WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevailing meat inspection

  1. The Questionable Prevailing Meat Inspection Regulations for Prevention of Tuberculosis and Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-03-16

    results of bacteriological research carried out by Kieberle and various other authors, The folloxd.ng forms of bovine tuberculosis are considered to be...January 195/V» xre have as early as 195? proposed a sliding scale for meat inspection with regard to bovine tuberculosis which takes into consideration...of other clinical symptoms, such as metritides, orchitis, arthritis, inflammation of .JW»^ mastitis , paralysis of hind feet, abscesses in muscles

  2. Online Multi-Spectral Meat Inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    2013-01-01

    We perform an explorative study on multi-spectral image data from a prototype device developed for fast online quality inspection of meat products. Because the camera setup is built for speed, we sacrifice exact pixel correspondences between the different bands of the multi-spectral images. Our...

  3. Meat safety consequences of implementing visual postmortem meat inspection procedures in Danish slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Jan; Kyrval, J.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    1997-01-01

    The consequences of a change from a traditional meat inspection procedure, including manual handling, palpation and incision, to an entirely postmortem meat inspection procedure in Danish slaughter pigs were assessed by a comparative study of the two methods in 188,383 slaughter pigs. Out of 58...... lymphadenitis, 7.0 faecally contaminated with Salmonella species, and 3.4 faecally contaminated with Yersinia enterocolitica would remain undetected as a result of changing from traditional to the visual inspection procedure. Two valuable reasons for implementing a visual control system are the potential...

  4. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions...

  5. 78 FR 19182 - Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... electronic mail subscription service for industry, trade groups, consumer interest groups, health...] Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products: Availability of.... importers and brokers on the electronic filing of import inspection applications for certain meat, poultry...

  6. 76 FR 81360 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    .... FSIS-2008-0039] RIN 0583-AD37 Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry... to ship meat and poultry products in interstate commerce. The final rule was published in the Federal... and Poultry Products'' (76 FR 24714). The final rule amended the Federal meat and poultry products...

  7. Current food chain information provides insufficient information for modern meat inspection of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felin, Elina; Jukola, Elias; Raulo, Saara; Heinonen, Jaakko; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2016-05-01

    Meat inspection now incorporates a more risk-based approach for protecting human health against meat-borne biological hazards. Official post-mortem meat inspection of pigs has shifted to visual meat inspection. The official veterinarian decides on additional post-mortem inspection procedures, such as incisions and palpations. The decision is based on declarations in the food chain information (FCI), ante-mortem inspection and post-mortem inspection. However, a smooth slaughter and inspection process is essential. Therefore, one should be able to assess prior to slaughter which pigs are suitable for visual meat inspection only, and which need more profound inspection procedures. This study evaluates the usability of the FCI provided by pig producers and considered the possibility for risk ranking of incoming slaughter batches according to the previous meat inspection data and the current FCI. Eighty-five slaughter batches comprising 8954 fattening pigs were randomly selected at a slaughterhouse that receives animals from across Finland. The mortality rate, the FCI and the meat inspection results for each batch were obtained. The current FCI alone provided insufficient and inaccurate information for risk ranking purposes for meat inspection. The partial condemnation rate for a batch was best predicted by the partial condemnation rate calculated for all the pigs sent for slaughter from the same holding in the previous year (p<0.001) and by prior information on cough declared in the current FCI (p=0.02) statement. Training and information to producers are needed to make the FCI reporting procedures more accurate. Historical meat inspection data on pigs slaughtered from the same holdings and well-chosen symptoms/signs for reporting, should be included in the FCI to facilitate the allocation of pigs for visual inspection. The introduced simple scoring system can be easily used for additional information for directing batches to appropriate meat inspection procedures. To

  8. Incision of the heart during meat inspection of fattening pigs - A risk-profile approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leps, J; Fries, R

    2009-01-01

    Meat inspection in the EU is based on Regulation (EC) 854/2004. Accordingly a risk based meat inspection should be implemented. In this paper, the incision of the heart in pig meat inspection is discussed with respect to efficacy. The incision especially can reveal the presence of endocarditis. Here, Erysipelothrixrhusiopathiae (E. rhusiopathiae) and/or Streptococcussuis (S. suis) are of particular concern. Both agents are regarded to be zoonotic agents. There is some evidence for infection of humans via an alimentary pathway. Hence, the occurrence of E. rhusiopathiae and S. suis is a concern of public health (PH) as well as veterinary public health (VPH). However, other measures, including on-farm disease prevention and diagnosis, seem to be more important for food safety. It is concluded that the incision and inspection of the heart is not justifiable with respect to PH aspects.

  9. [Meat inspection in the medieval Zähringer towns.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häsler, S

    2010-01-01

    An explanation of medieval practices of meat supply and regulation, using examples drawn from the so-called "Zähringer towns" founded by the Dukes of Zähringen: Bern, Burgdorf, Thun, Murten, Freiburg and Rheinfelden. For the town councils it was important to be able to provide the population with sufficient quantities of good-quality meat at fair prices. After the 14th century the slaughtering of animals had to be carried out in public slaughterhouses. Meat could only be sold publicly, at designated butchers' stalls. Meat and organs were checked on a daily basis by the town's meat inspectors, who verified the names under which products were sold, their price, and hygienic conditions, including the absence of tapeworm larvae. In addition to the publicly-regulated meat trade, town dwellers could also buy meat products at the markets, and could raise their own pigs, sheep and goats to be slaughtered in the back alleys. Permission to raise small livestock at home was a privilege granted by the town council. The sale of meat by non-resident peddlers was officially forbidden, but could not be prevented entirely.

  10. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective...

  11. Epidemiologic and economic evaluation of risk-based meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Alban, L

    2013-03-01

    Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcase from all bovines above 6 weeks of age has to be examined for bovine cysticercosis (BC). This is time-consuming, costly, and is of limited value in countries with low prevalence. The aim of this study was to develop a stochastic simulation model for analysis of tentative risk-based meat inspection systems for BC in Danish cattle with regard to system sensitivity (SSSe), specificity and potential monetary benefits compared to the current system, which has an estimated SSSe of 15%. The relevant risk factors used to construct three alternative scenario trees were identified from previous Danish risk factor studies (1) gender, (2) grazing and (3) access to risky water sources. Thus, females, animals that had been grazing or animals with access to risky water sources were considered high-risk and would be subjected to invasive inspection at meat inspection. All animals in the low-risk groups (i.e. males, non-grazing or no access to risky water sources, respectively) would be subjected to visual inspection only. It was assumed that half of the cattle were slaughtered in abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughterline, allowing them to do with one meat inspector less. All abattoirs would gain on the price of sold uncut beef from the masseter muscles from visually inspected cattle. Under these assumptions, using gender and grazing were preferable due to them having SSSe only slightly lower than the current system, and highest effectiveness ratios, but they had a lower net economic effect (NEE) than the scenario using risky water sources. Using gender to differentiate high and low-risk groups was judged preferable over grazing due to feasibility, because the information is readily available at the slaughter line. The exact total NEE for the cattle sector depends on how many and which of the abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughter line to save money on

  12. 77 FR 47028 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... programs with respect to meat, poultry, and processed egg products inspection, food safety, and other... Listserv, a free electronic mail subscription service for industry, trade groups, consumer interest groups... http://www.fsis.usda.gov/News_&_Events/Email_Subscription/ . Options range from recalls to export...

  13. 78 FR 77643 - National Advisory Committee of Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... concerning State and Federal programs with respect to meat, poultry, and processed egg product inspection... interest to constituents and stakeholders. The update is communicated via Listserv, a free electronic mail....gov/wps/portal/fsis/programs-and-services/email-subscription-service . Options range from recalls to...

  14. Meat and fish freshness inspection system based on odor sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najam ul Hasan; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-11-09

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy.

  15. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Seok Kim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor, and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy.

  16. Selection of Meat Inspection Data for an Animal Welfare Index in Cattle and Pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Denwood, Matt; Forkman, Björn

    2017-01-01

    inspection codes were pre-selected based on expert judgement of having potential animal welfare relevance. Random effects logistic regression was then used to determine the magnitude of variation derived at the level of the farm or abattoir, of which farm variation might be associated with welfare, whereas......National welfare indices of cattle and pigs are constructed in Denmark, and meat inspection data may be used to contribute to these. We select potentially welfare-relevant abattoir recordings and assess the sources of variation within these with a view towards inclusion in the indices. Meat...... forward to the welfare index. A few were found to be potentially useful for a welfare index: Eight for slaughter pigs, 15 for sows, five for cattle

  17. Meat safety consequences of implementing visual postmortem meat inspection procedures in Danish slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Jan; Kyrval, J.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    1997-01-01

    lymphadenitis, 7.0 faecally contaminated with Salmonella species, and 3.4 faecally contaminated with Yersinia enterocolitica would remain undetected as a result of changing from traditional to the visual inspection procedure. Two valuable reasons for implementing a visual control system are the potential...

  18. The broken food chain information: cross border issues of risk-based meat inspection in the pig sector in Germany and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilke, T.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Oosterkamp, E.B.; Bondt, N.; Lang, J.

    2012-01-01

    European food safety legislation allows for a new type of meat inspection in swine. This ‘risk-based meat inspection without incision’ or ‘supply chain meat inspection’ (SCMI) uses food chain information to derive a veterinary prognosis on the pigs’ health prior to delivery to the slaughterhouse and

  19. Microbiological characteristics of poultry meats - Results of inspections carried out in the province of Milano, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Grilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinations were conducted in terms of microbiological quality/quantity (TMC, Coliforms, E. coli, S. aureus, Sulphate-reducing Clostridia, B. cereus, Salmonella spp. and Lysteria spp. and Campylobacter spp. on 240 poultry meat samples (chicken, turkey and quail acquired pursuant to the standards set by the Regional Plan of programming and coordination in the field of operations concerning official inspections of Lombardia animal origin and by a few private companies for self-inspection. The TMC was consistently low and in line with reports in the literature, as was the case with coliforms, E. coli, S. aureus, sulphatereducing Clostrides and B. cereus. In the case of Salmonella spp., only 5 samples tested positive: one for S. typhimurium and one for S. enteritidis (chicken; only one sample from turkey tested positive for S. blokley, and two out of five samples analysed from quail tested positive result for S. typhimurium. About 3% of the samples analyzed tested positive for Listeria monocitogenes, but they were within the legal limits. Research on Campylobacter thermophiles has involved only 50 samples, of which only 5 have tested positive. These results confirm the high quality of hygiene and cleanliness of poultry meat, in accordance with that reported in the national literature and with respect to EU norms.

  20. Larvas output and influence of human factor in reliability of meat inspection by the method of artificial digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Vesna; Savić Marko; Vasilev Saša; Đorđević Milovan

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the performed analyses of the factors that contributed the infected meat reach food chain, we have found out that the infection occurred after consuming the meat inspected by the method of collective samples artificial digestion by using a magnetic stirrer (MM). In this work there are presented assay results which show how modifications of the method, on the level of final sedimentation, influence the reliability of Trichinella larvas detect...

  1. Good animal welfare makes economic sense: potential of pig abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Sarah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate ‘trimming’ of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry. Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic. This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example.

  2. Diagnostic efficiency of abattoir meat inspection service in Ethiopia to detect carcasses infected with Mycobacterium bovis: Implications for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogale Asseged

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resource. Thus, routine abattoir (RA inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. We evaluated efficiency of RA inspection for diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection and discussed its public health implications in light of a high risk of human exposure. Methods The study was conducted in five abattoirs: Addis Ababa, Adama, Hawassa, Yabello and Melge-Wondo abattoirs. The efficiency of routine abattoir (RA inspection was validated in comparison to detailed abattoir (DA inspection, followed by culture and microscopy (CM and region of difference (RD deletion analysis. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity and likelihood estimations using web-based SISA diagnostic statistics software. Post-test probability of detecting TB infected carcasses was estimated using nomograms. Agreement between RA and DA inspections was measured using kappa statistics. The study was conducted and reported in accordance with standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy (STARD requirements. Both routine and detailed meat inspection protocols were performed on a subpopulation of 3322 cattle selected randomly from among 78,269 cattle slaughtered during the study period. Three hundred thirty seven carcasses identified through detailed meat inspection protocols were subjected to culture and microscopy; of the 337, a subset of 105 specimens for culture and microscopy were subjected to further molecular testing. Results There was a substantial agreement between RA and DA inspections in Addis Ababa (Kappa = 0.7 and Melge-Wondo abattoirs (Kappa = 0.67. In Adama, Hawassa and Yabello

  3. Diagnostic efficiency of abattoir meat inspection service in Ethiopia to detect carcasses infected with Mycobacterium bovis: Implications for public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resource. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. We evaluated efficiency of RA inspection for diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection and discussed its public health implications in light of a high risk of human exposure. Methods The study was conducted in five abattoirs: Addis Ababa, Adama, Hawassa, Yabello and Melge-Wondo abattoirs. The efficiency of routine abattoir (RA) inspection was validated in comparison to detailed abattoir (DA) inspection, followed by culture and microscopy (CM) and region of difference (RD) deletion analysis. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty) were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity) and likelihood estimations using web-based SISA diagnostic statistics software. Post-test probability of detecting TB infected carcasses was estimated using nomograms. Agreement between RA and DA inspections was measured using kappa statistics. The study was conducted and reported in accordance with standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy (STARD) requirements. Both routine and detailed meat inspection protocols were performed on a subpopulation of 3322 cattle selected randomly from among 78,269 cattle slaughtered during the study period. Three hundred thirty seven carcasses identified through detailed meat inspection protocols were subjected to culture and microscopy; of the 337, a subset of 105 specimens for culture and microscopy were subjected to further molecular testing. Results There was a substantial agreement between RA and DA inspections in Addis Ababa (Kappa = 0.7) and Melge-Wondo abattoirs (Kappa = 0.67). In Adama, Hawassa and Yabello abattoirs, the

  4. Larvas output and influence of human factor in reliability of meat inspection by the method of artificial digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the performed analyses of the factors that contributed the infected meat reach food chain, we have found out that the infection occurred after consuming the meat inspected by the method of collective samples artificial digestion by using a magnetic stirrer (MM. In this work there are presented assay results which show how modifications of the method, on the level of final sedimentation, influence the reliability of Trichinella larvas detection in the infected meat samples. It has been shown that use of inadequate laboratory containers for larva collecting in final sedimentation and change of volume of digestive liquid that outflow during colouring preparations, can significantly influence inspection results. Larva detection errors ranged from 4 to 80% in presented the experimental groups in regard to the control group of samples inspected by using MM method, which had been carried out completely according to Europe Commission procedure No 2075/2005, where no errors in larva number per sample was found. We consider that the results of this work will contribute to the improvement of control of the method performance and especially of the critical point during inspection of meat samples to Trichinella larvas in Serbia.

  5. Contribution of Meat Inspection to the surveillance of poultry health and welfare in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneau-Salaün, A; Stärk, K D C; Mateus, A; Lupo, C; Lindberg, A; LE Bouquin-Leneveu, S

    2015-08-01

    In the European Union, Meat Inspection (MI) aims to protect public health by ensuring that minimal hazardous material enters in the food chain. It also contributes to the detection and monitoring of animal diseases and welfare problems but its utility for animal surveillance has been assessed partially for some diseases only. Using the example of poultry production, we propose a complete assessment of MI as a health surveillance system. MI allows a long-term syndromic surveillance of poultry health but its contribution is lowered by a lack of data standardization, analysis and reporting. In addition, the probability of case detection for 20 diseases and welfare conditions was quantified using a scenario tree modelling approach, with input data based on literature and expert opinion. The sensitivity of MI appeared to be very high to detect most of the conditions studied because MI is performed at batch level and applied to a high number of birds per batch.

  6. Genetic Selection to Enhance Animal Welfare Using Meat Inspection Data from Slaughter Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Pramod K; Vogelzang, Roos; Mulder, Herman A; Knol, Egbert F

    2018-01-24

    Animal health and welfare are monitored during meat inspection in many slaughter plants around the world. Carcasses are examined by meat inspectors and remarks are made with respect to different diseases, injuries, and other abnormalities. This is a valuable data resource for disease prevention and enhancing animal welfare, but it is rarely used for this purpose. Records on carcass remarks on 140,375 finisher pigs were analyzed to investigate the possibility of genetic selection to reduce the risk of the most prevalent diseases and indicators of suboptimal animal welfare. As part of this, effects of some non-genetic factors such as differences between farms, sexes, and growth rates were also examined. The most frequent remarks were pneumonia (15.4%), joint disorders (9.8%), pleuritis (4.7%), pericarditis (2.3%), and liver lesions (2.2%). Joint disorders were more frequent in boars than in gilts. There were also significant differences between farms. Pedigree records were available for 142,324 pigs from 14 farms and were used for genetic analysis. Heritability estimates for pneumonia, pleuritis, pericarditis, liver lesions, and joint disorders were 0.10, 0.09, 0.14, 0.24, and 0.17 on the liability scale, respectively, suggesting the existence of substantial genetic variation. This was further confirmed though genome wide associations using deregressed breeding values as phenotypes. The genetic correlations between these remarks and finishing traits were small but mostly negative, suggesting the possibility of enhancing pig health and welfare simultaneously with genetic improvement in finishing traits. A selection index based on the breeding values for these traits and their economic values was developed. This index is used to enhance animal welfare in pig farms.

  7. Sensitivity and optimization of artificial digestion in the inspection of meat for Trichinella spiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Cui, Jing; Wang, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, Peng

    2010-08-01

    In many countries, the method of choice in inspecting meat for Trichinella spiralis infection is artificial digestion. We conducted a study of the sensitivity of the artificial digestion method recommended by the International Commission on Trichinellosis for detecting T. spiralis larvae in meat and of the effect of modifications of some procedures used in the method on its sensitivity. As part of this, we evaluated the effects on larval recovery of the vessels used for larval settling, sieve sizes, and temperatures at which larvae passed through the sieves, using larvae from T. spiralis-infected mice. We observed the effects on larval recovery of digestion duration and of modified artificial digestion by using 10-g samples of infected mouse muscle alone or mixed with uninfected pork. The percentages of larvae recovered with the respective use of separatory funnels and conical cylinders were 51.20% and 98.70%. The rates of recovery of T. spiralis larvae at 4 degrees C after passage through sieves of 425-microm mesh (No. 40), 250-microm mesh (No. 60), and 180-microm mesh (No. 80) were 98.42%, 90.59%, and 81.63%, which exceeded the 97.79%, 85.10%, and 61.12% rates of recovery of motile larvae at 40 degrees C and the 95.12%, 78.60%, and 44.16% rates of recovery of dead larvae at 90 degrees C. The larval recovery rate after digestion for 2 hours (96.18%) was greater than that after 0.5 hours (88.00%). We then examined a modified digestion method in which 10-g samples of pork mixed with 300 mL of digestive solution were digested for 2 hours at 43 degrees C followed by chilling of digest solution to 4 degrees C before passing it through a 425-microm mesh (No. 40) sieve and allowing it to settle in a 1-L conical cylinder. With this procedure, the modified method detected T. spiralis in samples of pork meat weighing 10 g and containing either 1 larva per gram or 0.1 larva per gram. Further validation of digestion method incorporating these modifications is required with

  8. Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of routine meat inspection of danish slaughter pigs using latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne; Toft, Nils; Thomsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    and heart disorders will cause a significant underestimation of the prevalence of diseases reported to the pig producers. Based on our results the true prevalence of diseases (conventional vs. organic slaughter pigs) was (in %): 42 vs. 16, 5 vs. 51, 5 vs. 12 and 9 vs. 5 for RESP, PAR, INT and HEART......Two groups of observers, regular meat inspectors and two veterinary researchers, respectively, conducted independent veterinary meat inspection of organs of slaughter pigs from organic or conventional production systems slaughtered at one abattoir in April 2005. A total of 3054 pigs (899 organic...... and 2155 conventional) were examined. The observed pathological disorders were grouped in four categories; respiratory disorders (RESP), parasitic disorders (PAR), intestinal disorders (INT) and heart disorders (HEART). Using a latent class model, the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of meat...

  9. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biologicial Hazards), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat (solipeds)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2013-01-01

    A risk ranking process identified Trichinella spp. as the most relevant biological hazard in the context of meat inspection of domestic solipeds. Without a full and reliable soliped traceability system, it is considered that either testing all slaughtered solipeds for Trichinella spp., or inactiv......A risk ranking process identified Trichinella spp. as the most relevant biological hazard in the context of meat inspection of domestic solipeds. Without a full and reliable soliped traceability system, it is considered that either testing all slaughtered solipeds for Trichinella spp......., or inactivation meat treatments (heat or irradiation) should be used to maintain the current level of safety. With regard to general aspects of current meat inspection practices, the use of manual techniques during current post-mortem soliped meat inspection may increase microbial cross......-contamination, and is considered to have a detrimental effect on the microbiological status of soliped carcass meat. Therefore, the use of visual-only inspection is suggested for “non-suspect” solipeds. For chemical hazards, phenylbutazone and cadmium were ranked as being of high potential concern. Monitoring programmes...

  10. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards, 2013. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat from sheep and goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    A risk ranking process identified Toxoplasma gondii and pathogenic verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) as the most relevant biological hazards for meat inspection of sheep and goats. As these are not detected by traditional meat inspection, a meat safety assurance system using risk......-based interventions was proposed. Further studies are required on T. gondii and pathogenic VTEC. If new information confirms these hazards as a high risk to public health from meat from sheep or goats, setting targets at carcass level should be considered. Other elements of the system are risk...... slaughter. For chemical hazards, dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were ranked as being of high potential concern. Monitoring programmes for chemical hazards should be more flexible and based on the risk of occurrence, taking into account FCI, which should be expanded to reflect...

  11. Comparison of recording of pericarditis and lung disorders at routine meat inspection with findings at systematic health monitoring in Danish finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Nielsen, Gitte Blach; Denwood, Matt

    2015-01-01

    purpose that is required of them. Routine meat inspection data were originally collected with the purpose of safeguarding food, but have been re-tasked to also include animal welfare assessment. The objective of the present study was to compare the recording of pericarditis, pleuritis and lungs...... with lesions at routine meat inspection (RMI) with those performed at systematic health monitoring (SHM) in Danish pigs at slaughter, in order to assess the usefulness of RMI for monitoring the prevalence of these diseases. Data originating from 165 Danish pig herds were collected in the period September 2011...

  12. 75 FR 56502 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... representatives of consumer groups; producers, processors, and marketers from the meat, poultry and egg product... Update is communicated via Listserv, a free e-mail subscription service consisting of industry, trade....gov/News_&_Events/Email_Subscription/ . Options range from recalls, export information, regulations...

  13. 77 FR 13512 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ...; producers, processors, and marketers from the meat, poultry and egg product industries; State and local... constituents and stakeholders. The Update is communicated via Listserv, a free electronic mail subscription.../News_&_Events/Email_Subscription/ . Options range from recalls to export information to regulations...

  14. Occurrence and factors associated with bovine cysticercosis recorded in cattle at meat inspection in Denmark in 2004-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.

    2013-01-01

    were attributed to female gender. Increasing age at slaughter was also associated with high risk of BC. There may be overlaps between these effects in animals with multiple risk factors. Other underlying factors such as grazing patterns might explain the risk factors and attribution results found...... in this study. However, grazing practices are currently not recorded in the Danish cattle database. Therefore, animal level risk factors such as age and gender together with other risk factors such as grazing practices might be included as food chain information, required to be provided by the farmer prior...... infection. If relevant data could be effectively used to classify animals with respect to their risk of being infected, then the current meat inspection could be replaced by a more cost-effective system targeting high-risk animals. This study aimed to (1) describe the distribution of BC cases in the Danish...

  15. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat (bovine animals)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    were ranked as being of high potential concern; all other substances were ranked as of medium or lower concern. Monitoring programmes for chemical hazards should be more flexible and based on the risk of occurrence, taking into account the completeness and quality of the food chain information supplied......A risk ranking process identified Salmonella spp. and pathogenic verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) as current high-priority biological hazards for meat inspection of bovine animals. As these hazards are not detected by traditional meat inspection, a meat safety assurance system...... for the farm-to-chilled carcass continuum using a risk-based approach was proposed. Key elements of the system are risk-categorisation of slaughter animals for high-priority biological hazards based on improved food chain information, as well as risk-categorisation of slaughterhouses according...

  16. Epidemiologic and economic evaluation of risk-based meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Alban, L.

    2013-01-01

    line. The exact total NEE for the cattle sector depends on how many and which of the abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughter line to save money on inspection of the head of carcases. Overall, the SSSe was low in all scenarios leading to undetected BC-positive cattle both...

  17. Multiresolution Local Contrast Enhancement of X-Ray Images for Poultry Meat Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zikuan; Tao, Yang; Chen, Xin

    2001-03-01

    A multiresolution-analysis-based local contrast transform is proposed to enhance local structures in x-ray images. The local contrast is defined as a ratio of the local intensity variation to the local mean. With wavelet multiresolution decomposition, the detail coefficients and approximation coefficients are interpreted, respectively, as local variations and local averages in virtue of the localization property of wavelet transform. Based on the local contrast transform, an algorithm is developed to modify coefficients before wavelet synthesis. An across-scale local contrast is obtained when the scale associated with the local variation is different from that of the local mean. The nonlinearity and local adaptiveness properties of local contrast transform result in structural enhancement in local dark regions in the reconstructed images. We applied this technique to deboned poultry inspection using x-ray images. Because of its high x-ray absorption, a foreign inclusion appears as a low-intensity object in an x-ray image, thus resulting in contrast enhancement in the reconstructed multiresolution images.

  18. Food Safety Hazards and Microbiological Zoonoses in European Meat Imports Detected in Border Inspection in the Period 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, W; Grabowski, N; Gerulat, B; Klein, G

    2016-02-01

    Microbiological contaminations and other food safety hazards are omnipresent within the European Union (EU) and a considerable risk for consumers, particularly in imported meat and meat products. The number of rejections at external EU borders has been increasing in recent years. Official authorities in each member state are therefore obliged to notify border rejections of food and animal feed due to a direct or indirect risk to human or animal health. This study explored the trends and temporal and spatial distribution of notifications on food safety hazards between January 2008 and December 2013 with a special emphasis on microbiological zoonoses in meat and meat products including poultry at border checks resulting from the rapid alert system for food and feed (RASFF). Results indicated that border rejection notifications are increasing exponentially, frequently due to Salmonella in poultry and shiga-toxin-producing E. coli in meat and meat products. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Comparison of recording of pericarditis and lung disorders at routine meat inspection with findings at systematic health monitoring in Danish finisher pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Søren S; Nielsen, Gitte B; Denwood, Matthew J; Haugegaard, John; Houe, Hans

    2015-03-29

    The use of secondary data is widespread in a range of surveillance and monitoring applications because of the low cost and high availability associated with this form of data. However, as they are often collected for quite unrelated purposes, they are not necessarily fit for the new purpose that is required of them. Routine meat inspection data were originally collected with the purpose of safeguarding food, but have been re-tasked to also include animal welfare assessment. The objective of the present study was to compare the recording of pericarditis, pleuritis and lungs with lesions at routine meat inspection (RMI) with those performed at systematic health monitoring (SHM) in Danish pigs at slaughter, in order to assess the usefulness of RMI for monitoring the prevalence of these diseases. Data originating from 165 Danish pig herds were collected in the period September 2011 to November 2013. From each herd, a batch consisting of all pigs slaughtered on a specific day from a specific farm were included as the RMI data, while lungs and hearts sampled from the batches were used for the SHM. The RMI data and SHM data included recordings related to a) chronic pericarditis, b) chronic pleuritis and c) lung lesions. The proportion of carcases with a specific disease recording was estimated for each batch of pigs, and linear regression was used to relate the RMI-proportion to the SHM-proportion for the conditions mentioned above. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) were estimated as R(2),pericarditis = 0.16; R(2),pleuritis = 0.67; R(2),lungs with lesions = 0.40. R(2),pericarditis changed to 0.42 when the regression analysis included inspection type at the abattoir (with purely visual inspection of the hearts versus traditional inspection including an incision into the heart). Overall, the results suggest that the correlation between findings at RMI and SHM was moderate for pleuritis and lungs with lesions, but poor for pericarditis. The latter could partly be

  20. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat from farmed game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    Salmonella spp. in farmed wild boar and Toxoplasma gondii in farmed deer and farmed wild boar were ranked as a high priority for meat inspection. Trichinella spp. in wild boar was ranked as low priority due to current controls, which should be continued. For chemical hazards, all substances were...... ranked as medium or lower potential concern. More effective control of biological hazards could be achieved using an integrated farm to chilled carcass approach, including improved food chain information (FCI) and risk-based controls. Further studies are required on Salmonella spp. in farmed wild boar...... and T. gondii in farmed wild boar and farmed deer. If new information confirms a high risk to public health from meat from these species, setting targets at carcass level should be considered. Palpation and incision should be omitted, as it will not detect biological hazards considered to be a high...

  1. Time series analysis based on two-part models for excessive zero count data to detect farm-level outbreaks of swine echinococcosis during meat inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yasumoto; Makita, Kohei

    2017-12-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a parasite that causes highly pathogenic zoonoses and is maintained in foxes and rodents on Hokkaido Island, Japan. Detection of E. multilocularis infections in swine is epidemiologically important. In Hokkaido, administrative information is provided to swine producers based on the results of meat inspections. However, as the current criteria for providing administrative information often results in delays in providing information to producers, novel criteria are needed. Time series models were developed to monitor autocorrelations between data and lags using data collected from 84 producers at the Higashi-Mokoto Meat Inspection Center between April 2003 and November 2015. The two criteria were quantitatively compared using the sign test for the ability to rapidly detect farm-level outbreaks. Overall, the time series models based on an autoexponentially regressed zero-inflated negative binomial distribution with 60th percentile cumulative distribution function of the model detected outbreaks earlier more frequently than the current criteria (90.5%, 276/305, pdisadvantages of the current criteria to provide an earlier indication of increases in the rate of echinococcosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stakeholder perspectives on the use of pig meat inspection as a health and welfare diagnostic tool in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland; a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, C; Boyle, L; Teixeira, D L; O'Connell, N E; Hawe, M; Hanlon, A

    2016-01-01

    A SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis is a strategic management tool applied to policy planning and decision-making. This short report presents the results of a SWOT analysis, carried out with n  = 16 stakeholders i) involved in the pig industry in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, and ii) in general animal welfare and food safety policy areas. As part of a larger study called PIGWELFIND, the analysis sought to explore the potential development of pig meat inspection as an animal welfare and diagnostic tool. The final SWOT framework comprised two strengths, three opportunities, six weaknesses, and five threats. Issues around relationships and communication between producers and their veterinary practitioner, processors and producers were common to both the strengths and weakness clusters. Practical challenges within the processing plant were also named. Overall, the SWOT framework complements results reported in Devitt et al. (Ir Vet J 69:2, 2016) regarding problematic issues within the current system of information feedback on meat inspection especially within the Republic of Ireland, and the wider challenges of communication and problems of distrust. The results of the SWOT analysis support the conclusions from Devitt et al. (Ir Vet J 69:2, 2016), that trust between all stakeholders across the supply chain will be essential for the development of an effective environment in which to realise the full diagnostic potential of MI data. Further stakeholder engagement could seek to apply the findings of the SWOT analysis to a policy Delphi methodology, as used elsewhere.

  3. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... statement. (a) Inspected and passed sausages and other products in casings or in link form, of the ordinary... near each end of the sausage or similar product prepared in casings when the product is of a size larger than that customarily sold at retail intact. (b) Inspected and passed sausage and other products...

  4. Bovine tuberculosis in Rwanda: Prevalence and economic impact evaluation by meat inspection at Société des Abattoirs de Nyabugogo-Nyabugogo Abattoir, Kigali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervais Habarugira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the significant public health burden of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in Rwanda, the prevalence of bTB is poorly documented. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of bTB in cattle using gross examination of granulomatous lesions, to identify mycobacteria species in suspected samples, and to evaluate the economic impact of meat condemnation based on bTB-like lesions in the meat industry in Rwanda. Routine meat inspection was conducted at Société des Abattoirs de Nyabugogo (SABAN-Nyabugogo Abattoir. Tissue samples including 31 lymph nodes, 3 lungs and 2 livers were obtained from cattle of different ages with gross tuberculous lesions. Mycobacterium bovis was identified using microscopy with Kinyoun staining and isolation of mycobacterial species in culture on Löwenstein–Jensen and Colestos media, further identified using biochemical tests. Our findings, based on culture and postmortem results, show that the prevalence of bTB is 0.5%(0.587*148/16753, with an overall gross tuberculous lesion prevalence of 0.9% (148/16753. The presence of lesions were higher in cattle aged 2 years and older (1.6% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.05 and higher in females than in males (1.4% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.05. Of the 36 samples tested, 26 (72.2% were positive by microscopic examination with Kinyoun staining while M. bovis was culture-confirmed in 21 (58.7% cases. Bovine tuberculosis caused condemnation of 1683.5 kg of meat, resulting in an estimated loss of $4810. Our findings indicate that the prevalence of bTB in Rwanda is significant, and that bTB is a major cause of meat condemnation requiring continued implementation of surveillance and control measures. Furthermore, the results from this study also show important variations in sensitivity of the different tests that were used to determine the prevalence of bTB in cattle in Rwanda.

  5. Bovine tuberculosis in Rwanda: Prevalence and economic impact evaluation by meat inspection at Société des Abattoirs de Nyabugogo-Nyabugogo Abattoir, Kigali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habarugira, Gervais; Rukelibuga, Joseph; Nanyingi, Mark O; Mushonga, Borden

    2014-11-05

    Despite the significant public health burden of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Rwanda, the prevalence of bTB is poorly documented. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of bTB in cattle using gross examination of granulomatous lesions, to identify mycobacteria species in suspected samples, and to evaluate the economic impact of meat condemnation based on bTB-like lesions in the meat industry in Rwanda. Routine meat inspection was conducted at Société des Abattoirs de Nyabugogo (SABAN)-Nyabugogo Abattoir. Tissue samples including 31 lymph nodes, 3 lungs and 2 livers were obtained from cattle of different ages with gross tuberculous lesions. Mycobacterium bovis was identified using microscopy with Kinyoun staining and isolation of mycobacterial species in culture on Löwenstein-Jensen and Colestos media, further identified using biochemical tests. Our findings, based on culture and postmortem results, show that the prevalence of bTB is 0.5%(0.587*148/16753), with an overall gross tuberculous lesion prevalence of 0.9% (148/16753). The presence of lesions were higher in cattle aged 2 years and older (1.6% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.05) and higher in females than in males (1.4% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.05). Of the 36 samples tested, 26 (72.2%) were positive by microscopic examination with Kinyoun staining while M. bovis was culture-confirmed in 21 (58.7%) cases. Bovine tuberculosis caused condemnation of 1683.5 kg of meat, resulting in an estimated loss of $4810. Our findings indicate that the prevalence of bTB in Rwanda is significant, and that bTB is a major cause of meat condemnation requiring continued implementation of surveillance and control measures. Furthermore, the results from this study also show important variations in sensitivity of the different tests that were used to determine the prevalence of bTB in cattle in Rwanda.

  6. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been...

  7. The safety and quality of pork and poultry meat imports for the common European market received at border inspection post Hamburg Harbour between 2014 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Wiebke; Woudstra, Svenja; Müller, Anja; Grabowski, Nils; Schoo, Gundela; Gerulat, Bettina; Klein, Günter; Kehrenberg, Corinna

    2018-01-01

    Though imports of products of animal origin into the European Union (EU) have to comply with legal requirements and quality standards of the community, food consignment rejections at external EU borders have been increasing in recent years. This study explored microbiological metrics according to national target and critical values valid for samples at consumer level of 498 fresh poultry meat and 136 fresh pork filets from consignments subjected to physical checks during clearing at the border inspection post Hamburg harbour between January 2014 and December 2015 with ISO standard methods. Quantitative results indicated that critical thresholds for aerobic counts, Enterobacteriaceae, and E. coli were never surpassed. Merely for staphylococci, one poultry sample (0.2%) and 10 pork samples (9.3%) exceeded the critical limit (3.7 log cfu/g). However, qualitative analyses revealed that, Staphylococcus aureus was present in 16% and 10% of all poultry and pork samples, respectively, though no methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus could be confirmed. Moreover, E. coli was present in 50% and 67% of all pork and poultry samples, respectively, and thereof 33 isolates were confirmed as extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli. Only 1.2% of the poultry samples were unacceptable due to the presence of Salmonella spp., whereas they were not detected in any pork sample. Campylobacter spp. were not detected in any sample. Though imported pork and poultry meat complies mostly with national market requirements, it might pose a potential risk to public health, especially for a direct or indirect foodborne transmission of imported, uncommon strains of zoonotic bacteria.

  8. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products...

  9. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products...

  10. Pig producer perspectives on the use of meat inspection as an animal health and welfare diagnostic tool in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Catherine; Boyle, Laura; Teixeira, D L; O'Connell, N E; Hawe, M; Hanlon, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is growing interest in developing ante and post mortem meat inspection (MI) to incorporate measures of pig health and welfare for use as a diagnostic tool on pig farms. However, the success of the development of the MI process requires stakeholder engagement with the process. Knowledge gaps and issues of trust can undermine the effective exchange and utilisation of information across the supply chain. A social science research methodology was employed to establish stakeholder perspectives towards the development of MI to include measures of pig health and welfare. In this paper the findings of semi-structured telephone interviews with 18 pig producers from the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland are presented. Producers recognised the benefit of the utilisation of MI data as a health and welfare diagnostic tool. This acknowledgment, however, was undermined for some by dissatisfaction with the current system of MI information feedback, by trust and fairness concerns, and by concerns regarding the extent to which data would be used in the producers' interests. Tolerance of certain animal welfare issues may also have a negative impact on how producers viewed the potential of MI data. The private veterinary practitioner was viewed as playing a vital role in assisting them with the interpretation of MI data for herd health planning. The development of positive relationships based on trust, commitment and satisfaction across the supply chain may help build a positive environment for the effective utilisation of MI data in improving pig health and welfare. The utilisation of MI as a diagnostic tool would benefit from the development of a communication strategy aimed at building positive relationships between stakeholders in the pig industry.

  11. [Evaluation of artificial digestion method on inspection of meat for Trichinella spiralis contamination and influence of the method on muscle larvae recovery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Ying; Du, Jing-Fang; Dun, Guo-Qing; Sun, Wei-Li; Wang, Jin-Xi

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of artificial digestion method on inspection of meat for Trichinella spiralis contamination and its influence on activity and infectivity of muscle larvae. The mice were inoculated orally with 100 muscle larvae of T. spiralis and sacrificed on the 30th day following the infection. The muscle larvae of T. spiralis were recovered by three different test protocols employing variations of the artificial digestion method, i.e. the first test protocol evaluating digestion for 2 hours (magnetic stirrer method), the second test protocol evaluating digestion for 12 hours, and the third test protocol evaluating digestion for 20 hours. Each test group included ten samples, and each of which included 300 encapsulated larvae. Meanwhile, the activity of the recovered muscle larvae was also assessed. Forty mice were randomly divided into a control group and three digestion groups, so 4 groups (with 10 mice per group) in total. In the control group, each mouse was orally inoculated with 100 encapsulated larvae of T. spiralis. In all of the digestion test groups, each mouse was orally inoculated with 100 muscle larvae of T. spiralis. The larvae were then recovered from the different three test groups by the artificial digestion protocol variations. All the infected mice were sacrificed on the 30th day following the infection, and the muscle larvae of T. spiralis were examined respectively by the diaphragm compression method and the magnetic stirrer method. The muscle larvae detection rates were 78.47%, 76.73%, and 68.63%, the death rates were 0.59%, 4.60%, and 7.43%, and the reduction rates were 60.56%, 61.94%, and 73.07%, in the Test Group One (2-hour digestion), Test Group Two (12-hour digestion) and Test Group Three (20-hour digestion), respectively. The magnetic stirrer method (2-hour digestion method) is superior to both 12-hour digestion and 20-hour digestion methods when assessed by the detection rate, activity and infectivity of muscle larvae.

  12. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... Procedures § 381.68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates...

  13. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Products § 319.304 Meat stews. Meat stews such as “Beef Stew” or “Lamb Stew” shall contain not less than 25... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY...

  14. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not be...

  15. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes...

  16. Seasonal prevailing surface winds in Northern Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Ivana; Gavrilov, Milivoj B.; Marković, Slobodan B.; Ruman, Albert; Putniković, Suzana

    2018-02-01

    Seasonal prevailing surface winds are analyzed in the territory of Northern Serbia, using observational data from 12 meteorological stations over several decades. In accordance with the general definition of prevailing wind, two special definitions of this term are used. The seasonal wind roses in 16 directions at each station are analyzed. This study shows that the prevailing winds in Northern Serbia have northwestern and southeastern directions. Circulation weather types over Serbia are presented in order to determine the connections between the synoptic circulations and prevailing surface winds. Three controlling pressure centers, i.e., the Mediterranean cyclone, Siberian high, and the Azores anticyclone, appear as the most important large-scale factors that influence the creation of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia. Beside the synoptic cause of the prevailing winds, it is noted that the orography of the eastern Balkans has a major influence on the winds from the second quadrant. It was found that the frequencies of circulation weather types are in agreement with those of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia.

  17. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall contain...

  18. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  19. Study of Water Binding Capacity, pH, Chemical Composition and Microstructure of Livestock Meat and Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonora Okuskhanova; Maksim Rebezov; Zhanibek Yessimbekov; Anuarbek Suychinov; Natalya Semenova; Yaroslav Rebezov; Olga Gorelik; Oksana Zinina

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows the results of analysis of chemical composition, water binding capacity, pH and microstructure of maral meat, goat meat, lamb, and turkey meat. From the analysis, the high content of protein and ash is observed in turkey meat, fat prevails in lamb, and less amount in maral meat and goat meat. pH value lies between 5.7 (turkey white meat) and 6.4 (goat meat). Low value of water binding capacity is detected in turkey meat (58.2% in red meat, 59.2% in white meat) and high value ...

  20. A comment on the paper ‘A comparison between lesions found during meat inspection of finishing pigs raised under organic/free-range conditions and conventional indoor conditions’ by Alban et al. 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2016-01-01

    This is a critical comment on a paper published in Porcine Health Management in 2015, presenting a comparison between lesions from meat inspection at one abattoir on slaughter pigs classified in to two different production forms: organic/free-range conditions and conventional indoor conditions....... The conclusion made by the paper that 13 lesion types has a higher prevalence in organic/free-range pigs and 4 lesion types occurred less frequently in organic/free-range finishers compared to conventional finishers is correct except that 5 (instead of 4) lesion types occurred less frequently in organic....../free-range finishers. However, these five types of lesions represent 74 % of all lesions recorded among conventional indoor, conventional free-range and organic pigs in one slaughter house from October 1 2012 to September 26 2013....

  1. Regulations on Meat Hygiene in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Robert (Skip) A.

    Regulations on meat hygiene in the United States of America (US) stem from the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA, 21 USC §§ 601 et. seq.), promulgated in 1906, that gives the US Secretary of Agriculture (the Secretary) the power to oversee the conversion of livestock into meat products. The FMIA is reviewed herein to provide a background for discussion on how the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and its departments, particularly the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), control and regulate the meat industry. This chapter discusses regulations that pertain to meat, herein meant to mean beef, veal, and pork, and does not specifically address poultry, although the regulations for poultry slaughter and processing are in many ways similar to those for meat and meat food products.

  2. Applying an intelligent model and sensitivity analysis to inspect mass transfer kinetics, shrinkage and crust color changes of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiryousefi, Mohammad Reza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use image analysis and artificial neural network (ANN) to predict mass transfer kinetics as well as color changes and shrinkage of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes. Two generalized feedforward networks were separately developed by using the operation conditions as inputs. Results based on the highest numerical quantities of the correlation coefficients between the experimental versus predicted values, showed proper fitting. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that among the input variables, frying temperature was the most sensitive to moisture content (MC) and fat content (FC) compared to other variables. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that MC and FC were the most sensitive to frying temperature compared to other input variables. Similarly, for the second ANN architecture, microwave power density was the most impressive variable having the maximum influence on both shrinkage percentage and color changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 76 FR 11752 - Australia's Meat Safety Enhancement Program; Notice of Affirmation of Equivalence Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Enhancement Program (MSEP), an alternative to the conventional meat inspection system also maintained by the... export meat to the United States under its conventional meat inspection system, approached FSIS with an... disposition on animals and carcasses/heads/ viscera where there is evidence of disease, verifying HACCP and...

  4. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  5. Meet meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Gerben A.; Tobi, Hilde; Fischer, Arnout R.H.

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-cultural study we investigated how study participants from China, Ethiopia and the Netherlands operationalize the concept of meat and to what extent cultured meat fits or does not fit into this operationalization. We argue that combining the conceptual approaches symbolic boundaries

  6. Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC) Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Annual reports of the Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC), which studies the prevailing (market) rate system for wages and other matters pertinent to...

  7. 9 CFR 327.26 - Official import inspection marks and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official import inspection marks and... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.26 Official import inspection marks... parts, and cuts, not in containers. EC11SE91.024 For application to outside containers of meat and meat...

  8. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and all...

  9. Meat flavour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosset, R.; Liger, P.; Roussel-Ciquard, N.

    1978-01-01

    For the consumer, meat is characterized by a certain number of organoleptic qualities; among them, flavour -that is to say the association of both odour and taste- plays a leading part. This property is based upon a great number of chemical components: some volatile components are responsible for the aroma and some non-volatile ones for the taste. These substances are either made or released during the heating of the meat on account of components called precursors which are produced during the aging of the meat. The two main reactions which preside over the elaboration of flavour are: the Maillard's reaction and the autooxidation reactions. Meat flavour is associated with the animal characteristics; it is influenced by the ante- and post mortem treatments as well as by the technological treatments for storing it. The use of synthetical flavours is to be considered as possible in the future [fr

  10. Inspection Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — FDA is disclosing the final inspection classification for inspections related to currently marketed FDA-regulated products. The disclosure of this information is not...

  11. Inspection robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Toshio; Oya, Tadashi

    1990-01-01

    Inspections of nuclear power plants make it possible to achieve and maintain high levels of plant reliability and availability. The Corporation is developing robots to perform inspection tasks. The benefits of robot use include maintaining higher surveillance levels, reducing occupational radiation exposure, and reduced labor costs. The article introduces two fully developed products: a remote-inspection robot for use inside nuclear reactor containment vessels, and a remote inspection and repair robot for use inside the the vacuum vessel of the JT-60 nuclear-fusion critical plasma test reactor. It also describes a prototype automatic inspection robot that detects abnormalities using video and infrared cameras and an image-processing system. (author)

  12. Inspection planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.; Levstek, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) division of nuclear and radiological safety inspection has developed systematic approach to their inspections. To be efficient in their efforts regarding regular and other types of inspections, in past years, the inspection plan has been developed. It is yearly based and organized on a such systematic way, that all areas of nuclear safety important activities of the licensee are covered. The inspection plan assures appropriate preparation for conducting the inspections, allows the overview of the progress regarding the areas to be covered during the year. Depending on the licensee activities and nature of facility (nuclear power plant, research reactor, radioactive waste storage, others), the plan has different levels of intensity of inspections and also their frequency. One of the basic approaches of the plan is to cover all nuclear and radiological important activities on such way, that all regulatory requests are fulfilled. In addition, the inspection plan is a good tool to improve inspection effectiveness based on previous experience and allows to have the oversight of the current status of fulfillment of planned inspections. Future improvement of the plan is necessary in the light of newest achievements on this field in the nuclear world, that means, new types of inspections are planned and will be incorporated into plan in next year.(author)

  13. Níveis de resíduos de praguicidas organoclorados em produtos cárneos sob inspeção federal Levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in meat products inspected by the federal government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pessoa de Paula Carvalho

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de evidenciar a freqüência e os níveis de resíduos de praguiddas organoclorados, foram analisadas 445 unidades amostrais de matéria prima (gordura bovina provenientes de carcaças de bovinos de frigoríficos e 132 unidades amostrais de carne bovina já processada (enlatados, tais como "corned beef" e "roast beef". Apresentaram-se com resíduos de praguicidas acima dos limites de tolerância estipulados, 77 unidades amostrais de gordura bovina e 5 de produto processado. Resíduos de praguiddas, sem contudo ultrapassar os limites de tolerância, foram identificados em, praticamente, todas as amostras, sendo que 27% das unidades amostrais de gordura bovina e 10,6% de produto processado apresentaram resíduos de praguicidas em violação aos limites estabelecidos na legislação. Heptacloro, BHC e Dieldrin foram os praguiddas mais freqüentes e Lindane e DDT os menos evidenciados.To bring attention to the frequency and the levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in meat, 445 samples of raw material (bovine fat from bovine carcasses collected from meat packing plants and 132 samples of preserved meat (canned, such as corned or roast beef were analyzed. Seventy-seven samples of bovine fat and 8 of preserved meat were discovered to have pesticide residue above the maximum acceptable limits. Pesticide residue was found in practically all the samples without, however, exceeding the acceptable limits. Twenty-seven percent of the bovine fat samples and 10.6% of the preserved meat contained residue above the legal tolerance levels. Heptachlor, BHC, and Dieldrin were the most frequent; Lindane and DDT, the least.

  14. Modelling Meat Quality Attributes.

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Terence C.

    2001-01-01

    Recent meat demand models incorporate demand functions for cuts of meat rather than whole carcasses. However, parameters for “meat quality” are seldom included in such models. Modelling difficulty arises as meat cuts are heterogeneous in their quality attributes. Meat quality may be assessed by measurement of attributes including tenderness, juiciness and flavour. Cooking method and cooking time are the two primary factors that affect meat-eating quality. The purpose of this paper is to show ...

  15. Prevailing Torque Locking Feature in Threaded Fasteners Using Anaerobic Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alan; Hess, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests to assess the use of anaerobic adhesive for providing a prevailing torque locking feature in threaded fasteners. Test procedures are developed and tests are performed on three fastener materials, four anaerobic adhesives, and both unseated assembly conditions. Five to ten samples are tested for each combination. Tests for initial use, reuse without additional adhesive, and reuse with additional adhesive are performed for all samples. A 48-hour cure time was used for all initial use and reuse tests. Test data are presented as removal torque versus removal angle with the specification required prevailing torque range added for performance assessment. Percent specification pass rates for the all combinations of fastener material, adhesive, and assembly condition are tabulated and reveal use of anaerobic adhesive as a prevailing torque locking feature is viable. Although not every possible fastener material and anaerobic adhesive combination provides prevailing torque values within specification, any combination can be assessed using the test procedures presented. Reuse without additional anaerobic adhesive generally provides some prevailing torque, and in some cases within specification. Reuse with additional adhesive often provides comparable removal torque data as in initial use.

  16. Is the Economic Crisis Challenging the Prevailing Gender Regime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Jepsen, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether the current economic and financial crisis is challenging the prevailing gender-equality model in four European countries: Denmark, Germany, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom. After situating the countries in relation to the underlying gender regime...... and analysing the corresponding position of women and men in paid and unpaid work, the paper contains an in-depth discussion of the short- and medium-term policy responses to the crisis. Our analysis shows that independent of the prevailing gender regime, scant public attention has been directed to gender...

  17. Hospital Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Welcome to hospitalinspections.org, a website run by the Association of Health Care Journalists (AHCJ) that aims to make federal hospital inspection reports easier...

  18. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection Service will make publicly available the names and locations of retail consignees of recalled meat or...

  19. How safe is the meat inspection based on artificial digestion of pooled samples for Trichinella in pork? A scenario from wildlife to a human patient in a non-endemic region of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Giessen, Joke; Franssen, Frits; Fonville, Manoj; Kortbeek, Titia; Beckers, Pieter; Tolsma, Paulien; Stenvers, Olaf; Teunis, Peter; Takumi, Katsuhisa

    2013-05-20

    The occurrence of trichinellosis in a resident of the Netherlands prompted us to examine the likelihood of this originating from infected rats in spite of prevailing biosecurity and testing procedures. In so doing, we sought to calculate the possible risks for trichinellosis in countries deemed non-endemic. The infection risk was determined by simulating a scenario from a reservoir of minimally contaminated wildlife to pigs to humans. Results indicate that humans might become infected even in the event that artificial digestion had been performed on individually tested pig carcasses. Our conclusions justify reconsidering Trichinella control strategies based on the current testing protocol, and emphasize the importance of proper cooking as further insurance against human infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrasonic Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Automation Industries Inc. has had more than $2 million in contracts to produce innovative equipment for the Apollo program. When Marshall Space Flight Center sought a fast nondestructive way to inspect butt welds in aluminum alloys for spacecraft, the company developed a reliable ultrasonic device using multiple transducers called "delta manipulators" which detect lack of weld penetration not readily seen in radiograph automation. Industry soon adapted the ultrasonic equipment to a unique rail inspection device that saves countless man hours. Device is contained in self propelled railroad cars produced and operated by the company to check old track welds for deterioration.

  1. Operational inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystersky, M.

    1997-01-01

    Special equipment is described, designed for inspection of reactor pressure vessels performed from the inside. Central shaft manipulator ZMM-5 is available for crack detection control using ultrasound and eddy currents, for visual check of surfaces, repair works at the reactor pressure vessel, and hardness measurements. The manipulator consists of the manipulator bridge, a cable container, shaft segments, a control mechanism and auxiliary parts. Eight inspections were performed at the Bohunice nuclear power plant and two at the Paks nuclear power plant. (M.D.)

  2. Error Sources in Proccessing LIDAR Based Bridge Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, H.; Chen, S. E.; Liu, W.

    2017-09-01

    Bridge inspection is a critical task in infrastructure management and is facing unprecedented challenges after a series of bridge failures. The prevailing visual inspection was insufficient in providing reliable and quantitative bridge information although a systematic quality management framework was built to ensure visual bridge inspection data quality to minimize errors during the inspection process. The LiDAR based remote sensing is recommended as an effective tool in overcoming some of the disadvantages of visual inspection. In order to evaluate the potential of applying this technology in bridge inspection, some of the error sources in LiDAR based bridge inspection are analysed. The scanning angle variance in field data collection and the different algorithm design in scanning data processing are the found factors that will introduce errors into inspection results. Besides studying the errors sources, advanced considerations should be placed on improving the inspection data quality, and statistical analysis might be employed to evaluate inspection operation process that contains a series of uncertain factors in the future. Overall, the development of a reliable bridge inspection system requires not only the improvement of data processing algorithms, but also systematic considerations to mitigate possible errors in the entire inspection workflow. If LiDAR or some other technology can be accepted as a supplement for visual inspection, the current quality management framework will be modified or redesigned, and this would be as urgent as the refine of inspection techniques.

  3. The role of the United States Food Safety and Inspection Service after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, Ronald E.; Randecker, Victor; Johnson, Wesley

    1989-01-01

    The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) inspects domestic and imported meat and poultry food products to assure the public that they are safe, wholesome, not economically adulterated and properly labeled. The Service also monitors the activities of meat and poultry plants and related activities in allied industries, and establishes standards and approves labels for meat and poultry products. As part of its responsibility, shortly after the Chernobyl accident occurred, FSIS developed a plan to assess this accident's impact on domestically produced and imported meat and poultry

  4. EFSA Panels on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ), on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM), and on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat (poultry)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    2012-01-01

    food safety assurance system, achievable through improved food chain information (FCI) and risk-based interventions, was proposed. This includes setting targets at carcass level and, when appropriate, flock level indicating what should be achieved for a given hazard. Elements of the system would...... be risk categorisation of flocks based on FCI and classification of abattoirs according to their capability to reduce carcass faecal contamination. It is proposed that post-mortem visual inspection is replaced by setting targets for the main hazards on the carcass, and by verification of the food business...

  5. 9 CFR 317.344 - Identification of major cuts of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of major cuts of meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.344 Identification of major cuts of meat products. The major cuts of single-ingredient, raw...

  6. Parasite to patient : A quantitative risk model for Trichinella spp. in pork and wild boar meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Frits; Swart, Arno; van der Giessen, Joke; Havelaar, Arie; Takumi, Katsuhisa

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of raw or inadequately cooked pork meat may result in trichinellosis, a human disease due to nematodes of the genus Trichinella. In many countries worldwide, individual control of pig carcasses at meat inspection is mandatory but incurs high costs in relation to absence of positive

  7. Technological characteristics of meat - viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    DIBĎÁK, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on the technological characteristics of meat, mainly viscosity of meat. At the beginning I dealt with construction of meat and various types of meat: beef, veal, pork, mutton, rabbit, poultry and venison. Then I described basic chemical composition of meat and it?s characteristic. In detail I dealt with viscosity of meat. Viscosity is the ability of meat to bind water both own and added. I mentioned influences, which effects viscosity and I presented the possib...

  8. Meat analogues: Health promising sustainable meat substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pavan; Chatli, M K; Mehta, Nitin; Singh, Parminder; Malav, O P; Verma, Akhilesh K

    2017-03-24

    There is a scarcity of protein of high biological value due to rapid increase in the world population and limited natural resources. Meat is a good source of protein of high biological value but converting the vegetable protein into animal protein is not economical. There is a trend of production of healthy and delicious meat free food for satisfaction of vegetarian and personal well beings. This resulted in increasing use of low cost vegetable protein such as textured soy protein, mushroom, wheat gluten, pulses etc as a substitute for animal-protein. These simulated meat-like products, with similar texture, flavor, color, and nutritive value can be substituted directly for meat to all sections of the society.

  9. Biogenic amines in meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    It has been recognized for some time that biogenic amines occur in a wide range of foods, among them meat and meat products. Meat is an important component of the diet in developed countries. The presence of these amines in food is of interest for two reasons: firstly, for toxicological reasons, in the sense that high levels of dietary biogenic amines can be toxic for certain consumers, and secondly, for their role as possible quality indicators. Based on these two premises, the present article offers a new analysis on aspects of toxicology and on the use of biogenic amines as a quality control method, as well as on their presence in meat and meat products. The article focuses particularly on factors affecting the production of biogenic amines, with reference to various parameters relating to microorganisms, meat raw materials, and processing conditions. A better understanding of the factors determining their formation (i.e., microorganisms, raw materials used, and technological processes applied) and their effects could lead to ways of controlling their production, limiting their presence in the end product, and hence, rendering them less toxic.

  10. Study on the overview on food borne bacteria in foodstuffs with animal origin in Iran; Part two: meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S Shekarforoush

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to review the contamination of meat and meat products with pathogenic bacteria in Iran. Little information is available about the contamination of meat and meat products with Bacillus cereus, because of the low contamination rate with the microorganism. The situation is about the same with Brucella, as the microorganism can hardly be seen in the muscles. However, not too many information is available on the contamination with Campylobacter jejuni, even though, the contamination of chicken meat with the campylobacter was addressed. Clostridium butolinum was the main discriminated bacterium to contaminate fish and its products and canned meats. Studies revealed that the big portions of meat were less likely contaminated with E. coli compared to the minced meat. Our study showed that the cross contamination of sausage is often occurred after the production chain. The situation was possibly attributed to the improvement of hygienic conditions of slaughter-houses and meat industries. Limited information was found on the contamination with Listeria monocytogenes and available data indicate that the microorganism can be present in meat and meat products. The most important factor for prevention of contamination is restricted inspection of slaughtered animals before slaughter and omission of diseased animals. Much information was accessible on the cross contamination with Salmonella in Iran and elsewhere. Salmonellosis is not common in the slaughtered animals despite its epidemiological and public health issues. The problem was also associated with the restricted inspection. Study about the staphylococcal contamination of meat was proportionately numerous. The contamination was mostly occurred in the minced Kebab in the warm seasons of the year. Generally, a low percentage of such contaminations were found in the meat products and sausage, in the surveys.

  11. Farmers prevailing perception profiles regarding GM crops: A classification proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Carla; Massarani, Luisa

    2018-04-01

    Genetically modified organisms have been at the centre of a major public controversy, involving different interests and actors. While much attention has been devoted to consumer views on genetically modified food, there have been few attempts to understand the perceptions of genetically modified technology among farmers. By investigating perceptions of genetically modified organisms among Brazilian farmers, we intend to contribute towards filling this gap and thereby add the views of this stakeholder group to the genetically modified debate. A comparative analysis of our data and data from other studies indicate there is a complex variety of views on genetically modified organisms among farmers. Despite this diversity, we found variations in such views occur within limited parameters, concerned principally with expectations or concrete experiences regarding the advantages of genetically modified crops, perceptions of risks associated with them, and ethical questions they raise. We then propose a classification of prevailing profiles to represent the spectrum of perceptions of genetically modified organisms among farmers.

  12. Assuring eating quality of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, G A

    1996-01-01

    The way of assuring quality has changed over the years, from inspection of end product to quality management systems and on-line process control. The latter concepts have had a great impact in many industries during the last decades. But the concept of Total Quality is continuos improvement so it is time to take advantage of the next generation of quality assurance tools: Quality by Design. This is the most powerful instrument in quality assurance today. Quality by design has been used with outstanding results in many industries as the automobile and the electronics industry. Maybe the meat industry will be the next? To succeed, the "eating quality attributes" that are most important to the customer must be brought into focus. The challenge to the meat research scientist is to design products and processes that take care of customer needs despite variation in the raw material and the consumer's rough handling. The Quality Management Standards are helpful in conducting the design and production process, but to focus on the right aspects, there also are need for suitable methods as Quality Function Deployment. Customer needs change and new research changes old 'truths'. This require an organisation, a quality system and a culture which can handle rapid changes and a diversity of customer needs.

  13. 76 FR 22667 - Availability of Salmonella Compliance Guide for Small and Very Small Meat and Poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service [Docket No. FSIS-2010-0026] Availability of Salmonella Compliance Guide for Small and Very Small Meat and Poultry Establishments That Produce Ready-to-Eat Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...

  14. Meat Managers' Expectations Regarding Marketing of Irradiated Red Meats

    OpenAIRE

    Gaynor, Joe; Jensen, Kimberly L.; Jaenicke, Edward C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess meat managers' expectations about impact of the recent regulatory approval of irradiated raw meat and meat products on marketing decisions and plans by supermarkets and grocery meat retailers. Forty managers of meat departments were interviewed in person to obtain the information for the study. While many of the meat managers believed that irradiation would help increase shelf life and reduce spoilage, they were less optimistic about consumers being wi...

  15. Meat science research tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arturo García Macías

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat is a high quality food due its higher protein content, besides to provide energy, vitamins particularly B complex, water and minerals, resulting in an appreciated food for humans. Even in same country, consumers search for different stuffs, since north consumers looks for meat cuts with fat and bone, whereas center-south consumers prefers fatless debones meat cuts. Modern consumers demand excellent appearance, color, taste and flavor in foods, microbiologically safe, minimal processed and curing salts, very nutritive and cheap. All these together in one single product are a hard challenge in the meat products area.

  16. Update on meat irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at ∼2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry

  17. 77 FR 34854 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Special Wage Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ...-AM63 Prevailing Rate Systems; Special Wage Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics... for the Department of Defense's (DOD's) nonappropriated fund (NAF) automotive mechanics. These special... practice for compensating NAF automotive mechanics with current prevailing pay practices in the private...

  18. Volatile compounds in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika KOSOWSKA

    Full Text Available Abstract Meaty flavor is composed of a few hundreds of volatile compounds, only minor part of which are responsible for the characteristic odor. It is developed as a result of multi-directional reactions proceeding between non-volatile precursors contained in raw meat under the influence of temperature. The volatile compounds are generated upon: Maillard reactions, lipid oxidation, interactions between Maillard reaction products and lipid oxidation products as well as upon thiamine degradation. The developed flavor is determined by many factors associated with: raw material (breed, sex, diet and age of animal, conditions and process of slaughter, duration and conditions of meat storage, type of muscle, additives applied and the course of the technological process. The objective of this review article is to draw attention to the issue of volatile compounds characteristic for meat products and factors that affect their synthesis.

  19. Genetics of Schizophrenia: Historical Insights and Prevailing Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Leemput, J; Hess, J L; Glatt, S J; Tsuang, M T

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia's (SZ's) heritability and familial transmission have been known for several decades; however, despite the clear evidence for a genetic component, it has been very difficult to pinpoint specific causative genes. Even so genetic studies have taught us a lot, even in the pregenomic era, about the molecular underpinnings and disease-relevant pathways. Recurring themes emerged revealing the involvement of neurodevelopmental processes, glutamate regulation, and immune system differential activation in SZ etiology. The recent emergence of epigenetic studies aimed at shedding light on the biological mechanisms underlying SZ has provided another layer of information in the investigation of gene and environment interactions. However, this epigenetic insight also brings forth another layer of complexity to the (epi)genomic landscape such as interactions between genetic variants, epigenetic marks-including cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone modification processes-, gene expression regulation, and environmental influences. In this review, we seek to synthesize perspectives, including limitations and obstacles yet to overcome, from genetic and epigenetic literature on SZ through a qualitative review of risk factors and prevailing hypotheses. Encouraged by the findings of both genetic and epigenetic studies to date, as well as the continued development of new technologies to collect and interpret large-scale studies, we are left with a positive outlook for the future of elucidating the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying SZ and other complex neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Familiar units prevail over statistical cues in word segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Perruchet, Pierre; Tillmann, Barbara; Peereman, Ronald

    2017-09-01

    In language acquisition research, the prevailing position is that listeners exploit statistical cues, in particular transitional probabilities between syllables, to discover words of a language. However, other cues are also involved in word discovery. Assessing the weight learners give to these different cues leads to a better understanding of the processes underlying speech segmentation. The present study evaluated whether adult learners preferentially used known units or statistical cues for segmenting continuous speech. Before the exposure phase, participants were familiarized with part-words of a three-word artificial language. This design allowed the dissociation of the influence of statistical cues and familiar units, with statistical cues favoring word segmentation and familiar units favoring (nonoptimal) part-word segmentation. In Experiment 1, performance in a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) task between words and part-words revealed part-word segmentation (even though part-words were less cohesive in terms of transitional probabilities and less frequent than words). By contrast, an unfamiliarized group exhibited word segmentation, as usually observed in standard conditions. Experiment 2 used a syllable-detection task to remove the likely contamination of performance by memory and strategy effects in the 2AFC task. Overall, the results suggest that familiar units overrode statistical cues, ultimately questioning the need for computation mechanisms of transitional probabilities (TPs) in natural language speech segmentation.

  1. an intermediate moisture meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bunmi

    Matured leaves of Ocimum gratissimum were harvested and the extracts used to cure. Suya (an intermediate moisture meat). O. gratissimum leaves were collected from. Oyo state south west region of Nigeria, rinsed in distilled water and squeezed to extract the fluid. The meat used was Semi membranosus muscle from beef ...

  2. Qualitative analysis of meat and meat products by multiplex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fish, pork and ruminant, respectively. The optimized M-PCR assay was applied to 93 commercial meat products and it showed the presence of poultry meat in red meat analyzed, although, it was not indicated on the label. Key words: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR), meat products, food, salami, sausage.

  3. Presence of Listeria species in fresh meats from retail markets in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Gordana R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria spp. are Gram positive, short, non-sporing rods, microaerophilic. Of the six species currently recognized, Listeria monocytogenes is the most important as it causes a range of infections in humans and animals. The organism can be found in a wide variety of habitats including the soil, food processing environments and raw foods. The ability of the organism to grow at refrigeration temperatures is of major importance in food production. This study examines the presence of Listeria species in fresh meat. 29 samples (chicken, pork and beef meat. This bacteria was found in 82.7% of analyzed samples; 7 L. innocua, 8 L. monocytogenes and 9 L. welshimeri (of all isolates. L. innocua prevailed in pork meat (40%, L. monocytogenes in chicken and pork meat (30%, and L. welshimeri in beef meat (44.4%.

  4. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rašeta, M.; Mrdović, B.; Janković, V.; Bečkei, Z.; Lakićević, B.; Vidanović, D.; Polaček, V.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine Salmonella spp. prevalence in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat. Over a period of three years, a total of 300 samples were taken (100 RTE meat products, 100 meat preparations and 100 minced meat) and examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. Sampling was carried out at the warehouses of the food manufacturers. Salmonella spp. were not detected in RTE meat products, while 7% of semi-finished meat products (fresh sausages, grill meat formed and unformed) contained Salmonella, as did 18% of minced meats (minced pork II category, minced beef II category, mixed minced meat). The 25 Salmonella isolates obtained were examined for antibiotic resistance by the disk diffusion test, according to the NCCLS and CLSI guidelines. Isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid (80%), tetracycline (72%), cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (48%), but not to gentamicin (8%) or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (0%).

  5. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  6. The Meat City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the emergence of the Copenhagen slaughterhouse, called the Meat City, during the late nineteenth century. This slaughterhouse was a product of a number of heterogeneous components: industrialization and new infrastructures were important, but hygiene and the significance...... of Danish bacon exports also played a key role. In the Meat City, this created a distinction between rising production and consumption on the one hand, and the isolation and closure of the slaughtering facility on the other. This friction mirrored an ambivalent attitude towards meat in the urban space: one...... where consumers demanded more meat than ever before, while animals were being removed from the public eye. These contradictions, it is argued, illustrate and underline the change of the city towards a ‘post-domestic’ culture. The article employs a variety of sources, but primarily the Copenhagen...

  7. Meat and Appetite Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Ursula Nana

    D thesis was to investigate the effects of fiber addition to meatballs and the effects of cooking methods of pork on appetite regulation. The PhD thesis is based on three human meal test studies and one analytical study related to the characteristics of fiber meat products. In paper I, the objective...... pork products are also characterized as high fat products containing more than 10 g fat per 100 g. In this context, the Danish meat industry puts a lot of effort into developing meat products with a healthier nutritional profile. Thus, it is relevant to provide scientific evidence of the satiating...... effects of new formulations of pork products. Different strategies can be applied to potentially enhance the satiating properties of pork. Processed meat products such as meatballs can serve as a matrix for the addition of fiber ingredients. Based on their high protein and fiber contents, high...

  8. The Meat City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    where consumers demanded more meat than ever before, while animals were being removed from the public eye. These contradictions, it is argued, illustrate and underline the change of the city towards a ‘post-domestic’ culture. The article employs a variety of sources, but primarily the Copenhagen......This article investigates the emergence of the Copenhagen slaughterhouse, called the Meat City, during the late nineteenth century. This slaughterhouse was a product of a number of heterogeneous components: industrialization and new infrastructures were important, but hygiene and the significance...... of Danish bacon exports also played a key role. In the Meat City, this created a distinction between rising production and consumption on the one hand, and the isolation and closure of the slaughtering facility on the other. This friction mirrored an ambivalent attitude towards meat in the urban space: one...

  9. Advancements in meat packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2017-10-01

    Packaging of meat provides the same or similar benefits for raw chilled and processed meats as other types of food packaging. Although air-permeable packaging is most prevalent for raw chilled red meat, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging offer longer shelf life. The major advancements in meat packaging have been in the widely used plastic polymers while biobased materials and their integration into composite packaging are receiving much attention for functionality and sustainability. At this time, active and intelligent packaging are not widely used for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other functions to stabilize and enhance meat properties although many options are being developed and investigated. The advances being made in nanotechnology will be incorporated into food packaging and presumably into meat packaging when appropriate and useful. Intelligent packaging using sensors for transmission of desired information and prompting of subsequent changes in packaging materials, environments or the products to maintain safety and quality are still in developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Meat juice: An alternative matrix for assessing animal health by measuring acute phase proteins. Correlations of pig-MAP and haptoglobin concentrations in pig meat juice and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, M; Gymnich, S; Knura, S; Piñeiro, C; Petersen, B

    2009-10-01

    Quantification of acute phase proteins (APPs) in blood can be used for monitoring animal health and welfare on farms, and could be also of interest for the detection of diseased animals during the meat inspection process. However serum or plasma is not always available for end-point analysis at slaughter. Meat juice might provide an adequate, alternative matrix that can be easily obtained for post-mortem analysis at abattoirs. The concentrations of pig Major Acute phase Protein (pig-MAP) and haptoglobin, two of the main APPs in pigs, were determined in approximately 300 paired samples of plasma and meat juice from the diaphragm (pars costalis), obtained after freezing and thawing the muscle. APPs concentrations in meat juice were closely correlated to those in plasma (r=0.695 for haptoglobin, r=0.858 for pig-MAP, panimal health in pig production, with implications for food safety and meat quality.

  11. Consumers’ Determination of Red Meat and Meat Products Purchase Behaviour – City of Ankara Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Arısoy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, meat consuming level is an indicator of development of countries. The reason for this is the importance of animal proteins such as meat, milk and egg in human nutrition. People in Turkey do not get enough animal protein. Increase of meat and meat related product prices is effective on this. The purpose of this study is to bring up the purchase and consume behavior of consumers. Surveys completed in urban areas around city of Ankara are used primarily. Using Main Mass Ratio Based Simple Occurrence Probability Sampling method 338 families were interviewed. Completed surveys were separated into 3 groups; high, middle, low. As a result of the research, expense for food in total income is around %34. This ratio for families with low income is %53, for families with middle income is %35 and for families with high income is %33. It is found that as income levels of consumers raised, food expenses raise as well. But it shows that as income level increases, expense ratio for food decreases. Food reliability is the most effective factor on consumers’ decision of purchase. Studies show doubts of consumers about food reliability. It is understood that legal adjustments are not applied enough. Especially tight food inspections would be positive on consumer behavior.

  12. Research into poultry meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grashorn, M A

    2010-08-01

    1. Research in the field of poultry meat quality has become more varied during the last 50 years. Besides meat content and microbial condition, animal welfare issues during the slaughter process, muscle morphology, physiology of meat ripening, impact of slaughter process on meat quality, sensory attributes of meat and meat processing have come into focus. 2. The present review summarizes findings and developments in the fields of muscle physiology, meat ripening and meat quality aberrations (like PSE), nutrient composition and sensory qualities, effect of the slaughter process on carcass and meat quality, hygienic conditions and product safety during slaughtering, all based on selected papers published in British Poultry Science during the last 50 years. 3. Some special findings and conclusions are lifted out of the whole results presented in the papers to indicate their importance and to show their contribution to the development of knowledge in the respective field.

  13. Sheep meat commercialization in the retail market in Brazilian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Firetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper explored the mix market characteristics of sheep meat as a product for sale in different cities in the states of São Paulo and Paraná. For this, 81 products were purchased in 21 outlets sampled in a “non-probabilistic” manner for convenience and then subjected to analysis of yield of meat, bone, and fat. Imported products represented 20% of the total, being marketed in hypermarkets. It was observed that 37% of the total products were obtained in hypermarkets, 31% in supermarkets, 23% in butcher shops, and 8.6% in meat outlets. Almost 9% of the products had not undergone the official slaughter inspection system. The main types of products identified were palettes and legs with bones (33.3 and 24.7%, respectively; however, only 25% were satisfactorily displayed to consumers. The yields obtained in meat and deboned portions were 74% and 59% of the total weight, significantly affecting the average adjusted sales prices of the products, respectively US$13.01/kg sale price; US$17.82/kg deboned; and US$22.52/kg lean meat. The low yield of clean and boned meat observed in the samples can lead to negative experiences of these products by consumers.

  14. 77 FR 58089 - Availability of FSIS Salmonella Compliance Guidelines for Small and Very Small Meat and Poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service [Docket No. FSIS-2012-0024] Availability of FSIS Salmonella Compliance Guidelines for Small and Very Small Meat and Poultry Establishments That Produce Ready-to- Eat Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...

  15. Aspects of Inspection Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M. H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2000-01-01

    Inspection planning for systems is considered with special emphasis to the effect of the quality of inspections on the system reliability and the probability of repair. Inspection quality is described and discussed in terms of inspection reliability and inspection coverage where the latter is set...... in relation to the correlation between the failure modes of the considered system. The inspection planning problem is described in general terms taking basis in the Bayesian decision theory. Practical applicable approaches are derived from the more general but also more involving formulations. The theoretical...

  16. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (ppork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  17. An investigation of the quality of meat sold in Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Seeiso

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the closure of the Lesotho abattoir in 2003, only imported meat can be legally sold. However, it was estimated in 2007 that 80 % of the meat sold at butcheries comes from informal slaughter. The aim of this study was to investigate the situation. The number and location of informal butcheries in Lesotho (n = 143 were recorded and mapped using Geographical Information Systems. Observations (photographs of informal slaughter indicated a lack of hygiene, unskilled slaughtermen and illegal disposal of offal with possible environmental pollution. In addition, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the microbiological quality of meat from randomly selected carcasses (n = 237 of cattle, sheep and pigs from a sample of 44 butcheries, 4 of which were associated with registered supermarkets. As a control, samples for microbiological assay were taken from imported meat originating from carcasses (n = 20 slaughtered at a registered abattoir in South Africa. Of the 44 butcheries investigated only the 4 commercial butcheries associated with supermarkets sold imported meat only; 3 butcheries sold meat inspected at government slaughter slabs (n = 3, while the rest (n = 37 sold both imported and informally slaughtered meat. In terms of Lesotho legislation, informally slaughtered meat is only for home consumption. The bacteriological counts from all samples showed a total bacterial plate count exceeding 30 organisms per mℓ in contrast with the controls which all showed a count less than 5 colonies per mℓ. This was found for both imported and informally slaughtered meat sold in Lesotho. In addition, meat samples from butcheries showed the presence of the potential pathogens Salmonella (n = 2, Staphylococcus aureus (n = 12 and Escherichia coli (n=15. During the study, anthrax was confirmed in 9 human patients, 5 of whom died, after consumption of informally slaughtered livestock. Although no cases of animal abuse were detected, it was

  18. An investigation of the quality of meat sold in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeiso, T M; McCrindle, C M E

    2009-12-01

    Since the closure of the Lesotho abattoir in 2003, only imported meat can be legally sold. However, it was estimated in 2007 that 80% of the meat sold at butcheries comes from informal slaughter. The aim of this study was to investigate the situation. The number and location of informal butcheries in Lesotho (n = 143) were recorded and mapped using Geographical Information Systems. Observations (photographs) of informal slaughter indicated a lack of hygiene, unskilled slaughtermen and illegal disposal of offal with possible environmental pollution. In addition, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the microbiological quality of meat from randomly selected carcasses (n = 237) of cattle, sheep and pigs from a sample of 44 butcheries, 4 of which were associated with registered supermarkets. As a control, samples for microbiological assay were taken from imported meat originating from carcasses (n = 20) slaughtered at a registered abattoir in South Africa. Of the 44 butcheries investigated only the 4 commercial butcheries associated with supermarkets sold imported meat only; 3 butcheries sold meat inspected at government slaughter slabs (n = 3), while the rest (n = 37) sold both imported and informally slaughtered meat. In terms of Lesotho legislation, informally slaughtered meat is only for home consumption. The bacteriological counts from all samples showed a total bacterial plate count exceeding 30 organisms per ml in contrast with the controls which all showed a count less than 5 colonies per ml. This was found for both imported and informally slaughtered meat sold in Lesotho. In addition, meat samples from butcheries showed the presence of the potential pathogens Salmonella (n = 2), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 12) and Escherichia coli (n = 15). During the study, anthrax was confirmed in 9 human patients, 5 of whom died, after consumption of informally slaughtered livestock. Although no cases of animal abuse were detected, it was considered that

  19. Meat and meat products as a source of bioactive peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Totosaus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat is a high protein content food, with great nutritional and biological value. Meat protein hydrolysis begins with the muscle to meat conversion, during meat ageing. After slaughter, endogen enzymes are responsible of meat softening since myofibrillar anchorage proteins are degraded. Protein hydrolysis continues during food preparation. When meat reaches the stomach, pepsin is the first enzyme to interact. As the food travel trough out gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic enzymes degraded the remained protein and the peptidases made the final proteolysis process. The small proteins or peptides are the absorbed to the circulatory system and distributed to the rest of the body. Bioactive peptides activity of meat and meat products is anti-hypertensive mainly, where histidine, carnosine and anserine are the main peptides identified. Another peptide with anti-oxidant activity is glutathione. The content depends on animal species.

  20. Red Meats Yearbook, 1994, Supplement to Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry Situation and Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Cochran, P.

    1994-01-01

    The report includes data published in the Red Meats Yearbook which originates in the Livestock Division, Agricultural Marketing Service CAMS); Estimates Division, National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS); and Commodity Economics Division, Economic Research Service (ERS). Included are data compiled by t~lese divisions from other Government sources, such as statistics on the number of animals slaughtered under Federal inspection and on the quality of meat processed, prepared by the Anima...

  1. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p0...

  2. ELISA for Detection of Soya Proteins in Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Renčová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect competitive ELISA method for the detection of soya proteins in meat products was developed. The detection limit of the method is 0.5% of the weight of added soya protein. A total of 131 meat product samples such as salamis or sausages from the Czech Republic market were investigated for the presence of soya proteins. Soya proteins were detected in 84% of the investigated samples without any declaration on the package of the product. The use of vegetable additives, namely soya in meat products in the market of the Czech Republic is very frequent and the restriction of its usage by legislation relates only to some kinds of durable products and ham (Act 264/2003 Coll.. The need for sensitive inspecting methods for soya protein detection is not only associated with the economic aspect (adulteration, but mainly with consumer health protection in case of allergy to soya proteins.

  3. Decarbonising meat : Exploring greenhouse gas emissions in the meat sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan Den Toorn, S. I.; Van Den Broek, M. A.; Worrell, E.

    Consumption of meat is an important source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and deep decarbonisation of the whole meat production chain is required to be able to meet global climate change (CC) mitigation goals. Emissions happen in different stages of meat production ranging from agricultural

  4. Technical objectives of inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, R.J.; Stewart, K.B.; Schneider, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The various technical objectives of inspection are discussed in a very general manner. The discussion includes how the inspection function is related to the assumed threat, the various degrees of assurance and reliance on criteria, and the hierarchy of assurance which is obtained from the various types or levels of inspection

  5. Color of Meat and Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... The Color of Meat and Poultry I've just opened a package of fresh ... Poultry Hotline concerning the color of meat and poultry. Color is important when meat and poultry are purchased, stored, and cooked. Often ...

  6. THE EFFECTS OF HORSE MEAT SCANDAL ON ROMANIAN MEAT MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable business in the domestic production of meat must meet both the usual Requirements regarding quality, safety for customer and New Challenges in the European meat market. The Romanian food industry must meet the challenge of recent suspicions regarding the substitution of beef meat with horse meat. The modern applicable to meat traceability systems and authentication procedures can be considered as new ways to support fair trade and transparency, THUS, removing suspicions that appeared lately. Lack of safety measures in the field can affect business continuity critically, creating significant losses.

  7. Randomization of inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    As the numbers and complexity of nuclear facilities increase, limitations on resources for international safeguards may restrict attainment of safeguards goals. One option for improving the efficiency of limited resources is to expand the current inspection regime to include random allocation of the amount and frequency of inspection effort to material strata or to facilities. This paper identifies the changes in safeguards policy, administrative procedures, and operational procedures that would be necessary to accommodate randomized inspections and identifies those situations where randomization can improve inspection efficiency and those situations where the current nonrandom inspections should be maintained. 9 refs., 1 tab

  8. an intermediate moisture meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... thereby increasing their animal protein intake, this experiment therefore become imperative. Meat from the semimembranosus (SM), biceps .... most critical eating quality that determines whether consumers are repeat buyer. It is however worthy of note that as a result of the heat treatment and the use of.

  9. Thermodynamics of meat proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the water activity of meat, being a mixture of proteins, salts and water, by the Free-Volume-Flory–Huggins (FVFH) theory augmented with the equation. Earlier, the FVFH theory is successfully applied to describe the thermodynamics to glucose homopolymers like starch, dextrans and

  10. Meat sources of infection for outbreaks of human trichinellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Ali; Gamble, H Ray; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Khazan, Hooshang; Bruschi, Fabrizio

    2017-06-01

    Trichinellosis is one of the most important foodborne zoonotic diseases, with worldwide distribution. While human risk for trichinellosis has historically been linked to pork, modern pork production systems and slaughter inspection programs have reduced or eliminated pork as a source for trichinellosis in many countries. While pork may no longer pose a significant risk for trichinellosis, many other animal species may be hosts for Trichinella species nematodes and when human consume meat from these animal species, there may be risk for acquiring trichinellosis. This review article describes the various non-pork meat sources of human trichinellosis outbreaks, where these outbreaks have occurred and some of the factors that contribute to human risk. The literature reviewed here provides evidence of the persistence of Trichinella as a human health risk for people who eat meat from feral and wild carnivores and scavengers, as well as some herbivores that have been shown to harbor Trichinella larvae. It points to the importance of education of hunters and consumers of these meats and meat products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optical fiber inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Francis W.

    1987-01-01

    A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected.

  12. Radurization of fowl meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel'fand, S.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of pre-slaughter adrenalization and of treatment with additives of semifinished poultry products were studied with a view to improving the storage quality of irradiated poultry. It was found that pre-slaughter adrenalization, pre-irradiation treatment with phosphates and, particularly, a combination of these two methods considerably delayed the formation of carbonyl compounds, the delay being somewhat greater in white meat. (E.T.)

  13. THE IMPORTANCE OF BACTERIOCINS IN MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem SERDAROĞLU

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing consumer demand for food products which are free of chemical additives, reduced in salt and processed as little as possible. These minimally processed foods require special application to assure their microbiological safety. The use of microorganisms and enzymes for food preservatives is called biopreservation. The most important group of microorganisms with antimicrobial effect used in the production of foods is the lactic acid bacteria. In meats although lactic acid bacteria constitue apart of the initial microflora, they become dominant during the processing of meats. In this research bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria and their usage in meat and meat products for biopreservation are discussed.

  14. Focusing Automatic Code Inspections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic Code Inspection tools help developers in early detection of defects in software. A well-known drawback of many automatic inspection approaches is that they yield too many warnings and require a clearer focus. In this thesis, we provide such focus by proposing two methods to prioritize

  15. Red meat and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Faruk Aykan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented.

  16. Inspection quality demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dau, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses an inspection demonstration process that was initiated in late 1982 and is still functioning. In 1982, the Nine Mile Point-1 boiling water reactor completed the required inspection governed by rules established by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The inspection results indicated there were no cracks when the results were evaluated against the established criteria. Later, while performing the system hydro-test prior to returning to power, one of the joints leaked, indicating a through-wall crack. The demonstration process, including a training program recognized by the NRC, are described in the paper. The final answer on how good the demonstration and field inspection are can only be determined by comparison of the inspection results with direct observation of the flaws. This is currently in progress

  17. Health products inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoltz, M.

    2009-01-01

    To protect public health, the Health Products Inspection is a public service mission where the application of regulations concerning activities on human health products and cosmetic products is verified. This mission permits a global approach to assess the health products risk-based benefit and, in monitoring by laboratory testing and by on site inspections, to verify their compliance with appropriate regulations. The seventy five inspectors perform about eight hundred inspections per year, in France and abroad. These inspections are related to data provided in the health products assessment and also to manufacturing and delivery practices. The French inspection body is also involved in the training of foreign inspectors and in the harmonization of national, European and international practices either for operators than for the competent authorities. (author)

  18. Bacterial spoilage of meat and cured meat products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borch, E.; Kant-Muermans, M.L.T.; Blixt, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors (product composition and storage conditions) on the selection, growth rate and metabolic activity of the bacterial flora is presented for meat (pork and beef) and cooked, cured meat products. The predominant bacteria associated with spoilage of refrigerated

  19. Qualitative analysis of meat and meat products by multiplex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... acid; BLAST, Basic Local Alignment Search Tool; NCBI,. National Center for Biotechnology Information. ... Several workers have developed PCR methods to control the suitability, with labels of meat products. ..... The test could be useful in controlling and verifying the origin of the meat species, especially in ...

  20. Breast meat yield, muscle linear measurements and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast meat yield, chemical composition, mineral profile and linear measurement of the resultant breast meat Supracoracoides and Pectoralis thoracicus of one hundred and eighty (28 days old BUT) male turkeys fed diet containing wheat or sorghum as sole cereal source were studied. One hundred and eighty 28-days old ...

  1. Runway Inspection by RPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Absolon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the use of the RPAS for the inspection of the airport operating areas. The paper compares the current process of the inspection of the airport operating areas by the airport staff with the possibilities which are offered by the use of the modern technology RPAS. The following text also describes how to inspect airport operating areas by the RPAS, specific technical possibilities and the applicable technical solutions. Furthermore there are variants of piloting the RPAS, comparing usable equipment, equipment for video recording and the possibility of using thermal imaging camera in the article.

  2. Detection of Salmonella in Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Flemming; Mansdal, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Cost-effective and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the meat production chain can contribute to food safety. The objective of this study was to validate an easy-to-use pre-PCR sample preparation method based on a simple boiling protocol for screening of Salmonella in meat and carcass swab samples...

  3. Cultured Meat in Islamic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Mohammad Naqib; Post, Mark J; Ramli, Mohd Anuar; Mustafa, Amin Rukaini

    2017-04-29

    Cultured meat is a promising product that is derived through biotechnology that partially circumvents animal physiology, thereby being potentially more sustainable, environmentally friendly and animal friendly than traditional livestock meat. Such a novel technology that can impact many consumers evokes ethical, philosophical and religious discussions. For the Islamic community, the crucial question is whether cultured meat is halal, meaning compliant with Islamic laws. Since the culturing of meat is a new discovery, invention and innovation by scientists that has never been discussed by classical jurists (fuqaha'), an ijtihad by contemporary jurists must look for and provide answers for every technology introduced, whether it comply the requirements of Islamic law or not. So, this article will discuss an Islamic perspective on cultured meat based on the original scripture in the Qur'an and interpretations by authoritative Islamic jurists. The halal status of cultured meat can be resolve through identifying the source cell and culture medium used in culturing the meat. The halal cultured meat can be obtained if the stem cell is extracted from a (Halal) slaughtered animal, and no blood or serum is used in the process. The impact of this innovation will give positive results in the environmental and sustain the livestock industry.

  4. Multivariate image analysis for quality inspection in fish feed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg

    . The colour appearance of fish products is important for customers. Salmonid fish get their red colour from a natural pigment called astaxanthin. To ensure a similar red colour of fish in aquaculture astaxanthin is used as an additive coated on the feed pellets. Astaxanthin can either be of natural origin......, or synthesised chemically. Common for both types is that they are relatively expensive in comparison to the other feed ingredients. This thesis investigates multi-variate data collection for visual inspection and optimisation of industrial production in the fish feed industry. Quality parameters focused on here...... of the work demonstrate a high potential of image analysis and spectral imaging for assessing the product quality of fish feed pellets, astaxanthin and fish meat. We show how image analysis can be used to inspect the pellet size, and how spectral imaging can be used to inspect the surface quality...

  5. Factors for Choosing a Point of Purchase of Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Souček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on factors influencing consumers when choosing an outlet when shopping for meat products. This issue is very relevant in the Czech Republic as there were a number of problems and affairs in the food industry in the past period. Consumers begin to change their buying habits gradually and focus more on product quality. In the Czech Republic producers specializing in their production of meat products on quality have begun to improve their situation. The research results come from a questionnaire survey conducted in the Czech Republic (n = 1137. The data were processed with Statistica v. 11. Frequency tables, contingency tables and cluster analysis were used for the data analysis. Results show that in the Czech population a strong influence of price as a factor influencing a choice of point of purchase still prevails. Analyses focused on assessment of three hypotheses that were validated through decomposition into sub-hypotheses and application of contingency analysis. Measures of associations were examined in particular in relation to age category of respondents, household income, and level of attained education. In all cases, associations were identified for all three characteristics, the strongest associations were found particularly in the context of respondent’s age. The presented results show that managers of stores selling meat products should pay attention to a demographic structure of their customers and adjust their services and offer to their preferences.

  6. Iodine in meat in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihajlo; Tadzher, Isak

    2000-01-01

    Iodine deficiency in Macedonia still persists in a mild form. In 1999 the iodination of salt rose to 20 m gr iodine in Kg salt. The consumption of salt diminished after the last war from 20-30 gr salt per day to 10-20 gr salt daily. This shows that the problem of the elimination of iodine deficiency is being vigorously tackled. Since 1956 the iodine in salt in Macedonia rose to 10 m gr KI/Kg salt. The content of iodine in the Macedonian diet seems to be important. The amount of iodine in milk, eggs and bread is low as found by the investigation of MANU. The content of iodine in meat is low, compared to British meat is 10 times lower. The average iodine content in Macedonian meat is 95.15 micro gr per Kg, whereas in British meat it is 850-1510 micro gr iodine per k gr meat. (Original)

  7. Food safety and organic meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Alali, Walid; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    The organic meat industry in the United States has grown substantially in the past decade in response to consumer demand for nonconventionally produced products. Consumers are often not aware that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic standards are based only on the methods used for production and processing of the product and not on the product's safety. Food safety hazards associated with organic meats remain unclear because of the limited research conducted to determine the safety of organic meat from farm-to-fork. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the published results on the microbiological safety of organic meats. In addition, antimicrobial resistance of microbes in organic food animal production is addressed. Determining the food safety risks associated with organic meat production requires systematic longitudinal studies that quantify the risks of microbial and nonmicrobial hazards from farm-to-fork.

  8. Environmental costs of meat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to address two questions: First, what is the real cost of meat to society if taking into account the environmental costs arising throughout the product life cycle; and second, whether and how the environmental costs related to meat production can be reduced. In addressing the issues......, we use pig meat production in the EU as a case study. The environmental costs of meat are displayed first as characterized results at different midpoint categories e.g. global warming, nature occupation, acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity, etc., and then aggregated into a single score using...... conversion factors available from the Stepwise2006 method. Overall, the environmental costs of producing conventional pig meat are estimated to be 1.9 EUR per kg, which are of even larger size than the private costs of 1.4 EUR. In decreasing order of importance, nature occupation has been found...

  9. Wheel inspection system environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-18

    International Electronic Machines Corporation (IEM) has developed and is now marketing a state-of-the-art Wheel Inspection System Environment (WISE). WISE provides wheel profile and dimensional measurements, i.e. rim thickness, flange height, flange ...

  10. Signal Station Inspection Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Handwritten reports resulting from detailed inspections of US Army Signal Service Stations, 1871-1889. Features reported included instrument exposure and condition,...

  11. Mobile Inspection Assistance

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    While advanced bridge management systems are being created, deployed and used to collect data for inventories of bridges and support the systematic identification and prioritization of needs, the bridge inspectors in the field are using paper-based to support, and record the result of their inspection process. MIA which is a wearable computer system, helps bridge inspectors collect multimedia information in the field and produce the inspection report. This system allows the inspector to fill ...

  12. Inspection at Summerhill

    OpenAIRE

    Keeble-Ramsay, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers issues surrounding the 1999 OFSTED inspection of Summerhill school (in Suffolk) which led to a Notice of Closure, and subsequent successful appeal on the grounds of inappropriate judgements made by OFSTED inspectors. It is useful to note that Summerhill School has existed in the independent sector offering ‘progressive education’ since the 1920s. However, following a 1990s inspection from OFSTED, its existence was threatened in terms of its freedom in future continuing to...

  13. Packaging supplier inspection guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromberg, H.M.; Gregg, R.E.; Kido, C.; Boyle, C.D.

    1991-05-01

    This is document is a guide for conducting quality assurance inspections of transportations packaging suppliers, where suppliers are defined as designers, fabricators, distributors, users, or owners of transportation packaging. This document can be used during an inspection to determine regulatory compliance within the requirements of 10 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71, Subpart H (10 CFR 71.101--71.135). The guidance described in this document provides a framework for an inspection. It provides the inspector with the flexibility to adapt the methods and concepts presented here to meet the needs of the particular facility being inspected. The guide was developed to ensure a structured and consistent approach for inspections. The method treats each activity at a supplier facility as a separate entity (or functional element), and combines the activities within the framework of an ''inspection tree.'' The method separates each functional element into several areas of performance and then identifies guidelines, based on regulatory requirements, to be used to qualitatively rate each area. This document was developed to serve as a field manual to facilitate the work of inspectors. 1 ref., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  14. 78 FR 60181 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Clayton-Cobb-Fulton, Georgia, Nonappropriated Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM84 Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition.... Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM..., from the wage area definition. The name of the wage area will be Cobb, GA. These changes are necessary...

  15. 20 CFR 656.40 - Determination of prevailing wage for labor certification purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... association of six or more professional sports teams whose total combined revenues exceed $10,000,000 per year... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of prevailing wage for labor certification purposes. 656.40 Section 656.40 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION...

  16. 78 FR 60182 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of Broward County, Florida, to a Nonappropriated Fund Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM83 Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of... Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing a final rule to define Broward County, FL, as an area of application county to the Miami-Dade, FL...

  17. 78 FR 29658 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of Broward County, Florida, to a Nonappropriated Fund Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Management is issuing a proposed rule that would define Broward County, Florida, as an area of application... Management (OPM) is issuing a proposed rule that would define Broward County, Florida, as an area of... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM83 Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of...

  18. 76 FR 9640 - Prevailing Rate Systems: Santa Clara, CA, Tulsa County, OK, and Angelina County, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ...: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing a final rule to define Tulsa... Management (OPM) issued a proposed rule (75 FR 45557) to define Tulsa County, Oklahoma, as an area of... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM22 Prevailing Rate Systems: Santa Clara...

  19. Codified Risk Based Inspection Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2002-01-01

    and inspection/repair techniques. Generic inspection plans can be used for design of new structures as well as for requalification of existing structures. In this paper it is described how generic inspection plans can be used for codification purposes in connection with inspection planning of steel structures....

  20. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats. Barbecued meats, such as product labeled “Beef Barbecue” or “Barbecued Pork,” shall be cooked by the direct... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80...

  1. GAME MEAT MARKET IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Tolušić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Croatia, game meat is consumed far less than meat of domestic animals. Yearly game meat consumption amounts to only 0.55 kg per household member. Consumers prefer meat of domestic animals, because it is cheaper, not paying attention to specific nutritive advantages of game meat. A research on the game meat market and consumers’ preferences was carried out on 101 examinees, chosen among inhabitants of Slavonia and Baranja. The majority of questioned inhabitants did consume game meat (92%, of whom 66% consider game meat to be of better quality than meat of domestic animals. Significant number of examinees considers game meat as healthy food, being also convinced that game was healthier to consume if hunted in their natural environment, than if reared on specialized farms (90%. Irrespective of quality, only 22% of examinees buy game meat, and 51% think such meat is too expensive. This is the main reason why consumers have game meat only once a month (51%. Taking into consideration monthly income of their respective household, 58% of examinees can afford game meat only once a month, and, if having an opportunity, they would opt for meat of roe deer (55% and rabbit (25%. When asked what would stimulate the game meat market in Croatia, 56% of examinees believe this could be achieved by lowering of prices, 27% think the issue could be addressed by opening of specialty stores, and only 17% opted for more aggressive marketing activities.

  2. Incore inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogisu, Tatsuki; Taguchi, Kosei.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention can inspect surfaces of equipments in reactor water in a nuclear reactor in a state of atmospheric air. Namely, an inspection device is movable forwardly and backwardly in a water-proof vessel. An annular sucker with pleats is disposed to the outer side of a lid of the water-proof vessel. A television camera for an under water monitoring is disposed to the inner side of the lid of the water-proof vessel by way of a partitioning wall with lid. Transferring screws are disposed at the back and on the side of the water-proof vessel. In the device having such a constitution, (1) the inside of the water-proof vessel is at first made water-tight by closing the partitioning wall with lid, (2) the back and the side screws are operated by the guide of the underwater monitoring television camera, to transfer the water-proof vessel to the surface of the reactor core to be inspected, (3) the annular sucker with pleats is urged on the surface to be inspected by the back screw, to fix the water-proof vessel, (4) reactor water in a space of the annular sucker with pleats is discharged and replaced with air, and (5) the lid of the partition wall with lid is opened and the inspection device is disposed at a position of the underwater monitoring television camera, to inspect the surface to be inspected in a state of atmospheric air. (I.S.)

  3. Irradiation of meats and poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, W.M.

    1978-01-01

    A number of beneficial effects can be achieved by irradiating meats and poultry under different conditions. It is possible, for example, to extend the market life of both fresh and processed meats by applying radiation doses sufficient to reduce the microbial population, thereby delaying onset of spoilage; higher doses aimed at destroying both spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms can also be applied to meats, packaged to prevent recontamination, resulting in a shelf-stable product; the objective may also be to inactivate pathogenic bacteria, parasites and viruses in order to obtain a product which is acceptable from the point of view of public health. (orig.) [de

  4. Inspection Strategies for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In this paper an optimal inspection strategy for concrete bridges based on periodic routine and detailed inspections is presented. The failure mode considered is corrosion of the reinforcement due to chlorides. A simple modelling of the corrosion and of the inspection strategy is presented....... The optimal inspection strategy is determined from an optimization problem, where the design variables are time intervals between detailed inspections and the concrete cover. The strategy is illustrated on a simple structure, namely a reinforced concrete beam....

  5. Improving functional value of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangang; Xiao, Shan; Samaraweera, Himali; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to develop meat and meat products with physiological functions to promote health conditions and prevent the risk of diseases. This review focuses on strategies to improve the functional value of meat and meat products. Value improvement can be realized by adding functional compounds including conjugated linoneleic acid, vitamin E, n3 fatty acids and selenium in animal diets to improve animal production, carcass composition and fresh meat quality. In addition, functional ingredients such as vegetable proteins, dietary fibers, herbs and spices, and lactic acid bacteria can be directly incorporated into meat products during processing to improve their functional value for consumers. Functional compounds, especially peptides, can also be generated from meat and meat products during processing such as fermentation, curing and aging, and enzymatic hydrolysis. This review further discusses the current status, consumer acceptance, and market for functional foods from the global viewpoints. Future prospects for functional meat and meat products are also discussed.

  6. Source characterization of urban particles from meat smoking activities in Chongqing, China using single particle aerosol mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Wenger, John C; Yang, Fumo; Cao, Junji; Huang, Rujin; Shi, Guangming; Zhang, Shumin; Tian, Mi; Wang, Huanbo

    2017-09-01

    A Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SPAMS) was deployed in the urban area of Chongqing to characterize the particles present during a severe particulate pollution event that occurred in winter 2014-2015. The measurements were made at a time when residents engaged in traditional outdoor meat smoking activities to preserve meat before the Chinese Spring Festival. The measurement period was predominantly characterized by stagnant weather conditions, highly elevated levels of PM 2.5 , and low visibility. Eleven major single particle types were identified, with over 92.5% of the particles attributed to biomass burning emissions. Most of the particle types showed appreciable signs of aging in the stagnant air conditions. To simulate the meat smoking activities, a series of controlled smoldering experiments was conducted using freshly cut pine and cypress branches, both with and without wood logs. SPAMS data obtained from these experiments revealed a number of biomass burning particle types, including an elemental and organic carbon (ECOC) type that proved to be the most suitable marker for meat smoking activities. The traditional activity of making preserved meat in southwestern China is shown here to be a major source of particulate pollution. Improved measures to reduce emissions from the smoking of meat should be introduced to improve air quality in regions where smoking meat activity prevails. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inspection device in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Etsuo.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides an inspection device in PWR reactor core in which inspection operations are made efficient by stabilizing a posture of the device in front-to-back, vertical and left-to-right directions by a simple structure. When the device conducts inspection while running in liquid, the front and the back directions of the device main body are inspected using a visual device while changing the posture by operating a front-to-back direction propulsion device and a right-to-left direction propulsion device, and a vertical direction propulsion device against to rolling, pitching and yawing of the device main body. In this case, a spherical magnet moves freely in the gravitational direction in a vibration-damping fluid in a non-magnetic spherical shell following the change of the posture of the device main body, in which the vibrations due to the movement of the spherical magnet is settled by the vibration-damping fluid thereby stabilizing the posture of the device main body. At a typical inspection posture, the settling effect is enhanced by the attraction force between the spherical magnets in the spherical shell and each of magnetic force-attracted magnetic members disposed to the outer circumference of the shell, and the posture of the device main body can be confirmed in front-to-back, right-to-left and vertical directions by each of the posture confirming magnetic sensors. (N.H.)

  8. Piping inspection round robin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heasler, P.G.; Doctor, S.R.

    1996-04-01

    The piping inspection round robin was conducted in 1981 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify the capability of ultrasonics for inservice inspection and to address some aspects of reliability for this type of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The round robin measured the crack detection capabilities of seven field inspection teams who employed procedures that met or exceeded the 1977 edition through the 1978 addenda of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section 11 Code requirements. Three different types of materials were employed in the study (cast stainless steel, clad ferritic, and wrought stainless steel), and two different types of flaws were implanted into the specimens (intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) and thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs)). When considering near-side inspection, far-side inspection, and false call rate, the overall performance was found to be best in clad ferritic, less effective in wrought stainless steel and the worst in cast stainless steel. Depth sizing performance showed little correlation with the true crack depths

  9. Meat cooking shrinkage: Measurement of a new meat quality parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, S; Tassone, S

    2006-07-01

    A parameter, meat cooking shrinkage (MCS), has been introduced based on investigations carried out on meat shrinkage caused by heat during cooking. MCS is the difference between the raw and cooked areas of the meat sample, expressed as a percentage of the raw area. The method uses a disk of meat (10mm thick and 55mm wide) measured before and after cooking in a hot air oven at 165°C for 10min, the meat having reached an internal temperature of 70°C. Video image analysis was used to measure the meat sample area. The proposed MCS protocol permits us to measure cooking loss and to reduce cost and variability, moreover it could be improved to obtain color and marbling measurements by developing the image analysis software. Analysing two or more parameters on the same sample, the correlations among them should improve analysis efficacy. A detailed description of the measurement protocol of MCS is reported as well as its application to beef and pork.

  10. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and Turnovers § 319.500 Meat pies. Meat pies such as “Beef Pie,” “Veal Pie,” and “Pork Pie” shall contain meat... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500...

  11. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, e...

  12. Changes of meat colour during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Bocian; Hanna Jankowiak; Wojciech Kapelański

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated a relation between objective colour measurement and standard meat quality traits together with changes of meat colour parameters (∆) during the 48 h storage time. Analysed meat derived from 30 market pigs F1 (plw × pl) originated from Kuyavian--Pomeranian voivodeship. In the samples taken from longissimus lumborum muscle at 48 h post mortem the pH48, visual colour intensity and meat heme pigment concentration, as well as meat holding capacity, drip loss and ...

  13. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms What does 'mechanically separated ... Top of Page ] NATURAL: A product containing no artificial ingredient or added color and is only minimally ...

  14. Meat production perspective in Yucatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Toledo-Lopez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of meat production in Mexico during the last decade is the result of the complex interaction between different areas of livestock production and consumers’ preferences, being the former widely influenced by new tendencies and purchasing capacity. In Yucatan, there are two meat product processing plants. Yucatan’s research projects are basically focused to production, handling and genetics. This research is developed in Research Centers like Universidad Autonoma Yucatan’s Ciencias Biologicas Agropecuarias Campus, INIFAP Mococha, Instituto Tecnologico Conkal and Instituto Tecnologoco Merida. Many projects are inter-institutional and others by Cuerpos Academicos inside the institutions. Grants are provided by state, national or international dependencies. In the Instituto Tecnologico Merida research projects are on different animals’ meat quality and novel meat products.

  15. 75 FR 11935 - Technical Change to the Filing Location of Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the H-1B, H...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... (Australia), and Permanent Labor Certification Programs; Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the... (Australia), and Permanent Labor Certification Programs; Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the...

  16. Advances in inspection automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  17. Meat production perspective in Yucatan

    OpenAIRE

    Victor M. Toledo-Lopez

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of meat production in Mexico during the last decade is the result of the complex interaction between different areas of livestock production and consumers’ preferences, being the former widely influenced by new tendencies and purchasing capacity. In Yucatan, there are two meat product processing plants. Yucatan’s research projects are basically focused to production, handling and genetics. This research is developed in Research Centers like Universidad Autonoma Yucatan’s Ciencia...

  18. Inspection and test planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose of Quality Plan - arrangement of all necessary tests or inspections as far as possible filted to certain components or systems. Subject of Quality Plan - precise determination of tests or inspections and - according to the actual safety significance - the certificates to be done. Disposition of Quality Plan - accommodation of tests to the actual state of fabrication. Application of Quality Plan - to any component or system that is regarded. Supervision of Employment - by authorized personnel of manufacturer, customer or authority providing exact employment of quality plan. Overservance of Instructions - certificates given by authorized personnel. (orig./RW)

  19. Federal environmental inspections handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This Federal Environmental Inspection Handbook has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231). It is designed to provide DOE personnel with an easily accessible compilation of the environmental inspection requirements under Federal environmental statutes which may impact DOE operations and activities. DOE personnel are reminded that this Handbook is intended to be used in concert with, and not as a substitute for, the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Federal Register (FR), and other applicable regulatory documents

  20. Benthic diversity of River Gomti in relation to the prevailing environmental conditions in Lucknow

    OpenAIRE

    Varshney, P.K.; Agrahari, R.K.; Singh, S.K.; Jain, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the benthic diversity of River Gomti in relation to the prevailing environmental conditions, four stations, viz., Maa Chandrika Devi, Daliganj, Ambedkar Park and Aquaduct, were identified from upstream to downstream along the course of the river in Lucknow. Dissolved oxygen was low on many occasions at all the stations except Maa Chandrika Devi and chemical oxygen demand values were high. There was a gradual increase in mean nitrite and phosphate values from up to downstream. Bent...

  1. Why nature prevails over nurture in the making of the elite athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiades, Evelina; Klissouras, Vassilis; Baulch, Jamie; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2017-01-01

    While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes...

  2. Microbiological quality of poultry meat: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GC Mead

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat can be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms, including those capable of spoiling the product during chill storage, and certain foodborne pathogens. Human illness may follow from handling of raw meat, undercooking or mishandling of the cooked product. While Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. remain the organisms of greatest global concern in this respect, others present include the more recently reported Arcobacter and Helicobacter spp. and, occasionally, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Also considered here is the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance among poultry-associated pathogens. Because of the need for a systematic and universally applicable approach to food safety control, the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP concept is increasingly being introduced into the Poultry Industry, and Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA is being applied to microbial hazards. Among a number of completed and on-going studies on QRA are those undertaken by FAO/WHO on Salmonella and Campylobacter in broilers. In the case of Campylobacter, however, any QRA must assume at present that all strains have the same pathogenic potential for humans and comparable survival capabilities, even though this is unlikely to be the case. Implementation of the HACCP system in poultry processing plants addresses zoonotic agents that are not detectable by conventional meat inspection procedures and can help to control contamination of carcasses with spoilage organisms. The system brings obvious benefits in optimising plant hygiene, ensuring compliance with legislation and providing evidence of 'due diligence' on the part of the processor. It is now being applied globally in two different situations: in one, such as that occurring in the USA, carcass contamination is clearly reduced as carcasses pass through the process and are finally chilled in super-chlorinated water. There is also the option to use a chemical-rinse treatment for further

  3. Inspection of Emergency Arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) was tasked by the NEA CNRA to examine and evaluate the extent to which emergency arrangements are inspected and to identify areas of importance for the development of good inspection practices. WGIP members shared their approaches to the inspection of emergency arrangements by the use of questionnaires, which were developed from the requirements set out in IAEA Safety Standards. Detailed responses to the questionnaires from WGIP member countries have been compiled and are presented in the appendix to this report. The following commendable practices have been drawn from the completed questionnaires and views provided by WGIP members: - RBs and their Inspectors have sufficient knowledge and information regarding operator's arrangements for the preparedness and response to nuclear emergencies, to enable authoritative advice to be given to the national coordinating authority, where necessary. - Inspectors check that the operator's response to a nuclear emergency is adequately integrated with relevant response organisations. - Inspectors pay attention to consider the integration of the operator's response to safety and security threats. - The efficiency of international relations is checked in depth during some exercises (e.g. early warning, assistance and technical information), especially for near-border facilities that could lead to an emergency response abroad. - RB inspection programmes consider the adequacy of arrangements for emergency preparedness and response to multi-unit accidents. - RBs assess the adequacy of arrangements to respond to accidents in other countries. - The RB's role is adequately documented and communicated to all agencies taking part in the response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. - Inspectors check that threat assessments for NPPs have been undertaken in accordance with national requirements and that up-to-date assessments have been used as the basis for developing emergency plans for

  4. 76 FR 42595 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 53, 71, 82, 93... poultry meat and poultry products pose more of a potential disease threat to the U.S. poultry industry...), New Zealand, and Switzerland. * * * * * Sec. 94.23 [Amended] 20. Section 94.23 is amended by removing...

  5. 75 FR 82148 - Nutrition Labeling of Single-Ingredient Products and Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... poultry products inspection regulations to require nutrition labeling of the major cuts of single... cuts: This final rule requires nutrition labeling of the major cuts of single-ingredient, raw meat and... in the voluntary nutrition labeling program to provide nutrition labeling for the major cuts of...

  6. A comparative risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in prepackaged versus retail-sliced deli meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrikat, Sarah; Gallagher, Daniel; Pouillot, Régis; Hicks Quesenberry, Heather; Labarre, David; Schroeder, Carl M; Kause, Janell

    2010-04-01

    Deli meat was ranked as the highest-risk ready-to-eat food vehicle of Listeria monocytogenes within the 2003 U.S. Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service risk assessment. The comparative risk of L. monocytogenes in retail-sliced versus prepackaged deli meats was evaluated with a modified version of this model. Other research has found that retail-sliced deli meats have both higher prevalence and levels of L. monocytogenes than have product sliced and packaged at the manufacturer level. The updated risk assessment model considered slicing location as well as the use of growth inhibitors. The per annum comparative risk ratio for the number of deaths from retail-sliced versus prepackaged deli meats was found to be 4.89, and the per-serving comparative risk ratio was 4.27. There was a significant interaction between the use of growth inhibitors and slicing location. Almost 70% of the estimated deaths occurred from retail-sliced product that did not possess a growth inhibitor. A sensitivity analysis, assessing the effect of the model's consumer storage time and shelf life assumptions, found that even if retail-sliced deli meats were stored for a quarter of the time prepackaged deli meats were stored, retail-sliced product is 1.7 times more likely to result in death from listeriosis. Sensitivity analysis also showed that the shelf life assumption had little effect on the comparative risk ratio.

  7. Automatic Inspection During Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Clyde L.

    1988-01-01

    In experimental manufacturing process, numerically-controlled machine tool temporarily converts into inspection machine by installing electronic touch probes and specially-developed numerical-control software. Software drives probes in paths to and on newly machined parts and collects data on dimensions of parts.

  8. Significance of authenticity in meat and meat products in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Rezazadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Authenticity of meat products is very important for religious and health reasons in Iran. According to legislation in Iran, the consumption and importation of pork, horse, donkey and cat products should be banned. Therefore, the identification of meat products cannot be judged solely by its appearance. This issue led to the authenticity of bovine, sheep, pig, horse, donkey, chicken and soya (Glycine max in raw and processed meat products.In this study, specific primers were designed for the identification of pig ( base pair, donkey (325 base pair, chicken (391 base pair, sheep (499 base pair, horse (607 base pair, soya (707 base pair and bovine (853 base pair by Polymerase chain reaction. Following PCR, expected,, , 499,,  and  base pair fragments were detectable in pig, donkey, chicken, sheep, horse, soya and bovine, respectively. This protocol can be used for identification of raw and processed meat products in various animal species for replication to regulatory obligations for meat species safety in Iran.

  9. Snail meat: Significance and consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Olgica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of snail meat goes back to prehistoric times. Different ancient nations had snails on their menu, but Helices culture as a productive activity was born as a Roman culture. Some of the most economically important edible species are: Helix aspersa (Mtiller Helixpomatia (Linne, Helix iucorum (Linne, Helix aperta (Born, Eobania vermiculata (Miiller. Together with its tasie, snail meat has several advantages over others: quite low lipid rate and calorie values versus rich mineral, essential amino acid and fatty acid content. The composition of snail meat is presented. In addition, the composition of different snail species and the part analyzed (pedal mass and visceral mass is presented. Also, the differences in composition according to the species (snail meat horse/chicken meat, beef, swine meat, fish meat are presented. The French are the world's leading consumers of snails. !n France snails come to market in a variety of ways. Estimated consumption of snails in France is around 40 000 tones/year. Total French imports account for 25% of world imports. France is also the leading exporter of prepared snails, mainly sold as preserved snails and prepared dishes. Snail imports have been much higher than exports (65 tones exported in 2002. vs. 2.700 tones imported. Despite the large consumption, only 3% of snails in France come from production (farming. Italy is in second place in the world consumption of snails, and Spain and Germany are in the third and fourth place. The development of snails consumption in Italy is followed with the same amount of production of snails in the whole biological circle. In 2001, from 24,700 tons, 9,350 tons (37.8% came from production, 6 00 tons (2.4% came from nature, and 14,750 tons (59.70% came from imports (frozen, fresh and prepared snails. In Serbia, at the beginning of 2005, we had over 400 registered farms for snail production.

  10. Data concerning radioactive pollution of poultry meat in the period following the Csernobil disaster [poultry, rabbit and game meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Zones showing different degress of pollution appeared in Hungary following the Csernobil disaster, mainly as a function of climatic conditions /wind direction, rainfall/ prevailing in May 1986. The measurements carried out made possible to separate four degrees of pollution zones. The amounts of radiocaesium /134Cs, 137Cs, radioiodine /131I/, radiostrontium /90Sr/ and plutonium /239Pu/ pollution were examined in chicken-duck-goose-rabbit-roe-deer-pheasant-pigeon-wild duck, haremeat, as well as in duck and goose liver. The 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs activity was the highest in the period between May and August, 1986, in the duckmeat and duckliver. The greates caesium contamination was shown in roe-meat /155 Bq/kg/, the smallest in the pheasant 8 Bq/kg/ and haremeat /3 Bq/kg/. The difference can be explained by the diverse feeding-dietary circumstances and the different discriminative capacity of the various animal organisms concerning radionuclides

  11. 5 CFR 532.205 - The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates. 532.205 Section 532.205 Administrative... Determinations § 532.205 The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing... amended, or (2) The highest State or local minimum wage rate in the local wage area which is applicable to...

  12. Global antioxidant response of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Celia; Barrio, Ángela; Del Mar Cavia, María; Alonso-Torre, Sara

    2017-06-01

    The global antioxidant response (GAR) method uses an enzymatic digestion to release antioxidants from foods. Owing to the importance of digestion for protein breakdown and subsequent release of bioactive compounds, the aim of the present study was to compare the GAR method for meat with the existing methodologies: the extraction-based method and QUENCHER. Seven fresh meats were analyzed using ABTS and FRAP assays. Our results indicated that the GAR of meat was higher than the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assessed with the traditional extraction-based method. When evaluated with GAR, the thermal treatment led to an increase in the TAC of the soluble fraction, contrasting with a decreased TAC after cooking measured using the extraction-based method. The effect of thermal treatment on the TAC assessed by the QUENCHER method seemed to be dependent on the assay applied, since results from ABTS differed from FRAP. Our results allow us to hypothesize that the activation of latent bioactive peptides along the gastrointestinal tract should be taken into consideration when evaluating the TAC of meat. Therefore, we conclude that the GAR method may be more appropriate for assessing the TAC of meat than the existing, most commonly used methods. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  14. Careers in Industry: Pioneering Spirit Prevails at the Carlsberg Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skadhauge, Birgitte; Haldrup, Anna; Olsen, Ole

    2016-10-01

    The founder of the Carlsberg brewery, J.C Jacobsen, recognized the value of private-public partnership and established the Carlsberg Foundation in 1876 with the single aim of applying research and innovation to brew the best beer. One hundred and forty years on, Jacobsen's vision still prevails, and in this interview three scientists from the Carlsberg Research Laboratory (Birgitte Skadhauge, Anna Haldrup, and Ole Olsen) share their experience about finding a career at the crossroads between industry and basic research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Track inspection planning and risk measurement analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This project models track inspection operations on a railroad network and discusses how the inspection results can : be used to measure the risk of failure on the tracks. In particular, the inspection times of the tracks, inspection frequency of the ...

  16. Overview of the software inspection process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, G.L.; Dabbs, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This tutorial introduces attendees to the Inspection Process and teaches them how to organize and participate in a software inspection. The tutorial advocates the benefits of inspections and encourages attendees to socialize the inspection process in their organizations.

  17. High pressure processing of meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Christensen, Mette; Ertbjerg, Per

    Abstract Background: The research of high pressure (HP) processing of meat based foods needs to address how pressure affects protein interactions, aggregation and/or gelation. The understanding of the gel forming properties of myofibrillar components is fundamental for the development of muscle...... based products (Chapleau et al., 2004;Colmenero, 2002). Object: The aim was to study the rheological properties of pork meat emulsion exposed to HP and the effect of HP on the aggregation state of myofibrillar proteins. To address the role of cathepsin in myofibrillar protein degradation the changes...... in the myofibrillar protein pattern and HP-induced change in activity of cathepsin B and L were investigated. Results: In this study we showed that HP treatment of pork meat emulsion, ranging from 0.1 to 800 MPa, induced protein gel formation as shown by the increased Young’s modulus (Fig.1). Analysis of SDS...

  18. Regulatory inspection in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez de Buergo, L.

    1977-01-01

    The 1964 Act on Nuclear Energy lays down that the Junta de Energia Nuclear is responsible for assessing the hazards of and inspecting nuclear power plants as well as for the transport of nuclear fuel for these plants. The Junta de Energia Nuclear has a specialised service, the Nuclear Safety Department in charge of performing these duties. Experience acquired from work in this field is analysed in this paper. (NEA) [fr

  19. Will novel protein foods beat meat? : consumer acceptance of meat substitutes - a multidisciplinary research approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Meat production places a heavy burden on the environment and therefore options are sought to reduce meat consumption. One option is to let new meat substitutes take the place of meat on the plate. This can only succeed when these products are acceptable to consumers. The thesis investigated which

  20. The Efficacy of the clay meat ball as a method of traditional meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: meat ball, protein, mineral content. This work was carried out to determine the effectiveness of the use of clay meat balls (an African traditional method of preserving meat) in extending the shelf life of meat over a period of months against microbial (bacterial and fungal) spoilage and contamination without ...

  1. Subsea Infrastructure Inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Christian; Pedersen, Simon; Hansen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing energy demands, the offshore energy business has boomed in recent decades. Sub-sea pipeline and power transmission cable installations are commonly applied worldwide. Any potential breakages can cause equipment damage and also damage the environment. The majority of the offs......Due to the increasing energy demands, the offshore energy business has boomed in recent decades. Sub-sea pipeline and power transmission cable installations are commonly applied worldwide. Any potential breakages can cause equipment damage and also damage the environment. The majority...... of the offshore pipeline inspections are currently committed using Towed or Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) systems. It is well-known that the ROVs are very time-consuming and expensive to operate, with respect to the fact that they require a relatively large support ship to accommodate the equipment as well...... as very skilled pilot and crews. The paper examines the existing challenges related to the sub-sea inspection in general, the ROVs, AUVs and semi-autonomous ROVs advantages and disadvantages in different subsea inspec-tion applications. Replacing the ROVs with Semi or fully-Autonomous Underwa-ter Vehicle...

  2. Terahertz Radome Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Friederich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Radomes protecting sensitive radar, navigational, and communications equipment of, e.g., aircraft, are strongly exposed to the environment and have to withstand harsh weather conditions and potential impacts. Besides their significance to the structural integrity of the radomes, it is often crucial to optimize the composite structures for best possible radio performance. Hence, there exists a significant interest in non-destructive testing techniques, which can be used for defect inspection of radomes in field use as well as for quality inspection during the manufacturing process. Contactless millimeter-wave and terahertz imaging techniques provide millimeter resolution and have the potential to address both application scenarios. We report on our development of a three-dimensional (3D terahertz imaging system for radome inspection during industrial manufacturing processes. The system was designed for operation within a machining center for radome manufacturing. It simultaneously gathers terahertz depth information in adjacent frequency ranges, from 70 to 110 GHz and from 110 to 170 GHz by combining two frequency modulated continuous-wave terahertz sensing units into a single measurement device. Results from spiraliform image acquisition of a radome test sample demonstrate the successful integration of the measurement system.

  3. Meat production in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, M

    1999-05-01

    Developing countries have very diverse food consumption patterns and agricultural production systems. The proportion of meat in national diets varies from negligible in some countries in central Africa to 30-40% in some countries in Latin America and Mongolia. However, the demand for meat in developing countries is increasing rapidly (53%/year from 1982 to 1993), as the result of population growth and the trend for people to move to the cities. Growth rates in consumption are greatest in Asia, with China dominating the statistics, in view of the size of its population. Theoretically, livestock production can be increased to meet this demand, but the multiple roles of livestock in developing countries must be recognized if this is to be achieved in a sustainable manner. Resource-poor farmers who keep livestock may value more highly their contribution to livelihoods and to crop production, through provision of draught power and improvements in soil fertility through the recycling of manure, than the production of more meat. Recognition of the goals of the farmer and the wishes of the consumer regarding meat quality need to be reflected in the way in which opportunities for increasing meat production are identified and communicated to farmers. The impact of the global economy on cereal prices, for example, will also influence which interventions will be economically viable. Interpretation of information in an integral manner, using geographical information systems, mathematical models and/or simple spreadsheet models will be an important ingredient in turning scientific knowledge into increased meat production in developing countries.

  4. Pressurized water reactor inspection procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, D.; Mueller, G.; Otte, H.J.; Roth, W.

    1998-01-01

    Inspections of the reactor pressure vessels of pressurized water reactors (PWR) so far used to be carried out with different central mast manipulators. For technical reasons, parallel inspections of two manipulators alongside work on the refueling cavity, so as to reduce the time spent on the critical path in a revision outage, are not possible. Efforts made to minimize the inspection time required with one manipulator have been successful, but their effects are limited. Major reductions in inspection time can be achieved only if inspections are run with two manipulators in parallel. The decentralized manipulator built by GEC Alsthom Energie and so far emmployed in boiling water reactors in the USA, Spain, Switzerland and Japan allows two systems to be used in parallel, thus reducing the time required for standard inspection of a pressure vessel from some six days to three days. These savings of approximately three days are made possible without any compromises in terms of positioning by rail-bound systems. During inspection, the reactor refueling cavity is available for other revision work without any restrictions. The manipulator can be used equally well for inspecting standard PWR, PWR with a thermal shield, for inspecting the land between in-core instrumentation nozzles, BWR with and without jet pumps (complementary inspection), and for inspecting core support shrouds. (orig.) [de

  5. In the elderly, meat protein assimilation from rare meat is lower than that from meat that is well done.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffière, Caroline; Gaudichon, Claire; Hafnaoui, Noureddine; Migné, Carole; Scislowsky, Valérie; Khodorova, Nadezda; Mosoni, Laurent; Blot, Adeline; Boirie, Yves; Dardevet, Dominique; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Rémond, Didier

    2017-11-01

    Background: Meat cooking conditions in in vitro and in vivo models have been shown to influence the rate of protein digestion, which is known to affect postprandial protein metabolism in the elderly. Objective: The present study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of cooking conditions on meat protein assimilation in the elderly. We used a single-meal protocol to assess the meat protein absorption rate and estimate postprandial meat protein utilization in elderly subjects. Design: The study recruited 10 elderly volunteers aged 70-82 y. Each received, on 2 separate occasions, a test meal exclusively composed of intrinsically 15 N-labeled bovine meat (30 g protein), cooked at 55°C for 5 min [rare meat (RM)] or at 90°C for 30 min [fully cooked meat (FCM)], and minced. Whole-body fluxes of leucine, before and after the meal, were determined with the use of a [1- 13 C]leucine intravenous infusion. Meat protein absorption was recorded with the use of 15 N enrichment of amino acids. Results: Postprandial time course observations showed a lower concentration in the plasma of indispensable amino acids ( P meat leucine in the plasma ( P meat nitrogen to plasma amino acid nitrogen ( P meat amino acids with RM than with FCM. This was associated with decreased postprandial whole-body protein synthesis with RM than with FCM (40% compared with 56% of leucine intake, respectively; P meat cooking conditions have little effect on postprandial protein utilization in young adults, the present work showed that the bioavailability and assimilation of meat amino acids in the elderly is lower when meat is poorly cooked. In view to preventing sarcopenia, elderly subjects should be advised to favor the consumption of well-cooked meat. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02157805. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Meat consumption, diabetes and its complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feskens, E.J.M.; Sluik, D.; Woudenbergh, van G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Several prospective studies have reported that risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is elevated in meat consumers, especially when processed meats are consumed. Elevated risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in meat consumers have also been reported. In this overview, the evidence regarding

  7. Variations in land requirements for meat production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, E. V.; Nonhebel, S.

    2007-01-01

    Production of meat requires substantial amounts of feed grains which in turn require vast amounts of land. Future population growth and increase in consumption will raise the demand for meat and with it the land required for meat production. This paper analyses the various factors that affect land

  8. Breeding for meat quality in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenier, R.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of improving pig meat quality by selection. Therefore, literature is reviewed to determine the meat quality traits to be used and genetic parameters of those meat quality traits are calculated. A method is described to obtain

  9. Meat, dairy, and cancer1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Zaynah; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) report judged that the evidence for an association between red and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer was convincing. In addition, the effect of other animal products on cancer risk has been studied, and the WCRF/AICR report concluded that milk probably decreases the risk of colorectal cancer but diets high in calcium probably increase the risk of prostate cancer, whereas there was limited evidence for an association between milk and bladder cancer and insufficient evidence for other cancers. There are several potential mechanisms relating meat to cancer, including heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, and heme iron. Although the evidence in favor of a link between red and processed meat and colorectal cancer is convincing, the relations with other cancers are unclear. In this review, we summarize cohort studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute on meat and dairy intake in relation to cancer since the 2007 WCRF/AICR report. We also report the findings of meta-analyses published since 2007. PMID:24847855

  10. Fetal programming in meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Min; Wang, Bo; Fu, Xing; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient fluctuations during the fetal stage affects fetal development, which has long-term impacts on the production efficiency and quality of meat. During the early development, a pool of mesenchymal progenitor cells proliferate and then diverge into either myogenic or adipogenic/fibrogenic lineages. Myogenic progenitor cells further develop into muscle fibers and satellite cells, while adipogenic/fibrogenic lineage cells develop into adipocytes, fibroblasts and resident fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells. Enhancing the proliferation and myogenic commitment of progenitor cells during fetal development enhances muscle growth and lean production in offspring. On the other hand, promoting the adipogenic differentiation of adipogenic/fibrogenic progenitor cells inside the muscle increases intramuscular adipocytes and reduces connective tissue, which improves meat marbling and tenderness. Available studies in mammalian livestock, including cattle, sheep and pigs, clearly show the link between maternal nutrition and the quantity and quality of meat production. Similarly, chicken muscle fibers develop before hatching and, thus, egg and yolk sizes and hatching temperature affect long-term growth performance and meat production of chicken. On the contrary, because fishes are able to generate new muscle fibers lifelong, the impact of early nutrition on fish growth performance is expected to be minor, which requires further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Shell Inspection History and Current CMM Inspection Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-26

    The following report provides a review of past and current CMM Shell Inspection efforts. Calibration of the Sheffield rotary contour gauge has expired and the primary inspector, Matthew Naranjo, has retired. Efforts within the Inspection team are transitioning from maintaining and training new inspectors on Sheffield to off-the-shelf CMM technology. Although inspection of a shell has many requirements, the scope of the data presented in this report focuses on the inner contour, outer contour, radial wall thickness and mass comparisons.

  12. Environmental footprints in the meat chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đekić, I.; Tomašević, I.

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper was to present environmental performance of the meat chain and highlight main environmental footprints. The meat sector is recognized as one of the leading polluting sectors in the food industry. The meat chain was analyzed from a five-link perspective introducing the following actors: farm(er)s, slaughterhouses, meat processors, customers and consumers. Meat production needs natural resources (water and energy) resulting in waste and waste water discharge. As an outcome it has a high influence on climate change in respect to global warming, acidification and eutrophication potentials and ozone depletion substances.

  13. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K.

    2005-01-01

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks

  14. Pellet inspection apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Robert S.; Taleff, Alexander; Sturges, Jr., Robert H.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for inspecting nuclear fuel pellets in a sealed container for diameter, flaws, length and weight. The apparatus includes, in an array, a pellet pick-up station, four pellet inspection stations and a pellet sorting station. The pellets are delivered one at a time to the pick-up station by a vibrating bowl through a vibrating linear conveyor. Grippers each associated with a successive pair of the stations are reciprocable together to pick up a pellet at the upstream station of each pair and to deposit the pellet at the corresponding downstream station. The gripper jaws are opened selectively depending on the state of the pellets at the stations and the particular cycle in which the apparatus is operating. Inspection for diameter, flaws and length is effected in each case by a laser beam projected on the pellets by a precise optical system while each pellet is rotated by rollers. Each laser and its optical system are mounted in a container which is free standing on a precise surface and is provided with locating buttons which engage locating holes in the surface so that each laser and its optical system is precisely set. The roller stands are likewise free standing and are similarly precisely positioned. The diameter optical system projects a thin beam of light which scans across the top of each pellet and is projected on a diode array. The fl GOVERNMENT CONTRACT CLAUSE The invention herein described was made in the course of or under a contract or subcontract thereunder with the Department of Energy bearing No. EY-67-14-C-2170.

  15. Safeguards management inspection procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, M.J.; Dunn, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this inspection module is to independently assess the contributions of licensee management to overall safeguards systems performance. The inspector accomplishes this objective by comparing the licensee's safeguards management to both the 10 CFR, parts 70 and 73, requirements and to generally accepted management practices. The vehicle by which this comparison is to be made consists of assessment questions and key issues which point the inspector to areas of primary concern to the NRC and which raise additional issues for the purpose of exposing management ineffectiveness. Further insight into management effectiveness is obtained through those assessment questions specifically directed toward the licensee's safeguards system performance. If the quality of the safeguards is poor, then the inspector should strongly suspect that management's role is ineffective and should attempt to determine management's influence (or lack thereof) on the underlying safeguards deficiencies. (The converse is not necessarily true, however.) The assessment questions in essence provide an opportunity for the inspector to identify, to single out, and to probe further, questionable management practices. Specific issues, circumstances, and concerns which point to questionable or inappropriate practices should be explicitly identified and referenced against the CFR and the assessment questions. The inspection report should also explain why the inspector feels certain management practices are poor, counter to the CFR, and/or point to ineffecive management. Concurrent with documenting the inspection results, the inspector should provide recommendations for alleviating observed management practices that are detrimental to effective safeguards. The recommendations could include: specific changes in the practices of the licensee, followup procedures on the part of NRC, and proposed license changes

  16. Acoustic inspection device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Burghard, Brion J.; Skorpik, James R.; Pappas, Richard A.; Mullen, O. Dennis; Samuel, Todd J.; Reid, Larry D.; Harris, Joe C.; Valencia, Juan D.; Smalley, Jonathan T.; Shepard, Chester L.; Taylor, Theodore T.

    2005-09-06

    An ultrasound inspection apparatus particularly adapted to examine containers (sealed or unsealed) containing a liquid or solid bulk material. The apparatus has an overall configuration of a hand held pistol with a front transducer contact surface that is positioned against a front wall of the container. An ultrasound pulse is transmitted from the apparatus to be reflected from a back wall of a container being investigated. The received echo pulse is converted to a digital waveform. The waveform is analyzed relative to temperature, travel distance of the pulse(s), and time of travel to ascertain characteristics of the liquid or other materials and to provide identification of the same.

  17. Main Concerns of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørrung, Birgit; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Buncic, Sava

    Although various foods can serve as sources of foodborne illness, meat and meat products are important sources of human infections with a variety of foodborne pathogens, i.e. Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Verotoxigenic E. coli and, to some extent, Listeria monocytogenes. All these may be harboured in the gastrointestinal tract of food-producing animals. The most frequent chain of events leading to meat-borne illness involves food animals, which are healthy carriers of the pathogens that are subsequently transferred to humans through production, handling and consumption of meat and meat products. Occurrences of Salmonella spp., C. jejuni/coli, Y. enterocolitica and Verotoxigenic E. coli in fresh red meat vary relatively widely, although most often are between 1 and 10%, depending on a range of factors including the organism, geographical factors, farming and/or meat production practices.

  18. Identification of species origin of meat and meat products on the DNA basis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Rajiv Ranjan; Sharma, Brahm Deo; Gokulakrishnan, Palanisamy; Mendiratta, Sanjod Kumar; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    The adulteration/substitution of meat has always been a concern for various reasons such as public health, religious factors, wholesomeness, and unhealthy competition in meat market. Consumer should be protected from these malicious practices of meat adulterations by quick, precise, and specific identification of meat animal species. Several analytical methodologies have been employed for meat speciation based on anatomical, histological, microscopic, organoleptic, chemical, electrophoretic, chromatographic, or immunological principles. However, by virtue of their inherent limitations, most of these techniques have been replaced by the recent DNA-based molecular techniques. In the last decades, several methods based on polymerase chain reaction have been proposed as useful means for identifying the species origin in meat and meat products, due to their high specificity and sensitivity, as well as rapid processing time and low cost. This review intends to provide an updated and extensive overview on the DNA-based methods for species identification in meat and meat products.

  19. El suicidio: Una conducta antisocial que prevalece/Suicide: An antisocial behavior that prevails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alejandro De León Palomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The suicide has existed throughout history and has prevailed as a behavior that was contrary to the rules of the society in terms of preservation of life itself; the objective of this research was to make emphasis on the nature of antisocial behavior of this behavior and show its prevalence in the years 2006 to 2010 in Mexico and Tamaulipas, as well as from 1999 to 2008 in Reynosa, Tamaulipas. For which the data were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography to the country and the State and the books of the register of deaths by cause violent of the Regional Unit of Expert Services of the Attorney General of Justice, which has its headquarters in Reynosa; developed a theoretical framework on the impact of the conduct in society and the means to prevent it, The data obtained we revealed the continued presence of this conduct year-on-year, 23.554 cases appearing in Mexico and 819 in Tamaulipas in the period from 2006 to 2010; in Reynosa, Tamaulipas were presented 278 suicides in the period 1999 to 2008. The results show us a conduct stable in numbers, but without excessive overflows that prevails year-on-year, suicide, and the attempt of the same should be viewed as a social problem and not detract from the importance that it deserves a conduct of these dimensions, that is no more than a reflection of the situation in which are the means of social control toward the preservation of life itself.

  20. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1995-01-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU

  1. Control of salmonella in meat and meat products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempster, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of food irradiation in the protection of the public against food poisoning from eating meat or meat products contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella infections are increasing at an alarming rate (2000 in 1952 to 12000 reported cases in 1982 in England and Wales alone). Dr. Dempster reports that 50% of the chicken carcasses examined by workers in America were found to be salmonella contaminated. Use of irradiation in conjunction with mild refrigeration can extend the shelf-life of vacuum packed chicken by a factor of three. Important legislation now under discussion in the U.S.A. is likely to extend the applicability of food irradiation rapidly in the near future

  2. Inspection robots for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, Tatsuo; Kimura, Motohiko; Sato, Michio

    1990-01-01

    In order to maintain the soundness in nuclear facilities including nuclear power stations, the inspection prior to operation and the inspection during operation as well as the quality control at the time of manufacture are carried out. The main methods of inspection are nondestructive inspection, and visual, ultrasonic flaw detection, eddy current flaw detection, X-ray and other inspections are carried out. In nuclear facilities, it is necessary to do inspection in the places where radiation and radioactivity exist, accordingly in view of reducing the dose in working as far as possible, remote and automatic inspection is desirable. Besides, the research and development of the upgrading of quality and the shortening of time of inspection have been done. The ultrasonic flaw detection of the nozzle parts of reactor pressure vessels, welded pipings and so on was automated, and the application of CT technology to make the three-dimensional images of piping defects has been studied. In this report, a remote, automatic ultrasonic flaw detection apparatus and an underwater visual inspection apparatus are described. The former is composed of an electromagnetic acoustic transducer and its running mechanism of trackless magnetic sticking type. The latter uses a television camera mounted on a vehicle. (K.I.)

  3. PWR vessel inspection performance improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair Fairbrother, D.; Bodson, Francis

    1998-01-01

    A compact robot for ultrasonic inspection of reactor vessels has been developed that reduces setup logistics and schedule time for mandatory code inspections. Rather than installing a large structure to access the entire weld inspection area from its flange attachment, the compact robot examines welds in overlapping patches from a suction cup anchor to the shell wall. The compact robot size allows two robots to be operated in the vessel simultaneously. This significantly reduces the time required to complete the inspection. Experience to date indicates that time for vessel examinations can be reduced to fewer than four days. (author)

  4. Meat quality traits and proteome profile of woody broiler breast (pectoralis major) meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, K; Shao, W; Chen, X; Campbell, Y L; Nair, M N; Suman, S P; Beach, C M; Guyton, M C; Schilling, M W

    2018-01-01

    Woody breast meat has recently become prevalent in the broiler industry in both the United States and European Union. Recent publications have described the meat quality characteristics of woody breast meat as having hardened areas and pale ridge-like bulges at both the caudal and cranial regions of the breast. The present study investigated the meat quality (pH, color, cooking loss, and shear force) and protein quality characteristics (protein and salt-soluble protein content) in woody breast meat as compared to normal breast meat. In addition, the differences in the muscle proteome profiles of woody and normal breast meat were characterized. Results indicated that woody breast meat had a greater average pH (P 0.05) in comparison to normal breast meat samples. The L*, a*, and b* values of woody breast fillets were greater than normal breast fillets (P < 0.0001 to L*; P = 0.002 to a*; P = 0.016 to b*). The woody breast meat had more fat (P < 0.0001) and moisture (P < 0.021) and less protein (P < 0.0001) and salt-soluble protein (P < 0.0001) when compared with normal breast fillets. Whole muscle proteome analysis indicated 8 proteins that were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between normal and woody breast meat samples. The differences in muscle proteome between normal and woody breast meat indicated an increased oxidative stress in woody breast meat when compared to normal meat. In addition, the abundance of some glycolytic enzymes, which are critical to the regeneration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in postmortem muscles, was lower in woody breast meat than in normal breast meat. Proteomic differences provide additional information on the biochemical pathways and genetic variations that lead to woody breast meat. Further research should be conducted to elucidate the genetic and nutritional contributions to the proliferation of woody breast meat in the United States. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. CONCENTRATION OF CADMIUM IN MEAT AND SELECTED MEATS PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Lukáčová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium concentrations depend on the environmental conditions and food production methods. The monitoring of cadmium concentration in meat is important for human health. The concentrations of cadmium in meat and meat products collected from central Slovakia, in the central Europe region and from different countries of West Europe were assessed using by AA spectrometer with graphite furnace (PerkinElmer AAnalyst 80, MA, USA. Within starting materials we detected the highest values of cadmium in beef from foreign production (0.1101 ppm, followed by pork from foreign production (0.0901 ppm in Lovecka salama and pork thigh (0.0523 ppm in selected ham. In Lovecka salami we were found the highest concentration of cadmium in final samples from foreign starting materials, followed by homogenized samples from foreign starting materials, final samples from domestic starting materials and homogenized samples from domestic starting materials (0.3728, 0.3549, 0.2387, 0.2112 ppm, respectively. The highest concentration of cadmium in selected ham were found in final products from foreign starting materials, homogenized samples from foreign starting materials, final products from domestic starting materials and homogenized samples from domestic starting materials (0.1453, 0.1382,0.0810, 0.0734 ppm, respectively. The obtained results suggested that the concentrations of cadmium are higher in homogenized samples and final products in Lovecka salami and selected ham in comparison with to starting materials. Technological process of meat processing can create a potential source of heavy metals in final products.

  6. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K

    2005-01-01

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  7. Stereoscopic inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, P.A.E.; Robinson, M.; Przybyla, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    A stereoscopic X-ray inspection system has a binocular radiographic source in which the binocular radiographic dimensions affecting presentation of the stereoscopic image are variable. The separation distance between X-ray sources and the convergence angle of the X-ray beams may be altered to change the individual perspective views comprising the final image. The acquired views are stored in video frame stores ready for display in a manner appropriate to stereoscopic presentation and the lateral disparity between the images may also be altered to control the position in depth relative to the display screen in the perceived stereo image. The object may be a cargo container. The X-ray sources may comprise accelerating waveguides in which microwaves from magnetrons or klystrons and waveguides accelerate pulses of electrons form an electron gun onto an anode. (author)

  8. Short notice inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouchkarev, V.

    1998-01-01

    For 30 years the IAEA safeguards system have evolved and have been strengthened by the regular introduction of new methods and techniques, improving both its effectiveness and efficiency. The member States of the IAEA have indicated their willingness to accept new obligations and associated technical measure that greatly strengthen the nuclear safeguards system. One element of this is the extent to which the IAEA inspectors have physical access to relevant locations for the purpose of providing independent verification of the exclusively peaceful intent of a State nuclear program. The Protocol to Safeguards granted new legal authority with respect to information on, and short notice inspector access to, all buildings on a nuclear site and administrative agreements that improve the process of designating inspectors and IAEA access to modern means of communication. This report is a short description of unannounced or short notice inspections as measures on which the new strengthened and cost efficient system will be based

  9. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostova Sandra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in human population in all parts of the world. In most of the cases infection with Campylobacter spp. in humans originate from contaminated poultry meat and poultry meat products. This study was designed to estimate prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia. During the period of 8 months (January-August 2008 we tested 56 samples of meat and meat products (poultry meat, MDM, pork meat, beef meat and smoked beef. Samples were submitted to analysis for detection of thermo-tolerant Campylobacter spp. according to ISO 10272:1995. We determined among the analyzed samples highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in MDM with 84% positive samples, poultry meat with 81,8%, pork meat with 10%. We didn.t detect any positive samples in beef meat and smoked beef. Overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in all tested samples was 55,36%. This study shows that the high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in tested samples and in correlation with severe symptoms in humans are reasons good enough for the producing and processing poultry meat industry and food business operators so they should take in consideration Campylobacter spp. in their risk assessment and preparation of HACCP plan.

  10. Retail Deli Slicer Inspection Practices: An EHS-Net Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipcsei, Lauren E; Brown, Laura G; Hoover, E Rickamer; Faw, Brenda V; Hedeen, Nicole; Matis, Bailey; Nicholas, David; Ripley, Danny

    2018-05-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 3,000 people die in the United States each year from foodborne illness, and Listeria monocytogenes causes the third highest number of deaths. Risk assessment data indicate that L. monocytogenes contamination of particularly delicatessen meats sliced at retail is a significant contributor to human listeriosis. Mechanical deli slicers are a major source of L. monocytogenes cross-contamination and growth. In an attempt to prevent pathogen cross-contamination and growth, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) created guidance to promote good slicer cleaning and inspection practices. The CDC's Environmental Health Specialists Network conducted a study to learn more about retail deli practices concerning these prevention strategies. The present article includes data from this study on the frequency with which retail delis met the FDA recommendation that slicers should be inspected each time they are properly cleaned (defined as disassembling, cleaning, and sanitizing the slicer every 4 h). Data from food worker interviews in 197 randomly selected delis indicate that only 26.9% of workers ( n = 53) cleaned and inspected their slicers at this frequency. Chain delis and delis that serve more than 300 customers on their busiest day were more likely to have properly cleaned and inspected slicers. Data also were collected on the frequency with which delis met the FDA Food Code provision that slicers should be undamaged. Data from observations of 685 slicers in 298 delis indicate that only 37.9% of delis ( n = 113) had slicers that were undamaged. Chain delis and delis that provide worker training were more likely to have slicers with no damage. To improve slicer practices, food safety programs and the retail food industry may wish to focus on worker training and to focus interventions on independent and smaller delis, given that these delis were less likely to properly inspect their slicers and to have

  11. 7 CFR 29.39 - Permissive inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissive inspection. 29.39 Section 29.39 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.39 Permissive inspection. Inspection authorized under section 6 of...

  12. Meat-based enteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevitskay, O. K.; Dydykin, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Enteral nutrition is widely used in hospitals as a means of nutritional support and therapy for different diseases. Enteral nutrition must fulfil the energy needs of the body, be balanced by the nutrient composition and meet patient’s nutritional needs. Meat is a source of full-value animal protein, vitamins and minerals. On the basis of this research, recipes and technology for a meat-based enteral nutrition product were developed. The product is a ready-to-eat sterilised mixture in the form of a liquid homogeneous mass, which is of full value in terms of composition and enriched with vitamins and minerals, consists of particles with a size of not more than 0.3 mm and has the modified fat composition and rheological characteristics that are necessary for passage through enteral feeding tubes. The study presents experimental data on the content of the main macro- and micro-nutrients in the developed product. The new product is characterised by a balanced fatty acid composition, which plays an important role in correction of lipid metabolism disorders and protein-energy deficiency, and it is capable of satisfying patients’ daily requirements for vitamins and the main macro- and microelements when consuming 1500-2000 ml. Meat-based enteral nutrition can be used in diets as a standard mixture for effective correction of the energy and anabolic requirements of the body and support of the nutritional status of patients, including those with operated stomach syndrome.

  13. Inspection of disposal canisters components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, J.

    2013-12-01

    This report presents the inspection techniques of disposal canister components. Manufacturing methods and a description of the defects related to different manufacturing methods are described briefly. The defect types form a basis for the design of non-destructive testing because the defect types, which occur in the inspected components, affect to choice of inspection methods. The canister components are to nodular cast iron insert, steel lid, lid screw, metal gasket, copper tube with integrated or separate bottom, and copper lid. The inspection of copper material is challenging due to the anisotropic properties of the material and local changes in the grain size of the copper material. The cast iron insert has some acoustical material property variation (attenuation, velocity changes, scattering properties), which make the ultrasonic inspection demanding from calibration point of view. Mainly three different methods are used for inspection. Ultrasonic testing technique is used for inspection of volume, eddy current technique, for copper components only, and visual testing technique are used for inspection of the surface and near surface area

  14. Automated visual inspection of textile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Fisker; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    1997-01-01

    A method for automated inspection of two types of textile is presented. The goal of the inspection is to determine defects in the textile. A prototype is constructed for simulating the textile production line. At the prototype the images of the textile are acquired by a high speed line scan camera...

  15. Molecular-based mechanisms of Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension: questioning the prevailing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Theodore W; Dominiczak, Anna F; DiCarlo, Stephen E; Pravenec, Michal; Morris, R Curtis

    2015-05-01

    This critical review directly challenges the prevailing theory that a transient increase in cardiac output caused by genetically mediated increases in activity of the ENaC in the aldosterone sensitive distal nephron, or of the NCC in the distal convoluted tubule, accounts entirely for the hemodynamic initiation of all Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension (Figure 1). The prevailing theory of how genetic mutations enable salt to hemodynamically initiate Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension in humans (Figure 1) depends on the results of salt-loading studies of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance in nongenetic models of hypertension that lack appropriate normal controls. The theory is inconsistent with the results of studies that include measurements of the initial hemodynamic changes induced by salt loading in normal, salt-resistant controls. The present analysis, which takes into account the results of salt-loading studies that include the requisite normal controls, indicates that mutation-induced increases in the renal tubular activity of ENaC or NCC that lead to transient increases in cardiac output will generally not be sufficient to enable increases in salt intake to initiate the increased BP that characterizes Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension (Table). The present analysis also raises questions about whether mutation-dependent increases in renal tubular activity of ENaC or NCC are even necessary to account for increased risk for salt-dependent hypertension in most patients with such mutations. We propose that for the genetic alterations underlying Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension to enable increases in salt intake to initiate the increased BP, they must often cause vasodysfunction, ie, an inability to normally vasodilate and decrease systemic vascular resistance in response to increases in salt intake within dietary ranges typically observed in most modern societies. A subnormal ability to vasodilate in

  16. Thermographic inspection of massive structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renshaw, Jeremy B.; Guimaraes, Maria; Scott, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Nondestructive Evaluation of concrete structures is a growing concern for the nuclear industry as well as for many other industries. As critical concrete components continue to age, the ability to assess the health and suitability for continued service has become a key consideration. In some cases, repair of these structures is difficult and expensive, while replacement is prohibitively expensive or, in some cases, not feasible. Therefore, the ability to inspect these key assets is a primary concern, especially in the nuclear industry. Due to the large size of containment buildings, cooling towers, and other large concrete assets, the ability to rapidly inspect for defects of concern is very desirable. Thermographic inspection appears to have the required ability to rapidly inspect large structures to ascertain the location and size of many of the defects of concern. This ability was demonstrated by performing a thermographic inspection of a large concrete dam in 2 days

  17. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-05-01

    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, either to nature or to animals; 2) it will reduce the number of happy animals in the world; and 3) it will open the door to cannibalism. While each objection has some attraction, we ultimately find that all can be overcome. The upshot is that in vitro meat production is generally permissible and, especially for ethical vegetarians, worth promoting.

  18. Chinese ethnic meat products: Continuity and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Weicai; Wen, Wenting; Deng, Yue; Tian, Yuanyuan; Sun, Honghu; Sun, Qun

    2016-10-01

    With their distinctive sensory characterizations and unique processing technologies, Chinese ethnic meat products possess great potential for development and continuity in modern China's meat industry. Due to the greater demand for meat products and higher quality and safety concerns in economically fast growing China, the development and continuity of ethnic meat products face its own unique challenges. In this review, the classification of typical ethnic products and their characteristics, and the research progress on their quality and processing technologies are discussed. The application of innovative and green technologies to improve the safety and quality of ethnic meat products for greater industrialization and sustainable development is highlighted. Furthermore, the strategy for promoting the production of Chinese ethnic meat products during the next five years is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Introducing the new meat. Problems and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stellan Welin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cultured meat, or in vitro meat, is one of the ideas that are being proposed to help solve the problems associated with the ever-growing global meat consumption. The prospect may bring benefit for the environment, climate, and animal ethics, but has also generated doubts and criticism. A discussion of the possible environmental benefit and of animal ethics issues in relation to cultured meat production will be given. A perceived 'unnaturalness' of cultured meat may be one of the strongest barriers for public acceptance. This will be discussed and rejected. As to our relations with nature and animals, it is plausible that cultured meat will lead to improvement rather than to deterioration. The issue of public acceptance and some of the problems of introducing this new product on the market will also be discussed.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i1.1788

  20. Benevolent technotopias and hitherto unimaginable meats: Tracing the promises of in vitro meat

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Today, in vitro (Latin: in glass) meat researchers strive to overhaul meat production technologies by producing meat outside animal bodies, primarily by culturing cells. In the process, meat should become healthier, more environmentally friendly and kinder to animals. In this article, I scrutinize (and problematize) this promissory discourse by examining the world that proponents envision alongside the world from which promises emerge. First, I trace the increasing number of publications stri...

  1. On the prevailing construction waste recycling practices: a South East Queensland study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Kotrayothar, Duangthidar; Loo, Yew-Chaye

    2009-03-01

    Waste generated from construction and building demolition work constitutes about 68% of all solid waste generated each year in South East Queensland. Consequently, it has created a serious waste management problem. The State Governments of Victoria and New South Wales have been encouraging the use of recycled materials from construction and related waste; they have also promulgated specifications for their use. In Queensland, however, similar regulations are not anticipated in the near future, which explains the lack of funded research conducted in this important arena. This paper presents an evaluation of the prevailing waste recycling practices in Queensland. Nine sites were visited, including two construction sites, three demolition sites, three recycling plants and one landfill in South East Queensland. The difficulties encountered by the recycling programme operators and their associates at these sites are described and the benefits of recycling construction materials are presented. One of the major barriers is that the local councils disallow the use of recycled materials in new construction work. To help rectify these impediments to recycling, recommendations are given to increase the use of recycled construction waste in South East Queensland.

  2. Prevailing practices in airway management: a prospective single-centre observational study of endotracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Geraldine Pei Chin; Kannan, Anusha; Koh, Kwong Fah; Venkatesan, Kumaresh; Seet, Edwin

    2018-03-01

    Airway management during anaesthesia has potential difficulties and risks. We aimed to investigate the utility of routine airway assessment for predicting difficult tracheal intubation, review the prevailing practice of videolaryngoscope use amongst anaesthetists in a teaching hospital and determine the incidence of intraoperative and postoperative airway-related complications. A prospective observational study of 1,654 patients undergoing general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation over a seven-month period was performed. Data regarding airway and anaesthetic management was collected and analysed. Videolaryngoscopes were used as the first-choice equipment in 60.5% of the cohort. The incidence of difficult intubation was 2.1%, of which 45.7% of cases were unanticipated. The sensitivity of airway assessment was 54.3%, with a positive predictive value of 8.1%. When difficult intubation was anticipated, more videolaryngoscopes were used as the first equipment of choice compared to the Macintosh laryngoscope (p < 0.001). In the Macintosh group, more patients required a change of airway equipment (p = 0.015), but the number of intubation attempts was similar (p = 0.293). The incidence of intraoperative (p = 0.920) and postoperative complications (p = 0.380) were similar in both groups. Using the current predictors of difficult intubation, half of the difficult airways we encountered were unanticipated. Videolaryngoscopes were preferred when difficulty was anticipated and were also used in routine tracheal intubation. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  3. Appreciation of the nature of light demands enhancement over the prevailing scientific epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar

    2011-09-01

    Based on attempts to resolve the problem of various self contradictory assumptions behind the prevailing belief on single photon interference, we have analyzed the process steps behind our experimental measurements and named the process as the Interaction Process Mapping Epistemology (IPM-E). This has helped us recognize that the quantum mechanical Measurement Problem has a much universal and deeper root in nature. Our scientific theorization process suffers from a Perpetual Information Challenge (PIC), which cannot be overcome by elegant and/or sophisticated mathematical theories alone. Iterative imaginative application of IPM-E needs to be used as a metaphorical analytical continuation to fill up the missing information gaps. IPM-E has also guided us to recognize the generic NIW-principle (Non-Interaction of Waves) in the linear domain, not explicitly recognized in current books and literature. Superposition effects become manifest through light-matter interactions. Detecting dipoles gets stimulated by multiple superposed beams; it sums the simultaneous multiple stimulations into a single resultant undulation, which then guides the resultant energy exchange. The consequent transformation in the detector corresponds to observed fringes. They neither represent interference of light; nor represent selective arrival or non-arrival of photons on the detector. Photons do not possess any force of mutual interaction to generate their redistribution. Implementation of IPM-E requires us to recognize our subjective interpretation propensity with which we are burdened due to our evolutionary successes.

  4. Global empirical wind model for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. I. Prevailing wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Portnyagin

    Full Text Available An updated empirical climatic zonally averaged prevailing wind model for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (70-110 km, extending from 80°N to 80°S is presented. The model is constructed from the fitting of monthly mean winds from meteor radar and MF radar measurements at more than 40 stations, well distributed over the globe. The height-latitude contour plots of monthly mean zonal and meridional winds for all months of the year, and of annual mean wind, amplitudes and phases of annual and semiannual harmonics of wind variations are analyzed to reveal the main features of the seasonal variation of the global wind structures in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Some results of comparison between the ground-based wind models and the space-based models are presented. It is shown that, with the exception of annual mean systematic bias between the zonal winds provided by the ground-based and space-based models, a good agreement between the models is observed. The possible origin of this bias is discussed.

    Key words: Meteorology and Atmospheric dynamics (general circulation; middle atmosphere dynamics; thermospheric dynamics

  5. Why nature prevails over nurture in the making of the elite athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Evelina; Klissouras, Vassilis; Baulch, Jamie; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2017-11-14

    While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes and the environment. It is widely accepted that superior performers are endowed with a high genetic potential actualised through hard and prodigious effort. Heritability studies using the twin model have provided the basis to disentangle genetic and environmental factors that contribute to complex human traits and have paved the way to the detection of specific genes for elite sport performance. Yet, the heritability for most phenotypes essential to elite human performance is above 50% but below 100%, meaning that the environment is also important. Furthermore, individual differences can potentially also be explained not only by the impact of DNA sequence variation on biology and behaviour, but also by the effects of epigenetic changes which affect phenotype by modifying gene expression. Despite this complexity, the overwhelming and accumulating evidence, amounted through experimental research spanning almost two centuries, tips the balance in favour of nature in the "nature" and "nurture" debate. In other words, truly elite-level athletes are built - but only from those born with innate ability.

  6. Phylogenomics resolves a spider backbone phylogeny and rejects a prevailing paradigm for orb web evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Jason E; Garrison, Nicole L; Hamilton, Chris A; Godwin, Rebecca L; Hedin, Marshal; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2014-08-04

    Spiders represent an ancient predatory lineage known for their extraordinary biomaterials, including venoms and silks. These adaptations make spiders key arthropod predators in most terrestrial ecosystems. Despite ecological, biomedical, and biomaterial importance, relationships among major spider lineages remain unresolved or poorly supported. Current working hypotheses for a spider "backbone" phylogeny are largely based on morphological evidence, as most molecular markers currently employed are generally inadequate for resolving deeper-level relationships. We present here a phylogenomic analysis of spiders including taxa representing all major spider lineages. Our robust phylogenetic hypothesis recovers some fundamental and uncontroversial spider clades, but rejects the prevailing paradigm of a monophyletic Orbiculariae, the most diverse lineage, containing orb-weaving spiders. Based on our results, the orb web either evolved much earlier than previously hypothesized and is ancestral for a majority of spiders or else it has multiple independent origins, as hypothesized by precladistic authors. Cribellate deinopoid orb weavers that use mechanically adhesive silk are more closely related to a diverse clade of mostly webless spiders than to the araneoid orb-weaving spiders that use adhesive droplet silks. The fundamental shift in our understanding of spider phylogeny proposed here has broad implications for interpreting the evolution of spiders, their remarkable biomaterials, and a key extended phenotype--the spider web. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cuticle Structure in Relation to Chemical Composition: Re-assessing the Prevailing Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Victoria; Guzmán-Delgado, Paula; Graça, José; Santos, Sara; Gil, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The surface of most aerial plant organs is covered with a cuticle that provides protection against multiple stress factors including dehydration. Interest on the nature of this external layer dates back to the beginning of the 19th century and since then, several studies facilitated a better understanding of cuticular chemical composition and structure. The prevailing undertanding of the cuticle as a lipidic, hydrophobic layer which is independent from the epidermal cell wall underneath stems from the concept developed by Brongniart and von Mohl during the first half of the 19th century. Such early investigations on plant cuticles attempted to link chemical composition and structure with the existing technologies, and have not been directly challenged for decades. Beginning with a historical overview about the development of cuticular studies, this review is aimed at critically assessing the information available on cuticle chemical composition and structure, considering studies performed with cuticles and isolated cuticular chemical components. The concept of the cuticle as a lipid layer independent from the cell wall is subsequently challenged, based on the existing literature, and on new findings pointing toward the cell wall nature of this layer, also providing examples of different leaf cuticle structures. Finally, the need for a re-assessment of the chemical and structural nature of the plant cuticle is highlighted, considering its cell wall nature and variability among organs, species, developmental stages, and biotic and abiotic factors during plant growth.

  8. Licensee contractor and Vendor Inspection status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This periodical covers the results of inspections performed by the NRC's Vendor Inspection Branch that have been distributed to the inspected organizations during the period from January through March 1992

  9. Licensee contractor and vendor inspection status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This periodical covers the results of inspections performed by the NRC's Vendor Inspection Branch that have been distributed to the inspected organizations during the period from July 1989 through September 1989

  10. Licensee contractor and vendor inspection status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This periodical covers the results of inspections performed by the NRC's Vendor Inspection Branch that have been distributed to the inspected organizations during the period from January 1993 through March 1993

  11. Licensee contractor and vendor inspection status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This periodical covers the results of inspections performed by the NRC's Vendor Inspection Branch that have been distributed to the inspected organization during the period from July 1991 through September 1991

  12. Licensee contractor and vendor inspection status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This periodical covers the results of inspections performed by the NRC's Vendor Inspection Branch that have been distributed to the inspected organizations during the period from April through June 1993

  13. Licensee contractor and vendor inspection status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This periodical covers the results of inspections performed by the NRC's Vendor Inspection Branch that have been distributed to the inspected organization during the period from April 1990 through June 1990

  14. Licensee contractor and vendor inspection status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This periodical covers the results of inspections performed by the NRC's Vendor Inspection Branch that have been distributed to the inspected organization during the period from January 1990 through March 1990

  15. Licensee contractor and vendor inspection status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This periodical covers the results of inspections performed by the NRC's Vendor Inspection Branch that have been distributed to the inspected organization during the period from April 1991 through June 1991

  16. Licensee contractor and vendor inspection status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This periodical covers the results of inspections performed by the NRC's Vendor Inspection Branch that have been distributed to the inspected organization during the period from July 1992 through September 1992

  17. Licensee Contractor and vendor inspection status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This periodical covers the results of inspections performed by the NRC's Vendor Inspection Branch that have been distributed to the inspected organization during the period from October through December 1991

  18. Licensee contractor and vendor inspection status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This periodical covers the results of inspections performed by the NRC's Vendor Inspection Branch that have been distributed to the inspected organization during the period from January 1991 through March 1991

  19. Licensee contractor and vendor inspection status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This periodical covers the results of inspections performed by the NRC's Vendor Inspection Branch that have been distributed to the inspected organizations during the period from October 1989 through December 1989

  20. Licensee contractor and Vendor Inspection status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This periodical covers the results of inspections performed by the NRC's Vendor Inspection Branch that have been distributed to the inspected organizations during the period from October 1992 through December 1992

  1. Lean Construction Applications for Bridge Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Lean philosophy was used to analyze the efficiency of bridge inspection. Emphasis was put on identifying activities that add value to the final output, an owner approved bridge inspection report. 26 bridge inspections were shadowed. Time spent on bri...

  2. Licensee contractor and vendor inspection status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This periodical covers the results of inspections performed by the NRC's Vendor Inspection Branch that have been distributed to the inspected organizations during the period from October 1990 through December 1990

  3. Environmental impacts of cultured meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira

    2011-07-15

    Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26-33 GJ energy, 367-521 m(3) water, 190-230 m(2) land, and emits 1900-2240 kg CO(2)-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat.

  4. Reindeer husbandry, the Swedish market for reindeer meat, and the Chernobyl effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostedt, G.

    1998-01-01

    Reindeer husbandry in Sweden is an exclusive right for the Sami, northern Scandinavia's indigenous people, and a cornerstone in the Sami culture. During the latest decades reindeer husbandry has however been under significant pressure for different reasons, among them low profitability. Part of the explanation for the low profitability lies in the effects of the Chernobyl accident. Due to the prevailing winds at the time of the accident northern Sweden, and consequently the grazing areas for the reindeer husbandry, was relatively heavily affected by radioactive fallout. This meant that reindeer meat suffered from a relatively high level of contamination. This has had effects both on the supply, since large numbers of reindeer had to be discarded, and on the demand, since the problem with contamination induced preference shifts away from reindeer meat. The purpose of this paper is to present an economic model of the Swedish reindeer husbandry and the market for reindeer meat, and to report some econometric results based on a data set from 1973/74 to 1995/96 on prices, quantities and other variables connected to the Swedish reindeer herding industry. The time period covers the main aftermath of the Chernobyl accident. In the theoretical section a model for the reindeer herder's supply of reindeer meat is presented. The model is based on the fact that most reindeer herders only receive part of their income from reindeer husbandry. In the econometric section the demand and supply curves that are relevant for the reindeer herding industry are identified, using two-stage least squares regression. The most striking feature of the empirical results is a 'backward-bending' supply function for the number of slaughtered reindeer, which is consistent with the theoretical model. The results also show a strong negative demand effect on reindeer meat after the Chernobyl accident

  5. Consumers' motivational associations favoring free-range meat or less meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Boersema, J.J.; Aiking, H.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper analyzed the motivational orientations of consumers who choose to eat (1) small portions of meat or (2) ethically distinctive meat, such as free-range meat, in relation to the motivational orientations of their opposites. Going beyond the conventional approach to consumer behavior,

  6. Longissimus muscle transcriptome profiles related to carcass and meat quality traits in fresh meat Pietrain carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Keuning, E.; Hulsegge, B.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Evans, G.; Mulder, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    High quality pork is consumed as fresh meat while other carcasses are used in the processing industry. Meat quality is determined measuring technical muscle parameters. The objective of this research was to investigate the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying meat quality differences of pork

  7. An Insight of Meat Industry in Pakistan with Special Reference to Halal Meat: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Jamil, Faraz

    2017-01-01

    Livestock is considered central component in agricultural sector of Pakistan, provides employment to more than 8 million families. Meat and meat products holds pivotal significance in meeting dietary requirements serving as major protein source and provide essential vitamins and minerals. Globally, consumer demand is increasing for healthy, hygienic and safe meat and meat products due to growing population, income level and food choices. As, food choices are mainly influenced by region, religion and economic level. However, religion is one of the major factor to influence the food choices. In this context, halal foods a growing trend, trade estimated to cross USD $ 3 trillion and among this, meat sector contribute about US$ 600 billion. Halal meat and allied products is requirement from Muslims but it is also accepted by non-Muslims due to safe and hygienic nature, nutritious value and superior quality. Pakistan meat industry is vibrant and has seen rigorous developments during last decade as government also showed interest to boost livestock production and processing facilities to meet increasing local and global demand. The industry has potential to grow owing to its natural animal rearing capability, muslim majority country (96% of total population), improvisation of market and consumer preference towards halal meat. Current review debates Pakistan meat industry scenario, production trend, global trade as well as future potential with respect to modernization, processing, distribution and trade. The data presented here is useful for meat producers, processors and people involved in export of Pakistani meat and meat based products.

  8. Trends in meat and meat products packaging – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Kurek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of any packaging system for fresh muscle foods is to prevent or delay undesirable changes to the appearance, flavour, odour, and texture. Deterioration in these qualities can result in economic losses due to consumer rejection of the product. Therefore, a preservative packaging should ideally inhibit undesirable enzyme activities, but not interfere with, or inhibit, activities that are beneficial. The non-enzimatic reactions that affect the organoleptic qualities of raw meats are invariably undesirable, so these should preferably be slowed or prevented by a preservative packaging.

  9. Radappertization of chicken and pork meat by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1992-05-01

    In this report the benefits that presents the irradiation process in the conservation of meat products, as the chicken, head meat and pig meat are analysed, also the implications that it brings in health and economical aspects. (Author)

  10. From PISC to risk informed inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, S.; Lemaitre, P.; Fabbri, L.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the correlation between inspection effectiveness, inspection qualification and risk informed inspection will be treated in view of harmonisation of inspection of nuclear plant components. Through the different phases of the PISC programme the necessity has been demonstrated to show the effectiveness of the inspection through a formal process of qualification in order to ensure that a certain level of effectiveness has been reached. Inspection qualification is indeed the way to quantify the capability level of inspection techniques used. The targets to be met by the inspection is information which should be obtained from risk based analyses. (author)

  11. Advanced ultrasonic inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghia, S.

    1990-08-01

    Acoustic Emission (AE) continuous monitoring and periodical inspections by advanced ultrasonic have been applied to evaluate defect evolution within a PWR reduced scale (1:5) pressure vessel subjected to cyclic mechanical fatigue test. This experimental activity has been carried out in the frame of the Primary Circuit Component Life Prediction programme. In the time period covered by this report actions were performed as following: (1) Ultrasonic examination by multifrequency acoustic holography to evaluate defect evolution subsequently repair and heat treatment of the R2 vessel carried out in March 1988. For the purpose, measurements were performed both at 0 and 200 bar of internal pressure. As uniformity of the procedures adopted, for calibration and testing, made the results comparable with the previous ones no evidence for significant growing of the examined defects has been found. (2) Acoustic emission monitoring has then been carried out during fatigue test from 416000 to 565000 fatigue cycles. Analysis of a large amount of data has been performed paying particular attention to the distinction between friction phenomena and crack growth in order to obtain a correct diagnosis of flaw evolution. The signal duration distribution and the correlation of AE appearance time versus load cycle phase were considered to characterise stick-slip processes. A general intensification of AE activity has been recorded during this last period of monitoring and previous known AE sources were confirmed together with the appearance of new AE sources some of them correlable with real defects

  12. Meet meat: An explorative study on meat and cultured meat as seen by Chinese, Ethiopians and Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, G.A.; Tobi, H.; Fischer, A.R.

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-cultural study we investigated how study participants from China, Ethiopia and the Netherlands operationalize the concept of meat and to what extent cultured meat fits or does not fit into this operationalization. We argue that combining the conceptual approaches symbolic boundaries

  13. Prevailing theories of consciousness are challenged by novel cross-modal associations acquired between subliminal stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ryan B; Samaha, Jason; Chrisley, Ron; Dienes, Zoltan

    2018-06-01

    While theories of consciousness differ substantially, the 'conscious access hypothesis', which aligns consciousness with the global accessibility of information across cortical regions, is present in many of the prevailing frameworks. This account holds that consciousness is necessary to integrate information arising from independent functions such as the specialist processing required by different senses. We directly tested this account by evaluating the potential for associative learning between novel pairs of subliminal stimuli presented in different sensory modalities. First, pairs of subliminal stimuli were presented and then their association assessed by examining the ability of the first stimulus to prime classification of the second. In Experiments 1-4 the stimuli were word-pairs consisting of a male name preceding either a creative or uncreative profession. Participants were subliminally exposed to two name-profession pairs where one name was paired with a creative profession and the other an uncreative profession. A supraliminal task followed requiring the timed classification of one of those two professions. The target profession was preceded by either the name with which it had been subliminally paired (concordant) or the alternate name (discordant). Experiment 1 presented stimuli auditorily, Experiment 2 visually, and Experiment 3 presented names auditorily and professions visually. All three experiments revealed the same inverse priming effect with concordant test pairs associated with significantly slower classification judgements. Experiment 4 sought to establish if learning would be more efficient with supraliminal stimuli and found evidence that a different strategy is adopted when stimuli are consciously perceived. Finally, Experiment 5 replicated the unconscious cross-modal association achieved in Experiment 3 utilising non-linguistic stimuli. The results demonstrate the acquisition of novel cross-modal associations between stimuli which are not

  14. The networked minority: How a small group prevailed in a local windfarm conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Carmel

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explain through a qualitative case study how a small protest group prevailed during a local windfarm conflict in south-eastern Australia. A social capital analytical framework was developed to analyse the data. The analysis found that two communities inhabited the area for which the windfarm development was proposed. The public participation process failed to address the concerns of both communities and led to the emergence of a social network of resistance. The network had high stocks of bridging social capital, which enabled an effective protest that led to the abandonment of the development. Their effectiveness was inadvertently aided by the windfarm supporters who were unable to act collectively to defend their interests because socio-economic changes in the community among other factors had led to a depletion of their social capital. In this context, different democratic participatory processes were needed to address the concerns of the two communities. Guidance and tools for researching and developing the types of participatory processes needed for vulnerable communities with low social capital and those similar to the social network with high social capital are provided. These will inform community-appropriate public participation processes and participatory planning policy. - Highlights: ► A case study of a local social network's resistance to a windfarm is undertaken. ► The link between high social capital and resistance is confirmed. ► Successful protest groups can be aided by passive windfarm supporters. ► Protesters are likely to participate in well-designed participatory processes. ► Guidance for developing community-specific participatory processes is provided

  15. Prevailing trends of climatic extremes across Indus-Delta of Sindh-Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Farhat; Rehman, Iqra; Adrees, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Saleem, Farhan; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Salik, Muhammad Raza

    2018-02-01

    This study examines the variability and change in the patterns of climatic extremes experienced in Indus-Delta of Sindh province of Pakistan, comprising regions of Karachi, Badin, Mohenjodaro, and Rohri. The homogenized daily minimum and maximum temperature and precipitation data for a 36-year period were used to calculate 13 and 11 indices of temperature and precipitation extremes with the help of RClimDex, a program written in the statistical software package R. A non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimates were used to determine the statistical significance and magnitude of the calculated trend. Temperatures of summer days and tropical nights increased in the region with overall significant warming trends for monthly maximum temperature as well as for warm days and nights reflecting dry conditions in the study area. The warm extremes and nighttime temperature indices showed greater trends than cold extremes and daytime indices depicting an overall warming trends in the Delta. Historic decrease in the acreage of major crops and over 33% decrease in agriculture credit for Sindh are the indicators of adverse impacts of warmer and drier weather on Sindh agriculture. Trends reported for Karachi and Badin are expected to decrease rice cultivation, hatching of fisheries, and mangroves forest surrounding these cities. Increase in the prevailing temperature trends will lead to increasingly hotter and drier summers resulting to constraints on cotton, wheat, and rice yield in Rohri and Mohenjodaro areas due to increased crop water requirements that may be met with additional groundwater pumping; nonetheless, the depleted groundwater resources would have a direct impact on the region's economy.

  16. Projected changes in prevailing winds for transatlantic migratory birds under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    A number of terrestrial bird species that breed in North America cross the Atlantic Ocean during autumn migration when travelling to their non-breeding grounds in the Caribbean or South America. When conducting oceanic crossings, migratory birds tend to associate with mild or supportive winds, whose speed and direction may change under global warming. The implications of these changes for transoceanic migratory bird populations have not been addressed. We used occurrence information from eBird (1950-2015) to estimate the geographical location of population centres at a daily temporal resolution across the annual cycle for 10 transatlantic migratory bird species. We used this information to estimate the location and timing of autumn migration within the transatlantic flyway. We estimated how prevailing winds are projected to change within the transatlantic flyway during this time using daily wind speed anomalies (1996-2005 and 2091-2100) from 29 Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models implemented under CMIP5. Autumn transatlantic migrants have the potential to encounter strong westerly crosswinds early in their transatlantic journey at intermediate and especially high migration altitudes, strong headwinds at low and intermediate migration altitudes within the Caribbean that increase in strength as the season progresses, and weak tailwinds at intermediate and high migration altitudes east of the Caribbean. The CMIP5 simulations suggest that, during this century, the likelihood of autumn transatlantic migrants encountering strong westerly crosswinds will diminish. As global warming progresses, the need for species to compensate or drift under the influence of strong westerly crosswinds during the initial phase of their autumn transatlantic journey may be diminished. Existing strategies that promote headwind avoidance and tailwind assistance will likely remain valid. Thus, climate change may reduce time and energy requirements and the chance of mortality or

  17. Surface tension prevails over solute effect in organic-influenced cloud droplet activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Zuend, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Sanchez, Kevin J.; Roberts, Greg; Ceburnis, Darius; Decesari, Stefano; Rinaldi, Matteo; Hodas, Natasha; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Seinfeld, John H.; O' Dowd, Colin

    2017-06-01

    The spontaneous growth of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) into cloud droplets under supersaturated water vapour conditions is described by classic Köhler theory. This spontaneous activation of CCN depends on the interplay between the Raoult effect, whereby activation potential increases with decreasing water activity or increasing solute concentration, and the Kelvin effect, whereby activation potential decreases with decreasing droplet size or increases with decreasing surface tension, which is sensitive to surfactants. Surface tension lowering caused by organic surfactants, which diminishes the Kelvin effect, is expected to be negated by a concomitant reduction in the Raoult effect, driven by the displacement of surfactant molecules from the droplet bulk to the droplet-vapour interface. Here we present observational and theoretical evidence illustrating that, in ambient air, surface tension lowering can prevail over the reduction in the Raoult effect, leading to substantial increases in cloud droplet concentrations. We suggest that consideration of liquid-liquid phase separation, leading to complete or partial engulfing of a hygroscopic particle core by a hydrophobic organic-rich phase, can explain the lack of concomitant reduction of the Raoult effect, while maintaining substantial lowering of surface tension, even for partial surface coverage. Apart from the importance of particle size and composition in droplet activation, we show by observation and modelling that incorporation of phase-separation effects into activation thermodynamics can lead to a CCN number concentration that is up to ten times what is predicted by climate models, changing the properties of clouds. An adequate representation of the CCN activation process is essential to the prediction of clouds in climate models, and given the effect of clouds on the Earth’s energy balance, improved prediction of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions is likely to result in improved assessments of future

  18. Surface tension prevails over solute effect in organic-influenced cloud droplet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Zuend, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Sanchez, Kevin J; Roberts, Greg; Ceburnis, Darius; Decesari, Stefano; Rinaldi, Matteo; Hodas, Natasha; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Seinfeld, John H; O' Dowd, Colin

    2017-06-29

    The spontaneous growth of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) into cloud droplets under supersaturated water vapour conditions is described by classic Köhler theory. This spontaneous activation of CCN depends on the interplay between the Raoult effect, whereby activation potential increases with decreasing water activity or increasing solute concentration, and the Kelvin effect, whereby activation potential decreases with decreasing droplet size or increases with decreasing surface tension, which is sensitive to surfactants. Surface tension lowering caused by organic surfactants, which diminishes the Kelvin effect, is expected to be negated by a concomitant reduction in the Raoult effect, driven by the displacement of surfactant molecules from the droplet bulk to the droplet-vapour interface. Here we present observational and theoretical evidence illustrating that, in ambient air, surface tension lowering can prevail over the reduction in the Raoult effect, leading to substantial increases in cloud droplet concentrations. We suggest that consideration of liquid-liquid phase separation, leading to complete or partial engulfing of a hygroscopic particle core by a hydrophobic organic-rich phase, can explain the lack of concomitant reduction of the Raoult effect, while maintaining substantial lowering of surface tension, even for partial surface coverage. Apart from the importance of particle size and composition in droplet activation, we show by observation and modelling that incorporation of phase-separation effects into activation thermodynamics can lead to a CCN number concentration that is up to ten times what is predicted by climate models, changing the properties of clouds. An adequate representation of the CCN activation process is essential to the prediction of clouds in climate models, and given the effect of clouds on the Earth's energy balance, improved prediction of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions is likely to result in improved assessments of future

  19. Prevailing negative soil biota effect and no evidence for local adaptation in a widespread Eurasian grass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Wagner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil biota effects are increasingly accepted as an important driver of the abundance and distribution of plants. While biogeographical studies on alien invasive plant species have indicated coevolution with soil biota in their native distribution range, it is unknown whether adaptation to soil biota varies among populations within the native distribution range. The question of local adaptation between plants and their soil biota has important implications for conservation of biodiversity and may justify the use of seed material from local provenances in restoration campaigns.We studied soil biota effects in ten populations of the steppe grass Stipa capillata from two distinct regions, Europe and Asia. We tested for local adaptation at two different scales, both within (ca. 10-80 km and between (ca. 3300 km regions, using a reciprocal inoculation experiment in the greenhouse for nine months. Generally, negative soil biota effects were consistent. However, we did not find evidence for local adaptation: both within and between regions, growth of plants in their 'home soil' was not significantly larger relative to that in soil from other, more distant, populations.Our study suggests that negative soil biota effects can prevail in different parts of a plant species' range. Absence of local adaptation points to the possibility of similar rhizosphere biota composition across populations and regions, sufficient gene flow to prevent coevolution, selection in favor of plasticity, or functional redundancy among different soil biota. From the point of view of plant--soil biota interactions, our findings indicate that the current practice of using seeds exclusively from local provenances in ecosystem restoration campaigns may not be justified.

  20. ACTIVE PACKAGING SYSTEM FOR MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, food packaging was used to enable marketing of products and to provide passive protection against environmental contaminations or influences that affect the shelf life of the products. However, unlike traditional packaging, which must be totally inert, active packaging is designed to interact with the contents and/or the surrounding environment. Interest in the use of active packaging systems for meat and meat products has increased in recent years. Active packaging systems are developed with the goal of extending shelf life for foods and increasing the period of time that the food is high quality. Developments in active packaging have led to advances in many areas, including delayed oxidation and controlled respiration rate, microbial growth, and moisture migration. Active packaging technologies include some physical, chemical, or biological action which changes interactions between a package, product, and/or headspace of the package in order to get a desired outcome. Active packaging systems discussed include oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide scavengers and emitters, moisture control agents, flavour/odour absorbers and releasers  and antimicrobial packaging technologies. Active packaging is typically found in two types of systems; sachets and pads which are placed inside of packages, and active ingredients that are incorporated directly into packaging materials.  Recognition of the benefits of active packaging technologies by the food industry, development of economically viable packaging systems and increased consumer acceptance is necessary for commercial realisation of these packaging technologies.doi:10.5219/205

  1. Clostridium difficile in Retail Meats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-16

    Clostridium difficile is a common cause of diarrhea in healthcare settings but little is known about what causes cases in the community. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. L. Clifford McDonald discusses two papers in the May 2009 edition of Emerging Infectious Diseases that explore whether the organism could be found in meat samples purchased in grocery stores in Arizona and Canada.  Created: 4/16/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 4/16/2009.

  2. Impact of EU Enlargement on the Romanian Meat Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Nistor

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With over twenty years ago, Romania was a big producer of meat, with breeding pigs steers and lambs farms, throughout the country. At present, the meat industry has declined considerably. For many years, however, Romania from the exporter of meat has become a fresh meat and meat products importer. Meat consumption per capita in Romania is about half the EU average (92 kg. Romanians show a strong preference for pork, although chicken meat consumption is increasing. The current financial crisis will trigger a decline in terms of meat consumption in EU countries including in Romania.

  3. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HULYA CAKMAK

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  4. Changes in meat quality characteristics of bovine meat during the first 6 days post mortem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Huidobro, F; Miguel, E; Onega, E; Blázquez, B

    2003-12-01

    The development of some quality parameters in bovine meat during the first 6 days of post mortem ageing was studied in two commercial groups (heifer and bull). In the first day bull meat is harder and springier. Meat pH falls during the first 24 h post mortem in both groups, reaching values around 5.5, and it did not change during the next 5 days. Water-holding capacity (expressed as percentage of expelled water) increased in heifer meat. Instrumental texture measures (texture profile analysis, TPA) showed a decrease in hardness, springiness and chewiness in bull raw meat. Sensory analysis showed that assessors perceived a decrease in hardness and in springiness in bull meat and a decrease in juiciness and in chewiness (number of chewings before swallowing) in heifer meat. Ageing showed no effect on assessors' pleasantness either in heifers' or in bulls' meat. During the first 3 days, heifer meat was juicier. Heifers' meat produced a greater pleasantness on the sixth day. Both meats were not very different for most quality parameters studied in this work.

  5. Prospects and challenges of radiation processing of meats and meat products in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chander, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    In India goat, lamb and chicken meat are widely preferred, while, bovine meat and pork are consumed only by a small segment of the population. Meats in the country are mainly marketed fresh or in frozen state. Recently chilled poultry has been introduced in Indian market. In addition to fresh meats, several other ready to eat or ready to cook meat products like chicken chilly, chicken tikka, mutton shammi kababs, mutton seekh kababs etc are available in urban Indian market. These products are marketed only in the frozen state and have limited market due to expensive and inadequate freezing facilities. Major share of domestic fresh meat and poultry market is by unorganized sector and only a few corporate houses like Godrej and Venkey's are marketing poultry products. The time has come to benefit from radiation processing for safe, chilled meat and poultry in India. Shelf-stable, nutritious meat and meat products can also be produced by the process. Radiation processing of these foods will be of great economic and health significance and give boost to exports. This radiation processing can meet the needs of services of convenient and ready-to-eat meat and meat products

  6. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Hulya; Altinel, Burak; Kumcuoglu, Seher; Kisla, Duygu; Tavman, Sebnem

    2016-01-01

    Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder) were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  7. Caltrans bridge inspection aerial robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) project resulted in the development of a twin-motor, : single duct, electric-powered Aerobot designed of carrying video cameras up to 200 feet in elevation to enable : close inspection of bridges...

  8. In-service inspection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backfisch, W.; Zipser, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    The owner of a nuclear power plant (NPP) is obligated and interested to maintain - by regular maintenance and in-service inspections - the operational safety and availability of the plant for the subsequent operating period in a condition, as is specified as the basis of the erection and the last operational permits. In-service inspections are performed to verify the operational safety, and maintenance work is performed to guarantee the availability. Below, the typical in-service inspections of a light-water reactor NPP (operated on a pressurized-water reactor or on a boiling-water reactor) are described with details and examples of typical inspections, especially of recurrent performance tests of the systems. (orig./RW)

  9. Public Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  10. Multifamily Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  11. Knowledge-Based Inspection Capabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marrano, Lance R; Grussing, Michael N

    2006-01-01

    ... does not present a compelling safety hazard. Abandoning certain inspection programs to reduce costs is not a viable alternative, however, because that could degrade real property investments, soldier quality of life, and mission-readiness...

  12. National Automated Conformity Inspection Process -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Automated Conformity Inspection Process (NACIP) Application is intended to expedite the workflow process as it pertains to the FAA Form 81 0-10 Request...

  13. Allegheny County Commercial Vehicle Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset lists the locations and results of all commercial vehicle inspections performed by the Allegheny County Police Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program...

  14. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  15. Construction inspection manual of procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This manual provides highway construction personnel with relevant, practical information in order to perform accurate inspections and provide relevant construction procedural information for the various roadway and structures items of work. It is the...

  16. Gravity Probe B Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

  17. Cultured meat: every village its own factory?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van der C.; Tramper, J.

    2014-01-01

    Rising global demand for meat will result in increased environmental pollution, energy consumption, and animal suffering. Cultured meat, produced in an animal-cell cultivation process, is a technically feasible alternative lacking these disadvantages, provided that an animal-component-free growth

  18. Transport of live animals versus meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, Willy; Nuhoff-Isakhanyan, Gohar; Wagenberg, van Coen

    2017-01-01

    These study responses to two main research questions: What model can we use to measure or estimate the sustainability of long-distance transport of meat/carcass vs. transport of meat? What is the outcome of the model if applied in two cases: transport of spent hens for slaughter from the Netherlands

  19. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  20. Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2013-01-01

    EU poultry meat producers have to comply with legislation on environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. This legislation has increased the production costs of poultry meat. At the same time the EU is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to liberalise trade in

  1. Wholesomeness of gamma-radicidated poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.; Katsareva, Ts.

    1987-01-01

    Wholesomeness of radicidated with 6 kGy poultry meat was studied on mice. Evaluation of two consecutive generations was performed on the base of the following medicobiological parameters: generative function, anatomical studies and hemathological analysis. The results obtained do not show any deviation from the normal values for both investigated groups fed with irradiated and non-irradiated poultry meat

  2. Poultry breast meat attributes and marination performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between intrinsic meat attributes (pH, color, weight, and postmortem age) and marination performance (marinade uptake and retention, and final product yield) were investigated in poultry meat using broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) as a model. Results showed that marinade up...

  3. Salmonella species on meat contact surfaces and processing water in Sokoto main market and abattoir, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Oludayo Faleke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine Salmonella contamination of food contact surfaces and processing water in meat, fish and poultry processing units in Sokoto State, Nigeria. A total of 200 swab (100 from abattoir and 100 from poultry and fish markets and 60 processing water samples (30 from abattoir and 30 from poultry and fish markets were collected between May to August 2015. Cultural isolation, bio-typing and sero-grouping using Salmonella Sero-Quick Group Kit was conducted to analyse the samples. Seventy-five (75/260, 28.8 % of the total samples were positive to Salmonella by cultural isolation and bio-typing. Thirty (30/130; 23.1 % of samples collected in abattoir and 45 (45/130; 34.6 % of those collected from poultry and fish markets were positive for Salmonella respectively. Sero-groups D+Vi (Salmonella Typhi, B (Salmonella Paratyphi B, Salmonella Typhimurium and C (Salmonella Paratyphi C, Salmonella Cholerae suis were identified as the prevailing sero-groups in this study. Sero-group D+Vi has the highest prevalence (73.3 %; 55/75 from the positive bio-typing isolates. This study revealed the presence of contaminating and pathogenic Salmonella on food contact surfaces and processing water in the meat retail markets, indicating there is an urgent need to improve on the hygienic status of retail meat, poultry and fish markets.

  4. Tenderness charactherization of ostrich meat commercial cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Conte Hadlich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ostrich meat has become an interesting source of protein as well as being an alternative to red meat, because of its healthy fatty acid profile, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low content of intramuscular fat, which arouses the interest of people who want a low animal fat diet. Ostrich meat is also appreciated by the tenderness, since it is one of the larger impact characteristics on the acceptance of a meat product for consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tenderness of different ostrich meat commercial cuts and certificate that all studied cuts present tenderness acceptable by consumers. The laboratory tests were performed at the Laboratory of Biochemistry of Proteins (FMVZ, being measured shear force of seven commercial cuts of ostrich meat. The cuts were: internal thigh, external thigh, filet plan, filet out, filet small, rump and filet fan. The samples were boiled in water bath controlled by time and temperature. After chilling, fragments of 1.0 x 1.0 x 3.0 cm were removed from samples. Shear force measurements were performed using a mechanical Warner-Bratzler Shear Force equipment. The shear force means were: internal thigh (3.5 kg, external thigh (2.8 kg, filet plan (2.4 kg, filet out (1.6 kg, filet small (3.5 kg, rump (3.3 kg and filet fan (2.0 kg. All the commercial cuts evaluated had very low values of shear force, denoting meat extremely tender. The classification of meat tenderness is based on shear force values, being values below 4.6 kg considered meat with desirable tenderness. All ostrich meat commercial cuts analyzed had shear force values lower than 4.6 kg, being classified as meat of extreme tenderness. The results found in this work allow concluding that ostrich meat can be considered tender. These findings lead us to consider the ostrich meat as an interesting alternative to red meat, in relation to tenderness and healthy fatty acid profile, being favorable for people suffering from

  5. Metabolomics of meat exudate: Its potential to evaluate beef meat conservation and aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castejón, David [Centro de Asistencia a la Investigación de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear y de Espín Electrónico, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García-Segura, Juan Manuel [Centro de Asistencia a la Investigación de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear y de Espín Electrónico, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular I, Facultad de Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Escudero, Rosa [Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Herrera, Antonio [Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cambero, María Isabel, E-mail: icambero@vet.ucm.es [Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-11

    In this study we analyzed the exudate of beef to evaluate its potential as non invasive sampling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of meat samples. Exudate, as the natural juice from raw meat, is an easy to obtain matrix that it is usually collected in small amounts in commercial meat packages. Although meat exudate could provide complete and homogeneous metabolic information about the whole meat piece, this sample has been poorly studied. Exudates from 48 beef samples of different breeds, cattle and storage times have been studied by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid exudate spectra were compared with those obtained by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) of the original meat pieces. The close correlation found between both spectra (>95% of coincident peaks in both registers; Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.945) lead us to propose the exudate as an excellent alternative analytical matrix with a view to apply meat metabolomics. 60 metabolites could be identified through the analysis of mono and bidimensional exudate spectra, 23 of them for the first time in NMR meat studies. The application of chemometric tools to analyze exudate dataset has revealed significant metabolite variations associated with meat aging. Hence, NMR based metabolomics have made it possible both to classify meat samples according to their storage time through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and to predict that storage time through Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. - Highlights: • NMR spectra from beef samples and their exudates are very strongly correlated. • 23 metabolites not reported in previous NMR meat studies have been identified. • Meat exudate NMR spectra allow monitoring of biochemical changes related to aging. • PCA of exudate NMR spectra classified meat samples by their storage time. • The aging of a meat sample can be predicted by PLS analysis of its exudate.

  6. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. 1427.25 Section 1427.25 Agriculture Regulations of the..., PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.25 Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. (a) CCC will...

  7. Bioactive Compounds in Functional Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Pogorzelska-Nowicka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Meat and meat products are a good source of bioactive compounds with positive effect on human health such as vitamins, minerals, peptides or fatty acids. Growing food consumer awareness and intensified global meat producers competition puts pressure on creating new healthier meat products. In order to meet these expectations, producers use supplements with functional properties for animal diet and as direct additives for meat products. In the presented work seven groups of key functional constituents were chosen: (i fatty acids; (ii minerals; (iii vitamins; (iv plant antioxidants; (v dietary fibers; (vi probiotics and (vii bioactive peptides. Each of them is discussed in term of their impact on human health as well as some quality attributes of the final products.

  8. Sociological aspects of meat in meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katherine O'Doherty

    2009-01-01

    Health professionals and environmental experts advocate reduced consumption of meat in industrialized regions. On this background, and in light of a number of sociological studies of food practices and meal formats among consumers, this paper examines some aspects of the cultural entrenchment...... and vulnerability of meat consumption. Tacit meanings of meat products are seen as arising from the human tendency to rank and grade objects relative to each other, a process that is intrinsic to consumption practices. Examples of the ways in which gradient meanings of meat products are entrenched in food practices...... and of ways in which this consumption is vulnerable to change, are presented. On this basis, the likelihood that current levels of meat consumption in industrialized societies will remain relatively stable or tend to decrease are briefly discussed....

  9. Monthly mean climatology of the prevailing winds and tides in the Arctic mesosphere/lower thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Portnyagin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic MLT wind regime parameters measured at the ground-based network of MF and meteor radar stations (Andenes 69° N, Tromsø 70° N, Esrange 68° N, Dixon 73.5° N, Poker Flat 65° N and Resolute Bay 75° N are discussed and compared with those observed in the mid-latitudes. The network of the ground-based MF and meteor radars for measuring winds in the Arctic upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere provides an excellent opportunity for study of the main global dynamical structures in this height region and their dependence from longitude. Preliminary estimates of the differences between the measured winds and tides from the different radar types, situated 125-273km apart (Tromsø, Andenes and Esrange, are provided. Despite some differences arising from using different types of radars it is possible to study the dynamical wind structures. It is revealed that most of the observed dynamical structures are persistent from year to year, thus permitting the analysis of the Arctic MLT dynamics in a climatological sense. The seasonal behaviour of the zonally averaged wind parameters is, to some extent, similar to that observed at the moderate latitudes. However, the strength of the winds (except the prevailing meridional wind and the diurnal tide amplitudes in the Arctic MLT region is, in general, less than that detected at the moderate latitudes, decreasing toward the pole. There are also some features in the vertical structure and seasonal variations of the Arctic MLT winds which are different from the expectations of the well-known empirical wind models CIRA-86 and HWM-93. The tidal phases show a very definite longitudinal dependence that permits the determination of the corresponding zonal wave numbers. It is shown that the migrating tides play an important role in the dynamics of the Arctic MLT region. However, there are clear indications with the presence in some months of non-migrating tidal modes of significant appreciable amplitude.

  10. Prevailing climatic trends and runoff response from Hindukush–Karakoram–Himalaya, upper Indus Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. U. Hasson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Largely depending on the meltwater from the Hindukush–Karakoram–Himalaya, withdrawals from the upper Indus Basin (UIB contribute half of the surface water availability in Pakistan, indispensable for agricultural production systems, industrial and domestic use, and hydropower generation. Despite such importance, a comprehensive assessment of prevailing state of relevant climatic variables determining the water availability is largely missing. Against this background, this study assesses the trends in maximum, minimum and mean temperatures, diurnal temperature range and precipitation from 18 stations (1250–4500 m a.s.l. for their overlapping period of record (1995–2012 and, separately, from six stations of their long-term record (1961–2012. For this, a Mann–Kendall test on serially independent time series is applied to detect the existence of a trend, while its true slope is estimated using the Sen's slope method. Further, locally identified climatic trends are statistically assessed for their spatial-scale significance within 10 identified subregions of the UIB, and the spatially (field- significant climatic trends are then qualitatively compared with the trends in discharge out of corresponding subregions. Over the recent period (1995–2012, we find warming and drying of spring (field-significant in March and increasing early melt season discharge from most of the subregions, likely due to a rapid snowmelt. In stark contrast, most of the subregions feature a field-significant cooling within the monsoon period (particularly in July and September, which coincides well with the main glacier melt season. Hence, a decreasing or weakly increasing discharge is observed from the corresponding subregions during mid- to late melt season (particularly in July. Such tendencies, being largely consistent with the long-term trends (1961–2012, most likely indicate dominance of the nival but suppression of the glacial melt regime

  11. A study of defects on EUV mask using blank inspection, patterned mask inspection, and wafer inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, S.; Ren, L.; Chan, D.; Wurm, S.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Nakajima, T.; Kishimoto, M.; Ahn, B.; Kang, I.; Park, J.-O.; Cho, K.; Han, S.-I.; Laursen, T.

    2010-03-12

    The availability of defect-free masks remains one of the key challenges for inserting extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) into high volume manufacturing. yet link data is available for understanding native defects on real masks. In this paper, a full-field EUV mask is fabricated to investigate the printability of various defects on the mask. The printability of defects and identification of their source from mask fabrication to handling were studied using wafer inspection. The printable blank defect density excluding particles and patterns is 0.63 cm{sup 2}. Mask inspection is shown to have better sensitivity than wafer inspection. The sensitivity of wafer inspection must be improved using through-focus analysis and a different wafer stack.

  12. 7 CFR 29.40 - Mandatory inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.40 Mandatory inspection. Inspection authorized or required under section 5 of the Act or Section 759 of the Appropriations Act. [67 FR 36080, May 23, 2002] definitions ...

  13. Introduce Construction Technology through Home Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Enrique R.

    2007-01-01

    Introducing technology education students to the field of home inspection gives them a great opportunity to learn about and apply construction technology content. In working with his 8th-grade students, the author covers the purpose of a home inspection, the dynamic of home inspections, the process involved in inspecting schools and homes and…

  14. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachel Landry

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related sub-tasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these sub-tasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these sub-tasks were derived from the original intent

  15. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Landry

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original

  16. Meet meat: An explorative study on meat and cultured meat as seen by Chinese, Ethiopians and Dutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Gerben A; Tobi, Hilde; Fischer, Arnout R H

    2017-07-01

    In this cross-cultural study we investigated how study participants from China, Ethiopia and the Netherlands operationalize the concept of meat and to what extent cultured meat fits or does not fit into this operationalization. We argue that combining the conceptual approaches symbolic boundaries and theory of social practices helps to better understand the possibly culturally dependent operationalization of the concept meat. Ten visiting graduate students from China, 10 from Ethiopia and 10 native Dutch graduate students completed freelist tasks, a pile sort task, interview and essay task, during a single session. We found that butchered animals are at the center of the concept of meat, although depending on culture not all animals are a source of meat. Symbolic boundaries were restricted or stretched depending on social practices within countries. Ethiopian participants applied strictly defined symbolic boundaries, where Chinese and Dutch participants used more broadly defined symbolic boundaries. Cultured meat was seen as a technology for the future and was positioned across the symbolic boundaries of meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Types of fraud in meat and meat products: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Affects the food control. The globalization, increased imports and exports and free trade agreements have led to greater sharing and access to food worldwide; along with it, the problems associated with fraud such as adulteration, substitution, intentionality, and counterfeiting have been increased. Therefore, there are various tasks associated with food fraud, which in most reviews published only new identification techniques have been discussed. However, a discussion about the types of fraud and its impact on society, bioterrorism and religion, has been little commented. This review focuses primarily on describing the types of fraud that has as objective to obtain economic benefit or cause terrorism. Also, latest techniques available for detecting meat adulteration are mentioned.

  18. OSE inspection of protection program operations field perspective of inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.W.; Martin, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    Protection Program Operations includes three functional areas: Physical Protection Systems, Protective Forces, and System Performance Testing. The Office of Security Evaluations (OSE) inspects field offices in these areas by evaluating programs relative to Standards and Criteria and by performing a variety of exercises and other types of tests to assure protective systems are effective and maintained at a proper level to meet the defined threat. Their perception of the OSE inspections has been positive. The approach taken by ID, with key areas/activities emphasized, during each phase of the field inspection process is described in this report. The most important areas for field offices to concentrate are: inspection preparations through self-evaluation, improving communications, assigning knowledgeable trusted agents, increasing awareness of facility procedures and operations, and assuring daily validations of inspected areas. Emphasis is placed on striving for a balance in reporting both positive and negative findings, and for consistency between ratings and the importance of report findings. OSE efforts to develop improved rating methodologies are encouraged

  19. Potential health hazards of eating red meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, A

    2017-02-01

    Red meat (beef, veal, pork, lamb and mutton) consumption contributes several important nutrients to the diet, for example essential amino acids, vitamins (including B12) and minerals (including iron and zinc). Processed red meat (ham, sausages, bacon, frankfurters, salami, etc.) undergoes treatment (curing, smoking, salting or the use of chemical preservatives and additives) to improve its shelf life and/or taste. During recent decades, consumption of red meat has been increasing globally, especially in developing countries. At the same time, there has been growing evidence that high consumption of red meat, especially of processed meat, may be associated with an increased risk of several major chronic diseases. Here, a comprehensive summary is provided of the accumulated evidence based on prospective cohort studies regarding the potential adverse health effects of red meat consumption on major chronic diseases, such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke and cancer at several sites, and mortality. Risk estimates from pooled analyses and meta-analyses are presented together with recently published findings. Based on at least six cohorts, summary results for the consumption of unprocessed red meat of 100 g day -1 varied from nonsignificant to statistically significantly increased risk (11% for stroke and for breast cancer, 15% for cardiovascular mortality, 17% for colorectal and 19% for advanced prostate cancer); for the consumption of 50 g day -1 processed meat, the risks were statistically significantly increased for most of the studied diseases (4% for total prostate cancer, 8% for cancer mortality, 9% for breast, 18% for colorectal and 19% for pancreatic cancer, 13% for stroke, 22% for total and 24% for cardiovascular mortality and 32% for diabetes). Potential biological mechanisms underlying the observed risks and the environmental impact of red meat production are also discussed. The evidence-based integrated message is that it is plausible

  20. Device Rotates Bearing Balls For Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, R. K.

    1988-01-01

    Entire surface of ball inspected automatically and quickly. Device holds and rotates bearing ball for inspection by optical or mechanical surface-quality probe, eddy-current probe for detection of surface or subsurface defects, or circumference-measuring tool. Ensures entire surface of ball moves past inspection head quickly. New device saves time and increases reliability of inspections of spherical surfaces. Simple to operate and provides quick and easy access for loading and unloading of balls during inspection.

  1. Automated ultrasonic inspection using PULSDAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naybour, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    PULSDAT (Portable Ultrasonic Data Acquisition Tool) is a system for recording the data from single probe automated ultrasonic inspections. It is one of a range of instruments and software developed by Nuclear Electric to carry out a wide variety of high quality ultrasonic inspections. These vary from simple semi-automated inspections through to multi-probe, highly automated ones. PULSDAT runs under the control of MIPS software, and collects data which is compatible with the GUIDE data display system. PULSDAT is therefore fully compatible with Nuclear Electric's multi-probe inspection systems and utilises all the reliability and quality assurance of the software. It is a rugged, portable system that can be used in areas of difficult access. The paper discusses the benefits of automated inspection and gives an outline of the main features of PULSDAT. Since April 1990 PULSDAT has been used in several applications within Nuclear Electric and this paper presents two examples: the first is a ferritic set-through nozzle and the second is an austenitic fillet weld. (Author)

  2. RESEARCH ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR ON BUCHAREST MEAT MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze consumer behavior for meat on Bucharest market, using a sample of 100 individuals, representatives as age, sex and profession, who were interviewed within a structured questionaire based survey on their preference to buy and consume meat. The answers were processed using the semantic differential and Likert Scale. The obtained results pointed out that white meat is the top preference, because it is healthier and its price is more acceptable compared to red meat. However, men prefer red meat, no matter its price. The most prefered meat sorts in order of their importance are chicken meat, pork and beef. Consumers prefer to buy 1-2 kg fresh meat from supermarket every 2-3 days. Income/family and meat pice are the major factors limiting the amount of consumed meat and buying frequence. The term of availability and meat origin have become more and more important criteria on which buying decision is based, besides meat quality. All consumers prefer to consume Romanian meat which is tasty and has a pleasant flavor. As a conclusion, consumers expectations from meat producers are related to a large variety of meat of a higher quality. Also, presentation form in packed portionated meat parts on the shelf as wellas hygiene come on the next positions from consumers side in order to satisfy their needs better.

  3. A METHOD OF FRYING MINCED MEAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method of frying minced meat comprising the steps of providing a heated frying surface, providing a flow of discrete and separate particles of minced meat in a condition wherein the mean temperature of the flow of particles is less than 5 degrees centigrade, preferably less than 2 degrees...... centigrade and most preferably less than 0.5 degrees centigrade, and heating the discrete particles to the onset of frying conditions defined as a discernible change of the colour of the particle from the original red meat colour to a grey and brownish colour by bringing the discrete particles into contact...

  4. In vitro meat: Zombies on the menu?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, NS

    2010-01-01

    In April 2008 the In Vitro Meat Consortium held its first meeting at the Norwegian Food Research Institute. They are a group of scientists and advocates who seek to turn the techniques of tissue engineering to the production of food, producing meat in laboratories that has at no point been part of a living animal. This is a fascinating technology, and one that fits well with the topic of this SCRIPTed analysis section: the ‘zombification’ of meat products. I have been conducting interviews wi...

  5. Microbiological Spoilage of Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveny, John; Meyer, Joseph D.; Hall, Paul A.

    Humankind has consumed animal protein since the dawn of its existence. The archaeological record shows evidence of animal protein consumption as early as 12,500 BC (Mann, 2005). Raw meat and poultry are highly perishable commodities subject to various types of spoilage depending on handling and storage conditions. Because of this high potential for spoilage, the historical record reveals that early civilizations used techniques such as salting, smoking, and drying to preserve meat (Mack, 2001; Bailey, 1986). Today, more than ever, because of the globalization of the food supply, and increasing demands from exacting consumers, the control of meat and poultry spoilage is essential.

  6. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT MEAT SHOP ON MEAT PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BACTERIA POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H.C. Dewi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different meat shops on meat physicalcharacteristics and bacteria population. Sixteen PO carcasses were used in the experiment which wasarranged in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments of different meat shops (traditionalmarket, meat shop, supermarket and slaughter house. Parameters measured were meat pH, waterholding capacity, cooking loss and bacterial total count. The result showed that the average of pH was5.25- 6.03; water holding capacity was 17.07-38.87%; cooking loss was 33.15-48.20 and bacterial totalcount was 1.48x106-10.75x106 CFU/g. It was concluded that bacterial total count in slaughter house andspecial market (meat shop and supermarket were less than those in traditional market.

  7. Development and assessment of healthy properties of meat and meat products designed as functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2013-12-01

    This review deals with the two major aspects to be considered in the context of meat-based functional foods and human health. One involves the different strategies used to improve (increase or reduce) the presence of bioactive (healthy and unhealthy) compounds in meat and meat products in order to develop potential meat-based functional foods; these strategies are basically concerned with animal production practices, meat processing and storage, distribution and consumption conditions. Since the link between the consumption of those foods and their potentially beneficial effects (improving health and/or reducing the risk of several chronic diseases) needs to be demonstrated scientifically, the second aspect considered is related to intervention studies to examine the functional capacity of meat-based potentially functional foods in humans, discussing how the functionality of a food can be assessed in terms of its effects on health in relation to both target body functions and risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The future of meat: a qualitative analysis of cultured meat media coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, J N; Shoulders, C W

    2013-11-01

    This study sought to explore the informational themes and information sources cited by the media to cover stories of cultured meat in both the United States and the European Union. The results indicated that cultured meat news articles in both the United States and the European Union commonly discuss cultured meat in terms of benefits, history, process, time, livestock production problems, and skepticism. Additionally, the information sources commonly cited in the articles included cultured meat researchers, sources from academia, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), New Harvest, Winston Churchill, restaurant owners/chefs, and sources from the opposing countries (e.g. US use some EU sources and vice versa). The implications of this study will allow meat scientists to understand how the media is influencing consumers' perceptions about the topic, and also allow them to strategize how to shape future communication about cultured meat. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Genetics of Poultry Meat Production in Organic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    Organic Meat Production and Processing describes the challenges of production, processing and food safety of organic meat. The editors and international collection of authors explore the trends in organic meats and how the meat industry is impacted. Commencing with chapters on the economics, market...... and regulatory aspects of organic meats, coverage then extends to management issues for organically raised and processed meat animals. Processing, sensory and human health aspects are covered in detail, as are the incidences of foodborne pathogens in organic beef, swine, poultry and other organic meat species....... The book concludes by describing pre-harvest control measures for assuring the safety of organic meats. Organic Meat Production and Processing serves as a unique resource for fully understanding the current and potential issues associated with organic meats...

  10. Improvement of foundation for inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been carrying out improvement of inspection system for nuclear plants in Japan since 2003FY. The new inspection system was introduced into nuclear power plants in - 2008FY. In this project, improvement of comprehensive plant performance assessment and management tool for the new inspection system are developed. In 2012FY, a trend analysis method of the plant performance was developed with reference to the IAEA literature. And the trend analysis was tried based on the results of the comprehensive plant performance assessment of all domestic plants except Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. In addition, the teaching materials for QMS training guideline were made. And improvement of a quality management system evaluation support tool was performed. (author)

  11. Holography for fast reactor inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozer, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    Holography, an optical process whereby an image of the original subject can be reconstructed in three dimensions, is being developed for use as an optical inspection tool. With a potential information storage density of 10 16 bits/m 2 , the ability to reconstruct in 3 dimensions, a depth of field of up to 8 metres, extremely wide angle of view, and potentially diffraction limited resolution, holography should be invaluable for the optical recording of fast reactors during construction, and the inspection of optically accessible regions during operation, or maintenance down-times. The photographic emulsions used for high resolution holography are fine-grained and fog only very slowly when subjected to γ-radiation, so that inspection of highly radio-active regions and components can be effected satisfactorily. Some of the practical limitations affecting holography are described and ways of overcoming them discussed. Some preliminary results are presented. (author)

  12. Multistate outbreak of Listeriosis linked to turkey deli meat and subsequent changes in US regulatory policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Newbern, E Claire; Griffin, Patricia M; Graves, Lewis M; Hoekstra, R Michael; Baker, Nicole L; Hunter, Susan B; Holt, Kristin G; Ramsey, Fred; Head, Marcus; Levine, Priscilla; Johnson, Geraldine; Schoonmaker-Bopp, Dianna; Reddy, Vasudha; Kornstein, Laura; Gerwel, Michal; Nsubuga, Johnson; Edwards, Leslie; Stonecipher, Shelley; Hurd, Sharon; Austin, Deri; Jefferson, Michelle A; Young, Suzanne D; Hise, Kelley; Chernak, Esther D; Sobel, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    Listeriosis, a life-threatening foodborne illness caused by Listeria monocytogenes, affects approximately 2500 Americans annually. Between July and October 2002, an uncommon strain of L. monocytogenes caused an outbreak of listeriosis in 9 states. We conducted case finding, a case-control study, and traceback and microbiological investigations to determine the extent and source of the outbreak and to propose control measures. Case patients were infected with the outbreak strain of L. monocytogenes between July and November 2002 in 9 states, and control patients were infected with different L. monocytogenes strains. Outcome measures included food exposure associated with outbreak strain infection and source of the implicated food. Fifty-four case patients were identified; 8 died, and 3 pregnant women had fetal deaths. The case-control study included 38 case patients and 53 control patients. Case patients consumed turkey deli meat much more frequently than did control patients (P = .008, by Wilcoxon rank-sum test). In the 4 weeks before illness, 55% of case patients had eaten deli turkey breast more than 1-2 times, compared with 28% of control patients (odds ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-17.1). Investigation of turkey deli meat eaten by case patients led to several turkey processing plants. The outbreak strain was found in the environment of 1 processing plant and in turkey products from a second. Together, the processing plants recalled > 30 million pounds of products. Following the outbreak, the US Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service issued new regulations outlining a L. monocytogenes control and testing program for ready-to-eat meat and poultry processing plants. Turkey deli meat was the source of a large multistate outbreak of listeriosis. Investigation of this outbreak helped guide policy changes designed to prevent future L. monocytogenes contamination of ready-to-eat meat and poultry products.

  13. Retort pouch processing of Chettinad style goat meat curry — a heritage meat product

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, V.; Dushyanthan, K.; Das, Arun K.

    2010-01-01

    Chettinad style goat meat curry, a heritage meat product, was thermal processed in retort pouches having 4 layer configurations. Physical properties of retort pouches indicated that they are suitable for processing. Pouches filled with 150 g of goat meat and 100 g of curry medium were retorted to a FO value of 12.1 min. Retort cooked products were tested for sterility and quality characteristics. Retorting decreased the product pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and shear force value...

  14. False-positive findings in mammography screening induces short-term distress - breast cancer-specific concern prevails longer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Pilvikki Absetz, S; van Elderen, T M

    2000-01-01

    -ups at 2 and 12 months postscreening. At 2 months, there was a moderate multivariate effect of group on distress; and intrusive thinking and worry about breast cancer, in particular, were most frequent amongst the false positives. Intrusive thinking still prevailed at 12 months, in addition to a higher...... findings (n=1407), false-positive findings (n=492) and referents from outside the screening programme (n=1718, age 48-49 years). Distress was measured as illness worry, anxiety, depression, cancer beliefs and early detection behaviour. Measurements were one month before screening invitation with follow...... perceived breast cancer risk and susceptibility. Distress related to screening and false-positive findings seems to be moderate, but prevailing cancer-specific concerns call for improvements in screening programmes....

  15. Can we cut out the meat of the dish? Constructing consumer-oriented pathways toward meat substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schösler, H.; de Boer, J.; Boersema, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The shift towards a more sustainable diet necessitates less reliance on foods of animal origin. This study presents data from a representative survey of Dutch consumers on their practices related to meat, meat substitution and meat reduction. The practices reflected a cultural gradient of meat

  16. Preparation of salted meat products, e.g. cured bacon - by injecting liquid comprising meat proteins hydrolysed with enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation of salted meat products comprises the following:(1) meat is chopped into fine pieces and mixed with water to form a slurry; (2) enzymes hydrolyse proteins in the meat; (3) adding a culture to the resulting medium, which comprises short peptide chains or amino acids; (4) forming...... flavourings as the culture is growing, and (5) injecting the liquid into pieces of meat....

  17. Holographic inspection of nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, A.L.; Armour, I.A.; Glanville, R.; Malcolm, G.J.; Wright, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The high resolution, enormous depth of field and high tolerance to radiation of holography mean that it has great potential as an inspection tool in the nuclear industry. In addition, the ability of double-pulse holography to yield detailed information on vibration over the whole field of both large and small structures provides measurements that often cannot be obtained in any other way. This paper reviews the development of equipment for the holographic inspection of nuclear fuel elements; a portable holocamera for use inside reactors; and the application of holographic techniques for vibration measurements in a nuclear power station. (author)

  18. Backscattering technique to surface inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, M.J. dos; Lopes, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    A new surface inspection system, starting of the backscattering of the gamma radiation is described. A cesium 137 source of 7,4x10 10 Bq (2Ci) and one cintillation detector are used. One calibration curve of the system was obtained. This technique can be very useful when the acess to one of the side of the object in inspection is limited. The scattering angle choosed was 115 0 . The object used was composed of aluminium, brass and stainless steel. The localization of defects is simple and ummediate. (V.R.B.)

  19. RIMACS, Reactor Inspection Main Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: RIMACS prepares for automatic inspection files on each inspection item for the reactor. These automatic inspection files provide the data to move RIROB (Reactor Inspection Robot) with laser by interpreting the coordinates of LASPO (Laser Positioner) and the laser detecting device of RIROB in three dimensional space. In addition, when RIROB arrives at the inspecting location, the files provide all values of the manipulator's motions to acquire the ultrasonic data. RIMACS provides various modules in order to perform these complex functions, and the functions are programmed on graphic user interface for the convenience of the user. RIMACS provides various functions, such as insertion of reactor production data, selection of the reactor for inspection, the creation of automatic inspection file, the selection of the inspection item, inspection simulation, and automatic inspection procedures. It also provides all other functions, which are necessary for the inspection, such as operating program download and manual control of LASPO and RIROB, the inspection simulation and the inspection status display by means of the graphic screen, and SODAS (ultra-Sonic Data Acquisition System) drive verification. 2 - Methods: Moving path and operation procedures for inspection robot are generated automatically with Kinematics algorithm. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A graphics display with MS-Window capability is required

  20. Reduction of radioactive caesium in meat and fish by soaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petaejae, E.; Puolanne, E. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Meat Technology); Rantavaara, A.; Paakkola, O. (Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), Helsinki (Finland))

    1992-01-01

    The removal of radioactive caesium from meat by soaking in brine or water and the effect of injection curing, temperature, size of meat piece and cooking on this removal were studied. The availability of the brined meat for the manufacture of cured, smoked and cooked meat, oven-cooked meat and cooked sausages was also investigated. The soaking method was also tested on fish. (Author).

  1. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF ORGANIC GOAT KID MEAT FROM DAIRY GOAT AND CROSSBRED MEAT GOAT KIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Sophia; Ude, Gracia; Rahmann, Gerold; Aulrich, Karen; Georg, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the increasing demand for dairy goat products in Germany, a market for goat kid meat as a related product does not exist. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a concept for organic goat kid meat production for dairy goat farms. In collaboration with a wholesaler, organic dairy goat farmers and marketing research the experimental part of this study was to find out if cross-breeding of meat-goats could improve meat quality and performance of fattening goat kids togeth...

  2. Charqui meats as fermented meat products: role of bacteria for some sensorial properties development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M F; Ponsano, E H G; Franco, B D G M; Shimokomaki, M

    2002-06-01

    Jerked beef, a derivative of charqui meat, is a cured, salted and dried meat product. The presence of halotolerant bacteria, where Staphylococcus spp. (84.2%) were the predominant species, would act eventually as starter cultures and was followed throughout processing. Jerked beef prepared separately with exogenous S. carnosus and S. xylosus as starter cultures resulted in high proteolysis. Samples prepared with S. xylosus had the highest proteolysis and were preferred by the sensory panel. This research has suggested that jerked beef (and thus charqui meat) prepared under these conditions is a fermented meat product.

  3. Evaluation and monitoring of the satisfaction of meat and meat products consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Constanta Rușeț

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The managers have to be focused on clients and satisfy their needs, so that the products meet their expectations. The evaluation and monitoring the consumers satisfaction is very important because it is a managerial instrument which offers the possibility to understand and satisfy the needs of the existing consumers. In this study we used the questionnaire as research method and after analyzing and processing the data we noticed the consumers preferences related to the meat and meat products consumption, the frequency of consumption and the places from where the consumers procure their meat and meat products.

  4. Revenue impact on the demand of Slovak households for meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Kubicová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global economical crisis was felt in the differences in the incomes of the households and their food consumption. In the paper are analyzed the changing patterns in the structure of demand for meat and the impact on total expenditure on meat and meat products in the households of employees, households of self-employed persons and households of pensioners. When examining the sensitivity of demand to changes in consumer meat prices in different social groups of households was estimated own-price elasticity of demand, as well as cross-price elasticity.

  5. A SYBR Green real-time PCR assay to detect and quantify pork meat in processed poultry meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sónia; Amaral, Joana S; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2013-05-01

    Species identification in meat products has grown in interest in recent years since these foodstuffs are susceptible targets for fraudulent labelling. In this work, a real-time PCR approach based on SYBR Green dye was proposed for the quantitative detection of pork meat in processed meat products. For the development of the method, binary meat mixtures containing known amounts of pork meat in poultry meat were used to obtain a normalised calibration model from 0.1 to 25% with high linear correlation and PCR efficiency. The method revealed high specificity by melting curve analysis, being successfully validated through its application to blind meat mixtures, which confirmed its adequacy for pork meat determination. The fully applicability of the method was further demonstrated in commercial meat products, allowing verification of labelling compliance and identification of meat species in processed foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Consumer perception of meat quality and safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of meat quality and safety is not an easy task for consumers. In this article, the Total Food Quality Model will be introduced as a framework for understanding how consumers perceive meat quality, and results from a Danish study dealing with consumer perception and experience of beef...... will be presented. Consumers form expectations about the eating quality of meat at the point of purchase, based on prior experience and information available in the shopping environment, while the eating quality is experienced in the home during and after meal preparation. Results show that consumers have...... difficulty in evaluating meat quality, resulting in uncertainty and dissatisfaction, and reveal a need for educating consumers about evaluating eating quality during shopping....

  7. Value added meat marketing around the globe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grebitus, Carola; Mueller Loose, Simone

    In highly competitive meat markets it is important to offer value added products to consumers. Thus, we need to understand which attributes are especially valued by consumers. This track session will contribute to a better understanding of consumer preferences for value added meats across different...... countries and simultaneously address different stages of the food chain by acknowledging factors such as breeding, forage (fat content), meat cuts as well as product labelling and packaging. Comparing consumers’ choices for value added pork and beef across different countries is the main theme and focus...... practices will be examined and the economic and technological dimensions of meat packaging will be related to each other presenting work from the US and Germany. Lastly, we will uncover the competitive nature between different beef cuts for Italian consumers....

  8. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indicate the substances are not safe for human consumption. [ Top of Page ] When were color additives addressed? ... glycerine, which may be used in dried meat snacks. HYDROLYZED (SOURCE) PROTEIN - flavor enhancers that can be ...

  9. Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector

    OpenAIRE

    Horne, van, P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2013-01-01

    EU poultry meat producers have to comply with legislation on environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. This legislation has increased the production costs of poultry meat. At the same time the EU is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to liberalise trade in agricultural products. This report examines how lowering import levies impacts the competitiveness of the EU poultry industry. The results show that the offer price of broiler breast fillet in 2011 of so...

  10. Microbiology of Fresh Comminuted Turkey Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-12

    during processing procedures. equipment and meat Scontrol as well as processing procedures within the become contaminated with the organisms carried by...Since comminuted turkey is a new product. its level of processed turkey products. Further processed products, bacterial contamination is not reflected in... abattoirs and processing plants. be involved in outbreaks of staphylococcal intoxication. Cooked red meat products with their natural enteric However, if

  11. Transport of live animals versus meat

    OpenAIRE

    Baltussen, Willy; Nuhoff-Isakhanyan, Gohar; Wagenberg, van, Coen

    2017-01-01

    These study responses to two main research questions: What model can we use to measure or estimate the sustainability of long-distance transport of meat/carcass vs. transport of meat? What is the outcome of the model if applied in two cases: transport of spent hens for slaughter from the Netherlands to Poland, and transport of lambs for slaughter from Hungary to Italy?

  12. Irradiation of poultry meat and its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, I.; Lapidot, M.

    1992-02-01

    Modern poultry production methods provide many opportunities for microbial contamination, and poultry meat is considered to have a high bacterial load. This document describes means by which poultry meat can be decontaminated, placing especial emphasis on the use of ionizing radiation. Separate chapters describe the irradiation process, methods for detecting whether the food has been irradiated, the wholesomeness of the irradiated products and the regulatory aspects of poultry irradiation. 441 refs, 35 figs, 16 tabs

  13. Cultured meat: every village its own factory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weele, Cor; Tramper, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Rising global demand for meat will result in increased environmental pollution, energy consumption, and animal suffering. Cultured meat, produced in an animal-cell cultivation process, is a technically feasible alternative lacking these disadvantages, provided that an animal-component-free growth medium can be developed. Small-scale production looks particularly promising, not only technologically but also for societal acceptance. Economic feasibility, however, emerges as the real obstacle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. From killing cows to culturing meat.

    OpenAIRE

    Buscemi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how in Britain, France and Italy the idea of the living animal is being detached from the action of eating meat. It is an ongoing historical process, which has recently been fuelled by the new issue of cultured meat.\\ud Design/methodology/approach – Starting from Goody’s developmentalist stages (Production, Distribution, Preparation and Consumption), first this work analyses historically how these stages have undergone the process of the d...

  15. Plants as natural antioxidants for meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomović, V.; Jokanović, M.; Šojić, B.; Škaljac, S.; Ivić, M.

    2017-09-01

    The meat industry is demanding antioxidants from natural sources to replace synthetic antioxidants because of the negative health consequences or beliefs regarding some synthetic ones. Plants materials provide good alternatives. Spices and herbs, generally used for their flavouring characteristics, can be added to meat products in various forms: whole, ground, or as isolates from their extracts. These natural antioxidants contain some active compounds, which exert antioxidative potential in meat products. This antioxidant activity is most often due to phenolic acids, phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids and volatile oils. Each of these compounds often has strong H-donating activity, thus making them extremely effective antioxidants; some compounds can chelate metals and donate H to oxygen radicals, thus slowing oxidation via two mechanisms. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of natural antioxidants when used in meat products. Based on this literature review, it can be concluded that natural antioxidants are added to fresh and processed meat and meat products to delay, retard, or prevent lipid oxidation, retard development of off-flavours (rancidity), improve colour stability, improve microbiological quality and extend shelf-life, without any damage to the sensory or nutritional properties.

  16. Black bone syndrome in chiken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAA Baldo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Black bone syndrome (BBS affects poultry industry, and it is caused by the darkening of the tissue adjacent to the bone due to leak age of bone marrow contents during cooking. The objective of this experiment was to estimate BBS incidence in chicken thighs. A completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (refrigerated or frozen of 50 replicates each, was applied. The influence of BBS on meat quality was assessed according to bone lightness (*L, and meat appearance and sensorial characteristics. Lightness was measured using a colorimeter (Minolta® 410R positioned on the proximal epiphyseal growth plate. Meat quality was evaluated after roasting by assigning scores for appearance (acceptable = no darkening, intermediate = little darkened, and unacceptable = severe darkening. Twelve refrigerated and 12 frozen thighs were used for sensorial analysis (adjacent muscle appearance, odor, tenderness, and flavor, assessed using a hedonic scale (1 = bad to 10 = very good by trained panelists. Lightness was submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (p37.5=normal. The incidence of BBS was 35%,with a 16%increase thighs were frozen. Meat taste was not influenced by the treatments. Meat appearance, flavor, and tenderness were not affected by freezing or refrigeration, only by BBS degree. It was concluded that freezing increases the incidence of BBS and chicken thighs with bones presenting lower luminosity have worse meat quality.

  17. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Muscle growth and poultry meat quality issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat's poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  19. 76 FR 55867 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Corporation; Dr. Craig Henry, Deloitte & Touche LLP; Dr. Cheryl D. Jones, Morehouse School of Medicine; Dr... official transcript of the meeting, when they become available, will be kept in the FSIS Docket Room, 1400...

  20. 77 FR 75118 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... and Rural Development; Steve E. Warshawer, Mesa Top Farm; Dr. J. Byron Williams, Mississippi State University; Christopher A. Waldrop, Consumer Federation of America; and Leonard W. Winchester, Public Health...

  1. Lesions found at routine meat inspection on finishing pigs are associated with production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsted, H; Sørensen, J T

    2017-05-01

    Pigs raised under free-range conditions are expected to experience a higher level of animal welfare than conventionally raised pigs. However, free-range conditions may challenge prevention and treatment of diseases. In order to identify disease problems associated with raising conditions, this study compared slaughter lesions in pigs from conventional indoor, conventional free-range and organic free-range production systems. The study used data from 1,096,756 pigs slaughtered at one Danish abattoir from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015. Associations between production system and lesions at slaughter were tested in statistical models taking year, season and herd of origin into account. Both conventional free-range and organic free-range production systems were associated with increased population averaged odd ratios (OR PA ) for several lesions compared with conventional indoor systems. Pigs raised in conventional free-range and organic free-range production systems had higher odds for white liver-spots (OR PA , 5-7), tail lesions (OR PA , 3-4), arthritis (OR PA , 3), skin lesions (OR PA , 3), bone fractures (OR PA , 2), septicaemia (OR PA , 1.1-1.5) and abscesses (OR PA , 1.1-1.3) at slaughter. Pairwise comparisons of the two free-range production systems did not reveal statistically significant differences (P>0.05). In all three production systems, airway infection was the most prevalent disease complex. In contrast to previous studies, this study did not find any association between airway infection and type of production (P>0.05). Three lesions (leg swellings (OR PA , 0.4-0.5), hernia (OR PA , 0.7-0.8) and hoof abscess (OR PA , 0.7-0.9)) had lower ORs in conventional free-range and organic free-range production compared with conventional indoor production. There was a marked herd effect (intraclass correlation coefficients 21-35%) on the occurrence of white liver-spots, tail lesions, skin lesions and airway infections. These results suggest possibilities for herd-level management interventions of the problems studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 75 FR 43140 - The National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Re-establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... contacting the person above. USDA Nondiscrimination Statement USDA prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability...). To file a written complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for...

  3. 77 FR 29963 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Nominations for Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Nondiscrimination Statement USDA prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and... discrimination, write USDA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights, 1400 Independence Avenue SW...

  4. 76 FR 24713 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... possible. One comment said that creating an environment where state regulators and federal regulators work... by the establishment. For example, if the owner of a gas station produces beef jerky and sells it at...

  5. Lesions found at routine meat inspection on finishing pigs are associated with production system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hanne; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2017-01-01

    comparisons of the two free-range production systems did not reveal statistically significant differences (P > 0.05). In all three production systems, airway infection was the most prevalent disease complex. In contrast to previous studies, this study did not find any association between airway infection...... at slaughter were tested in statistical models taking year, season and herd of origin into account. Both conventional free-range and organic free-range production systems were associated with increased population averaged odd ratios (ORPA) for several lesions compared with conventional indoor systems. Pigs......, this study compared slaughter lesions in pigs from conventional indoor, conventional free-range and organic free-range production systems. The study used data from 1,096,756 pigs slaughtered at one Danish abattoir from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015. Associations between production system and lesions...

  6. Robotic Welding and Inspection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. B. Smartt; D. P. Pace; E. D. Larsen; T. R. McJunkin; C. I. Nichol; D. E. Clark; K. L. Skinner; M. L. Clark; T. G. Kaser; C. R. Tolle

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a robotic system for GTA welding of lids on cylindrical vessels. The system consists of an articulated robot arm, a rotating positioner, end effectors for welding, grinding, ultrasonic and eddy current inspection. Features include weld viewing cameras, modular software, and text-based procedural files for process and motion trajectories.

  7. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Laboratory Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINDES,CONNOR L.; MOORE,DAVID G.

    2000-08-02

    The Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center currently assesses the capability of various non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods used for analyzing aircraft components. The focus of one such exercise is to evaluate the sensitivity of fluorescent liquid penetrant inspection. A baseline procedure using the water-washable fluorescent penetrant method defines a foundation for comparing the brightness of low cycle fatigue cracks in titanium test panels. The analysis of deviations in the baseline procedure will determine an acceptable range of operation for the steps in the inspection process. The data also gives insight into the depth of each crack and which step(s) of the inspection process most affect penetrant sensitivities. A set of six low cycle fatigue cracks produced in 6.35-mm thick Ti-6Al-4V specimens was used to conduct the experiments to produce sensitivity data. The results will document the consistency of the crack readings and compare previous experiments to find the best parameters for water-washable penetrant.

  8. Artificial Intelligence Assists Ultrasonic Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.; Willenberg, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Subtle indications of flaws extracted from ultrasonic waveforms. Ultrasonic-inspection system uses artificial intelligence to help in identification of hidden flaws in electron-beam-welded castings. System involves application of flaw-classification logic to analysis of ultrasonic waveforms.

  9. Improving efficiency in meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brameld, John M; Parr, Tim

    2016-08-01

    Selective breeding and improved nutritional management over the past 20-30 years has resulted in dramatic improvements in growth efficiency for pigs and poultry, particularly lean tissue growth. However, this has been achieved using high-quality feed ingredients, such as wheat and soya that are also used for human consumption and more recently biofuels production. Ruminants on the other hand are less efficient, but are normally fed poorer quality ingredients that cannot be digested by human subjects, such as grass or silage. The challenges therefore are to: (i) maintain the current efficiency of growth of pigs and poultry, but using more ingredients not needed to feed the increasing human population or for the production of biofuels; (ii) improve the efficiency of growth in ruminants; (iii) at the same time produce animal products (meat, milk and eggs) of equal or improved quality. This review will describe the use of: (a) enzyme additives for animal feeds, to improve feed digestibility; (b) known growth promoting agents, such as growth hormone, β-agonists and anabolic steroids, currently banned in the European Union but used in other parts of the world; (c) recent transcriptomic studies into molecular mechanisms for improved growth efficiency via low residual feed intake. In doing so, the use of genetic manipulation in animals will also be discussed.

  10. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh D. Jayasena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for

  11. The role of red meat in a balanced diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxton, Carrie

    Lean red meat is rich in essential nutrients, such as iron and zinc. Recent changes in farming practice have lowered the fat content of meat significantly. Observational studies have associated high meat consumption with negative health outcomes, but these studies have limitations. The only consistent data relate to colorectal cancer, although it is unclear whether the risk relates to all red meat or to processed or overcooked meats only. The UK government has recently recommended that high consumers of red meat should reduce their intake to 500g per week, although average meat consumption is actually below this figure. This article describes patterns of meat consumption, discusses associations with health and offers guidance on how patients can consume meat as part of a healthy, balanced diet.

  12. Studies Regarding the Meat Quality of the Specie Clarias Gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Marcu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the meat is one of the most important characteristics. For the fish meat quality there are only few specific data comparatively with those that exist about animal meat. The results obtained from a study done on the meat quality of the fish specie Clarias gariepinus (African catfish with a body weight of around 1200 – 1550g are presented in this paper. The obtained results emphasized a great quality of the Clarias gariepinus meat. The meat proteins content had a big value and it was indirectly proportional to the body weight. The meat hydration was higher in fishes with low body weight and indirectly proportional to the fat content. Taking in consideration the fat content of this meat, it can be concluded that the African catfish could be included in the half fat fish category. The meat caloricity calculated is growing proportionally to the body weight, being influenced by the fat content.

  13. Automated Ply Inspection (API) for AFP Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Automated Ply Inspection (API) system autonomously inspects layups created by high speed automated fiber placement (AFP) machines. API comprises a high accuracy...

  14. Piping inspection carriage having axially displaceable sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

    1994-12-06

    A pipe inspection instrument carriage is described for use with a pipe crawler for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has a Y-arm mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and a mounting block, a linear actuator and axial movement arm for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has a rotation motor and gear assembly for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure. 4 figures.

  15. 7 CFR 51.53 - Continuous inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND...

  16. Allegheny County Housing and Community Environment Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Residential housing inspections and inspections in response to complaints for community environment problems, such as open vacant structures, vacant lots with...

  17. Allegheny County Weights and Measures Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Inspections conducted by the Allegheny County Bureau of Weights and Measures. The Bureau inspects weighing and timing devices such as gas pumps, laundromat timers,...

  18. Machine vision inspection of railroad track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    North American Railways and the United States Department of Transportation : (US DOT) Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) require periodic inspection of railway : infrastructure to ensure the safety of railway operation. This inspection is a critic...

  19. Automated visual inspection of moving custom parts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davrajh, S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass produced custom parts require inspection routines that can facilitate variations in product parameters such as dimensions, tolerances, and throughputs. Quality control and inspection of these parts, and part families, need to occur at higher...

  20. 15 CFR 717.2 - Challenge inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agreement does not in any way limit the right of the operator of the facility to withhold consent to a... host and escort the international Inspection Team for challenge inspections in the United States of...

  1. Tecnology Development for Robotic Surface Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Richard; Balaram, J. Bob

    1994-01-01

    For the past three years at JPL, NASA has been sponsoring the Remote Surface Inspection Project to develop the technology needed for doing periodic and on-demand inspection of space borne platforms, in particular Space Station Freedom.

  2. Developing a heme iron database for meats according to meat type, cooking method and doneness level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Amanda J; Harnly, James M; Ferrucci, Leah M; Risch, Adam; Mayne, Susan T; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-07-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated that iron may be related to carcinogenesis, and human studies found that heme iron can increase the formation of N -nitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens. One of the postulated mechanisms linking red meat intake to cancer risk involves iron. Epidemiologic studies attempt to investigate the association between heme iron intake and cancer by applying a standard factor to total iron from meat. However, laboratory studies suggest that heme iron levels in meat vary according to cooking method and doneness level. We measured heme iron in meats cooked by different cooking methods to a range of doneness levels to use in conjunction with a food frequency questionnaire to estimate heme iron intake. Composite meat samples were made to represent each meat type, cooking method and doneness level. Heme iron was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Steak and hamburgers contained the highest levels of heme iron, pork and chicken thigh meat had slightly lower levels, and chicken breast meat had the lowest. Although heme iron levels varied, there was no clear effect of cooking method or doneness level. We outline the methods used to create a heme iron database to be used in conjunction with food frequency questionnaires to estimate heme iron intake in relation to disease outcome.

  3. Nutritional evaluation of lowering consumption of meat and meat products in the Nordic context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Hoppe, Camilla; Frost Andersen, Lene

    to individuals was to ingest less than 500 grams of red meat per weeks, and very little - if anything - processed meats. In a new study, National Food Institute has assessed the nutritional consequences from living the recommendations of the WCRF, in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark. The current consumption...

  4. Whole genome QTL mapping for growth, meat quality and breast meat yield traits in turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.L.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Groenen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species and is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. Demand of turkey meat is increasing very rapidly. Genetic markers linked to genes affecting quantitative traits can increase the selection

  5. Microbial analysis of meat and meat products sold in fast food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the rate of microbial contamination of ready-to-eat meat and meat products sold in different fast food restaurants in Aba. This study was carried out between June and August, 2015. Samples were collected aseptically from five fast food restaurants using sterile polythene bags.

  6. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  7. Remote inspection system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, K.; Fujii, M.; Doi, A.; Harima, T.

    1977-01-01

    A remote inspection system for nuclear power plants was constructed based on an analysis of inspections performed by an operator on patrol. This system consists of an operator's console and a remote station. The remote station, equipped with five kinds of sensors, is steered along the inspection route by a photoelectric guiding system or may be manually controlled from an operator's console in a main control room. Signals for control and inspection data are multiplexed and transmitted through a coaxial cable

  8. Effect of dietary plant extract on meat quality and sensory parameters of meat from Equidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Raffaella; Ratti, Sabrina; Pastorelli, Grazia; Maghin, Federica; Martemucci, Giovanni; Casamassima, Donato; D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella; Corino, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    Plant extracts as Lippia spp. have been proven antioxidant properties. Recent studies have been shown that dietary supplementation with plant extracts is able to enhance meat quality parameters. Studies regarding meat quality in Equidae are limited. The effect of dietary plant extract (PE), containing verbascoside, on meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory parameters of Longissimus Lumborum (LL) muscle in Equidae was studied. Dietary treatment did not affect (P > 0.05) pH, colour indices and chemical parameters of muscle in both donkey and horse. Dietary PE improved (P animals fed PE. Oxidative stability was lower (P meat and to affect the sensory attributes of Equidae meat. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Serotype distribution of Salmonella isolates from turkey ground meat and meat parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Irfan; Goncuoglu, Muammer; Ayaz, Naim Deniz; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Ormanci, Fatma Seda Bilir; Kangal, Ozlem Iseri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out the serotype distribution of 169 Salmonella colonies recovered from 112 Salmonella positive ground turkey (115 colonies) and 52 turkey meat parts (54 colonies). Out of 15 Salmonella serotypes: S. Corvallis, S. Kentucky, S. Bredeney, S. Virchow, S. Saintpaul and S. Agona were identified as the predominant serovars at the rates of 27%, 13%, 12%, 12%, 11%, and 10%, respectively. Other serotypes were below 6% of the total isolates. All S. Kentucky and S. Virchow and most of the S. Corvallis (39/46) and S. Heidelberg (9/9) serotypes were recovered from ground turkey. The results indicate that turkey ground meat and meat parts were contaminated with quite distinct Salmonella serotypes. This is the first study reporting Salmonella serotype distribution in turkey meat and S. Corvallis as predominant serotype in poultry meat in Turkey.

  10. Effects of electrical stimulation on meat quality of lamb and goat meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Omer; Bingol, Enver Baris; Colak, Hilal; Hampikyan, Hamparsun

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES) on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3-5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (P meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (P meat compared with the control groups (P Sensorial characteristics were also improved with various levels of ES treatments. In conclusion, ES had positive effects on meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences.

  11. Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-I-Furnols, Maria; Guerrero, Luis

    2014-11-01

    Meat and meat products currently represent an important source of protein in the human diet, and their quality varies according to intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that can sometimes be shaped to make a product more desirable. Because consumers are the final step in the production chain, it is useful to identify which factors affect their behavioral patterns. This would allow the meat sector to better satisfy consumer expectations, demands and needs. This paper focuses on features that might influence consumer behavior, preferences and their perception of meat and meat products with respect to psychological, sensory and marketing aspects. This multidisciplinary approach includes evaluating psychological issues such as attitudes, beliefs, and expectations; sensory properties such as appearance, texture, flavor and odor; and marketing-related aspects such as price and brand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Serotype Distribution of Salmonella Isolates from Turkey Ground Meat and Meat Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Erol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to find out the serotype distribution of 169 Salmonella colonies recovered from 112 Salmonella positive ground turkey (115 colonies and 52 turkey meat parts (54 colonies. Out of 15 Salmonella serotypes: S. Corvallis, S. Kentucky, S. Bredeney, S. Virchow, S. Saintpaul and S. Agona were identified as the predominant serovars at the rates of 27%, 13%, 12%, 12%, 11%, and 10%, respectively. Other serotypes were below 6% of the total isolates. All S. Kentucky and S. Virchow and most of the S. Corvallis (39/46 and S. Heidelberg (9/9 serotypes were recovered from ground turkey. The results indicate that turkey ground meat and meat parts were contaminated with quite distinct Salmonella serotypes. This is the first study reporting Salmonella serotype distribution in turkey meat and S. Corvallis as predominant serotype in poultry meat in Turkey.

  13. A probe for Eddy current inspection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a surface probe for Eddy current inspection devices. According to the invention, said probe comprises two magnetic core windings, with their axes in parallel relationship and at right angles to the surface of the part to be inspected. This can be applied to the nondestructive inspection of reactor components [fr

  14. 7 CFR 353.6 - Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Understanding with the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service in accordance with the regulations. The... interested. (b) Inspector. (1) An employee of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, or a State or...

  15. Probabilistic inspection strategies for minimizing service failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brot, Abraham

    1994-09-01

    The INSIM computer program is described which simulates the 'limited fatigue life' environment in which aircraft structures generally operate. The use of INSIM to develop inspection strategies which aim to minimize service failures is demonstrated. Damage-tolerance methodology, inspection thresholds and customized inspections are simulated using the probability of failure as the driving parameter.

  16. 10 CFR 21.41 - Inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspections. 21.41 Section 21.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION REPORTING OF DEFECTS AND NONCOMPLIANCE Inspections, Records § 21.41 Inspections. Each individual, corporation, partnership, dedicating entity, or other entity subject to the regulations in this part shall...

  17. 7 CFR 75.38 - Lot inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot inspections. 75.38 Section 75.38 Agriculture... § 75.38 Lot inspections. Each lot inspection shall be made on the basis of a representative sample obtained from that lot of seed by a licensed inspector or an authorized employee of the Department. Each...

  18. Modelling in Optimal Inspection and Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rackwitz, R.; Faber, Michael Havbro

    1991-01-01

    of this model with a preposterior analysis from statistical decision theory is discussed. It is deseribed how information obtained by an inspection can be used in the repair decision process and to update the inspection plan. Stochastic models for inspection, measurement and repair actions are presented...

  19. Savannah River Plant waste tank inspection manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1979-01-01

    This manual is to aid in making visual and photographic inspections and steel thickness measurements of Building 241-F and -H underground waste storage tanks. It describes the inspection program, the storage tanks, the equipment and techniques used and the results of their application, and the inspection recordkeeping methods

  20. Licensee contractor and vendor inspection status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This periodical covers the results of inspections performed by the NRC's Vendor Inspection Branch that have been distributed to the inspected organizations during the period form January 1994 through March 1994. A list of selected bulletins and information notices involving vendor issues and copies of pertinent correspondence involving vendor issues are also included in this periodical

  1. Probabilistic inspection strategies for minimizing service failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brot, Abraham

    1994-01-01

    The INSIM computer program is described which simulates the 'limited fatigue life' environment in which aircraft structures generally operate. The use of INSIM to develop inspection strategies which aim to minimize service failures is demonstrated. Damage-tolerance methodology, inspection thresholds and customized inspections are simulated using the probability of failure as the driving parameter.

  2. Generator acceptance test and inspection report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report(ATR) is the completed testing and inspection of the new portable generator. The testing and inspection is to verify that the generator provided by the vendor meets the requirements of specification WHC-S-0252, Revision 2. Attached is various other documentation to support the inspection and testing

  3. 42 CFR 456.602 - Inspection team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection team. 456.602 Section 456.602 Public... Institutions for Mental Diseases § 456.602 Inspection team. (a) A team, as described in this section and § 456... team conducting periodic inspections must have a least one member who is at physician or registered...

  4. Mechanized ultrasonic inspection of austenitic pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, K.; Luecking, J.; Medenbach, S.

    1999-01-01

    The contribution explains the system of standard testing methods elaborated by ABB ZAQ GmbH for inspection of austenitic plant components. The inspection tasks explained in greater detail are basic materials testing (straight pipes, bends, and pipe specials), and inspection of welds and dissimilar welds. The techniques discussed in detail are those for detection and sizing of defects. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Risk Based Inspection Planning of Ageing Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Ersdal, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    There are an increasing number of older installations in use on the Norwegian Continental shelf. Inspections are a key issue in ensuring the safety of an older installation, and the inspection intervals, inspection methods and its reliability are clearly influencing the safety of the installation...

  6. 49 CFR 396.13 - Driver inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS INSPECTION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.13 Driver inspection. Before driving a motor vehicle, the driver shall: (a) Be satisfied that the motor vehicle is in safe operating condition; (b) Review the last driver vehicle inspection...

  7. A portable device for rapid nondestructive detection of fresh meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wan; Peng, Yankun

    2014-05-01

    Quality attributes of fresh meat influence nutritional value and consumers' purchasing power. In order to meet the demand of inspection department for portable device, a rapid and nondestructive detection device for fresh meat quality based on ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) processor and VIS/NIR technology was designed. Working principal, hardware composition, software system and functional test were introduced. Hardware system consisted of ARM processing unit, light source unit, detection probe unit, spectral data acquisition unit, LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) touch screen display unit, power unit and the cooling unit. Linux operating system and quality parameters acquisition processing application were designed. This system has realized collecting spectral signal, storing, displaying and processing as integration with the weight of 3.5 kg. 40 pieces of beef were used in experiment to validate the stability and reliability. The results indicated that prediction model developed using PLSR method using SNV as pre-processing method had good performance, with the correlation coefficient of 0.90 and root mean square error of 1.56 for validation set for L*, 0.95 and 1.74 for a*,0.94 and 0.59 for b*, 0.88 and 0.13 for pH, 0.79 and 12.46 for tenderness, 0.89 and 0.91 for water content, respectively. The experimental result shows that this device can be a useful tool for detecting quality of meat.

  8. Detection of fecal contamination on beef meat surfaces using handheld fluorescence imaging device (HFID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mirae; Lee, Hoonsoo; Cho, Hyunjeong; Moon, Sang-Ho; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Moon S.

    2016-05-01

    Current meat inspection in slaughter plants, for food safety and quality attributes including potential fecal contamination, is conducted through by visual examination human inspectors. A handheld fluorescence-based imaging device (HFID) was developed to be an assistive tool for human inspectors by highlighting contaminated food and food contact surfaces on a display monitor. It can be used under ambient lighting conditions in food processing plants. Critical components of the imaging device includes four 405-nm 10-W LEDs for fluorescence excitation, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, optical filter (670 nm used for this study), and Wi-Fi transmitter for broadcasting real-time video/images to monitoring devices such as smartphone and tablet. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of HFID in enhancing visual detection of fecal contamination on red meat, fat, and bone surfaces of beef under varying ambient luminous intensities (0, 10, 30, 50 and 70 foot-candles). Overall, diluted feces on fat, red meat and bone areas of beef surfaces were detectable in the 670-nm single-band fluorescence images when using the HFID under 0 to 50 foot-candle ambient lighting.

  9. Safety criteria for the acquisition of meat in Brazilian University restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizete Oliveira de Mesquita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study's objective was to analyze the procedures aimed at guaranteeing sanitary conditions when acquiring meat. The study was conducted with university restaurants of the Federal Institutions of Higher Education (IFES located in the five regions of Brazil. Data were collected using a questionnaire and an evaluation list, which was available online to restaurant professionals. The results showed that restaurants chose one or two types of meat, the most frequent of which were beef and chicken. In restaurants managed by the IFES, the acquisition of raw material occurred by bidding. For vendor selection, the restaurants required product registration with the Inspection Service and requested regulation of the supplier by the Health Surveillance. Monitoring was carried out through a technical visit to the supplier and a review of the past records of the supplier. A higher percentage of restaurants in the Southeast region met appropriate sanitary and hygienic criteria for the receipt of meat, followed by the South, Midwest, Northeast and North. We conclude that restaurants meet most of the safety criteria set in the legislation. However, some weaknesses are evident in the physical and functional structure, the system of transportation of raw material and the records of control measures at the place of reception.

  10. Policy plan for the early approval for irradiated meat products and the promotion of irradiated meats in market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Wang Geun; Kim, Kyong Su; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Cheon Jei

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of meat products is gradually being increased by the development of livestock raising technology, industrialized farm management and international trade. This increased consumption also created new market for ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook meat products. However, these convenience meat products can be easily contaminated during the processing and storage by pathogens, and there have been many reported cases of food borne illness by meats. One of the most effective methods for the decontamination of meat products is the radiation technology. Food irradiation was the established, well-recognized and safe sterilization method. Many other countries researched the effect of irradiation on the meat products and approved the irradiation. In this article, the effectiveness, the international acceptance, the economics and the research trend of irradiation on meat products have been reviewed. Also, the policy plans for the early approval of the irradiated meat products in Korea and the promotion policy of irradiated meats in market were discussed

  11. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen, Z.; Naik, B. R.; Subramanyam, B. V.; Reddy, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7???1??C). ...

  12. Prospects for new technology of meat processing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Ryoichi

    2010-09-01

    This review starts by introducing the history and underlying culture of meat production and consumption in Japan since early times, and the effects of social change on these parameters. Meat processing in Japan is described, and certain other related papers are also introduced. Automatic machines for meat cutting have been developed by the Japanese food industry and are currently being used throughout the world, particularly in Europe. Soft meat products specially produced for the elderly, along with diet meat products low in salt and calorie content for middle aged persons have recently gone into production. The intensification of color formation of meat using naturally occurring materials, and tenderization of sausage casing are discussed.

  13. Micro-Raman spectroscopy for meat type detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biasio, M.; Stampfer, P.; Leitner, R.; Huck, C. W.; Wiedemair, V.; Balthasar, D.

    2015-06-01

    The recent horse meat scandal in Europe increased the demand for optical sensors that can identify meat type. Micro-Raman spectroscopy is a promising technique for the discrimination of meat types. Here, we present micro-Raman measurements of chicken, pork, turkey, mutton, beef and horse meat test samples. The data was analyzed with different combinations of data normalization and classification approaches. Our results show that Raman spectroscopy can discriminate between different meat types. Red and white meat are easily discriminated, however a sophisticated chemometric model is required to discriminate species within these groups.

  14. Meat consumption, Cooking Practices, Meat Mutagens and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Esther M.; Stern, Mariana C.; Sinha, Rashmi; Koo, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of red meat, particularly well done meat, has been associated with increased prostate cancer risk. High temperature cooking methods such as grilling and barbequeing may produce heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are known carcinogens. We assessed the association with meat consumption and estimated HCA and PAH exposure in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. Newly diagnosed cases aged 40–79 years (531 advanced cases, 195 localized cases) and 527 controls were asked about dietary intake, including usual meat cooking methods and doneness levels. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. For advanced prostate cancer, but not localized disease, increased risks were associated with higher consumption of hamburgers (OR=1.79. CI=1.10–2.92), processed meat (OR=1.57, CI=1.04, 2.36), grilled red meat (OR=1.63, CI=0.99–2.68), and well done red meat (OR=1.52, CI=0.93–2.46), and intermediate intake of 2-amino-1-methyl1-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (quartile 2 vs. 1: OR=1.41, CI=0.98–2.01; quartile 3 vs. 1: OR=1.42, CI=0.98–2.04), but not for higher intake. White meat consumption was not associated with prostate cancer. These findings provide further evidence that consumption of processed meat and red meat cooked at high temperature is associated with increased risk of advanced, but not localized prostate cancer. PMID:21526454

  15. Types of analysis of trompenaar's (1994 organizational culture prevailing in the area of controllership in family businesses in textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to identify the types of analysis of Trompenaar's (1994 organizational culture prevailing in the area of controllership in family businesses in textile industry. Descriptive research was performed, with quantitative and qualitative approach, using a multiple case study. Data were collected through interviews with the controller of the companies. In the four basic culture types suggested by Trompenaars (1994, it is concluded that there isn´t a pure kind, but there is a strong presence of family culture among the companies surveyed in dimensions relationship between employees, attitude in relation to the ways of change, forms of motivation and reward

  16. Assorted interactions of amino acids prevailing in aqueous vitamin C solutions probed by physicochemical and ab-initio contrivances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Koyeli; Roy, Milan Chandra; Rajbanshi, Biplab; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2017-11-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of molecular interaction prevailing in tyrosine and tryptophan in aqueous solution of vitamin C have been probed by thermophysical properties. The apparent molar volume (ϕV), viscosity B-coefficient, molal refraction (RM) of tyrosine and tryptophan have been studied in aqueous vitamin C solutions at diverse temperatures via Masson equation which deduced solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, respectively. Spectroscopic study along with physicochemical and computational techniques provides lots of interesting and highly significant insights of the model biological systems. The overall results established strong solute-solvent interactions between studied amino acids and vitamin C mixture in the ternary solutions.

  17. Application of vacuum technology during nuclear fuel fabrication, inspection and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Vacuum technology plays very important role during various stages of fabrication, inspection and characterization of U, Pu based nuclear fuels. Controlled vacuum is needed for melting and casting of U, Pu based alloys, picture framing of the fuel meat for plate type fuel fabrication, carbothermic reduction for synthesis of (U-Pu) mixed carbide powder, dewaxing of green ceramic fuel pellets, degassing of sintered pellets and encapsulation of fuel pellets inside clad tube. Application of vacuum technology is also important during inspection and characterization of fuel materials and fuel pins by way of XRF and XRD analysis, Mass spectrometer Helium leak detection etc. A novel method of low temperature sintering of UO 2 developed at BARC using controlled vacuum as sintering atmosphere has undergone successful irradiation testing in Cirus. The paper will describe various fuel fabrication flow sheets highlighting the stages where vacuum applications are needed

  18. Drum inspection robots: Application development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, F.B. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Warner, R.D. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE), drums containing mixed and low level stored waste are inspected, as mandated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and other regulations. The inspections are intended to prevent leaks by finding corrosion long before the drums are breached. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) has sponsored efforts towards the development of robotic drum inspectors. This emerging application for mobile and remote sensing has broad applicability for DOE and commercial waste storage areas. Three full scale robot prototypes have been under development, and another project has prototyped a novel technique to analyze robotically collected drum images. In general, the robots consist of a mobile, self-navigating base vehicle, outfitted with sensor packages so that rust and other corrosion cues can be automatically identified. They promise the potential to lower radiation dose and operator effort required, while improving diligence, consistency, and documentation.

  19. Drum inspection robots: Application development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazen, F.B.; Warner, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE), drums containing mixed and low level stored waste are inspected, as mandated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and other regulations. The inspections are intended to prevent leaks by finding corrosion long before the drums are breached. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) has sponsored efforts towards the development of robotic drum inspectors. This emerging application for mobile and remote sensing has broad applicability for DOE and commercial waste storage areas. Three full scale robot prototypes have been under development, and another project has prototyped a novel technique to analyze robotically collected drum images. In general, the robots consist of a mobile, self-navigating base vehicle, outfitted with sensor packages so that rust and other corrosion cues can be automatically identified. They promise the potential to lower radiation dose and operator effort required, while improving diligence, consistency, and documentation

  20. MEAT GOAT DEMOGRAPHICS AND NICHE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Fisher

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Six focus groups were conducted with each having ten people who attend different Islamic Centers in Ohio. The objective of the focus groups was to understand Halal meat purchase patterns and consumption patterns of the Moslem population with special attention to goat. The Ohio State University Extension personnel are utilizing these results to work with meat goat producers to understand and meet the requirements of the Halal meat market.  Participants discussed the Zabiha approach to slaughtering animals as the most merciful by causing the least pain. Many participants noted they had no way of knowing where the animal  came from and this held tremendous concerns relative to the feeding of animal by-products, use of hormones, and adulteration with pork. These trust concerns led to decisions about where to purchase their meat with 72% purchasing from a Moslem owned retail store. Only 13% purchased from a large grocery and 8% direct from a farmer.   Participants indicated their consumption patterns according to weekly, seasonal, and holiday use in addition to variations according to their personal geographic origin. The average meat purchase was 23 pounds with an average occurrence of 12.5 times per annum.  Purchasing trends indicated that 78% prefer lean over marbled cuts. Nearly 86% prefer fresh over frozen goat meat and nearly a third responded that they would pay more for fresh. Intact males were preferred by 42% of the respondents. Preferences for meat goat cuts were: Leg (71%, Chops (42%, Shoulder (24%, Breast (7%. Nearly a third indicated they also want the kidneys, heart, or head. Demographic shifts in the United States indicate that there are almost 53 million people who have a preference for goat meat. There are 2.4 million goats in the US according to the 2007 Agricultural Statistics. Based on consumption trends of this study, goat demand exceeds inventory by 160%. Meat goat consumer trends are changing regarding

  1. Fuel element box inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortmayer, R.M.; Pick, W.

    1985-01-01

    The invention concerns a device for inspecting the outer geometry of a long fuel element box by measuring the surface contours over its longitudinal crossection and along its length by sensors. These are kept in a sledge which can be moved along the fuel element guide in a slot guide. The measurement signals reach an evaluation device outside the longitudinal box. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Chemical Aspects of Lesser Mouse Deer Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment aiming for studying chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. This research explored the chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. Eight lesser mouse deer (four female and four male were used in chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat. The parameters observed included proximate analysis, amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA of the meat. The results showed that average meat chemical composition were content of water, protein, fat, ash and cholesterol were 76.33 %, 21.42 %, 0.51 %, 1.20% and 50.00 mg/100 g, respectively. Fatty acid consist of lauric acid, miristate, palmitate, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were 1.04 % 3.09%, 30.97, 0.77%., 59.41%, 3.22% and 1.12%, respectively. The total EPA and DHA was 0.13% and 0.05%,   Keywords: amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA

  3. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  4. Rationalizing meat consumption. The 4Ns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Jared; Ruby, Matthew B; Loughnan, Steve; Luong, Mischel; Kulik, Juliana; Watkins, Hanne M; Seigerman, Mirra

    2015-08-01

    Recent theorizing suggests that the 4Ns - that is, the belief that eating meat is natural, normal, necessary, and nice - are common rationalizations people use to defend their choice of eating meat. However, such theorizing has yet to be subjected to empirical testing. Six studies were conducted on the 4Ns. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrated that the 4N classification captures the vast majority (83%-91%) of justifications people naturally offer in defense of eating meat. In Study 2, individuals who endorsed the 4Ns tended also to objectify (dementalize) animals and included fewer animals in their circle of moral concern, and this was true independent of social dominance orientation. Subsequent studies (Studies 3-5) showed that individuals who endorsed the 4Ns tend not to be motivated by ethical concerns when making food choices, are less involved in animal-welfare advocacy, less driven to restrict animal products from their diet, less proud of their animal-product decisions, tend to endorse Speciesist attitudes, tend to consume meat and animal products more frequently, and are highly committed to eating meat. Furthermore, omnivores who strongly endorsed the 4Ns tended to experience less guilt about their animal-product decisions, highlighting the guilt-alleviating function of the 4Ns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Salmonellosis: the role of poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, P; Mourão, J; Campos, J; Peixe, L

    2016-02-01

    Salmonellosis remains one of the most frequent food-borne zoonoses, constituting a worldwide major public health concern. Currently, at a global level, the main sources of infection for humans include meat products, including the consumption of contaminated poultry meat, in spite of the success of Salmonella control measures implemented in food-animal production of industrialized countries. In recent years, a shift in Salmonella serotypes related to poultry and poultry production has been reported in diverse geographical regions, being particularly associated with the spread of certain well-adapted clones. Moreover, antimicrobial resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella is considered one of the major public health threats related with food-animal production, including the poultry production chain and poultry meat, which is an additional concern in the management of salmonellosis. The circulation of the same multidrug-resistant Salmonella clones and/or identical mobile genetic elements encoding antibiotic resistance genes from poultry to humans highlights this scenario. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the role of poultry meat on salmonellosis at a global scale and the main problems that could hinder the success of Salmonella control measures at animal production level. With the increasing globalization of foodstuffs like poultry meat, new problems and challenges might arise regarding salmonellosis control, making new integrated intervention strategies necessary along the food chain. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clostridium difficile in poultry and poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Roger B; Norman, Keri N; Andrews, Kathleen; Hume, Michael E; Scanlan, Charles M; Callaway, Todd R; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2011-12-01

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains. Toxigenic C. difficile has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer to human beings. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of toxigenic C. difficile in chickens and retail poultry meat in Texas. Seven C. difficile isolates were detected in fecal samples of 300 (2.3%) broiler chickens. Three cultivation procedures were evaluated for isolation of C. difficile from poultry meat and detected 1/32 (3.1%), 2/32 (6.2%), and 4/32 (12.5%) for the three procedures, respectively. Chicken and poultry meat isolates were characterized as toxinotype V and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis gel type-NAP7 or NAP7-variant. Susceptibilities to 11 antimicrobial agents in the current study suggested somewhat reduced resistance than reported for other meat or animal toxinotype V isolates.

  7. In vitro meat: A future animal-free harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Zuhaib Fayaz; Kumar, Sunil; Bhat, Hina Fayaz

    2017-03-04

    In vitro meat production is a novel idea of producing meat without involving animals with the help of tissue engineering techniques. This biofabrication of complex living products by using various bioengineering techniques is a potential solution to reduce the ill effects of current meat production systems and can dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing "animal-free" meat and meat products. Nutrition-related diseases, food-borne illnesses, resource use and pollution, and use of farm animals are some serious consequences associated with conventional meat production methods. This new way of animal-free meat production may offer health and environmental advantages by reducing environmental pollution and resource use associated with current meat production systems and will also ensure sustainable production of designer, chemically safe, and disease-free meat as the conditions in an in vitro meat production system are controllable and manipulatable. Theoretically, this system is believed to be efficient enough to supply the global demand for meat; however, establishment of a sustainable in vitro meat production would face considerably greater technical challenges and a great deal of research is still needed to establish this animal-free meat culturing system on an industrial scale.

  8. Towards formalization of inspection using petrinets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M.; Naeem, M.; Bahadur, F.; Wahab, A.

    2014-01-01

    Achieving better quality software has always been a challenge for software developers. Inspection is one of the most efficient techniques, which ensure the quality of software during its development. To the best of our knowledge, current inspection techniques are not realized by any formal approach. In this paper, we propose an inspection technique, which is not only backed by the formal mathematical semantics of Petri nets, but also supports inspecting concurrent processes. We also use a case study of an agent based distributed processing system to demonstrate the inspection of concurrent processes. (author)

  9. Boiler inspection manipulator for Torness Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrey, R.T.A.; Yule, I.Y.; Sibson, S.; Playle, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors at Torness and Heysham 2 are provided with dedicated access for remote inspection equipment. These in-service inspection (ISI) accesses comprise 12 penetrations above the core for inspection of the above core area and boilers, 12 below core penetrations for inspection of the lower boiler area and access through any of the 8 gas circulator penetrations for inspection of the sub-diagrid area. This paper describes a manipulator which will access the reactor from above the core via any of the 8 peripheral penetrations. (UK)

  10. Inspection technologies -Development of national safeguards technology-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, J. S.; Kim, B. K.; Kwack, E. H.

    1996-12-01

    17 facility regulations prepared by nuclear facilities according to the Ministerial Notices were evaluated. Safeguards inspection activities under Safeguards are described. Safeguards inspection equipments and operation manuals to be used for national inspection are also described. Safeguards report are produced and submitted to MOST by using the computerized nuclear material accounting system at state level. National inspection support system are developed to produce the on-site information for domestic inspection. Planning and establishment of policy for nuclear control of nuclear materials, international cooperation for nuclear control, CTBT, strengthening of international safeguards system, and the supply of PWRs to North Korea are also described. (author). 43 tabs., 39 figs

  11. Establishment of serological herd profiles for zoonoses and production diseases in pigs by "meat juice multi-serology".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meemken, Diana; Tangemann, Anna Helene; Meermeier, Dieter; Gundlach, Susanne; Mischok, Dieter; Greiner, Matthias; Klein, Guenter; Blaha, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The most important pork-borne zoonotic diseases in humans such as Salmonelloses and Yersinioses cause only latent infections in pigs. Thus, the infection of pigs does not result in apparent or palpable alterations in the pig carcasses. This is the major reason, why the traditional meat inspection with adspection, palpation and incision is not able to control the food safety risks of today. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a set of serological tests, which provides a classification of pig herds into "zoonoses risk categories" as demanded by EU law and into "herd health risk categories" by using meat juice as diagnostic specimen for ELISA tests. Serological data that were obtained by testing meat juice samples from various pig herds were analyzed as proof of the "meat juice multi-serology" concept. For that, at least 60 meat juice samples from 49 pig herds each were taken between September 2010 and March 2011 and tested for antibodies against zoonotic pathogens (Salmonella spp., Trichinella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Toxoplasma gondii) and against pathogens causing production diseases (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, influenza A virus subtype H1N1, influenza A virus subtype H3N2 and PRRSV). Apparent and true animal prevalence, herd prevalence values and intra-herd seroprevalence values as well as the predictive values for the herd and the animal prevalence values were calculated for each pathogen and each of the 49 randomly selected herds. The herd seroprevalence values (one seropositive sample per herd determined a "positive herd") for Y. enterocolitica, Salmonella spp., T. gondii, M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV were higher than 80%, respectively, for the influenza A viruses between 60% and 14% and for Trichinella spp. 0%. Although all herds were located in the same area in the Northwest of Germany within a radius of 250 km, the intra-herd seroprevalence values for all tested pathogens, except for Trichinella spp., varied remarkably from herd to herd. In the

  12. Integration of design and inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, William H.

    1990-08-01

    Developments in advanced computer integrated manufacturing technology, coupled with the emphasis on Total Quality Management, are exposing needs for new techniques to integrate all functions from design through to support of the delivered product. One critical functional area that must be integrated into design is that embracing the measurement, inspection and test activities necessary for validation of the delivered product. This area is being tackled by a collaborative project supported by the UK Government Department of Trade and Industry. The project is aimed at developing techniques for analysing validation needs and for planning validation methods. Within the project an experimental Computer Aided Validation Expert system (CAVE) is being constructed. This operates with a generalised model of the validation process and helps with all design stages: specification of product requirements; analysis of the assurance provided by a proposed design and method of manufacture; development of the inspection and test strategy; and analysis of feedback data. The kernel of the system is a knowledge base containing knowledge of the manufacturing process capabilities and of the available inspection and test facilities. The CAVE system is being integrated into a real life advanced computer integrated manufacturing facility for demonstration and evaluation.

  13. Apparatus for inspecting fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, B.J.; Oakley, D.J.; Groves, O.J.

    1984-12-21

    This disclosure describes an alpha monitor usable in an automated nuclear fuel pin loading and processing unit. Fuel pins or other elongated pins are fed laterally into the alpha monitor in a singular fashion and are translated by a first roller assembly into a weld flare machining and decontamination substation not forming a part of the invention. Pins return and are lifted upwardly and transferred across to a combined pin lifting and electrode operating means which lifts the pins upwardly into a clamshell electrode assembly which is spread open by a combined pin lifting and electrode operating means. Once inserted the clamshell type electrode arrangement closes around the fuel pins so that inspection can occur. Fuel pins are inspected by charging electrodes to a negative potential and measuring the change in charge occurring when positively charged alpha particles strike the negatively charged electrodes. After inspection, the fuel pins are lowered by the pin lifting and electrode operating means into a second roller assembly which longitudinally conveys approved pins from the airtight enclosure in which the alpha monitor is mounted. If the fuel pins are rejected then they are moved laterally by a second transfer means and onto another system for further processing.

  14. Meat eaters by dissociation: How we present, prepare and talk about meat increases willingness to eat meat by reducing empathy and disgust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Jonas R; Hohle, Sigrid M

    2016-10-01

    Many people enjoy eating meat but dislike causing pain to animals. Dissociating meat from its animal origins may be a powerful way to avoid cognitive dissonance resulting from this 'meat paradox'. Here, we provide the first comprehensive test of this hypothesis, highlighting underlying psychological mechanisms. Processed meat made participants less empathetic towards the slaughtered animal than unprocessed meat (Study 1). When beheaded, a whole roasted pork evoked less empathy (Study 2a) and disgust (Study 2b) than when the head was present. These affective responses, in turn, made participants more willing to eat the roast and less willing to consider an alternative vegetarian dish. Conversely, presenting a living animal in a meat advertisement increased empathy and reduced willingness to eat meat (Study 3). Next, describing industrial meat production as "harvesting" versus "killing" or "slaughtering" indirectly reduced empathy (Study 4). Last, replacing "beef/pork" with "cow/pig" in a restaurant menu increased empathy and disgust, which both equally reduced willingness to eat meat and increased willingness to choose an alternative vegetarian dish (Study 5). In all experiments, effects were strongly mediated by dissociation and interacted with participants' general dissociation tendencies in Study 3 and 5, so that effects were particularly pronounced among participants who generally spend efforts disassociating meat from animals in their daily lives. Together, this line of research demonstrates the large role various culturally-entrenched processes of dissociation play for meat consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrasonic inspections of fuel alignment pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathgeb, W.; Schmid, R.

    1994-01-01

    As a remedy to the practical problem of defects in fuel alignment pins made of Inconel X750, an inspection technique has been developed which fully meets the requirements of detecting defects. The newly used fuel alignment pins made of austenite are easy to test and therefore satisfy the necessity of further inspections.For the fuel alignment pins of the upper core structure a safe and fast inspection technique was made available. The inspection sensitivity is high and it is possible to give quantitative directions concerning defect orientation and depth. After the required inspections had been concluded in 1989, a total of 18 inspections were carried out in various national and international nuclear power plants in the following years. During this time more than 6000 fuel alignment pines were examined.For the fuel alignment pins the inspection technique provided could increase the understanding of the defect process. This technique contributed to the development of an adaptive and economical repair strategy. ((orig.))

  16. Intelligent Automated Nuclear Fuel Pellet Inspection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyvan, S.

    1999-01-01

    At the present time, nuclear pellet inspection is performed manually using naked eyes for judgment and decisionmaking on accepting or rejecting pellets. This current practice of pellet inspection is tedious and subject to inconsistencies and error. Furthermore, unnecessary re-fabrication of pellets is costly and the presence of low quality pellets in a fuel assembly is unacceptable. To improve the quality control in nuclear fuel fabrication plants, an automated pellet inspection system based on advanced techniques is needed. Such a system addresses the following concerns of the current manual inspection method: (1) the reliability of inspection due to typical human errors, (2) radiation exposure to the workers, and (3) speed of inspection and its economical impact. The goal of this research is to develop an automated nuclear fuel pellet inspection system which is based on pellet video (photographic) images and uses artificial intelligence techniques

  17. Study on Influence of Different Types of Meat on the Quality of Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Nagy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meat species in processed food products have been gaining an increasing interest mainly due to public health, economic and legal concerns, but also due to religious reasons. In the recent years there was an increasing demand for healthier meat products. Formulation of healthier meat products based on processing strategies is one of the most important current approaches to the development of potential meat-based functional foods. The main objective of the study was to characterize different type of meat and to use that to obtain a meat product-smoked sausage. The physico-chemical analyses highlighted the moisture content (drying-oven at 105 ºC, protein (Kjeldahl method and fat (Soxhlet method content and sodium chloride content (Mohr method of the meat and the final product. Sensory analyses of the samples as well as control sample were evaluated by 17 untrained panellists using a 9 point hedonic scale. Following this study, it was noted an improvement of organoleptic characteristics (texture and appearance as well as physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the new product compared with the limits stipulated.

  18. Influence of turkey meat on residual nitrite in cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, B; Cassens, R G; Borchert, L L

    2001-02-01

    A response surface experimental design was employed to estimate residual nitrite level at various initial nitrite concentrations, percent turkey meat in the formula, and heat quantity (F) values using a typical wiener as the test system. Pork and mechanically separated turkey were used as the meat ingredients. Residual nitrite and pH were measured at day 1, 7 days, 14 days, and 49 days after processing. Protein, fat, salt, moisture, and CIE (L*a*b*) color values were also determined. Results showed that the effect of turkey meat on residual nitrite level was significant (P meat in the formula resulted in lower residual nitrite levels at a fixed pH. The residual nitrite level was initially proportional to initial nitrite concentration, but it became a nonsignificant factor during longer storage time. Differences in heat quantity had a significant effect (P meat products at a fixed pH. However, this effect became nonsignificant during longer storage. Reduction of residual nitrite in wieners because of turkey meat addition at a fixed pH was due to characteristics of the turkey tissue, but the mechanism of action remains unknown. It was also established that commercial wieners had a higher pH if poultry meat was included in the formulation.

  19. Benevolent technotopias and hitherto unimaginable meats: Tracing the promises of in vitro meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Erik

    2016-10-01

    Today, in vitro (Latin: in glass) meat researchers strive to overhaul meat production technologies by producing meat outside animal bodies, primarily by culturing cells. In the process, meat should become healthier, more environmentally friendly and kinder to animals. In this article, I scrutinize (and problematize) this promissory discourse by examining the world that proponents envision alongside the world from which promises emerge. First, I trace the increasing number of publications striving to pinpoint the nature of in vitro meat to unveil the creation of an in vitro meat canon wherein perceived possibilities become taken for granted. Second, I investigate how the promissory discourse is often relatively silent on key aspects of how this technology could remake the world. Wet laboratories, animals and end products become foregrounded at the expense of political economy and the biophysical properties of cultured cells. Thus, questions concerning how funding requirements shape representations of this new technology, together with in vitro meat's particular socio-spatial and socio-ecological implications, become problematically de-emphasized.

  20. Quality tracing in meat supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Miriam; Dittmer, Patrick; Veigt, Marius; Kus, Mehmet; Nehmiz, Ulfert; Kreyenschmidt, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a quality tracing model for vacuum-packed lamb that is applicable in different meat supply chains. Based on the development of relevant sensory parameters, the predictive model was developed by combining a linear primary model and the Arrhenius model as the secondary model. Then a process analysis was conducted to define general requirements for the implementation of the temperature-based model into a meat supply chain. The required hardware and software for continuous temperature monitoring were developed in order to use the model under practical conditions. Further on a decision support tool was elaborated in order to use the model as an effective tool in combination with the temperature monitoring equipment for the improvement of quality and storage management within the meat logistics network. Over the long term, this overall procedure will support the reduction of food waste and will improve the resources efficiency of food production. PMID:24797136

  1. Perspectives in production of functional meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, D.; Glišić, M.; Janković, V.; Dimitrijević, M.; Karabasil, N.; Suvajdžić, B.; Teodorović, V.

    2017-09-01

    The meat industry has met new challenges since the World Health Organization classified processed meat in carcinogenic Group 1. In relation to this, the functional food concept in meat processing has gained importance, especially in reducing carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as an additional imperative, apart from the usual fat and salt reduction and product enrichment with functional ingredients. PAH reduction relies on control of the smoking process, but there is also a possibility they could be degraded by means of probiotic microorganisms or spices. The reduction of N-nitroso compounds could be provided by lowering the amount of added nitrite/nitrate, using substitutes for these chemicals, and/or by preventing conditions for the creation of N-nitroso compounds. Nevertheless, fat and salt reductions still remain topical, and rely mostly on the use of functional ingredients as their substitutes.

  2. MEAT QUALITY OF LOCAL AND HYBRID RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available pH, colour and oxidative status were evaluated to study the effect of rabbit genotype on meat quality. Commercial Hybrids, selected for high growth rate and a local population, characterized by slow growing, were used. Meat quality characteristics of L. lumborum and B. femoris muscles showed significant differences between genotypes. Local population had higher pHu values but lower pH fall values than Hybrids. Hybrids showed higher lightness values and TBARS contents than local population. Meat quality parameters were influenced by genotype. The differences between genotypes could be related to the different degree of maturity because the rabbits, in relation to the different growth rate, were slaughtered at the same weight but at different age.

  3. Quality tracing in meat supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Miriam; Dittmer, Patrick; Veigt, Marius; Kus, Mehmet; Nehmiz, Ulfert; Kreyenschmidt, Judith

    2014-06-13

    The aim of this study was the development of a quality tracing model for vacuum-packed lamb that is applicable in different meat supply chains. Based on the development of relevant sensory parameters, the predictive model was developed by combining a linear primary model and the Arrhenius model as the secondary model. Then a process analysis was conducted to define general requirements for the implementation of the temperature-based model into a meat supply chain. The required hardware and software for continuous temperature monitoring were developed in order to use the model under practical conditions. Further on a decision support tool was elaborated in order to use the model as an effective tool in combination with the temperature monitoring equipment for the improvement of quality and storage management within the meat logistics network. Over the long term, this overall procedure will support the reduction of food waste and will improve the resources efficiency of food production.

  4. Detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Abdul; Kashif, Natasha; Kifayat, Nasira; Ahmad, Shabeer

    2016-09-01

    The antibiotic residues in poultry meat can pose certain hazards to human health among them are sensitivity to antibiotics, allergic reactions, mutation in cells, imbalance of intestinal micro biota and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The purpose of the present paper was to detect antibiotic residue in poultry meat. During the present study a total of 80 poultry kidney and liver samples were collected and tested for detection of different antibiotic residues at different pH levels Eschericha coli at pH 6, 7 and Staphyloccocus aureus at pH 8 & 9. Out of 80 samples only 4 samples were positive for antibiotic residues. The highest concentrations of antibiotic residue found in these tissues were tetracycline (8%) followed by ampicilin (4%), streptomycine (2%) and aminoglycosides (1%) as compared to other antibiotics like sulfonamides, neomycine and gentamycine. It was concluded that these microorganism at these pH levels could be effectively used for detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

  5. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Inspection Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compressor(s) and governor to ascertain proper operation.* 9. Inspection of brake and signal equipment.* 10. Inspection of brake cylinders for piston travel. 11. Inspection of foundation brake gear. 12. Inspection of... crossheads and guides. 16. Inspection of piston rods and fasteners. 17. Inspection of main, side, and valve...

  6. Food Safety Practices in the U.S. Meat Slaughter and Processing Industry: Changes from 2005 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K

    2017-08-01

    Meat slaughter establishments use a multipronged approach to ensure beef and pork products are safe for human consumption. To determine the approaches most commonly used, we conducted a national survey of federally inspected meat slaughter and processing establishments (376 completed surveys, 66% response rate) in 2015. We compared the results with a survey that was conducted in 2005, albeit of potentially different establishments, by using a similar questionnaire and similar data collection methods, thus allowing for an evaluation of trends in food safety practices over time. The use of some food safety practices has increased over the 10-yr time period, whereas others remained the same or decreased. For example, the use of chemical sanitizers or hot water for food contact surfaces and tools increased from 51 to 93%. As another example, microbiological testing of raw meat after fabrication, in addition to that required by regulation, increased from 50 to 72%. However, the use of organic acid rinse on carcasses in the slaughter area remained the same, at 66% of establishments. Written policies and procedures to control the use of hazardous chemicals decreased from 75 to 65% of establishments. The survey findings can be used to characterize food safety practices and technologies in the meat slaughter and processing industry and identify areas for improvement.

  7. Meat and masculinity in the Norwegian Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kildal, Charlotte Lilleby; Syse, Karen Lykke

    2017-05-01

    In 2013, the Norwegian Armed Forces decided to introduce a meat reduction scheme in its military mess halls, for both health reasons and environmental concerns. This article explores Norwegian soldiers' reactions to the introduction of Meat free Monday, and their attitudes towards reducing meat consumption. As of yet, Meat free Monday has not been implemented due to both structural and contextual challenges. We explore both the process and potential of the Norwegian military's Meat free Monday initiative to promote sustainable and climate friendly diets. We found significant barriers preventing the military from implementing Meat free Monday. The main reason behind the resistance to reduce meat consumption among Norwegian soldiers was meat's associations with protein, masculinity and comfort. Our results underline the importance of acknowledging the social and cultural role of food. The study is qualitative and uses focus group interviews as its main methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Procedure and Checklist for Water Vaccination of Meat Turkey Flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Frame, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination for certain diseases is an important component of the health management program for commercial meat turkey production. Because of logistical challenges almost all routine vaccination of meat turkey flocks is administered through the drinking water.

  9. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for meat analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçınkaya, Burhanettin; Yumbul, Eylem; Mozioğlu, Erkan; Akgoz, Muslum

    2017-04-15

    Preventing adulteration of meat and meat products with less desirable or objectionable meat species is important not only for economical, religious and health reasons, but also, it is important for fair trade practices, therefore, several methods for identification of meat and meat products have been developed. In the present study, ten different DNA extraction methods, including Tris-EDTA Method, a modified Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) Method, Alkaline Method, Urea Method, Salt Method, Guanidinium Isothiocyanate (GuSCN) Method, Wizard Method, Qiagen Method, Zymogen Method and Genespin Method were examined to determine their relative effectiveness for extracting DNA from meat samples. The results show that the salt method is easy to perform, inexpensive and environmentally friendly. Additionally, it has the highest yield among all the isolation methods tested. We suggest this method as an alternative method for DNA isolation from meat and meat products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tourist ships on the Danube as an opportunity for export of meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tešanović Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism development launches growth of other complementary industries. River tourism, as a special selective tourism form, experiences intensive development, with an importance for all the regions through which the Danube, as an integral part of the Rhine - Main - Danube waterway, flows. During cruising, the largest consumption is achieved on the ship itself, where meat and meat products are an integral element of every meal and represent the most expensive component of the dish. The task of this paper is to analyse the consumption of meat and meat products on six tourist ships run by to 'Grand Circle Corporation' in 2013, in order to point out the possibility of supplying them with meat and meat products from sources in the territory where the ships sail. The paper presents the current suppliers and manufacturers of meat and meat products in Republic of Serbia that could supply the company 'Grand Circle Cruise Line' and other tourist ships that cruise on the Danube. Also, the research indicates that the export of meat products from the Republic Serbia could have a significant effect on improving the agricultural conditions and food production through increased competition, assuming the Serbian manufacturers supply most of tourist ships and not only the six ships analysed in this paper. Research results, specifically, point out the possibility of increasing export of poultry and beef if the potential demand of each of the eight companies with their 54 ships which operate tourist cruises on the Danube is taken into account. The data have been systematized, analysed and presented statistically in tables and graphs.

  11. FOOD FIBRES OF THE DOMESTIC PRODUCTION FOR THE MEAT-PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The range of meat products with food fibers can be rather wide. The choice of the corresponding type of fibers or creation of a mixed product according to specific objectives allows to develop the products enriched with fibers, or products with the high content of fibers which possess pleasant taste. The right choice of fibers also gives technological and economic advantages. Concrete functional properties of polysaccharides, obviously, are connected with their spatial structure. Experience of food technologies with all evidence testifies to it. Ability to thicken water solutions are among such properties, to form jellies, to create emulsions, foams, to act as their stabilizers, to connect heavy metals, etc. Beet and wheat celluloses promote preservation of juiciness and decrease in losses at heat treatment, stabilize a good trade dress of finished products from chopped meat. Their introduction in minced products – chopped semi-finished products, pastes, canned food is most expedient. The amount of food fibers brought in compounding of products, is caused by touch properties of products and can differ for different types of food fibers. For the purpose of improvement of quality and expansion of the range of meat products studied properties of food fibers of a domestic production of ECOLIGHT native (JSC EFKO-NT. For an assessment of possibility of use of preparations in technology of meat products investigated the microbiological status and the maintenance of ions of heavy metals in objects according to requirements the SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01. An inspection of harmlessness of cellulose of food fibers "ECOLIGHT native" was carried out on the Paramecium caudatum biotest culture. For definition of conditions of application of a preparation of food fibers of beet cellulose "ECOLIGHT native" investigated functional and technological and commodity properties of granules of food fibers "ECOLIGHT native", developed with their application of a

  12. Integrity assessment of research reactor fuel cladding and material testing using eddy current inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Donizete Anderson de

    2004-01-01

    A methodology to perform the integrity assessment of research reactors nuclear fuels cladding, such as those installed in IPR-Rl (TRIGA) and IEA-R1 (MTR), using nondestructive electromagnetic inspection (eddy current) is presented. This methodology is constituted by: the development of calibration reference standards, specific for each type of fuel; the development of special test probes; the recommendations for the inspection equipment calibration; the construction of voltage based evaluation curves and the inspection procedures developed for the characterization of detected flaws. The test probes development, specially those designed for the inspection of MTR fuels cladding, which present access difficulties due to the narrow gap between fuel plates (2,89 mm for IEAR-R1), constituted a challenge that demanded the introduction of unusual materials and constructive techniques. The operational performance of the developed resources, as well as the special operative characteristics of the test probes, such as their immunity to adjacent fuel plates interference and electrical resistivity changes of the fuels meat are experimentally demonstrated. The practical applicability of the developed methodology is verified in non radioactive environment, using a dummy MTR fuel element model, similar to an IEA-R1 reactor fuel element, produced and installed in IPEN, Sao Paulo. The efficacy of the proposed methodology was verified by the achieved results. (author)

  13. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, Z; Naik, B R; Subramanyam, B V; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Duck meat sausages were prepared by utilizing raw and partially cooked duck meat with addition of soy flour at 10% level as a binder. Different quality characteristics like physical and chemical characteristics, proximate composition, and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated. Cooking loss of partially cooked meat sausages was lower than raw duck meat sausages, whereas emulsion stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of raw duck meat sausages were lesser than partially cooked meat sausages. Cooking loss and emulsion stability decreased in both types of meat sausages, while, 2-TBA values increased as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent moisture content of raw duck meat sausages was higher than partially cooked meat sausages, which decreased in both types of meat sausages as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent crude protein (CP) and percent ether extract (EE) content of partially cooked duck meat sausages were higher than raw duck meat sausages. Regardless of type of meat used, refrigerated storage of sausages increased CP and EE up to 10th day but decreased upon further storage up to 14th day. Organoleptic scores for raw duck meat sausages were higher than partially cooked duck meat sausages and all the scores decreased with an increase in the storage period. However the scores were within the acceptable limits. The findings prove that, duck meat can be effectively acclaimed as an alternative avenue to meet the escalating

  14. The importance of subcutaneous abscess infection by Pasteurella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of meat condemnation in slaughtered commercial rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous abscesses are lesions frequently reported in commercial rabbits. Both at farm and slaughterhouse level, these lesions are responsible for economic losses and a potential decrease in meat quality. The present study was devised to identify the main causes of meat condemnation in slaughtered commercial rabbits and assess the importance of abscess lesions in this domain. For these purposes, 281423 rabbits were evaluated during meat inspection at the slaughterhouse. The results achieved showed that subcutaneous abscesses were the major cause of condemnation, being responsible for the rejection of 1355 (0.48% rabbit carcasses. The main affected area was the hind limbs (31.37%, followed by the cervical area (23.10%. Microbiological analyses of 27 abscess samples indicated Pasteurella spp. as the bacteria mostly isolated (59.3%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (25.9%. These results enable us to advise the industry on the significance of abscesses as an important cause of economic losses, due to meat condemnation during post mortem inspection, and highlight the importance of implementing monitoring plans as a way to control this pathological problem.

  15. PUFA loses after cookingg of chicken meat.

    OpenAIRE

    López-Ferrer, S.

    1999-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the effect ofsupplying with fish or linseed oils on the performance, quality parameters and fatty acid (FA) composition of the meat of broiler chickens. Besides, it aimed to test the relative stability of the FA composition after cooking of the chicken meat. A diet with 4% of tallow plus 4% linseed oil (Tl ) or 4% fish oil (T2) was fed to the birds throughout the 5 wk growth period. After slaughtering of the animals, the FA profile of the raw samples was ...

  16. Biotechnology of Flavor Generation in Fermented Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toldrá, Fidel

    Traditionally, meat fermentation was based on the use of natural flora, including the “back-slopping”, or addition of a previous successful fermented sausage. However, these practices gave a great variability in the developed flora and affected the safety and quality of the sausages (Toldrá, 2002; Toldrá & Flores, 2007). The natural flora of fermented meat has been studied for many years (Leistner, 1992; Toldrá, 2006a), and more recently, these micro-organisms have been isolated and biochemically identified through molecular methods applied to extracted DNA and RNA (Cocolin, Manzano, Aggio, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Cocolin, Manzano, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Comi, Urso, Lacumin, Rantsiou, Cattaneo & Cantoni, 2005).

  17. Meat grinder injuries to the upper extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, M; Bunkis, J; Trengove-Jones, G

    1985-05-01

    Three cases of hand injury caused by meat grinders are presented. All 3 injuries involved the dominant hand and resulted in varying degrees of deformity. Two of the 3 patients arrived in the emergency room with the injured hand still firmly wedged in the meat grinder. Although these injuries continue to prove very mutilating, maximum restoration of the injured hand can be accomplished by careful extrication, followed by preservation and reconstruction of all viable tissues. Perioperative antibiotics and wound irrigation with antibiotic solution are recommended. Microsurgical technique can be of value in treating selected patients.

  18. An Annotated Dataset of 14 Meat Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2002-01-01

    This note describes a dataset consisting of 14 annotated images of meat. Points of correspondence are placed on each image. As such, the dataset can be readily used for building statistical models of shape. Further, format specifications and terms of use are given.......This note describes a dataset consisting of 14 annotated images of meat. Points of correspondence are placed on each image. As such, the dataset can be readily used for building statistical models of shape. Further, format specifications and terms of use are given....

  19. In vitro meat production system: why and how?

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Shruti; Thind, Sukhcharanjit Singh; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2015-01-01

    Due to the nutritional importance and the sustained popularity of meat as a foodstuff, the livestock production sector has been expanding incessantly. This exponential growth of livestock meat sector poses a gigantic challenge to the sustainability of food production system. A new technological breakthrough is being contemplated to develop a substitute for livestock meat. The idea is to grow meat in a culture in the lab and manipulate its composition selectively. This paper aims to discuss th...

  20. Biological defense system against xenobiotics in meat-producing animals

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelrahem Abdallah Darwish, Wageh Sobhy

    2010-01-01

    Meat-producing animals are frequently exposed during their lifetime to a lot of xenobiotics which affect on their biological systems, growth, disease response and lead to changes on the carcass quality. These changes may have some public health impact if people consumed such contaminated meat or meat products. Meat-producing animals have developed enzyme systems which help them to metabolize such xenobiotics. Studying of the profile of the different enzymes used in xenobiotics metabolism may ...

  1. Turkey breast meat development and maximising the genetic potential

    OpenAIRE

    NOIRAULT JÉRÔME

    2015-01-01

    Breast Meat is the most lucrative part of the turkey carcass contributing to 70% of the profit whilst only representing 23-26% of the liveweight. Thus breast meat is the most sought after genetic trait in the poultry industry with the aim to maximise breast meat per bird in percentage of the carcass. Before assessing Breast meat yield (BMY) and its deposition it is necessary to look at muscle development.

  2. Antibiogram profile of pathogens isolated from processed cow meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Cow meat or beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines especially cattle. The generic name of cow meat is Bos taurus and the habitable weather of Bos taurus includes temperature of 101.50F (38.60C) and ability to live in a harsh terrains (Li et al., 2006). The processing of cow meat begins from ...

  3. Prospectus of cultured meat—advancing meat alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Zuhaib Fayaz; Fayaz, Hina

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro production of meat is probably feasible with existing tissue engineering techniques and may offer health and environmental advantages by reducing environmental pollution and land use associated with current meat production systems. By culturing loose myosatellite cells on a substrate, it is probably possible to produce cultured meat by harvesting mature muscle cells after differentiation and processing them into various meat products. Besides reducing the animal suffering signifi...

  4. Bacterial Contaminants of Poultry Meat: Sources, Species, and Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Rouger, Amélie; Tresse, Odile; Zagorec, Monique

    2017-01-01

    With the constant increase in poultry meat consumption worldwide and the large variety of poultry meat products and consumer demand, ensuring the microbial safety of poultry carcasses and cuts is essential. In the present review, we address the bacterial contamination of poultry meat from the slaughtering steps to the use-by-date of the products. The different contamination sources are identified. The contaminants occurring in poultry meat cuts and their behavior toward sanitizing treatments ...

  5. Developing the information management system for safeguards national inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. J.; Jeon, I.; Park, W. S.; Min, K. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    The inspection information management system for safeguards national inspection is aimed to do the national safeguards inspection with efficiency, and to decrease the inspector's load to write inspection report by systematizing the inspection jobs and sharing the inspection data. National safeguards inspection is consisted two large jobs. The first is the national safeguards supporting job of managing to support the national inspection mission. The other is the writing a national inspection report after completing the national inspection. Before the developing of inspection information management system, the official tools(spread sheet, word processor) are usually used. But there is problem to share the data, to produce the statistics data. To solve the these problem, we developed the inspection information management system that process the job from initial to final inspection work, and opened user education. This paper explain the procedure of developing the inspection information management system for safeguards national inspection.

  6. Developing the information management system for safeguards national inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. J.; Jeon, I.; Park, W. S.; Min, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    The inspection information management system for safeguards national inspection is aimed to do the national safeguards inspection with efficiency, and to decrease the inspector's load to write inspection report by systematizing the inspection jobs and sharing the inspection data. National safeguards inspection is consisted two large jobs. The first is the national safeguards supporting job of managing to support the national inspection mission. The other is the writing a national inspection report after completing the national inspection. Before the developing of inspection information management system, the official tools(spread sheet, word processor) are usually used. But there is problem to share the data, to produce the statistics data. To solve the these problem, we developed the inspection information management system that process the job from initial to final inspection work, and opened user education. This paper explain the procedure of developing the inspection information management system for safeguards national inspection

  7. Analyzing the biophysical inputs and outputs embodied in global commodity chains - the case of Israeli meat consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Dickler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevailing global livestock industry relies heavily on natural capital and is responsible for high emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG. In recent years, nations have begun to take more of an active role in measuring their resource inputs and GHG outputs for various products. However, up until now, most nations have been recording data for production, focusing on processes within their geographical boundaries. Some recent studies have suggested the need to also embrace a consumption-based approach. It follows that in an increasingly globalized interconnected world, to be able to generate a sustainable food policy, a full systems approach should be embraced. The case of Israeli meat consumption presents an interesting opportunity for analysis, as the country does not have sufficient resources or the climatic conditions needed to produce enough food to support its population. Therefore, Israel, like a growing number of other countries that are dependent on external resources, relies on imports to meet demand, displacing the environmental impact of meat consumption to other countries. This research utilizes a multi-regional consumption perspective, aiming to measure the carbon and land footprints demanded by Israeli cattle and chicken meat consumption, following both domestic production and imports of inputs and products. The results of this research show that the “virtual land” required for producing meat for consumption in Israel is equivalent to 62% of the geographical area of the country. Moreover, almost 80% of meat consumption is provided by locally produced chicken products but the ecological impact of this source is inconsequential compared to the beef supply chain; beef imports comprise only 13% of meat consumption in Israel but are responsible for 71% of the carbon footprint and 83% of the land footprint. The sources of Israel’s meat supply are currently excluded from environmental impact assessments of Israeli processes. However

  8. Modified use of methylene blue in the tissue compression technique to detect sarcocysts in meat-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Yit Han; Subramaniam, Vellayan; Lau, Yee Ling

    2015-11-30

    Sarcocystosis in meat-producing animals is a major cause of reduced productivity in many countries, especially those that rely on agriculture. Although several diagnostic methods are available to detect sarcocystosis, many are too time-consuming for routine use in abattoirs and meat inspection centers, where large numbers of samples need to be tested. This study aimed to compare the sensitivity of the methylene blue tissue preparation, unstained tissue preparation and nested PCR in the detection of sarcocysts in tissue samples. Approximately three-fold more sarcocysts were detected in methylene blue-stained tissue compared to unstained controls (McNemar's test: Pmethylene blue can be used in tissue compression as a rapid, safe, and inexpensive technique for the detection of ruminant sarcocystosis in abattoirs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Straussenhaltung in Deutschland / Straussenfleisch aus Namibia--ein Fallbeispiel. [Ostrich husbandry in Germany / ostrich meat from Namibia - a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, G; Rauscher, K

    1999-04-01

    Within the European Union, academic professions themselves are expected to reach a comparable level of professionalism, a fact that veterinary medicine as well should not ignore. At present, a working group is developing a concept of a teaching module for the Socrates programme "Education in Veterinary Public Health (VPH)", enabling the students by "case studies" to be induced to an integrated approach of tackling problems. In an attempt to demonstrate the didactic procedure, a study of ostrich meat as food for human consumption is presented as a concrete example. In the detailed teacher's guide, informations are given about ostrich husbandry, slaughter procedure and meat inspection, as well as detailed explanations how the health of human consumer can be safeguarded by the introduction of the HACCP system.

  10. Individual and combined effects of genistein and hesperidin supplementation on meat quality in meat-type broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboh, Asghar A; Zhu, Wei-Yun

    2013-10-01

    There is growing interest in improving the production and meat quality of farm animals through dietary supplementation with phytochemical (e.g. flavonoids)-rich plants and/or their extracts. This study was conducted to analyse the supplemental effects of two purified flavonoids (genistein and hesperidin) individually and in combination on the oxidative status, sensory score and quality of breast meat in meat-type broiler chickens. A significant increase (P meat colour (L* score) and pH was observed for the group supplemented with 20 mg kg(-1) genistein and hesperidin. Water-holding capacity was also improved significantly (P meat remained unaffected. Lipid oxidation of breast meat was reduced significantly (P meat quality in a dose-dependent fashion, with pronounced effects of combined treatment. The results indicated that purified flavonoids such as genistein and hesperidin could potentially be used as feed additives in broiler production to promote meat quality. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effects of moist- and dry-heat cooking on the meat quality, microstructure and sensory characteristics of native chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Chen, Chih-Feng; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of moist- (water-cooking; WC) and dry-heat (oven-cooking; OC) on the quality, microstructure and sensory characteristics of native chicken breast meat. The results revealed that OC meat had a significantly higher cooking time, cooking loss, and shear force values and lower L* values. Protein solubility decreased after cooking in both cooking methods; however, no statistical difference was observed between WC and OC meats, whereas collagen solubility and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) increased after cooking and WC meat exhibited higher collagen solubility and MFI (P meat (P meat exhibited a significantly higher moisture release and lower initial hardness, chewdown hardness and residual loose particles. A darker color and enhanced chickeny flavor were observed for OC meat. Based on the unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics in demand, producers should employ appropriate cooking methods to optimize native chicken meat quality. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of lambs' meat as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    one of the most promising steps in improving meat quality because of its antioxidant properties. The colour of meat is seen as the most .... Table 1 The effect of dietary antioxidant and fat source on the fatty acid content of muscle and subcutaneous fat tissue of S.A. Mutton Merino lamb meat. Parameter. (% of total fatty acids).

  13. Broiler meat quality: Proteins and lipids of muscle tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proteins and lipids of muscle tissue are important meat quality parameters. They contribute substantially to the nutritional characteristics of meat. A number of studies has been conducted on the effect of different factors on the protein and lipid content of broiler meat. Given the above, the subject matter of the present paper ...

  14. Vision-based method for tracking meat cuts in slaughterhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo; Hviid, Marchen Sonja; Engbo Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Meat traceability is important for linking process and quality parameters from the individual meat cuts back to the production data from the farmer that produced the animal. Current tracking systems rely on physical tagging, which is too intrusive for individual meat cuts in a slaughterhouse envi...

  15. Preliminary Studies on the Development of Meat Balls | Igene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The UUFB sample was rated highest in terms of overall likeness and may economically complement some of the existing popular meat-based snacks in Nigeria. The significance of the study is discussed. @JASEM Keyterms: Meat, Meat ball, Quality, Product development. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. June, 2012, Vol.

  16. properties of fried minced meat ( Dambun nama ) processed from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was done to evaluate the potential of different meat sources in producing acceptable dambun nama when compared with the traditional beef dambun nama in Nigeria. Five meat types viz: beef, mutton, chevon, camel and broiler chicken meat were used for this experiment. Sensory evaluation was conducted ...

  17. Full Length Research Paper Identification of species (meat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crocodile meat product is an alternative protein source. Although, crocodile meat is more expensive, its taste is similar to that of chicken and fish. The authentication of commercial meat species is important for consumer's confidence. In this study, sensitive and specific method multiplex nested-PCR was applied to identify ...

  18. Preference for goat meat and milk products consumption in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the study revealed significant (p<0.01) differences in the consumption pattern of meat and milk products produced from goats. However, among the various meat products tsire was most preferred, followed by balangu to other meat products. Very few people were involved in the consumption of goat milk and ...

  19. China's meat industry revolution: challenges and opportunities for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Wangang; Xu, Xinglian

    2012-11-01

    From a very limited ration of meat only for urban citizens to the world's largest meat-producing country, from a handful of processing facilities in major cities to thousands of modern meat packing and processing plants throughout the country, the Chinese meat industry has gone through drastic revolutionary changes particularly in the last three decades. Before the national economic reform in the late 1970s, meat production in China was extremely limited; hence, meat was rationed, treated as a highly precious food, and was highly valued. However, new processing technology developments, as related to meat animal production, slaughtering, processing, and distribution have transformed the inefficient Chinese meat industry that prepared only a handful of traditional products into a vast enterprise today that is manufacturing a huge variety of fresh and further processed items enjoyed by the average Chinese household. Along with this evolution, there has been the emergence of mega-scale meat companies and rapid advances in meat science and technology that address many aspects of meat. This review will highlight some milestone changes of the Chinese meat industry and discuss challenges and opportunities ahead in the global market for China. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Exploring meat substitutes: consumer experiences and contextual factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzerman, J.E.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Meat substitutes can be environmentally more sustainable alternatives to meat. However, the image of these products in The Netherlands is still low. The purpose of this paper is to explore consumers' experiences and sensory expectations of meat substitutes and the appropriateness of the

  1. Should the South African red meat classification system be revised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this review was to determine whether the current South African red meat classification system still needs to be revised and changed or maintained. It also gives insight into the most significant challenges related to meat quality evaluation in this system. Red Meat Research and Development South Africa ...

  2. NIR spectroscopy for determining soy contents in processed meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy products such as soy concentrate, soy protein and soy grits are used as a meat extender in processed meat products to improve meat texture. However, soy allergies are one of the common food allergies, especially in infants and young children, and can be mild to life-threatening. The United State...

  3. Economic valuation of pastoral meat production system in Arusha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specifically on red meat which has a crucial role for food security as well as in the culture of the country. The results of the ..... Abattoirs or Slaughter houses: A change in legislation for meat safety reasons and for generating ... slaughtered animals and sell sliced and filleted meat to nyama choma joints, restaurants, hotels.

  4. Cultured meat; will it separate us from nature?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welin, S.; Weele, van der C.

    2012-01-01

    In vitro meat, or cultured meat, is one of the ideas that are being proposed to help solve the problems associated with the ever growing global meat consumption. The prospect is a source or great moral hope, but also generates doubts and criticism. In this paper, we focus on worries about (1) the

  5. Emerging profiles for cultured meat; ethics through and as design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van der C.; Driessen, C.P.G.

    2013-01-01

    The development of cultured meat has gained urgency through the increasing problems associated with meat, but what it might become is still open in many respects. In existing debates, two main moral profiles can be distinguished. Vegetarians and vegans who embrace cultured meat emphasize how it

  6. The perception and preference of consumers for local poultry meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the preference for and perception of consumers concerning the locally produced poultry meat in the Kumasi metropolis in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Fifty consumers were randomly selected. The results demonstrated that most consumers preferred the local poultry meat to the imported meat.

  7. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2012-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2011 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2011 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2011-00026, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2011, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2011 met the requirements of C-ESR-G-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 25, 26 and 34 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2011-00495, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2011, Waste Tanks 25, 26, 34 and 41. A total of 5813 photographs were made and 835 visual and video inspections were performed during 2011. A potential leaksite was discovered at Tank 4 during routine annual inspections performed in 2011. The new crack, which is above the allowable fill level, resulted in no release to the environment or tank annulus. The location of the crack is documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.6.

  8. Safe meat-handling knowledge, attitudes and practices of private and government meat processing plants' workers: implications for future policy

    OpenAIRE

    ADESOKAN, H.K.; RAJI, A.O.Q.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction. Food-borne disease outbreaks remain a major global health challenge and cross-contamination from raw meat due to poor handling is a major cause in developing countries. Adequate knowledge of meat handlers is important in limiting these outbreaks. This study evaluated and compared the safe meat-handling knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of private (PMPP) and government meat processing plants' (GMPP) workers in south-western Nigeria. Methods. This cross sectional st...

  9. Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

  10. RPII Inspection and Licensing Activities and Annual Inspection Programme for 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this report is to provide an overview of inspection activities of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, to examine the evolution in licensee numbers and to outline the rationale in developing annual inspection programmes. All inspection activities are now carried out within the framework of a quality management system including: inspection planning, the training of inspectors, the conduct of inspections as well as inspection follow up and review. The report also provides an overview of the main features of the quality system

  11. RPII Inspection and Licensing Activities and Annual Inspection Programme for 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this report is to provide an overview of inspection activities of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland RPII, to examine the evolution in licensee numbers and to outline the rationale in developing annual inspection programmes. All inspection activities are now carried out within the framework of a quality management system including inspection planning, the training of inspectors, the conduct of inspections as well as post inspection follow up and review. This report also provides an overview of the main features of the quality system

  12. Application of hyperspectral imaging in food safety inspection and control: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yao-Ze; Sun, Da-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Food safety is a great public concern, and outbreaks of food-borne illnesses can lead to disturbance to the society. Consequently, fast and nondestructive methods are required for sensing the safety situation of produce. As an emerging technology, hyperspectral imaging has been successfully employed in food safety inspection and control. After presenting the fundamentals of hyperspectral imaging, this paper provides a comprehensive review on its application in determination of physical, chemical, and biological contamination on food products. Additionally, other studies, including detecting meat and meat bone in feedstuffs as well as organic residue on food processing equipment, are also reported due to their close relationship with food safety control. With these applications, it can be demonstrated that miscellaneous hyperspectral imaging techniques including near-infrared hyperspectral imaging, fluorescence hyperspectral imaging, and Raman hyperspectral imaging or their combinations are powerful tools for food safety surveillance. Moreover, it is envisaged that hyperspectral imaging can be considered as an alternative technique for conventional methods in realizing inspection automation, leading to the elimination of the occurrence of food safety problems at the utmost.

  13. Pure meat – public perceptions of risk reduction strategies in meat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzen, Sara Marie; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    of risk reduction strategy in meat production, with the aim of distinguishing between forms of risk reduction in terms of their acceptability. The paper reports the result of a focus-group study. Six focus groups with Danish citizens (N: 5–9) were conducted during May 2006. The design of the groups took...... a bottom-up approach and included elements of meat quality, meat safety and risk reduction strategies. The study shows the dilemma risk reduction presents to members of the public. On the one hand, people want safe meat; on the other, the study showed that with the exception of hygiene practices, people...... generally have an aversion to risk reduction strategies. Some variation was found, however, in the rejection of the strategies. Thus, more acceptable strategies are characterised by a low degree of technological interference, and by being close to the consumer’s experience in everyday life and/or familiar...

  14. Lactobacilli and ionising radiation: an example of the application to meat and meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    Ionising radiation provides a practical pasteurisation method for the terminal treatment of refrigerated vacuum-packaged meat products with the aim of shelf life extension. However, the relatively high radiation resistance (γ-D 10 = 0.70-1.2 kGy) of typical meat Lactobacilli, especially Lb. sake, selectively favours their total domination after treatments with 5 kGy. Typical meat strains show higher resistance (in term of γ-D 10 values the decimal reduction value due to irradiation) in the log (exponential) than in the stationary phase. This phenomenon was observed both in semi-synthetic broth and in meat, and may be explained in terms of a DNA repair mechanism operative during the exponential phase. Packaging under different gas atmospheres resulted in increased resistance to radiation in presence of N 2 , whilst the highest death rate was observed in presence of CO 2 . (orig.) [de

  15. Longitudinal Changes in BMI in Older Adults Are Associated with Meat Consumption Differentially, by Type of Meat Consumed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, A.M.J.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Hughes, L.A.E.; Ambergen, T.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Goldbohm, A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Schouten, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding the role of meat consumption in body weight modulation are contradictory. Prospective studies on an association between meat consumption and BMI change are limited. We assessed the association between meat consumption and change in BMI over time in 3902 men and women aged 55-69

  16. The nutritional value of some processed meat products in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babji, A S; Mohdyusof, S

    1995-03-01

    Per capita consumption of meat and meat products in Malaysia more than doubled from 15.70 kg in 1970 to 35.71 kg in 1990. This increase in meat consumption is mainly due to the rapid development and wide acceptance of value added meat and poultry products amongst Malaysian consumers. Meat products such as burgers, sausages, hotdogs and nuggets are widely accepted and consumed by all ethnic groups at home as well as in the fast food restaurants. The significant expansion of the fast food industry and the increase consumption of processed meat products makes it necessary for a re-evaluation of the nutritional quality of popular meat products currently available in the market. This review paper described the quality of some processed meat products, their proximate composition, meat quality, use of non meat proteins and binders, and the use of additives in the formulation of burgers, frankfurters, nuggets, bologna, chicken and beef balls. Preliminary results on the protein efficiency ratio of local meat products seemed favourable but this study is limited to only one laboratory. In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility studies indicated high values on the digestibility of locally manufactured meat products. Proximate analysis of the raw materials used in the formulation of such products showed many with high fat and low protein contents being utilized. The meat content was lower than the minimum amount stated by the food regulation. This paper concludes that due to lack of information and studies on the nutritional composition of processed meat products, concerned bodies should take positive steps to generate reliable data to elucidate the actual nutritional composition of such products. It is also observed that many by-products from the animal industry from non-conventional sources are increasingly being utilized in the manufacture of processed meat product.

  17. Meat science and foodomics: application of omics approaches to meat quality management

    OpenAIRE

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Terlouw, Claudia; Boudjellal, Abdelghani; Picard, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of new biotechnologies, including OMICs, has had a positive impact on all disciplines in the biological and life sciences. During the past two decades, advancements in the field of omic technologies have further contributed to the expansion of our understanding of the molecular bases underpinning the conversion of muscle to meat. The process of muscle to meat conversion corresponds to the onset of so - called apoptosis, which result s from progressive ...

  18. Consumer Perception on Halal meat logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieman, H.; Ghazali, M.C.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the preferred minimum level of segregation for halal meat in supermarket, transport, storage and terminals; the responsibility of halal logistics; and the willingness to pay for halal logistics in a Muslim and non-Muslim country.

  19. Microbial challenges of poultry meat production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Food safety and shelf-life are both important microbial concerns in relation to broiler meat production. Focus is mainly placed on the absence or control of potentially pathogenic microbes such as Salmonella and Campylobacter but, from commercial point of view, other spoilage bacteria also play a

  20. Hypoxanthine enhances the cured meat taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukinobu; Yoshida, Yuka; Hattori, Akihito

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the enhancement of cured meat taste during maturation by sensory analysis. We focused on the heat‐stable sarcoplasmic fraction (HSSF) to identify the factors related to cured meat taste. Because the dry matter of HSSF contained more than 30% nitrogen, nitrogen compounds such as free amino acids, small peptides and adenosine triphosphate‐related compounds seemed to be the important components of HSSF. The samples cured with HSSF for 2 h exhibited the same taste profile as ones cured without HSSF for 168 h. Therefore, the changes in the amount and fractions of nitrogen compounds were examined in HSSF during incubation from 0 to 168 h. The concentration of hypoxanthine (Hx) gradually increased, while inosine‐5′‐monophosphate decreased during the incubation. The samples cured with pickles containing various concentrations of Hx were subjected to sensory analysis. The addition of Hx, in a dose‐dependent fashion, enhanced cured meat taste by maturation for 2 h. It was concluded that Hx is essential for the enhancement of cured meat taste. PMID:27169902