology data with fixed, monthly, monthly-6-hourly, 6-hourly, and 3-hourly temporal...

  20. Analysis of meteorology and emission in haze episode prevalence over mountain-bounded region for early warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Leelasakultum, Ketsiri

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the main causes of haze episodes in the northwestern Thailand to provide early warning and prediction. In an absence of emission input data required for chemical transport modeling to predict the haze, the climatological approach in combination with statistical analysis was used. An automatic meteorological classification scheme was developed using regional meteorological station data of 8years (2001-2008) which classified the prevailing synoptic patterns over Northern Thailand into 4 patterns. Pattern 2, occurring with high frequency in March, was found to associate with the highest levels of 24h PM(10) in Chiangmai, the largest city in Northern Thailand. Typical features of this pattern were the dominance of thermal lows over India, Western China and Northern Thailand with hot, dry and stagnant air in Northern Thailand. March 2007, the month with the most severe haze episode in Chiangmai, was found to have a high frequency of occurrence of pattern 2 coupled with the highest emission intensities from biomass open burning. Backward trajectories showed that, on haze episode days, air masses passed over the region of dense biomass fire hotspots before arriving at Chiangmai. A stepwise regression model was developed to predict 24h PM(10) for days of meteorology pattern 2 using February-April data of 2007-2009 and tested with 2004-2010 data. The model performed satisfactorily for the model development dataset (R(2)=87%) and test dataset (R(2)=81%), which appeared to be superior over a simple persistence regression of 24h PM(10) (R(2)=76%). Our developed model had an accuracy over 90% for the categorical forecast of PM(10)>120μg/m(3). The episode warning procedure would identify synoptic pattern 2 and predict 24h PM(10) in Chiangmai 24h in advance. This approach would be applicable for air pollution episode management in other areas with complex terrain where similar conditions exist. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Minicomputer Capabilities Related to Meteorological Aspects of Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rarnsdell, J. V.; Athey, G. F.; Ballinger, M. Y.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the NRC staff involved in reviewing licensee emergency response plans with background information on the capabilities of minicomputer systems that are related to the collection and dissemination of meteorological infonmation. The treatment of meteorological information by organizations with existing emergency response capabilities is described, and the capabilities, reliability and availability of minicomputers and minicomputer systems are discussed.

  2. Meteorological fluid dynamics asymptotic modelling, stability and chaotic atmospheric motion

    CERN Document Server

    Zeytounian, Radyadour K

    1991-01-01

    The author considers meteorology as a part of fluid dynamics. He tries to derive the properties of atmospheric flows from a rational analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations, at the same time analyzing various types of initial and boundary problems. This approach to simulate nature by models from fluid dynamics will be of interest to both scientists and students of physics and theoretical meteorology.

  3. Comparison of satellite orbit ephemerides for use in GPS meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Kačmařík, Michal; Skřivánková, Pavla

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses GPS (Global Position System) meteorology. The research presented is based on a comparison of values of precipitable water vapour PWV, based on GPS measurements using final and predicted ephemerides of satellite orbits. We analysed recent year’s improvement in predicting ephemerides. We compared the data outputs from a radiosonde using GPS receiver measurements directly from the meteorological station from which the radiosondes were launched. The results indicate a high qu...

  4. Analisis Penjalaran Kekeringan Meteorologi Menuju Kekeringan Hidrologi pada DAS Larona

    OpenAIRE

    Purnamasari, Ika; Pawitan, Hidayat; Renggono, Findy

    2017-01-01

    Hydrological drought is water deficit from normal conditions on the hydrological system. Hydrological drought occurs through a complex process preceded by a rainfall deficit. The series of processes that show a change of drought signals through the hydrological cycle is expressed as drought propagation. This study aims to identify the characteristics of hydrological and meteorological drought and to identify meteorological drought propagation to hydrological drought through Larona Watershade....

  5. Development of regional meteorological and atmospheric diffusion simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Iwashige, Kengo; Kasano, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    Regional atmospheric diffusion online network (RADON) with atmospheric diffusion analysis code (ADAC) : a simulation program of diffusion of radioactive materials, volcanic ash, pollen, NOx and SOx was developed. This system can be executed in personal computer (PC) and note PC on Windows. Emission data consists of online, offline and default data. It uses the meteorology data sources such as meteorological forecasting mesh data, automated meteorological data acquisition system (AMeDAS) data, meteorological observation data in site and municipality observation data. The meteorological forecasting mesh data shows forecasting value of temperature, wind speed, wind direction and humidity in about two days. The nuclear environmental monitoring center retains the online data (meteorological data, emission source data, monitoring station data) in its PC server and can run forecasting or repeating calculation using these data and store and print out the calculation results. About 30 emission materials can be calculated simultaneously. This system can simulate a series of weather from the past and real time to the future. (S.Y.)

  6. Latin American Network of students in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Ramirez, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Latin American Network of Students in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology (RedLAtM) is a civil nonprofit organization, organized by students from Mexico and some Latin- American countries. As a growing organization, providing human resources in the field of meteorology at regional level, the RedLAtM seeks to be a Latin American organization who helps the development of education and research in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology in order to engage and promote the integration of young people towards a common and imminent future: Facing the still unstudied various weather and climate events occurring in Latin America. The RedLAtM emerges from the analysis and observation/realization of a limited connection between Latin American countries around research in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology. The importance of its creation is based in cooperation, linking, research and development in Latin America and Mexico, in other words, to join efforts and stablish a regional scientific integration who leads to technological progress in the area of Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology. As ultimate goal the RedLAtM pursuit to develop climatic and meteorological services for those countries unable to have their own programs, as well as projects linked with the governments of Latin American countries and private companies for the improvement of prevention strategies, research and decision making. All this conducing to enhance the quality of life of its inhabitants facing problems such as poverty and inequality.

  7. Modulation of Metabolism and Switching to Biofilm Prevail over Exopolysaccharide Production in the Response of Rhizobium alamii to Cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schue, Mathieu; Fekete, Agnes; Ortet, Philippe; Brutesco, Catherine; Heulin, Thierry; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Achouak, Wafa; Santaella, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd2+) affect microbial metabolic processes. Consequently, bacteria adapt by adjusting their cellular machinery. We have investigated the dose-dependent growth effects of Cd2+ on Rhizobium alamii, an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bacterium that forms a biofilm on plant roots. Adsorption isotherms show that the EPS of R. alamii binds cadmium in competition with calcium. A metabonomics approach based on ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry has showed that cadmium alters mainly the bacterial metabolism in pathways implying sugars, purine, phosphate, calcium signalling and cell respiration. We determined the influence of EPS on the bacterium response to cadmium, using a mutant of R. alamii impaired in EPS production (MSΔGT). Cadmium dose-dependent effects on the bacterial growth were not significantly different between the R. alamii wild type (wt) and MSΔGT strains. Although cadmium did not modify the quantity of EPS isolated from R. alamii, it triggered the formation of biofilm vs planktonic cells, both by R. alamii wt and by MSΔGT. Thus, it appears that cadmium toxicity could be managed by switching to a biofilm way of life, rather than producing EPS. We conclude that modulations of the bacterial metabolism and switching to biofilms prevails in the adaptation of R. alamii to cadmium. These results are original with regard to the conventional role attributed to EPS in a biofilm matrix, and the bacterial response to cadmium. PMID:22096497

  8. Will the New Gnosticism prevail? Remarks on Synthetic Biology, Nanotechnologies and Genetic Manipulation facing the Century of the Big Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Riechmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Technological utopianism seduces many people, from the very origins of Western modernity –remember Francis Bacon’s island of Bensalem in his New Atlantis–, with the temptation of complete mastery over nature (which includes human immortality. Today, the prevailing mentality in the West, which tends to become a universal worldview, has much in common with the beliefs of the ancient Gnostics. According to this mindset, science and technology can allow the human mind to escape the limitations that characterize its natural state, releasing the anchor to biological stuff and escaping the human condition. In short, we would become gods –gods thought of as Immortal Super-Engineers. We must resist these destructive illusions and delusions, which means: technical rationality has to make his own critique of utopian reason (in the sense of Franz Hinkelammert. Without this self-criticism, a judicious use of techniques and technologies will be out of reach –and they do have an enormous potential for improving the human condition–, while avoiding –if it were still possible– the exterminist, nihilistic and suicidal drift of industrial civilization.

  9. When It's Okay That I Don't Play: Social Norms and the Situated Construal of Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudert, Selma C; Greifeneder, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    Being excluded and ignored has been shown to threaten fundamental human needs and cause pain. Such reflexive reactions to social exclusion have been conceptualized as direct and unmoderated (temporal need threat model of ostracism). Here, we propose an extension and argue that reflexive reactions depend on how social exclusion situations are construed. If being excluded is understood as a violation of an inclusion norm, individuals will react with pain and threat. In contrast, if being excluded is consistent with the prevailing norm, the exclusion situation is interpreted as less threatening, and negative reflexive reactions to ostracism should be attenuated. Four studies empirically support this conceptual model. Studies 3 and 4 further show that to guide situated construal, the norm has to be endorsed by the individual. In both Studies 1 and 3, the effect of the norm is mediated by the objective situation's subjective construal. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  10. Environmental management as situated practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar; Krause, Franz; Hartmann, Niklas Klaus

    2015-01-01

    to be assessed, or as simply the implementation of dominant projects and the materialisation of hegemonic discourse. Such a shift renders EM as always messy practices of engagement, critique and improvisation. We conclude that studying the distributed and situated managing agencies, actors and their practices......We propose an analysis of environmental management (EM) as work and as practical activity. This approach enables empirical studies of the diverse ways in which professionals, scientists, NGO staffers, and activists achieve the partial manageability of specific “environments”. In this introduction......, we sketch the debates in Human Geography, Management Studies, and Science and Technology Studies to which this special issue contributes. We identify the limits of understanding EM though the framework of ecological modernisation, and show how political ecology and work-place studies provide...

  11. VACCINES AND IMMUNIZATION: WORLD SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Brundtland

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The last issue of the report «vaccines and immunization: world situation» stresses considerable success in immunization at the global level since the mid 90 s — completely total eradication of poliomyelitis across the world, as well as the drastic reduction of the new measles and tetanus cases among mothers and newborns in some poor countries. The report also briefly describes the progress in the development and implementation of the new life saving vaccines, which may save millions of lives annually. The authors have explained some of the reasons, why the global community should invest in immunization, as well as the perspectives for the use of vaccines and immunization in future.Key words: vaccine, immunization, children.

  12. MeteoIO 2.4.2: a preprocessing library for meteorological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bavay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using numerical models which require large meteorological data sets is sometimes difficult and problems can often be traced back to the Input/Output functionality. Complex models are usually developed by the environmental sciences community with a focus on the core modelling issues. As a consequence, the I/O routines that are costly to properly implement are often error-prone, lacking flexibility and robustness. With the increasing use of such models in operational applications, this situation ceases to be simply uncomfortable and becomes a major issue. The MeteoIO library has been designed for the specific needs of numerical models that require meteorological data. The whole task of data preprocessing has been delegated to this library, namely retrieving, filtering and resampling the data if necessary as well as providing spatial interpolations and parameterizations. The focus has been to design an Application Programming Interface (API that (i provides a uniform interface to meteorological data in the models, (ii hides the complexity of the processing taking place, and (iii guarantees a robust behaviour in the case of format errors, erroneous or missing data. Moreover, in an operational context, this error handling should avoid unnecessary interruptions in the simulation process. A strong emphasis has been put on simplicity and modularity in order to make it extremely easy to support new data formats or protocols and to allow contributors with diverse backgrounds to participate. This library is also regularly evaluated for computing performance and further optimized where necessary. Finally, it is released under an Open Source license and is available at http://models.slf.ch/p/meteoio. This paper gives an overview of the MeteoIO library from the point of view of conceptual design, architecture, features and computational performance. A scientific evaluation of the produced results is not given here since the scientific algorithms that are used

  13. [Study on air quality and pollution meteorology conditions of Guangzhou during the 2010 Asian games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting-Yuan; Deng, Xue-Jiao; Fan, Shao-Jia; Wu, Dui; Li, Fei; Deng, Tao; Tan, Hao-Bo; Jiang, De-Hai

    2012-09-01

    Based on the monitoring data of NO2, O3, SO2, PM, visibility, regional air quality index (RAQI) and the atmospheric transport and diffusion data from Nov. 4, 2010 to Dec. 10, 2010 in Guangzhou area, the variations of air quality and meteorological conditions during the Guangzhou Asian Games were analyzed. It was found that, during the Asian Games, the air quality was better than the air quality before or after the Asian Games. The visibility was greater than the visibility before or after the Asian Games, while the concentrations of PM1 and PM2.5 were lower. The correlation coefficient between visibility and the concentrations of PM1, PM2.5 indicated anti-correlation relationships. Daily and hourly concentrations of NO2 and SO2 met the primary ambient air quality standards, whereas the daily concentration of PM10 and hourly concentration of O3 met the secondary ambient air quality standards. Pollutants had been well controlled during the Asian Games. The concentration of SO2 in Guangzhou was influenced by local sources and long distance transmission, while the concentration of NO2 was significantly influenced by local sources. The emissions of NO2, SO2 and PM10 surrounding Guangzhou had a trend to affect the concentrations in Guangzhou, but the situation of O3 was opposite, the relatively high concentration of O3 in Guangzhou had tendency to be transported to the surrounding areas. The pollution meteorology conditions in the period of Asian Games were better than the conditions before or after the Asian Games. The decrease in the concentrations during the Asian Games did not only benefit from the emission control by the government, but also from the good meteorological conditions.

  14. Comparison of the meteorology and surface energy fluxes of debris-free and debris-covered glaciers in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge of the meteorology and energy fluxes of debris-free and debris-covered glaciers is important for understanding the varying response of glaciers to climate change. Field measurements at the debris-free Parlung No. 4 Glacier and the debris-covered 24K Glacier in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau were carried out to compare the meteorology and surface energy fluxes and to understand the factors controlling the melting process. The meteorological comparisons displayed temporally synchronous fluctuations in air temperature, relative humidity, incoming longwave radiation (Lin), but notable differences in precipitation, incoming shortwave radiation (Sin) and wind speed. Under the prevailing regional precipitation and debris conditions, more Lin (42 W/m2) was supplied from warmer and more humid air and more Sin (58 W/m2) was absorbed at the 24K Glacier. The relatively high energy supply led mainly to an increased energy output via turbulent heat fluxes and outgoing longwave radiation, rather than glacier melting beneath the thick debris. The sensitivity experiment showed that melting rates were sensitive to variations in energy supply with debris thicknesses of less than 10 cm. In contrast, energy supply to the ablation zone of the Parlung No. 4 Glacier mainly resulted in snow/ice melting, the magnitude of which was significantly influenced by the energy supplied by Sin and the sensible heat flux.

  15. THE SYNOPTIC CONDITIONS AND THE CRITICAL LEVELS OF POLLUTION FOR SPECIFIC SITUATIONS IN BUCHAREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA-MARIANA MANOIU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The air in Bucharest is one of the most polluted in Europe and the most polluted in Romania. The purpose of our study is to present several particular situations where the maximum allowable concentrations of air pollutants (tracked by the local monitoring stations were exceeded, while also explaining the synoptic weather conditions which favoured theses outcomes. The study is based on the analysis and interpretation of the data provided by the Environmental Department of the Capital’s City Hall, the National Meteorology Administration and the Offenbach German Meteorological Service. Such studies can be used to avoid critical levels of pollution: knowing the synoptic weather overview favourable to pollutant stagnation on certain days, the City Hall could take measures to reduce or ban traffic during those hours or on those days, while also warning the sensitive categories of the population in order to avoid exposure to the high levels of pollutants.

  16. A Model for Situation and Threat Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steinberg, Alan

    2006-01-01

    .... The activity relates to levels 2 and 3 of the familiar JDL data fusion model. Level 2, Situation Assessment, involves such applications as scene understanding, force structure analysis and many other types of situational analysis...

  17. Situation Awareness with Systems of Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, P. van de; Tretmans, J.; Borth, M.

    2013-01-01

    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security. Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier

  18. Air pollution forecast in cities by an air pollution index highly correlated with meteorological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogliani, E.

    2001-01-01

    There are many different air pollution indexes which represent the global urban air pollution situation. The daily index studied here is also highly correlated with meteorological variables and this index is capable of identifying those variables that significantly affect the air pollution. The index is connected with attention levels of NO 2 , CO and O 3 concentrations. The attention levels are fixed by a law proposed by the Italian Ministries of Health and Environment. The relation of that index with some meteorological variables is analysed by the linear multiple partial correlation statistical method. Florence, Milan and Vicence were selected to show the correlation among the air pollution index and the daily thermic excursion, the previous day's air pollution index and the wind speed. During the January-March period the correlation coefficient reaches 0.85 at Milan. The deterministic methods of forecasting air pollution concentrations show very high evaluation errors and are applied on limited areas around the observation stations, as opposed to the whole urban areas. The global air pollution, instead of the concentrations at specific observation stations, allows the evaluation of the level of the sanitary risk regarding the whole urban population. (Author)

  19. Configuring the HYSPLIT Model for National Weather Service Forecast Office and Spaceflight Meteorology Group Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Joseph; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian; Van Speybroeck, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    The National Weather Service Forecast Office in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) is responsible for providing meteorological support to state and county emergency management agencies across East Central Florida in the event of incidents involving the significant release of harmful chemicals, radiation, and smoke from fires and/or toxic plumes into the atmosphere. NWS MLB uses the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to provide trajectory, concentration, and deposition guidance during such events. Accurate and timely guidance is critical for decision makers charged with protecting the health and well-being of populations at risk. Information that can describe the geographic extent of areas possibly affected by a hazardous release, as well as to indicate locations of primary concern, offer better opportunity for prompt and decisive action. In addition, forecasters at the NWS Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have expressed interest in using the HYSPLIT model to assist with Weather Flight Rules during Space Shuttle landing operations. In particular, SMG would provide low and mid-level HYSPLIT trajectory forecasts for cumulus clouds associated with smoke plumes, and high-level trajectory forecasts for thunderstorm anvils. Another potential benefit for both NWS MLB and SMG is using the HYSPLIT model concentration and deposition guidance in fog situations.

  20. Worst case meteorological scenario for Norway in case of hypothetical accident related to recovery of the Russian submarine K-27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartnicki, J.; Klein, H. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway); Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Aas (Norway); Amundsen, I.; Hosseini, A. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway); Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Aas (Norway); Haakenstad, H. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway); Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway); Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Aas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    This study is a part of a comprehensive Norwegian project led by Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority assessing risks related to a potential salvaging and decommissioning of the Russian nuclear submarine, K-27. In September 1981, the K-27 submarine was scuttled at shallow waters in the outer part of Stepovogo Bay, situated at the north-eastern coast of Novaya Zemlya. One of the scenarios that are included in the assessment is the lifting of the submarine to the surface and the subsequent transport to the Murmansk area for decommissioning. Thus, the risk of a criticality accident as a consequence of lifting and transport event cannot be ignored. A hypothetical accident might pose a serious threat to Norwegian territories and has to be considered from different perspectives. Here, we focus on the worst case meteorological scenario for Norway, but the same approach can be applied for other Scandinavian countries and Russia. As a first step, a large database with meteorological data has been prepared for the period of thirty years (1980-2010). These meteorological data are available in the 1000 km x 1000 km domain which includes both the entire Norwegian territory and the region of Novaya Zemlya. The spatial resolution of the meteorological data is 11 km and temporal 3 hours. The vertical structure includes 40 layers. The most important meteorological elements are the 3-D velocity field, the surface precipitation field and the 3-D temperature field. The second step is the development of the source terms for potential accidents which can be used by the dispersion model SNAP (Severe Nuclear Accident Program). Three locations for potential accidents with subsequent releases of radioactivity to the environment are assumed: 1) at the present location of K-27, 2) transport on the route to Murmansk and 3) in the Murmansk region. In the third step, the SNAP model will be run with meteorological data starting every 6. hour of each day during the 30 years period. As a result

  1. Heart rate and respiratory rate influence on heart rate variability repeatability: effects of the correction for the prevailing heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Sławomir Gąsior

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since heart rate variability (HRV is associated with average heart rate (HR and respiratory rate (RespRate, alterations in these parameters may impose changes in HRV. Hence the repeatability of HRV measurements may be affected by differences in HR and RespRate. The study aimed to evaluate HRV repeatability and its association with changes in HR and RespRate.Methods: Forty healthy volunteers underwent two ECG examinations seven days apart. Standard HRV indices were calculated from 5-min ECG recordings. The ECG-derived respiration signal was estimated to assess RespRate. To investigate HR impact on HRV, HRV parameters were corrected for prevailing HR. Results: Differences in HRV parameters between the measurements were associated with the changes in HR and RespRate. However, in multiple regression analysis only HR alteration proved to be independent determinant of the HRV differences – every change in HR by 1 bpm changed HRV values by 16.5% on average. After overall removal of HR impact on HRV, coefficients of variation of the HRV parameters significantly dropped on average by 26.8% (p < 0.001, i.e. by the same extent HRV reproducibility improved. Additionally, the HRV correction for HR decreased association between RespRate and HRV. Conclusions: In stable conditions, HR but not RespRate is the most powerful factor determining HRV reproducibility and even a minimal change of HR may considerably alter HRV. However, the removal of HR impact may significantly improve HRV repeatability. The association between HRV and RespRate seems to be, at least in part, HR dependent.

  2. Epidemiological and molecular characterization of community and hospital acquired Staphylococcus aureus strains prevailing in Shenyang, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Dan Sun

    curtail the spread of those MRSA and MSSA clones prevailing both in hospital and the community.

  3. Crisis Situations in Engineering Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muenzberg, Christopher; Hammer, Jens; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Crisis situations are special situations during the development process. They are characterized by time and handling pressure. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and apply a methodical problem solving approach to overcome these situations. Due to their prescriptive character, problem solving ...... and experts. Result of this research is a situation specific approach for crises. The evaluated methods are clustered considering the main steps of problem solving. Results indicate that TRIZ methods support especially the idea generation process with structured and detailed approaches....

  4. Surface and upper air meteorological features during onset phase of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Over the Bay of Bengal higher negative (air to sea) values of sensible flux prevailed before the monsoon onset which became less negative with the advance of monsoon over that region. The pre-onset period was characterized by large sea surface temperature (SST) gradient over the Arabian Sea with rapid decrease ...

  5. Extreme values of meteorological parameters observed at Kalpakkam during the period 1968-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagurunathan, M.R.; Chandresekharan, E.; Rajan, M.P.; Gurg, R.P.

    2001-05-01

    In the design phase of engineering structures, an understanding of extreme weather conditions that may occur at the site of interest is very essential, so that the structures can be designed to withstand climatological stresses during its life time. In this report an analysis of extreme values of meteorological parameters at Kalpakkam for the period 1968-99, which provide an insight into such situations is described. The extreme value analysis reveals that all the variables obey Fisher-Tippet Type-I extreme value distribution function. Parameter values of extreme value analysis functions are presented for the variables studied and the 50- and 100- year return period extreme values are arrived at. Frequency distribution of rainfall parameters is investigated. Time series of annual rainfall data suggests a cycle of 2-3 years period. (author)

  6. Recent situation of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarized recent situation of food irradiation from July 2002 to June 2003. The Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for Radiation Processing of Food were revised by 26th CAC, 2003. The maximum absorbed dose delivered to a food should not exceed 10 kGy, except when necessary to achieve a legitimate technological purpose. Guidelines for the Use of Irradiation as a Phytosanitary Measure were carried by 5th Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM) in April 2003. The Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) permitted irradiation of eight kinds of foods. Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) in EU published Revision of the Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on the irradiation of food. In United States, the amount of irradiated beef is increasing. To keep safety of our foods in today's changing environment, Parliament in Japan passed the Food Safety Basic Law in May, 2003. Under the law, the Japanese government promotes several key food safety policies. (S.Y.)

  7. Present health situation in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominicus, D A; Todoriki, H; Akamatsu, T; Gunshin, H

    1990-02-01

    This article discusses the present health situation in Tanzania, however, health system before independence, the colonial health system, has been the foundation on which the present health services in Tanzania are built upon. The population growth in Tanzania is high (3.2% in 1986), and projected to be 3.7% by the year 2,000. This high growth explains why it is difficult to achieve health objectives on the long term basis. Compounded to this is the economical crisis in the country. Child population in Tanzania account for about 47% of the total population in 1986. Maternal and Child Health Care services (MCHC) are discussed, with much emphasis on the child health care problems, and different programmes involved in improving child health care in the country. Problems of poor environmental sanitation are discussed including possible solutions for Tanzania. Tanzania, in this article, is urged to strengthen the existing health services in terms of staff, drugs, other supplies and equipment in order to give adequate health care to its people. Tanzania should also balance the distribution of resources between urban and rural so as to comply with the objective of the national health policy of comprehensive basic health services equitably to all within the limited available resources and to be able to reach the ultimate goal of health for all the people in the country by the year 2,000.

  8. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1999, Part -2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1999-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. Since April 15 1997 meteorology measurements, data acquisition and processing are done by automated meteorology station. The meteorology bulletin for the Vinca Institute is completed every day by computer codes developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute [sr

  9. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 2000, Part 2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    2000-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. Since April 15, 1997 meteorology measurements, data acquisition and processing are done by automated meteorology station. The meteorology bulletin for the Vinca Institute is completed every day by computer codes developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute [sr

  10. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1998, Part -2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1998-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. Since April 15 1997 meteorology measurements, data acquisition and processing are done by automated meteorology station. The meteorology bulletin for the Vinca Institute is completed every day by computer codes developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute [sr

  11. Spatio-temporal variability of vertical gradients of major meteorological observations around the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Wang, L.; Tian, L.

    2015-12-01

    The near-surface air temperature lapse rate (TLR), wind speed gradient (WSG), and precipitation gradient (PG) provide crucial parameters used in models of mountain climate and hydrology. The complex mountain terrain and vast area of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) make such factors particularly important. With daily data from 161 meteorological stations over the past 43 years (1970-2012), we analyse the spatio-temporal variations of TLRs, WSGs, and PGs over and around TP, derived using linear regression methods and dividing the study area into zones based on spatial variations. Results of this study include: (1) The observed TLR varies from -0.46 to -0.73 ∘C (100 m) -1, with averaged TLRs of -0.60,-0.62, and -0.59 ∘C (100 m) -1 for Tmax, Tmin,and Tmean , respectively. The averaged TLR is slightly less than the global mean of -0.65 ∘C (100 m) -1 . The spatial variability of TLR relates to climate conditions, wherein the TLR increases in dry conditions and in cold months (October-April), while it lessens in humid regions and during warm months (May-September). (2) The estimated annual WSG ranges from 0.07 to 0.17m s -1 (100 m) -1. Monthly WSGs show a marked seasonal shift, in which higher WSGs can be explained by the high intensity of prevailing wind. (3) Positive summer PGs vary from 12.08 in the central TP to 26.14 mm (100 m) -1 in northeastern Qinghai and the southern TP, but a reverse gradient prevails in Yunnan and parts of Sichuan Province. (4) The regional warming over TP is more evident in winter, and Tmin demonstrated the most prominent warming compared with Tmax and Tmean. Environments at high elevations experience more rapid changes in temperatures (Tmax, Tmin,and Tmean) than those at low elevations, which is especially true in winter and for Tmin. Furthermore, inter-annual variation of TLRs is linked to elevation-dependent warming.

  12. Meteorological uncertainty of atmospheric dispersion model results (MUD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havskov Soerensen, J.; Amstrup, B.; Feddersen, H.

    2013-08-01

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario. However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for long-range atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble of meteorological forecasts is produced from which uncertainties in the various meteorological parameters are estimated, e.g. probabilities for rain. Corresponding ensembles of atmospheric dispersion can now be computed from which uncertainties of predicted radionuclide concentration and deposition patterns can be derived. (Author)

  13. Nonlinear Partial Least Squares for Consistency Analysis of Meteorological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Meng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the different types of error and the nonlinearity of the meteorological measurement, this paper proposes a nonlinear partial least squares method for consistency analysis of meteorological data. For a meteorological element from one automated weather station, the proposed method builds the prediction model based on the corresponding meteorological elements of other surrounding automated weather stations to determine the abnormality of the measured values. For the proposed method, the latent variables of the independent variables and the dependent variables are extracted by the partial least squares (PLS, and then they are, respectively, used as the inputs and outputs of neural network to build the nonlinear internal model of PLS. The proposed method can deal with the limitation of traditional nonlinear PLS whose inner model is the fixed quadratic function or the spline function. Two typical neural networks are used in the proposed method, and they are the back propagation neural network and the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. Moreover, the experiments are performed on the real data from the atmospheric observation equipment operation monitoring system of Shaanxi Province of China. The experimental results verify that the nonlinear PLS with the internal model of ANFIS has higher effectiveness and could realize the consistency analysis of meteorological data correctly.

  14. Obtaining meteorological data from historical newspapers: La Integridad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-González, Ignacio A.; Añel, Juan A.; Saenz, Guadalupe; Gimeno, Luis; de la Torre, Laura; Polychroniadou, Eleni; Vidal-Mina, Renán

    2017-04-01

    The meteorological data recovery from old documentary sources is of huge significance for meteorological and weather research of our planet. In this work we present the meteorological series from the end of XIX century and the beginning of the XX at the A Guarda's Observatory, pioneer in Galicia in this kind of measurements and located in that time at "Colexio Xesuita Apóstol Santiago". The data series was obtained from meteorological notes of the catholic newspaper "La Integridad" published in that dates in Tui(Galicia). It was revised in total for this study more than 1000 newspapers from this publication and it was manually retrieved about 60000 individual measurements. Recovered variables include temperature, pressure, wind, relative humidity, vapor pressure, evaporation, precipitation and overview weather observations. This enables us to get a general picture of weather for this period of time in the studied region, to validate and to complete others independent data sources and study climate change. Also we prove the reliability of meteorological forecasts published from time to time in the same journal using sea level pressure fields from historical datasets provided by the MetOffice.

  15. Influence of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation measurements: insights from field and laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Sandro M.; Pietsch, Helga; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Rieder, Harald E.

    2016-04-01

    that precipitation (as simulated by spray-tests or observed under ambient conditions) significantly affects the thermal environment of the instruments and thus their stability. Statistical analyses during nighttime conditions showed that precipitation triggers zero offsets of 4 W/m2 or more, depending on the HV-system and prevailing ambient conditions (i.e., air temperature, wind), indicating a clear exceedance of BSRN targets. References: McArthur L. J. B.: World Climate Research Programme-Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) - Operations Manual Version 2.1, Experimental Studies Division, Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario, Canada, 2005. Olefs M., Baumgartner D. J., Obleitner F., Bichler C., Foelsche U., Pietsch H., Rieder H. E., Weihs P., Geyer F., Haiden T., Schöner W.: The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions, 8: 10663-10710, 2015. Ohmura A., Dutton E. G., Forgan B., Frohlich C., Gilgen H., Hegner H., Heimo A., Stephens G. L., König-Langlo G., McArthur B., Müller G., Philipona R., Pinker R., Whitlock C. H., Dehne K., Wild M.: Baseline surface radiation network (bsrn/wcrp): new precision radiometry for climate research, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79(10): 2115-2136, 1998.

  16. Extreme situations due to gender violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Meneghel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of the third Critical Paths Seminar, held in Porto Alegre/Brazil in 2011, whose focus was extreme situations of gender violence. The extreme situations are human rights violations that include femicide or murder motivated by the situation of gender; LGBT murders, human rights violations of ethnic and racial minorities, sexual exploitation, violence to women in vulnerable situations and other violence caused by gender. The meeting objective was given space to share experiences, reflect critically and build strategies for facing violence and extreme situations resulting from gender systems.

  17. Sharing Space Situational Awareness Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, D.

    2010-09-01

    The Commander, United States Strategic Command (CDRUSSTRATCOM) accepted responsibility for sharing space situational awareness (SSA) information/services with commercial & foreign entities from the US Air Force on 22 Dec 09 (formerly the Commercial & Foreign Entities Pilot Program). The requirement to share SSA services with non-US Government (USG) entities is derived from Title 10, United States Code, Section 2274 (2010) and is consistent with the new National Space Policy. US Strategic Command’s (USSTRATCOM’s) sharing of SSA services consists of basic services (Two-Line Elements, decay data and satellite catalog details) available on www.space-track.org and advanced services (conjunction assessment, launch support, etc) available with a signed agreement. USSTRATCOM has requested USG permission to enter into international agreements to enable SSA data exchange with our foreign partners. USSTRATCOM recently authorized Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC SPACE) to share Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs) with satellite owner/operators whose satellites have been identified as closely approaching another space object. CSMs contain vector and covariance data computed using Special Perturbations theory. To facilitate the utility of the CSMs, USSTRATCOM has and is hosting CSM Workshops to ensure satellite operators fully understand the data contained in the CSM in order to provide an informed recommendation to their leadership. As JFCC SPACE matures its ability to accept ephemeris data from a satellite operator, it will be necessary to automatically transfer that data from one security level to another. USSTRATCOM and Air Force Space Command are coordinating the integration of a cross domain solution that will allow JFCC SPACE to do just that. Finally, USSTRATCOM is also working with commercial and governmental organizations to develop an internationally-accepted conjunction assessment message. The United States Government (USG), specifically the

  18. Prevailing of sensitive blood driving to AIDS/HIV. Provincial Blood Bank of Sancti Spíritus. 2007-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Quesada Concepción

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of blood transfusions are one of the ways of transmitting the immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS/HIV; it constitutes warriness from the epidemiological point of view. A descriptive research was done with the objective of determining the prevailing of sensitive blood driving AIDS/HIV in the Provincial Blood Bank from Sancti Spíritus from January 1 st , 2007 to December 31 st, 2008. The sample was conformed by 312 donants with positive diagnosis to AIDS/HIV. Some variables were used such as prevailing, age, sex, race, home town. The scores of higher prevailing to AIDS/HIV were shown by the male sex (4,42, the 26-33 year old group (1,55; it prevailing volunteer blood driving (81,0 % , and Sancti Spíritus municipality gave more cases (27,5% .Just because sensibility to tests based on antibody, that is why it is important the constant checking of all processes that guarantee blood driving to be sired.

  19. The blue skies in Beijing during APEC 2014: A quantitative assessment of emission control efficiency and meteorological influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongli; He, Jing; Guo, Jianping; Miao, Yucong; Yin, Jinfang; Wang, Yuan; Xu, Hui; Liu, Huan; Yan, Yan; Li, Yuan; Zhai, Panmao

    2017-10-01

    and geographic dependence in the emission control efficiency. The emission control measures and meteorology, however, alternated to dominate the absolute reduction of PM2.5 concentrations. When the weather conditions are unfavorable, emission control measures outperformed meteorology with a reduction of 55.3-59.4 μg/m3 in urban area of Beijing and 32.5-33 μg/m3 in Huairou. Conversely, when the northwesterly winds prevailed, meteorology tends to outweigh the role of emission control in accounting for the drop of PM2.5. The atmospheric dilution conditions are determined through the model calculation of the mass inflow of PM2.5 per unit volume near the surface. Our findings have significant implications for effective planning and implementation of emission control measures.

  20. 60 years of UK visibility measurements: impact of meteorology and atmospheric pollutants on visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Bloss, William J.; Pope, Francis D.

    2017-02-01

    Reduced visibility is an indicator of poor air quality. Moreover, degradation in visibility can be hazardous to human safety; for example, low visibility can lead to road, rail, sea and air accidents. In this paper, we explore the combined influence of atmospheric aerosol particle and gas characteristics, and meteorology, on long-term visibility. We use visibility data from eight meteorological stations, situated in the UK, which have been running since the 1950s. The site locations include urban, rural and marine environments. Most stations show a long-term trend of increasing visibility, which is indicative of reductions in air pollution, especially in urban areas. Additionally, the visibility at all sites shows a very clear dependence on relative humidity, indicating the importance of aerosol hygroscopicity on the ability of aerosol particles to scatter radiation. The dependence of visibility on other meteorological parameters, such as wind speed and wind direction, is also investigated. Most stations show long-term increases in temperature which can be ascribed to climate change, land-use changes (e.g. urban heat island effects) or a combination of both; the observed effect is greatest in urban areas. The impact of this temperature change upon local relative humidity is discussed. To explain the long-term visibility trends and their dependence on meteorological conditions, the measured data were fitted to a newly developed light-extinction model to generate predictions of historic aerosol and gas scattering and absorbing properties. In general, an excellent fit was achieved between measured and modelled visibility for all eight sites. The model incorporates parameterizations of aerosol hygroscopicity, particle concentration, particle scattering, and particle and gas absorption. This new model should be applicable and is easily transferrable to other data sets worldwide. Hence, historical visibility data can be used to assess trends in aerosol particle

  1. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    ’ dispersion scenario. However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for long-range atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent......The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the ‘most likely...... uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble...

  2. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the Daeduk nuclear complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Woo; Lee, Young Bok; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae

    1994-01-01

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done with DAS (data aquisition system) updating. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity at 67m, 27m, and 10m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. Wireless data transmission to MIPS (Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where enviromental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. The meteorological data as the result of this project had been used to report 'Environmental Impact Assessment of the Korean Multi-purpose Research Reactor' and S ite Selection of Meteorological Tower and Environment Impact Assessment of the Cooling Tower of the Korean Multi-purpose Research Reactor . (Author)

  3. The Meteorological Monitoring program at a former nuclear weapons plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, D.R.; Bowen, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Meteorological Monitoring program at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is to provide meteorological information for use in assessing the transport, and diffusion, and deposition of effluent actually or potentially released into the atmosphere by plant operations. Achievement of this objective aids in protecting health and safety of the public, employees, and environment, and directly supports Emergency Response programs at RFP. Meteorological information supports the design of environmental monitoring networks for impact assessments, environmental surveillance activities, remediation activities, and emergency responses. As the mission of the plant changes from production of nuclear weapons parts to environmental cleanup and economic development, smaller releases resulting from remediation activities become more likely. These possible releases could result from airborne fugitive dust, evaporation from collection ponds, or grass fires

  4. Prevailing of ischemia cardiopathy, demonstrated by gammagraphy in less than 40 years old persons and its association with risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano G, M.A.; Castillo M, L.; Orea T, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Coronary Arterial Illness (EAC) is the first cause of death of those Mexicans. Among their numerous risk factors it highlights the age with more bias starting from the 45 years. The objective of this investigation was to determine the prevailing of ischemic cardiopathy (Cl) and heart attack to the myocardium (IAM) in fellows smaller than 40 years and to identify risk factors. The study of myocardial perfusion (EPM) it is a non invasive study and of great sensibility and specificity that it allows to detect obstructive coronary lesions. The used method was retrospective-traverse Study in 125 patients smaller than 40 years. Files of patients to who EPM had been practiced with Technetium 99m-SESTAMlBI, protocol of one day, were revised, where its were analyzed the short and long axis (vertical and horizontal). General data, somatometry, emotional profile analysis, lipids and glucose profiles were gathered. Results. The population conformed it 53% women and 47% men with average of 31.9 year-old age of corporal mass index (IMC) 25.1 kg/cm 2 . 46% of abnormal studies was obtained, of which 35% was compatible with ischemic cardiopathy (Cl) and 11% with heart attack to the myocardium (IAM). The characteristics of these were: age 31.6±6 Vs 32.6±5.9 years; IMC 25.4±7.0 Vs 24.4±3.34 kg/cm 2 ; stature 161.6±9.8 Vs 165.5±9.7cm; TAS 139.1±29.2 Vs. 115±13.4 mm Hg, TAD 84.5±17.4 Vs. 75±9.4 mm Hg; civil state married 65.5% (p=0.005) Vs single 57%; bigger depression 32% Vs anxiety 28%, in the group of patients with Cl and IAM, respectively. In the IAM population it was found an additional IRC 21% (p=0.030), HAS 21% (p=0.025) and drug addiction 21% (p=0.002). The rest of the results didn't show significant differences. Conclusion: Only 6.5% of the patients that went to EPM- 99m Tc-SESTAMIBl in a 6 year-old lapse, were smaller than 40 years. 71% of them was referred by prechordal pain in who almost the half it was evidenced Cl or IAM. In this investigation besides the

  5. Photon Optimizer (PO) prevails over Progressive Resolution Optimizer (PRO) for VMAT planning with or without knowledge-based solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Wu, Hao; Yue, Haizhen; Jia, Fei; Zhang, Yibao

    2017-03-01

    increased monitor units were associated with the model-generated objectives but independent from the optimizers, indicating higher modulation in these plans. As a summary, PO prevails over PRO algorithm for VMAT planning with or without knowledge-based technique. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. Wind power variations under humid and arid meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şen, Zekâi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • It indicates the role of weather parameters’ roles in the wind energy calculation. • Meteorological variables are more significant in arid regions for wind power. • It provides opportunity to take into consideration air density variability. • Wind power is presented in terms of the wind speed, temperature and pressure. - Abstract: The classical wind power per rotor area per time is given as the half product of the air density by third power of the wind velocity. This approach adopts the standard air density as constant (1.23 g/cm 3 ), which ignores the density dependence on air temperature and pressure. Weather conditions are not taken into consideration except the variations in wind velocity. In general, increase in pressure and decrease in temperature cause increase in the wind power generation. The rate of increase in the pressure has less effect on the wind power as compared with the temperature rate. This paper provides the wind power formulation based on three meteorological variables as the wind velocity, air temperature and air pressure. Furthermore, from the meteorology point of view any change in the wind power is expressed as a function of partial changes in these meteorological variables. Additionally, weather conditions in humid and arid regions differ from each other, and it is interesting to see possible differences between the two regions. The application of the methodology is presented for two meteorology stations in Istanbul, Turkey, as representative of the humid regions and Al-Madinah Al-Monawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, for arid region, both on daily record bases for 2010. It is found that consideration of air temperature and pressure in the average wind power calculation gives about 1.3% decrease in Istanbul, whereas it is about 13.7% in Al-Madinah Al-Monawwarah. Hence, consideration of meteorological variables in wind power calculations becomes more significant in arid regions

  7. Coupling meteorological and hydrological models for flood forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholmes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of analysing the coupling of meteorological meso-scale quantitative precipitation forecasts with distributed rainfall-runoff models to extend the forecasting horizon. Traditionally, semi-distributed rainfall-runoff models have been used for real time flood forecasting. More recently, increased computer capabilities allow the utilisation of distributed hydrological models with mesh sizes from tenths of metres to a few kilometres. On the other hand, meteorological models, providing the quantitative precipitation forecast, tend to produce average values on meshes ranging from slightly less than 10 to 200 kilometres. Therefore, to improve the quality of flood forecasts, the effects of coupling the meteorological and the hydrological models at different scales were analysed. A distributed hydrological model (TOPKAPI was developed and calibrated using a 1x1 km mesh for the case of the river Po closed at Ponte Spessa (catchment area c. 37000 km2. The model was then coupled with several other European meteorological models ranging from the Limited Area Models (provided by DMI and DWD with resolutions from 0.0625° * 0.0625°, to the ECMWF ensemble predictions with a resolution of 1.85° * 1.85°. Interesting results, describing the coupled model behaviour, are available for a meteorological extreme event in Northern Italy (Nov. 1994. The results demonstrate the poor reliability of the quantitative precipitation forecasts produced by meteorological models presently available; this is not resolved using the Ensemble Forecasting technique, when compared with results obtainable with measured rainfall.

  8. Towards A Grid Infrastructure For Hydro-Meteorological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schiffers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorological Study (DRIHMS is a coordinatedaction co-funded by the European Commission. DRIHMS analyzes the main issuesthat arise when designing and setting up a pan-European Grid-based e-Infrastructure for researchactivities in the hydrologic and meteorological fields. The main outcome of the projectis represented first by a set of Grid usage patterns to support innovative hydro-meteorologicalresearch activities, and second by the implications that such patterns define for a dedicatedGrid infrastructure and the respective Grid architecture.

  9. History of the meteorological observatory of the University of Debrecen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Szegedi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Debrecen was among the first cities in Hungarywhere meteorological observatories wereestablished, although the weather station of ourUniversity was put into operation 80 years ago,Meteorological observations have a much longerhistory in the city.An amateur meteorologist, Károly Tamássy, whowas a pharmacist by profession, had carried out thefirst instrumental observations in the city between1854 and 1869 [3]. His Observatory was situatednear the center of Debrecen. His observations weresent to the Weather Center in Vienna, from wherehe got instructions for the measurements. Hisoriginal weather registers can be found in thearchives of the Hungarian Weather Service.

  10. Meteorological data assimilation for real-time emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, G.; Chan, S.T.

    1996-11-01

    The US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) provides real-time dose assessments of airborne pollutant releases. Diverse data assimilation techniques are required to meet the needs of a new generation of ARAC models and to take advantage of the rapidly expanding availability of meteorological data. We are developing a hierarchy of algorithms to provide gridded meteorological fields which can be used to drive dispersion codes or to provide initial fields for mesoscale models. Data to be processed include winds, temperature, moisture, and turbulence

  11. Multivariate analysis between air pollutants and meteorological variables in Seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Lim, J.

    2005-01-01

    Multivariate analysis was conducted to analyze the relationship between air pollutants and meteorological variables measured in Seoul from January 1 to December 31, 1999. The first principal component showed the contrast effect between O 3 and the other pollutants. The second principal component showed the contrast effect between CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 , PM 10 , TSP. Based on the cluster analysis, three clusters represented different air pollution levels, seasonal characteristics of air pollutants, and meteorological conditions. Discriminant analysis with air environment index (AEI) was carried out to develop an air pollution index function. (orig.)

  12. Meteorological buoy measurements in the Iceland Sea, 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nína Petersen, Guðrún

    2017-10-01

    The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) conducted meteorological buoy measurements in the central Iceland Sea in the time period 2007-2009, specifically in the northern Dreki area on the southern segment of the Jan Mayen Ridge. Due to difficulties in deployment and operations, in situ measurements in this region are sparse. Here the buoy, deployment and measurements are described with the aim of giving a future user of the data set information that is as comprehensive as possible. The data set has been quality-checked, suspect data removed and the data set made publicly available from PANGAEA Data Publisher (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.876206).

  13. Application of meteorology to safety at nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    This report was prepared on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency by an international panel of experts who met at the Agency's headquarters from 10 to 14 April 1967. The application of meteorology to safety at nuclear plants is discussed in connection with site selection, design and construction, operation, and emergency planning and action. The final chapter considers the training to be given to operators and health and safety personnel on meteorology problems. The appendix gives a simple method for computing air concentration values at ground level. An extensive bibliography is also included.

  14. Kaiseraugst nuclear power station: meteorological effects of the cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Considerations of water conservation persuaded the German Government in 1971 not to allow the use of the Aar and Rhine for direct cooling of nuclear power stations. The criticism is often made that the Kaiseraugst cooling towers were built without full consideration of the resulting meteorological effects. The criticism is considered unjustified because the Federal Cooling Tower Commission considered all the relevant aspects before making its recommendations in 1972. Test results and other considerations show that the effect of the kaiseraugst cooling towers on meteorological and climatic conditions is indeed minimal and details are given. (P.G.R.)

  15. Situational Language Teaching in Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus F.M. Huang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Situational language teaching (SLT is an effective instruction paradigm for English teaching in terms of providing vocabularies and sentence patterns with their frequent situations through learning materials. With the growth of educational technology, we need powerful and suitable techniques to embody SLT’s features in ubiquitous learning (u-learning and thus to benefit teachers and learners. Although researchers have proposed several innovative types of u-learning scenarios, the improved SLT paradigm in u-learning environment has been rarely investigated. This study indicated a framework of ubiquitous learning school to promote the concept of u-learning and employ SLT pedagogy in u-learning environment; it is called U-SLT. In order to support its innovation and provide situational learning services on demand, situational mashups was suggested to identify learners’ situation and learning requirement by means of integrating situation awareness with service mashups. The comparison between two u-learning modes, learning with situational mashups and learning without situation awareness support, were discussed. Experimental results showed that the students with the situational mashups support had a better learning performance and improved behaviours. Therefore, situational mashups was perceived to be a useful and desirable system for supporting U-SLT as well as the fundamental issue of a ubiquitous learning school.

  16. A Study of User's Acceptance on Situational Mashups in Situational Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Angus F. M.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Liaw, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Situational awareness and mashups are two key factors influencing the success of situational language teaching. However, traditional situational language teaching cannot smoothly conduct relevant learning activities in changing learning context. This study developed a situational mashups system for detecting users' context and proposed a research…

  17. Situative Space Tracking within Smart Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surie, Dipak; Jäckel, Florian; Janlert, Lars-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes our efforts in modeling and tracking a human agent’s situation based on his/her possibilities to perceive and act upon objects (both physical and virtual) within smart environments. A Situative Space Model is proposed. WLAN signal-strength-based situative space tracking syste......-laboratory smart home environment where a global precision of 83.4% and a global recall of 88.6% were obtained.......This paper describes our efforts in modeling and tracking a human agent’s situation based on his/her possibilities to perceive and act upon objects (both physical and virtual) within smart environments. A Situative Space Model is proposed. WLAN signal-strength-based situative space tracking system...

  18. Reconsideration of the simulated work task situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia; Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2010-01-01

    The present paper reports on the initial study and the preliminary findings of how the concept of simulated work task situation is reported used in the research literature. The overall objective of the study is in a systematic manner to learn how and for what types of evaluations the concept...... is applied. In particular we are interested to learn whether the recommendations for how to apply simulated work task situations are followed. The preliminary findings indicate a need for clarifications of the recommendations of how to use simulated work task situations. Particularly with respect to ‘realism......’ of the simulated work task situations, which is emphasised through the need for tailoring of the simulated work task situations towards the group of study participant to ensure the depicted situations are realistic and interesting from the participants’ point of view. Likewise it seems that the recommendation...

  19. Managing and engineering in complex situations

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa-Poza, Andres

    2013-01-01

    With so many terms available to define the same thing, it would seem nearly irresponsible to introduce yet another term (complex situation) to describe a phenomenological state of such as a system. However, a complex situation infers both a broader meaning and imposes a different perspective. Complex in this context is dependent on understanding and reality rather than observer and knowledge.   Situation imposes a gestalt that cannot be characterized within a singular perspective that relegates paradox to a superior/subordinate hierarchy. This also infers that complex situation has no monotonic definition or each definition is by default incomplete. Therefore the perennial derivations for systems such as complex systems, system of systems, federation of systems is no longer a sufficient descriptor for complex situation.  Ergo system and its genealogy lack the constitution to define complex situations. The books' intent is to explore this pathology through a series of papers written by authors that work in ...

  20. The surface oxidation kinetics of zirconium-niobium alloys and aα-Fe with prevailing cubical texture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhambetov, D.G.; Kargin, D.B.; Chalaya, O. V.; Berber, N.N.

    2002-01-01

    It is known, that the kinetics of oxidation of zirconium at formed heating is characterized by two consecutive stages. At the initial stage the thin protecting film will be derived. The relation of its depth from time h (t) is described predominantly by parabolic law. Some time later there can be a transition to the linear law of oxidation. The time moment divided these areas on the kinetic relation is called as a point of break. The film is formed at the second stage, has a developed grid of pores or cracks, can be flake away and be crumbled by losing its protective properties. At the oxidation of the surface shells of the heat generating elements and the technological channels of atomic boilers both stages are proceeded simultaneously. This phenomenon is called modular corrosion. Its consequences can be dangerous for the equipment. Its mechanism is not clear till now. Similar dependencies h(t), with the break point, beginning from which the thin film is transformed into the thick one were found by us at the oxidation α-Fe with prevailing cubical texture. The task of the work was to study the oxide film growth laws in order to clarify the mechanisms of transition of the thin film into the oxide layer on the α-Fe surface and Zr-Nb alloy modular corrosion emergence. Low-carbonate steel with contents 99.43 % of α-Fe was used as a model object of our research. In the texture of the steel surface planar direction [100] was prevalent. Its part accounted for about 40 %. The isothermal air oxidation was carried out in the interval of 450-500 deg. C . Phase composition of the film was determined with X-ray diffraction. The mathematical treatment of the dependencies h(t) obtained by experiment showed that the kinetics of the film growth can be conditionally divided into 4-stages. The initial stage is described by function logarithmic function, the other stages - by the power mode h n =A n ·t, namely, the second stage - is described by function close to cubical (n≅3

  1. Situated Cognition and Strategies for Meaningful Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Díaz Barriga Arceo

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the principles underlying situated cognition linked to the Vygotskian sociocultural perspective, which state that situated cognition is both a part and the result of activity, context and culture. It highlights the importance of mediation, the joint construction of meaning and the mechanism of adapted assistance. There are examples of instructional approaches which vary in cultural relevance and the type of social activity they elicit. It also presents a number of meaningful learning strategies based on situated experiential teaching (authentic problem solving, learning while in service, case studies, projects, situated simulation, among others. Finally, the paper deals with the potentiality of empowerment.

  2. Handling of emergency situations: organization and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.

    1975-01-01

    Sources of exposure and foreseeable types of accidents; responsibilities for the prevention and control of accidents; organization for controlling emergency situations; emergency control plans. (HP) [de

  3. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. This powerful technology will also find...

  4. Effects of meteorological factors on the incidence of meningococcal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Substantial climate changes have led to the emergence and re-emergence of various infectious diseases worldwide, presenting an imperative need to explore the effects of meteorological factors on serious contagious disease incidences such as that of meningococcal meningitis (MCM).

  5. ANALISIS PENJALARAN KEKERINGAN METEOROLOGI MENUJU KEKERINGAN HIDROLOGI PADA DAS LARONA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Purnamasari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological drought is water deficit from normal conditions on the hydrological system. Hydrological drought occurs through a complex process preceded by a rainfall deficit. The series of processes that show a change of drought signals through the hydrological cycle is expressed as drought propagation. This study aims to identify the characteristics of hydrological and meteorological drought and to identify meteorological drought propagation to hydrological drought through Larona Watershade. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI is used as indicator to identify meteorological drought while hydrological drought is characterised by Standardised Streamflow Index (SSI with 1, 3, 6 and 12 months accumulation periods. Propagation meteorological drought to hydrological drought was analyzed using Pearson correlation. The results showed that duration and severity escalate by the increase in the accumulation period SPI and SSI. While the number of drought events is inversely proportional to the accumulation period SPI and SSI. Althought the number of hydrological drought events was fewer, but they occurred over longer duration and much severe than the meterological one. Severe hydrological drought (SSI 1 = -14.8 in 1997-1998 has declined water storage of Lake Towuti by 90% leading to reduction in Larona hydropower production. Furthermore, our findings provide promising approach to detect hydrological drought that may occur in the near future.

  6. Influence of the Meteorology Mast on a Cup Anemometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin O. L.; Pedersen, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    The actuator disc model is applied on lattice-type meteorological masts to estimate the influence of the tower on the accuracy of the measured wind speed. Combining the results with corrections for the boom, on which the anemometer is mounted, good agreement is found for measurements made...

  7. sorghum yield and associated satellite-derived meteorological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    a relationship between sorghum yield and meteorological parameters (measured and satellite-derived). Sorghum. (Sorghum bicolor) ... Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Satellite Rainfall Estimates (RFEs) data from Famine Early Warning Systems. Network .... project raster image and either seasonal NDVI or seasonal RFEs ...

  8. HYDROLOGY-METEOROLOGY FIELD OF STUDY – CHANCES FOR LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANDI G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Geographical teaching has a long tradition in Cluj-Napoca. There are many fields of study at the Faculty of Geography from Cluj-Napoca, which has separated from a larger faculty in 1994, such is Hydrology – Meteorology. It first appeared in 2006, and already has five generations of students. The enquiry made at eight institutions between 1972 and 2013 shows that students’ penetration inside meteorological and hydrological institutions was a good one. A big part of these students come from the Geography field of study, which has a long tradition, and from the new field – Hydro-Meteorology. It can be observed a pronounced increase of employment since 1999. The biggest chances in obtaining a job in this field appear three years after the graduation. Many specialists finished their Geography studies after obtaining the job. Most of our students work as hydrologist or meteorologist, but also in other jobs, a great number belonging to those working in leadership positions. From this enquiry it can be observed that the field of Hydrology – Meteorology was an appropriate one, succeeding to fulfil its purpose.

  9. Site-specific meteorology identification for DOE facility accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabin, S.B.

    1995-09-01

    Currently, chemical dispersion calculations performed for safety analysis of DOE facilities assume a Pasquill D-Stability Class with a 4.5 m/s windspeed. These meteorological conditions are assumed to conservatively address the source term generation mechanism as well as the dispersion mechanism thereby resulting in a net conservative downwind consequence. While choosing this Stability Class / Windspeed combination may result in an overall conservative consequence, the level of conservative can not be quantified. The intent of this paper is to document a methodology which incorporates site-specific meteorology to determine a quantifiable consequence of a chemical release. A five-year meteorological database, appropriate for the facility location, is utilized for these chemical consequence calculations, and is consistent with the approach used for radiological releases. The hourly averages of meteorological conditions have been binned into 21 groups for the chemical consequence calculations. These 21 cases each have a probability of occurrence based on the number of times each case has occurred over the five year sampling period. A code has been developed which automates the running of all the cases with a commercially available air modeling code. The 21 cases are sorted by concentration. A concentration may be selected by the user for a quantified level of conservatism. The methodology presented is intended to improve the technical accuracy and defensability of Chemical Source Term / Dispersion Safety Analysis work. The result improves the quality of safety analyses products without significantly increasing the cost.

  10. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report First Quarter FY-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Labert, Winifred; Jonathan Case; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the First Quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (October - December 2003). Tasks reviewed are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast, (2) Mesonet Temperature and Wind Climatology, (3) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid and (4) Anvil Transparency Relationship to Radar Reflectivity

  11. The impact of meteorology on ozone in Houston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, B.K. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Davis, J.M.; Nychka, D. [National Institute of Statistical Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper compares the results from both a one-stage hierarchical clustering technique (average linkage) and a two-stage technique (average linkage then k-means) as part of an objective meteorological Classification scheme designed to better elucidate ozone`s dependence on meteorology in the Houston, Texas, area. When applied to twelve years of meteorological data (1981-1992), each technique identified seven statistically distinct meteorological regimes, the majority of which exhibited significantly different daily 1-hour maximum ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations. While both clustering approaches proved successful, the two-stage approach did appear superior in terms of better segregation of the mean O{sub 3}, concentrations. Both approaches indicated that the largest mean daily one-hour maximum concentrations are associated with migrating anticyclones and not with the quasi-permanent Bermuda High that often dominates the southeastern United States during the summer. As a result, maximum ozone concentrations are just as likely during the months of April, May, September and October as they are during the summer months. These findings support and help explain the unique O{sub 3}, climatology experienced by the Houston area.

  12. Meteorological fields variability over the Indian seas in pre and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the possible linkage between summer monsoon rainfall over India and surface meteorological fields (basic fields and heat budget components) over monsoon region (30° E-120°E, 30°S-30°N) during the pre-monsoon month of May and summer monsoon season (June to September) are examined. For this ...

  13. design, construction and evaluation of a meteorological mobile mast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vincent

    gathering meteorological information through the use of radiosondes [3]. Earlier measurements of wind and air pressure were done by launching balloons which climb through the denser air close to the earth to the thinner air in the upper atmosphere and the instruments carried collect data about wind in the different layers ...

  14. Using routine meteorological data to derive sky conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagès

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Sky condition is a matter of interest for public and weather predictors as part of weather analyses. In this study, we apply a method that uses total solar radiation and other meteorological data recorded by an automatic station for deriving an estimation of the sky condition. The impetus of this work is the intention of the Catalan Meteorological Service (SMC to provide the public with real-time information about the sky condition. The methodology for deriving sky conditions from meteorological records is based on a supervised classification technique called maximum likelihood method. In this technique we first need to define features which are derived from measured variables. Second, we must decide which sky conditions are intended to be distinguished. Some analyses have led us to use four sky conditions: (a cloudless or almost cloudless sky, (b scattered clouds, (c mostly cloudy – high clouds, (d overcast – low clouds. An additional case, which may be treated separately, corresponds to precipitation (rain or snow. The main features for estimating sky conditions are, as expected, solar radiation and its temporal variability. The accuracy of this method of guessing sky conditions compared with human observations is around 70% when applied to four sites in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula. The agreement increases if we take into account the uncertainty both in the automatic classifier and in visual observations.Key words. Meteorological and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques; radiative processes – Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry

  15. Predicting Near-Surface Meteorological Variations over Different Vegetation Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutjes, R.W.A.; Klaassen, W.; Kruijt, B.; Veen, A.W.L.

    1991-01-01

    Meteorological conditions close to a surface are strongly influenced by the properties of the surface itself. As a result, input data for models calculating evaporation of surfaces differing from the measurement site need to be transformed. A transformation scheme proposed previously is tested on

  16. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Robert C.; Hogrefe, Christian; Godowitch, James M.; Napelenok, Sergey; Mathur, Rohit; Rao, S. Trivikrama

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is important to understand how uncertainties in these inputs affect the simulated concentrations. Ensembles are one method to explore how uncertainty in meteorology affects air pollution concentrations. Most studies explore this uncertainty by running different meteorological models or the same model with different physics options and in some cases combinations of different meteorological and air quality models. While these have been shown to be useful techniques in some cases, we present a technique that leverages the initial condition perturbations of a weather forecast ensemble, namely, the Short-Range Ensemble Forecast system to drive the four-dimensional data assimilation in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with a key focus being the response of ozone chemistry and transport. Results confirm that a sizable spread in WRF solutions, including common weather variables of temperature, wind, boundary layer depth, clouds, and radiation, can cause a relatively large range of ozone-mixing ratios. Pollutant transport can be altered by hundreds of kilometers over several days. Ozone-mixing ratios of the ensemble can vary as much as 10-20 ppb or 20-30% in areas that typically have higher pollution levels.

  17. Evaluation of meteorological and epidemiological characteristics of fatal pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törő, Klára; Pongrácz, Rita; Bartholy, Judit; Váradi-T, Aletta; Marcsa, Boglárka; Szilágyi, Brigitta; Lovas, Attila; Dunay, György; Sótonyi, Péter

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify risk factors among epidemiological factors and meteorological conditions in connection with fatal pulmonary embolism. Information was collected from forensic autopsy records in sudden unexpected death cases where pulmonary embolism was the exact cause of death between 2001 and 2010 in Budapest. Meteorological parameters were detected during the investigated period. Gender, age, manner of death, cause of death, place of death, post-mortem pathomorphological changes and daily meteorological conditions (i.e. daily mean temperature and atmospheric pressure) were examined. We detected that the number of registered pulmonary embolism (No 467, 211 male) follows power law in time regardless of the manner of death. We first described that the number of registered fatal pulmonary embolism up to the nth day can be expressed as Y( n) = α ṡ n β where Y denotes the number of fatal pulmonary embolisms up to the nth day and α > 0 and β > 1 are model parameters. We found that there is a definite link between the cold temperature and the increasing incidence of fatal pulmonary embolism. Cold temperature and the change of air pressure appear to be predisposing factors for fatal pulmonary embolism. Meteorological parameters should have provided additional information about the predisposing factors of thromboembolism.

  18. Design, construction and evaluation of a meteorological mobile mast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 30 metre meteorological mobile mast has been designed and constructed for upper air profile measurements. The parameters to be measured are wind speed, wind direction, temperature and relative humidity. The sensors for each parameter to be measured are constructed with locally available materials.

  19. Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editor-in-Chief - Dr. K. O. Ogunjobi, Federal University of Technology, Akure Associate Editor - Dr. G. C. Ufoegbune, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Member - Dr. E. A. Afiesimama, Nigerian Meteorological Agency, Abuja Member - Dr. B. J. Abiodun, University of Cape Town, South Africa Member - Prof. N. J. Bello, Univ.

  20. Meteorology and Wind Energy Department annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Madsen, P.; Dannemand Andersen, P.; Skrumsager, B. [eds.

    1997-07-01

    In 1996 the Meteorology and Wind Energy Department has performed research within the programme areas: (1) wind energy and (2) atmospheric processes. The objectives are through research in boundary layer meteorology, fluid dynamics, aerodynamics and structural mechanics to contribute with new knowledge within (1) wind energy in relation to development, manufacturing, operation and export as well as testing and certification of wind turbines, and (2) aspects of boundary-layer meteorology related to environmental and energy problems of society. The work is supported by the research programs of the Ministry of Environment and Energy, the Nordic Council of Ministers, EU as well as by industry. Through our research and development work we develop and provide methodologies including computer models for use by industry, institutions, and governmental authorities. In the long view we are developing facilities and programs enabling us to serve as a national and European centre for wind-energy and boundary-layer meteorological research. A summary of our activities in 1996 is presented. (au) 4 tabs., 5 ills.

  1. Probabilistic analysis of hydrological drought characteristics using meteorological drought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, G.; Lanen, van H.A.J.; Torfs, P.J.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Droughts are an inevitable consequence of climate variability and are pervasive across many regions. Their effects can vary on an extensive scale, depending on the type of drought and people’s vulnerability. Crucial characteristics of both hydrological (groundwater, streamflow) and meteorological

  2. Meteorological tower design for severe weather and remote locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Elder; Ilkoo Angutikjuak; Jessica Baker; Matt Belford; Tom Bennett; Karl Birkeland; Daniel Bowker; Doug Chabot; April Cheuvront; Mark Dixon; Dylan Elder; Lee Elder; Shari Gearheard; Greg Giedt; Kim Grant; Sam Green; Ethan Greene; Nick Houfek; Caleb Huntington; Henry Huntington; Thomas Huntington; Daniel Janigian; Crane Johnson; Glen Liston; Rob Maris; Andrea Marsh; Hans-Peter Marshall; Aidan Meiners; Alex Meiners; Theo Meiners; Limakee Palluq; Josh Pope; Esa Qillaq; Joelli Sanguya; Sam Sehnert; Ron Simenhois; Banning Starr; Roger Tyler

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a robust meteorological tower for deployment in locations with extreme conditions and for applications that require relatively maintenance-free structures. The basic design consists of a triangular base with two horizontal rails on each side, and uprights at the triangle vertices for various instrument configurations. The fabrication materials include...

  3. Seasonal variation of meteorological factors on air parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impacts of gas flaring on meteorological factors at Ibeno, Eket, Onna, Esit Eket and Umudike - Nigeria were investigated by measuring air quality parameters. The results show that the mean concentration of air parameters value were below Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) and United States ...

  4. Seasonal variation of meteorological factors on air parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The impacts of gas flaring on meteorological factors at Ibeno, Eket, Onna, Esit Eket and Umudike -. Nigeria were investigated by measuring air quality parameters. The results show that the mean concentration of air parameters value were below Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) and. United States ...

  5. Agro-meteorological early warning to reduce agricultural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-22

    Agro-meteorological early warning to reduce agricultural vulnerability to climate change: The experiences of PARBCC in Benin. April 22, 2016. Image. In Benin, extreme climate variability has threatened the food security of rural populations, with agricultural yields declining and crop losses increasing due to extreme ...

  6. Design of extensible meteorological data acquisition system based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Liu, Yin-hua; Zhang, Hui-jun; Li, Xiao-hui

    2015-02-01

    In order to compensate the tropospheric refraction error generated in the process of satellite navigation and positioning. Temperature, humidity and air pressure had to be used in concerned models to calculate the value of this error. While FPGA XC6SLX16 was used as the core processor, the integrated silicon pressure sensor MPX4115A and digital temperature-humidity sensor SHT75 are used as the basic meteorological parameter detection devices. The core processer was used to control the real-time sampling of ADC AD7608 and to acquire the serial output data of SHT75. The data was stored in the BRAM of XC6SLX16 and used to generate standard meteorological parameters in NEMA format. The whole design was based on Altium hardware platform and ISE software platform. The system was described in the VHDL language and schematic diagram to realize the correct detection of temperature, humidity, air pressure. The 8-channel synchronous sampling characteristics of AD7608 and programmable external resources of FPGA laid the foundation for the increasing of analog or digital meteorological element signal. The designed meteorological data acquisition system featured low cost, high performance, multiple expansions.

  7. Changes in meteorological parameters in Nigeria by different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The annual mean solar indices of MgII core to core wing ratio, solar flux 10.7 cm and sunspot number over an eleven (11) year period, 2000 – 2010, were correlated with the annual mean rainfall, maximum temperature, relati-ve humidity, cloud cover and wind speed of 8 meteorological stations in Nigeria. Correlation ...

  8. Meteorological influences on the transmission of traffic noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerkerken, A.; Wijk, H.J.L. van

    1979-01-01

    Under various meteorological conditions 170 sets of measurements have been made of sound from a straight motorway, propagated over flat open grassland. Each set consists of a reference measurement near the road and corresponding measurements at remote positions (at about 200 and 600 m, at one or two

  9. Mutual Coupling Between Meteorological Parameters and Secondary Microseisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Karel; Kalenda, Pavel; Rušajová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2013), s. 933-949 ISSN 1017-0839 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : secondary microseisms * meteorological elements * statistics Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.061, year: 2013 http://tao.cgu.org.tw/pdf/v246p933.pdf

  10. Agro-meteorological early warning to reduce agricultural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agro-meteorological early warning to reduce agricultural vulnerability to climate change: The experiences of PARBCC in Benin. 22 avril 2016. Image. In Benin, extreme climate ... Examen des SIG-P dans la gestion des ressources naturelles en Afrique. Une collection d'articles (ict4d article) rend compte de résultats de ...

  11. Impact of continental meteorology and atmospheric circulation in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 2. Impact of continental meteorology and atmospheric circulation in the modulation of Aerosol Optical Depth over the Arabian Sea. Sandhya K Nair S Sijikumar S S Prijith. Volume ... Keywords. Atmospheric aerosols; satellite remote sensing; Indian Ocean.

  12. Utilization of Agro-meteorological Services among Arable Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed arable crop farmers' utilization of agro-meteorological services in Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was employed for this study. Oyo State was stratified into rainforest and savannah. One local government each was randomly selected from each of the vegetation zones, which were ...

  13. Assessment of meteorological drought using SPI in West Azarbaijan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is the assessment of the characteristics such as intensity, frequency and duration of meteorological drought using SPI with 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months time scales in West Azarbaijan Province, Iran. The indices have been computed in various time scales for 38 gauging stations with 32 years record ...

  14. Thirty Years of Meteorological Education at a Historically Black University

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Loren D.; Reddy, R. S.; Liu, Heping; Williams, Quinton; Shoemake, John

    2013-01-01

    Since 1975, the Jackson State University Meteorology Program (JSUMP) has played a unique role in the preparation of minorities for careers in the atmospheric sciences. Through external partnerships, incorporation of undergraduate research, summer internships, and involvement in activities of the professional societies, the JSUMP has graduated…

  15. Correlation Of Meteorological Parameters And Dust Particles Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the spatial distribution of repirable and inhalable suspended particulate matters and the influence of meteorological factors on the pollutants captured in a rural community. The respirable and inhalable suspended particulate matters were captured at five different locations using Portable ...

  16. Meteorology--An Interdisciplinary Base for Science Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David C.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a freshman science program at Deerfield Academy (Deerfield, Mass.) in meteorology, designed as the first part of a three-year unified science sequence. Merits of the course, in which particular emphasis is placed on observation skills and making predictions, are enumerated. (CS)

  17. Stochastic models for some meteorological outcomes in Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, stochastic models based on autoregressive integrated moving average models of various orders and its seasonalized versions are presented, with a view to identifying the optimal model for some meteorological outcomes in some cities in Niger Delta region of Nigeria, using Normalized Bayesian Information ...

  18. Weather or Not To Teach Junior High Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Thomas P.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a technique for teaching meteorology allowing students to observe and analyze consecutive weather maps and relate local conditions; a model illustrating the three-dimensional nature of the atmosphere is employed. Instructional methods based on studies of daily weather maps to trace systems sweeping across the United States are discussed.…

  19. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is important to understand how uncertainties in these inputs affect the simulated concentrations. Ensembles are one method to explore how uncertainty in meteorology affects air pollution concentrations. Most studies explore this uncertainty by running different meteorological models or the same model with different physics options and in some cases combinations of different meteorological and air quality models. While these have been shown to be useful techniques in some cases, we present a technique that leverages the initial condition perturbations of a weather forecast ensemble, namely, the Short-Range Ensemble Forecast system to drive the four-dimensional data assimilation in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with a key focus being the response of ozone chemistry and transport. Results confirm that a sizable spread in WRF solutions, including common weather variables of temperature, wind, boundary layer depth, clouds, and radiation, can cause a relatively large range of ozone-mixing ratios. Pollutant transport can be altered by hundreds of kilometers over several days. Ozone-mixing ratios of the ensemble can vary as much as 10–20 ppb

  20. Automatic, Multiple Assessment Options in Undergraduate Meteorology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

    2017-01-01

    Since 2008, automatic, multiple assessment options have been utilised in selected undergraduate meteorology courses at the University of Wisconsin--Milwaukee. Motivated by a desire to reduce stress among students, the assessment methodology includes examination-heavy and homework-heavy alternatives, differing by an adjustable 15% of the overall…

  1. 60 years of visibility data in the UK - how does visibility vary with meteorological and pollutant parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Bloss, W.; Pope, F.

    2015-12-01

    Reduced visibility can be an indicator of poor air quality. Moreover, degradation in visibility can be hazardous to human safety; for example, low visibility can lead to accidents particularly during the winter season when fogs are prevalent. Here, we explore the combined influence of aerosol characteristics and meteorology on long-term visibility. We use visibility data from eight meteorological stations, situated in the UK, which have been running since the 1950s. The site locations include urban, rural and marine environments. Most stations show a long term trend of visibility increase, which is indicative of reductions in aerosol pollution, especially in urban areas. Additionally, results at all sites show a very clear dependence on relative humidity, indicating the importance of aerosol hygroscopicity on the ability of aerosols to scatter radiation and hence impact upon visibility. The dependence of visibility on other meteorological parameters (e.g. wind speed, wind direction) is also investigated. To explain the long term visibility trends and their dependence on meteorological conditions, a light extinction model was constructed incorporating the concentrations and composition of historic aerosol. The lack of historic aerosol size distributions and aerosol composition data, which determine hygroscopicity and refractive index, leads to an under-constrained model. Aerosol measurements from the last 10 years are used to constrain these model parameters, and hence their historical variation can be estimated; sensitivity analyses are used to estimate errors for the time period before regular aerosol measurements are available. This work has generated a unique 60 year data set with which to understand how aerosol concentration and composition has varied over the UK. The model is applicable and easily transferrable to other data sets worldwide. Hence, different clean air legislation can be assessed for its effectiveness in reducing aerosol pollution. The

  2. Hydro-meteorological causes of floods on the Upper and Central Danube River in the years 1895, 1897 and 1899

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaj, Marcel

    2017-04-01

    Historical climatology and hydrology are uprising scientific disciplines. They stay at the intersection of natural and socio-economic sciences. The main objective is to reconstruct the temporal and spatial aspects of the extreme situations which occurred in the past. It can improve hydro-meteorological modelling, predictions and future scenarios if historical data are included. This paper studies the hydro-meteorological causes of selected floods on the Upper and Central Danube River basin at the end of the 19th century. The main objective was to analyse the temperature conditions and precipitation amounts in the researched area based on data from meteorological and hydrological yearbooks from the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. The analysis of the meteorological causes of a winter flood in 1895 is based on precipitation amount maps and mean monthly air temperature maps for winter 1894/1895. Graphs of the duration of the snow cover and snow depths for the Salzburg and Kremsmünster stations in March 1895 are also presented. Deviations in the mean daily air temperature from the long term averages (1881 - 1910, 1961 - 1990) are analysed at two selected stations, i.e., Kremsmünster and Höhenpeissenberg. The flood wave from 17 April 1895 had a peak discharge of 15 200 m3.s-1 at the Orsova - Turnu Severin station. The analysis of the summer floods in 1897 and 1899 is based on monthly precipitation maps for the specific months with particular rainfall episodes. There are also graphs of deviations in the cumulative precipitation from the long term averages at the Kremsmünster station in July 1897 and September 1899. In Bratislava, the peak discharge of the July 1897 flood wave reached 10 140 m3.s-1 and the September 1899 flood exceeded that with a peak discharge of 10 870 m3.s-1 and a water stage of 970 cm.

  3. Spatial clustering and meteorological drivers of summer ozone in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro-Calvo, Leopoldo; Ordóñez, Carlos; García-Herrera, Ricardo; Schnell, Jordan L.

    2017-10-01

    We have applied the k-means clustering technique on a maximum daily 8-h running average near-surface ozone (MDA8 O3) gridded dataset over Europe at 1° × 1° resolution for summer 1998-2012. This has resulted in a spatial division of nine regions where ozone presents coherent spatiotemporal patterns. The role of meteorology in the variability of ozone at different time scales has been investigated by using daily meteorological fields from the NCEP-NCAR meteorological reanalysis. In the five regions of central-southern Europe ozone extremes (exceedances of the summer 95th percentile) occur mostly under anticyclonic circulation or weak sea level pressure gradients which trigger elevated temperatures and the recirculation of air masses. In the four northern regions extremes are associated with high-latitude anticyclones that divert the typical westerly flow at those latitudes and cause the advection of aged air masses from the south. The impact of meteorology on the day-to-day variability of ozone has been assessed by means of two different types of multiple linear models. These include as predictors meteorological fields averaged within the regions (;region-based; approach) or synoptic indices indicating the degree of resemblance between the daily meteorological fields over a large domain (25°-70° N, 35° W - 35° E) and their corresponding composites for extreme ozone days (;index-based; approach). With the first approach, a reduced set of variables, always including daily maximum temperature within the region, explains 47-66% of the variability (adjusted R2) in central-southern Europe, while more complex models are needed to explain 27-49% of the variability in the northern regions. The index-based approach yields better results for the regions of northern Europe, with adjusted R2 = 40-57%. Finally, both methodologies have also been applied to reproduce the interannual variability of ozone, with the best models explaining 66-88% of the variance in central

  4. Analysis of the effect of meteorological factors on dewfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Huijie; Meissner, Ralph; Seeger, Juliane; Rupp, Holger; Borg, Heinz; Zhang, Yuqing

    2013-01-01

    To get an insight into when dewfall will occur and how much to expect we carried out extensive calculations with the energy balance equation for a crop surface to 1) identify the meteorological factors which determine dewfall, 2) establish the relationship between dewfall and each of them, and 3) analyse how these relationships are influenced by changes in these factors. The meteorological factors which determine dewfall were found to be air temperature (T a ), cloud cover (N), wind speed (u), soil heat flux (G), and relative humidity (h r ). Net radiation is also a relevant factor. We did not consider it explicitly, but indirectly through the effect of temperature on the night-time radiation balance. The temperature of the surface (T s ) where dew forms on is also important. However, it is not a meteorological factor, but determined by the aforementioned parameters. All other conditions being equal our study revealed that dewfall increases linearly with decreasing N or G, and with increasing h r . The effect of T a and u on dewfall is non-linear: dewfall initially increases with increasing T a or u, and then decreases. All five meteorological factors can lead to variations in dewfall between 0 and 25 W m −2 over the range of their values we studied. The magnitude of the variation due to one factor depends on the value of the others. Dewfall is highest at N = 0, G = 0, and h r = 1. T a at which dewfall is highest depends on u and vice versa. The change in dewfall for a unit change in N, G or h r is not affected by the value of N, G or h r , but increases as T a or u increase. The change in dewfall for a unit change in T a or u depends on the value of the other four meteorological factors. - Highlights: • Process of dewfall is examined for a wide range of meteorological conditions. • Effect of meteorological factors on dewfall is individually elucidated. • Interaction between factors and their combined effect on dewfall is assessed. • Extensive

  5. A molten salt tower model used for site selection in South Africa using SAURAN meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Ian Vincent; Dinter, Frank

    2017-06-01

    South Africa has become a hotspot for concentrating solar power (CSP) development in recent years. With an abundance of solar resource and an existing governmental framework for renewable energy development, the country has captured the attention of CSP developers worldwide. The primary limitations for CSP plants in South Africa are electrical transmission and water availability. While taking into account such infrastructure limitations, six sites were proposed. A purpose-built simulation model for a proposed 100 MWe (gross) tower plant with 12 hours of storage was developed. Using site South African Universities Radiometric Network (SAURAN) meteorological data with a resolution of up to 1 minute, each of the sites was evaluated in terms of electrical yield using the model. The investigation found that the site situated in Springbok will generate 450.8 GWhe per annum, and is the most advantageous site for the modeled plant. The most promising alternative site is situated in near Laingsburg in the Western Province. This site offered 413.7 GWhe per annum, and it is close to available transmission and surface water.

  6. Meteorological conditions and sports deaths at school in Japan, 1993-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Akio; Inaba, Yutaka

    2005-03-01

    We evaluated the association between meteorological conditions and sports deaths at elementary, junior high and senior high schools. Data were collected from attached documents such as accident reports and death certificate records in the National Agency for the Advancement of Sports and Health in Japan. Evaluation of seasonal variation showed a significant concentration of deaths from heat disorders and drowning in July and August. When heart disease was evaluated according to the sports situation, significant seasonal variation with a high number of deaths in September-December was observed in sports events. Concerning circadian variation, deaths from heart disease showed a high peak at 10:00-11:00 a.m. in physical education classes and sports events, and at 2:00-5:00 p.m. in sports club activities. Analysis using a multiple logistic model showed a significantly lower odds ratio from heart disease and a significantly higher odds ratio from heat disorders at a wet bulb globe temperature of > or =21.0 degrees C than at <21.0 degrees C. According to the sports situation in heart disease, the odds ratio in sports club activities was significantly lower on days with rainfall than on days without rainfall. According to the school categories in heart diseases, the odds ratio in girls in elementary school was significantly higher than that in boys, but the odds ratio in girls in senior high school was significantly lower than that in boys.

  7. Multi-point meteorological observation for Cross-country skiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, K.; Tadashi, O.; Kawarabayashi, S.; Iwadate, N.; Kobayashi, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Imai, M.; Watanabe, K.; Naruse, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    To select the glide wax in the cross-country skiing competition is important, because it can work as a reduction of the friction between skiing and snow surface. Inherently, we need to select the wax judged from meteorological conditions, such as temperature, humidity, snow surface temperature, and wind speed in the whole course, however, the wax has been decided on the basis of meteorological conditions in one representative place so far. This study aims to develop a meteorological multi-point observation system using wireless network to select the suitable wax for cross-country skiing on the basis of quantitative analysis. The observation points in this study are temperature and illumination sensors connected to a wireless module. These sensors was put within 0.1m apart from the snow surface. We made 40 sets of the above sensors, and set on the actual cross-country skiing course (Hokkaido) in interval of 50-100m. Observed meteorological data were recorded by PC through the sending by wireless communication (XBee pro). We have succeeded in multi-point meteorological observation for the actual of cross-country skiing course. To escape the effect of sunlight for the air temperature, we cunducted to measure in the case of cloudy. As the results, the positional dependence of the air temperature was in the range of less than 2 degrees Celcius. This value is equivalent to the standard deviation of our sensors. Moreover, we observed in the case of occationally cloudy, air temperature by each point was more than 4 degrees Celcius. This indicates that the local difference of temperature can originate from the existence of cloud from the analysis of the data of illumination sensors. In conclusion, we have observed the local difference of temperature to occur under the influence of cloud on the corse of cross-country skiing , which can affect to select the wax.

  8. A gap analysis of meteorological requirements for commercial space operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Nicholas James

    Commercial space companies will soon be the primary method of launching people and supplies into orbit. Among the critical aspects of space launches are the meteorological concerns. Laws and regulations pertaining to meteorological considerations have been created to ensure the safety of the space industry and those living around spaceports; but, are they adequate? Perhaps the commercial space industry can turn to the commercial aviation industry to help answer that question. Throughout its history, the aviation industry has dealt with lessons learned from mishaps due to failures in understanding the significance of weather impacts on operations. Using lessons from the aviation industry, the commercial space industry can preempt such accidents and maintain viability as an industry. Using Lanicci's Strategic Planning Model, this study identified the weather needs of the commercial space industry by conducting three gap analyses. First, a comparative analysis was done between laws and regulations in commercial aviation and those in the commercial space industry pertaining to meteorological support, finding a "legislative gap" between the two industries, as no legal guarantee is in place to ensure weather products remain available to the commercial space industry. A second analysis was conducted between the meteorological services provided for the commercial aviation industry and commercial space industry, finding a gap at facilities not located at an established launch facility or airport. At such facilities, many weather observational technologies would not be present, and would need to be purchased by the company operating the spaceport facility. A third analysis was conducted between the meteorological products and regulations that are currently in existence, and those needed for safe operations within the commercial space industry, finding gaps in predicting lightning, electric field charge, and space weather. Recommendations to address these deficiencies have

  9. Meteorology and dispersion forecast in nuclear emergency in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunst, Juan J.; Boutet, Luis I.; Jordan, Osvaldo D.; Hernandez, Daniel G.; Guichandut, M.E.; Chiappesoni, H.

    2008-01-01

    The 'Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) (ARN in Spanish)' and the 'National Meteorological Office (NMO) (SMN in Spanish)' of Argentine has been working together on the improvement of both meteorological forecasting and dispersion prediction. In the pre-release phase of a nuclear emergency, it is very important to know the wind direction and the forecast of it, to establish the area, around the installation, where the emergency state is declared and to foresee the modification of this area. Information is also needed about deterministic effects, to begin the evacuation. At this time, meteorological forecast of wind direction and speed, and the real time meteorological information is available in the nuclear power plant (NPP) and in the Nuclear Emergency Control Centre at the ARN headquarters, together with the short-range dose calculation provided by our dispersion code, SEDA. By means of the SEDA code, we can estimate the optimum place to measure the radioactive material concentration in air, needed do to reduce evaluation uncertainties due, among others, to poor knowledge of the source term. The SEDA code allows considering atmospheric condition, and the need to reduced doses of the measuring team in charge of the measurements. For the evaluation in the medium range, we participate in the project IXP, which provides four hours and about 50 kilometres forecast. In the long-range movement of air borne radioactivity, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), whose contact point in Argentina is the SMN, can assist us. We have developed together, with the SMN, a detailed procedure to request assistance from the WMO. In this work, we describe the combined tasks that were carried out with the SMN to define the procedures and the concepts for their application during a real emergency. The results of an application exercise carried out in 2006 are also described. (author)

  10. Situational pressures on aviation decision making: goal seduction and situation aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Chris; Paletz, Susannah B F; Orasanu, Judith

    2009-06-01

    The context in which a decision is made can shape the decision process in important ways. Of particular interest here are 'strong' situations, that is, contexts where the situation itself exerts an influence on decision making. Borrowing concepts from field theory and approach/avoidance theory, this paper explores the influence of strong situations on pilot decision making. There were 28 pilots flying in Alaska who were interviewed using a critical incident technique where participants were asked to relate stories about challenging flying situations. A bottom-up qualitative analysis of reported social and psychological pressures revealed a range of types, including strong situations, which are described in this paper. Strong situations were mentioned in 67% of the interviews and included situations likely to motivate the pilot toward unsafe behavior (goal seduction) and situations likely to motivate the pilot away from safe behavior (situation aversion). Goal seduction situations included rescuing others, meeting a significant other, time-related constraints, financial pressures, and unspecified goal seduction; aversive situations included physical discomfort, not having maintenance or facilities for the airplane, and a lack of basic necessities (e.g., lodging) for the pilot. Goal seduction describes one broad, unspecified influence on pilot decision making, but situation aversion is also an important motivator for some pilots. Goal seduction and situation aversion may well underlie the phenomena of plan continuation errors, the tendency for pilots to continue despite evidence suggesting it is imprudent. This study suggests some specific factors that constrain decision making for pilots in challenging situations.

  11. Meteorological observations of the coastal boundary layer structure by remote measurement methods for determining the impact of meteorological conditions on the breeze circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barantiev, D.

    2010-09-01

    Continuous measurements of the characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer and the characteristics of breeze circulation were initiated at the meteorological observatory of Ahtopol on the Black Sea coast (south-east Bulgaria) under a Bulgarian-Russian collaborative programme. Research observations started in July 2008 and go on. These observations are the start of high resolution atmospheric boundary layer vertical structure climatology at a Bulgarian Black Sea coastal site. Automatic weather station «MK-15» with an acoustic anemometer (mounted at 4,5m height) and Flat Array Sodar without RASS extension «Scintec» were installed on polygon of Ahtopol. A preliminary analysis was made of the experimental data on the thermodynamic structure of the atmospheric boundary layer in the coastal zone. Vertical profiles of wind speed, direction and spatio-temporal sectional were constructed according to the sodar data. Graphs of temporal variations of the direction and modulus of wind velocity, vertical velocity, the standard deviation of the acoustic temperature and time variation of air temperature (at a height of 2m - standard synoptic measurements) were constructed according MK-15. The momentum u* = " - w-'u' and sensible heat H = w'T' surface turbulent fluxes were calculated from MK-15 raw data. Prevailing weather conditions contributing to breeze circulation in the area were investigated. Blurred pressure field of high pressure with warm air mass, clear and (or) the overcast weather was characterized for treatment cases. The average wind speed near the ground was did not exceed 3 m/s, with a ripple rate of up to 4 m/s according to MK-15. The nature of the wind changed direction during the day has been practically the same (i.e., diurnal repeats) in all cases. The breeze front location was also detected based on standard measurements in the surface layer (mean values of temperature at 2 m and wind speed and direction from MK-15). In the zone of the front the wind

  12. The summertime Boreal forest field measurement intensive (HUMPPA-COPEC-2010: an overview of meteorological and chemical influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Williams

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the background, instrumentation, goals, and the regional influences on the HUMPPA-COPEC intensive field measurement campaign, conducted at the Boreal forest research station SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relation in Hyytiälä, Finland from 12 July–12 August 2010. The prevailing meteorological conditions during the campaign are examined and contrasted with those of the past six years. Back trajectory analyses show that meteorological conditions at the site in 2010 were characterized by a higher proportion of southerly flow than in the other years studied. As a result the summer of 2010 was anomalously warm and high in ozone making the campaign relevant for the analysis of possible future climates. A comprehensive land use analysis, provided on both 5 and 50 km scales, shows that the main vegetation types surrounding the site on both the regional and local scales are: coniferous forest (Scots pine and/or Norway spruce; mixed forest (Birch and conifers; and woodland scrub (e.g. Willows, Aspen; indicating that the campaign results can be taken as representative of the Boreal forest ecosystem. In addition to the influence of biogenic emissions, the measurement site was occasionally impacted by sources other than vegetation. Specific tracers have been used here to identify the time periods when such sources have impacted the site namely: biomass burning (acetonitrile and CO, urban anthropogenic pollution (pentane and SO2 and the nearby Korkeakoski sawmill (enantiomeric ratio of chiral monoterpenes. None of these sources dominated the study period, allowing the Boreal forest summertime emissions to be assessed and contrasted with various other source signatures.

  13. The Impacts of Meteorology on the Seasonal and Interannual Variabilities of Ozone Transport From North America to East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ye; Liu, Jane; Wang, Tijian; Zhuang, Bingliang; Han, Han; Wang, Hengmao; Chang, Yi; Ding, Ke

    2017-10-01

    The transport of North American (NA) ozone to East Asia is investigated through the analysis of a 20 year simulation (1987-2006) using a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and forward trajectories during the 1990s at three NA sites. NA ozone mainly influences northern East Asia (> 30°N), where NA ozone in the free troposphere peaks in spring and fall ( 12 ppbv). At the surface, NA ozone ranges from 2 to 7 ppbv and peaks in winter, 50% of which is from the NA boundary layer. The seasonality of the imported NA ozone reflects the combined effects of meteorology and chemistry. In summer, NA ozone can be diverted from reaching East Asia by strong downdrafts behind the European trough. In winter, the prevailing monsoon climate in East Asia can boost downdrafts of NA ozone to the surface. In spring and fall, the westerlies are stronger and shift farther south than in summer, bring more NA ozone to the East Asian (EA) free troposphere than in summer. The imported NA ozone at the EA surface also varies with interannual meteorology. This interannual variation is found to closely correlate to the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). The stronger the EAWM in a winter is, the stronger are the downdrafts bringing more NA ozone to the EA surface in that winter and the subsequent spring. Because the anthropogenic NA emissions have decreased since 1999, the year an emission inventory was used in the simulation, the simulated NA influence may serve as an upper limit.

  14. The Prevailing Weather and Traffic Conditions in the Evaluation of a Future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. A view into the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Castells i Sanabra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Appendix III of MARPOL's Annex VI sets out the criteria and procedures for designating an emission control area (ECA.These criteria includes: a clear delineation of the proposed ECA; types of emissions proposed for control, land and sea areas at risk; emission quantification and impact assessment; prevailing weather conditions; data and quality on marine traffic; land based measures concurrent with the ECA adoption and the relative costs of reducing emissions from ships. This paper analyses the climate parameter together with traffic conditions: prevailing weather conditions as a parameter to be kept in mind for the adoption of a future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. Preliminary results would show how marine emissions coming from existing traffic will impact the sea and land ecology in the Mediterranean area.

  15. The Language Planning Situation in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coperahewa, Sandagomi

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines the language planning situation in Sri Lanka with particular emphasis on the planning of Sinhala as an official language of the country. It explores the historical, social, ideological and political processes, changes in language policy decisions, as well as the complexities of the language policy and planning situation in…

  16. Sequencing interval situations and related games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alparslan-Gok, S.Z.; Brânzei, R.; Fragnelli, V.; Tijs, S.H.

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainty accompanies almost every situation in real world and it influences our decisions. In sequencing situations it may affect parameters used to determine an optimal order in the queue, and consequently the decision of whether (or not) to rearrange the queue by sharing the realized cost

  17. Hippocampal frequency shifts in different behavioural situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, A.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Storm van Leeuwen, W.

    1971-01-01

    Electrical activity of the dog's hippocampus was recorded in (a) an operant behaviour situation, and (b) a field situation by a radio-telemetering system. The dominant frequency of the theta rhythm shifted consistently from 4–5 c/sec to 6–7 c/sec when a dog (a) withdrew from a pedal after being

  18. Cooperative Games arising from Information Sharing Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.; Timmer, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Relations are established between information sharing (IS) situations and IS-games on one hand and information collecting (IC) situations and IC-games on the other hand. It is shown that IC-games can be obtained as convex combinations of so-called local games. Properties are described which IC-games

  19. Practicing discernment: pastoral care in crisis situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Scott D

    2010-01-01

    This article correlates a particular experience of providing pastoral care for a person in a crisis situation with a particular understanding of the practice of pastoral care. Through engaging in correlative practical theology, it highlights the need for practicing discernment when providing pastoral care for persons utilizing narratives to work through crisis situations.

  20. Situational Leadership: "Different Strokes for Different Folks."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Kenneth; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the Situational Leadership II model and the four leadership styles and four development levels identified as important components in the development of situational leadership in school administrators. The model is used to teach principals how to vary their leadership style to fit the responses and capacities of their teachers. (MD)