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Sample records for prevailing hcv genotypes

  1. Distribution of HCV genotypes among different exposure categories in Brazil

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    Oliveira M.L.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is widespread and responsible for more than 60% of chronic hepatitis cases. HCV presents a genetic variability which has led to viral classification into at least 6 genotypes and a series of subtypes. These variants present characteristic geographical distribution, but their association with different responses to treatment with interferon and severity of disease still remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of distribution of HCV genotypes among different exposure categories in Brazil. Two hundred and fifty anti-HCV positive samples were submitted to HCV-RNA detection by RT-PCR and their genotype was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis. In addition, the genotype/subtype of 60 samples was also determined by a reverse hybridization assay. HCV 1 was the most prevalent (72.0%, followed by type 3 (25.3%, HCV 2 (2.0% and HCV 4 (0.7%. The HCV genotype distribution varied among the different exposure categories, with HCV 1 being more frequent among blood donors, hemophiliacs and hemodialysis patients. A high frequency of HCV 3 was observed in cirrhotic patients, blood donors from the South of Brazil and injecting drug users (IDUs. The general distribution of the HCV genotype in Brazil is similar to that in other regions of the world.

  2. Prevalence of mixed hepatitis C virus (HCV genotypes among recently diagnosed dialysis patients with HCV infection

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    Mohammed A Al Balwi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is considered a major health problem recognized globally. HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease that may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of multiple (mixed HCV genotypes in Saudi patients recently diagnosed with HCV infection and their association with various clinical risk factors. We examined a total of 1,292 newly diagnosed HCV-positive cases between January 2006 and July 2009 at the Molecular Pathology Laboratory, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh. The clinical and laboratory data of the study patients were collected. The HCV-RNA viral load and its genotyping were carried out with RT-PCR technology to assist in the follow-up and management of HCV-infected patients undergoing antiviral therapy. Twenty-two patients (1.7% were found to have mixed HCV genotypes; of them, mixed genotypes associated with genotype-4 were seen in 19 patients (86%, mixed genotypes associated with genotype-1 were found in 68.4%, with genotype-3 in 26.3% and with genotype-2 in 5.3%. Additionally, mixed genotypes associated with genotype-1 were seen in three cases (13.6%; they were associated with genotype-2 in two (66.7% and with genotype-5 in one patient (33.3%. In conclusion, the prevalence rate of mixed HCV genotypes in the cohort of the newly infected Saudi patients was 1.7%, with genotype-4 being the most frequent genotype encountered.

  3. Relationship Between HCV RNA and Serum Alanine Aminotransferase and HCV Genotype Distribution

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    Dilara Yildirim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infections is an important health problem all over the world because of inveteracy ratio and causing hepatic failure, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Our aim in this study is to research HCV RNA in the patients detected anti-HCV positivity with enzyme immunoassay (ELISA and to analysis the association of HCV RNA in the serum of patients with alanine aminoransferase (ALT levels and HCV genotypes. Material and Method: In anti-HCV positive patients came from various departments to our laboratory HCV RNA level and genotyping were researched with quantitive real time polimerase chain reaction (PCR Montania 483 (Anatolia Geneworks HCV, Turkey and anti-HCV tests were studied with ELISA (Advia Centaur XP, Germany, ALT results were analysed retrospectively (Olympus AU2700. Results: In 123 of Anti HCV positive 338 serum (%37 were detected HCV RNA positivity. In the patients who have ALT level more than 40 (%77.6, HCV RNA is positive. Relationship between HCVRNA positive patients and the patients who have ALT level more than 40 is meaningful. (p

  4. Comparison of HCV viral load and its genotype distributions in HCV mono- and HIV/HCV co-infected illicit drug users.

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    Jamalidoust, Marzieh; Namayandeh, Mandana; Moghadami, Mohsen; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

    2017-07-11

    Because of shared modes of transmission, patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are often co-infected with other types of hepatitis viruses and/or HIV. We studied HCV viral load and its genotype patterns among HCV mono- and HCV/HIV co-infected Illicit Drug Users in Fars province-Iran. Totally, 580 HCV seropositive IDUs referred to Prof. Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Shiraz, Iran, without receiving any anti-HCV treatment, were enrolled. After their HCV infections were reconfirmed by one step rapid diagnostic test, HCV RNA level and HCV genotypes were determined by Taq-man real-time PCR assays. Their HIV serostatus was determined and seropositive patients were excluded from the group. In addition, 104 HIV/HCV co-infected IDUs referred from Shiraz Behavioral Diseases Consultation Center (SBDC) were assessed for HCV RNA level and HCV genotype patterns, as well. The overall estimated HIV prevalence was 6.7% (39/580) among HCV seropositive IDUs. Genotype 1, the most prevalent genotype in both groups, was detected in 69% and 49% of co- and mono-infected IDUs, respectively. Median HCV viral load was significantly higher in HIV/HCV co-infected patients, compared with that among HCV mono-infected counterparts. Given the higher baseline HCV viral load and GT1 attributed to poorer treatments response, HCV treatment must be more considered among HCV/HIV co-infected IDUs, compared to those mono-infected with HCV.

  5. Comparison of HCV viral load and its genotype distributions in HCV mono- and HIV/HCV co-infected illicit drug users

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    Jamalidoust, Marzieh; Namayandeh, Mandana; Moghadami, Mohsen; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

    2017-01-01

    Background Because of shared modes of transmission, patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are often co-infected with other types of hepatitis viruses and/or HIV. We studied HCV viral load and its genotype patterns among HCV mono- and HCV/HIV co-infected Illicit Drug Users in Fars province-Iran. Methods Totally, 580 HCV seropositive IDUs referred to Prof. Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Shiraz, Iran, without receiving any anti-HCV treatment, were enrolled. After their ...

  6. Genotyping of HCV RNA Reveals That 3a Is the Most Prevalent Genotype in Mardan, Pakistan

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    Sajid Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical outcomes of patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV range from acute resolving hepatitis to chronic liver diseases such as liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Identification of the infecting virus genotype is indispensable for the exploration of many aspects of HCV infection, including epidemiology, pathogenesis, and response to antiviral therapy. 1419 individuals were screened for anti-HCV in this study, of which 166 (11.7% were found reactive by ICT (Immunochromatographic test. These 166 anti-HCV positive and 26 normal individuals were further analyzed. RNA was extracted from serum and reverse-transcribed to cDNA and the core region of HCV genome was targeted and amplified by multiplex PCR. HCV RNA was detected in 121 individuals, of which 87 were male and 34 were female. Genotype 3a was the most prevalent among all the genotypes observed followed by 3b. Genotypes 1a, 2a, and 2b were found in 10.89%, 13.22%, and 6.61% patients, respectively. 25.41% of the HCV RNA positive samples were not typed. 6.05% of patients were found having mixed genotypes. These findings will not only help the physicians to prescribe more appropriate treatment for the HCV infection but will also draw the attention of health-related policy makers to devise strategies to curb the disease more effectively.

  7. Hepatitis C virus (HCV genotype 1 subtype identification in new HCV drug development and future clinical practice.

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    Stéphane Chevaliez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the development of new specific inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV enzymes and functions that may yield different antiviral responses and resistance profiles according to the HCV subtype, correct HCV genotype 1 subtype identification is mandatory in clinical trials for stratification and interpretation purposes and will likely become necessary in future clinical practice. The goal of this study was to identify the appropriate molecular tool(s for accurate HCV genotype 1 subtype determination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A large cohort of 500 treatment-naïve patients eligible for HCV drug trials and infected with either subtype 1a or 1b was studied. Methods based on the sole analysis of the 5' non-coding region (5'NCR by sequence analysis or reverse hybridization failed to correctly identify HCV subtype 1a in 22.8%-29.5% of cases, and HCV subtype 1b in 9.5%-8.7% of cases. Natural polymorphisms at positions 107, 204 and/or 243 were responsible for mis-subtyping with these methods. A real-time PCR method using genotype- and subtype-specific primers and probes located in both the 5'NCR and the NS5B-coding region failed to correctly identify HCV genotype 1 subtype in approximately 10% of cases. The second-generation line probe assay, a reverse hybridization assay that uses probes targeting both the 5'NCR and core-coding region, correctly identified HCV subtypes 1a and 1b in more than 99% of cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the context of new HCV drug development, HCV genotyping methods based on the exclusive analysis of the 5'NCR should be avoided. The second-generation line probe assay is currently the best commercial assay for determination of HCV genotype 1 subtypes 1a and 1b in clinical trials and practice.

  8. Performance evaluation of the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II for hepatitis C virus genotyping.

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    Sohn, Yong-Hak; Ko, Sun-Young; Kim, Myeong Hee; Oh, Heung-Bum

    2010-04-01

    The Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) Genotype II (Abbott Molecular Inc.) for HCV genotyping, which uses real-time PCR technology, has recently been developed. Accuracy and sensitivity of detection were assessed using the HCV RNA PHW202 performance panel (SeraCare Life Sciences). Consistency with restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP) data, cross-reactivity with other viruses, and the ability to detect minor strains in mixtures of genotypes 1 and 2 were evaluated using clinical samples. All performance panel viruses were correctly genotyped at levels of >500 IU/mL. Results were 100% concordant with RFMP genotypic data (66/66). However, 5% (3/66) of the samples examined displayed probable genotypic cross reactivity. No cross reactivity with other viruses was evident. Minor strains in the mixtures were not effectively distinguished, even at quantities higher than the detection limit. The Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay was very accurate and yielded results consistent with RFMP data. Although the assay has the advantages of automation and short turnaround time, we suggest that further improvements are necessary before it is used routinely in clinical practice. Efforts are needed to decrease cross reactivity among genotypes and to improve the ability to detect minor genotypes in mixed infections.

  9. Accuracy of a commercially available assay for HCV genotyping and subtyping in the clinical practice.

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    González, Victoria; Gomes-Fernandes, Meissiner; Bascuñana, Elisabet; Casanovas, Sònia; Saludes, Verónica; Jordana-Lluch, Elena; Matas, Lurdes; Ausina, Vicenç; Martró, Elisa

    2013-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping is mandatory for tailoring dose and duration of pegylated interferon-α plus ribavirin treatment and for deciding on triple therapy eligibility. Additionally, subtyping may play a role in helping to select future treatment regimens that include directly-acting antivirals. However, commercial assays for HCV genotyping fail to identify the genotype/subtype in some cases. Our aims were (i) to determine the success rate of the commercial genotyping assay Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II at identifying the genotype and the HCV-1 subtype; and (ii) to phylogenetically characterise the obtained indeterminate results. HCV genotyping results obtained between 2009 and 2012 in a Spanish reference hospital were reviewed. A total of 896 people were genotyped with the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay. Specimens with an indeterminate result were retrospectively genotyped using the reference method based on the phylogenetic analysis of HCV NS5B sequences. Using the commercially available assay, an indeterminate HCV genotype result was obtained in 20 of 896 patients (2.2%); these corresponded to genotypes 3a, 3k and 4d. Importantly, 8.6% of all cases where genotype 3 was detected were indeterminate. In addition, the HCV-1 subtype was not assigned in 29 of 533 cases (5.4%). The implementation in the clinical microbiology laboratory of the reference method for HCV genotyping allows indeterminate genotype/subtype results to be interpreted and may lead to the identification of previously uncharacterised subtypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. NS4A protein as a marker of HCV history suggests that different HCV genotypes originally evolved from genotype 1b

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    Asad Sultan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 9.6 kb long RNA genome of Hepatitis C virus (HCV is under the control of RNA dependent RNA polymerase, an error-prone enzyme, for its transcription and replication. A high rate of mutation has been found to be associated with RNA viruses like HCV. Based on genetic variability, HCV has been classified into 6 different major genotypes and 11 different subtypes. However this classification system does not provide significant information about the origin of the virus, primarily due to high mutation rate at nucleotide level. HCV genome codes for a single polyprotein of about 3011 amino acids which is processed into structural and non-structural proteins inside host cell by viral and cellular proteases. Results We have identified a conserved NS4A protein sequence for HCV genotype 3a reported from four different continents of the world i.e. Europe, America, Australia and Asia. We investigated 346 sequences and compared amino acid composition of NS4A protein of different HCV genotypes through Multiple Sequence Alignment and observed amino acid substitutions C22, V29, V30, V38, Q46 and Q47 in NS4A protein of genotype 1b. Furthermore, we observed C22 and V30 as more consistent members of NS4A protein of genotype 1a. Similarly Q46 and Q47 in genotype 5, V29, V30, Q46 and Q47 in genotype 4, C22, Q46 and Q47 in genotype 6, C22, V38, Q46 and Q47 in genotype 3 and C22 in genotype 2 as more consistent members of NS4A protein of these genotypes. So the different amino acids that were introduced as substitutions in NS4A protein of genotype 1 subtype 1b have been retained as consistent members of the NS4A protein of other known genotypes. Conclusion These observations indicate that NS4A protein of different HCV genotypes originally evolved from NS4A protein of genotype 1 subtype 1b, which in turn indicate that HCV genotype 1 subtype 1b established itself earlier in human population and all other known genotypes evolved later as a result of

  11. Impact of inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity on the performance of the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay for hepatitis C genotyping.

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    Sridhar, Siddharth; Yip, Cyril C Y; Chan, Jasper F W; To, Kelvin K W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2018-01-11

    The Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay (Abbott-RT-HCV assay) is a real-time PCR based genotyping method for hepatitis C virus (HCV). This study measured the impact of inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity on the performance of the Abbott-RT-HCV assay. 517 samples were genotyped using the Abbott-RT-HCV assay over a one-year period, 34 (6.6%) were identified as HCV genotype 1 without further subtype designation raising the possibility of inaccurate genotyping. These samples were subjected to confirmatory sequencing. 27 of these 34 (79%) samples were genotype 1b while five (15%) were genotype 6. One HCV isolate was an inter-genotypic 1a/4o recombinant. This is a novel natural HCV recombinant that has never been reported. Inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity can affect the accuracy of the Abbott-RT-HCV assay, both of which have significant implications on antiviral regimen choice. Confirmatory sequencing of ambiguous results is crucial for accurate genotyping. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Comparison of cobas HCV GT against Versant HCV Genotype 2.0 (LiPA) with confirmation by Sanger sequencing.

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    Yusrina, Falah; Chua, Cui Wen; Lee, Chun Kiat; Chiu, Lily; Png, Tracy Si-Yu; Khoo, Mui Joo; Yan, Gabriel; Lee, Guan Huei; Yan, Benedict; Lee, Hong Kai

    2018-05-01

    Correct identification of infecting hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype is helpful for targeted antiviral therapy. Here, we compared the HCV genotyping performance of the cobas HCV GT assay against the Versant HCV Genotype 2.0 (LiPA) assay, using 97 archived serum samples. In the event of discrepant or indeterminate results produced by either assay, the core and NS5B regions were sequenced. Of the 97 samples tested by the cobas, 25 (26%) were deemed indeterminate. Sequencing analyses confirmed 21 (84%) of the 25 samples as genotype 6 viruses with either subtype 6m, 6n, 6v, 6xa, or unknown subtype. Of the 97 samples tested by the LiPA, thirteen (13%) were deemed indeterminate. Seven (7%) were assigned with genotype 1, with unavailable/inconclusive results from the core region of the LiPA. Notably, the 7 samples were later found to be either genotype 3 or 6 by sequencing analyses. Moreover, 1 sample by the LiPA was assigned as genotypes 4 (cobas: indeterminate) but were later found to be genotype 3 by sequencing analyses, highlighting its limitation in assigning the correct genotype. The cobas showed similar or slightly higher accuracy (100%; 95% CI 94-100%) compared to the LiPA (99%; 95% CI 92-100%). Twenty-six percent of the 97 samples tested by the cobas had indeterminate results, mainly due to its limitation in identifying genotype 6 other than subtypes 6a and 6b. This presents a significant assay limitation in Southeast Asia, where genotype 6 infection is highly prevalent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Most common genotypes and risk factors for HCV in Gaza strip: a cross sectional study

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    Abu-Jadallah Salah Y

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present work aims at determining HCV genotypes in patients with chronic HCV infection, in Gaza strip, Palestine. The most common risk factors for HCV transmission were also evaluated in conjunction with the genotyping data. Results The study shows that there are only two major genotypes of HCV in Gaza Strip: Genotype 1 (subtypes 1a and 1b collectively contribute to 28.3% of the cases, and genotype 4 (subtypes 4a and 4c/d collectively contribute to 64.1% of the cases. Mixed infection with the two genotypes was also present among 7.6% of the cases. In this study a statistically significant relationship was established between the distribution of these genotypes and the patients' living place, traveling history, history of blood transfusion and history of surgical operations. Conclusion The present study is the first to link HCV genotyping in Gaza strip with its possible roots of transmission. Traveling to endemic countries, especially Egypt; blood transfusion and surgical operations are major roots of HCV infection in Gaza strip. The results indicate that iatrogenic and nosocomial procedures may be responsible for the majority of HCV infections in Gaza strip.

  14. Performance comparison of the versant HCV genotype 2.0 assay (LiPA) and the abbott realtime HCV genotype II assay for detecting hepatitis C virus genotype 6.

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    Yang, Ruifeng; Cong, Xu; Du, Shaocai; Fei, Ran; Rao, Huiying; Wei, Lai

    2014-10-01

    The Versant HCV genotype 2.0 assay (line probe assay [LiPA] 2.0), based on reverse hybridization, and the Abbott Realtime HCV genotype II assay (Realtime II), based on genotype-specific real-time PCR, have been widely used to analyze hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes. However, their performances for detecting HCV genotype 6 infections have not been well studied. Here, we analyzed genotype 6 in 63 samples from the China HCV Genotyping Study that were originally identified as genotype 6 using the LiPA 2.0. The genotyping results were confirmed by nonstructural 5B (NS5B) or core sequence phylogenetic analysis. A total of 57 samples were confirmed to be genotype 6 (51 genotype 6a, 5 genotype 6n, and 1 genotype 6e). Four samples identified as a mixture of genotypes 6 and 4 by the LiPA 2.0 were confirmed to be genotype 3b. The remaining two samples classified as genotype 6 by the LiPA 2.0 were confirmed to be genotype 1b, which were intergenotypic recombinants and excluded from further comparison. In 57 genotype 6 samples detected using the Realtime II version 2.00 assay, 47 genotype 6a samples were identified as genotype 6, one 6e sample was misclassified as genotype 1, and four 6a and five 6n samples yielded indeterminate results. Nine nucleotide profiles in the 5' untranslated region affected the performances of both assays. Therefore, our analysis shows that both assays have limitations in identifying HCV genotype 6. The LiPA 2.0 cannot distinguish some 3b samples from genotype 6 samples. The Realtime II assay fails to identify some 6a and all non-6a subtypes, and it misclassifies genotype 6e as genotype 1. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Prevalence, genotypes and factors associated with HCV infection among prisoners in Northeastern Brazil

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    de Oliveira Santos, Bruno Fernandes; de Santana, Nathalie Oliveira; Franca, Alex Vianey Callado

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence and its genotypes, and to identify the factors associated with HCV infection. METHODS: This cross-sectional study, conducted in two prisons (one male and one female) in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, comprised 422 subjects. All of the prisoners underwent a rapid test for the detection of HCV antibodies. Patients with a positive result were tested for anti-HCV by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and for HCV RNA by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The virus genotype was defined in every serum sample that presented positive for PCR-HCV. In order to determine the factors independently associated with positive serology for HCV, multivariate logistic regression was used. RESULTS: HCV seroprevalence was 3.1%. Of the 13 subjects with positive anti-HCV, 11 had viremia confirmed by PCR. Of these, 90.9% had genotype 1. A total of 43 (10.2%) were injecting drug users, and HCV seroprevalence in this subgroup was 20.6%. The variable most strongly associated with positive serology for HCV was use of injecting drugs [odds ratio (OR), 23.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.0-90.8]. Age over 30 years (OR, 5.5; 95%CI, 1.1-29.2), history of syphilis (OR, 9.8; 95%CI, 1.7-55.2) and history of household contact with HCV positive individual (OR, 14.1; 95%CI, 2.3-85.4) were also independently associated with HCV infection. CONCLUSION: Most of the HCV transmissions result from parenteral exposure. However, there is evidence to suggest a role for sex and household contact with an infected subject in virus transmission. PMID:21799649

  16. Consensus siRNA for inhibition of HCV genotype-4 replication

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    El-Din Hanaa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HCV is circulating as a heterogeneous group of quasispecies. It has been addressed that siRNA can inhibit HCV replication in-vitro using HCV clone and/or replicon which have only one genotype. The current study was conducted to assess whether siRNA can inhibit different HCV genotypes with many quasispecies and to assess whether consensus siRNA have the same effect as regular siRNA. Methods We generated two chemically synthesized consensus siRNAs (Z3 and Z5 which cover most known HCV genotype sequences and quasispecies using Ambium system. Highly positive HCV patient's serum with nine quasispecies was transfected in-vitro to Huh-7 cell line which supports HCV genotype-4 replication. siRNA (Z3&Z5 were transfected according to Qiagen Porta-lipid technique and subsequently cultured for eight days. HCV replication was monitored by RT-PCR for detection of plus and minus strands. Real-time PCR was used for quantification of HCV, whereas detection of the viral core protein was performed by western blot. Results HCV RNA levels decreased 18-fold (P = 0.001 and 25-fold (P = 0.0005 in cells transfected with Z3 and Z5, respectively, on Day 2 post transfection and continued for Day 3 by Z3 and Day 7 by Z5. Reduction of core protein expression was reported at Day 2 post Z3 siRNA transfection and at Day 1 post Z5 siRNA, which was persistent for Day 4 for the former and for Day 6 for the latter. Conclusion Consensus siRNA could be used as a new molecular target therapy to effectively inhibit HCV replication in the presence of more than one HCV quasispecies.

  17. HCV genotypes and age distribution in patients of Vienna and surrounding areas.

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    Haushofer, A C; Kopty, C; Hauer, R; Brunner, H; Halbmayer, W M

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) can result in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Determination of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype/subtype may be of prognostic value to estimate the risk of development of liver cirrhosis. The HCV genotype/subtype was determined in patients with CHC and possible associations with age, source of HCV transmission, duration of HCV infection, and development of liver cirrhosis were investigated. A total of 250 consecutive patients with CHC were studied. HCV genotypes/subtypes were determined with a commercially available assay based on the reverse-hybridization principle. Source of HCV transmission and duration of HCV infection were taken from the patient documentation and liver cirrhosis was diagnosed by clinical, biochemical, and sonographic data. HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were found in 74.8, 2.8, 16, 5.2, and 0.4% of the patients. Most frequent subtypes were 1b (54%), 1a (15.6%), and 3a (15.6%). Patients with genotype 1 (mean, 52.8 years) or 2 (mean, 51.0 years) were significantly older than patients with genotype 3 (mean, 37.2 years) or genotype 4 (mean, 37.2 years). Patients with subtype 1b (mean, 58.1 years) were significantly older than patients with subtype 1a (mean, 40.8 years) or 3a (mean, 37.5 years). The main sources of HCV infection were intravenous drug abuse in 30.0% of all patients (genotype 1 in 53.3%; genotype 3 in 40%) or transfusion of blood and blood products in 21.6% of all patients (genotype 1 in 83.4%). The source of transmission, however, remained unknown in 44.8% of all patients. The prevalence of genotype 1 was significantly higher in patients with long duration (more than 20 years) of CHC. In none of the patients with genotype 2 or 3, duration of CHC for more than 20 years was observed. The prevalence of genotype 4 was significantly higher in patients with short duration (less than 10 years) of CHC. Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed in 13.6% of all patients (97.1% of patients with genotype 1

  18. Dual treatment of acute HCV infection in HIV co-infection: influence of HCV genotype upon treatment outcome.

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    Boesecke, Christoph; Ingiliz, Patrick; Reiberger, Thomas; Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; Bhagani, Sanjay; Page, Emma; Mauss, Stefan; Lutz, Thomas; Voigt, Esther; Guiguet, Marguerite; Valantin, Marc-Antoine; Baumgarten, Axel; Nelson, Mark; Vogel, Martin; Rockstroh, Jürgen K

    2016-02-01

    With DAAs still only being licensed for chronic HCV infection, the ongoing epidemic of acute hepatitis C (AHC) infection among MSM highlights the need to identify factors allowing for optimal HCV treatment outcome. 303 HIV-infected patients from 4 European countries with diagnosed acute HCV infection were treated early with pegylated interferon (pegIFN) and ribavirin (RBV) (n = 273) or pegylated interferon alone (n = 30). All patients were male, median age was 39 years. Main routes of transmission were MSM (95%) and IVDU (3%). 69% of patients were infected with HCV GT 1, 4.3% with GT 2, 10.6% with GT 3, 16.1% with GT 4. Overall SVR rate was 69.3% (210/303). RVR (p ≤ 0.001), 48-w treatment duration (p ≤ 0.001) and GT 2/3 (p = 0.024) were significantly associated with SVR. SVR rates were significantly higher in HCV GT 2/3 receiving pegIFN and RBV (33/35) when compared with pegIFN mono-therapy (6/10) (94% vs. 60 % respectively; p = 0.016). In multivariate analysis, pegIFN/RBV combination therapy (p = 0.017) and rapid virological response (RVR) (p = 0.022) were significantly associated with SVR in HCV GT 2/3. In HCV GT 1/4, RVR (p ≤ 0.001) and 48-w treatment duration (p ≤ 0.001) were significantly associated with SVR. Treatment of AHC GT 2 and 3 infections with pegIFN/RBV is associated with higher SVR rates suggesting different cure rates depending on HCV genotype similar to the genotype effects seen previously in chronic HCV under pegIFN/RBV. With pegIFN/RBV still being the gold standard of AHC treatment and in light of cost issues around DAAs and very limited licensed interferon-free DAA treatment options for chronic HCV GT 3 infection AHC GT 3 patients might benefit most from early interferon-containing treatment.

  19. A new HCV genotype 6 subtype designated 6v was confirmed with three complete genome sequences.

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    Wang, Yizhong; Xia, Xueshan; Li, Chunhua; Maneekarn, Niwat; Xia, Wenjie; Zhao, Wenhua; Feng, Yue; Kung, Hsiang Fu; Fu, Yongshui; Lu, Ling

    2009-03-01

    Although hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 6 is classified into 21 subtypes, 6a-6u, new variants continue to be identified. To characterize the full-length genomes of three novel HCV genotype 6 variants: KMN02, KM046 and KM181. From sera of patients with HCV infection, the entire HCV genome was amplified by RT-PCR followed by direct DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The sera contained HCV genomes of 9461, 9429, and 9461nt in length, and each harboured a single ORF of 9051nt. The genomes showed 95.3-98.1% nucleotide similarity to each other and 72.2-75.4% similarity to 23 genotype 6 reference sequences, which represent subtypes 6a-6u and unassigned variants km41 and gz52557. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that they were genotype 6, but were subtypically distinct. Based on the current criteria of HCV classification, they were designed to represent a new subtype, 6v. Analysis of E1 and NS5B region partial sequences revealed two additional related variants, CMBD-14 and CMBD-86 that had been previously reported in northern Thailand and sequences dropped into Genbank. Three novel HCV genotype 6 variants were entirely sequenced and designated subtype 6v.

  20. Spontaneous viral clearance, viral load, and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in HIV-infected patients with anti-HCV antibodies in Europe

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    Soriano, Vincent; Mocroft, Amanda; Rockstroh, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Variables influencing serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels and genotype distribution in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are not well known, nor are factors determining spontaneous clearance after exposure to HCV in this population. METHODS: All HCV...... for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were more likely to have spontaneously cleared HCV than were those negative for HBsAg (43% vs. 21%; aOR, 2.91 [95% CI, 1.94-4.38]). Of patients with HCV viremia, 786 (53%) carried HCV genotype 1, and 53 (4%), 440 (29%), and 217 (15%) carried HCV genotype 2, 3, and 4......, respectively. A greater HCV RNA level was associated with a greater chance of being infected with HCV genotype 1 (aOR, 1.60 per 1 log higher [95% CI, 1.36-1.88]). CONCLUSIONS: More than three-quarters of the HIV- and HCV Ab-positive patients in EuroSIDA showed active HCV replication. Viremia was more frequent...

  1. Active hepatitis C infection and HCV genotypes prevalent among the IDUs of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

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    Uz Zaman Khaleeq

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Injection drug users (IDUs are considered as a high risk group to develop hepatitis C due to needle sharing. In this study we have examined 200 injection drug users from various regions of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province for the prevalence of active HCV infection and HCV genotypes by Immunochromatographic assays, RT-PCR and Type-specific PCR. Our results indicated that 24% of the IDUs were actively infected with HCV while anti HCV was detected among 31.5% cases. Prevalent HCV genotypes were HCV 2a, 3a, 4 and 1a. Majority of the IDUs were married and had attained primary or middle school education. 95% of the IDUs had a previous history of needle sharing. Our study indicates that the rate of active HCV infection among the IDUs is higher with comparatively more prevalence of the rarely found HCV types in KPK. The predominant mode of HCV transmission turned out to be needle sharing among the IDUs.

  2. Maternal hepatitis C (HCV) infection and Anti-D immunoglobulin therapy: study testing antibodies, RNA and Genotype of HCV in Baghdad.

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    Al-Kubaisy, Waqar; Daud, Suzanna; Al-Kubaisi, Mustafa Waseem; Waseem Al-Kubaisi, Omar; Nairan Abdullah, Nik

    2018-04-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious health problem. It is a major contributor to end-stage liver disease. Worldwide, 1-8% of all pregnant women were infected. Women with viral hepatitis may be at an increased risk of pregnancy complications. There are several obstetrics intervention act as risk factors which are specific to women pertaining the HCV infection; anti-D immunoglobulin (Ig) therapy may be one of them. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of HCV antibodies (anti-HCV), RNA, and genotype distribution among women with anti-D Ig therapy. A cross sectional study was conducted. A sample of 154 rhesus negative (Rh -ve) pregnant women regardless of the anti-D Ig therapy was collected. Anti-HCV were tested using third generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA-3) and immunoblot assay (Lia Tek-111), subsequently. In addition, 89 serum samples were subjected to molecular analysis using RT-PCR and DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) method for the detection of HCV-RNA and genotypes. Anti-HCV, and HCV-RNA seroprevalence were significantly higher (17.1, 35.5%) among women with anti-D Ig than their counter group (6.4, 13.16%), p = 0.038, 0.018 respectively. Significant direct positive dose response correlation (r = 0.78, p = 0. p = 0.005) had been seen between number of anti-D Ig therapy and anti-HCV seropositive rate. Anti-D Ig therapy act as a risk factor (odds ratio (OR) = 3.01, 95% C.I: 1.01-8.9) especially from the third dose onward. Women with anti-D Ig therapy were at higher risk (3.6 times more) of positive HCV-RNA (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.19-10.837). Genotype HCV-1b showed higher prevalent (52.9%) among the recipients of anti-D Ig therapy while genotype HCV-3a (6.6%) was the lowest. Our study showed that Anti-D immunoglobulin therapy acts as a risk factor for acquiring HCV infection. Screening for HCV should be recommended for all recipients of anti-D Ig. Not only HCV antibodies but HCV-RNA detection being recommended for the diagnosis of HCV infection. A

  3. A plant-derived flavonoid inhibits entry of all HCV genotypes into human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, Sibylle; Novodomská, Alexandra; Gentzsch, Juliane; Grethe, Christina; Geuenich, Silvia; Bankwitz, Dorothea; Chhatwal, Patrick; Jannack, Beate; Hennebelle, Thierry; Bailleul, Francois; Keppler, Oliver T; Poenisch, Marion; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Hernandez, Céline; Lemasson, Matthieu; Rosenberg, Arielle R; Wong-Staal, Flossie; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth; Pietschmann, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Interferon-based therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are limited by side effects and incomplete response rates, particularly among transplant recipients. We screened a library of plant-derived small molecules to identify HCV inhibitors with novel mechanisms. We isolated phenolic compounds from Marrubium peregrinum L (Lamiaceae). Replication of HCV RNA, virus production, and cell entry were monitored using replicons and infectious HCV. Inhibition of HCV was measured in hepatoma cells and primary human hepatocytes using luciferase reporter gene assays, core enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, or infectivity titration. We tested the bioavailability of the compound in mice. We identified a flavonoid, ladanein (BJ486K), with unreported antiviral activity and established its oral bioavailability in mice. Natural and synthetic BJ486K inhibited a post-attachment entry step, but not RNA replication or assembly; its inhibitory concentration 50% was 2.5 μm. BJ486K was effective against all major HCV genotypes, including a variant that is resistant to an entry inhibitor; it prevented infection of primary human hepatocytes. Combined administration of BJ486K and cyclosporine A had a synergistic effect in inhibition of HCV infection. BJ486K has oral bioavailability and interferes with entry of HCV into cultured human hepatocytes. It synergizes with cyclosporine A to inhibit HCV infection. Its inhibitory effects are independent of HCV genotype, including a variant that is resistant to an entry inhibitor against scavenger receptor class B type I. Flavonoid derivatives therefore might be developed as components of combination therapies because they are potent, broadly active inhibitors of HCV entry that could prevent graft reinfection after liver transplantation. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Short interferon and ribavirin treatment for HCV genotype 2 or 3 infection

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    Waldenström, Jesper; Färkkilä, Martti; Rembeck, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Interferon-free therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is costly, and therefore patients with advanced fibrosis are prioritized. Although coupled with considerable side effects, a large proportion of genotype 2/3 infected patients achieve a sustained virological response (SVR...... predictors, e.g. age, ITPA and IL28B genetic variants, IP-10, liver histopathology and early viral kinetics on outcome was evaluated among HCV genotype 2/3 infected patients enrolled in the NORDynamIC trial. Similarly outcome was evaluated among Finnish and Swedish real-life genotype 2/3 infected patients...... treated for 12-16 weeks in accordance with national guidelines. RESULTS: In the NORDynamIC trial, age HCV RNA 

  5. A multicenter evaluation of the Abbott RealTime HCV genotype II assay

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    Marco Ciotti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Viral genotype is an important determinant of the therapeutical outcome of the chronic hepatitis C and is useful in clinical practice to determine the duration of treatment1.While the viral type shows a clear association with therapeutic success, there is currently no evidence to that effect for HCV subtype, whose value is thus confined to epidemiological studies.The Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay, through the use of Minor Groove Binder probes (MGB is able to distinguish genotypes 1 to 6 (target 5’-UTR region and subtypes 1a and 1b (NS5B region. In four different Italian centers a comparison between the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay and the Versant HCV Genotype 2.0 (LIPA has been performed.A total of 143 non selected samples with the request of HCV genotyping have been analysed. 141/143 samples (98.6% have provided reportable results with both tests (2 indeterminates with LIPA. Concordance at the type level was 96.5% (136/141. Considering the 136 concordant samples, the distribution was as follows: type 1 = 61 (44.9%, 2 = 36 (26.5%, 3 = 21 (15.4%, 4 = 17 (12.5% 5 = 1 (0.7%. Both assays assigned subtype in 56/61 (91.8% samples of genotype 1 (3 and 2 samples only provided the type for LIPA and Abbott, respectively and 50/56 (89.3% had concordant subtype. It is worth to note that 4 of the 5 samples with discordant subtype Abbott 1a/LiPA 1b came from the only center that used for LIPA the 5-UTR amplicon, loosing the benefit of the core region which has been introduced in the version 2 of the test to improve the accuracy in distinguishing between 1a and 1b.There was only one discordant sample at type level (Abbott 4, LIPA 1b which after sequencing and phylogenetic analysis was resolved as type 4. Four mixed infections were detected, 3 with the Abbott test (two 1a+4 and one 1b+3 and 1 with the LIPA test (1a+3. In all cases the comparison test showed a single genotype 1 infection. The new Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay showed a

  6. [Hepatitis C virus genotyping: comparison of the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay and NS5B sequencing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghefi, P; Marchadier, E; Dussaix, E; Roque-Afonso, A-M

    2010-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus genotyping is needed for treatment decision and monitoring. The results of a genotyping assay based on real-time PCR and TaqMan chemistry were compared with the results of NS5B region sequencing. One hundred and two sera (genotypes 1-6) were tested. Amplification and detection of viral RNA were performed with the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay targeting 5'non-coded region (5'NC) for the identification of genotypes 1 to 6 and NS5B, for 1a and 1b subtypes detection. Sequencing of 5'NC fragment was used to resolve discrepant results. No indeterminate results were obtained. Concordance with NS5B sequencing was 93% (95 on 102), 96% at the genotype level (98 on 102) and 93% for genotype 1 subtyping (40 on 43). Discordant genotyping results were a 2f subtype identified as 5, a 6a typed as 1, a 3a identified as a 1-3 co-infection and a 4r identified as a 1-4 co-infection. Discordant subtyping results were 2 1b subtypes only typed as 1 and a 1e identified as 1a. Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay is a rapid, automated and simple to interpret method for HCV genotyping. It allows the detection of possible mixed infections which might have a negative impact on therapeutic response. However, the discrepant results found in this small series underline the need for assay optimization. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential efficacy of protease inhibitors against HCV genotypes 2a, 3a, 5a, and 6a NS3/4A protease recombinant viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottwein, Judith M; Scheel, Troels K H; Jensen, Tanja B

    2011-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype influences efficacy of interferon (IFN)-based therapy. HCV protease inhibitors are being licensed for treatment of genotype 1 infection. Because there are limited or no data on efficacy against HCV genotypes 2-7, we aimed at developing recombinant infectious c...

  8. Temporal changes in HCV genotype distribution in three different high risk populations in San Francisco, California

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    Evans Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV genotype (GT has become an important measure in the diagnosis and monitoring of HCV infection treatment. In the United States (U.S. HCV GT 1 is reported as the most common infecting GT among chronically infected patients. In Europe, however, recent studies have suggested that the epidemiology of HCV GTs is changing. Methods We assessed HCV GT distribution in 460 patients from three HCV-infected high risk populations in San Francisco, and examined patterns by birth cohort to assess temporal trends. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess factors independently associated with GT 1 infection compared to other GTs (2, 3, and 4. Results Overall, GT 1 was predominant (72.4%, however younger injection drug users (IDU had a lower proportion of GT 1 infections (54.7% compared to older IDU and HIV-infected patients (80.5% and 76.6%, respectively. Analysis by birth cohort showed increasing proportions of non-GT 1 infections associated with year of birth: birth before 1970 was independently associated with higher adjusted odds of GT 1: AOR 2.03 (95% CI: 1.23, 3.34. African-Americans as compared to whites also had higher adjusted odds of GT 1 infection (AOR: 3.37; 95% CI: 1.89, 5.99. Conclusions Although, HCV GT 1 remains the most prevalent GT, especially among older groups, changes in GT distribution could have significant implications for how HCV might be controlled on a population level and treated on an individual level.

  9. New insight into HCV E1/E2 region of genotype 4a

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Nehal; Zekri, Abdel-Rahman N; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Alam El-din, Hanaa M; Ghamry, Ahmed Abdelwahab; Amer, Mahmoud A; sherif, Ghada M; Bahnassy, Abeer A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome contains two envelope proteins (E1 and E2) responsible for the virus entry into the cell. There is a substantial lack of sequences covering the full length of E1/E2 region for genotype 4. Our study aims at providing new sequences as well as characterizing the genetic divergence of the E1/E2 region of HCV 4a using our new sequences along with all publicly available datasets. Methods The genomic segments covering the whole E1/E2 region were isolated f...

  10. Low prevalence of HCV infection with predominance of genotype 4 among HIV patients living in Libreville, Gabon.

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    Angélique Ndjoyi-Mbiguino

    Full Text Available Gabon is an endemic area for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV and the risk of co-infection is high.Between November 2015 and April 2016, we conducted retrospective study on HCV infection among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA. A total of 491 PLHA were included in this study and tested for the presence of HCV infection. HIV viral loads were obtained using the Generic HIV viral Load® assay and the CD4+ T cells count was performed using BD FACSCount™ CD4 reagents. HCV screening was performed using the MP Diagnostics HCV ELISA 4.0 kit. HCV genotypes were determined by sequence analysis of NS5B and Core regions. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the groups. Chi-2 test and Fisher's Exact Test were used to compare prevalence.HCV seroprevalence was 2.9% (14/491, (95% confidence interval (CI:1.4-4.3%. The percentage of HCV viremic patients, defined by the detection of HCV RNA in plasma, was 57% (8/14, representing 1.6% of the total population. HCV seroprevalence and replicative infection were not statistically differ with gender. The percentage of co-infection increased with age. No correlation with CD4+ T cells count and HIV viral load level was registered in this study. Identified HCV strains were predominantly of genotype 4 (87.5% including 4k, 4e, 4g, 4p, 4f and 4c subtypes. Only one strain belonged to genotype 2 (subtype 2q. Analysis of the NS5B region did not reveal the presence of resistance-associated substitutions for sofosbuvir.A systematic screening of hepatitis C is therefore strongly recommended as well as genotyping of HCV strains in order to adapt treatments for the specific case of people living with HIV/AIDS in Central Africa.

  11. Differences in HCV viral decline between low and standard-dose pegylated-interferon-alpha-2a with ribavirin in HIV/HCV genotype 3 patients.

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    Antonio Rivero-Juárez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to analyze the different impact of standard and low-dose Peg-IFN-α2a/RBV therapies on HCV viral decline in HIV/HCV genotype 3 co-infected patients during the first weeks of treatment. METHODS: Plasma HCV viral decline was analyzed between baseline and weeks 1, 2 and 4 in two groups of treatment-naïve HCV genotype 3 patients with HIV co-infection. The Standard Dose Group (SDG included patients who received Peg-IFN at 180 µg/per week with a weight-adjusted dose of ribavirin; Low-Dose Group (LDG patients received Peg-IFN at 135 µg/per week with 800 mg/day ribavirin. The effect of IL28B genotype on HCV viral decline was evaluated in both groups. HCV viral decline was analyzed using a multivariate linear regression model. RESULTS: One hundred and six patients were included: 48 patients in the SDG and 58 in the LDG. HCV viral decline for patients in the LDG was less than for those in the SDG (week 1:1.72±0.74 log(10 IU/mL versus 1.78±0.67 log(10 IU/mL, p = 0.827; week 2:2.3±0.89 log(10 IU/mL versus 3.01±1.02 log(10 IU/mL, p = 0.013; week 4:3.52±1.2 log(10 IU/mL versus 4.09±1.1 log(10 IU/mL, p = 0.005. The linear regression model identified the Peg-IFN/RBV dose as an independent factor for HCV viral decline at week 4. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that HCV viral decline was less for patients in the low-dose group compared to those receiving the standard dose. Until a randomized clinical trial is conducted, clinicians should be cautious about using lower doses of Peg-IFN/RBV in HIV/HCV genotype 3 co-infected patients.

  12. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Subgenotypes 1a and 1b in Japanese Patients: Ultra-Deep Sequencing Analysis of HCV NS5B Genotype-Specific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang; Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Jiang, Xia; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Nakatani, Sueli M.; Ono, Suzane Kioko; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Gonoi, Tohru; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) subgenotypes 1a and 1b have different impacts on the treatment response to peginterferon plus ribavirin with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against patients infected with HCV genotype 1, as the emergence rates of resistance mutations are different between these two subgenotypes. In Japan, almost all of HCV genotype 1 belongs to subgenotype 1b. Methods and Findings To determine HCV subgenotype 1a or 1b in Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1, real-time PCR-based method and Sanger method were used for the HCV NS5B region. HCV subgenotypes were determined in 90% by real-time PCR-based method. We also analyzed the specific probe regions for HCV subgenotypes 1a and 1b using ultra-deep sequencing, and uncovered mutations that could not be revealed using direct-sequencing by Sanger method. We estimated the prevalence of HCV subgenotype 1a as 1.2-2.5% of HCV genotype 1 patients in Japan. Conclusions Although real-time PCR-based HCV subgenotyping method seems fair for differentiating HCV subgenotypes 1a and 1b, it may not be sufficient for clinical practice. Ultra-deep sequencing is useful for revealing the resistant strain(s) of HCV before DAA treatment as well as mixed infection with different genotypes or subgenotypes of HCV. PMID:24069214

  13. The need for a sequencing-based assay to supplement the Abbott m2000 RealTime HCV Genotype II assay: a 1 year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedet, Marlin; Adachi, Dena; Wong, Anita; Wong, Sallene; Pabbaraju, Kanti; Tellier, Raymond; Tang, Julian W

    2014-07-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) genotyping is important for treatment planning. The Abbott m2000 RealTime HCV Genotype II assay is a PCR-based assay targeting specific regions of the 5'NCR gene for genotypes 1-6, and the NS5b gene for subgenotypes 1a/1b. However, not all genotypes can be resolved, with results being reported as: 'indeterminate', 'mixed', 'genotype X reactivity with Y', or just the major genotype 1 alone. To assess the supplementary testing required for these unresolved HCV genotypes, these samples were tested further using an in-house core/E1 sequencing assay. The resulting genotypes/subgenotypes were assigned using phylogenetic analysis with reference HCV genotype sequences. Additional testing was conducted using the INNO-LiPA HCV II assay for truly mixed genotypes. Out of 1052 samples tested, 89 (8.5%) underwent further sequencing to determine the HCV genotype: 16 that were 'indeterminate' on the m2000, were mostly genotype 2s and 3s by sequencing; 12 that were 'mixed', were mostly one of the genotypes reported in the mixture; 7 that were 'X reactivity with Y', were usually genotype X; 54 that gave just a major genotype 1 result were mostly 1a, with some 6 and 1b, and a few 1c. For three truly mixed genotypes, additional testing using the VERSANT(®) HCV Genotype Assay (LiPA) 2.0, showed two mixed 1 and 3, and one indistinguishable 6c-6l genotypes. The Abbott m2000 RealTime HCV Genotype II assay can resolve most (∼90%) HCV genotypes. However in 9-10% of cases, to fully resolve the genotype, additional testing is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV Test, Version 2.0, Real-Time PCR Assay Accurately Quantifies Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4 RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Chevaliez, Stéphane; Bouvier-Alias, Magali; Rodriguez, Christophe; Soulier, Alexandre; Poveda, Jean-Dominique; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Accurate hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA quantification is mandatory for the management of chronic hepatitis C therapy. The first-generation Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV test (CAP/CTM HCV) underestimated HCV RNA levels by >1-log10 international units/ml in a number of patients infected with HCV genotype 4 and occasionally failed to detect it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV test, version 2.0 (CAP/CTM HCV v2.0), to accurately quantify H...

  15. Gene expression profiling of HCV genotype 3a initial liver fibrosis and cirrhosis patients using microarray

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    Ahmad Waqar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV causes liver fibrosis that may lead to liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, and may partially depend on infecting viral genotype. HCV genotype 3a is being more common in Asian population, especially Pakistan; the detail mechanism of infection still needs to be explored. In this study, we investigated and compared the gene expression profile between initial fibrosis stage and cirrhotic 3a genotype patients. Methods Gene expression profiling of human liver tissues was performed containing more than 22000 known genes. Using Oparray protocol, preparation and hybridization of slides was carried out and followed by scanning with GeneTAC integrator 4.0 software. Normalization of the data was obtained using MIDAS software and Significant Microarray Analysis (SAM was performed to obtain differentially expressed candidate genes. Results Out of 22000 genes studied, 219 differentially regulated genes found with P ≤ 0.05 between both groups; 107 among those were up-regulated and 112 were down-regulated. These genes were classified into 31 categories according to their biological functions. The main categories included: apoptosis, immune response, cell signaling, kinase activity, lipid metabolism, protein metabolism, protein modulation, metabolism, vision, cell structure, cytoskeleton, nervous system, protein metabolism, protein modulation, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation and transport activity. Conclusion This is the first study on gene expression profiling in patients associated with genotype 3a using microarray analysis. These findings represent a broad portrait of genomic changes in early HCV associated fibrosis and cirrhosis. We hope that identified genes in this study will help in future to act as prognostic and diagnostic markers to differentiate fibrotic patients from cirrhotic ones.

  16. Early quantification of HCV core antigen may help to determine the duration of therapy for chronic genotype 2 or 3 HCV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsiö, A; Jannesson, A; Langeland, N

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen (coreAg) assessment for the identification of candidates for short-term therapy. Plasma samples from HCV genotype 2 or 3-infected patients participating in the NORDynamIC trial (n = 382) comparing 12...... and 24 weeks of combination treatment with pegylated interferon-α2a and a fixed dose of 800 mg ribavirin daily were analyzed for coreAg. Among the 126 patients (33% of the intention-to-treat population) achieving HCV coreAg levels in plasma below 0.2 pg/mL when assayed on treatment day 3, sustained viral...... were 89% and 95%, respectively. Twelve weeks of combination treatment may be sufficient for genotype 2 or 3-infected patients achieving HCV coreAg levels below 0.2 pg/mL by day 3, signaling a rapid clearance of HCV viremia....

  17. Low Efficacy of Pegylated Interferon plus Ribavirin plus Nitazoxanide for HCV Genotype 4 and HIV Coinfection.

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    Juan Macías

    Full Text Available Nitazoxanide (NTZ plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV improved the sustained virological response (SVR achieved with Peg-IFN/RBV in hepatitis C virus genotype 4 (HCV-4-monoinfected patients. There are no data currently on the efficacy of Peg-IFN/RBV plus NTZ for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HCV-4 coinfection. Therefore, the objectives of this clinical trial were to assess the efficacy and to evaluate the safety of Peg-IFN/RBV plus NTZ in HIV/HCV-4-coinfected patients.This was an open-label, single arm, multicenter phase II pilot clinical trial (NCT01529073 enrolling HIV-infected individuals with HCV-4 chronic infection, naïve to HCV therapy. Patients were treated with NTZ 500 mg bid for 4 weeks, followed by NTZ 500 mg bid plus Peg-IFN alpha-2b 1.5 μg/kg/week plus weight-adjusted RBV during 48 weeks. Analyses were done by intention-to-treat (ITT, missing = failure. A historical cohort of HIV/HCV-4-infected patients treated with Peg-IFN alpha-2b and RBV at the same area was used as control.Two (9.5% of 21 patients included in the trial compared with 5 (21.7% of 23 patients included in the historical cohort achieved SVR (SVR risk difference, -12.2%; 95% confidence interval, -33.2% to 8.8%; p = 0.416. Virological failure was due to lack of response in 13 (62% individuals recruited in the trial. Two (9.5% patients included in the trial and two (9.5% individuals from the historical cohort discontinued permanently due to adverse events.No increase in SVR was observed among HIV/HCV-4-coinfected patients receiving Peg-IFN/RBV plus NTZ compared with a historical cohort treated with Peg-IFN/RBV. Interruptions due to adverse events of Peg-IFN/RBV plus NTZ were similar to those of dual therapy.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01529073.

  18. Robust HCV Genotype 3a Infectious Cell Culture System Permits Identification of Escape Variants With Resistance to Sofosbuvir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez Almeida, Santseharay; Mikkelsen, Lotte S.; Gottwein, Judith M.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) effectively eradicate chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, although HCV genotype 3a is less responsive to these drugs. We aimed to develop genotype 3a infectious cultures and study the effects of inhibitors of NS5A and NS5B and resistance...... infected with DBN3a to sofosbuvir led to identification of an escape variant with substitutions in NS5B, including the resistance-associated substitution S282T. This variant showed increased infectivity of Huh7.5 cells, compared with DBN3a, and was genetically stable in cell cultures without sofosbuvir....... Sofosbuvir, MK-3682, dasabuvir, or combinations of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir or sofosbuvir and velpatasvir had decreased efficacy against infection with the DBN3a sofosbuvir escape variant. Conclusions We developed a system for highly efficient culture of HCV genotype 3a. Genotype 1a has a high genetic...

  19. Viral genotype and HLA class II alleles influence on extra-hepatic manifestations of chronic HCV infection

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    M. Galeazzi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test whether an association between HCV genotype, HLA class II alleles distribution and extra-hepatic manifestations (EHM can be demonstrated in a group of Italian patients with chronic HCV infection . Methods: Sixty patients affected by HCV infection with EHM were consecutively enrolled. 163 HCV patients without EHM were tested as controls for the prevalence of HCV genotypes, while we referred to literature as to the controls for HLA distribution. HCV-RNA was quantified by a RT-PCR. HLA class II alleles typing was performed using a standard microlymphocytotoxicity assay. We used chi-square or Fisher test (p<0.05 significant. Odds Ratio (OR was performed by 2X2 contingency table. Results: HCV 2c genotype was found in 63.46% of patients compared to 19.63% of controls (p<0.0001; OR=7.11. Furthermore, it correlated with carpal tunnel syndrome (p=0.03; OR=4.5 and autoimmune thyroiditis (p=0.02; OR=9.2. On the contrary, 1b genotype protected from EHM in toto (p=0.0004; OR=0.21 and particularly from carpal tunnel syndrome (p=0.0014; OR=0.07. Moreover, 3a genotype prevented HCV people from having cryoglobulinemia (p=0.05; OR=0.11. As to HLA, DR6 seemed to facilitate EHM in HCV patients (p=0.041; OR=1.61, while DQ2 (p=0.03; OR=0.5 and DQ3 (p=0.002; OR= 0.5 may play a protective role. In addition, HLA DR3 was associated with cryoglobulinemia (p=0.02; OR=9.5. Conclusions: According to our findings, 2c genotype can be considered as a major risk factor for developing HCVrelated EHM, while 1b genotype seems to prevent their onset; there are also evidences suggesting that HLA might play a role in chronic HCV infected patients.

  20. HCV Genotype 6a Escape from and Resistance to Velpatasvir, Pibrentasvir, and Sofosbuvir in Robust Infectious Cell Culture Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Long; Ramirez Almeida, Santseharay; Gottwein, Judith Margarete

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic liver diseases caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 6 are prevalent in Asia, and millions of people require treatment with direct-acting antiviral regimens, such as NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir combined with the NS5B polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir. We developed...... infectious cell culture models of HCV genotype 6a infection to study the effects of these inhibitors and the development of resistance. METHODS: The consensus sequences of prototype strains HK2 (MG717925) and HK6a (MG717928), originating from serum of patients with chronic HCV infection, were determined...... by Sanger sequencing of genomes amplified by reverse transcription-PCR. In vitro non-infectious full-length clones of these 6a strains were subsequently adapted in Huh7.5 cells, primarily by using substitutions identified in JFH1-based core-NS5A and core-NS5B genotype 6a recombinants. We studied...

  1. Frequency of HCV infection and its genotypes among patients attending a liver clinic and voluntary blood donors in a rural area of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S.Z.; Ali, M.; Muhammad, A.H.; Shaw, S.; Abbas, S.Q.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and its genotypic distribution in a rural area of Sindh, Pakistan. Methodology: Retrospective study of patients attending the Free Liver Clinic (FLC), and investigated for detectable HCV antibodies (n=1638), and those screened for HCV infection prior to voluntary blood donation (n=804) at a teaching hospital, located in rural Sindh. All patients had HCV antibodies tested by ELISA. A total of 1022 patients, who tested 'reactive' to HCV antibodies, and who could financially afford to have HCV RNA tested by PCR, had their results analysed. A total of 200 patients also had their HCV genotyped and analysed. Results: Patients at FLC had a higher chance of being reactive for HCV antibodies, compared to voluntary blood donors (20% VS 14% - p = 0.004). HCV RNA was detectable in 904/1022 (88%) patients. Among type able genotypes, 125/166 (75%) had a single genotype, and 7 patients (4%) were infected with genotype 1, either alone (n=4) or in combination with 3a. Conclusions: One out of every five people tested in our FLC, and 14% of 'healthy' voluntary blood donors were seropositive for HCV antibodies. Genotype 1 is very rare in our region. (author)

  2. Inhibition of core gene of HCV 3a genotype using synthetic and vector derived siRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Saba; Jahan, Shah; Ijaz, Bushra; Ahmad, Waqar; Asad, Sultan; Pervaiz, Asim; Samreen, Baila; Khan, Mahwish; Hassan, Sajida

    2010-11-13

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major causative agent of liver associated diseases throughout the world, with genotype 3a responsible for most of the cases in Pakistan. Due to the limited efficiency of current therapy, RNA interference (RNAi) a novel regulatory and powerful silencing approach for molecular therapeutics through a sequence-specific RNA degradation process represents an alternative option. The current study was purposed to assess and explore the possibility of RNAi to silence the HCV-3a Core gene expression, which play complex role in regulation of cell growth and host genes expression essential for infectivity and disease progression. To identify the potent siRNA target sites, 5 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against Core gene were designed and in vitro transcribed after consensus sequence analysis of different HCV-3a isolates. Antiviral effects of siRNAs showed upto 80% inhibition of Core gene expression by different siRNAs into Huh-7 cells as compared with Mock transfected and control siRNAs treated cells. For long lasting effect of siRNAs, vector based short hairpin siRNAs (shRNAs) were designed and tested against HCV-3a Core which resulted in a similar pattern of inhibition on RNA and protein expression of HCV Core as synthetic siRNAs. Furthermore, the efficacy of cell culture tested siRNA and shRNA, were evaluated for inhibition of HCV replication in HCV infected serum inoculated Huh-7 cells and a significant decrease in HCV viral copy number was observed. Our results support the possibility of using consensus siRNA and shRNA-based molecular therapy as a promising strategy in effective inhibition of HCV-3a genotype.

  3. Serum Islet Cell Autoantibodies During Interferon α Treatment in Patients With HCV-Genotype 4 Chronic Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Badra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease worldwide and HCV genotype 4 (HCV4 is predominant in African and Middle Eastern countries. It is well established that interferon-α (IFNa treatment for HCV may trigger serum autoantibodies against pancreatic islet cells (ICA in a subgroup of patients. Available data on the incidence of ICA during IFNa therapy for chronic HCV4 infection are not conclusive. We investigated the appearance of ICA in 40 naïve Egyptian patients (38 males, 32 ± 6 years with histologically defined chronic HCV4 infection undergoing IFNa treatment at a dose of 9-million U/week for 24 weeks. Serum samples were collected at baseline and following IFNa therapy and ICA were detected using indirect immunofluorescence. Baseline evaluation indicated that 2/40 (5% patients had detectable serum ICA. After the completion of the treatment scheme, 12/38 (32% previously ICA negative patients became ICA positive; however, no patient developed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT or diabetes during follow-up. In conclusion, we submit that IFNa treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC may induce serum ICA in one-third of Egyptian patients with HCV4. These autoantibodies, however, do not lead to alterations in glucose metabolism.

  4. A general method for nested RT-PCR amplification and sequencing the complete HCV genotype 1 open reading frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavis John E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a pathogenic hepatic flavivirus with a single stranded RNA genome. It has a high genetic variability and is classified into six major genotypes. Genotype 1a and 1b cause the majority of infections in the USA. Viral genomic sequence information is needed to correlate viral variation with pathology or response to therapy. However, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of the HCV genome must overcome low template concentration and high target sequence diversity. Amplification conditions must hence have both high sensitivity and specificity yet recognize a heterogeneous target population to permit general amplification with minimal bias. This places divergent demands of the amplification conditions that can be very difficult to reconcile. Results RT and nested PCR conditions were optimized independently and systematically for amplifying the complete open reading frame (ORF from HCV genotype 1a and 1b using several overlapping amplicons. For each amplicon, multiple pairs of nested PCR primers were optimized. Using these primers, the success rate (defined as the rate of production of sufficient DNA for sequencing with any one of the primer pairs for a given amplicon for amplification of 72 genotype 1a and 1b patient plasma samples averaged over 95% for all amplicons. In addition, two sets of sequencing primers were optimized for each genotype 1a and 1b. Viral consensus sequences were determined by directly sequencing the amplicons. HCV ORFs from 72 patients have been sequenced using these primers. Sequencing errors were negligible because sequencing depth was over 4-fold and both strands were sequenced. Primer bias was controlled and monitored through careful primer design and control experiments. Conclusion Optimized RT-PCR and sequencing conditions are useful for rapid and reliable amplification and sequencing of HCV genotype 1a and 1b ORFs.

  5. Correlation between pre-treatment quasispecies complexity and treatment outcome in chronic HCV genotype 3a.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moreau, Isabelle

    2012-02-03

    Pre-treatment HCV quasispecies complexity and diversity may predict response to interferon based anti-viral therapy. The objective of this study was to retrospectively (1) examine temporal changes in quasispecies prior to the start of therapy and (2) investigate extensively quasispecies evolution in a group of 10 chronically infected patients with genotype 3a, treated with pegylated alpha2a-Interferon and ribavirin. The degree of sequence heterogeneity within the hypervariable region 1 was assessed by analyzing 20-30 individual clones in serial serum samples. Genetic parameters, including amino acid Shannon entropy, Hamming distance and genetic distance were calculated for each sample. Treatment outcome was divided into (1) sustained virological responders (SVR) and (2) treatment failure (TF). Our results indicate, (1) quasispecies complexity and diversity are lower in the SVR group, (2) quasispecies vary temporally and (3) genetic heterogeneity at baseline can be use to predict treatment outcome. We discuss the results from the perspective of replicative homeostasis.

  6. The Usefulness of Defining Rapid Virological Response by a Very Sensitive Assay (TMA) during Treatment of HCV Genotype 2/3 Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgard, Olav; Martinot-Peignoux, Michelle; Verbaan, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine in patients with HCV genotype 2 or 3 the performance at week 4 of two assays with different sensitivities for HCV RNA detection, for the prediction of SVR and stratification for treatment duration (14 and 24 weeks). Recruitment was from two trials comparing 14...... and 24 weeks treatment to patients with rapid virological response (RVR) (n = 550). RVR was originally defined as HCV RNA HCV-RNA was prospectively...... measured with COBAS Amplicor V2, Roche (CA) (lower detection limit 50 IU/ml) and retrospectively assessed with VERSANT HCV-RNA Qualitative Assay, Siemens (TMA) (lower limit detection 10 IU/ml). Genotype 3 was present in 80% and genotype 2 in 20%. A SVR was achieved in 82%. At week 4 HCV...

  7. Response rates to standard interferon treatment in HCV genotype 3a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Saleem; Batool, Uzma; Iqbal, Musarrat; Qureshi, Omarah; Kaleem, Rao; Aziz, Hina; Azhar, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Chronic Hepatitis C infection infects almost 130 to 170 million or approximately 2.2-3% of world's population. HCV is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease leading to progressive liver injury, fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver cancer. It is also one of the leading indications for liver transplantation worldwide. The objective of the study was to determine the response of treatment with standard Interferon and Ribazole in treatment naïve Hepatitis C infected patients. This quasi-experimental study was carried out at the Department of Medicine, KRL General Hospital Islamabad, from January 2003 to January 2005. A total of 250 patients were enrolled in this descriptive study. All patients were anti HCV positive, PCR positive for HCV RNA and had 3a genotype. A non-probability purposive sampling technique was applied to collect data. After taking a written and informed consent; specially designed performa containing the patient profile, family transmission, and baseline laboratory values was filled. Patients were treated with a set protocol of Interferon plus Ribavarin therapy (IFN alpha 2a, 3 mIU thrice weekly for 24 weeks plus Ribavarin 1,000 to 1,200 mg/day) for six months. Chi-Square tests were used to analyse the data. Primary end point was a sustained virological response (SVR) that is response assessed after six months of completion of treatment. Response rates to standard Interferon plus Ribazole therapy were studied over two years period. Out of the total of 250 patients, 60 patients were excluded; as 30 patients did not meet inclusion criteria, 23 patients were lost to follow. Seven patients declined treatment. Out of the 190 patients, 155 (81.6%) achieved End of Treatment Complete Response (EOTCR) whereas 35 (18.4%) were nonresponders (NR). These 155 patients, who showed complete response were followed for six months after the treatment to assess sustained viral response, which was seen in 112 (72.25%) patients whereas 43 (27.7%) were relapsers

  8. Genetic History of Hepatitis C Virus in Venezuela: High Diversity and Long Time of Evolution of HCV Genotype 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulbarán, Maria Z.; Di Lello, Federico A.; Sulbarán, Yoneira; Cosson, Clarisa; Loureiro, Carmen L.; Rangel, Héctor R.; Cantaloube, Jean F.; Campos, Rodolfo H.; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Cristina, Juan; Pujol, Flor H.

    2010-01-01

    Background The subtype diversity of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes is unknown in Venezuela. Methodology/Principal Findings Partial sequencing of the NS5B region was performed in 310 isolates circulating in patients from 1995 to 2007. In the samples collected between 2005 and 2007, HCV genotype 1 (G1) was the most common genotype (63%), composed as expected of mainly G1a and G1b. G2 was the second most common genotype (33%), being G2a almost absent and G2j the most frequent subtype. Sequence analysis of the core region confirmed the subtype assignment performed within the NS5b region in 63 isolates. The complete genome sequence of G2j was obtained. G2j has been described in France, Canada and Burkina Fasso, but it was not found in Martinique, where several subtypes of G2 circulate in the general population. Bayesian coalescence analysis indicated a most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of G2j around 1785, before the introduction of G1b (1869) and G1a (1922). While HCV G1a and G1b experienced a growth reduction since 1990, coincident with the time when blood testing was implemented in Venezuela, HCV G2j did not seem to reach growth equilibrium during this period. Conclusions/Significance Assuming the introduction of G2j from Africa during the slave trade, the high frequency of G2j found in Venezuela could suggest: 1- the introduction of African ethnic groups different from the ones introduced to Martinique or 2- the occurrence of a founder effect. This study represents an in-depth analysis of the subtype diversity of HCV in Venezuela, which is still unexplored in the Americas and deserves further studies. PMID:21179440

  9. The New Aptima HCV Quant Dx Real-time TMA Assay Accurately Quantifies Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1-6 RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevaliez, Stéphane; Dubernet, Fabienne; Dauvillier, Claude; Hézode, Christophe; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2017-06-01

    Sensitive and accurate hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA detection and quantification is essential for the management of chronic hepatitis C therapy. Currently available platforms and assays are usually batched and require at least 5hours of work to complete the analyses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the newly developed Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay that eliminates the need for batch processing and automates all aspects of nucleic acid testing in a single step, to accurately detect and quantify HCV RNA in a large series of patients infected with different HCV genotypes. The limit of detection was estimated to be 2.3 IU/mL. The specificity of the assay was 98.6% (95% confidence interval: 96.1%-99.5%). Intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation ranged from 0.09% to 5.61%, and 1.05% to 3.65%, respectively. The study of serum specimens from patients infected with HCV genotypes 1 to 6 showed a satisfactory relationship between HCV RNA levels measured by the Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay, and both real-time PCR comparators (Abbott RealTime HCV and Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV Test, version 2.0, assays). the new Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay is rapid, sensitive, reasonably specific and reproducible and accurately quantifies HCV RNA in serum samples from patients with chronic HCV infection, including patients on antiviral treatment. The Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay can thus be confidently used to detect and quantify HCV RNA in both clinical trials with new anti-HCV drugs and clinical practice in Europe and the US. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Recombinant HCV variants with NS5A from genotypes 1-7 have different sensitivities to an NS5A inhibitor but not interferon-a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Troels K H; Gottwein, Judith M; Mikkelsen, Lotte S

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein NS5A influences its sensitivity to interferon-based therapy. Furthermore, NS5A is an important target for development of HCV-specific inhibitors. We aimed to develop recombinant infectious cell culture systems that express NS5A from isolates...... of the 7 major HCV genotypes, and determining their sensitivity to a specific NS5A inhibitor and to interferon-a....

  11. Vitamin D Receptor FokI Gene Polymorphism Predicted Poor Response to Treatment in Chronic HCV Genotype 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Shehab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between a genetic polymorphism of the vitamin D receptor (VDR and antiviral responses in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 4 (HCV-4. Methods: Our study enrolled 100 HCV-4 patients who received pegylated interferon alpha-2a (pegIFNα-2a and ribavirin for 48 weeks. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their response to therapy: 50 were responders, and 50 were non-responders. All HCV-4 patients were further subjected to the following laboratory tests: HCV-RNA using quantitative PCR, vitamin D level using ELISA and VDR genotype using PCR-RFLP assays, and abdominal ultrasonography. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of the VDR polymorphism (FokI rs10735810 between responders (FF: 60%, Ff: 16%, ff: 24% and non-responders (FF: 10%, Ff: 26%, ff: 64% (P<0.001. There was a statistically significant association between VDR polymorphism with higher ALT levels (ff: 63.2±30.8, Ff: 48.5±19.5, FF: 54.4±10.8 U/L, p=0.04 and higher alkaline phosphatase levels (ff: 102.6±53.2, Ff: 100.3±66.4, FF: 68.3±29.4 U/L, P=0.007. VDR polymorphism showed no association with baseline vitamin D levels (P=0.21. Conclusion: VDR polymorphism plays a role in the treatment response of HCV and the modification of disease progression in Egyptians infected with chronic HCV-4.

  12. Role of IL-28B polymorphisms in virologic response to combined pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy in genotype 4 chronic HCV infected patients with and without cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Youssef Shaala

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: In Egypt, where chronic HCV genotype 4 and schistosoma coinfection predominate, both schistosoma infection and cirrhosis are more potent than IL28B polymorphisms as strong baseline negative predictors of hepatitis C treatment response.

  13. Performance of two Real-Time RT-PCR assays for quantitation of hepatitis C virus RNA: evaluation on HCV genotypes 1-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkady, Abeer; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Kurbanov, Fuat; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Sugiyama, Masaya; Khan, Anis; Ali, Elsayed Mostafa; Mouhamed, Layla; Abou el-fetouh, Sahar; AbdEl-Hameed, AbdEl-Rahaman; Mizokami, Masashi

    2010-11-01

    Accuracy for monitoring of the concentration of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA represents a major challenge throughout the management of patients with chronic hepatitis C. To investigate the genotype-independent efficiency and the accuracy of two real-time detection reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays; the Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas TaqMan (CAP/CTM); and the Abbott RealTime HCV (ART), a total of 184 samples with different HCV subtypes were examined; 1b (n=58), 2a (n=39), 2b (n=26), 3a (n=20), and 4 (n=41). A robust linear correlation was observed between the two assays applied to genotypes 1b, 2a, 2b, and 3a [the correlation coefficient (R) ranged from 0.99 to 0.98], but not to genotype 4 specimens (R=0.78). A significant difference in measurements of HCV RNA using CAP/CTM and ART in serum samples with genotypes 1b and 4 was observed (0.72, -0.53 log IU/ml, PHCV core antigen and HCV RNA values by either of the HCV RNA quantitation assays applied to all genotypes with exception of genotype 4, for which R was higher with ART (R=0.95) than with CAP/CTM (R=0.80). The lower limit of detection of CAP/CTM and ART were 41.4 and 28.5 IU/ml using the WHO standards, respectively. In conclusion, two RT-PCR assays had a high efficiency and accuracy for quantitation of HCV RNA of genotypes 2a, 2b, and 3a, but the mean values of HCV RNA differed for genotype 1b and 4. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. No correlation between PNPLA3 rs738409 genotype and fatty liver and hepatic cirrhosis in Japanese patients with HCV.

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    Masato Nakamura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is associated with the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and is also related to fatty change of the liver. Variation in patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3 gene is associated with disease progression in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Recent reports have suggested that PNPLA3, IL28B and TLR4-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may have an impact on hepatic steatosis or fibrosis in patients with chronic HCV infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Four SNPs (PNPLA3 rs738409, TLR4 rs4986790, TLR4 rs4986791, IL28B rs8099917 were identified in Japanese patients infected with HCV. We examined the association between the distribution of these SNP alleles and fatty change of the liver or existence of hepatic cirrhosis diagnosed by ultrasonography, one of the widely accessible and easy-to-use methods. PNPLA3 rs738409 G-allele and IL28B rs 8099917 minor allele were found in 70.0% and 31.1%, respectively. These two TLR4 SNPs were uniform in Japanese. Fatty change of the liver developed independent of the abscence of hepatic cirrhosis on sonographic findings and younger age. Hepatic cirrhosis was associated with a higher aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index (APRI, no fatty change of the liver, higher BMI and higher AFP levels. No association between PNPLA3 rs738409/IL28B rs8099917 genotypes and hepatic steatosis or liver fibrosis was observed. CONCLUSIONS: According to ultrasound examinations, no association between PNPLA3 rs738409 genotype and fatty change of the liver or hepatic cirrhosis was found in Japanese patients infected with HCV. Together, our results suggested that the mechanism of hepatic steatosis underlying HCV infection might differ from that of NAFLD and should be explored.

  15. Test of IL28B polymorphisms in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with PegIFN and ribavirin depends on HCV genotypes: results from a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Jia

    Full Text Available Many studies have been published on the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP near the IL28B gene and response to the combined treatments of pegylated-interferon (PegIFN and ribavirin (RBV in chronic HCV-infected patients, but without identical conclusions. The aim of this study was to assess impact of the IL28B polymorphisms on the effect of HCV standard treatment using meta-analysis based method.Association studies between polymorphisms of rs12979860 or rs8099917 and response to PegIFN/RBV treatment in chronic HCV patients were retrieved from PubMed. Data of qualified studies on sustained virological response (SVR in different genotypes were extracted and analyzed using meta-analysis method in Stata 10 software.Thirty-four papers, containing 46 independent studies, were included in the analysis. In the HCV G1/4 patients without treatment history, individuals carrying rs12979860 CC genotype were more likely to achieve SVR (OR 3.97, 95%CI 3.29-4.80 compared to those carrying CT/TT genotypes. Similar results were observed in the HCV G1/4 patients with unsuccessful or unknown treatment history (OR 3.76, 95%CI 2.67-5.28 or in the patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (OR 5.20, 95%CI 3.04-8.90. However, associations could not be observed in HCV G2/3 patients. For rs8099917, similar results were obtained for genotype TT compared to genotypes TG/GG, indicating that TT genotype was significantly associated with better treatment response in patients infected with genotype 1 or 4 HCV, but not genotype 2 or 3 HCV.Polymorphisms of rs12979860 and rs8099917 near IL28B only associate with the treatment response to PegIFN/RBV in patients infected with HCV genotype 1 or 4 but not with genotype 2 or 3, irrespective of the previous treatment history or HIV co-infected status. Therefore, identification of IL28B genotypes is necessary only in patients infected with relatively difficult-to-treat genotype 1 or 4 HCV.

  16. Serum HCV RNA level is not associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in chronic hepatitis C patients with genotype 1 or 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao-Chun; Chuang, Chia-Sheng; Hsieh, Yung-Yu; Chang, Te-Sheng; Wei, Kuo-Liang; Shen, Chien-Heng; Wu, Cheng-Shyong; Tung, Shui-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Previous reports have indicated that insulin resistance (IR) is associated with chronic hepatits C virus (HCV) infection. However, the correlations between IR, metabolic syndrome (MS), and serum HCV RNA levels are still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between IR, MS, and HCV RNA in patients with chronic genotype 1 or 2 HCV infection. One hundred and twenty subjects with chronic genotype 1 or 2 HCV infection with complete clinical data were prospectively enrolled. Baseline and laboratory data were collected and analyzed. IR was defined as a homeostatic model assessment- IR (HOMA-IR) score > 2.5. Of the 120 patients, 47 (39.2%) had a HOMA-IR > 2.5, and 42 (35%) met the criteria for MS. IR was significantly associated with a high body mass index (p virus on IR is not dose responsive.

  17. Genotypes of HBV and HCV among HIV-1 co-infected individuals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses are the major causes of liver disease worldwide. Co-infections with HBV and HCV have turned out to be increasingly very common among people living with HIV, leading to a major public health concern. Objective: To determine HBV and HCV diversity among HIV infected ...

  18. EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF ANTIVIRAL THERAPY FOR CHRONIC HEPATITIS C, CAUSED BY HCV GENOTYPE 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lioznov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evaluating the effectiveness of 2 therapeutic schemes for chronic hepatitis C (genotype 6 which combined sofosbuvir and ribavirin, one of them also included pegylated interferon. Materials and methods: The study included 110 patients with chronic hepatitis C (genotype 6, who have undergone antiviral therapy (HTP in Hepatology Clinic inHo Chi Minh City,Vietnamfrom November 2015 to July 2016. 24 patients were treated by Pegylated interferon alfa-2a, ribavirin and sofosbuvir for 12 weeks, 86 patients – by sofosbuvir and ribavirin for 24 weeks. Non-interferon regimen was administered primarily to patients with contraindications to the use of interferon. To monitor the effectiveness of antiviral therapy, quantification of HCV RNA in serum was performed by PCR prior to treatment, at 4th, 12th or 24th week (depending on the observation group from the starting of treatment and at 12th, 24th week after completion of treatment. Results: All patients, who were treated with pegylated interferon, ribavirin and sofosbuvir, completed the full course of treatment and 100% of them are registered with sustained virological response at 12th and 24th week after the end of antiviral therapy (SVR-12 and SVR-24, respectively. In the group of patients, who treated with ribavirin and sofosbuvir, 97,7% of patients completed full course of treatment (SVR-12 was registered in 93% of patients, and SVR-24 – in 91,9% of patients. Of 75 patients without a history of HCC, SVR24 was registered in 74 people (98,7%, of 11 patients with HCC – in 5 patients (45,5%. SVR-24 was registered in 98% of patients with cirrhosis (F4 without HCC. Conclusion: The results can serve as a justification for the use of these schemes of antiviral therapy for special groups of patients and/or conditions when it is impossible to follow the latest recommendations, which will help to expand the access of patients to effective antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C.

  19. Evaluation of the Abbott realtime HCV genotype II RUO (GT II) assay with reference to 5'UTR, core and NS5B sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Melanie A; Lucic, Danijela X; Sears, Mitchell T; Cloherty, Gavin A; Hillyard, David R

    2014-05-01

    HCV genotyping is a critical tool for guiding initiation of therapy and selecting the most appropriate treatment regimen. To evaluate the concordance between the Abbott GT II assay and genotyping by sequencing subregions of the HCV 5'UTR, core and NS5B. The Abbott assay was used to genotype 127 routine patient specimens and 35 patient specimens with unusual subtypes and mixed infection. Abbott results were compared to genotyping by 5'UTR, core and NS5B sequencing. Sequences were genotyped using the NCBI non-redundant database and the online genotyping tool COMET. Among routine specimens, core/NS5B sequencing identified 93 genotype 1s, 13 genotype 2s, 15 genotype 3s, three genotype 4s, two genotype 6s and one recombinant specimen. Genotype calls by 5'UTR, core, NS5B sequencing and the Abbott assay were 97.6% concordant. Core/NS5B sequencing identified two discrepant samples as genotype 6 (subtypes 6l and 6u) while Abbott and 5'UTR sequencing identified these samples as genotype 1 with no subtype. The Abbott assay subtyped 91.4% of genotype 1 specimens. Among the 35 rare specimens, the Abbott assay inaccurately genotyped 3k, 6e, 6o, 6q and one genotype 4 variant; gave indeterminate results for 3g, 3h, 4r, 6m, 6n, and 6q specimens; and agreed with core/NS5B sequencing for mixed specimens. The Abbott assay is an automated HCV genotyping method with improved accuracy over 5'UTR sequencing. Samples identified by the Abbott assay as genotype 1 with no subtype may be rare subtypes of other genotypes and thus require confirmation by another method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/r and dasabuvir plus ribavirin in HCV genotype 1-infected patients on methadone or buprenorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalezari, Jacob; Sullivan, J Greg; Varunok, Peter; Galen, Edward; Kowdley, Kris V; Rustgi, Vinod; Aguilar, Humberto; Felizarta, Franco; McGovern, Barbara; King, Martin; Polepally, Akshanth R; Cohen, Daniel E

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with a history of injection drug use have low rates of initiation and completion of interferon-based therapies. This study evaluated efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of a 12-week all-oral regimen of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir+ribavirin in HCV genotype 1-infected patients on stable opioid replacement therapy. This was a phase II, multicenter, open-label, single-arm study in treatment-naïve or peginterferon/ribavirin treatment-experienced HCV genotype 1-infected patients on methadone or buprenorphine±naloxone. Patients received 12weeks of co-formulated ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir (25mg/150mg/100mg once daily) and dasabuvir (250mg twice daily)+weight-based ribavirin. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks post-treatment. Thirty-eight non-cirrhotic patients on chronic methadone (n=19) or buprenorphine (n=19) were enrolled. A total of 37 patients (97.4%) had a sustained virologic response 12 weeks post-treatment. No patient had a viral breakthrough or relapse. One patient discontinued due to serious adverse events unrelated to study drug (cerebrovascular accident and sarcoma). The most frequent adverse events were nausea, fatigue, and headache. Eight patients had on-treatment hemoglobin concentrations buprenorphine on ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, dasabuvir, or dasabuvir M1 metabolite exposures. No dose adjustments of methadone or buprenorphine were required. The interferon-free regimen of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir+ribavirin for 12weeks was well tolerated and achieved sustained virologic response in 97.4% of patients on opioid substitution therapy in this study. This all-oral regimen may provide an effective alternative to interferon-based therapies for HCV-infected patients with a history of injection drug use. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Different hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA load profiles following seroconversion among injecting drug users without correlation with HCV genotype and serum alanine aminotransferase levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beld, M.; Penning, M.; McMorrow, M.; Gorgels, J.; van den Hoek, A.; Goudsmit, J.

    1998-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection often persists in association with chronic hepatitis. Different factors have been proposed to determine the clinical outcome of HCV infection. The aim of this study was to examine three different factors of HCV infection among injecting drug users. Nineteen

  2. Design, synthesis and identification of silicon-containing HCV NS5A inhibitors with pan-genotype activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baomin; Gai, Kuo; Qin, Hui; Liu, Xushi; Cao, Yuan; Lu, Qin; Lu, Dandan; Chen, Deyang; Shen, Hengqiao; Song, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xiaojin; Xu, Hongjiang; Zhang, Yinsheng

    2018-03-25

    Modification of a HCV NS5A inhibitor, ombitasvir, led to the identification of 10d with improved pan-genotype NS5A inhibition and better pharmacokinetic properties. The key structural changes to ombitasvir include bioisosteric replacement of carbon with silicon atom. Compared with ombitasvir, the activity of anti-HCV genotypes (GT 1 to 6) of 10d is increased to some extent, especially the inhibitory activity against genotype 3a and 6a is increased by more than seven times, and the dog's in vivo pharmacokinetics properties were also superior to ombitasvir. Further drug evaluation showed that 10d was similar to ombitasvir on plasma protein binding and liver distribution profiles, with no cytotoxicity and no inhibitory effect on both CYP 450 and hERG ligand binding. However, permeability assay results indicated that 10d was not the substrate of P-gp or BCRP transporter, which is different from that of ombitasvir. The results of a 14-day repeat-dose toxicity study identified no toxicity with 10d. Our findings in preclinical tests suggest that the silicon-containing compound 10d could be worthy of continued study as a potential drug candidate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Dasabuvir (ABT333) for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype I: a new face of cure, an expert review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantry, Parvez S; Pathak, Lakshmikant

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects nearly 1.3% of US population and around 2% of people worldwide. It is associated with serious complication of Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular carcinoma leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Until now the only treatment option for this serious disease was interferon based therapy which had poor tolerance and at best SVR (Sustained virological response) in only 50% of cases. With the introduction of other direct - acting antiviral agents the treatment of HCV has been revolutionized with significantly high rates of cure. Among novel Direct acting antivirals are non-nucleoside inhibitor NS5B which is highly effective in treatment of HCV genotype 1 a and 1b including those with compensated cirrhosis achieving high cure rates with SVR more than 97 % in pooled analysis from six different phase 3 trials. This review will discuss the DAA - Dasabuvir, a non - nucleoside NS5B inhibitor, its mechanism of action, efficacy, safety & tolerance, and drug resistance. Dasabuvir is approved by FDA in combination with other DAA agents called as the 3D(Viekira Pak) in various interferon free regimens achieving high cure rates (SVR >95%) with low adverse effects. In Europe, it is approved by European medicines agency for use in combination with Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir, and ritonavir with or without ribavirin. The drug is used in treatment naive as well as previously treated patient with high success rates. It is also approved in patients with compensated cirrhosis, patients with HIV co-infection and liver transplant recipients which were in the past were excluded from treatment with interferon based therapy. Dasabuvir is extensively evaluated in large clinical trials and shown excellent SVR among HCV genotype1 patient population in combination with other oral DAAs, with good safety profile and tolerance. Its drawback is its genotype restriction, need for ribavirin (RBV) for 1a genotype, low resistance barrier and high cost. It is well tolerated

  4. HBV And HCV Molecular Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor H. Pujol

    2007-02-01

    hepatitis C virus (HCV. Six genotypes and a large number of subtypes in each genotype have been described for this member of the Flaviviridae family. Infections with HCV genotype 1 are associated with the lowest therapeutic success. HCV genotype 1b has also been more frequently associated with a more severe liver disease. However, this association seems to be due to the fact that individuals infected with this genotype have a longer mean duration of infection. HCV genotypes 1, 2, and 3 have a worldwide distribution and display an apidemic pattern of distribution. HCV subtypes 1a and 1b are the most common genotypes in the United States and are also are predominant in Europe, while in Japan, subtype 1b is predominant. Although HCV subtypes 2a and 2b are relatively common in America, Europe, and Japan, subtype 2c is found commonly in northern Italy. HCV genotype 3a is frequent in intravenous drug abusers in Europe and the United States. HCV genotype 4 appears to be prevalent in Africa and theMiddle East, and genotypes 5 and 6 seem to be confined to South Africa and Asia, respectively. These last genotypes display an endemic pattern of distribution. In addition, a change in the frequency of the prevailing genotypes has been described in several countries: in general, HCV genotype 1b is being displaced by genotypes 3a and/or 2. Coalescent studies have allowed to describe the epidemic pattern of dissemination of some HCV subtypes in specific countries, generally around 100 years ago. The origin of this virus is still an open question, but several studies traces it diversification only around 1,000 years ago.

    The replication of HCV is dependent on a RNA-polymerase RNA dependent which lacks proofreading activity, which confers to this virus a high rate of variability. This virus circulates as a quasispecies. This population dynamic inside a single strain confers to this virus the ability to

  5. Hepatitis B, C and D virus genotypes detected in HBsAg- or anti-HCV-positive people from the Republic of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Ala; Gheorgita, Stela; Spinu, Constantin; Pinzaru, Iurie; Halacu, Ala; Sajen, Octavian; Suveica, Luminița; Sausy, Aurélie; Muller, Claude P; Hübschen, Judith M

    2018-02-01

    In the Republic of Moldova, little is known about hepatitis B, C and D virus (HBV, HCV, HDV) genotypes, although the genetic variant may influence the course and outcome of disease. For HBV genotyping, 301 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive sera collected in 2010 and 2011 from drug users, prison inmates, commercial sex workers, and the general population in different geographical regions were investigated. The 31 HBsAg-positive sera collected in 2011 were also tested for HDV. Eighty-eight anti-HCV-positive sera collected between 2010 and 2011 from the general population and health care workers were used for HCV genotyping. Phylogenetic analysis of 84 HBV sequences showed that most of the viruses belonged to genotype D (n = 82, 97.6%), predominantly to the subgenotype D1/D2 cluster (n = 75/82, 91.5%). One sequence (74110) clustered as an outlier to this cluster, and six sequences belonged to subgenotype D3. Only two subgenotype A2 sequences were found. Cloning of six samples with ambiguous sequence chromatogram signals showed no mixed infections. Phylogenetic analysis of HCV sequences from 66 patients showed a predominance of subtype 1b (n = 63, 95.5%). Two sequences belonged to subtype 3a, and one to subtype 2a. HDV RNA belonging to genotype 1 was found in two sera (2/31, 6.5%). Thus, genotypes prevalent in Europe were detected for all three hepatitis viruses. For both HBV and HCV, one genotype was dominant, while occasional other variants seem to be restricted to certain cohorts and/or transmission routes.

  6. Evaluation of the Abbott RealTime HCV genotype II plus RUO (PLUS) assay with reference to core and NS5B sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Melanie A; Lucic, Danijela; Ebbert, Mark T W; Cloherty, Gavin A; Toolsie, Dan; Hillyard, David R

    2017-05-01

    HCV genotyping remains a critical tool for guiding initiation of therapy and selecting the most appropriate treatment regimen. Current commercial genotyping assays may have difficulty identifying 1a, 1b and genotype 6. To evaluate the concordance for identifying 1a, 1b, and genotype 6 between two methods: the PLUS assay and core/NS5B sequencing. This study included 236 plasma and serum samples previously genotyped by core/NS5B sequencing. Of these, 25 samples were also previously tested by the Abbott RealTime HCV GT II Research Use Only (RUO) assay and yielded ambiguous results. The remaining 211 samples were routine genotype 1 (n=169) and genotype 6 (n=42). Genotypes obtained from sequence data were determined using a laboratory-developed HCV sequence analysis tool and the NCBI non-redundant database. Agreement between the PLUS assay and core/NS5B sequencing for genotype 1 samples was 95.8% (162/169), with 96% (127/132) and 95% (35/37) agreement for 1a and 1b samples respectively. PLUS results agreed with core/NS5B sequencing for 83% (35/42) of unselected genotype 6 samples, with the remaining seven "not detected" by the PLUS assay. Among the 25 samples with ambiguous GT II results, 15 were concordant by PLUS and core/NS5B sequencing, nine were not detected by PLUS, and one sample had an internal control failure. The PLUS assay is an automated method that identifies 1a, 1b and genotype 6 with good agreement with gold-standard core/NS5B sequencing and can aid in the resolution of certain genotype samples with ambiguous GT II results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine comprising envelope glycoproteins gpE1/gpE2 derived from a single isolate elicits broad cross-genotype neutralizing antibodies in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, John Lok Man; Chen, Chao; Wong, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Although a cure for HCV is on the near horizon, emerging drug cocktails will be expensive, associated with side-effects and resistance making a global vaccine an urgent priority given the estimated high incidence of infection around the world. Due to the highly heterogeneous nature of HCV...... genotypes. Although observed in only a minority of vaccinees, our results prove the key concept that a vaccine derived from a single strain of HCV can elicit broad cross-neutralizing antibodies against all known major genotypes of HCV and provide considerable encouragement for the further development......, an effective HCV vaccine which could elicit broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies has represented a major challenge. In this study, we tested for the presence of cross-neutralizing antibodies in human volunteers who were immunized with recombinant glycoproteins gpE1/gpE2 derived from a single HCV strain (HCV1...

  8. Pre-treatment predictors of response for assessing outcomes to standard treatment in infection with HCV genotype 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Saleem; Batool, Uzma; Iqbal, Mussarat; Burki, Umar Farooq; Khan, Naqeeb Ullah

    2011-02-01

    To determine the role of pre-treatment predictors of response in assessing outcomes to standard treatment in HCV genotype 3. Observational study. Department of Medicine, KRL General Hospital, Islamabad, from December 2004 to December 2006. All patients with positive anti-HCV and PCR genotype 3a were recruited and written and informed consent was taken. Patients were treated with standard Interferon plus Ribavirin therapy (IFN alpha-2a, 3MU t.i.w 24 weeks plus Ribavirin 1000-1200 mg/day) for 6 months. The effect of pre-treatment factors influencing outcome i.e. age, gender, weight, baseline ALT, necroinflammatory grade, fibrosis and steatosis on the final outcome were further analyzed by univariate logistic regression analysis. Response rates to standard Interferon plus Ribazole therapy were studied in 190 patients. The end-of-treatment complete response (EOTCR) was seen in 81% (n=155) of the patients, whereas 17% (n=33) were non-responders (NR). Sustained viral response (SVR) was seen in 58% (n=112) patients and 24% (n=45) were relapsers. SVR was higher in patients without steatosis (OR=2.52, 95% CI=1.356- 4.71, p=0.04). Higher SVR was seen in patients weighing less than 65 kg, as compared with weight>65 kg (OR=2.277, 95% CI=1.246-4.161, p=0.007). The other variables were not found to be significantly associated with improved SVRs. Out of the studied predictors, body weight and presence of steatosis, were statistically related to treatment outcome. Pre-treatment host factors can predict response to treatment that can help in individualizing treatment and patient selection and optimize treatment outcomes.

  9. MicroRNA-122 antagonism against hepatitis C virus genotypes 1-6 and reduced efficacy by host RNA insertion or mutations in the HCV 5' UTR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Gottwein, Judith; Scheel, Troels Kasper Høyer

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is believed to stimulate hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication through interaction with two adjacent sites downstream of stem loop I (SLI) within the HCV 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). Recently, it was demonstrated that locked nucleic acid SPC3649-induced miR-122 antagonism......, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 4a, 5a, and 6a with efficient growth in Huh7.5 cells. Deletion mutagenesis studies demonstrated that the 5' UTR SLI was essential for genotypes 1-6 infection. However, lack of SLI could be compensated for by insertion of other structured HCV or host RNA sequences, including U3 small...... nucleolar RNA. We demonstrated that SPC3649-induced miR-122 antagonism had a potent antiviral effect against HCV genotypes 1-6 5' UTR-NS2 viruses. Strikingly, HCV recombinant virus with substitution of SLI and miR-122 binding site 1 (S1) by the U3 RNA sequence was not affected by miR-122 antagonism...

  10. Analysis of in vitro replicated human hepatitis C virus (HCV for the determination of genotypes and quasispecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelyapov Nickolas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Isolation and self-replication of infectious HCV has been a difficult task. However, this is needed for the purposes of developing rational drugs and for the analysis of the natural virus. Our recent report of an in vitro system for the isolation of human HCV from infected patients and their replication in tissue culture addresses this challenge. At California Institute of Molecular Medicine several isolates of HCV, called CIMM-HCV, were grown for over three years in cell culture. This is a report of the analysis of CIMM-HCV isolates for subtypes and quasispecies using a 269 bp segment of the 5'UTR. HCV RNA from three patients and eleven CIMM-HCV were analyzed for this purpose. All isolates were essentially identical. Isolates of HCV from one patient were serially transmitted into fresh cells up to eight times and the progeny viruses from each transmission were compared to each other and also to the primary isolates from the patient's serum. Some isolates were also transmitted to different cell types, while others were cultured continuously without retransmission for over three years. We noted minor sequence changes when HCV was cultured for extended periods of time. HCV in T-cells and non-committed lymphoid cells showed a few differences when compared to isolates obtained from immortalized B-cells. These viruses maintained close similarity despite repeated transmissions and passage of time. There were no subtypes or quasispecies noted in CIMM-HCV.

  11. Usefulness of Dried Blood Spots (DBS) to perform hepatitis C virus genotyping in drug users in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, O; Gozlan, J; Diop-Ndiaye, H; Sall, A S; Chapelain, S; Leprêtre, A; Maynart, M; Gueye, M; Lo, G; Thiam, M; Ba, I; Lacombe, K; Girard, P M; Mboup, S; Kane, C T

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to analyze the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genotypes circulating in Senegal among Drug User (DUs), using Dried Blood Spots (DBS) as RNA source for molecular assays. Heroin and/or cocaine users (n = 506) were recruited in Dakar from April to July 2011, using a Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) method. DBS preparation consisted of five drops of whole blood from finger applied to a Whatman paper card. HCV infection was screened by the detection of anti-HCV antibodies, using a rapid immune-chromatographic test. HCV RNA was quantified on anti-HCV positive DBS, using the Abbott RealTime HCV® Genotyping was performed on DBS with detectable viral load with Versant® HCV Genotype 2.0 Assay (LiPA) and Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay®. Among the 506 participants, 120 were tested as positive for anti-HCV antibodies and their samples were analyzed for HCV RNA viral load and genotype. Out of the 120 DBS tested, HCV RNA was detected on 25 (20.8%). The median viral load was 15,058 IU/ml (ranging from 710 to 766,740 IU/ml). All positive DBS were suitable for the genotyping assay, that showed a predominance of genotype 1 (21/25) including 16 genotypes 1a and 5 genotypes 1b. HCV genotype 1 prevails in a DU population in Dakar. DBS could be useful for HCV RNA genotyping, but optimal storage conditions should required avoiding RNA impairment. Acknowledging this limitation, DBS could be a great interest for detecting and genotyping HCV viremic patients. J. Med. Virol. 89:484-488, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Rapid virological response of telaprevir and boceprevir in a Brazilian cohort of HCV genotype 1 patients: a multicenter longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borba HHL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Helena HL Borba,1 Astrid Wiens,1 Laiza M Steimbach,1 Fernanda S Tonin,1 Maria LA Pedroso,2 Cláudia AP Ivantes,3 Fernando Fernandez-Llimos,4 Roberto Pontarolo1 1Pharmaceutical Sciences Postgraduate Research Program, Department of Pharmacy, 2Gastroenterology Service, Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Paraná, 3Guidance and Counseling Center, Curitiba City Hall, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil; 4Department of Social Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Research Institute for Medicines, University of Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal Background: Chronic hepatitis C is a major public health issue, but there is a gap in the literature regarding the effectiveness and safety of direct-acting antiviral agents in the Brazilian population. The main aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of boceprevir and telaprevir in patients treated at public health care institutions in Brazil.Materials and methods: A prospective longitudinal and multicenter study was conducted in five centers in the State of Paraná between September 2014 and June 2016. Data regarding effectiveness and safety were collected from medical records of patients treated with boceprevir or telaprevir. The effectiveness outcome comprised the rapid virological response (RVR. Multivariate analysis was performed to verify the influence of independent variables (ie, age, gender, baseline viral load on RVR achievement.Results: Data were collected from 117 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV genotype 1 infection. Fifteen patients received treatment with boceprevir and 102 received telaprevir. The mean age was 51.6 years, 64.1% were male, 44.4% were infected with HCV subtype 1a, 62.4% had a high baseline viral load (≥800,000 IU/mL and 33% were cirrhotic. Furthermore, 79.5% of patients achieved RVR (26.7% in the boceprevir group and 87.3% in the telaprevir group. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the type of protease inhibitor (boceprevir or telaprevir and the baseline viral load

  13. Boceprevir plus pegylated interferon/ribavirin to re-treat hepatitis C virus genotype 1 in HIV-HCV co-infected patients: final results of the Spanish BOC HIV-HCV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguno, M; Von Wichmann, M A; Van den Eynde, E; Navarro, J; Cifuentes, C; Murillas, J; Veloso, S; Martínez-Rebollar, M; Guardiola, J M; Jou, A; Gómez-Sirvent, J L; Cervantes, M; Pineda, J A; López-Calvo, S; Carrero, A; Montes, M L; Deig, E; Tapiz, A; Ruiz-Mesa, J D; Cruceta, A; de Lazzari, E; Mallolas, J

    2016-12-01

    Boceprevir (BOC) was one of the first oral inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease to be developed. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of BOC+pegylated interferon-α2a/ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) in the retreatment of HIV-HCV co-infected patients with HCV genotype 1. This was a phase III prospective trial. HIV-HCV (genotype 1) co-infected patients from 16 hospitals in Spain were included. These patients received 4 weeks of PEG-IFN/RBV (lead-in), followed by response-guided therapy with PEG-IFN/RBV plus BOC (a fixed 44 weeks was indicated in the case of cirrhosis). The primary endpoint was the sustained virological response (SVR) rate at 24 weeks post-treatment. Efficacy and safety were evaluated in all patients who received at least one dose of the study drug. From June 2013 to April 2014, 102 patients were enrolled, 98 of whom received at least one treatment dose. Seventy-three percent were male, 34% were cirrhotic, 23% had IL28b CC, 65% had genotype 1a, and 41% were previous null responders. The overall SVR rate was 67%. Previous null-responders and cirrhotic patients had lower SVR rates (57% and 51%, respectively). Seventy-six patients (78%) completed the therapy scheme; the most common reasons for discontinuation were lack of response at week 12 (12 patients) and adverse events (six patients). Response-guided therapy with BOC in combination with PEG-IFN/RBV led to an overall SVR rate of 67%, but an SVR rate of only 51% in patients with cirrhosis. The therapy was generally well tolerated. Although the current standards of care do not include BOC+PEG-IFN/RBV, the authors believe that this combination can be beneficial in situations where new HCV direct antiviral agent interferon-free therapies are not available yet. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Cost analysis of residual viremia detected by two real-time PCR assays for response-guided (dual or triple therapy of HCV genotype 1 infection

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    Alessio Aghemo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cost analysis of residual viremia detected by two real-time PCR assays for response-guided (dual or triple therapy of HCV genotype 1 infectionIntroductionThe duration of interferon-based dual and triple therapies for HCV-G1 is determined by assessment of early viral kinetics. We conducted a cost analysis to determine the mean cost of dual or triple therapy treatment for a patient with HCV-G1, where the therapy duration (24 or 48 weeks is guided by HCV-RNA assay.MethodsHCV-RNA was assessed by two widely used real-time PCR-based assays, Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas TaqMan (CAP-CTM and Real-Time HCV (ART. As far as the dual therapy (PegINFα-2b and RBV is concerned, at week 12 of treatment 16.0% of patients (27/169 were eligible to receive a shorter duration of therapy (24 weeks according to CAP-CTM and 8.9% (15/169 according to ART: 26 patients achieved SVR (15.4% with CAP-CTM and 15 with ART (8.9%. With regard to triple therapy (TPV, PegINFα-2a and RBV, at week 12 of treatment 59.6% of patients (31/52 were eligible to receive a shorter duration of therapy (24 weeks according to CAP-CTM and 28.8% (15/52 according to ART: 30 patients achieved SVR (57.7% with CAP-CTM and 13 with ART (25.0%. The cost analysis was conducted from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service (NHS. Only drug (TPV, PegINFα-2a, PegINFα-2b and RBV and test (CAP-CTM and ART costs were taken into account. Ex-factory prices (included all discounts and national tariffs were used to calculate drug consumptions and tests, respectively. Costs were assessed in Euros 2015.ResultsWith regard to dual therapy, the overall mean treatment cost per patient with CAP-CTM (€9,572.77 was lower than with ART (€9,876.19. With regard to triple therapy, the overall mean treatment cost per patient was lower with CAP-CTM (€31,354.40 than with ART (€33,155.26.ConclusionsCAP-CTM HCV-RNA assay was cost-saving from the Italian NHS perspective compared with ART HCV-RNA assay in the dual

  15. Evaluation of sequencing of HCV core/E1, NS5A and NS5B as a genotype predictive tool in comparison with commercial assays targeting 5'UTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Adele L; Macartney, Malcolm J; Abdi-Abshir, Ikran; Labbett, Wendy; Smith, Colette; Irish, Dianne; Webster, Daniel P; Haque, Tanzina

    2015-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping is required for tailoring the dose and duration of antiviral therapy, predicting virological response rates, and selecting future treatment options. To establish whether baseline genotypes, performed by INNO-LiPA Version 1.0 (v1.0), before 2008, were valid for making treatment decisions now or whether genotypic determination should be repeated. Furthermore, to evaluate concordance between Abbott RealTime genotype II assay (RT) and genotyping by sequencing HCV C/E1, NS5A, NS5B. Genotyping by RT and sequencing was performed on paired historic and current specimens from 50 patients previously baseline genotyped using INNO-LiPA. Of 100 samples from 50 patients, ≥ 2 of HCV genomic target regions yielded a sequence that was suitable for genotyping, with 100% concordance, providing no evidence of recombination events. Genotype and subtype prediction based on RT and sequencing agreed in 62.8% historic and 72.7% current specimens, with a kappa coefficient score of 0.48 and 0.76, respectively. LiPA could not subtype 46% of HCV gt1 infections, and LiPA subgenotype was only in agreement with RT and sequencing in 28.6% cases, where matched baseline and historic specimens were available. Three patients were indeterminate by RT, and five patients with HCV gt1 infections could not be subtyped by RT. However, RT revealed mixed infections in five patients where sequencing detected only single HCV infection at 20% threshold. Genotyping by sequencing, exhibited excellent concordance, with moderate to good agreement with RT, and could resolve RT indeterminates and subtype HCV-gt1 infections not possible by LiPA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of the Relation Between SNP in MxA Gene and the Responsiveness of Egyptian HCV Genotype 4 Patients to Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassany, Mohamed; Gamal, Amany; Zaki, Nashwa; Eysa, Basem

    2017-04-01

    Pegylated interferon (PegIFN) is used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients especially in resource limited countries. Treatment with PegIFN stimulates the expression of a number of host genes encoding enzymes with antiviral activities, including myxovirus resistance gene-A (MxA gene). MxA gene was found to have a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position -88 in the promoter region that affects the expression of MxA gene protein and was suggested to affect the treatment outcome. The aim of the work was to assess the relation between the SNP in the MxA gene and its impact on treatment of chronic HCV patients with PegIFN and ribavirin. We therefore genotyped the biallelic G/T SNP in the promoter region of MxA gene at position -88 from the transcription start site by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in 70 chronic HCV genotype 4 interferon naive Egyptians and 40 healthy controls. G allele was the prevalent one in both HCV patients group (105, 74.5%) and control group (66, 82.5%), while T allele was less expressed in patients group (36, 25.5%) and control group (14, 17.5%). There is no correlation between genotypes and response to IFN-alpha therapy: GG (OR: 0.958, 95% CI: 0.541 - 1.698, P = 0.884), GT (OR: 0.667, 95% CI: 0.188 - 2.362, P = 0.530), and TT (OR: 0.300, 95% CI: 0.083 - 1.090, P = 0.067). MxA nt-88 SNP did not affect the sustained virological response (SVR) rates after PegIFN and ribavirin combined treatment and did not act as a biological marker to potentially identify responders and non-responders to treatment. Our results call for additional large studies and/or meta-analysis of all currently available data to examine the role of MxA nt-88 SNP in predicting response to PegIFN and ribavirin in patients with IFN-alpha naive HCV genotype 4.

  17. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of liposome encapsulated HVR1 and NS3 regions of genotype 3 HCV, either singly or in combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupte Gouri M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus displays a high rate of mutation and exists as a quasispecies in infected patients. In the absence of an effective universal vaccine, genotype-specific vaccine development represents an alternative. We have attempted to develop a genotype 3 based, liposome encapsulated HCV vaccine with hypervariable region-1 (HVR1 and non-structural region-3 (NS3 components. Results HCV RNA extracted from serum samples of 49 chronically infected patients was PCR amplified to obtain HVR1 region. These amplified products were cloned to obtain 20 clones per sample in order to identify the quasispecies pattern. The HVR1 consensus sequence, along with three variants was reverse transcribed to obtain peptides. The peptides were checked for immunoreactivity individually, as a pool or as a single peptide tetramer interspersed with four glycine residues. Anti-HCV positivity varied from 42.6% (tetramer to 92.2% (variant-4 when 115 anti-HCV positive sera representing genotypes 1, 3, 4 and 6 were screened. All the 95 anti-HCV negatives were scored negative by all antigens. Mice were immunized with different liposome encapsulated or Al(OH3 adjuvanted formulations of HVR1 variants and recombinant NS3 protein, and monitored for anti-HVR1 and anti-NS3 antibody titres, IgG isotypes and antigen specific cytokine levels. A balanced Th1/Th2 isotyping response with high antibody titres was observed in most of the liposome encapsulated antigen groups. The effect of liposomes and aluminium hydroxide on the expression of immune response genes was studied using Taqman Low Density Array. Both Th1 (IFN-gamma, Il18 and Th2 (Il4 genes were up regulated in the liposome encapsulated HVR1 variant pool-NS3 combination group. In-vitro binding of the virus to anti-HVR1 antibodies was demonstrated. Conclusion The optimum immunogen was identified to be combination of peptides of HVR1 consensus sequence and its variants along with pNS3 encapsulated in liposomes

  18. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of liposome encapsulated HVR1 and NS3 regions of genotype 3 HCV, either singly or in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupte, Gouri M; Arankalle, Vidya A

    2012-03-27

    Hepatitis C virus displays a high rate of mutation and exists as a quasispecies in infected patients. In the absence of an effective universal vaccine, genotype-specific vaccine development represents an alternative. We have attempted to develop a genotype 3 based, liposome encapsulated HCV vaccine with hypervariable region-1 (HVR1) and non-structural region-3 (NS3) components. HCV RNA extracted from serum samples of 49 chronically infected patients was PCR amplified to obtain HVR1 region. These amplified products were cloned to obtain 20 clones per sample in order to identify the quasispecies pattern. The HVR1 consensus sequence, along with three variants was reverse transcribed to obtain peptides. The peptides were checked for immunoreactivity individually, as a pool or as a single peptide tetramer interspersed with four glycine residues. Anti-HCV positivity varied from 42.6% (tetramer) to 92.2% (variant-4) when 115 anti-HCV positive sera representing genotypes 1, 3, 4 and 6 were screened. All the 95 anti-HCV negatives were scored negative by all antigens. Mice were immunized with different liposome encapsulated or Al(OH)3 adjuvanted formulations of HVR1 variants and recombinant NS3 protein, and monitored for anti-HVR1 and anti-NS3 antibody titres, IgG isotypes and antigen specific cytokine levels. A balanced Th1/Th2 isotyping response with high antibody titres was observed in most of the liposome encapsulated antigen groups. The effect of liposomes and aluminium hydroxide on the expression of immune response genes was studied using Taqman Low Density Array. Both Th1 (IFN-gamma, Il18) and Th2 (Il4) genes were up regulated in the liposome encapsulated HVR1 variant pool-NS3 combination group. In-vitro binding of the virus to anti-HVR1 antibodies was demonstrated. The optimum immunogen was identified to be combination of peptides of HVR1 consensus sequence and its variants along with pNS3 encapsulated in liposomes, which could generate both cellular and humoral

  19. Identification of ionotrophic purinergic receptors in Huh-7 cells and their response towards structural proteins of HCV genotype 3a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Kaneez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a major health problem in developing countries including Pakistan. Chronic HCV infection results in progressive liver disease including fibrosis, cirrhosis, insulin resistance and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Ionotrophic purinergic (P2X receptors are identified to involve in a spectrum of physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, the role of P2X receptors in HCV liver associated diseases still remains to be investigated. The current study was designed to identify the presence of P2X receptors in human liver cells. Furthermore, it investigates the response of P2X receptors towards HCV structural proteins (E1E2. To determine that how many isoforms of P2X receptors are expressed in human liver cells, human hepatoma cell line (Huh-7 was used. Transcripts (mRNA of five different isoforms of P2X receptors were identified in Huh-7 cells. To examine the gene expression of identified isoforms of P2X receptors in presence of HCV structural proteins E1E2, Huh-7/E1E2 cell line (stably expressing HCV structural proteins E1E2 was used. The results showed significant increase (6.2 fold in gene expression of P2X4 receptors in Huh-7/E1E2 cells as compared to control Huh-7 cells. The findings of present study confirmed the presence of transcripts of five different isoforms of P2X receptors in human liver cells and suggest that P2X4 receptors could be represented an important component of the purinergic signaling complex in HCV induced liver pathogenesis.

  20. Daclatasvir plus peginterferon and ribavirin is noninferior to peginterferon and ribavirin alone, and reduces the duration of treatment for HCV genotype 2 or 3 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dore, Gregory J; Lawitz, Eric; Hézode, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Twenty-four weeks of treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 or 3 infection produces a sustained virologic response (SVR) in 70%-80% of patients. We performed a randomized, double-blind, phase 2b study to assess whether adding...... 12 or 16 weeks of daclatasvir (60 mg once daily), or 24 weeks of placebo, each combined with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin. Treatment was extended to 24 weeks for recipients of daclatasvir who did not meet the criteria for early virologic response. The primary end point was SVR at 24 weeks...

  1. Real-World Experiences with the Combination Treatment of Ledipasvir plus Sofosbuvir for 12 Weeks in HCV Genotype 1-Infected Japanese Patients: Achievement of a Sustained Virological Response in Previous Users of Peginterferon plus Ribavirin with HCV NS3/4A Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Nakamura, Masato; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Arai, Makoto; Ooka, Yoshihiko; Ogasawara, Sadahisa; Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Saito, Tomoko; Haga, Yuki; Takahashi, Koji; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Tawada, Akinobu; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Imazeki, Fumio; Kato, Naoya; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2017-04-25

    The aim of this study was to characterize the treatment response and serious adverse events of ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir therapies in Japanese patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 (GT1). This retrospective study analyzed 240 Japanese HCV GT1 patients treated for 12 weeks with 90 mg of ledipasvir plus 400 mg of sofosbuvir daily. Sustained virological response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) was achieved in 236 of 240 (98.3%) patients. Among treatment-naïve patients, SVR12 was achieved in 136 of 138 (98.6%) patients, and among treatment-experienced patients, SVR12 was achieved in 100 of 102 (98.0%) patients. In patients previously treated with peginterferon plus ribavirin with various HCV NS3/4A inhibitors, 100% SVR rates (25/25) were achieved. Two relapsers had HCV NS5A resistance-associated variants (RAVs), but no HCV NS5B-S282 was observed after they relapsed. We experienced two patients with cardiac events during treatment. In conclusion, combination of ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir for 12 weeks is a potential therapy for HCV GT1 patients. Caution is needed for HCV NS5A RAVs, which were selected by HCV NS5A inhibitors and cardiac adverse events.

  2. Variants of the inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase gene are associated with reduced relapse risk following treatment for HCV genotype 2/3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rembeck, Karolina; Waldenström, Jesper; Hellstrand, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    studies using higher, weight-based ribavirin dosing report that patients carrying polymorphisms encoding reduced predicted ITPase activity show decreased risk of ribavirin-induced anemia but increased risk of thrombocytopenia, with no impact on elimination of virus. Three hundred fifty-four treatment...... duration arms, HCV genotype, fibrosis stage and IL28B genotype, and was not secondary to improved adherence to therapy or less pronounced anemia. Gene variants predicting reduced predicted ITPase activity also were associated with decreased risk of anemia (P....007), and lower ribavirin concentrations (P=0.02). Conclusion: These findings demonstrate a novel ribavirin-like association between polymorphisms at ITPA and treatment efficacy in chronic hepatitis C mediated by reduced relapse risk. We hypothesize that patients (63%) being homozygous for both major alleles...

  3. PNPLA 3 I148M genetic variant associates with insulin resistance and baseline viral load in HCV genotype 2 but not in genotype 3 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rembeck, Karolina; Maglio, Cristina; Lagging, Martin

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis in HCV patients has been postulated as a risk factor associated with a higher frequency of fibrosis and cirrhosis. A single genetic variant, PNPLA3 I148M, has been widely associated with increased hepatic steatosis. Previous studies of the PNPLA3 I148M...

  4. Indeterminate RIBA results were associated with the absence of hepatitis C virus RNA (HCV-RNA in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicidade Mota Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is diagnosed by the presence of antibodies and is supplemented by confirmatory testing methods, such as recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA and HCV-RNA detection. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of RIBA testing to diagnose HCV infection in blood donors positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Methods: A total of 102 subjects positive for anti-HCV determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA at the Hematology and Hemotherapy Foundation of Bahia (HEMOBA were later assessed with new samples using the Abbott Architect anti-HCV test (Abbott Diagnostics, Wiesbaden, Germany, the RIBA III test (Chiron RIBA HCV 3.0 SIA, Chiron Corp., Emeryville, CA, USA, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR; COBAS® AMPLICOR HCV Roche Diagnostics Corp., Indianapolis, IN, USA and line probe assay (LiPA - Siemens, Tarrytown, NY, USA genotyping for HCV diagnosis. Results: Of these new samples, 38.2% (39/102 were positive, 57.8% (59/102 were negative and 3.9% (4/102 were indeterminate for anti-HCV; HCV-RNA was detected in 22.5% (23/102 of the samples. RIBA results were positive in 58.1% (25/43, negative in 9.3% (4/43 and indeterminate in 32.6% (14/43 of the samples. The prevailing genotypes were 1 (78.3%, 18/23, 3 (17.4%, 4/23 and 2 (4.3%, 1/23. All 14 samples with indeterminate RIBA results had undetectable viral loads (detection limit ≤50 IU/mL. Of these samples, 71.4% (10/14 were reevaluated six months later. Eighty percent (8/10 of these samples remained indeterminate by RIBA, and 20% (2/10 were negative. Conclusions: In this study, individuals with indeterminate RIBA results had no detectable HCV-RNA.

  5. Clinical performance of the VERIS HCV assay for hepatitis C virus RNA quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Laure; Prégermain, Corinne; Hottelet, Corinne; Decombe, Gwenaëlle; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2017-08-01

    Diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and treatment monitoring rely on detection/quantification of HCV RNA and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques are expected to equivalently quantify the different HCV genotypes. The clinical performance of the VERIS HCV assay for HCV RNA quantification was compared to that of the Abbott RealTime HCV assay. Qualitative concordance and quantitative comparison were evaluated on a first panel of 286 clinical samples containing HCV genotypes 1-6. Forty additional genotype 4 samples were tested to explore genotype 4 HCV RNA underquantification. Qualitative discrepancies were observed for low viral loads (HCV RNA quantification by the VERIS HCV assay and the Abbott RealTime HCV assay was well correlated for all HCV genotypes, except genotype 4 where 5' UTR RNA folding may impact quantification. Nevertheless, this underestimation of HCV RNA levels had no impact on clinical use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diversity of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR genotypes and KIR2DL2/3 variants in HCV treatment outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ramón Vidal-Castiñeira

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the distribution of KIR haplotypes and the KIR2DL2/3 alleles in chronic HCV-infected patients in order to establish the influence on the response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin classical treatment. The alleles study of previously associated KIR2DL2/3 showed that KIR2DL2*001 was more frequent in non-SVR (NSVR (42.2% vs. 27.5%, p<0.05 and KIR2DL3*001 was associated with sustained viral response (SVR (41.6% vs. 61.2%, p<0.005. The KIR2DL3*001-HLA-C1 association was also significant (24.5% vs. 45.7%, p<0.001. From the frequencies of KIR obtained, 35 genotypes were assigned on the basis of previous studies. The centromeric A/A genotype was more frequent in SVR (44.1% vs. 34.5%, p<0.005 and the centromeric B/B genotype was found to be significantly more frequent in NSVR (20.9% vs. 11.2%, p<0.001. The logic regression model showed the importance of KIR genes in predicting the response to combined treatment, since the positive predictive value (PPV was improved (from 55.9% to 75.3% when the analysis of KIR was included in addition to the IFNL3 rs12979860 polymorphism. The study of KIR receptors may be a powerful tool for predicting the combined treatment response in patients with chronic HCV infection in association with the determination of IFNL3 polymorphism.

  7. [Determination of hepatitis C virus genotypes among hepatitis C patients in Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruk, Celal Kurtuluş; Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Reis, Ahu; Kaklıkkaya, Neşe; Tosun, Ilknur; Aydın, Faruk

    2013-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the major cause of transfusion-associated hepatitis, is an important public health problem in the world as well as in Turkey. HCV is grouped as six distinct genotypes and a large number of closely-related subtypes. Genotyping of HCV is an important tool for providing epidemiological data, prediction of prognosis, and optimization of antiviral therapy. This study was carried out to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes in hepatitis C patients residing in different provinces of the Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey. A total of 304 HCV-RNA positive cases (151 male, 153 female; age range: 11-93 years, mean age: 55.2 ± 13.3 years) who were admitted to the Molecular Microbiology Unit of Department of Medical Microbiology, Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine, between January 2009 to December 2012, were included in the study. HCV genotypes were detected in plasma samples of the patients by using commercial assays [INNO-LiPA HCV II (Innogenetics, Belgium) or Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II (Abbott Molecular Inc, USA)]. Due to the ambiguous genotyping results in some samples with these methods, an in-house multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with genotype-specific primers was also used in the study. Similar to the previous reports from Turkey, our results showed that four HCV genotypes (1, 2, 3, and 4) prevailed in the Eastern Black Sea Region and the predominant genotype and subtype were genotype 1 (92.8%) and 1b (87.5%), respectively. Distribution of genotypes were observed to vary according to the province. Prevalences of subtype 1a, genotype 2, 3, and 4 were noted as 5.3%, 1.6%, 4.9%, and 0.7%, respectively. Furthermore, the samples from Giresun, Gumushane and Bayburt provinces, which are relatively less immigrated, had higher genotype 1, and the prevalence rates in the region was affected by the presence of non-citizen residents. This study is the first report on distribution of HCV genotypes in chronic hepatitis

  8. Simeprevir plus peginterferon/ribavirin for HCV genotype 1-infected treatment-naïve patients in China and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lai; Han, Tao; Yang, Dongliang; Heo, Jeong; Shang, Jia; Cheng, Jun; Chen, Xinyue; Xie, Qing; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kalmeijer, Ronald; Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan, Sivi; Hoeben, Eva; Lenz, Oliver; Verbinnen, Thierry; Sinha, Rekha; Li, MengChun; Scott, Jane; Peeters, Monika; Witek, James

    2016-05-01

    Approximately one-third of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) 1 infection live in East Asia. This study evaluated the efficacy, pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of simeprevir plus peginterferon alpha-2a and ribavirin (PR) in HCV GT1-infected, treatment-naïve, Asian patients with compensated liver disease. This phase III, randomized study (NCT01725529) was conducted in China and South Korea. Patients received simeprevir 150 mg once daily (QD), simeprevir 100 mg QD, or placebo, in combination with PR for 12 weeks. Patients in the simeprevir groups received PR alone for a further 12 or 36 weeks based on response-guided treatment criteria. Patients in the placebo group received a further 36 weeks of PR alone. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after planned end of treatment (SVR12). Secondary endpoints were safety, pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and patient-reported outcomes. Overall, 457 patients were treated; the majority had GT1b infection (452/457 [99%]) and IL28B CC GT (364/457 [80%]). Of the 454 patients who had liver biopsy, 26 had cirrhosis (6%). SVR12 rates were superior for both the simeprevir 100 mg (89%; P = 0.003) and 150 mg (91%; P < 0.001) groups versus placebo (76%). Adverse events were mainly grade 1/2 and occurred at a similar incidence across all treatment groups. Overall, eight patients (2%) discontinued simeprevir or placebo treatment because of adverse events. Both simeprevir (100 mg and 150 mg QD) plus PR achieved superiority in SVR12 versus placebo plus PR in treatment-naïve, HCV GT1-infected, Asian patients and were well tolerated. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Rheumatoid Case with HCV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bita Behnava; Seyed-Moayed Alavian

    2005-01-01

    Case Presentation:A 46-year-old woman referred to our center due to abnormality in aminotransferase level during check up. She had a history of blood transfusion 12 years ago. Anti-HCV Ab by ELISA method and HCV RNA by RT-PCR were positive. HCV RNA by Amplicor HCV monitor test counted 800,000 IU/ml and the genotype was 3a by Specific Primer-Targeted Region Core method. Laboratory evaluation revealed: Hb 11.9 mg/dl, WBC 5000 /ml, platelet count 190,000/ ml, ALT 70 IU/ml, AST 65 IU/ml, Alk phos...

  10. Signal to cut-off (S/CO ratio and detection of HCV genotype 1 by real-time PCR one-step method: is there any direct relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Albertoni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods play an essential role in providing data related to diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. EIA results are reported as ''reactive'' or ''non reactive'' and EIA S/CO ratio may also be reported as ''high'' or ''low.'' This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a real-time RT-PCR and assess whether there is relationship between S/CO and PCR results. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Sera from blood donors were analyzed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and RT-PCR assay to detect HCV infection. RESULTS: The RT-PCR assay to genotypes 1a/b showed an acceptable linear response in serial dilutions. The samples were divided into two groups based on their serological results: group A - S/CO ratio 3 (41 samples. Viral loads were confirmed positive in group B samples in 90%, and in group A samples were confirmed positive in only 13% by RT-PCR. CONCLUSION: The methodology used was able to detect the presence of RNA-HCV genotype I in 90% of the samples serologically positive in group B. All negative samples were sent to search for other genotypes of HCV (genotypes 2-6 and were confirmed as negative. These data suggests that these negative samples may have HCV RNA viral load below the detection limit of our test (310 IU/ mL, or a false positive result in serological test, or spontaneous viral clearance occurred.

  11. Breadth of neutralization and synergy of clinically relevant human monoclonal antibodies against HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 2c, and 3a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Thomas H R; Pedersen, Jannie; Prentoe, Jannick C

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) with neutralizing capabilities constitute potential immune-based treatments or prophylaxis against hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, lack of cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) harboring authentic envelope proteins (E1/E2) has hindered neutralization...... synergism obtained when pooling the most potent HMAbs could have significant implications for developing novel strategies to treat and control HCV....

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in Kadun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes among blood donors and outpatients attendees positive for antibody to HCV (anti-HCV). Justification: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) continues to be a major disease burden on the world and Man is the only known natural host of Hepatitis C ...

  13. Effectiveness, safety and clinical outcomes of direct-acting antiviral therapy in HCV genotype 1 infection: Results from a Spanish real-world cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, Jose Luis; Crespo, Javier; Rincón, Diego; Ruiz-Antorán, Belén; Fernandez, Inmaculada; Perelló, Christie; Gea, Francisco; Lens, Sabela; García-Samaniego, Javier; Sacristán, Begoña; García-Eliz, María; Llerena, Susana; Pascasio, Juan Manuel; Turnes, Juan; Torras, Xavier; Morillas, Rosa Maria; Llaneras, Jordi; Serra, Miguel A; Diago, Moises; Rodriguez, Conrado Fernández; Ampuero, Javier; Jorquera, Francisco; Simon, Miguel A; Arenas, Juan; Navascues, Carmen Alvarez; Bañares, Rafael; Muñoz, Raquel; Albillos, Agustin; Mariño, Zoe

    2017-06-01

    Clinical trials evaluating second-generation direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have shown excellent rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) and good safety profiles in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of two oral DAA combination regimens, ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir plus dasabuvir (OMV/PTV/r+DSV) and ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF), in a real-world clinical practice. Data from HCV genotype 1 patients treated with either OMV/PTV/r+DSV±ribavirin (RBV) (n=1567) or LDV/SOF±RBV (n=1758) in 35 centers across Spain between April 1, 2015 and February 28, 2016 were recorded in a large national database. Demographic, clinical and virological data were analyzed. Details of serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded. The two cohorts were not matched with respect to baseline characteristics and could not be compared directly. The SVR12 rate was 96.8% with OMV/PTVr/DSV±RBV and 95.8% with LDV/SOF±RBV. No significant differences were observed in SVR according to HCV subgenotype (p=0.321 [OMV/PTV/r+DSV±RBV] and p=0.174 [LDV/SOF]) or degree of fibrosis (c0.548 [OMV/PTV/r/DSV±RBV] and p=0.085 [LDV/SOF]). Only baseline albumin level was significantly associated with failure to achieve SVR (p<0.05) on multivariate analysis. Rates of SAEs and SAE-associated treatment discontinuation were 5.4% and 1.7%, in the OMV/PTV/r+DSV subcohort and 5.5% and 1.5% in the LDV/SOF subcohort, respectively. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurred in 30% of patients with a complete response to therapy for previous HCC. Incident HCC was reported in 0.93%. In this large cohort of patients managed in the real-world setting in Spain, OMV/PTV/r+DSV and LDV/SOF achieved high rates of SVR12, comparable to those observed in randomized controlled trials, with similarly good safety profiles. In clinical trials, second-generation direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have been shown to cure over 90% of

  14. Boceprevir plus pegylated interferon/ribavirin to re-treat hepatitis C virus genotype 1 in HIV–HCV co-infected patients: final results of the Spanish BOC HIV–HCV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laguno

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Response-guided therapy with BOC in combination with PEG-IFN/RBV led to an overall SVR rate of 67%, but an SVR rate of only 51% in patients with cirrhosis. The therapy was generally well tolerated. Although the current standards of care do not include BOC + PEG-IFN/RBV, the authors believe that this combination can be beneficial in situations where new HCV direct antiviral agent interferon-free therapies are not available yet.

  15. Hepatitis C virus (HCV): ever in reliable partnerships?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-06-16

    Jun 16, 2006 ... against HCV and treatment, consisting of interferon alpha plus Ribavirin, is generally effective in less than 50% of cases. ...... HCV facilitates HSV-2 seropositivity. - (Singh et al., 2005). SEN virus. Low, SENV has a specific link to. HCV genotype 2a. No apparent effect. - (Dai et al., 2004). - (Tangkijvanich et ...

  16. Insulin resistance and response to telaprevir plus peginterferon alpha and ribavirin in treatment-naive patients infected with HCV genotype 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serfaty, L.; Forns, X.; Goeser, T.; Ferenci, P.; Nevens, F.; Carosi, G.; Drenth, J.P.H.; Lonjon-Domanec, I.; DeMasi, R.; Picchio, G.; Beumont, M.; Marcellin, P.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance is a predictor of poor response to peginterferon/ribavirin in patients infected with the chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). There are no data on direct-acting antivirals. This exploratory analysis assessed the effect of metabolic factors and insulin resistance, measured

  17. Phylogenetics of HCV: Recent advances | Bostan | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two major divisions of viral heterogeneity include genotypes and quasispecies. The rate of nucleotide changes varies significantly among the different regions of the viral genome. The present HCV classification is incomplete, as new genotypes and variants are being identified till yet. Diversification of HCV occurred ...

  18. Direct anti-HCV agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingquan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a curable disease. Current direct antiviral agent (DAA targets are focused on HCV NS3/4A protein (protease, NS5B protein (polymerase and NS5A protein. The first generation of DAAs includes boceprevir and telaprevir, which are protease inhibitors and were approved for clinical use in 2011. The cure rate for genotype 1 patients increased from 45% to 70% when boceprevir or telaprevir was added to standard PEG-IFN/ribavirin. More effective and less toxic second generation DAAs supplanted these drugs by 2013. The second generation of DAAs includes sofosbuvir (Sovaldi, simeprevir (Olysio, and fixed combination medicines Harvoni and Viekira Pak. These drugs increase cure rates to over 90% without the need for interferon and effectively treat all HCV genotypes. With these drugs the “cure HCV” goal has become a reality. Concerns remain about drug resistance mutations and the high cost of these drugs. The investigation of new HCV drugs is progressing rapidly; fixed dose combination medicines in phase III clinical trials include Viekirax, asunaprevir+daclatasvir+beclabuvir, grazoprevir+elbasvir and others.

  19. The history of hepatitis C virus (HCV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 1989 permitted basic research to unravel critical components of a complex life cycle for this important human pathogen. HCV is a highly divergent group of viruses classified in 7 major genotypes and a great number of subtypes, and circulating in infected...... individuals as a continuously evolving quasispecies destined to escape host immune responses and applied antivirals. Despite the inability to culture patient viruses directly in the laboratory, efforts to define the infectious genome of HCV resulted in development of experimental recombinant in vivo...... and in vitro systems, including replicons and infectious cultures in human hepatoma cell lines. And HCV has become a model virus defining new paradigms in virology, immunology and biology. For example, HCV research discovered that a virus could be completely dependent on microRNA for its replication since...

  20. Frequency of very low HCV viremia detected by a highly sensitive HCV-RNA assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fytili, P; Tiemann, C; Wang, C; Schulz, S; Schaffer, S; Manns, M P; Wedemeyer, H

    2007-08-01

    Only limited data is available on the frequency and clinical significance of very low hepatitis C viremia (HCV quantification. We evaluated the new Abbott m2000 RealTime PCR assay in 3213 consecutive anti-HCV-positive sera as well as in 50 HCV-recovered patients with sustained virological response to standard antiviral therapy. The assay showed a linear range between 10(1) IU/ml and 10(7) IU/ml for HCV genotypes 1-6. An HCV viremia below 600 IU/ml was detected more often with the m2000 RealTime PCR assay than with the Cobas Amplicor assay in viremic sera (7.1% versus 1.8%). Seventy-seven cases with HCV levels below 100 IU/ml not related to ongoing antiviral therapy were identified. An HCV-RNA of less than 12 IU/ml was found in nine of the 50 SVR patients. Two patients had a viral load of 34 IU/ml and 84 IU/ml, respectively, one of those showed persistently elevated ALT levels over a period of 5 years after the end of antiviral treatment. An HCV viremia below 600 IU/ml can be detected in almost every 40th anti-HCV-positive sera using real-time PCR based assays. Low persisting HCV-RNA in patients after antiviral therapy may be associated with mild liver inflammation in single cases.

  1. Genotyping of hepatitis C virus-comparison of three assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haushofer, Alexander C; Berg, Jörg; Hauer, René; Trubert-Exinger, Doris; Stekel, Herbert G; Kessler, Harald H

    2003-08-01

    Genotyping of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is clinically relevant to epidemiology, prognosis, and therapeutical management of HCV infection. Accuracy and specificity of three assays for HCV genotyping/subtyping were determined. The TruGene HCV 5'NC Genotyping Kit (TruGene), which is a direct sequencing test and two assays based on reversed hybridization, Inno-LiPA HCV II assay and ViennaLab HCV Strip Assay, were compared. Amplification products generated by the Cobas Amplicor HCV Test were used. A total of 100 consecutive HCV RNA positive samples derived from patients with chronic hepatitis C were examined for their genotypes/subtypes by the three assays. Identification of genotypes and subtypes by the TruGene assay as reference test for the Inno-LiPA HCV II assay and the ViennaLab HCV Strip Assay or Inno-LiPA HCV II assay as reference test for the TruGene and the ViennaLab HCV Strip Assay showed similar results for overall accuracies (TruGene as reference test for Inno-LiPA HCV II and ViennaLab HCV Strip Assay, genotypes/subtypes: 100%/95.5% and 97%/92%; Inno-LiPA HCV II as reference test for TruGene and ViennaLab HCV Strip Assay, genotypes/subtypes: 99%/85.9% and 97%/87.9%) and specificities (TruGene as reference test for Inno-LiPA HCV II and ViennaLab HCV Strip Assay, genotypes/subtypes: 100%/97.8% and 99%/97.7%; Inno-LiPA HCV II as reference test for TruGene and ViennaLab HCV Strip Assay, genotypes/subtypes: 100%/99.4% and 99.7%/98%). The three assays were found to be reliable for the detection and discrimination of all HCV genotypes common in Europe and in North America and to be suitable for the routine diagnostic laboratory.

  2. [Usefulness of Anti-HCV ELISA Test and HCV Reverse Transcriptase-PCR for the Diagnosis of Hepatits C Viral Infection.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong Hee; Lee, Hee Joo; Park, Su Yon; Lee, Youn Sik; Suh, Jin Tae

    2006-12-01

    The diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is screened by anti-HCV enzymelinked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and confirmed by recombinant immunoblotting assay (RIBA) or HCV RT-PCR. We attempted to evaluate the results between anti-HCV ELISA and a qualitative HCV RT-PCR. Four hundred and twenty patients who were tested with anti-HCV ELISA and HCV RTPCR, simultaneously, from January 2002 to June 2005 were enrolled in this study. Anti-HCV ELISA was performed by AxSYM HCV version 3.0 (Abbott Laboratories, USA). HCV RT-PCR was performed using in-house RT-nested PCR methods from January 2002 to October 2004 and HCV Genotype Amplification Kit (LiPA) (Bayer Healthcare, USA) from November 2004 to June 2005. Of the 420 patients tested, 321 were positive for anti-HCV ELISA, and 204 were positive for RT-PCR. The positive predictability of anti-HCV ELISA was 63.6%. Among anti-HCV positive patients, RT-PCR was positive in 7.3% of the patients with sample/cut-off (S/CO)/=6. Among the 117 patients with positive anti-HCV, but with negative HCV RT-PCR, 64 had liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, or hepatocellular carcinoma. Twelve patients showed positive HCV RT-PCR, but negative anti-HCV results; of these 9 had hepatic dysfunction. In the patients who were positive for anti-HCV ELISA with a low S/CO, HCV RT-PCR positivity was shown in a low proportion. Therefore, in such cases, the results should be confirmed by RIBA or HCV RT-PCR. The liver function test showed increased levels of hepatic enzymes in patients with positive HCV RT-PCR, but negative anti-HCV. Such findings correlate to an early phase of chronic hepatitis C, suggesting the necessity of continuous follow up.

  3. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA profiles among chronic HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals in ESPRIT; spontaneous HCV RNA clearance observed in nine individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grint, D; Tedaldi, E; Peters, L; Mocroft, A; Edlin, B; Gallien, S; Klinker, H; Boesecke, C; Kokordelis, P; Rockstroh, J K

    2017-07-01

    Studies have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels remain stable over time in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), while spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA during the persistent infection phase has been documented only rarely among those with the CC interleukin (IL)-28B genotype. This study describes HCV RNA profiles and factors associated with changes over time in HCV RNA levels in the ESPRIT study. HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals positive for HCV RNA were included in the study. Follow-up was counted from the first HCV RNA positive test and censored at the initiation of interferon-based treatment. HCV RNA and IL-28B measurements were performed in the same reference laboratory. Random effects mixed models were used to analyse changes over time in HCV RNA. A total of 312 ESPRIT patients were included in the study (151 in the arm receiving subcutaneous recombinant IL-2 and 161 in the control arm). Most of the patients were white (89%) and male (76%), and they had a median of 5 HCV RNA measurements per person [interquartile range (IQR) 3-6; range 1-9]. Median follow-up was 5 years (IQR: 2-6 years). At baseline, 96% of patients were taking cART and 93% had undetectable HIV RNA. Mean HCV RNA levels decreased by 13% per year over the study period [95% confidence interval (CI) 8-18%; P < 0.0001]. Baseline HCV RNA levels and the change over time in HCV RNA did not differ by randomization arm (P = 0.16 and P = 0.56, respectively). Nine individuals spontaneously cleared HCV RNA during follow-up [IL-28B genotypes: CC, five patients (56%); CT, four patients (44%)]. HCV RNA levels decreased over time in this population with well-controlled HIV infection. Spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA was documented in five individuals with IL-28B genotype CC and four with the CT genotype. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  4. Core Gene Expression and Association of Genotypes with Viral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To determine genotypic distribution, ribonucleic acid (RNA) RNA viral load and express core gene from Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infected patients in Punjab, Pakistan. Methods: A total of 1690 HCV RNA positive patients were included in the study. HCV genotyping was tested by type-specific genotyping assay, viral ...

  5. Effectiveness and safety of sofosbuvir-based regimens plus an NS5A inhibitor for patients with HCV genotype 3 infection and cirrhosis. Results of a multicenter real-life cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, S; Riveiro-Barciela, M; Fernandez, I; Rincón, D; Real, Y; Llerena, S; Gea, F; Olveira, A; Fernandez-Carrillo, C; Polo, B; Carrión, J A; Gómez, A; Devesa, M J; Baliellas, C; Castro, Á; Ampuero, J; Granados, R; Pascasio, J M; Rubín, A; Salmeron, J; Badia, E; Planas, J M M; Lens, S; Turnes, J; Montero, J L; Buti, M; Esteban, R; Fernández-Rodríguez, C M

    2017-04-01

    Patients with HCV genotype 3 (GT3) infection and cirrhosis are currently the most difficult to cure. We report our experience with sofosbuvir+daclatasvir (SOF+DCV) or sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (SOF/LDV), with or without ribavirin (RBV) in clinical practice in this population. This was a multicenter observational study including cirrhotic patients infected by HCV GT3, treated with sofosbuvir plus an NS5A inhibitor (May 2014-October 2015). In total, 208 patients were included: 98 (47%) treatment-experienced, 42 (20%) decompensated and 55 (27%) MELD score >10. In 131 (63%), treatment was SOF+DCV and in 77 (37%), SOF/LDV. Overall, 86% received RBV. RBV addition and extension to 24 weeks was higher in the SOF/LDV group (95% vs 80%, P=.002 and 83% vs 72%, P=.044, respectively). A higher percentage of decompensated patients were treated with DCV than LDV (25% vs 12%, P=.013). Overall, SVR12 was 93.8% (195/208): 94% with SOF+DCV and 93.5% with SOF/LDV. SVR12 was achieved in 90.5% of decompensated patients. Eleven treatment failures: 10 relapses and one breakthrough. RBV addition did not improve SVR (RR: 1.08; P=.919). The single factor associated with failure to achieve SVR was platelet count <75×10E9/mL (RR: 3.50, P=.019). In patients with MELD <10, type of NS5A inhibitor did not impact on SVR12 (94% vs 97%; adjusted RR: 0.49). Thirteen patients (6.3%) had serious adverse events, including three deaths (1.4%) and one therapy discontinuation (0.5%), higher in decompensated patients (16.7% vs 3.6%, P<.006). In patients with GT3 infection and cirrhosis, SVR12 rates were high with both SOF+DCV and SOF/LDV, with few serious adverse events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Historical epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in selected countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruggmann, P; Øvrehus, Anne Lindebo; Moreno, C

    2014-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading indicator for liver disease. New treatment options are becoming available, and there is a need to characterize the epidemiology and disease burden of HCV. Data for prevalence, viremia, genotype, diagnosis and treatment were obtained...

  7. Comparison of HCV core antigen and anti-HCV with HCV RNA results

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: In this study, we aimed to analyse HCV core Antigen positivity among anti-HCV antibody positive sera to determine the significance of testing of HCV core Ag for the laboratory diagnosis of HCV infection, by considering the correlation between serum HCV core Ag and HCV RNA levels. Methods: 115 patients ...

  8. The dynamics of HCV-specific antibody responses in HIV/HCV patients on long-term antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Silvia; Laiman, Alfred; French, Martyn A; Flexman, James; Watson, Mark W; Price, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    Antibody responses have not been fully characterised in chronically HIV/HCV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Seventeen HIV/HCV patients receiving ART were followed for a median (range) interval of 597 (186-766) weeks. Prior to ART, HIV/HCV patients had lower levels of antibodies reactive with HCV core and JFH-1, and lower genotype cross-reactive neutralising antibodies (nAb) titres, than HCV patients. Levels of JFH-1 reactive antibody increased on ART, irrespective of CD4 + T-cell counts or changes in serum ALT levels. The appearance of nAb coincided with control of HCV viral replication in five HIV/HCV patients. In other patients, HCV viral loads remained elevated despite nAb responses. Sustained virological responses following HCV therapy were associated with reduced antibody responses to JFH-1 and core but elevated responses to non-structural proteins. We conclude that nAb responses alone may fail to clear HCV, but contribute to control of viral replication in some HIV/HCV patients responding to ART. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human monoclonal antibodies to a novel cluster of conformational epitopes on HCV E2 with resistance to neutralization escape in a genotype 2a isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Zhen-yong; Xia, Jinming; Wang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    regions that will be relevant for vaccine design, we employed yeast surface display of antibodies that bound to genotype 1a H77C E2 mutant proteins containing a substitution either at Y632A (to avoid selecting non-neutralizing antibodies) or D535A. A panel of nine human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs......, when HCVcc were passaged in the presence of each of these antibodies, virus escape was not observed. Thus, the cluster of HC-84 epitopes, designated as antigenic domain D, is relevant for vaccine design for this highly diverse virus....

  10. Molecular epidemiology of HCV monoinfection and HIV/HCV coinfection in injection drug users in Liuzhou, Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV mono-infection and HCV/HIV (human immunodeficiency virus co-infection are growing problems in injection drug users (IDU. Their prevalence and genotypic patterns vary with geographic locations. Access to harm reduction measures is opening up opportunities for improving the HIV/HCV profiling of IDU in China, where IDUs account for a significant proportion of the two infections especially in the southern part of the country. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional study was conducted. Through the Liuzhou Methadone Clinic, a total of 117 injection drug users (IDUs were recruited from Guangxi, Southern China. A majority of the IDUs (96% were HCV antibody positive, of which 21% were HIV infected. Unlike HCV monoinfection, there was spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of HIV/HCV coinfection, the latter also characterized by a higher prevalence of needle-sharing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that genotype 6a was predominant in the study population. There were shorter genetic distances among the 6a sequences compared to the other HCV subtypes-1a, 3a, and 3b. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggested that HIV and HCV were introduced at around the same time to the IDU populations in Southern China, followed by their differential spread as determined by the biologic characteristics of the virus and the intensity of behavioural risk. This pattern is different from that in other South East Asian countries where HCV infections have probably predated HIV.

  11. Hepatitis C Virus: Virology and Genotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Aziz, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major causative agent of chronic liver disease worldwide. HCV is characterized by genetic heterogeneity, with at least six genotypes identified. The geographic distribution of genotypes has shown variations in different parts of the world over the past decade because of variations in population structure, immigration, and routes of transmission. Genotype differences are of epidemiologic interest and help the study of viral transmission dynamics to trace the source of HCV infection in a given population. HCV genotypes are also of considerable clinical importance because they affect response to antiviral therapy and represent a challenging obstacle for vaccine development.

  12. Analytical and clinical performance of the Hologic Aptima HCV Quant Dx Assay for the quantification of HCV RNA in plasma samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Pedersen, Martin Schou; Johansen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can be effectively treated with directly acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. Measurement of HCV RNA is used to evaluate patient compliance and virological response during and after treatment. OBJECTIVES: To compare the analytical performance...... of the Aptima HCV Quant Dx Assay (Aptima) and the COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HCV Test v2.0 (CAPCTMv2) for the quantification of HCV RNA in plasma samples, and compare the clinical utility of the two tests in patients undergoing treatment with DAA therapy. STUDY DESIGN: Analytical performance was evaluated...... on two sets of plasma samples: 125 genotyped samples and 172 samples referred for quantification of HCV RNA. Furthermore, performance was evaluated using dilutions series of four samples containing HCV genotype 1a, 2b, 3a, and 4a, respectively. Clinical utility was evaluated on 118 plasma samples...

  13. Does hepatitis C viremia or genotype predict the risk of mortality in individuals co-infected with HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rockstroh, Jürgen K; Peters, Lars; Grint, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The influence of HCV-RNA levels and genotype on HCV disease progression is not well studied. The prognostic value of these markers was investigated in HIV/HCV co-infected individuals from the EuroSIDA cohort.......The influence of HCV-RNA levels and genotype on HCV disease progression is not well studied. The prognostic value of these markers was investigated in HIV/HCV co-infected individuals from the EuroSIDA cohort....

  14. Genotype 3 is the predominant hepatitis C genotype in a multi-ethnic Asian population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shiaw-Hooi; Ng, Kee-Peng; Kaur, Harvinder; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-06-01

    Genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are distributed differently across the world. There is a paucity of such data in a multi-ethnic Asian population like Malaysia. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes between major ethnic groups and to ascertain their association with basic demographic variables like age and gender. This was a cross-sectional prospective study conducted from September 2007 to September 2013. Consecutive patients who were detected to have anti-HCV antibodies in the University of Malaya Medical Centre were included and tested for the presence of HCV RNA using Roche Cobas Amplicor Analyzer and HCV genotype using Roche single Linear Array HCV Genotyping strip. Five hundred and ninety-six subjects were found to have positive anti-HCV antibodies during this period of time. However, only 396 (66.4%) were HCV RNA positive and included in the final analysis. Our results showed that HCV genotype 3 was the predominant genotype with overall frequency of 61.9% followed by genotypes 1 (35.9%), 2 (1.8%) and 6 (0.5%). There was a slightly higher prevalence of HCV genotype 3 among the Malays when compared to the Chinese (P=0.043). No other statistical significant differences were observed in the distribution of HCV genotypes among the major ethnic groups. There was also no association between the predominant genotypes and basic demographic variables. In a multi-ethnic Asian society in Malaysia, genotype 3 is the predominant genotype among all the major ethnic groups with genotype 1 as the second commonest genotype. Both genotypes 2 and 6 are uncommon. Neither genotype 4 nor 5 was detected. There is no identification of HCV genotype according to ethnic origin, age and gender.

  15. Differential virus-specific CD8+T-cell epitope repertoire in hepatitis C virus genotype 1 versus 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxenburger, Hendrik; Graß, Franziska; Baermann, Janina; Boettler, Tobias; Marget, Matthias; Emmerich, Florian; Panning, Marcus; Thimme, Robert; Nitschke, Katja; Neumann-Haefelin, Christoph

    2018-02-03

    Virus-specific CD8 + T-cell responses play an important role in the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To date, most HCV-specific CD8 + T-cell epitopes have been defined in HCV genotype 1 infection. In contrast, the HCV genotype 4-specific CD8 + T-cell response is poorly defined. Here, we analysed whether known HCV-specific CD8 + T-cell epitopes are also recognized in HCV genotype 4-infected patients and set out to identify the first HCV genotype 4-specific CD8 + T-cell epitopes. We studied patients chronically infected with HCV genotype 1 (n = 20) or 4 (n = 21) using 91 well-described HCV-specific epitope peptides. In addition, we analysed 24 genotype 4-infected patients using 40 epitope candidates predicted using an in silico approach. HCV-specific CD8 + T-cell responses targeting previously described epitopes were detectable in the majority of genotype 1-infected patients (11 of 20). In contrast, patients infected with HCV genotype 4 rarely targeted these epitopes (4 of 21; P = .0247). Importantly, we were able to identify eight novel HCV genotype 4-specific CD8 + T-cell epitopes. Only one of these epitopes was shared between genotype 1 and genotype 4. These results indicate that there is little overlap between CD8 + T-cell repertoires targeting HCV genotype 1 and 4. Prophylactic vaccination studies based on HCV genotype 1 are currently underway. However, in countries with the highest prevalence of HCV infection, such as Egypt, most patients are infected with HCV genotype 4. Thus, prophylactic vaccination strategies need to be adapted to HCV genotype 4 before their application to regions where HCV genotype 4 is endemic. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Humanized-VHH Transbodies that Inhibit HCV Protease and Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surasak Jittavisutthikul

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for safe and broadly effective anti-HCV agents that can cope with genetic multiplicity and mutations of the virus. In this study, humanized-camel VHHs to genotype 3a HCV serine protease were produced and were linked molecularly to a cell penetrating peptide, penetratin (PEN. Human hepatic (Huh7 cells transfected with the JFH-1 RNA of HCV genotype 2a and treated with the cell penetrable nanobodies (transbodies had a marked reduction of the HCV RNA intracellularly and in their culture fluids, less HCV foci inside the cells and less amounts of HCV core antigen in culture supernatants compared with the infected cells cultured in the medium alone. The PEN-VHH-treated-transfected cells also had up-regulation of the genes coding for the host innate immune response (TRIF, TRAF3, IRF3, IL-28B and IFN-β, indicating that the cell penetrable nanobodies rescued the host innate immune response from the HCV mediated-suppression. Computerized intermolecular docking revealed that the VHHs bound to residues of the protease catalytic triad, oxyanion loop and/or the NS3 N-terminal portion important for non-covalent binding of the NS4A protease cofactor protein. The so-produced transbodies have high potential for testing further as a candidate for safe, broadly effective and virus mutation tolerable anti-HCV agents.

  17. Advances in the treatment of HIV/HCV coinfection in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlabe, Stefan; Rockstroh, Jürgen K

    2018-01-01

    Direct-acting antivirals (DAA) have revolutionized the modern treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV). These highly efficacious, well-tolerated, all-oral HCV regimens allow cure of HCV in over 95% of HCV-monoinfected as well as HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with short treatment durations of 8-12 weeks. Areas covered: This review will address recent developments of DAA-therapy in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients in clinical trials and real life cohorts and evaluate remaining challenges, particularly resistance, drug-drug interactions, acute HCV infection and liver transplantation focusing on HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Expert opinion: Indeed, all available data have shown that HIV/HCV-coinfection has no impact on HCV-treatment outcome. Management, indication of therapy and follow-up of HCV-infection are now the same for both patient populations. HIV/HCV-coinfected patients however, require careful evaluation of potential drug-drug-interactions between HCV drugs and HIV antiretroviral therapy, medication for substance abuse and other comedications. The few remaining gaps in DAA-therapy in particular treatment of cirrhotic treatment-experienced genotype 3 infections, decompensated cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease and patients with prior DAA treatment failure have mostly been overcome by the development of new HCV agents recently licensed. Clearly, the biggest challenge globally remains the access to treatment and the inclusion of all patient populations affected in particular people who inject drugs (PWID).

  18. HBV/HCV co-infection is associated with a high level of HCV spontaneous clearance among drug users and blood donors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, H; Rong, X; Wang, M; Xu, R; Huang, K; Liao, Q; Huang, J; Chen, J; Li, C; Tang, X; Shan, Z; Zhang, M; Nelson, K; Fu, Y

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the biology of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection could lead to improved strategies to prevent the sequelae associated with chronic HCV infection. Chronic infections with hepatitis virus are very common in China, but the factors associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV have not been adequately studied. We evaluated the spontaneous clearance of HCV among 1918 drug users and 1526 HCV-seropositive blood donors in Guangzhou, China. Among participants who were co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 41.38% of drug users and 39.47% of blood donors had cleared their HCV infection without antiviral therapy compared to 9.41% of drug users and 16.73% of blood donors who were mono-infected with a single virus (P<.01). The proportion of subjects who had cleared their HCV infection was significantly greater in the co-infected subjects whose serum HBV DNA was greater than 2000IU/mL than those with lower levels. A multiple logistic regression analysis found female gender, IL28B rs8099917 TT genotype, HBV co-infection and blood donors (vs drug users) associated with increased spontaneous clearance of HCV infection. Although acute HCV infections are common in China, the incidence of chronic HCV may be reduced among the high prevalence of chronic HBV and IL28B genotypes associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV in Chinese populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Comparative characteristics of immune answers indicators depending on the replicative activity and genotype of hepatitis c virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олеся Василівна Гололобова

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze the character of changes and disorders of immune system with the help of complex study of indicators of cellular and humor section of immunity, cytokine status in patients with HCV-infection taking into account the replicative activity, genotype of virus and to formulate the possible causes of chronization.Methods. There were examined 155 patients with HCV-infection. An acute hepatitis C AHC was fixed in 23,9 %, chronic hepatitis C (CHC– in 76,1 %, 18–70 years old. Among examined patients with AHC and CHC prevailed men (67,6 and 72 % respectively. Diagnosis was set on the base of clinic and amnestic, epidemiologic, laboratory and instrumental data. Epidemiologic verification of diagnosis was realized by detection the specific serologic markers of HC (anti-HCV (sum, anti-HCV IgM and Ig G, anti-HCV core and anti-HCV NS-3, NS-4, NS-5 in blood serum using ELISA method. Molecular and genetic studies that included definition of replicative activity of HCV evaluated on the base of detection of RNA HCV in blood serum using the qualitative PCR method were carried out in 126 patients (31 with AHC and 95 with CHC. At the same time RNA of HCV was detected in peripheral blood in all (31 patients with AHC and in 74 (77,89 % patients with CHC. Using the method of restriction analysis we carried out the genetic typing of HCV in 90 patients with AHC and 60 with CHC. We carried out the comparative characteristics of the content of immunologic indicators in 45 (75 % patients with CHC with positive and 15 (25 % patients with negative results of PCR-study (polymerase chain reaction of HCV RNA in blood. For detection of regularities of changes of immune status depending on virus genotype there was carried out the comparative assessment of the content of immunologic indicators in patients with AHC and CHC with the most widespread genotypes of HVC– 1b and 3a. Immunologic studies included the definitions of the main subpopulations of lymphocytes

  20. Sieroprevalenza di infezione da HBV e HCV tra pazienti in dialisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna Leone

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV among dialysis patients in the Lamezia Terme (CZ area during the period 1999-2002. Sera from 63 patients in haemodialysis (HD and 10 patients in peritoneal dialysis (PD were analyzed with a follow-up every three months for HBsAg, HBcAb, HBsAb, anti-HCV and anti-HIV (Elisa Test,AxSYM,Abbott;we analyzed reactive sera for anti-HCV by using supplemental test (RIBA Test, Ortho; we also looked for viremia (RT-PCR Amplicor, Roche Diagnostics and HCV genotypes (Inno-Lipa HCV II, Innogenetics.The results show that, among the HD patients, 3 were HBsAg positive (Chronic Infection and 7 HBcAb and HBsAb positive/HBsAg negative (Passed Infection; 14 individuals were anti-HCV positive. No patients in PD were positive for HBV and HCV markers.The prevalence of chronic HBV infection was 4.8% (instead of 3% in other Dialysis Units, that of anti-HCV positive was 22% (in others 24%- 33%; among anti-HCV positive patients, the HCV-RNA prevalence was 79% (instead of 80%; the most recurrent HCV genotype was 2a/2c (instead of 1b in general population.These findings lead us to hypothesize that the environmental transmission in the dialysis setting is tightly correlated to the risk of HBV and HCV infection.

  1. HCV Diversity among Chinese and Burmese IDUs in Dehong, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhenzhou; Chen, Qianqian; Chen, Xin; Duo, Lin; Li, Peilu; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Zhang, Chiyu

    HCV transmission is closely associated with drug-trafficking routes in China. Dehong, a prefecture of Yunnan, is the important trade transfer station linking Southeast Asia and China, as well as the drug-trafficking channel linking "Golden triangle" and other regions of China and surrounding countries. In this study, we investigated the HCV genotype diversity among IDUs in Dehong based on 259 HCV positive samples from 118 Chinese and 141 Burmese IDUs. HCV genotypes were determined based on the phylogenies of C/E2 and NS5B genomic sequences. Six HCV subtypes, including 1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6n and 6u, were detected. Interestingly, 4 HCV sequences from Burmese IDUs did not cluster with any known HCV subtypes, but formed a well-supported independent clade in the phylogenetic trees of both C/E2 and NS5B, suggesting a potential new HCV subtype circulating in Dehong. Subtype 3b was the predominant subtype, followed by subtypes 6n and 6u. Comparison showed that Dehong had a unique pattern of HCV subtype distribution, obviously different from other regions of China. In particular, HCV subtypes 6u and the potential new HCV subtype had a relatively high prevalence in Dehong, but were rarely detected in other regions of China. There was no significant difference in HCV subtype distribution between Burmese and Chinese IDUs. Few HCV sequences from Burmese and Chinese IDUs clustered together to form transmission clusters. Furthermore, about half of HCV sequences from Burmese IDUs formed small transmission clusters, significantly higher than that from Chinese IDUs (p<0.01). These suggest that the Chinese and Burmese IDUs were relatively isolated from each other in injection drug use behavior and the Burmese IDUs might prefer to inject drugs themselves together. The unique genotype distribution and complex diversity of genotype 6 among IDUs may be associated with the special geographical position of Dehong.

  2. HCV Transmission between serodiscordant couples through sexual route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.S.A.; Khalid, S.R.; Naseer, M.; Mirza, R.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the rate of transmission of HCV between n spouses through sexual route. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. It was conducted over a period of 4 years from June 2009 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: One hundred and sixty eight consecutive patients confirmed to have HCV infection by PCR for HCV RNA were enrolled in the study. Their spouses were also included in the study, and it was established through PCR for HCV RNA that the spouses were not suffering from HCV infection. All couples were inducted in the study within the first two months of starting the study. Therefore, the maximum and minimum follow-up time was 48 months and 46 months, respectively. The spouses were questioned for HCV risk factors and were tested for HCV antibodies six monthly. Once spouses were found to be anti-HCV positive, their HCV status was confirmed with PCR for HCV RNA. Results: Out of 168 patients, 90 (53.57%) were males and 78 (46.43%) were females. PCR for HCV RNA was found to be positive in 4 of 168 (2.38%) spouses. All the se 4 couples in whom HCV transmission was found had genotype 3a. Out of the 4 spouses who tested positive for HCV RNA PCR, 3 (75%) were females and 1 (25%) was male. So HCV infection was transmitted in 3 out of 90 (3.33 %) and 1 out of 78 (1.28%) female and male spouses, respectively. In PCR for HCV RNA positive and negative spouses, the duration of marriage was 202 +- 53 and 199 +- 49 weeks; and the number of total sexual intercourses was 171 +- 93 and 169 +- 89, respectively. Conclusion: HCV transmission among serodiscordant couples in our setup did occur. The overall rate of transmission was 2.38%. The rate of transmission from male to female (3.33%) was higher than female to male (1.28%). However, a large scale study conducted over a longer duration of time is needed to recommend protected sex in serodiscordant couples if either partner is suffering

  3. HCV Core Antigen Testing for Diagnosis of HCV Infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiman, J. Morgan; Tran, Trang M.; Schumacher, Samuel G; White, Laura F.; Ongarello, Stefano; Cohn, Jennifer; Easterbrook, Philippa J.; Linas, Benjamin P.; Denkinger, Claudia M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection requires both a positive HCV antibody screen and confirmatory nucleic acid test (NAT). HCV core antigen (HCVcAg) is a potential alternative to NAT. Purpose This systematic review evaluated the accuracy of diagnosis of active HCV infection among adults and children for five HCVcAg tests compared to NAT. Data Sources EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane from 1990 through March 31, 2016. Study Selection Cohort, cross-sectional, and randomized controlled trials were included without language restriction Data Extraction Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed quality using an adapted Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool. Data Synthesis 44 studies evaluated 5 index tests. Studies for the ARCHITECT had the highest quality, while those for Ortho ELISA were the lowest. From bivariate analyses, the sensitivity and specificity with 95% CI were: ARCHITECT 93.4% (90.1, 96.4) and 98.8% (97.4, 99.5), Ortho ELISA 93.2% (81.6, 97.7) and 99.2% (87.9, 100), and Hunan Jynda 59.5% (46.0, 71.7) and 82.9% (58.6, 94.3). Insufficient data were available for a meta-analysis for Lumipulse and Lumispot. In three quantitative studies using ARCHITECT, HCVcAg correlated closely with HCV RNA above 3000 IU/mL. Limitations There was insufficient data on covariates such as HIV or HBV status for sub-group analyses. Few studies reported genotypes of isolates and there were scant data for genotypes 4, 5, and 6. Most studies were conducted in high resource settings within reference laboratories. Conclusions HCVcAg assays with signal amplification have high sensitivity, high specificity, and good correlation with HCV RNA above 3000 IU/mL. HCVcAg assays have the potential to replace NAT in high HCV prevalence settings. PMID:27322622

  4. Detection and Quantification of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) by MultiCode-RTx Real-Time PCR Targeting the HCV 3′ Untranslated Region▿

    OpenAIRE

    Mulligan, Elizabeth K.; Germer, J. J.; Arens, Max Q.; D'Amore, Krista L.; Di Bisceglie, Adrian; Ledeboer, Nathan A.; Moser, Michael J.; Newman, Andrew C.; O'Guin, Andy K.; Olivo, Paul D.; Podzorski, Diane S.; Vaughan, Kimberly A.; Yao, Joseph D.; Elagin, Slava A.; Johnson, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    A prototype, real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay, based on MultiCode-RTx technology, quantifying hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA by targeting the HCV 3′ untranslated region demonstrated linearity over 7 logs, with a good correlation between the quantitative results of this assay and the results of two commercially available comparator assays for 466 clinical specimens comprising all six HCV genotypes.

  5. Ongoing Transmission of HCV: Should Cesarean Section be Justified? Data Mining Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrazek, Abd; Saab, Samy; Foad, Mahmoud; Elgohary, Elsayed A; Sallam, Mohammad M; Nawara, Abdallah; Ismael, Ali; Morsi, Samar S; Salah, Altaher; Alboraie, Mohamed; Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Zayed, Marwa; Elmasry, Hossam; Salem, Tamer Z

    2017-03-01

    Over the past few decades, cesarean section (CS) rates are steadily increasing in most of the middle- and high-income countries. However, most of the pregnant women (particularly undergoing CS) are not screened for hepatitis C virus (HCV); hence, neonates born to HCV-positive mother could be a source of future HCV infection. In this study, the role of the CS and other surgical interventions in HCV transmission in Egypt, the highest endemic country of HCV-4, was investigated. From January to June 2016, a prospective cohort study was conducted among 3,836 pregnant women in both urban and rural areas across Egypt for HCV screening in both mothers and neonates born to HCV-positive mother. All pregnant women were screened during third trimester or just before delivery, neonates born to HCV-positive mothers were evaluated within 24-h postdelivery to record vertical transmission cases. Data mining (DM)-driven computational analysis was used to quantify the findings. Among 3,836 randomized pregnant women, HCV genotype 4 was identified in 80 women (2.08%). Out of 80 HCV-infected women, 18 have experienced surgical intervention (22.5%) and 62 CS (77.5%). HCV vertical transmission was identified in 10 neonates, 10/80 (12.5%). Screening women who had experienced surgical intervention or CS during child bearing period and before pregnancy might prevent HCV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). CS should be ethically justified to decrease global HCV transmission.

  6. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection and HCV genotypes among hemophiliacs in the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil: analysis of serological and virological parameters Prevalência da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C e genótipos entre hemofílicos no Estado da Bahia, nordeste do Brasil: análise de parâmetros sorológicos e virológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Kalabric Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze HCV serological and virological parameters from hemophiliacs in the State of Bahia. Anti-HCV was investigated by ELISA in a cohort of 268 hemophiliacs A/B who were followed-up in a reference unit for hemotherapy in the State of Bahia. HCV viremia and genotypes were also determined from a subset of 66 anti-HCV seropositive hemophiliacs. Seroprevalence among hemophiliacs was 42.2% (95% CI 36.5-48.1 and was significantly higher (p10 years, presence of factor VIII/IX inhibitory antibodies and other infection markers. None of the hemophiliacs less than 5 years of age were anti-HCV seropositive. Viremia was detectable in 77.3% (51/66. HCV genotype 1 (74% was the most prevalent followed by genotype 3 (22% and genotype 2 (4%. Our results indicate that HCV prevalence is still high among hemophiliacs, although HCV transmission was not observed in young hemophiliacs.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar parâmetros sorológicos e virológicos em hemofílicos no Estado da Bahia. O anti-VHC foi investigado por ELISA em uma coorte de 268 hemofílicos A/B sob acompanhamento em uma unidade de referência do Estado da Bahia. A viremia do VHC e genótipos foram determinados em um subgrupo de 66 hemofílicos soropositivos para o anti-VHC. A soroprevalência do anti-VHC entre os hemofílicos foi de 42,2% (IC 95% 36,5-48,1 e foi associada significativamente (p10 anos, presença de anticorpos antifator VIII/IX e outros marcadores sorológicos de infecção. Nenhum dos hemofílicos com idade inferior a 5 anos foram anti-VHC positivos. A viremia foi detectada em 77,3% (51/66, sendo o genótipo 1 do VHC (74% o mais prevalente, seguido pelos genótipos 3 (22% e 2 (4%. Nossos resultados indicam que a prevalência do VHC é ainda alta entre os hemofílicos, muito embora a transmissão não tenha sido observada entre os menores de 5 anos.

  7. Pharmacodynamics of PEG-IFN alpha-2a and HCV response as a function of IL28B polymorphism in HIV/HCV co-infected patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Evaldo Stanislau Affonso; Dahari, Harel; Cotler, Scott J; Layden, Thomas J; Neumann, Avidan U; Melo, Carlos Eduardo; Barone, Antonio Alci

    2011-01-01

    We examined the association between IL28B single-nucleotide-polymorphism rs12979860, hepatitis C virus (HCV) kinetic and pegylated-interferon-alpha-2a pharmacodynamic parameters in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients from South America. Twenty-six subjects received PEG-IFN-alpha-2a+ribavirin. Serum HCV-RNA and interferon concentrations were measured frequently during the first 12-weeks of therapy and analyzed using mathematical models. African Americans and Whites had a similar distribution of IL28B genotypes (p=0.5). The CC genotype was overrepresented (p=0.015) in patients infected with HCV genotype-3 compared to genotype-1. In both genotype-1 and genotype-3, the first-phase-viral decline and the average PEG-IFN-alpha-2a effectiveness during the first week of therapy were larger (trend P≤0.12) in genotype-CC compared with genotypes-TC/TT. In genotype-1 patients, the second-slower phase of viral decline (days 2–29) and infected-cells-loss rate, δ, were larger (p=0.02 and 0.11, respectively) in genotype-CC than in genotypes-TC/TT. These associations were not observed in genotype-3 patients. PMID:21157362

  8. Pharmacodynamics of PEG-IFN-[alpha]-2a and HCV response as a function of IL28B polymorphism in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Evaldo Stanislau Affonso; Dahari, Harel; Cotler, Scott J; Layden, Thomas J; Neumann, Avidan U; Melo, Carlos Eduardo; Barone, Antonio Alci

    2011-02-01

    We examined the association between IL28B single-nucleotide polymorphism rs12979860, hepatitis C virus (HCV) kinetic, and pegylated interferon alpha-2a pharmacodynamic parameters in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients from South America. Twenty-six subjects received pegylated interferon alpha-2a + ribavirin. Serum HCV-RNA and interferon concentrations were measured frequently during the first 12 weeks of therapy and analyzed using mathematical models. African Americans and whites had a similar distribution of IL28B genotypes (P = 0.5). The IL28B CC genotype was overrepresented (P = 0.015) in patients infected with HCV genotype-3 compared with genotype-1. In both genotype-1 and genotype-3, the first-phase viral decline and the average pegylated interferon-alpha-2a effectiveness during the first week of therapy were larger (trend P <= 0.12) in genotype-CC compared with genotypes-TC/TT. In genotype-1 patients, the second slower phase of viral decline (days 2-29) and infected cells loss rate, [delta], were larger (P = 0.02 and 0.11, respectively) in genotype-CC than in genotypes-TC/TT. These associations were not observed in genotype-3 patients.

  9. Changes in epidemiological patterns of HCV infection and their impact on liver disease over the last 20 years in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvas, S P; Koskinas, J; Sinani, C; Hadziyannis, A; Spanou, F; Hadziyannis, S J

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relative frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in Greek patients with chronic infection as well as possible secular changes in their distribution in relation to modes of transmission, age and time at acquisition of the infection and other variables. We evaluated 434 unselected patients, 241 males and 193 females with a median age of 46.2 years (18-75), with chronic HCV infection presenting during the period 1996-2000. HCV infection was confirmed by the detection of HCV-RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while HCV genotyping was performed by the Inno-LiPA assay. Liver biopsies were evaluated according to Ishak's scoring system. Of 434 patients, 167 had a history of blood transfusion [post-transfusion hepatitis (PTH)], 80 were i.v. drug users and in 187 the route of infection remained unknown. The overall distribution of HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 47, 8.3, 27 and 15.2%, respectively. Genotype 3 was common in younger adults and i.v. drug users, whereas genotype 1 predominated in older people and PTH patients (P duration of infection (P = 0.013). Our study revealed a change of HCV genotype distribution in the last 20 years among Greek patients with chronic HCV infection as a result of epidemiological changes in HCV transmission. The presence of cirrhosis was associated only with the duration of infection. These observations have impact both on prevention and treatment.

  10. The HCV Synthesis Project: Scope, methodology, and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheinmann Roberta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hepatitis C virus (HCV is hyper-endemic in injecting drug users. There is also excess HCV among non-injection drug users who smoke, snort, or sniff heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine. Methods To summarize the research literature on HCV in drug users and identify gaps in knowledge, we conducted a synthesis of the relevant research carried out between 1989 and 2006. Using rigorous search methods, we identified and extracted data from published and unpublished reports of HCV among drug users. We designed a quality assurance system to ensure accuracy and consistency in all phases of the project. We also created a set of items to assess study design quality in each of the reports we included. Results We identified 629 reports containing HCV prevalence rates, incidence rates and/or genotype distribution among injecting or non-injecting drug user populations published between January 1989 and December 2006. The majority of reports were from Western Europe (41%, North America (26%, Asia (11% and Australia/New Zealand (10%. We also identified reports from Eastern Europe, South America, the Middle East, and the Caribbean. The number of publications reporting HCV rates in drug users increased dramatically between 1989 and 2006 to 27–52 reports per year after 1998. Conclusion The data collection and quality assurance phases of the HCV Synthesis Project have been completed. Recommendations for future research on HCV in drug users have come out of our data collection phase. Future research reports can enhance their contributions to our understanding of HCV etiology by clearly defining their drug user participants with respect to type of drug and route of administration. Further, the use of standard reporting methods for risk factors would enable data to be combined across a larger set of studies; this is especially important for HCV seroconversion studies which suffer from small sample sizes and low power to examine risk

  11. An Open-Label Trial of 12-Week Simeprevir plus Peginterferon/Ribavirin (PR in Treatment-Naïve Patients with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Genotype 1 (GT1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Asselah

    Full Text Available Shortening duration of peginterferon-based HCV treatment reduces associated burden for patients. Primary objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy against the minimally acceptable response rate 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12 and safety of simeprevir plus PR in treatment-naïve HCV GT1 patients treated for 12 weeks. Additional objectives included the investigation of potential associations of rapid viral response and baseline factors with SVR12.In this Phase III, open-label study in treatment-naïve HCV GT1 patients with F0-F2 fibrosis, patients with HCV-RNA 12-week regimen.Overall SVR12 rate (66% was below the target of 80%, indicating that shortening of treatment with simeprevir plus PR to 12 weeks based on very early response is not effective. However, baseline factors associated with higher SVR12 rates were identified. Therefore, while Week 2 response alone is insufficient to predict efficacy, GT1 patients with favourable baseline factors may benefit from a shortened simeprevir plus PR regimen.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01846832.

  12. Equitable access to HCV care in HIV-HCV co-infection can be achieved despite barriers to health care provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis L Cooper

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Curtis L Cooper1, Celine Giordano1, Dave Mackie1, Edward J Mills21The University of Ottawa Division of Infectious Diseases Viral Hepatitis Program, Ottawa, Canada; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, CanadaAbstract: Language barrier, race, immigration status, mental health illness, substance abuse and socioeconomic status are often not considered when evaluating hepatitis C virus (HCV sustained virological response (SVR in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. The influence of these factors on HCV work-up, treatment initiation and SVR were assessed in an HIV–HCV coinfected population and compared to patients with HCV mono-infection. The setting was a publicly funded, urban-based, multidisciplinary viral hepatitis clinic. A clinical database was utilized to identify HIV and HCV consults between June 2000 and June 2007. Measures of access to HCV care (ie, liver biopsy and HCV antiviral initiation and SVR as a function of the above variables were evaluated and compared between patients with HIV–HCV and HCV. HIV–HCV co-infected (n = 106 and HCV mono-infected (n = 802 patients were evaluated. HIV–HCV patients were more often white (94% versus 84% and male (87% versus 69%. Bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis on biopsy was more frequent in HIV–HCV (37% versus 22%; P = 0.03. HIV infection itself did not influence access to biopsy (50% versus 52% or treatment initiation (39% versus 38%. Race, language barrier, immigration status, injection drug history and socioeconomic status did not influence access to biopsy or treatment. SVR was 54% in HCV and 30% in HIV–HCV (P = 0.003. Genotype and HIV were the only evaluated variables to predict SVR. Within the context of a socialized, multidisciplinary clinic, HIV–HCV co-infected patients received similar access to HCV work-up and care as HCV mono-infected patients. SVR is diminished in HIV–HCV co-infection independent of language barrier, race, immigration status, or

  13. Infection with concurrent multiple hepatitis C virus genotypes is associated with faster HIV disease progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asten, Liselotte; Prins, Maria

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the importance of hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genotype in HIV disease progression. DESIGN: This study was conducted among 126 HIV/HCV co-infected drug users with a known interval of HIV seroconversion whose HCV genotype was known early in HIV infection. Both clinical progression

  14. A method for near full-length amplification and sequencing for six hepatitis C virus genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bull, Rowena A.; Eltahla, Auda A.; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; Walker, Melanie; Pirozyan, Mehdi R.; Betz-Stablein, Brigid; Toepfer, Armin; Laird, Melissa; Oh, Steve; Heiner, Cheryl; Maher, Lisa; Schinkel, Janke; Lloyd, Andrew R.; Luciani, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a rapidly evolving RNA virus that has been classified into seven genotypes. All HCV genotypes cause chronic hepatitis, which ultimately leads to liver diseases such as cirrhosis. The genotypes are unevenly distributed across the globe, with genotypes 1 and 3 being the most

  15. Analytical and clinical performance of the Hologic Aptima HCV Quant Dx Assay for the quantification of HCV RNA in plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schønning, Kristian; Pedersen, Martin Schou; Johansen, Kim; Landt, Bodil; Nielsen, Lone Gilmor; Weis, Nina; Westh, Henrik

    2017-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can be effectively treated with directly acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. Measurement of HCV RNA is used to evaluate patient compliance and virological response during and after treatment. To compare the analytical performance of the Aptima HCV Quant Dx Assay (Aptima) and the COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HCV Test v2.0 (CAPCTMv2) for the quantification of HCV RNA in plasma samples, and compare the clinical utility of the two tests in patients undergoing treatment with DAA therapy. Analytical performance was evaluated on two sets of plasma samples: 125 genotyped samples and 172 samples referred for quantification of HCV RNA. Furthermore, performance was evaluated using dilutions series of four samples containing HCV genotype 1a, 2b, 3a, and 4a, respectively. Clinical utility was evaluated on 118 plasma samples obtained from 13 patients undergoing treatment with DAAs. Deming regression of results from 187 plasma samples with HCV RNA >2 Log IU/mL indicated that the Aptima assay quantified higher than the CAPCTMv2 test for HCV RNA >4.9 Log IU/mL. The linearity of the Aptima assay was excellent across dilution series of four HCV genotypes (slope of the regression line: 1.00-1.02). The Aptima assay detected significantly more replicates below targeted 2 Log IU/mL than the CAPCTMv2 test, and yielded clearly interpretable results when used to analyze samples from patients treated with DAAs. The analytical performance of the Aptima assay makes it well suited for monitoring patients with chronic HCV infection undergoing antiviral treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of serotonin 2A receptor as a novel HCV entry factor by a chemical biology strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lin; Chen, Jizheng; Wang, Yaxin; Yang, Yuting; Qing, Jie; Rao, Zihe; Chen, Xinwen; Lou, Zhiyong

    2018-03-14

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. Although several HCV protease/polymerase inhibitors were recently approved by U.S. FDA, the combination of antivirals targeting multiple processes of HCV lifecycle would optimize anti-HCV therapy and against potential drug-resistance. Viral entry is an essential target step for antiviral development, but FDA-approved HCV entry inhibitor remains exclusive. Here we identify serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT 2A R) is a HCV entry factor amendable to therapeutic intervention by a chemical biology strategy. The silencing of 5-HT 2A R and clinically available 5-HT 2A R antagonist suppress cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) in different liver cells and primary human hepatocytes at late endocytosis process. The mechanism is related to regulate the correct plasma membrane localization of claudin 1 (CLDN1). Moreover, phenoxybenzamine (PBZ), an FDA-approved 5-HT 2A R antagonist, inhibits all major HCV genotypes in vitro and displays synergy in combination with clinical used anti-HCV drugs. The impact of PBZ on HCV genotype 2a is documented in immune-competent humanized transgenic mice. Our results not only expand the understanding of HCV entry, but also present a promising target for the invention of HCV entry inhibitor.

  17. HCV and Oxidative Stress: Implications for HCV Life Cycle and HCV-Associated Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Medvedev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HCV (hepatitis C virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family that contains a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of approximately 9600 bases. HCV is a major causative agent for chronic liver diseases such as steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma which are caused by multifactorial processes. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS are considered as a major factor contributing to HCV-associated pathogenesis. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in formation of ROS in HCV replicating cells and describes the interference of HCV with ROS detoxifying systems. The relevance of ROS for HCV-associated pathogenesis is reviewed with a focus on the interference of elevated ROS levels with processes controlling liver regeneration. The overview about the impact of ROS for the viral life cycle is focused on the relevance of autophagy for the HCV life cycle and the crosstalk between HCV, elevated ROS levels, and the induction of autophagy.

  18. (HCV) among alcoholics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-12-21

    Dec 21, 2010 ... and seventy (270) alcoholics and fifty (50) control subjects at selected locations in Jos South local ... subjects. Overall, the prevalence of HCV infection was found to be 45(16.7%) in response to alcoholics while the non-alcoholic (control) subjects recorded 3 (6.0%) positivity, [(x2 ... the family Flaviviridae.

  19. [Biliary and kidney lithiasis during treatment with daclatasvir/sofosbuvir/ribavirin and atazanavir/ritonavir + abacavir/lamivudine in an HIV/HCV genotype 4-infected patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavassori, Andrea; Lanza, Paola; Izzo, Ilaria; Casari, Salvatore; Odolini, Silvia; Zaltron, Serena; Festa, Elena; Castelli, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    New Direct-acting Antiviral Agents (DAA)-based anti-HCV therapies currently provide extraordinary opportunities to cure patients. Drug-drug interactions are however a real challenge during treatment. In particular, in HIV-infected patients in cART, DAA choice is limited by such interactions, which can result both in reduced efficacy and toxicity. We report the case of a HIV-infected patient on cART with atazanavir/ritonavir/abacavir/lamivudine, who presented kidney and biliary lithiasis, the latter treated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy, after beginning anti-HCV treatment with daclatasvir/sofosbuvir/ribavirin. Hyperbilirubinemia with or without jaundice is a well known side effect of atazanavir, because of its inhibition of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyl transferase. We speculate that in this case hyperbilirubinemia worsening was due to atazanavir/ribavirin co-administration. However, pharmacokinetic data are lacking about atazanavir/daclatasvir concomitant administration in real life setting.

  20. HCV Virus and Lymphoid Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tsutsumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is one of the viruses known to cause hepatic cancer. HCV is also believed to be involved in malignant lymphoma. In this paper, we investigated characteristics of malignant lymphoma cases that were anti-HCV antibody (HCV-Ab positive. We were able to perform pathological examinations on 13 out of 14 HCV-positive cases. Of these, lymphoid tissues of 10 stained positive for HCV-Ab. There was no significant correlation between the degree of HCV staining and the rate of recurrence or resistance to treatment. However, there did appear to be a consistent decrease in the amount of HCV-RNA between pre- and posttreatment among HCV-Ab-positive cases; that is, treatment-resistant cases that exhibited resistance from the first treatment and recurrent cases more frequently had a higher HCV level at treatment termination compared to the pretreatment level. This suggests that the HCV virus either accelerates oncogenesis by direct interaction with B cells or indirectly affects lymphoma prognosis.

  1. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Pakistan: a systemic review

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    Ali Ijaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim Phylogenetic analysis has led to the classification of hepatitis C virus (HCV into 1-6 major genotypes. HCV genotypes have different biological properties, clinical outcome and response to antiviral treatment and provide important clues for studying the epidemiology, transmission and pathogenesis. This article deepens the current molecular information about the geographical distribution of HCV genotypes and subgenotypes in population of four provinces of Pakistan. 34 published papers (1996-2011 related to prevalence of HCV genotypes/serotypes and subgenotypes in Pakistan were searched. Result HCV genotype/s distribution from all 34 studies was observed in 28,400 HCV infected individuals in the following pattern: 1,999 (7.03% cases of genotype 1; 1,085 (3.81% cases of genotype 2; 22,429 (78.96% cases of genotype 3; 453 (1.59% cases of genotype 4; 29 (0.10% cases of genotype 5; 37 (0.13% cases of genotype 6; 1,429 (5.03% cases of mixed genotypes, and 939 (3.30% cases of untypeable genotypes. Overall, genotype 3a was the predominant genotype with a rate of 55.10%, followed by genotype 1a, 3b and mixed genotype with a rate of 10.25%, 8.20%, and 5.08%, respectively; and genotypes 4, 5 and 6 were rare. Genotype 3 occurred predominately in all the provinces of Pakistan. Second more frequently genotype was genotype 1 in Punjab province and untypeable genotypes in Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan provinces.

  2. Effects of HCV proteins in current HCV transgenic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jian; Wang, Jiangbin; Sallberg, Matii

    2010-02-01

    Hepatits C virus (HCV) is an enveloped virus with positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome that causes both acute and persistent infections associated with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which needs fully functional human hepatocytes for its development. Due to the strict human tropism of HCV, only human and higher primates such as chimpanzees have been receptive to HCV infection and development, cognition about pathophysiololgy and host immune responses of HCV infection is limited by lacking of simple laboratory models of infection for a long time. During the past decade, gene transfer approaches have been helpful to the understanding of the molecular basis of human disease. Transgenic cell lines, chimeric and transgenic animal models were developed and had been demonstrated their invaluable benefits. This review focuses on the existing HCV transgenic models and summarize the relative results about probable pathophysical changes induced by HCV proteins.

  3. Seasonal prevailing surface winds in Northern Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Ivana; Gavrilov, Milivoj B.; Marković, Slobodan B.; Ruman, Albert; Putniković, Suzana

    2018-02-01

    Seasonal prevailing surface winds are analyzed in the territory of Northern Serbia, using observational data from 12 meteorological stations over several decades. In accordance with the general definition of prevailing wind, two special definitions of this term are used. The seasonal wind roses in 16 directions at each station are analyzed. This study shows that the prevailing winds in Northern Serbia have northwestern and southeastern directions. Circulation weather types over Serbia are presented in order to determine the connections between the synoptic circulations and prevailing surface winds. Three controlling pressure centers, i.e., the Mediterranean cyclone, Siberian high, and the Azores anticyclone, appear as the most important large-scale factors that influence the creation of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia. Beside the synoptic cause of the prevailing winds, it is noted that the orography of the eastern Balkans has a major influence on the winds from the second quadrant. It was found that the frequencies of circulation weather types are in agreement with those of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia.

  4. Vaccine-induced cross-genotype reactive neutralizing antibodies against hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Gottwein, Judith M; Houghton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We detected cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (NtAb) against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in chimpanzees vaccinated with HCV-1 (genotype 1a) recombinant E1/E2 envelope glycoproteins. Five vaccinated chimpanzees, protected following HCV-1 challenge, were initially studied using the heterologous H77...... (genotype 1a) HCVpp assay. All animals had developed NtAb after the second vaccination; 4 animals had reciprocal titers of =200 at the time of challenge. Using genotypes 1a-6a HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp) and cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) assays, cross-reactive NtAb were detected against 1a, 4a, 5a, and 6...

  5. Impact of HCV kinetics on treatment outcome differs by the type of real-time HCV assay in NS3/4A protease inhibitor-based triple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Furusyo, Norihiro; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Takeo; Shimizu, Motohiro; Mukae, Haru; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Hotta, Taeko; Uchiumi, Takeshi; Hayashi, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Repeated measurement of the HCV RNA level is essential for properly monitoring treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of two HCV real-time assays in the evaluation of the impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) kinetics on the outcome of triple therapy with NS3/4A protease inhibitors (PIs), telaprevir or simeprevir. This study consisted of 171 Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1. All 3266 serum samples taken during and post treatment were tested with both the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM) HCV Test v2.0 and the Abbott RealTime (ART) HCV Test. Of the 2597 samples undetectable (lower limit of detection [HCV RNA by the CAP/CTM assay from the on and post treatment, 400 (15.4%) (369 detectable/less than the lower limitation of quantification [HCV RNA HCV RNA being once HCV RNA (detectable/HCV RNA after 12 weeks (without PI-treatment period). The superior ability to detect low-level HCV RNA by ART could be useful for predicting SVR by difficult-to-treat patients in the early period and relapse in the late period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in the South Marmara Region

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    Harun Agca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hepatitis C virus (HCV is an important caustive agent of hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma both in our country and the world. Prognosis and response to treatment is related with the genotype of HCV which has six genotypes and over a hundred quasispecies. Knowing the HCV genotype is also important for epidemiological data. In this study we aimed to investigate the HCV genotypes of samples sent to Uludag University Hospital Microbiology Laboratory which is the reference centre in the South Marmara Region. Material and Method: This study was done retrospectively to analyse the HCV patients%u2019 sera sent to our laboratory between July 2010and December 2012 for HCV genotyping. Artus HCV QS-RGQ PCR kit (Qiagene,Hilden, Germany was used in Rotor-Gene Q (Qiagene, Hilden Germany for detection of HCV RNA. HCV RNA positive samples of patients%u2019 sera were were used for genotyping by the Linear Array HCV genotyping test (Roche, NJ, USA.Results: 214 (92.6 % of total 231 patients included in the study were genotype 1, one (0.4 % was genotype 2, nine (3.9 % were genotype 3 and, seven (3.4 % were found genotype 4. Three of genotype 3 patients were of foreign nationality, two were born abroad and one of the genotype 4 patients were born abroad. Discussion: Concordant with our country data the most frequent genotype was 1, genotype 2 was seen in patients especially related with foreign countries and genotype 4 was seen rare. The importance of genotype 1, which is seen more frequent in our country and region is; resistance to antiviral treatment and prolonged treatment duration in chronic hepatitis C patients.

  7. Discrepancy between Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes and NS4-Based Serotypes: Association with Their Subgenomic Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Nwe Win

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of hepatitis C virus (HCV genotypes plays an important role in the direct-acting agent era. Discrepancies between HCV genotyping and serotyping assays are occasionally observed. Eighteen samples with discrepant results between genotyping and serotyping methods were analyzed. HCV serotyping and genotyping were based on the HCV nonstructural 4 (NS4 region and 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR, respectively. HCV core and NS4 regions were chosen to be sequenced and were compared with the genotyping and serotyping results. Deep sequencing was also performed for the corresponding HCV NS4 regions. Seventeen out of 18 discrepant samples could be sequenced by the Sanger method. Both HCV core and NS4 sequences were concordant with that of genotyping in the 5′-UTR in all 17 samples. In cloning analysis of the HCV NS4 region, there were several amino acid variations, but each sequence was much closer to the peptide with the same genotype. Deep sequencing revealed that minor clones with different subgenotypes existed in two of the 17 samples. Genotyping by genome amplification showed high consistency, while several false reactions were detected by serotyping. The deep sequencing method also provides accurate genotyping results and may be useful for analyzing discrepant cases. HCV genotyping should be correctly determined before antiviral treatment.

  8. Natural killer KIR3DS1 is closely associated with HCV viral clearance and sustained virological response in HIV/HCV patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rivero-Juarez

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the influence of the presence of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR 3DS1 on HCV treatment response in HIV/HCV genotype 1 co-infected patients. METHODS: HIV/HCV co-infected patients were included. KIR3DS1, their specific HLA-B ligands and IL28B gene were genotyped. Reductions of plasma HCV RNA levels between baseline and week 1, week 2 and week 4 were analyzed for IL28B genotype and KIR3DS1 (HLA Bw4 or Bw6. Rapid and sustained virological response (RVR and SVR rates were also analyzed. RESULTS: Sixty HIV/HCV genotype 1 co-infected patients were included. Patients with KIR3DS1 and Bw4 had higher rates of HCV viral decline than those who were not carriers of KIR3DS1 (week 1: p = 0.01; week 2: p = 0.038; week 4: p = 0.03. Patients carrying KIR3DS1/Bw4 had higher rates of RVR and SVR than those who did not carry KIR3DS1 (RVR: 46.15% versus 17.02%, p = 0.012; SVR: 63.6% versus 13 26.5%, p = 0.031. With respect to patients carrying the IL28B-CC genotype, those with KIR3DS1/Bw4 had greater rates of HCV viral clearance (week 1: p<0.001; week 2: p = 0.01; week 4: p = 0.02, RVR (p = 0.015 and SVR (p = 0.029 than those not carrying KIR3DS1. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the KIR3DS1 genotype has a positive effect on HCV viral clearance during the first weeks of Peg-IFN/RBV treatment in HCV/HCV co-infected patients bearing genotype 1, and higher RVR and SVR rates.

  9. HCV kinetic and modeling analyses project shorter durations to cure under combined therapy with daclatasvir and asunaprevir in chronic HCV-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Canini

    Full Text Available High cure rates are achieved in HCV genotype-1b patients treated with daclatasvir and asunaprevir, DCV/ASV. Here we analyzed early HCV kinetics in genotype-1b infected Japanese subjects treated with DCV/ASV and retrospectively projected, using mathematical modeling, whether shorter treatment durations might be effective.HCV RNA levels were measured frequently during DCV/ASV therapy in 95 consecutively treated patients at a single center in Japan. Mathematical modeling was used to predict the time to cure, i.e, <1 virus copy in the extracellular body fluid. Patients with HCV<15 IU/ml at week 1 (n = 27 were excluded from modeling analysis due to insufficient HCV RNA data points.Eighty nine of the 95 included patients (94% achieved cure, 3 (3% relapsed due to treatment-emergent resistance, and 3 (3% completed therapy but were lost during follow up. Model fits from 68 patients with sufficient data points indicate that after a short pharmacological delay (15.4 min [relative standard error, rse = 26%], DCV/ASV effectiveness in blocking HCV production was 0.999 [rse~0%], HCV half-life in blood was t1/2 = 1.7 hr [rse = 21%], and HCV-infected cell loss rate was 0.391/d [rse = 5%]. Modeling predicted that 100% and 98.5% of patients who had HCV<15 IU/ml at days 14 and 28 might have been cured with 6 and 8 weeks of therapy, respectively. There was a trend (p = 0.058 between younger age and shorter time to cure.Modeling early HCV kinetics under DCV/ASV predicts that most patients would achieve cure with short treatment durations, suggesting that 24 weeks of DCV/ASV treatment can be significantly shortened.

  10. HCV kinetic and modeling analyses project shorter durations to cure under combined therapy with daclatasvir and asunaprevir in chronic HCV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canini, Laetitia; Imamura, Michio; Kawakami, Yoshiiku; Uprichard, Susan L; Cotler, Scott J; Dahari, Harel; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2017-01-01

    High cure rates are achieved in HCV genotype-1b patients treated with daclatasvir and asunaprevir, DCV/ASV. Here we analyzed early HCV kinetics in genotype-1b infected Japanese subjects treated with DCV/ASV and retrospectively projected, using mathematical modeling, whether shorter treatment durations might be effective. HCV RNA levels were measured frequently during DCV/ASV therapy in 95 consecutively treated patients at a single center in Japan. Mathematical modeling was used to predict the time to cure, i.e, <1 virus copy in the extracellular body fluid. Patients with HCV<15 IU/ml at week 1 (n = 27) were excluded from modeling analysis due to insufficient HCV RNA data points. Eighty nine of the 95 included patients (94%) achieved cure, 3 (3%) relapsed due to treatment-emergent resistance, and 3 (3%) completed therapy but were lost during follow up. Model fits from 68 patients with sufficient data points indicate that after a short pharmacological delay (15.4 min [relative standard error, rse = 26%]), DCV/ASV effectiveness in blocking HCV production was 0.999 [rse~0%], HCV half-life in blood was t1/2 = 1.7 hr [rse = 21%], and HCV-infected cell loss rate was 0.391/d [rse = 5%]. Modeling predicted that 100% and 98.5% of patients who had HCV<15 IU/ml at days 14 and 28 might have been cured with 6 and 8 weeks of therapy, respectively. There was a trend (p = 0.058) between younger age and shorter time to cure. Modeling early HCV kinetics under DCV/ASV predicts that most patients would achieve cure with short treatment durations, suggesting that 24 weeks of DCV/ASV treatment can be significantly shortened.

  11. A comparative evaluation between real time Roche COBas TAQMAN 48 HCV and bDNA Bayer Versant HCV 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldi, Cristina; Noto, Alessandra; Tenuta, Robert; Greco, Francesca; Perugini, Daniela; Spadafora, Mario; Bianco, Anna Maria Lo; Savino, Olga; Natale, Alfonso

    2006-10-01

    The HCV virus is a common human pathogen made of a single stranded RNA genome with 9600nt. This work compared two different commercial methods used for HCV viral load, the bDNA Bayer Versant HCV 3.0 and the RealTime Roche COBAS TaqMan 48 HCV. We compared the reproducibility and linearity of the two methods. Seventy-five plasma samples with genotypes 1 to 4, which represent the population (45% genotype 1; 24% genotype 2; 13% genotype 3; 18% genotype 4) were directly processed with the Versanto method based upon signal amplification; the same samples were first extracted (COBAS Ampliprep - TNAI) and then amplified using RealTime PCR (COBAS TaqMan 48). The results obtained indicate the same performance for both methods if they have genotype 1, but in samples with genotypes 2, 3 and 4 the RealTime PCR Roche method gave an underestimation in respect to the Bayer bDNA assay.

  12. [Clinical benefit of HCV core antigen assay in patients receiving interferon and ribavirin combination therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimoto, Makiko; Takahashi, Masahiko; Jokyu, Ritsuko; Saito, Hidetsugu

    2006-02-01

    A highly sensitive second generation HCV core antigen assay has recently been developed. We compared viral disappearance and kinetics data between commercially available core antigen assays, Lumipulse Ortho HCV Ag, and a quantitative HCV RNA PCR assay, Cobas Amplicor HCV Monitor Test, Version 2 to estimate the predictive benefit of sustained viral response (SVR) and non-SVR in 59 patients treated with interferon and ribavirin combination therapy. We found a good correlation between HCV core Ag and HCV RNA level regardless of genotype. Although the sensitivity of the core antigen assay was lower than PCR, the dynamic range was broader than that of the PCR assay, so that we did not need to dilute the samples in 59 patients. We detected serial decline of core Ag levels in 24 hrs, 7 days and 14 days after interferon combination therapy. The decline of core antigen levels was significant in SVR patients compared to non-SVR as well as in genotype 2a, 2b patients compared to 1b. Core antigen-negative on day 1 could predict all 10 SVR patients (PPV = 100%), whereas RNA-negative could predict 22 SVR out of 25 on day 14 (PPV = 88.0%). None of the patients who had detectable serum core antigen on day 14 became SVR(NPV = 100%), although NPV was 91.2% on RNA negativity. An easy, simple, low cost new HCV core antigen detecting system seems to be useful for assessing and monitoring IFN treatment for HCV.

  13. Role of ribavirin in HCV treatment response: now and in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mamta K; Zoellner, Cindy

    2010-03-01

    Ribavirin is a broad spectrum antiviral agent that is used with pegylated IFN (Peg-IFN) for HCV treatment. Ribavirin does not significantly reduce HCV viral load when used alone but increases rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) when combined with Peg-IFN. HCV genotype 1 infected patients require higher doses of ribavirin administered for a longer duration of time versus HCV genotypes 2 and 3 patients who respond effectively to Peg-IFN with lower doses of ribavirin and shorter duration of therapy. Higher serum concentrations of ribavirin are associated with higher response rates but also higher rates of hemolytic anemia which is a dose limiting side effect. Alternatives to current therapy are under clinical evaluation. Systematic literature review of ribavirin use in HCV patients from 1995 to 2009 was conducted. To review the efficacy and safety of ribavirin in current HCV treatment and in new therapies in Phase III clinical trials. Ribavirin is a drug which is essential to produce higher SVR rates both with Peg-IFN and HCV protease inhibitors currently in Phase III clinical trials. Thus, ribavirin is and will remain an important drug to achieving higher SVR rates in HCV infected persons.

  14. CCR5 Haplotypes Influence HCV Serostatus in Caucasian Intravenous Drug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huik, Kristi; Avi, Radko; Carrillo, Andrew; Harper, Nathan; Pauskar, Merit; Sadam, Maarja; Karki, Tõnis; Krispin, Tõnu; Kongo, Ulvi-Kaire; Jermilova, Tatiana; Rüütel, Kristi; Talu, Ave; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Uusküla, Anneli; Ahuja, Sunil K.; He, Weijing; Lutsar, Irja

    2013-01-01

    Background Up to 90% HIV-1 positive intravenous drug users (IDUs) are co-infected with HCV. Although best recognized for its function as a major co-receptor for cell entry of HIV, CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of HCV infection. Here, we investigated whether CCR5 haplotypes influence HIV-1 and HCV seropositivity among 373 Caucasian IDUs from Estonia. Methods Of these IDUs, 56% and 44% were HIV and HCV seropositive, respectively, and 47% were coinfected. 500 blood donors seronegative for HIV and HCV were also evaluated. CCR5 haplotypes (HHA to HHG*2) were derived after genotyping nine CCR2–CCR5 polymorphisms. The association between CCR5 haplotypes with HIV and/or HCV seropositivity was determined using logistic regression analysis. Co-variates included in the models were length of intravenous drug use, HBV serostatus and copy number of CCL3L1, the gene encoding the most potent HIV-suppressive chemokine and ligand for CCR5. Results Compared to IDUs seronegative for both HCV and HIV (HCV−/HIV-), IDUs who were HCV+/HIV- and HCV+/HIV+were 92% and 82%, respectively, less likely to possess the CCR5-HHG*1 haplotype, after controlling for co-variates (Padjusted = 1.89×10−4 and 0.003, respectively). This association was mostly due to subjects bearing the CCR5 HHE and HHG*1 haplotype pairs. Approximately 25% andHIV- IDUs and HCV−/HIV- blood donors, respectively, possessed the HHE/HHG*1 genotype. Conclusions Our findings suggest that HHG*1-bearing CCR5 genotypes influence HCV seropositivity in a group of Caucasian IDUs. PMID:23936229

  15. Structural basis of hepatitis C virus neutralization by broadly neutralizing antibody HCV1

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    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Robbins, Justin B.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun (Scripps)

    2012-10-29

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 2% of the global population and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver diseases. Circulating HCV is genetically diverse, and therefore a broadly effective vaccine must target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Human mAb HCV1 has broad neutralizing activity against HCV isolates from at least four major genotypes and protects in the chimpanzee model from primary HCV challenge. The antibody targets a conserved antigenic site (residues 412-423) on the virus E2 envelope glycoprotein. Two crystal structures of HCV1 Fab in complex with an epitope peptide at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution reveal that the epitope is a {beta}-hairpin displaying a hydrophilic face and a hydrophobic face on opposing sides of the hairpin. The antibody predominantly interacts with E2 residues Leu{sup 413} and Trp{sup 420} on the hydrophobic face of the epitope, thus providing an explanation for how HCV isolates bearing mutations at Asn{sup 415} on the same binding face escape neutralization by this antibody. The results provide structural information for a neutralizing epitope on the HCV E2 glycoprotein and should help guide rational design of HCV immunogens to elicit similar broadly neutralizing antibodies through vaccination.

  16. High prevalence of human parvovirus 4 infection in HBV and HCV infected individuals in shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuelian; Zhang, Jing; Hong, Liang; Wang, Jiayu; Yuan, Zhengan; Zhang, Xi; Ghildyal, Reena

    2012-01-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) has been detected in blood and diverse tissues samples from HIV/AIDS patients who are injecting drug users. Although B19 virus, the best characterized human parvovirus, has been shown to co-infect patients with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus (HBV, HCV) infection, the association of PARV4 with HBV or HCV infections is still unknown.The aim of this study was to characterise the association of viruses belonging to PARV4 genotype 1 and 2 with chronic HBV and HCV infection in Shanghai.Serum samples of healthy controls, HCV infected subjects and HBV infected subjects were retrieved from Shanghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SCDC) Sample Bank. Parvovirus-specific nested-PCR was performed and results confirmed by sequencing. Sequences were compared with reference sequences obtained from Genbank to derive phylogeny trees.The frequency of parvovirus molecular detection was 16-22%, 33% and 41% in healthy controls, HCV infected and HBV infected subjects respectively, with PARV4 being the only parvovirus detected. HCV infected and HBV infected subjects had a significantly higher PARV4 prevalence than the healthy population. No statistical difference was found in PARV4 prevalence between HBV or HCV infected subjects. PARV4 sequence divergence within study groups was similar in healthy subjects, HBV or HCV infected subjects.Our data clearly demonstrate that PARV4 infection is strongly associated with HCV and HBV infection in Shanghai but may not cause increased disease severity.

  17. Epidemiological features and specificities of HCV infection: a hospital-based cohort study in a university medical center of Calabria region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberto MC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidemiological status of HCV in Europe, and in particular in Mediterranean countries, is continuously evolving. The genotype distribution is related to improvement of healthcare conditions, expansion of intravenous drug use and immigration. We review and characterize the epidemiology of the distribution of HCV genotypes within Calabria, an area of Southern Italy. We focus on the pattern of distinct HCV genotype changes over the last 16 years; particularly subtype 1b and genotype 4. We collected data by evaluating a hospital-based cohort of chronic hepatitis C patients; in addition, we report an update including new patients enrolled during last eight months.

  18. Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in volunteer blood donors from Chengdu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tianxiang; Zhao, Xin; Luo, Yijia; Hong, Ying; Li, Shuping; Fu, Xuemei

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant pathogen of global concern. The virus is usually spread through blood contact, such as transfusion, hemodialysis and injection of illegal drugs. HCV genotypes have a geographic distribution in different areas. In this paper, we focus on the distribution of HCV genotypes from volunteer blood donors in Chengdu. The prevalence of genotypes was analyzed using phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the HCV core and NS5B regions from 313 sequences. HCV sequences were classified into six subtypes, and HCV genotypes were determined with the following results: 1b in 283, 2a in 14, 3b in seven, 3a in three, 6a in five and 6u in one. Subtype 1b was the most common and accounted for approximately 90.41 % (283/313), and a virus of subtype 6u was isolated for the first time from the Chengdu area. Genotypes 4 and 5 were not detected.

  19. The importance of HCV RNA measurement for tailoring treatment duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Kai-Henrik; Sarrazin, Christoph

    2013-09-30

    The introduction of telaprevir and boceprevir in the treatment of chronically HCV genotype 1 infected patients has led to substantially improved sustained virologic response rates and shorter treatment duration for a growing group of patients. Management and monitoring of patients receiving protease inhibitor-based triple therapy is of major importance and has become more complicated. Close monitoring of HCV RNA levels for patients on protease inhibitor-based therapy to identify subjects who are eligible for shortening of treatment duration, are virological non-responders or are in danger of experiencing a viral breakthrough is strongly recommended. Several virological tools including qualitative and quantitative HCV RNA assays for detection and quantification of HCV RNA are commercially available. We review these methods and their implications for HCV therapy as well as current sustained virologic response definition, stopping rules and recommendations for protease inhibitor-based treatment durations. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Real-time PCR assays for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA quantitation are adequate for clinical management of patients with chronic HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Philippe; Bourlière, Marc; Pénaranda, Guillaume; Khiri, Hacène; Ouzan, Denis

    2006-07-01

    Because of the use of viral kinetics during polyethylene glycol (PEG)-interferon-ribavirin therapy and the development of specific new anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) drugs, assessment of the efficacy of anti-HCV drugs needs to be based not on end-point PCR assays but on real-time PCR. The aim of this study was to determine if the two available commercial real-time PCR assays, the Abbott RealTime HCV assay and the Roche Cobas TaqMan HCV assay, can become the standard for HCV RNA quantification. We investigated the prognostic relevance of HCV RNA viral loads at baseline, week 4, and week 12 to a rapid and early virological response to antiviral therapy by using the two assays. Of 59 naïve patients chronically infected by HCV (41 infected with genotype 1) who were treated with ribavirin plus PEG-interferon alfa-2b for 48 weeks, 24 patients (41%) showed a sustained virological response (SVR). With the two assays, viral loads were highly correlated, irrespective of genotype (R2=0.94 for all cases). No difference in diagnostic value was found between the Abbott and Roche assays at week 4, with respective negative predictive values (NPVs) of 84% and 78% and positive predictive values (PPVs) of 62% and 56% (not significant), and at week 12, the respective NPVs were 91% and 90% and PPVs were 44% and 46% (not significant). At week 12, 83% (20/24) and 96% (23/24) of patients with SVR tested negative for HCV RNA by the Abbott and Roche assays, respectively (the difference is not significant). In conclusion, the high sensitivities and large dynamic ranges of the Abbott and Roche assays show that a single real-time quantitative PCR assay is fully adequate for clinical and therapeutic management of HCV.

  1. Comparison of on-treatment HCV RNA during direct antiviral therapy using two different COBAS TaqMan HCV assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermehren, Johannes; Bourlière, Marc; Pol, Stanislas; Marcellin, Patrick; Hyland, Robert H; Jiang, Deyuan; Brainard, Diana M; Zeuzem, Stefan; Welzel, Tania M

    2017-04-01

    Repeated measurements of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels during antiviral therapy are recommended to monitor treatment efficacy and adherence. Throughout most direct antiviral agent (DAA) approval studies, HCV RNA cutoffs and endpoints were established with the COBAS TaqMan assay for use with the High Pure System (HPS/CTM). Different assays used in clinical practice may yield different quantitative results and possibly impact treatment decisions. The concordance of the fully-automated COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan assay (CAP/CTM) with HPS/CTM and its ability to predict response to DAA-treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir was assessed in cirrhotic patients with HCV genotype-1-infection who had failed prior treatment with protease inhibitor-based regimens. Serum samples from patients (n=154) treated in the phase-2 SIRIUS-study were collected at baseline and during antiviral therapy (weeks 1-8), and were tested in parallel by both assays. The mean difference between HPS/CTM and CAP/CTM at baseline (n=153) was 0.32 log 10 IU/mL HCV RNA. Discordant results were observed in 12% of samples collected at treatment weeks 1-8, with the greatest differences observed at weeks 2 and 4 (14% and 29%, respectively, for undetectable HCV RNA). SVR rates were 96%-97% in the study and were not significantly different between patients with detectable vs. undetectable HCV RNA according to both assays at weeks 1-4 of antiviral therapy. CAP/CTM and HPS/CTM showed significantly different response rates during the early stages of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir treatment. However, on-treatment response was not predictive of SVR with either assay, indicating that determination of on-treatment HCV RNA levels may not be useful to guide treatment decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-HCV activity of the Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Youki; Mori, Kyoko; Satoh, Shinya; Dansako, Hiromichi; Ikeda, Masanori; Kato, Nobuyuki

    2014-05-02

    Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver diseases and is a global health problem. Although the sustained virologic response rate in the treatment of genotype 1 using new triple therapy (pegylated-interferon, ribavirin, and telaprevir/boceprevir) has been improved by more than 70%, several severe side effects such as skin rash/ageusia and advanced anemia have become a problem. Under these circumstances, a new type of anti-HCV oral drug with few side effects is needed. Our recently developed HCV drug assay systems, including the HuH-7 cell line-derived OR6 and AH1R, and the Li23 cell line-derived ORL8 and ORL11, allow genome-length HCV RNAs (several strains of genotype 1b) encoding renilla luciferase to replicate efficiently. Using these systems as anti-HCV candidates, we have identified numerous existing medicines that can be used against HCV with few side effects, such as statins and teprenon. To obtain additional anti-HCV candidates, we evaluated a number of oral health supplements, and found that the capsule but not the liquid form of Cordyceps militaris (CM) (Ascomycotinanorth, North Chinese caterpillar fungus), which is used as a Chinese herbal medicine, exhibited moderate anti-HCV activity. In combination with interferon-α or ribavirin, CM exhibited an additive inhibitory effect. Among the main components of CM, cordycepin, but not ergosterol, contributed to the anti-HCV activity of CM. In consideration of all these results, we suggest that CM would be useful as an oral anti-HCV agent in combination with interferon-α and/or ribavirin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. European Multicenter Study on Analytical Performance of DxN Veris System HCV Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Patrick; Delgado, Rafael; Drago, Monica; Fanti, Diana; Fleury, Hervé; Gismondo, Maria Rita; Hofmann, Jörg; Izopet, Jacques; Kühn, Sebastian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Marcos, Maria Angeles; Sauné, Karine; O'Shea, Siobhan; Pérez-Rivilla, Alfredo; Ramble, John

    2017-01-01

    The analytical performance of the Veris HCV Assay for use on the new and fully automated Beckman Coulter DxN Veris Molecular Diagnostics System (DxN Veris System) was evaluated at 10 European virology laboratories. Precision, analytical sensitivity, specificity, and performance with negative samples, linearity, and performance with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes were evaluated. Precision for all sites showed a standard deviation (SD) of 0.22 log10 IU/ml or lower for each level tested. Anal...

  4. Development of a TaqMan assay for the six major genotypes of hepatitis C virus: Comparison with commercial assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engle, Ronald E; Russell, Rodney S; Purcell, Robert H

    2008-01-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed that detects genomic RNA from reference strains representing the six major genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with equal sensitivity and accurately measured HCV RNA in JFH1 HCV-infected Huh7.5 cells. The method is indirectly calibrated to the first...... international (WHO 96/790) HCV standard preparation and has a linear dynamic range of 10(2.6)-10(6.5) IU/ml. In addition, the inter- and intra-assay precision were approximately 3% CV and HCV RNA Nucleic Acid Technology kits...... (Versant HCV RNA 3.0 b-DNA and Amplicor HCV Monitor), that also employ the WHO standard, allowed validation of the TaqMan assay against all major HCV genotypes. Both commercial methods detected HCV RNA over a wide dynamic range, but showed a consistent difference of about 0.3 log10 when evaluating samples...

  5. HVR1-mediated antibody evasion of highly infectious in vivo adapted HCV in humanised mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentoe, Jannick; Verhoye, Lieven; Moctezuma, Rodrigo Velazquez

    2016-01-01

    Objective HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, but the role of neutralising antibodies (nAbs) in its natural history remains poorly defined. We analysed the in vivo role of hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) for HCV virion properties, including nAb susceptibility. Design Analysis...... of HCV from human liver chimeric mice infected with cell-culture-derived prototype genotype 2a recombinant J6/JFH1 or HVR1-deleted variant J6/JFH1ΔHVR1 identified adaptive mutations, which were analysed by reverse genetics in Huh7.5 and CD81-deficient S29 cells. The increased in vivo genomic stability...

  6. Improving HCV cure rates in HIV-coinfected patients - a real-world perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Seetha; Alcaide, Maria; Palacio, Ana M; Shaikhomer, Mohammed; Alexander, Abigail L; Gill-Wiehl, Genevieve; Pandey, Aman; Patel, Kunal; Jayaweera, Dushyantha; Del Pilar Hernandez, Maria

    2016-05-01

    To study rates and predictors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) cure among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected patients, and then to evaluate the effect of attendance at clinic visits on HCV cure. Retrospective cohort study of adult HIV/HCV-coinfected patients who initiated and completed treatment for HCV with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) between January 1, 2014, and June 30, 2015. Eighty-four participants reported completing treatment. The median age was 58 years (interquartile ratio, 50-66); 88% were male and 50% were black. One-third were cirrhotic and half were HCV-treatment-experienced. The most commonly used regimen was sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (40%) followed by simeprevir/sofosbuvir (30%). Cure was achieved in 83.3%, 11.9% relapsed, and 2.3% experienced virological breakthrough. Two patients (2.3%) did not complete treatment based on pill counts and follow-up visit documentation. In multivariable analysis, cure was associated with attendance at follow-up clinic visits (odds ratio [OR], 9.0; 95% CI, 2.91-163) and with use of an integrase-based HIV regimen versus other non-integrase regimens, such as non-nucleoside analogues or protease inhibitors (OR, 6.22; 95% CI 1.81-141). Age, race, genotype, presence of cirrhosis, prior HCV treatment, HCV regimen, and pre-treatment CD4 counts were not associated with cure. Real-world HCV cure rates with DAAs in HCV/HIV coinfection are lower than those seen in clinical trials. Cure is associated with attendance at follow-up clinic visits and with use of an integrase-based HIV regimen. Future studies should evaluate best antiretroviral regimens, predictors of attendance at follow-up visits, impact of different monitoring protocols on medication adherence, and interventions to ensure adequate models of HIV/HCV care.

  7. Impact of Immunogenetic IL28B Polymorphism on Natural Outcome of HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valli De Re

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of investigating whether interleukin 28B gene (IL28B rs1297860 polymorphism is associated with different hepatitis C (HCV infection statuses, we compared IL28B allelic distribution in an Italian case series of 1050 patients with chronic infection and different outcomes, 47 individuals who spontaneously cleared HCV, and 178 blood donors. Furthermore, we compared IL28B variants among 3882 Caucasian patients with chronic infection, 397 with spontaneous clearance, and 1366 blood donors reported in PubMed. Overall data confirmed a relation between IL28B C allele and HCV spontaneous clearance. Furthermore, we found that IL28B T allele had a weak relation with chronic HCV progression to hepatocellular carcinoma. Study findings are in accordance with the hepatocellular carcinogenic model where IL28B TT genotype, by promoting a persistent chronic hepatitis which leads to both hepatocyte injury and chronic inflammation, could facilitate HCC development. Conversely, patients with lymphoproliferative disorders had not any significantly different IL28B rs1297860 allelic distribution than those with chronic HCV, but, like all chronic HCV-related diseases, they showed a lower CC frequency than patients who spontaneously cleared HCV. Study results confirmed the model of persistent HCV infection as a risk factor for the pathogenesis of both liver and lymphoproliferative disorders.

  8. [Serologic prevalence of HCV antibodies in health personnel in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colichon Yerosh, Alejandro; Figueroa, Rolando; Moreno, Armando; Zumaeta, Eduardo; Ferrandíz, Jorge; Busalleu, Alejandro; Prado, William; Candella, Ricardo; Colichón, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Wilson; Espinoza, Julio; Kianman, Wilfredo; Amaya, Nelly; García Pérez, Segundo A; Tello Rodriguez, José; Valdez, Jesús; Paucar Sotomayor, Héctor; Sanchez, César

    2004-01-01

    In Peru, new cases of asymptomatic HCV infection are reported with certain frequency in patients with or without antecedents of blood transfusion. Although serologic screening has improved notoriously in the last years, there is still a population of polytransfused patients with high HCV risk (e.g. hemodialyzed patients), making up a major reservoir. Based on this premise, we decided to study the risk of the health worker population in Peru as another major HCV risk group. A total of 2,769 health workers from 7 Public Hospitals and 2 Private Hospitals in the City of Lima and from 7 Public Hospitals in 4 major/main cities of Peru (Chiclayo, Trujillo, Arequipa, and Cusco) were studied. All those workers, who due to their area of work had higher contact with blood and/or blood derivatives (Surgery, ICU, Traumatology, Gynecology, Gastroenterology, Hemodialysis and Laboratories-Blood Banks) were studied. The studied population accounts for 30% of the total health worker population in these services. All serums underwent the EIA-3 test (HCV-Cobas-Core, Lab. Roche, USA). The positive results were confirmed by RT-HCV (Ampiclor, Roche). The positive serums were confirmed by PCR and the positive results with high viral load underwent HCV genotyping (AMPICLOR-Roche Diagnostic, IGEN Diagnostic USA). Of the 2,769 health workers studied in Peru, 32 were positive for HCV antibodies (1.16% of the total number). Lima showed a prevalence slightly higher than the provinces: 26 out of 2,112 vs. 6 out of 657, or 1.23% vs. 0.91%, respectively. The higher risk is assumed by professional with higher level of contact with blood: 2 physicians (Hemodialysis), 5 nurses (HD) and Lab-Blood Bank technicians. The physicians and nurses share the same risk. If we segregate Lima from provinces, it can be seen that the highest risk is in Lima (1.34% compared to 1.07% in provinces). There is a major risk in health workers and the figures are slightly above those that were suspected for Peru (between 0

  9. COBAS ® AmpliPrep/COBAS ® Taqman ® HCV Quantitative Test, version 2.0: an in vitro test for hepatitis C virus RNA quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Emma D

    2015-02-01

    The COBAS(®) AmpliPrep/COBAS(®) Taqman(®) HCV Quantitative Test, version 2.0, is an in vitro, fully automated, real-time, nucleic acid amplification test indicated for quantifying hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in the plasma/serum of patients infected with HCV of genotypes 1-6 who are receiving anti-viral therapy. By quantifying levels of HCV RNA in these patients, the test can be used early in the course of treatment to predict the likelihood of a sustained virologic response being achieved and can also be used to assess virologic response during treatment as part of response-guided therapy. The test has excellent sensitivity, high specificity and a broad linear range of quantitation. It correlates well with version 1.0 of the same test, but has the benefit of better sensitivity and genotype inclusivity and a smaller sample input volume. It also correlates well with other available HCV tests, including other quantitative real-time PCR tests (specifically the COBAS(®) Taqman(®) HCV Test, version 2.0, used with the high pure system, and the Abbott Realtime and Artus HCV QS-RGQ tests), the Versant(®) branched DNA quantitative test, the COBAS(®) Amplicor HCV Qualitative PCR Test and the Versant(®) HCV qualitative transcription-mediated amplification assay. The test is not indicated for HCV infection diagnosis or to screen for the presence of HCV in blood/blood products.

  10. HCV in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed; Hasan, Syed; Castro, Oswaldo; Giday, Samuel; Banks, Alpha; Smoot, Duane

    2003-09-01

    The sickle cell gene is common in the U.S. In fact 8% of African Americans are healthy carriers of the sickle cell trait (HbAS). People who are homozygous (HbSS) have severe disease. They have life-long anemia, chronic hemolysis, and also have at times hematological crises, which can worsen the anemia. Many patients require chronic transfusions and as a result, substantial proportions of sickle cell patients are at high risk for infection with blood-borne diseases-such as Hepatitis C Virus infection (HCV). The HCV antibody positivity is directly related to the number of transfusions given, and on average the prevalence rate in transfused patients is more than 10%. It is known that the combination of iron overload and HCV can lead to a more rapidly progressive liver disease. The treatment of HCV in sickle cell patients poses a challenge to clinicians. A novel approach described by some is the pre-treatment of these patients with hydroxyurea to increase the fetal hemoglobin, therefore decreasing the severity of Ribavirin-related hemolysis. Treatment with Peg-interferon alone has not been used to treat HCV in sickle cell patients, but in the setting of controlled clinical trials it would be feasible. This review explores the impact of HCV in sickle cell patients and the possible therapeutic options available to them.

  11. Efficient infectious cell culture systems of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) prototype strains HCV-1 and H77

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Ramirez, Santseharay; Mikkelsen, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    . Using CD81-deficient Huh7 cells, we further demonstrated the importance of A970T/I1312V/A2919T or A970T/C2419R/A2919T for virus assembly and that the I1312V/C2419R combination played a major role in virus release. Using a similar approach, we found that NS5B mutation F2994R, identified here from culture...... prototype strain, were shown to be infectious in chimpanzees, but not in vitro. HCV research was hampered by a lack of infectious cell culture systems, which became available only in 2005 with the discovery of JFH1 (genotype 2a), a genome that could establish infection in Huh7.5 cells. Recently, we...... developed in vitro infectious clones for genotype 1a (TN), 2a (J6), and 2b (J8, DH8, and DH10) strains by identifying key adaptive mutations. Globally, genotype 1 is the most prevalent. Studies using HCV-1 and H77 prototype sequences have generated important knowledge on HCV. Thus, the in vitro infectious...

  12. Genotyping of hepatitis C virus isolated from hepatitis patients in Southeast of Iran by Taqman Realtime PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farivar, Taghi Naserpour; Nezam, Mohammad Kazem; Johari, Pouran

    2011-06-01

    To check TaqMan Realtime PCR in detecting genotypes of hepatitis C virus in Iran. From July 2007 to April 2009, HCV genotyping was done on 52 patients who were referred to Research Centre for infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine, in Bou-Ali Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. All these patients had proven hepatitis C infection. Out of 52 anti HCV positive samples, 28 (53.84%) had genotype 1, 2 cases (3.88%) had genotype 2, 12 (23.08%) had genotype 3 and 7 (13.4%) had genotype 4. Mixed infection with genotypes 1 and 3 was seen in 3 cases (5.77%). TaqMan probes for detecting genotyping of HCV were successful in picking genotyping of HCV infection especially those with mixed genotypes.

  13. Seroprevalence of HCV and HIV infections by year of birth in Spain: impact of US CDC and USPSTF recommendations for HCV and HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Alvaro; Moldes, Luz; Meijide, Héctor; Cañizares, Angelina; Castro-Iglesias, Angeles; Delgado, Manuel; Pértega, Sonia; Pedreira, José; Bou, Germán; Poveda, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently add the advice of one-time testing of HCV infection in persons born during 1945-1965. Moreover, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) newly recommended one-time HIV testing for persons aged 15-65. Herein, we evaluate the potential impact of these recommendations in a reference medical area of Spain. All assays results entries for HCV and HIV serological markers ordered at a reference lab from primary care and specialized physicians between 2008 and 2012 were recorded in a medical area which covers 501,526 citizens in Northern Spain. The year of birth were also documented. A total of 108,159 anti-HCV-Ab results were generated during the study period. The global rate of anti-HCV-Ab+ was 7.7% (95% CI: 7.6%-7.9%), being more prevalent in men than women (8.6% vs. 4.5%). By year of birth, the highest prevalence was found in persons born between 1955 and 1970. HCV genotype 1 was the most prevalent (59.7%) followed by genotype 3 (22.7%). Regard HIV infection, among 65,279 anti-HIV results generated the prevalence of anti-HIV+ was 1.1% (95% CI: 1.0%-1.2%), being more frequent in men (2% vs 0.5%). The years of birth with highest rates of HIV infection exactly match with those for HCV infection. The highest rates of HCV and HIV infections are found between 1960 and 1965. Different historical and social circumstances such as the huge intravenous drug use epidemic in the eighties in Spain, might explain it. Therefore, each country needs to determine its own HCV and HIV seroprevalences by year of birth to establish the proper recommendations for the screening of both infections.

  14. Studying HCV cell entry with HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosch, Birke; Cosset, François-Loïc

    2009-01-01

    HCV infection leads in 50 to 80% of cases to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. Interferons and the nucleoside analog ribavirin form the basis for treatment but are not sufficiently effective and have numerous side effects. Although about 300 million people worldwide are estimated to be infected, the characterization of HCV biology and associated pathologies and development of new therapeutics have been slow. Systems that support HCV replication and particle formation in vitro have emerged only over the last few years, over 15 years after the discovery of the virus. The available infection models have remained limited to chimpanzee (1) and immunodeficient mice carrying engrafted human liver cells (2). HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp) were the first in vitro infection system to become available for investigation of entry and neutralization of this major human pathogen. HCVpp are formed by incorporation of the full-length hepatitis C virus glycoproteins E1 and E2 onto lenti- or retroviral core particles. HCVpp have been validated by many research groups, closely mimic the functionality of the wild-type virus in terms of cell entry and neutralization, and have even been used to isolate the recent HCV receptor Claudin-1. HCVpp are a useful model system not only because of the functional conservation of the envelope glycoproteins with those of the wild-type virus, but also because the retro- or lentiviral vectors used to form them offer of a number of significant technical advantages.

  15. An overview on hepatitis C virus genotypes and its control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Nouroz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a blood borne, circular and positive single stranded virus with high spread rates. With the passage of time the frequency of HCV is increasing in different parts of the world. HCV is a major cause, which may end in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV has six main genotypes with many subtypes, which have variable sequence homology with each other. Symptoms can appear anytime from 2 weeks to 6 months, which include jaundice, fatigue, gray-colored stool, joint pain, belly pain, weakness, anorexia, itchy skin and dark urine. Genotyping is more significant for planning of HCV treatment period and helps to cure HCV infections. For the quantification and identification of hepatitis C virus-ribonucleic acid, many molecular techniques are performed; the most significant are HCV ELISA, quantitative HCV-RNA PCR and recombinant immunoblot assay. PCR is the major technique targeting 5′ untranslated region (UTR. HCV can be transmitted by contaminated blood, ear and nose piercing and contaminated medical instruments. To overcome the rate of HCV, guidance should be provided to make aware the persons about risk factors, transmission and prevention. Discovery and designing of new therapies and vaccines to overcome this disease are the necessity of the present era. Four types of vaccines such as vector vaccines, peptide vaccines, DNA vaccines and recombinant protein vaccines are available in clinical trials.

  16. Infection of hepatitis C virus genotypes in hepatocellular carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the infection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients from rural areas of Faisalabad region. Among 179 HCC subjects, men and women were 51 and 49%, respectively. All samples positive for HCV RNA by qualitative PCR were ...

  17. Risk Factors and Genotypes of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Libyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence and incidence of HCV infection varies geographically due to exposure to different risk factors. Identification of HCV genotype is important to defining the epidemiology of the disease. The objective of this study was to describe genotype distribution and its relation to risk factors among HCV ...

  18. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus and its genotypes among a cohort of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prevalence of hepatitis C virus and that of its main genotypes varies between the worlds geographic regions. The risk factors for infection with HCV include blood transfusion, tattoing and injecting drug use. Objectives: To examine the prevalence of HCV and determine its main genotypes among a cohort of ...

  19. Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir for HCV in Patients with Decompensated Cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Michael P; O'Leary, Jacqueline G; Bzowej, Natalie; Muir, Andrew J; Korenblat, Kevin M; Fenkel, Jonathan M; Reddy, K Rajender; Lawitz, Eric; Flamm, Steven L; Schiano, Thomas; Teperman, Lewis; Fontana, Robert; Schiff, Eugene; Fried, Michael; Doehle, Brian; An, Di; McNally, John; Osinusi, Anu; Brainard, Diana M; McHutchison, John G; Brown, Robert S; Charlton, Michael

    2015-12-31

    As the population that is infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) ages, the number of patients with decompensated cirrhosis is expected to increase. We conducted a phase 3, open-label study involving both previously treated and previously untreated patients infected with HCV genotypes 1 through 6 who had decompensated cirrhosis (classified as Child-Pugh-Turcotte class B). Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir and the NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir once daily for 12 weeks, sofosbuvir-velpatasvir plus ribavirin for 12 weeks, or sofosbuvir-velpatasvir for 24 weeks. The primary end point was a sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after the end of therapy. Of the 267 patients who received treatment, 78% had HCV genotype 1, 4% genotype 2, 15% genotype 3, 3% genotype 4, and less than 1% genotype 6; no patients had genotype 5. Overall rates of sustained virologic response were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74 to 90) among patients who received 12 weeks of sofosbuvir-velpatasvir, 94% (95% CI, 87 to 98) among those who received 12 weeks of sofosbuvir-velpatasvir plus ribavirin, and 86% (95% CI, 77 to 92) among those who received 24 weeks of sofosbuvir-velpatasvir. Post hoc analysis did not detect any significant differences in rates of sustained virologic response among the three study groups. Serious adverse events occurred in 19% of patients who received 12 weeks of sofosbuvir-velpatasvir, 16% of those who received 12 weeks of sofosbuvir-velpatasvir plus ribavirin, and 18% of those who received 24 weeks of sofosbuvir-velpatasvir. The most common adverse events were fatigue (29%), nausea (23%), and headache (22%) in all patients and anemia (31%) in the patients receiving ribavirin. Treatment with sofosbuvir-velpatasvir with or without ribavirin for 12 weeks and with sofosbuvir-velpatasvir for 24 weeks resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response in patients with HCV infection and

  20. Four weeks of paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir plus dasabuvir encountering dengue fever resulted in sustained virological response in an HCV patient: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Feng; Jang, Tyng-Yuan; Lu, Po-Liang; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2016-11-01

    Direct antiviral agent (DAA) has been the standard of care for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Twelve weeks of paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir plus dasabuvir (PROD) with or without ribavirin has shown to have a sustained virological response at post-treatment 12 weeks (SVR12) rate of >90% in HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1) patients. We report a HCV-1b patient who received only 25 days of PROD treatment. The patient early terminated treatment due to dengue fever but eventually achieved SVR12. It may attribute to low baseline viral loads and extraordinarily rapid suppression of HCV after treatment day1. The finding may shed light for possible response-guided-therapy for so-called ultra-super-responders in the DAA era. Whether the dengue virus, the Flaviviridae family as with HCV, enhanced the HCV clearance remains unclear and needs further exploration.

  1. Does hepatitis C viremia or genotype predict the risk of mortality in individuals co-infected with HIV?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rockstroh, Jurgen K.; Peters, Lars; Grint, Daniel; Soriano, Vincent; Reiss, Peter; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Beniowski, Marek; Losso, Marcelo H.; Kirk, Ole; Kupfer, Bernd; Mocroft, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The influence of HCV-RNA levels and genotype on HCV disease progression is not well studied. The prognostic value of these markers was investigated in HIV/HCV co-infected individuals from the EuroSIDA cohort. EuroSIDA is a prospective cohort of 18,295 HIV-1 infected patients in 105 centres across

  2. [Hepatitis C virus genotypes in a province of western Black-Sea region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Elif; Ogedey, Esra Deniz; Külah, Canan; Beğendik Cömert, Füsun

    2010-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the significant causes of hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma all throughout the world. There are six genotypes and more than 50 subtypes of HCV. HCV genotyping is of crucial importance in the determination of the treatment protocols and the follow-up of the clinical course since treatment success is low and the duration of treatment is longer in HCV genotype 1 infected cases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the HCV genotype profiles of the patients with chronic hepatitis C in Zonguldak, providing the first data about HCV genotypes from western Black-Sea region, Turkey. The HCV genotypes of 44 patients (26 female, 18 male; age range: 29-89 years, mean age: 60.05 ± 10.81 years) with positive anti-HCV antibody and HCV-RNA results, admitted to the hospital between May 2007 and July 2009, were retrospectively evaluated and included in the study. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of the patients were between 8-160 IU/L (mean 63.99 ± 37.15 IU/L) and the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were between 17-160 IU/L (mean 62.77 ± 36.75 IU/L). HCV antibody was determined by ELISA method (Abbott Laboratories, USA), and HCV-RNA was determined by two commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction systems [Cobas Taqman (Roche Diagnostic, USA) and Rotor-Gene 6000 (Corbett Research, USA)]. The genotyping was performed by a reverse hybridization based method, Versant® HCV Genotype Assay (LiPA) 2.0 (Bayer Health Care, Belgium). HCV genotypes could not be determined for 5 (11.4%) patients since HCV-RNA levels were low. Genotyping could be performed for 39 (88.6%) patients and 38 (97.4%) had genotype 1b and one (2.6%) patient had genotype 1a. In conclusion, in concordance with the other studies conducted in our country, genotype 1b was found to be the most prevalent genotype in patients from our region.

  3. Geographic distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campiotto S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a country of continental dimension with a population of different ethnic backgrounds. Thus, a wide variation in the frequencies of hepatitis C virus (HCV genotypes is expected to occur. To address this point, 1,688 sequential samples from chronic HCV patients were analyzed. HCV-RNA was amplified by the RT-PCR from blood samples collected from 1995 to 2000 at different laboratories located in different cities from all Brazilian States. Samples were collected in tubes containing a gel separator, centrifuged in the site of collection and sent by express mail in a refrigerated container to Laboratório Bioquímico Jardim Paulista, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. HCV- RNA was extracted from serum and submitted to RT and nested PCR using standard procedures. Nested PCR products were submitted to cycle sequencing reactions without prior purification. Sequences were analyzed for genotype determination and the following frequencies were found: 64.9% (1,095 for genotype 1, 4.6% (78 for genotype 2, 30.2% (510 for genotype 3, 0.2% (3 for genotype 4, and 0.1% (2 for genotype 5. The frequencies of HCV genotypes were statistically different among Brazilian regions (P = 0.00017. In all regions, genotype 1 was the most frequent (51.7 to 74.1%, reaching the highest value in the North; genotype 2 was more prevalent in the Center-West region (11.4%, especially in Mato Grosso State (25.8%, while genotype 3 was more common in the South (43.2%. Genotypes 4 and 5 were rarely found and only in the Southeast, in São Paulo State. The present data indicate the need for careful epidemiological surveys throughout Brazil since knowing the frequency and distribution of the genotypes would provide key information for understanding the spread of HCV.

  4. Constrained pattern of viral evolution in acute and early HCV infection limits viral plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Pfafferott

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellular immune responses during acute Hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV infection are a known correlate of infection outcome. Viral adaptation to these responses via mutation(s within CD8+ T-cell epitopes allows these viruses to subvert host immune control. This study examined HCV evolution in 21 HCV genotype 1-infected subjects to characterise the level of viral adaptation during acute and early HCV infection. Of the total mutations observed 25% were within described CD8+ T-cell epitopes or at viral adaptation sites. Most mutations were maintained into the chronic phase of HCV infection (75%. The lack of reversion of adaptations and high proportion of silent substitutions suggests that HCV has structural and functional limitations that constrain evolution. These results were compared to the pattern of viral evolution observed in 98 subjects during a similar phase in HIV infection from a previous study. In contrast to HCV, evolution during acute HIV infection is marked by high levels of amino acid change relative to silent substitutions, including a higher proportion of adaptations, likely reflecting strong and continued CD8+ T-cell pressure combined with greater plasticity of the virus. Understanding viral escape dynamics for these two viruses is important for effective T cell vaccine design.

  5. Point -of -care testing (POCT) in molecular diagnostics: Performance evaluation of GeneXpert HCV RNA test in diagnosing and monitoring of HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ekta; Agarwala, Pragya; Kumar, Guresh; Maiwall, Rakhi; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Molecular testing at the point-of-care may turn out to be game changer for HCV diagnosis and treatment monitoring, through increased sensitivity, reduced turnaround time, and ease of performance. One such assay GeneXpert ® has recently been released. Comparative analysis between performances of GeneXpert ® and Abbott HCV-RNA was done. 174 HCV infected patients were recruited and, one time plasma samples from 154 patients and repeated samples from 20 patients, obtained at specific treatment time-points (0, 4, 12 and 24) weeks were serially re-tested on Xpert ® . Genotype 3 was the commonest, seen in 80 (66%) of the cases, genotype 1 in 34 (28.3%), genotype 4 in 4 (3.3%) and genotypes 2 and 5 in 1 (0.8%) each. Median HCV RNA load was 4.69 log 10 (range: 0-6.98log 10 ) IU/ml. Overall a very good correlation was seen between the two assays (R 2 =0.985), concordance of the results between the assays was seen in 138 samples (89.6%). High and low positive standards were tested ten times on Xpert ® to evaluate the precision and the coefficient of variation was 0.01 for HPC and 0.07 for the LPC. Monitoring of patients on two different regimes of treatment, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin and sofosbuvir plus ribavirin was done by both the systems at baseline, 4, 12 and 24 weeks. Perfect correlation between the assays in the course of therapy at different treatment time- point in genotypes 3 and 1 was seen. The study demonstrates excellent performance of the Xpert ® HCV assay in viral load assessment and in treatment course monitoring consistency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Circulating viral core and E1 antigen levels as supplemental markers for HCV Chronic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Awady Mostafa K

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The performance of polyclonal monospecific rabbit anti-sera raised against synthetic peptides derived from conserved HCV sequences of genotype 4 was evaluated for efficient detection of viral core and E1 antigens in circulating immune complexes (ICs precipitated from 65 serum samples of HCV patients. The infection was established in those patients by the presence of HCV RNA in their sera. A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed for the detection of HCV core and E1 antigen in serum samples. Western blot analyses were used to demonstrate the presence of the core and E1 target antigen in serum samples. The mean OD readings of both core and E1 antigens were significantly higher (P

  7. Hepatitis C virus seroprevalence and genotypes in patients with diffuse connective tissue diseases and spondyloarthropathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa V.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many extrahepatic manifestations, including rheumatic diseases, have been reported to be associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. In order to investigate the prevalence of HCV infection among patients with rheumatic diseases, in the present study we interviewed 367 patients and tested their blood samples for HCV antibodies (anti-HCV by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Anti-HCV-reactive samples were retested for confirmation by a line immunoassay and also for HCV RNA detection by the polymerase chain reaction. HCV RNA-positive samples were genotyped by INNO-LIPA. An overall HCV infection prevalence of 1.9% (7/367 was found. Of the 7 HCV-infected patients, 4 had systemic lupus erythematosus and 3 rheumatoid arthritis, resulting in positivity rates of 2.3 and 3.4%, respectively. HCV RNA genotyping revealed the presence of subtypes 1a (57.1%, 1b (28.6% and 3a (14.3%. The clinical course was favorable for all HCV-infected patients, except one, who died due to renal insufficiency related to lupus nephritis. These results demonstrate a low HCV infection prevalence among the population studied. In the few positive cases, we observed no adverse influence of this infection on the clinical evolution of the rheumatic disease.

  8. The treatment of HCV in patients with haemoglobinopathy in Kurdistan Region, Iraq: a single centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, N R; Tunjel, I; Basharat, Z; Taha, A; Irving, W

    2016-06-01

    Various variables that might influence the rapid and sustained virological response to recombinant PEG-IFN-α-2a were explored in Iraqi HCV-infected patients with haemoglobinopathy. Forty-three patients were evaluated for the relationship between rapid virological response (RVR), IL-28B polymorphism, viral load, liver enzyme levels, blood group, ultrasound findings, or HCV genotype and the sustained virological response (SVR) achievement. The overall RVR was 55·81% while the overall SVR was 53·49%. SVR in patients that achieved RVR was 82·61% (P = 0·0004). A significant association was found between initial alanine transaminase levels and viral load with SVR achievement (P = 0·025) and (P = 0·004), respectively. Thirty-two (74%) out of 43 of our samples were host genotyped at the IL-28B locus as CC, a significant association was found between CC group and SVR achievement (P = 0·04). Of our samples, 23/43 (53%) were typed as HCV genotype 4, 10/43 (23%) as genotype 1, 9/43 (20·9%) as genotype 3 and 1/43 (2·3%) as genotype 2. A significant association was found between genotype 3 and SVR achievement (P = 0·006). Multivariate analysis showed that only RVR achievement independently associated with SVR in the Iraqi population (P = 0·00). These results can be used to classify the patients requiring the more expensive new direct-acting antiviral drugs.

  9. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Bahawalpur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, M.A.; Fayyaz, M.; Chaudhry, G.M.D.; Jamil, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted at Medical Unit-II Bahawal Victoria Hospital / Quaid-e-Azam Medical College Bahawalpur from May 1st , 2005 to December 31st 2005. The objective of this study was to determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. In consecutive 105 anti-HCV (ELISA-3) positive patients, complete history and physical examination was performed. Liver function tests, complete blood counts and platelet count, blood sugar fasting and 2 hours after breakfast, prothrombin time, serum albumin, serum globulin and abdominal ultrasound were carried out in all the patients. Tru cut biopsy was performed on 17 patients. We studied HCV RNA in all these patients by Nested PCR method. HCV RNA was detected in 98 patients and geno typing assay was done by genotype specific PCR. Among total of 105 anti-HCV positive patients, HCV-RNA was detected in 98 patients. Out of these 98 patients there were 57 (58.2%) males and 41 (42.8%) females. Their age range was 18-75 years. The age 18-29 years 26 (26.5%), 30-39 years 35 (35.7%) and 40-75 37 (37.8%), while 10 (10.2%) patients were diabetics and 34 (34.7%) patients were obese. Liver cirrhosis was present in 10 (10.2%) patients. Forty two (43.9%) patients were symptomatic while 56 (57.1%) were asymptomatic. Out of 98 patients 11 (11.2%) were un type-able and 87 (88.8%) were type able. 70/98 (71.4%) were genotype 3; 10/98 (10.2%) were genotype 1; 03/98 (3.1%) were genotype 2; 03/98 (3.1%) were mixed genotype 2 and 3; 01/98 (1%) were mixed genotype 3a and 3b. Genotype 3 is the most common HCV virus in our area which shows that both virological and biochemical response will be better. Because HCV genotype 3 is more frequent among the drug users which points towards unsafe injection practices in our area. (author)

  10. [Characterization of hepatitis C virus in chronic hepatitis patients: genotypes in the State of Amazonas, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ana Ruth; Almeida, Carlos Mauríco de; Fraporti, Liziara; Garcia, Nadja; Lima, Tatiane Amábili de; Maia, Laura Patrícia Viana; Torres, Kátia Luz; Tarragô, Andréa Monteiro; Victória, Flamir; Victória, Marilu; Tateno, Adriana; Levi, José Eduardo; Talhari, Sinésio; Malheiro, Adriana

    2011-10-01

    In the State of Amazonas, data regarding the prevalence of different genotypes of hepatitis C virus remains scarce. The genotype of 69 HCV positive patients was determined. An in-house standardized nested-PCR was used to detect HCV RNA. Genotype assignment was based on type-specific motifs on the sequenced amplicons delimited by primers HC11/HC18 from the 5' untranslated region. Of the 69 patients studied, 65.2% were male and 34.8% were female. Genotype 1 showed the greatest prevalence, followed by 3 and 2. These data suggesting that Manaus is the point of arrival of HCV in the State of Amazonas.

  11. IP-10 predicts the first phase decline of HCV RNA and overall viral response to therapy in patients co-infected with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falconer, Karolin; Askarieh, Galia; Weis, Nina Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of baseline plasma interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients. Baseline IP-10 was monitored during HCV combination therapy in 21 HIV-HCV co......-infected patients (HCV genotype 1 (n = 16), 2 (n = 2), and 3 (n = 3)). Lower baseline IP-10 was significantly associated with a rapid decline in HCV RNA, in particular with the first phase reduction, and similar cut-off levels ( 600 pg/ml) as in HCV mono-infected patients apply. In conclusion, baseline IP......-10 HCV therapy in HIV-HCV co-infected patients, and may thus be useful in encouraging such difficult-to-treat patients to initiate therapy....

  12. Elimination of HCV via a non-ISG-mediated mechanism by vaniprevir and BMS-788329 combination therapy in human hepatocyte chimeric mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Takuro; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Imamura, Michio; Yoshimi, Satoshi; Kan, Hiromi; Miyaki, Eisuke; Tsuge, Masataka; Abe, Hiromi; Hayes, C Nelson; Aikata, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yuji; Tateno, Chise; Ellis, Joan D; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2016-02-02

    We previously reported that interferon (IFN)-free direct-acting antiviral combination treatment succeeded in eradicating genotype 1b hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human hepatocyte chimeric mice. In this study, we examined the effect of vaniprevir (MK7009, NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and BMS-788329 (NS5A inhibitor) combination treatment on HCV genotype 1b and the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) using a subgenomic replicon system and the same animal model. Combination treatment with vaniprevir and BMS-788329 significantly reduced HCV replication compared to vaniprevir monotherapy in HCV replicon cells (Huh7/Rep-Feo cells). HCV genotype 1b-infected human hepatocyte chimeric mice were treated with vaniprevir alone or in combination with BMS-788329 for four weeks. Vaniprevir monotherapy reduced serum HCV RNA titers in mice, but viral breakthrough was observed in mice with high HCV titers. Ultra-deep sequence analysis revealed a predominant replacement by drug-resistant substitutions at 168 in HCV NS3 region in these mice. Conversely, in mice with low HCV titers, HCV was eradicated by vaniprevir monotherapy without viral breakthrough. In contrast to monotherapy, combination treatment with vaniprevir and BMS-788329 succeeded in completely eradicating HCV regardless of serum viral titer. IFN-alpha treatment significantly increased ISG expression; however, vaniprevir and BMS-788329 combination treatment caused no increase in ISG expression both in cultured cells and in mouse livers. Therefore, combination treatment with vaniprevir and BMS-788329 eliminated HCV via a non-ISG-mediated mechanism. This oral treatment might offer an alternative DAA combination therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic Variability of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) 5' Untranslated Region in HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients Treated with Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska-Ośko, Iwona; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Perlejewski, Karol; Kubisa, Natalia; Caraballo Cortés, Kamila; Rosińska, Magdalena; Płoski, Rafał; Fic, Maria; Kaźmierczak, Justyna; Popiel, Marta; Ząbek, Piotr; Horban, Andrzej; Radkowski, Marek; Laskus, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) quasispecies and treatment outcome among patients with chronic hepatitis C has been the subject of many studies. However, these studies focused mainly on viral variable regions (E1 and E2) and usually did not include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. The aim of the present study was to analyze heterogeneity of the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) in HCV/HIV coinfected patients treated with interferon and ribavirin. The HCV 5'UTR was amplified from serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) samples in 37 HCV/HIV coinfected patients treated for chronic hepatitis C. Samples were collected right before treatment, and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 20, 24, 36, 44, 48, 60, and 72 weeks. Heterogeneity of the 5'UTR was analyzed by single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP), cloning and sequencing. Sustained virological response (SVR) was achieved in 46% of analyzed HCV/HIV co-infected patients. Stable SSCP band pattern was observed in 22 patients (62.9%) and SVR rate among these patients was 23%. Decline in the number of bands and/or shift in band positions were found in 6 patients (17.1%), 5 (83%) of whom achieved SVR (p=0.009). A novel viral genotype was identified in all but one of these patients. In 5 of these 6 patients a new genotype was dominant. 5'UTR heterogeneity may correlate with interferon and ribavirin treatment outcome. In the analyzed group of HCV/HIV coinfected patients, viral quasispecies stability during treatment favored viral persistence, whereas decrease in the number of variants and/or emergence of new variants was associated with SVR. Among injection drug users (IDU) patients, a new genotype may become dominant during treatment, probably due to the presence of mixed infections with various strains, which have different susceptibility to treatment.

  14. Genetic Variability of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV 5' Untranslated Region in HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients Treated with Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Bukowska-Ośko

    Full Text Available Association between hepatitis C virus (HCV quasispecies and treatment outcome among patients with chronic hepatitis C has been the subject of many studies. However, these studies focused mainly on viral variable regions (E1 and E2 and usually did not include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients. The aim of the present study was to analyze heterogeneity of the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR in HCV/HIV coinfected patients treated with interferon and ribavirin. The HCV 5'UTR was amplified from serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC samples in 37 HCV/HIV coinfected patients treated for chronic hepatitis C. Samples were collected right before treatment, and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 20, 24, 36, 44, 48, 60, and 72 weeks. Heterogeneity of the 5'UTR was analyzed by single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP, cloning and sequencing. Sustained virological response (SVR was achieved in 46% of analyzed HCV/HIV co-infected patients. Stable SSCP band pattern was observed in 22 patients (62.9% and SVR rate among these patients was 23%. Decline in the number of bands and/or shift in band positions were found in 6 patients (17.1%, 5 (83% of whom achieved SVR (p=0.009. A novel viral genotype was identified in all but one of these patients. In 5 of these 6 patients a new genotype was dominant. 5'UTR heterogeneity may correlate with interferon and ribavirin treatment outcome. In the analyzed group of HCV/HIV coinfected patients, viral quasispecies stability during treatment favored viral persistence, whereas decrease in the number of variants and/or emergence of new variants was associated with SVR. Among injection drug users (IDU patients, a new genotype may become dominant during treatment, probably due to the presence of mixed infections with various strains, which have different susceptibility to treatment.

  15. Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC) Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Annual reports of the Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC), which studies the prevailing (market) rate system for wages and other matters pertinent to...

  16. Promiscuous prediction and conservancy analysis of CTL binding epitopes of HCV 3a viral proteome from Punjab Pakistan: an In Silico Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Muhammad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HCV is a positive sense RNA virus affecting approximately 180 million people world wide and about 10 million Pakistani populations. HCV genotype 3a is the major cause of infection in Pakistani population. One of the major problems of HCV infection especially in the developing countries that limits the limits the antiviral therapy is the long term treatment, high dosage and side effects. Studies of antigenic epitopes of viral sequences of a specific origin can provide an effective way to overcome the mutation rate and to determine the promiscuous binders to be used for epitope based subunit vaccine design. An in silico approach was applied for the analysis of entire HCV proteome of Pakistani origin, aimed to identify the viral epitopes and their conservancy in HCV genotypes 1, 2 and 3 of diverse origin. Results Immunoinformatic tools were applied for the predictive analysis of HCV 3a antigenic epitopes of Pakistani origin. All the predicted epitopes were then subjected for their conservancy analysis in HCV genotypes 1, 2 and 3 of diverse origin (worldwide. Using freely available web servers, 150 MHC II epitopes were predicted as promiscuous binders against 51 subjected alleles. E2 protein represented the 20% of all the predicted MHC II epitopes. 75.33% of the predicted MHC II epitopes were (77-100% conserve in genotype 3; 47.33% and 40.66% in genotype 1 and 2 respectively. 69 MHC I epitopes were predicted as promiscuous binders against 47 subjected alleles. NS4b represented 26% of all the MHC I predicted epitopes. Significantly higher epitope conservancy was represented by genotype 3 i.e. 78.26% and 21.05% for genotype 1 and 2. Conclusions The study revealed comprehensive catalogue of potential HCV derived CTL epitopes from viral proteome of Pakistan origin. A considerable number of predicted epitopes were found to be conserved in different HCV genotype. However, the number of conserved epitopes in HCV genotype 3 was

  17. Neutralizing activities of caprine antibodies towards conserved regions of the HCV envelope glycoprotein E2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shenawy Reem

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anti HCV vaccine is not currently available and the present antiviral therapies fail to cure approximately half of the treated HCV patients. This study was designed to assess the immunogenic properties of genetically conserved peptides derived from the C-terminal region of HVR-1 and test their neutralizing activities in a step towards developing therapeutic and/or prophylactic immunogens against HCV infection. Antibodies were generated by vaccination of goats with synthetic peptides derived from HCV E2. Viral neutralizing capacity of the generated anti E2 antibodies was tested using in vitro assays. Goats immunized with E2 synthetic peptides termed p412 [a.a 412-419], p430 [a.a 430-447] and p517 [a.a 517-531] generated high titers of antibody responses 2 to 4.5 fold higher than comparable titers of antibodies to the same epitopes in chronic HCV patients. In post infection experiments of native HCV into cultured Huh7.5 cells anti p412 and anti p 517 were proven to be neutralizing to HCV genotype 4a from patients' sera (87.5% and 75% respectively. On the contrary anti p430 exhibited weak viral neutralization capacity on the same samples (31.25%. Furthermore Ab mixes containing anti p430 exhibited reduced viral neutralization properties. From these experiments one could predict that neutralization by Abs towards different E2-epitopes varies considerably and success in the enrichment of neutralization epitope-specific antibodies may be accompanied by favorable results in combating HCV infection. Also, E2 conserved peptides p517 and p412 represent potential components of a candidate peptide vaccine against HCV infection.

  18. Real-world Effectiveness of Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) for 8 weeks in Patients Coinfected with HCV and HIV-1

    OpenAIRE

    Ruane, Peter; Buggisch, Peter; Moreno, ANA; Isakov, Vasily; Backus, Lisa; Ain, Dani; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Naik, Sarjita; Mehta, Swarup; Lee, Jina; Llewellyn, Joe; Mertens, Michael; Natha, Macky; Osinusi, Anu; Slim, Jihad

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Real world cohorts (RWC) have demonstrated excellent efficacy of LDV/SOF for 8 weeks in HCV monoinfected patients. Real world effectiveness data of LDV/SOF for 8 weeks in HIV/HCV coinfection is emerging from several multiple single-center and multicenter prospective and retrospective cohorts. The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of the single tablet regimen of LDV/SOF for 8 weeks in HCV genotype (GT) 1 patients with HIV/HCV coinfection in RWC. Methods In...

  19. Clinical Findings of HCV Chronic Infection in Undocumented Immigrants and Low-Income Refugees in Three Areas of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnelli, Evangelista; Alessio, Loredana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Gualdieri, Luciano; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Minichini, Carmine; Di Caprio, Giovanni; Starace, Mario; Onorato, Lorenzo; Scotto, Gaetano; Macera, Margherita; Coppola, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, Italy has become a land of immigration from countries suffering a socio-economic crisis. The aim of this study was to perform an organized screening to identify and offer care to immigrants with HCV infection. The screening, performed from 2012 to 2015, involved 1,727 immigrants in the Campania and Apulia regions in southern Italy. Screening was accepted by 1,727 (85%) out of 2,032 immigrants interviewed; 70 (4.1%) of the 1,727 were anti-HCV-positive, all unaware of their serological condition, 31 (44.3%) of whom were HCV-RNA-positive and 39 negative. The 31 HCV-RNA-positive immigrants were further investigated at a third-level clinic of infectious diseases. The HCV viral load was 2.6 x 107 ± 7.7 x107 IU/mL, and 35.5% showed HCV-genotype 1a or 1b, 23.8% genotype 2 and 22.6% genotype 3. Two immigrants had liver cirrhosis and, in accordance with the Italian Healthcare Authority guidelines, received an interferon-free regimen and achieved a sustained virological response (SVR); 18 had chronic hepatitis, 6 of whom with a high risk of progression and received interferonbased therapy, with SVR in 4, whereas 12 at low risk were put on a waiting list for future interferon-free treatment, once licensed. The remaining 11 HCV-RNA-positive immigrants were considered HCV inactive chronic carriers and were included in a long-term observational program. The screening program can be considered successful since it was accepted by 85% of the subjects interviewed and identified 70 anti-HCV-positive immigrants, all unaware of their clinical and virological condition.

  20. Hepatitis C virus genotype diversity among intravenous drug users in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

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    Zhihui Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, high proportions (15.6%-98.7% of intravenous drug users (IDUs in China were found to be positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV. Yunnan Province is located in southwestern China and borders one of the world's most important opium-producing regions, thus it is an important drug trafficking route to other regions of China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we assessed 100 HCV-positive plasma samples from IDUs who were enrolled through the Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012. HCV C/E1 fragments were PCR-amplified and sequenced. We identified eight HCV subtypes (1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, 6u and 6v, of which genotype 6 was most predominant (frequency, 47% followed by genotypes 3 (41% and 1 (12%. HCV subtypes 6n (30% and 3b (29% were most common and were identified in 59% of the IDUs. We compared HCV genotypes among IDUs in Yunnan Province with those from other regions and found that the distribution patterns of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province were similar to those in southern China, but different from those in eastern China. However, the distribution patterns of HCV subtypes varied among Yunnan Province and southern China, despite the shared similar genotypes. A comparison of the current data with those previously reported showed that the frequency of HCV genotype 6 increased from 25% to 47% within 5 years, especially subtypes 6a (5% to 15% and 6n (11.2% to 30%. In contrast, the frequencies of subtypes 3b and 1b decreased by almost 50% within 5 years. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provided further information to support the assertion that drug trafficking routes influence HCV transmission patterns among IDUs in Yunnan Province. The frequency of HCV genotypes and subtypes changed rapidly among IDUs in Yunnan Province and subtypes 6a and 6n may have originated in Vietnam and Myanmar, respectively.

  1. Hepatitis C Virus Genotype Diversity among Intravenous Drug Users in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenlong; Feng, Ruilin; Wu, Zhongxiang; Cun, Wei; Dong, Shaozhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, high proportions (15.6%–98.7%) of intravenous drug users (IDUs) in China were found to be positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Yunnan Province is located in southwestern China and borders one of the world's most important opium-producing regions, thus it is an important drug trafficking route to other regions of China. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we assessed 100 HCV-positive plasma samples from IDUs who were enrolled through the Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012. HCV C/E1 fragments were PCR-amplified and sequenced. We identified eight HCV subtypes (1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, 6u and 6v), of which genotype 6 was most predominant (frequency, 47%) followed by genotypes 3 (41%) and 1 (12%). HCV subtypes 6n (30%) and 3b (29%) were most common and were identified in 59% of the IDUs. We compared HCV genotypes among IDUs in Yunnan Province with those from other regions and found that the distribution patterns of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province were similar to those in southern China, but different from those in eastern China. However, the distribution patterns of HCV subtypes varied among Yunnan Province and southern China, despite the shared similar genotypes. A comparison of the current data with those previously reported showed that the frequency of HCV genotype 6 increased from 25% to 47% within 5 years, especially subtypes 6a (5% to 15%) and 6n (11.2% to 30%). In contrast, the frequencies of subtypes 3b and 1b decreased by almost 50% within 5 years. Conclusion/Significance Our results provided further information to support the assertion that drug trafficking routes influence HCV transmission patterns among IDUs in Yunnan Province. The frequency of HCV genotypes and subtypes changed rapidly among IDUs in Yunnan Province and subtypes 6a and 6n may have originated in Vietnam and Myanmar, respectively. PMID:24358211

  2. HCV Infection and B-Cell Lymphomagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Ito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV has been recognized as a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide. It has been suggested that HCV infects not only hepatocytes but also mononuclear lymphocytes including B cells that express the CD81 molecule, a putative HCV receptor. HCV infection of B cells is the likely cause of B-cell dysregulation disorders such as mixed cryoglobulinemia, rheumatoid factor production, and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders that may evolve into non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL. Epidemiological data indicate an association between HCV chronic infection and the occurrence of B-cell NHL, suggesting that chronic HCV infection is associated at least in part with B-cell lymphomagenesis. In this paper, we aim to provide an overview of recent literature, including our own, to elucidate a possible role of HCV chronic infection in B-cell lymphomagenesis.

  3. A complete molecular biology assay for hepatitis C virus detection, quantification and genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Silva Casanova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Molecular biology procedures to detect, genotype and quantify hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA in clinical samples have been extensively described. Routine commercial methods for each specific purpose (detection, quantification and genotyping are also available, all of which are typically based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting the HCV 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR. This study was performed to develop and validate a complete serial laboratory assay that combines real-time nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP techniques for the complete molecular analysis of HCV (detection, genotyping and viral load in clinical samples. Methods Published HCV sequences were compared to select specific primers, probe and restriction enzyme sites. An original real-time nested RT-PCR-RFLP assay was then developed and validated to detect, genotype and quantify HCV in plasma samples. Results The real-time nested RT-PCR data were linear and reproducible for HCV analysis in clinical samples. High correlations (> 0.97 were observed between samples with different viral loads and the corresponding read cycle (Ct - Cycle threshold, and this part of the assay had a wide dynamic range of analysis. Additionally, HCV genotypes 1, 2 and 3 were successfully distinguished using the RFLP method. Conclusions A complete serial molecular assay was developed and validated for HCV detection, quantification and genotyping.

  4. A Review of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and the Current Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    ABSTRACT. Background: Chronic Hepatitis C virus. (HCV) is the primary cause of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and end- stage liver disease. The addition of protease ... management of chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 with the introduction of .... evaluates for anemia and a low platelet count which is associated ...

  5. Sofosbuvir plus ribavirin with or without peginterferon for the treatment of HCV: Results from a Phase 3b study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lai; Xie, Qing; Hou, Jin Lin; Jia, Jidong; Li, Wu; Xu, Min; Li, Jun; Wu, Shanming; Cheng, Jun; Jiang, Jianning; Wang, Guiqiang; Yang, Yongfeng; Mou, Zhuangbo; Gao, Zhi Liang; Gong, Guozhong; Niu, Jun Qi; Hu, Peng; Tang, Hong; Lin, Feng; Dou, Xiaoguang; Li, Lanjuan; Zhang, Lun Li; Nan, Yuemin; Massetto, Benedetta; Yang, Jenny C; Knox, Steven J; Kersey, Kathryn; German, Polina; Mo, Hongmei; Jiang, Deyuan; Brainard, Diana M; Jiang, Jiaji; Ning, Qin; Duan, Zhongping

    2018-01-30

    Sofosbuvir is a nucleotide analog inhibitor of the HCV NS5B RNA polymerase with pangenotypic potency. This Phase 3b study evaluated the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir+ribavirin±peginterferon in Chinese patients infected with HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3, or 6. Patients with genotypes 1 or 6 received sofosbuvir+peginterferon/ribavirin for 12 weeks or sofosbuvir+ribavirin for 24 weeks, depending on prior treatment and interferon eligibility. Patients with genotypes 2 or 3 received sofosbuvir+ribavirin for 12 or 24 weeks, respectively. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12). Of 389 patients, 42% had genotype 1, 16% genotype 2, 32% genotype 3, and 9% genotype 6. Half were male, 58% were treatment-naïve, and 15% had cirrhosis. SVR12 rates for patients receiving sofosbuvir+peginterferon/ribavirin were 94% (95%CI, 87-98%) for HCV genotype 1 and 97% (95%CI, 84-100%) for genotype 6. SVR12 rates for those receiving sofosbuvir+ribavirin for 24 weeks were 95% (95%CI, 87-99%) for genotype 1, 100% (95%CI, 40-100%) for genotype 6, and 95% (95%CI, 90-98%) for genotype 3. For genotype 2 patients receiving sofosbuvir+ribavirin for 12 weeks, the SVR12 rate was 92% (95%CI, 83-97%). Twenty patients (5%) relapsed. Ten (3%) experienced serious adverse events. Three (<1%) discontinued treatment due to adverse events, one of whom died due to treatment-unrelated adverse events. Sofosbuvir-based regimens were highly effective and safe in Chinese patients with HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3, or 6, suggesting sofosbuvir could serve as the backbone for HCV treatment in China irrespective of genotype. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Hepatitis C viral load, genotype 3 and interleukin-28B CC genotype predict mortality in HIV and hepatitis C-coinfected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Astvad, Karen; Ladelund, Steen

    2012-01-01

    risk [adjusted mortality rate ratio (aMRR): 1.30 (1.10,1.54)] when adjusted for sex, age, HIV exposure group, CD4 cell count, HIV RNA, HCV genotype and interleukin (IL)-28B genotype. Further, HCV genotype 3 vs. 1 [aMRR: 1.83 (1.12, 2.98)] and HIV RNA [aMRR: 3.14 (1.37,7.17) for undetectable vs. just......OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that hepatitis C virus (HCV) load and genotype may influence all-cause mortality in HIV-HCV-coinfected individuals. DESIGN AND METHODS: Observational prospective cohort study. Mortality rates were compared in a time-updated multivariate Poisson regression analysis......) CC genotype was associated with 54% higher mortality risk [aMRR: 1.54 (0.89, 3.82] compared to TT genotype. CONCLUSION: High-HCV viral load, HCV genotype 3 and IL28B genotype CC had a significant influence on the risk of all-cause mortality among individuals coinfected with HIV-1. This may have...

  7. Phylogenetic Analysis and Epidemic History of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 2 in Tunisia, North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajhi, Mouna; Ghedira, Kais; Chouikha, Anissa; Djebbi, Ahlem; Cheikh, Imed; Ben Yahia, Ahlem; Sadraoui, Amel; Hammami, Walid; Azouz, Msaddek; Ben Mami, Nabil; Triki, Henda

    2016-01-01

    HCV genotype 2 (HCV-2) has a worldwide distribution with prevalence rates that vary from country to country. High genetic diversity and long-term endemicity were suggested in West African countries. A global dispersal of HCV-2 would have occurred during the 20th century, especially in European countries. In Tunisia, genotype 2 was the second prevalent genotype after genotype 1 and most isolates belong to subtypes 2c and 2k. In this study, phylogenetic analyses based on the NS5B genomic sequences of 113 Tunisian HCV isolates from subtypes 2c and 2k were carried out. A Bayesian coalescent-based framework was used to estimate the origin and the spread of these subtypes circulating in Tunisia. Phylogenetic analyses of HCV-2c sequences suggest the absence of country-specific or time-specific variants. In contrast, the phylogenetic grouping of HCV-2k sequences shows the existence of two major genetic clusters that may represent two distinct circulating variants. Coalescent analysis indicated a most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of Tunisian HCV-2c around 1886 (1869-1902) before the introduction of HCV-2k in 1901 (1867-1931). Our findings suggest that the introduction of HCV-2c in Tunisia is possibly a result of population movements between Tunisia and European population following the French colonization.

  8. Rapid and sharp decline in HCV upon monotherapy with NS3 protease inhibitor, ACH-1625.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Atul; Zhang, Bao; Olek, Elizabeth; Robison, Heather; Robarge, Lisa; Deshpande, Milind

    2012-01-01

    ACH-1625 is a linear peptidomimetic inhibitor that non-covalently binds to HCV NS3 protease with high potency and specificity. Short-term monotherapy of HCV genotype-1 infection with ACH-1625 was found to be safe and resulted in ≥3.3 log(10) IU/ml mean viral load reduction. These viral load decay data were analysed to compare HCV dynamics with prior reports and estimate the antiviral efficiency of ACH-1625. Drug efficiency was estimated by analysing the viral decay following initiation of up to 5 days of monotherapy with ACH-1625 in 36 chronically infected HCV genotype-1 patients. During this monotherapy study, ACH-1625 was administered either twice-a-day for 4.5 days or once daily for 5 days at 5 different dose levels in 36 patients. A sharp viral decay during the first 48 h following the initiation of ACH-1625 treatment afforded high drug efficiency estimates (≥0.9934). In addition, an increase in the estimated drug efficiency was observed with increasing ACH-1625 dose. The observed anti-HCV response was fairly uniform in this proof-of-concept study across the population of 36 patients. Estimates of the treatment-independent viral kinetics parameters were consistent with prior reports and the estimated drug efficiency of ACH-1625 monotherapy was very high (≥0.9934) in fasted and fed states.

  9. European Multicenter Study on Analytical Performance of DxN Veris System HCV Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Patrick; Delgado, Rafael; Drago, Monica; Fanti, Diana; Fleury, Hervé; Gismondo, Maria Rita; Hofmann, Jörg; Izopet, Jacques; Kühn, Sebastian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Marcos, Maria Angeles; Sauné, Karine; O'Shea, Siobhan; Pérez-Rivilla, Alfredo; Ramble, John; Trimoulet, Pascale; Vila, Jordi; Whittaker, Duncan; Artus, Alain; Rhodes, Daniel W

    2017-04-01

    The analytical performance of the Veris HCV Assay for use on the new and fully automated Beckman Coulter DxN Veris Molecular Diagnostics System (DxN Veris System) was evaluated at 10 European virology laboratories. Precision, analytical sensitivity, specificity, and performance with negative samples, linearity, and performance with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes were evaluated. Precision for all sites showed a standard deviation (SD) of 0.22 log 10 IU/ml or lower for each level tested. Analytical sensitivity determined by probit analysis was between 6.2 and 9.0 IU/ml. Specificity on 94 unique patient samples was 100%, and performance with 1,089 negative samples demonstrated 100% not-detected results. Linearity using patient samples was shown from 1.34 to 6.94 log 10 IU/ml. The assay demonstrated linearity upon dilution with all HCV genotypes. The Veris HCV Assay demonstrated an analytical performance comparable to that of currently marketed HCV assays when tested across multiple European sites. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Multiple Introduction and Naturally Occuring Drug Resistance of HCV among HIV-Infected Intravenous Drug Users in Yunnan: An Origin of China's HIV/HCV Epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Ma, Yanling; Chen, Huichao; Luo, Hongbing; Dai, Jie; Song, Lijun; Yang, Chaojun; Mei, Jingyuan; Yang, Li; Dong, Lijuan; Jia, Manhong; Lu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) epidemic in China historically stemmed from intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Yunnan. Due to a shared transmission route, hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV-1 co-infection is common. Here, we investigated HCV genetic characteristics and baseline drug resistance among HIV-infected IDUs in Yunnan. Blood samples of 432 HIV-1/HCV co-infected IDUs were collected from January to June 2014 in six prefectures of Yunnan Province. Partial E1E2 and NS5B genes were sequenced. Phylogenetic, evolutionary and genotypic drug resistance analyses were performed. Among the 293 specimens successfully genotyped, seven subtypes were identified, including subtypes 3b (37.9%, 111/293), 3a (21.8%, 64/293), 6n (14.0%, 41/293), 1b (10.6%, 31/293), 1a (8.2%, 24/293), 6a (5.1%, 15/293) and 6u (2.4%, 7/293). The distribution of HCV subtypes was mostly related to geographic location. Subtypes 3b, 3a, and 6n were detected in all six prefectures, however, the other four subtypes were detected only in parts of the six prefectures. Phylogeographic analyses indicated that 6n, 1a and 6u originated in the western prefecture (Dehong) and spread eastward and showed genetic relatedness with those detected in Burmese. However, 6a originated in the southeast prefectures (Honghe and Wenshan) bordering Vietnam and was transmitted westward. These subtypes exhibited different evolutionary rates (between 4.35×10-4 and 2.38×10-3 substitutions site-1 year-1) and times of most recent common ancestor (tMRCA, between 1790.3 and 1994.6), suggesting that HCV was multiply introduced into Yunnan. Naturally occurring resistance-associated mutations (C316N, A421V, C445F, I482L, V494A, and V499A) to NS5B polymerase inhibitors were detected in direct-acting antivirals (DAAs)-naïve IDUs. This work reveals the temporal-spatial distribution of HCV subtypes and baseline HCV drug resistance among HIV-infected IDUs in Yunnan. The findings enhance our understanding of the characteristics and

  11. Multiple Introduction and Naturally Occuring Drug Resistance of HCV among HIV-Infected Intravenous Drug Users in Yunnan: An Origin of China's HIV/HCV Epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chen

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1 epidemic in China historically stemmed from intravenous drug users (IDUs in Yunnan. Due to a shared transmission route, hepatitis C virus (HCV/HIV-1 co-infection is common. Here, we investigated HCV genetic characteristics and baseline drug resistance among HIV-infected IDUs in Yunnan.Blood samples of 432 HIV-1/HCV co-infected IDUs were collected from January to June 2014 in six prefectures of Yunnan Province. Partial E1E2 and NS5B genes were sequenced. Phylogenetic, evolutionary and genotypic drug resistance analyses were performed.Among the 293 specimens successfully genotyped, seven subtypes were identified, including subtypes 3b (37.9%, 111/293, 3a (21.8%, 64/293, 6n (14.0%, 41/293, 1b (10.6%, 31/293, 1a (8.2%, 24/293, 6a (5.1%, 15/293 and 6u (2.4%, 7/293. The distribution of HCV subtypes was mostly related to geographic location. Subtypes 3b, 3a, and 6n were detected in all six prefectures, however, the other four subtypes were detected only in parts of the six prefectures. Phylogeographic analyses indicated that 6n, 1a and 6u originated in the western prefecture (Dehong and spread eastward and showed genetic relatedness with those detected in Burmese. However, 6a originated in the southeast prefectures (Honghe and Wenshan bordering Vietnam and was transmitted westward. These subtypes exhibited different evolutionary rates (between 4.35×10-4 and 2.38×10-3 substitutions site-1 year-1 and times of most recent common ancestor (tMRCA, between 1790.3 and 1994.6, suggesting that HCV was multiply introduced into Yunnan. Naturally occurring resistance-associated mutations (C316N, A421V, C445F, I482L, V494A, and V499A to NS5B polymerase inhibitors were detected in direct-acting antivirals (DAAs-naïve IDUs.This work reveals the temporal-spatial distribution of HCV subtypes and baseline HCV drug resistance among HIV-infected IDUs in Yunnan. The findings enhance our understanding of the characteristics and

  12. Searching for synergy: Identifying optimal antiviral combination therapy using Hepatitis C virus (HCV) agents in a replicon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Justin J; Drusano, George L; Rodriquez, Jaime L; Brown, Ashley N

    2017-10-01

    Direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are potent inhibitors of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) that have revolutionized the treatment landscape for this important viral disease. There are currently four classes of DAAs that inhibit HCV replication via distinct mechanisms of action: nonstructural protein (NS) 3/4a protease inhibitors, NS5A inhibitors, NS5B nucleoside polymerase inhibitors, and NS5B non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitors. Combination therapy with two or more DAAs has great potential to further enhance antiviral potency. The purpose of this study was to identify optimal combinations of DAAs against genotype 1 HCV replicons that maximized the inhibition of replicon replication. All possible two-drug combinations were evaluated against genotype 1a and 1b HCV replicons using a 96-well plate luciferase-based assay in triplicate. The Greco Universal Response Surface Area mathematical model was fit to the luciferase data to identify drug-drug interactions (i.e.: synergy, additivity, and antagonism) for antiviral effect against both genotypes. This information was used to rank-order combinations of DAAs based on their ability to inhibit replicon replication against genotype 1a and 1b HCV. These preclinical findings can provide information as to which antiviral regimens should move on in the development process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Insulin resistance and liver steatosis in chronic hepatitis C infection genotype 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Masarone, Mario; Peta, Valentina; Milic, Natasa; Kobyliak, Nazarii; Rouabhia, Samir; Persico, Marcello

    2014-11-07

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common chronic liver disease worldwide. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance (IR) are the major determinants of fibrosis progression and response to antiviral therapy. The pathogenetic link between IR and chronic HCV infection is complex, and is associated with HCV genotype. Liver steatosis is the most common in the patients infected with genotype 3 virus, possibly due to direct effects of genotype 3 viral proteins. To the contrary, hepatic steatosis in the patients infected with other genotypes is thought to be mostly due to the changes in host metabolism, involving IR. In HCV genotype 3, liver steatosis correlates with viral load, reverts after reaching the sustained virologic response and reoccurs in the relapsers. A therapeutic strategy to improve IR and liver steatosis and subsequently the response to antiviral treatment in these patients is warranted.

  14. Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 to 6 Protease Inhibitor Escape Variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serre, Stéphanie B N; Jensen, Sanne B; Ghanem, Lubna

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease inhibitors (PIs) are important components of novel HCV therapy regimens. Studies of PI resistance initially focused on genotype 1. Therefore, knowledge on determinants of PI resistance for the highly prevalent genotypes 2-6 remains limited. Using Huh7.5 cell...... selected under telaprevir/boceprevir conferred less resistance to certain newer PIs. In a single-cycle production assay, across genotypes, PI treatment primarily decreased viral replication, which was rescued by PI resistance substitutions. Identified substitutions resulted in differential effects on viral...... cycle, which is of interest for clinical and virological HCV research....

  15. Geno2pheno[HCV] - A Web-based Interpretation System to Support Hepatitis C Treatment Decisions in the Era of Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaghatgi, Prabhav; Sikorski, Anna Maria; Knops, Elena; Rupp, Daniel; Sierra, Saleta; Heger, Eva; Neumann-Fraune, Maria; Beggel, Bastian; Walker, Andreas; Timm, Jörg; Walter, Hauke; Obermeier, Martin; Kaiser, Rolf; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Lengauer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The face of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy is changing dramatically. Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) specifically targeting HCV proteins have been developed and entered clinical practice in 2011. However, despite high sustained viral response (SVR) rates of more than 90%, a fraction of patients do not eliminate the virus and in these cases treatment failure has been associated with the selection of drug resistance mutations (RAMs). RAMs may be prevalent prior to the start of treatment, or can be selected under therapy, and furthermore they can persist after cessation of treatment. Additionally, certain DAAs have been approved only for distinct HCV genotypes and may even have subtype specificity. Thus, sequence analysis before start of therapy is instrumental for managing DAA-based treatment strategies. We have created the interpretation system geno2pheno[HCV] (g2p[HCV]) to analyse HCV sequence data with respect to viral subtype and to predict drug resistance. Extensive reviewing and weighting of literature related to HCV drug resistance was performed to create a comprehensive list of drug resistance rules for inhibitors of the HCV protease in non-structural protein 3 (NS3-protease: Boceprevir, Paritaprevir, Simeprevir, Asunaprevir, Grazoprevir and Telaprevir), the NS5A replicase factor (Daclatasvir, Ledipasvir, Elbasvir and Ombitasvir), and the NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Dasabuvir and Sofosbuvir). Upon submission of up to eight sequences, g2p[HCV] aligns the input sequences, identifies the genomic region(s), predicts the HCV geno- and subtypes, and generates for each DAA a drug resistance prediction report. g2p[HCV] offers easy-to-use and fast subtype and resistance analysis of HCV sequences, is continuously updated and freely accessible under http://hcv.geno2pheno.org/index.php. The system was partially validated with respect to the NS3-protease inhibitors Boceprevir, Telaprevir and Simeprevir by using data generated with recombinant, phenotypic

  16. Complementary role of HCV and HIV in T-cell activation and exhaustion in HIV/HCV coinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feuth, T.; Arends, J.E.; Fransen, J.H.; Nanlohy, N.M.; Erpecum, K.J. van; Siersema, P.D.; Hoepelman, A.I.; Baarle, D. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether T-cell activation and exhaustion is linked to HCV- and HIV disease parameters in HIV/HCV infected individuals, we studied T-cell characteristics in HIV/HCV coinfected patients and controls. METHODS: 14 HIV/HCV coinfected, 19 HCV monoinfected, 10 HIV monoinfected

  17. Sustained Virologic Response at 24 Weeks after the End of Treatment Is a Better Predictor for Treatment Outcome in Real-World HCV-Infected Patients Treated by HCV NS3/4A Protease Inhibitors with Peginterferon plus Ribavirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Yasui, Shin; Haga, Yuki; Ogasawara, Sadahisa; Tawada, Akinobu; Arai, Makoto; Mikami, Shigeru; Imazeki, Fumio; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Direct-acting antiviral agents against HCV with or without peginterferon plus ribavirin result in higher eradication rates of HCV and shorter treatment duration. We examined which is better for predicting persistent virologic response, the assessment of serum HCV RNA at 12 or 24 weeks after the end of treatment for predicting sustained virologic response (SVR12 or SVR24, respectively) in patients treated by HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors with peginterferon plus ribavirin. In all, 149 Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1b treated by peginterferon plus ribavirin with telaprevir or simeprevir were retrospectively analyzed: 59 and 90 patients were treated with telaprevir- and simeprevir-including regimens, respectively. HCV RNA was measured by TaqMan HCV Test, version 2.0, real-time PCR assay. SVR12 or SVR24, respectively, was defined as HCV RNA negativity at 12 or 24 weeks after ending treatment. Total SVR rates were 78.0% and 66.7% in the telaprevir and simeprevir groups, respectively. In the telaprevir group, all 46 patients with SVR12 finally achieved SVR24. In the simeprevir group, 60 (93.8%) of the total 64 patients with SVR12 achieved SVR24, with the other 4 patients all being previous-treatment relapsers. SVR12 was suitable for predicting persistent virologic response in almost all cases. In simeprevir-including regimens, SVR12 could not always predict persistent virologic response. Clinicians should use SVR24 for predicting treatment outcome in the use of HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors with peginterferon plus ribavirin for any group of real-world patients chronically infected with HCV.

  18. Prevalence of end of treatment RNA-positive/sustained viral response in HCV patients treated with sofosbuvir combination therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malespin, Miguel; Benyashvili, Tamara; Uprichard, Susan L; Perelson, Alan S; Dahari, Harel; Cotler, Scott J

    2017-01-01

    Some chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), genotype 1 infected patients treated with direct antiviral agents (DAAs) remain viremic at end of treatment (EOT+), yet go on to achieve sustained virological response 12 weeks after completion of therapy (SVR 12 ). The incidence of EOT+/SVR in patients with genotype 1 and other genotypes, as well as whether such patients achieve SVR 24 remain in question. The aims of this study were to evaluate the frequency and durability of EOT+/SVR 12&24 and other response categories in HCV genotype 1, 2, or 3 infected patients treated with DAA in clinical practice. Data from patients treated with all oral sofosbuvir-based regimens at a university hepatology practice by 1 July 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Responses were categorized based on virus levels during and post DAA treatment. HCV RNA levels were measured by Abbott RealTime HCV (ART) or by Roche CobasTaqMan v2.0 (RCTM) assays. The study population included 89 patients. Participants were 62% genotype 1, 19% genotype 2 and 19% genotype 3, 54% cirrhotic and 46% treatment-experienced. A total of 45 received sofosbuvir-simeprevir, 38 sofosbuvir-ribavirin and 6 sofosbuvir-ledipasvir. The SVR 12 rate was 82%. A total of 5 patients (6%), all with genotype 1, had EOT+ by ART assay and each achieved SVR 12&24 . A total of 9% of genotype 1 patients (6% overall) treated with DAAs were EOT+ by ART and all EOT+ cases achieved SVR 24 . EOT+/SVR was not observed with genotype 2 or 3 or by the RCTM assay. In patients treated with DAAs, EOT+ by the ART assay does not indicate treatment failure.

  19. Hepatitis C Genotypes in Libya: Correlation with Patients’ Characteristics, Level of Viremia, and Degree of Liver Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Naser Elzuoki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Our study sought to determine the distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV-genotypes among patients attending two tertiary care hospitals in Benghazi and Tripoli, Libya, and correlate this with patient’s characteristics, viral load, and degree of fibrosis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 286 HCV-RNA positive Libyan patients referred from different health care facilities in east and west Libya for specific HCV treatment. HCV genotyping was carried out by gene amplification. Liver histology was graded by Metavir score according to the stage of fibrosis. Results: HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 were found in 24.1%, 10.8%, 3.4%, and 61.5% of the patients, respectively. Genotype 4 was detected more frequently in patients from east Libya (Benghazi compared to west Libya (Tripoli (75.9% vs. 41.6%, p = 0.245. Genotype 1 was more frequent in patients from west Libya compared to east Libya (34.1% vs. 16.8%, p = 0.657. There was a significant correlation between HCV genotype distribution and viral load. Patients with genotype 4 exhibited a higher degree of liver fibrosis (p < 0.001. Conclusions: HCV genotype 4 is the predominant genotype in Libya followed by genotype 1. However, as we go from the east to the west of the country, genotype 1 increases. Genotype 4 was associated with higher level of viremia and higher stage of liver fibrosis. It is important to note that both genotypes 1 and 4 are associated with a poor response to pegylated interferon and ribavirin combination therapy. The findings emphasize the need to develop improved strategies in Libya for the successful treatment of HCV infection with novel newly available antiviral drugs.

  20. Comparison of Three Different Hepatitis C Virus Genotyping Methods: 5'NCR PCR-RFLP, Core Type-Specific PCR, and NS5b Sequencing in a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Hubert D-J; David, Joel; Raghuraman, Sukanya; Gnanamony, Manu; Chandy, George M; Sridharan, Gopalan; Abraham, Priya

    2017-05-01

    Based on genetic heterogeneity, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is classified into seven major genotypes and 64 subtypes. In spite of the sequence heterogeneity, all genotypes share an identical complement of colinear genes within the large open reading frame. The genetic interrelationships between these genes are consistent among genotypes. Due to this property, complete sequencing of the HCV genome is not required. HCV genotypes along with subtypes are critical for planning antiviral therapy. Certain genotypes are also associated with higher progression to liver cirrhosis. In this study, 100 blood samples were collected from individuals who came for routine HCV genotype identification. These samples were used for the comparison of two different genotyping methods (5'NCR PCR-RFLP and HCV core type-specific PCR) with NS5b sequencing. Of the 100 samples genotyped using 5'NCR PCR-RFLP and HCV core type-specific PCR, 90% (κ = 0.913, P < 0.00) and 96% (κ = 0.794, P < 0.00) correlated with NS5b sequencing, respectively. Sixty percent and 75% of discordant samples by 5'NCR PCR-RFLP and HCV core type-specific PCR, respectively, belonged to genotype 6. All the HCV genotype 1 subtypes were classified accurately by both the methods. This study shows that the 5'NCR-based PCR-RFLP and the HCV core type-specific PCR-based assays correctly identified HCV genotypes except genotype 6 from this region. Direct sequencing of the HCV core region was able to identify all the genotype 6 from this region and serves as an alternative to NS5b sequencing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Hepatitis C Virus NS5B Sequence-Based Genotyping Analysis of Patients From the Sharkia Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsadek Fakhr, Ahmed; Pourkarim, Mahmoud Reza; Maes, Piet; Atta, Amal Hassan; Marei, Ayman; Azab, Magda; Van Ranst, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus infection and its sequela are major health problems facing the Egyptian community. The high prevalence and spread rates of the disease require serious actions to stop or decrease these rates. Determination of HCV genotypes and subgenotypes adds significant knowledge about the epidemiology of the disease, and provides an added value in the decision making process of what strategy to follow and what therapy response to expect. The molecular epidemiology and genetic variability of HCV variants circulating in Egypt still need further analysis. The study was held to evaluate the genotype and subgenotype of the hepatitis c virus circulating in Sharkia as one of the large governorates of Egypt, which was not included in any study for genotyping of the virus before. The HCV molecular epidemiology in Sharkia governorate was studied using direct sequencing and further phylogenetic analysis of a partial NS5B region of the HCV genome from 63 patients. HCV genotype and subtype were successfully determined in 62 out of 63 patients. The highest prevalent genotype was genotype 4a, which was found in 57 patients (92%) followed by 2 isolates (3%) with genotype 4o, 2 strains (3%) with genotype 1g and one isolate (2%) with genotype 4n. This molecular epidemiology study revealed high prevalence of HCV genotype 4, subtype 4a among Egyptian patients residing in Sharkia governorate, Egypt.

  2. Co-infections and transmission networks of HCV, HIV-1 and HPgV among people who inject drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien Ng, Kim; Takebe, Yutaka; Bee Chook, Jack; Zhen Chow, Wei; Gan Chan, Kok; Abed Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Keng Tee, Kok

    2015-01-01

    Co-infections with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human pegivirus (HPgV) are common in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals. However, analysis on the evolutionary dynamics and transmission network profiles of these viruses among individuals with multiple infections remains limited. A total of 228 injecting drug users (IDUs), either HCV- and/or HIV-1-infected, were recruited in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. HCV, HIV-1 and HPgV genes were sequenced, with epidemic growth rates assessed by the Bayesian coalescent method. Based on the sequence data, mono-, dual- and triple-infection were detected in 38.8%, 40.6% and 20.6% of the subjects, respectively. Fifteen transmission networks involving HCV (subtype 1a, 1b, 3a and 3b), HIV-1 (CRF33_01B) and HPgV (genotype 2) were identified and characterized. Genealogical estimates indicated that the predominant HCV, HIV-1 and HPgV genotypes were introduced into the IDUs population through multiple sub-epidemics that emerged as early as 1950s (HCV), 1980s (HIV-1) and 1990s (HPgV). By determining the difference in divergence times between viral lineages (ΔtMRCA), we also showed that the frequency of viral co-transmission is low among these IDUs. Despite increased access to therapy and other harm reduction interventions, the continuous emergence and coexistence of new transmission networks suggest persistent multiple viral transmissions among IDUs. PMID:26459957

  3. HCV antigen instead of RNA testing to diagnose acute HCV in patients treated in the Dutch Acute HCV in HIV Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Hullegie (Sebastiaan); C.H. Geurts van Kessel (Corine); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); C.R.B. Ramakers; B.J.A. Rijnders (Bart)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractINTRODUCTION: Affordable and sensitive screening methods for acute hepatitis C (HCV) are necessary to successfully intervene in the current HCV epidemic among HIV-positive men having sex with men. HCV core antigen (Ag) testing has been proven effective in diagnosing chronic HCV-infected

  4. Ribavirin plasma concentration is a predictor of sustained virological response in patients treated for chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 2/3 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Court; Alsiö, A; Lagging, M

    2011-01-01

    Summary. In hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection, the likelihood of obtaining sustained virological response (SVR) is associated with higher ribavirin exposure. Such an association has not been demonstrated for HCV genotype 2/3 infection, where a fixed 800 mg daily dosing of ribavirin is ...

  5. Molecular Signature in HCV-Positive Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valli De Re

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a positive, single-stranded RNA virus, which has been associated to different subtypes of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL. Cumulative evidence suggests an HCV-related antigen driven process in the B-NHL development. The underlying molecular signature associated to HCV-related B-NHL has to date remained obscure. In this review, we discuss the recent developments in this field with a special mention to different sets of genes whose expression is associated with BCR coupled to Blys signaling which in turn was found to be linked to B-cell maturation stages and NF-κb transcription factor. Even if recent progress on HCV-B-NHL signature has been made, the precise relationship between HCV and lymphoma development and phenotype signature remain to be clarified.

  6. Prevalence and Genotypic Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus in Peshawar KPK, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanweer Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This present study was planned to obtain an up-to-date picture of Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and its genotypes distribution in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, as well as of the relationship between HCV genotypes and demographic and clinical parameters, and the risk factors in patients with an HCV subtype. Samples (blood from 1978 individuals were collected and were tested using a strip-based method called the immunochromatographic test (ICT for the existence of antibodies against HCV. It was observed that 158 of the 1978 individuals (7.9% harbored antibodies in their blood against HCV, among which the female percentage (53.2% was higher than that of the male (46.8%. Among the different age groups, the highest number of incidences of HCV antibodies was found in the age group of 31–40 years (26.6%. ICT positive samples were further screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA, and it was found that 6.21% (123 of the total population (1978 tested, was positive, among which the female rate (56.91% was observed to be higher than that of the male (43.09%. The highest incidence recorded was in the age group of 41–50 years (33.3%. HCV RNA positive individuals were genotyped: genotype 3a (45.5% was dominant among the other detected genotypes, followed by 1a (11.4%, 3b (4.9%, and 2a (4.1%. It was concluded that the highest prevalence of HCV was found in females, and that the dominant genotype of the screened individuals was 3a genotype.

  7. Assessment of HCV Infection in Suspected Orphans Newborns by Real-Time PCR and HCV-Core Ag-Elisa

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Jamalidoust; Mandana Namayandeh; Maryam Zare; Mazyar Ziyaeyan

    2015-01-01

    Background & Objective: HCV infection may be transmitted from an infected mother to her fetus in a low percentage; however, it is the most important route of infancy HCV infection. The chance of HCV transmission in HIV/HCV co-infected mothers is higher than that in HCV mono-infected ones. The aim of this study is to assess HCV infection status in orphan newborns in Shiraz, Iran by quantitative PCR assay and HCV core-Ag Elisa.Materials & Methods:  Twenty nine HCV suspected...

  8. Sexual Transmission of HCV in Heterologous Monogamous Spouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M. Rafik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We screened for evidence of HCV infection in healthy heterologous monogamous spouses of chronic HCV patients and studied the relation with various risk factors. A cross-sectional study of fifty healthy monogamous heterosexual spouses of HCV-positive index cases was carried out. All participants were HBV and HIV negative. The association with various risk factors was studied. Five spouses (10% showed evidence of HCV infection. Two partners were positive for HCV antibody alone (4% and 3 for antibody and HCV PCR (6%. No association was found between HCV infection and various sociodemographic parameters with the exception of older age categories. Intraspousal transmission of HCV may be an important source of spread of HCV infection. The reservoir of HCV-infected individuals in Egypt is sizable, and sexual transmission of HCV may contribute to the total burden of infection in Egypt.

  9. SKI-1/S1P inhibitor PF-429242 impairs the onset of HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Matthieu; Sureau, Camille; Guévin, Carl; Seidah, Nabil G; Labonté, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Worldwide, approximately 170 million individuals are afflicted with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To prevent the development of inherent diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, tremendous efforts have been made, leading to the development of promising new treatments. However, their efficiency is still dependent on the viral genotype. Additionally, these treatments that target the virus directly can trigger the emergence of resistant variants. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a long-term (72h) inhibition of SKI-1/S1P, a master lipogenic pathway regulator through activation of SREBP, resulted in impaired HCV genome replication and infectious virion secretion. In the present study, we sought to investigate the antiviral effect of the SKI-1/S1P small molecule inhibitor PF-429242 at the early steps of the HCV lifecycle. Our results indicate a very potent antiviral effect of the inhibitor early in the viral lifecycle and that the overall action of the compound relies on two different contributions. The first one is SREBP/SKI-1/S1P dependent and involves LDLR and NPC1L1 proteins, while the second one is SREBP independent. Overall, our study confirms that SKI-1/S1P is a relevant target to impair HCV infection and that PF-429242 could be a promising candidate in the field of HCV infection treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV assays for prediction of sustained virological response to pegylated interferon and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kentaro; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Hasegawa, Izumi; Ohno, Tomoyoshi; Tokuda, Hiroshi; Kurbanov, Fuat; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Nojiri, Shunsuke; Joh, Takashi; Mizokami, Masashi

    2009-02-01

    Two commercial real-time PCR assays are currently available for sensitive hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA quantification: the Abbott RealTime HCV assay (ART) and Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV assay (CAP/CTM). We assessed whether the two real-time PCR assays were more effective than Roche Cobas Amplicor HCV Monitor test, v.2.0 (CAM) for prediction of the sustained virological response (SVR) to pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) in chronic hepatitis C. Sixty patients chronically infected with HCV genotype 1b (37 males and 23 females, 53 +/- 12 years of age) were treated with PEG-IFNalpha2b plus RBV for 48 weeks. Stored specimens at nine time points for each patient (at baseline, on treatment, and 24 weeks after treatment) were tested by the two real-time PCR assays and CAM. Twenty-six (43.3%) patients reached SVR. The positive predictive values (PPVs) for SVR of undetectable HCV RNA at week 12 by CAM, ART, and CAP/CTM were 74.3%, 88.0%, and 95.2%, respectively. An undetectable HCV RNA level by CAM, ART, and CAP/CTM correctly predicted SVR at week 4 in 100%, 100%, and 100% of patients, at weeks 5 to 8 in 91.7%, 100%, and 100% of patients, at weeks 9 to 12 in 55.6%, 75%, and 87.5% of patients, and at weeks 13 to 24 in 0%, 26.7%, and 40% of patients, respectively. Of 16 patients who relapsed after treatment, HCV RNA was detectable in 2 patients at the end of treatment by CAP/CTM but undetectable by ART and CAM. HCV RNA tests using ART and CAP/CTM are considered to be more effective at predicting SVR than CAM, and the PPV for SVR was slightly higher in CAP/CTM than in ART.

  11. A European multicentre study on the comparison of HCV viral loads between VERIS HCV assay and COBAS® TaqMan® HCV Test and RealTime HCV Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Patrick; Drago, Monica; Fanti, Diana; Fleury, Hervé; Hofmann, Jörg; Izopet, Jacques; Kühn, Sebastian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Micheli, Valeria; Sauné, Karine; Trimoulet, Pascale; Whittaker, Duncan; Artus, Alain; Rhodes, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Beckman Coulter has developed the VERIS HCV Assay for use on the new fully automated DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostic System ¥ for HCV viral load monitoring. Evaluate the clinical performance of the new quantitative VERIS HCV Assay. Comparison was performed on 279 plasma specimens from HCV infected patients tested with the VERIS HCV Assay and COBAS ® Ampliprep/COBAS ® Taqman ® HCV Test and 369 specimens tested with the VERIS HCV Assay and RealTime HCV Assay. Patient monitoring sample results from four time points were also compared. The average bias between the VERIS HCV Assay and the COBAS ® Ampliprep/COBAS ® Taqman ® HCV Test was 0.04 log 10 IU/mL, while between the VERIS HCV Assay and the RealTime HCV Assay average bias was 0.21 log 10 IU/mL. Bias, however, was not consistent across the measuring range. Analysis at the lower end of quantification levels 50, 100, and 1000IU/mL showed a predicted bias for VERIS HCV Assay versus COBAS ® Ampliprep/COBAS ® Taqman ® HCV Test between -0.42 and -0.22 log 10 IU/mL and for VERIS HCV Assay versus RealTime HCV Assay between 0.00 and 0.13 log 10 IU/mL. Patient monitoring of HCV viral load over time demonstrated similar levels between VERIS HCV Assay results and COBAS ® Ampliprep/COBAS ® Taqman ® HCV Test (52 samples from 13 patients) and RealTime HCV Assay (112 samples from 28 patients). VERIS HCV Assay for use on the DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostic System represents a reliable new tool for easy sample to result HCV RNA viral load monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ribavirin Concentrations Do Not Predict Sustained Virological Response in HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients Treated with Ribavirin and Pegylated Interferon in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Kovari

    Full Text Available Ribavirin (RBV is an essential component of most current hepatitis C (HCV treatment regimens and still standard of care in the combination with pegylated interferon (pegIFN to treat chronic HCV in resource limited settings. Study results in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients are contradicting as to whether RBV concentration correlates with sustained virological response (SVR.We included 262 HCV treatment naïve HIV/HCV-coinfected Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS participants treated with RBV and pegIFN between 01.01.2001-01.01.2010, 134 with HCV genotype (GT 1/4, and 128 with GT 2/3 infections. RBV levels were measured retrospectively in stored plasma samples obtained between HCV treatment week 4 and end of therapy. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between RBV concentration and SVR in GT 1/4 and GT 2/3 infections. The analyses were repeated stratified by treatment phase (week 4-12, 13-24, >24 and IL28B genotype (CC versus CT/TT.SVR rates were 35.1% in GT 1/4 and 70.3% in GT 2/3 infections. Overall, median RBV concentration was 2.0 mg/L in GT 1/4, and 1.9 mg/L in GT 2/3, and did not change significantly across treatment phases. Patients with SVR had similar RBV concentrations compared to patients without SVR in both HCV genotype groups. SVR was not associated with RBV levels ≥2.0 mg/L (GT 1/4, OR 1.19 [0.5-2.86]; GT 2/3, 1.94 [0.78-4.80] and ≥2.5 mg/L (GT 1/4, 1.56 [0.64-3.84]; GT 2/3 2.72 [0.85-8.73], regardless of treatment phase, and IL28B genotype.In HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated with pegIFN/RBV, therapeutic drug monitoring of RBV concentrations does not enhance the chance of HCV cure, regardless of HCV genotype, treatment phase and IL28B genotype.

  13. HCV-induced autophagosomes are generated via homotypic fusion of phagophores that mediate HCV RNA replication.

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    Linya Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV induces autophagy to promote its replication, including its RNA replication, which can take place on double-membrane vesicles known as autophagosomes. However, how HCV induces the biogenesis of autophagosomes and how HCV RNA replication complex may be assembled on autophagosomes were largely unknown. During autophagy, crescent membrane structures known as phagophores first appear in the cytoplasm, which then progress to become autophagosomes. By conducting electron microscopy and in vitro membrane fusion assay, we found that phagophores induced by HCV underwent homotypic fusion to generate autophagosomes in a process dependent on the SNARE protein syntaxin 7 (STX7. Further analyses by live-cell imaging and fluorescence microscopy indicated that HCV-induced phagophores originated from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Interestingly, comparing with autophagy induced by nutrient starvation, the progression of phagophores to autophagosomes induced by HCV took significantly longer time, indicating fundamental differences in the biogenesis of autophagosomes induced by these two different stimuli. As the knockdown of STX7 to inhibit the formation of autophagosomes did not affect HCV RNA replication, and purified phagophores could mediate HCV RNA replication, the assembly of the HCV RNA replication complex on autophagosomes apparently took place during the formative stage of phagophores. These findings provided important information for understanding how HCV controlled and modified this important cellular pathway for its own replication.

  14. Danazol improves thrombocytopenia in HCV patients treated with peginterferon and ribavirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Guillermo Cabrera; Gómez-Galicia, Diana; Rodríguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Marina, Vicente Madrid; Dorantes, Luis Cañedo; Sánchez-Alemán, Miguel; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum; Esparza, Jorge Reyes

    2011-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common hematologic disorder observed in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Combined peginterferon (PEG-INF) and ribavirin treatment may exacerbate thrombocytopenia in patients with HCV. The aim of this pilot clinical trial was to assess the efficacy, tolerability and safety of Danazol in thrombocytopenia associated with PEG-INF and ribavirin treatment in patients with HCV. We included patients whose platelets were 100,000 platelets/mm³, and 71% of patients maintained their initial platelet levels. Sustained viral response (SVR) was achieved in 63% of patients. SVR rates were high in patients with genotype non 1 (78.7%) and decreased in patients with genotype 1 (60.1%). The increase in platelet levels was associated to an increase in fibrinogen levels and a decrease in the activity of ALT. By contrast, patients without SVR presented a delayed response to increased platelet levels and showed no significant improvement in liver function when they received Danazol. Danazol can be used along with PEG-INF and ribavirin to treat thrombocytopenia in patients with HCV.

  15. Sustained virological response to antiviral therapy reduces mortality in HCV reinfection after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciotto, Francesco Paolo; Tritto, Giovanni; Lanza, Alfonso Galeota; Addario, Luigi; De Luca, Massimo; Di Costanzo, Giovan Giuseppe; Lampasi, Filippo; Tartaglione, Maria Teresa; Marsilia, Giuseppina Marino; Calise, Fulvio; Cuomo, Oreste; Ascione, Antonio

    2007-03-01

    HCV infection recurs almost in all HCV-positive patients receiving liver transplantation and carries a poor prognosis. Aim of this study was to analyze efficacy and effect on survival of antiviral therapy in this clinical setting. Pegylated-interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin were administered at a dose of 1 microg/kg of bwt weekly and 600-800 mg/day. Planned duration of treatment was 24 or 48 weeks according to HCV genotype. Patients who failed to respond at week 24 were considered as non-responders. 61 patients were enrolled. According to intention-to-treat analysis, 44 (72%) patients were considered as treatment failure (31 non-responders, 4 relapsers, 9 dropout). Sustained virological response was achieved in 17 cases (28%). Genotype 2, higher doses of antivirals and absence of histological cirrhosis were predictors of sustained virological response. In the follow up, patients with sustained virological response had a significantly lower mortality compared to patients with treatment failure (chi2=6.9; P<0.01). Response rate to antiviral therapy in HCV reinfection after liver transplantation is higher if a full dose of antiviral drugs is administered and if treatment starts before histological cirrhosis has developed. Sustained virological response improves patient survival.

  16. Identification of halosalicylamide derivatives as a novel class of allosteric inhibitors of HCV NS5B polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaya; Donner, Pamela L; Pratt, John K; Jiang, Wen W; Ng, Teresa; Gracias, Vijaya; Baumeister, Steve; Wiedeman, Paul E; Traphagen, Linda; Warrior, Usha; Maring, Clarence; Kati, Warren M; Djuric, Stevan W; Molla, Akhteruzzaman

    2008-06-01

    Halosalicylamide derivatives were identified from high-throughput screening as potent inhibitors of HCV NS5B polymerase. The subsequent structure and activity relationship revealed the absolute requirement of the salicylamide moiety for optimum activity. Methylation of either the hydroxyl group or the amide group of the salicylamide moiety abolished the activity while the substitutions on both phenyl rings are acceptable. The halosalicylamide derivatives were shown to be non-competitive with respect to elongation nucleotide and demonstrated broad genotype activity against genotype 1-3 HCV NS5B polymerases. Inhibitor competition studies indicated an additive binding mode to the initiation pocket that is occupied by the thiadiazine class of compounds and an additive binding mode to the elongation pocket that is occupied by diketoacids, but a mutually exclusive binding mode with respect to the allosteric thumb pocket that is occupied by the benzimidazole class of inhibitors. Therefore, halosalicylamides represent a novel class of allosteric inhibitors of HCV NS5B polymerase.

  17. IL-10 and IL-28B gene variants as predictors of sustained response to peginterferon and ribavirin therapy in chronic HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, Ikram; Mouelhi, Leila; Rabia, Noor A; Ghazoueni, Ezzedine; Almawi, Wassim Y; Loueslati, Besma Yacoubi

    2017-04-05

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays an important role in the immunity to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Insofar as IL-10 variants are associated with altered levels of IL-10, previous studies that examined the association of IL-10 polymorphisms with the susceptibility to and progression of chronic HCV, and response to anti-viral treatment were inconsistent. We investigated the association between common IL-10 variants in the intron and the promotor region with HCV and associated features. Study subjects comprised 120 patients infected with HCV-1b, and treated with Peg-IFN/RBV. Genotyping of six IL-10 promoter variants in the intron region (rs1878672, rs1554286, rs1518111) and promotor region (rs1800872, rs1800871, rs1800896) were done by real-time PCR. Compared to G/G, carriage of IL-10 rs1800896 (-1082A/G) A/A genotype was more frequent in patients with sustained virological response (SVR). The decline in viral load over the first 12weeks of treatment was more pronounced in rs1800896 A/A genotype carriers, compared to G/G genotype carriers, and was irrespective of the treatment dosage. Carriage of rs1800896 A/A genotype was positively associated with improvement in viral load decline, which was simultaneous, with and without carriage of the common favourable IL-28B variant. Carriage of both IL-10 rs1800896 G/G and IL-28B non-favourable genotype was associated with twice the risk of getting slow decline of viral load during treatment. Haploview analysis identified ACGCTA and CCGCTG haplotypes to be linked with excellent PegIFN/RBV cure rate, and complete HCV eradication. On the other hand, ACGCTG and CCGCTA haplotypes were associated with resistance to PegIFN/RBV treatment. IL-10 rs1800896 variant markedly influences the clinical outcome of HCV infection, and is a determinant of the response to HCV treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacodynamics of PEG-IFN-alpha-2a in HIV/HCV co-infected patients: implications for treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahari, Harel; Affonso de Araujo, Evaldo S; Haagmans, Bart L; Layden, Thomas J; Cotler, Scott J; Barone, Antonio A; Neumann, Avidan U

    2010-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pegylated-interferon-alpha-2a (PEG-IFN) have not been described in HCV/HIV co-infected patients. We sought to estimate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of PEG-IFN and determine whether these parameters predict treatment outcome. Twenty-six HCV/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-co-infected patients were treated with a 48-week regimen of PEG-IFN (180 microg/week) plus ribavirin (11 mg/kg/day). HCV RNA and PEG-IFN concentrations were obtained from samples collected until week 12. A modeling framework that includes pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters was developed. Five patients discontinued treatment. Seven patients achieved a sustained virological response (SVR). PEG-IFN concentrations at day 8 were similar to steady-state levels (p=0.15) and overall pharmacokinetic parameters were similar in SVRs and non-SVRs. The maximum PEG-IFN effectiveness during the first PEG-IFN dose and the HCV-infected cell loss rate (delta), were significantly higher in SVRs compared to non-SVRs (median 95% vs. 86% [p=0.013], 0.27 vs. 0.11 day(-1) [p=0.006], respectively). Patients infected with HCV genotype 1 had a significantly lower average first-week PEG-IFN effectiveness (median 70% vs. 88% [p=0.043]), however, 4- to 12-week PEG-IFN effectiveness was not significantly different compared to those with genotype 3 (p=0.114). Genotype 1 had a significantly lower delta compared to genotype 3 (median 0.14 vs. 0.23 day(-1) [p=0.021]). The PEG-IFN concentration that decreased HCV production by 50% (EC(50)) was lower in genotype 3 compared to genotype 1 (median 1.3 vs. 3.4 [p=0.034]). Both the HCV-infected cell loss rate (delta) and the maximum effectiveness of the first dose of PEG-IFN-alpha-2a characterised HIV co-infected patients and were highly predictive of SVR. Further studies are needed to validate these viral kinetic parameters as early on-treatment prognosticators of response in patients with HCV and HIV. Copyright 2010

  19. HIV/HCV Coinfection in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are important global public health problems with shared transmission routes. Although HIV/HCV coinfection is not uncommon, the prevalence rates vary significantly across different studies and regions. In Taiwan, injection drug users have become the major contributors to the HIV/AIDS epidemic since 2005. Because the prevalence of HCV infection is high in injection drug users, this HIV epidemic is also associated with a significant increase of HIV/HCV coinfection in Taiwan. To control Taiwan's HIV epidemic, Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (CDC) launched a harm-reduction program in 2006. The HIV epidemic, the percentage attributed to injection drug users, and the prevalence of HIV/HCV coinfection gradually declined thereafter. In this article, we aimed to thoroughly examine the current literatures of HIV/HCV coinfection in Taiwan and hope to provide a better understanding of the needs for the management of this coinfection. We conducted a narrative review and searched for literature from PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library database untill August 2015. Studies relevant to the epidemiology and associated risk factors of HIV/HCV coinfection in Taiwan were examined and discussed.

  20. Circulating Interferon-λ3, Responsiveness to HBV Vaccination, and HBV/HCV Infections in Haemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja E. Grzegorzewska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The IFN-λ3 gene (IFNL3 plays a role in HCV clearance. We investigated circulating IFN-λ3 and IFNL3 SNPs in haemodialysis patients who differed in their response to HBV vaccination and their HBV/HCV infection status. In 201 patients, plasma IFN-λ3 was determined using ELISA. IFNL3 SNPs (rs12979860, rs8099917 were genotyped using HRM analysis. Differences in IFN-λ3 levels were shown between responders and nonresponders to HBV vaccination and between HBsAg-positive patients and those who developed anti-HBs after infection and became HBsAg negative. HBV vaccine responders without HCV resolution revealed lower IFN-λ3 than noninfected responders. HBsAg/HCV RNA-positive subjects showed lower IFN-λ3 than patients positive only for HCV RNA or subjects who resolved both infections. Circulating IFN-λ3 correlated positively with anti-HBs and negatively with positive HCV RNA testing in the adjusted regression analyses. HBV vaccine nonresponders, HBsAg-positive patients, and subjects with replicating HCV composed a group with unfavourable outcomes. Responders to HBV vaccination, subjects who became HBsAg negative, and those who cleared HCV were analysed as having favourable outcomes. The latter showed higher IFN-λ3 but did not differ in distribution of IFNL3 SNPs compared with subjects with unfavourable outcomes. Higher IFN-λ3 concentrations are associated with response to HBV vaccination, self-limited HBV infection, and HCV resolution.

  1. A new subtype of hepatitis C virus genotype 1: complete genome and phylogenetic relationships of an Equatorial Guinea isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Maria Alma; Carrillo-Cruz, Francy Yolima; Ortega, Enrique; Moya, Andrés; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2006-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease and is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. However, there have been few studies on the distribution and genetic diversity of HCV isolates in non-developed countries. Here, the complete genome sequence of an HCV genotype 1 isolate from Equatorial Guinea is reported, the first complete HCV-1 genome of African origin. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this sequence always grouped with sequences of genotype 1, but did not group clearly with any subtype described so far. An analysis of partial NS5B gene sequences with additional sequences of African origin also failed to find close similarities between the new sequence and any previously known isolate. Genetic divergence of the coding region of this new sequence with respect to the recognized subtypes of HCV-1 ranged from 20 to 22%. It is proposed that this isolate is a representative of a new, distinct variant of HCV subtype 1.

  2. [Prevalence and genotype distribution changes in hepatitis C virus co-infection among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Celia; Mancebo-Hernández, María; Pérez-Navarro, Elisabet; Recio, Eva; Monje-Agudo, Patricia; Valiente, Adoración; Pineda, Juan A

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of hepatitisC is decreasing among new diagnoses of HIV/HCV coinfection in Spain. The increasing use of the HCV treatment could have changed the HCV genotype distribution. The aim of this study is to analyze changes in the prevalence of HCV coinfection and in HCV genotype distribution among HIV-infected patients. A serial cross-sectional study was conducted that included all HIV-infected patients who attended the Outpatient Clinic of a hospital in Andalusia, between September 2008 and February 2009 (first period), and between January 2013 and June 2013 (second period). A total of 520 and 651 patients were included in the first and second period, respectively. The risk factors of HCV infection in the first vs. second period were: IDU, 319 (61%) vs. 348 (53%); heterosexual contact, 111 (21%) vs. 135 (21%); homosexual men, 76 (15%) vs. 114 (22%) (P=.006). The prevalence of HCV antibody per period was: 358 (69%) vs. 380 (58%) (P=<.001), and for the HCV-RNA was 255 (49%) vs. 240 (37%) (P=<.001). In both periods, the HCV genotype distribution was: 1, 137 (60%) vs. 138 (59%); 3, 45 (20%) vs. 42 (18%); 4, 42 (18%) vs. 47 (20%) (P=.881). The prevalence of HCV infection in HIV-infected patients has decreased in our area, including overall exposure to HCV virus and active infection during the last 5 years. However, the HCV genotype distribution has not changed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Highly efficient full-length hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (strain TN) infectious culture system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Ramirez, Santseharay; Jensen, Sanne B

    2012-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of end stage liver disease worldwide. In the United States, most HCV-related disease is associated with genotype 1 infection, which remains difficult to treat. Drug and vaccine development was hampered by inability to culture...... with 8 changes (designated TN cell-culture derived, TNcc) replicated efficiently and released infectious particles of ∼5 log(10) focus-forming units per mL; passaged TNcc did not require additional changes. IFN-α and directly acting antivirals targeting the HCV protease, NS5A, and NS5B, each inhibited...... full-length TN infection dose-dependently. Given the unique importance of genotype 1 for pathogenesis, this infectious 1a culture system represents an important advance in HCV research. The approach used and the mutations identified might permit culture development for other HCV isolates, thus...

  4. High rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence in HIV-infected individuals with spontaneous HCV RNA clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L.; Mocroft, A.; Soriano, V.; Rockstroh, J. K.; Kirkby, N.; Reiss, P.; Katlama, C.; Zakharova, N.; Flisiak, R.; Lundgren, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Following resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, recurrence has been shown to occur in some persons with repeated exposure to HCV. We aimed to investigate the rate and factors associated with HCV RNA recurrence among HIV-1-infected patients with prior spontaneous HCV RNA clearance in the

  5. Differences between two real-time PCR-based hepatitis C virus (HCV) assays (RealTime HCV and Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan) and one signal amplification assay (Versant HCV RNA 3.0) for RNA detection and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermehren, Johannes; Kau, Annika; Gärtner, Barbara C; Göbel, Reinhild; Zeuzem, Stefan; Sarrazin, Christoph

    2008-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA detection and quantification are the key diagnostic tools for the management of hepatitis C. Commercially available HCV RNA assays are calibrated to the HCV genotype 1 (gt1)-based WHO standard. Significant differences between assays have been reported. However, it is unknown which assay matches the WHO standard best, and little is known about the sensitivity and linear quantification of the assays for non-gt1 specimens. Two real-time reverse transcriptase PCR-based assays (RealTime HCV and Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas TaqMan HCV [CAP/CTM]) and one signal amplification-based assay (the Versant HCV RNA, version 3.0, branched DNA [bDNA] assay) were compared for their abilities to quantify HCV RNA in clinical specimens (n = 65) harboring HCV isolates of gt1 to g5. The mean differences in the amounts detected by RealTime HCV in comparison to those detected by the bDNA assay and CAP/CTM were -0.02 and 0.72 log(10) IU/ml HCV RNA, respectively, for gt1; -0.22 and 0.03 log(10) IU/ml HCV RNA, respectively, for gt2; -0.27 and -0.22 log(10) IU/ml HCV RNA, respectively, for gt3; -0.19 and -1.27 log(10) IU/ml HCV RNA, respectively, for gt4; and -0.03 and 0.09 log(10) IU/ml HCV RNA, respectively, for gt5. The lower limits of detection for RealTime HCV and CAP/CTM were 16.8 and 10.3 IU/ml, respectively, for the WHO standard and in the range of 4.7 to 9.0 and 3.4 to 44.4 IU/ml, respectively, for clinical specimens harboring gt1 to gt6. Direct comparison of the two assays with samples of the WHO standard (code 96/798) with high titers yielded slightly smaller amounts by RealTime HCV (-0.2 log(10) at 1,500 IU/ml and -0.3 log(10) at 25,000 IU/ml) and larger amounts by CAP/CTM (0.3 log(10) at 1,500 IU/ml and 0.2 log(10) at 25,000 IU/ml). Finally, all three tests were linear between 4.0 x 10(3) and 1.0 x 10(6) IU/ml (correlation coefficient, >or=0.99). In conclusion, the real-time PCR based assays sensitively detected all genotypes and showed comparable linearities

  6. Differences between Two Real-Time PCR-Based Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Assays (RealTime HCV and Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan) and One Signal Amplification Assay (Versant HCV RNA 3.0) for RNA Detection and Quantification▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermehren, Johannes; Kau, Annika; Gärtner, Barbara C.; Göbel, Reinhild; Zeuzem, Stefan; Sarrazin, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA detection and quantification are the key diagnostic tools for the management of hepatitis C. Commercially available HCV RNA assays are calibrated to the HCV genotype 1 (gt1)-based WHO standard. Significant differences between assays have been reported. However, it is unknown which assay matches the WHO standard best, and little is known about the sensitivity and linear quantification of the assays for non-gt1 specimens. Two real-time reverse transcriptase PCR-based assays (RealTime HCV and Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas TaqMan HCV [CAP/CTM]) and one signal amplification-based assay (the Versant HCV RNA, version 3.0, branched DNA [bDNA] assay) were compared for their abilities to quantify HCV RNA in clinical specimens (n = 65) harboring HCV isolates of gt1 to g5. The mean differences in the amounts detected by RealTime HCV in comparison to those detected by the bDNA assay and CAP/CTM were −0.02 and 0.72 log10 IU/ml HCV RNA, respectively, for gt1; −0.22 and 0.03 log10 IU/ml HCV RNA, respectively, for gt2; −0.27 and −0.22 log10 IU/ml HCV RNA, respectively, for gt3; −0.19 and −1.27 log10 IU/ml HCV RNA, respectively, for gt4; and −0.03 and 0.09 log10 IU/ml HCV RNA, respectively, for gt5. The lower limits of detection for RealTime HCV and CAP/CTM were 16.8 and 10.3 IU/ml, respectively, for the WHO standard and in the range of 4.7 to 9.0 and 3.4 to 44.4 IU/ml, respectively, for clinical specimens harboring gt1 to gt6. Direct comparison of the two assays with samples of the WHO standard (code 96/798) with high titers yielded slightly smaller amounts by RealTime HCV (−0.2 log10 at 1,500 IU/ml and −0.3 log10 at 25,000 IU/ml) and larger amounts by CAP/CTM (0.3 log10 at 1,500 IU/ml and 0.2 log10 at 25,000 IU/ml). Finally, all three tests were linear between 4.0 × 103 and 1.0 × 106 IU/ml (correlation coefficient, ≥0.99). In conclusion, the real-time PCR based assays sensitively detected all genotypes and showed comparable linearities for

  7. Efficacy of NS5A Inhibitors Against Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes 1-7 and Escape Variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottwein, Judith M; Pham, Long V; Mikkelsen, Lotte S

    2018-01-01

    NS5A inhibitors against HCV genotype 1-7 prototype isolates and resistant escape variants, and investigated the effects of pre-existing resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) on HCV escape from treatment. METHODS: We measured the efficacy of different concentrations of daclatasvir, ledipasvir......, ombitasvir, elbasvir, ruzasvir, velpatasvir, and pibrentasvir in cultured cells infected with HCV recombinants expressing genotype 1-7 NS5A proteins with or without RAS. We engineered HCV variants that included RAS identified in escape experiments, using recombinants with or without T/Y93H and daclatasvir......, or that contained RAS previously reported from patients. RESULTS: NS5A inhibitors had varying levels of efficacy against original and resistant viruses. Only velpatasvir and pibrentasvir had uniform high activity against all HCV genotypes tested. RAS hotspots in NS5A were found at amino acids 28, 30, 31, and 93...

  8. Hepatitis C virus infection in Guinea-Bissau: a sexually transmitted genotype 2 with parenteral amplification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Plamondon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is the continent with the highest prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Genotype 2 HCV is thought to have originated from West Africa several hundred years ago. Mechanisms of transmission remain poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To delineate mechanisms for HCV transmission in West Africa, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of individuals aged >or=50 years in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Dried blood spots were obtained for HCV serology and PCR amplification. Prevalence of HCV was 4.4% (47/1066 among women and 5.0% (27/544 among men. In multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for HCV infection were age (baseline: 50-59 y; 60-69 y, adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.67, 95% CI: 0.91-3.06; >or=70 y, AOR: 3.47, 95% CI: 1.89-6.39, belonging to the Papel, Mancanha, Balanta or Mandjako ethnic groups (AOR: 2.45, 95% CI:1.32-4.53, originating from the Biombo, Cacheu or Oio regions north of Bissau (AOR: 4.16, 95% CI: 1.18-14.73 and having bought or sold sexual services (AOR: 3.60, 95% CI: 1.88-6.89. Of 57 isolates that could be genotyped, 56 were genotype 2. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that transmission of HCV genotype 2 in West Africa occurs through sexual intercourse. In specific locations and subpopulations, medical interventions may have amplified transmission parenterally.

  9. HCV viremia in clinical and biomedical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.B.; Tariq, W.Z.; Karamat, K.A.; Ghani, E.; Mushtaq, S.

    2000-01-01

    Sera of 172 patients from military / civil hospitals and general practitioners of Rawalpindi/Islamabad region and vicinity areas of northern Pakistan with anti-HCV IgG positive aerostats were tested at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, between July and November, 1997 for detection of HCV viremia by reverse transcriptases polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Randomly selected 100 samples (40 viremia positive and 60 negative after PCR) were tested for serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. For each patient, information based upon clinical and laboratory findings was recorded on a performa to correlate the clinical and biochemical findings with the results of qualitative reverse transcriptase polymerase Chain Reaction (RT PCR) for HCV in Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients. Of the total 172 HCV infected (Anti HCV Positive), 61(35.61%) patients were found to be viremic. Active infection was more frequent in the age of 30 years onwards. The past history of jaundice, surgical operation and chronic renal failure was more frequent with the viremia positive cases. Although, statistically insignificant, there was evidence of some association of diabetes mellitus with viremia ALT levels and its mean were higher in viremics, 27(73%) of 37 cases with a minimum three months history of interferon treatment for hepatitis C were found negative for viremia. (author)

  10. High-resolution melting combines with Bayes discriminant analysis: a novel hepatitis C virus genotyping method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Daxian; Fu, Xiaoyu; Wen, Ya; Liu, Bingjie; Deng, Zhongping; Dai, Lizhong; Tan, Deming

    2017-08-01

    Current hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping techniques are often highly technical, costly, or need improvements in sensitivity and specificity. These limitations indicate the need of novel methods for HCV genotyping. The present study aimed to develop a novel genotyping method combining high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis with Bayes discriminant analysis (BDA). Target gene fragment including 5'-untranslated and core region was selected. Four or five inner amplicons for every serum were amplified using nested PCR, HRM was used to determine the melting temperature of the amplicons, and HCV genotypes were then analyzed utilizing BDA. In initial genotyping (HCV genotypes were classified into 1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, and 6a), both the overall accuracy rate and the cross-validation accuracy rate were 92.6 %, external validation accuracy rate was 95.0 %. To enhance the accuracy rate of genotyping, HCV genotypes were firstly classified into 1b, 3a, 3b, and 2a-6a, followed by a supplementary genotyping for 2a-6a. Both the overall accuracy rate and the cross-validation accuracy rate reached 97.5 %, and external validation accuracy rate was 100 %. Comparing adjusted HRM genotyping with type-specific probe technique, the difference in accuracy rates was not significant. However, the limit of detection and cost were lower for HRM. Comparing with sequencing, the limit detection of HRM was the same as the former, but the cost of HRM was lower. Hence, HRM combined with BDA was a novel method that equipped with superior accuracy, high sensitivity, and lower cost and therefore could be a better technique for HCV genotyping.

  11. In vitro neutralization of HCV by goat antibodies against peptides encompassing regions downstream of HVR-1 of E2 glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabll, Ashraf A; Atef, Khaled; Bader El Din, Noha G; El Abd, Yasmine S; Salem, Ahmed; Sayed, Ahmed A; Dawood, Reham M; Omran, Moataza H; El-Awady, Mostafa K

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at testing several in vitro systems with various viral sources and cell lines for propagation of HCV to evaluate goat antibodies raised against three E2 epitopes in viral neutralization experiments. Four human cell lines (Huh-7, Huh-7.5, HepG2, and CaCo2) were tested using two different HCV viral sources; Genotype 4 infected sera and J6/JFH HCV cc particles. Neutralization capacity of goat Abs against conserved E2 epitopes; p412 (a.a 412-419), p517 (a.a 517-531), and p430 (a.a 430-447) were examined in the above mentioned in vitro systems. Although infection with patients' sera seems to mimic the in vitro situation, it has limited replication rates as compared with HCV cc particularly in Huh7.5 cells. Non-HCV adapted Huh-7 cells were also found susceptible for transfection with J6/JFH virus but at much slower kinetics. The results of the neutralization assay showed that anti p412 and anti p517 were highly neutralizing to HCVcc. Our data demonstrate that antibodies directed against the viral surface glycoprotein E2 reduced the infectivity of the J6/JFH virus and are promising agents for immunotherapy and HCV vaccine development.

  12. Structure-based drug design of novel peptidomimetic cellulose derivatives as HCV-NS3 protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Noha A; Elshemey, Wael M

    2017-10-15

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) represents a global health threat not only due to the large number of reported worldwide HCV infections, but also due to the absence of a reliable vaccine for its prevention. HCV NS3 protease is one of the most important targets for drug design aiming at the deactivation of HCV. In the present work, molecular docking simulations are carried out for suggested novel NS3 protease inhibitors applied to the Egyptian genotype 4. These inhibitors are modifications of dimer cellulose by adding a hexa-peptide to the cellulose at one of the positions 2, 3, 6, 2', 3' or 6'. Results show that the inhibitor compound with the hexa-peptide at position 6 shows significantly higher simulation docking score with HCV NS3 protease active site. This is supported by low total energy value of docking system, formation of two H-bonds with HCV NS3 protease active site residues, high binding affinity and increased stability in the interaction system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevailing Torque Locking Feature in Threaded Fasteners Using Anaerobic Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alan; Hess, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests to assess the use of anaerobic adhesive for providing a prevailing torque locking feature in threaded fasteners. Test procedures are developed and tests are performed on three fastener materials, four anaerobic adhesives, and both unseated assembly conditions. Five to ten samples are tested for each combination. Tests for initial use, reuse without additional adhesive, and reuse with additional adhesive are performed for all samples. A 48-hour cure time was used for all initial use and reuse tests. Test data are presented as removal torque versus removal angle with the specification required prevailing torque range added for performance assessment. Percent specification pass rates for the all combinations of fastener material, adhesive, and assembly condition are tabulated and reveal use of anaerobic adhesive as a prevailing torque locking feature is viable. Although not every possible fastener material and anaerobic adhesive combination provides prevailing torque values within specification, any combination can be assessed using the test procedures presented. Reuse without additional anaerobic adhesive generally provides some prevailing torque, and in some cases within specification. Reuse with additional adhesive often provides comparable removal torque data as in initial use.

  14. Introduction and Utilization of High Priced HCV Medicines across Europe; Implications for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Winnie; Ibáñez, Cristina; Frisk, Pia; Bak Pedersen, Hanne; Alkan, Ali; Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Brkičić, Ljiljana S.; Bucsics, Anna; Dedet, Guillaume; Eriksen, Jaran; Fadare, Joseph O.; Fürst, Jurij; Gallego, Gisselle; Godói, Isabella P.; Guerra Júnior, Augusto A.; Gürsöz, Hakkı; Jan, Saira; Jones, Jan; Joppi, Roberta; Kerman, Saim; Laius, Ott; Madzikwa, Newman; Magnússon, Einar; Maticic, Mojca; Markovic-Pekovic, Vanda; Massele, Amos; Ogunleye, Olayinka; O'Leary, Aisling; Piessnegger, Jutta; Sermet, Catherine; Simoens, Steven; Tiroyakgosi, Celda; Truter, Ilse; Thyberg, Magnus; Tomekova, Kristina; Wladysiuk, Magdalena; Vandoros, Sotiris; Vural, Elif H.; Zara, Corinne; Godman, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infection with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a widespread transmittable disease with a diagnosed prevalence of 2.0%. Fortunately, it is now curable in most patients. Sales of medicines to treat HCV infection grew 2.7% per year between 2004 and 2011, enhanced by the launch of the protease inhibitors (PIs) boceprevir (BCV) and telaprevir (TVR) in addition to ribavirin and pegylated interferon (pegIFN). Costs will continue to rise with new treatments including sofosbuvir, which now include interferon free regimens. Objective: Assess the uptake of BCV and TVR across Europe from a health authority perspective to offer future guidance on dealing with new high cost medicines. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of medicines to treat HCV (pegIFN, ribavirin, BCV and TVR) among European countries from 2008 to 2013. Utilization measured in defined daily doses (DDDs)/1000 patients/quarter (DIQs) and expenditure in Euros/DDD. Health authority activities to influence treatments categorized using the 4E methodology (Education, Engineering, Economics and Enforcement). Results: Similar uptake of BCV and TVR among European countries and regions, ranging from 0.5 DIQ in Denmark, Netherlands and Slovenia to 1.5 DIQ in Tayside and Catalonia in 2013. However, different utilization of the new PIs vs. ribavirin indicates differences in dual vs. triple therapy, which is down to factors including physician preference and genotypes. Reimbursed prices for BCV and TVR were comparable across countries. Conclusion: There was reasonable consistency in the utilization of BCV and TVR among European countries in comparison with other high priced medicines. This may reflect the social demand to limit the transmission of HCV. However, the situation is changing with new curative medicines for HCV genotype 1 (GT1) with potentially an appreciable budget impact. These concerns have resulted in different prices across countries, with their impact on budgets and patient outcomes

  15. Introduction and utilisation of high priced HCV medicines across Europe; implications for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie de Bruijn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV is a widespread transmittable disease with a diagnosed prevalence of 2.0%. Fortunately, it is now curable in most patients. Sales of medicines to treat HCV infection grew 2.7% per year between 2004 and 2011, enhanced by the launch of the protease inhibitors (PIs boceprevir (BCV and telaprevir (TVR in addition to ribavirin and pegylated interferon (pegIFN. Costs will continue to rise with new treatments including sofosbuvir, which now include interferon free regimens. Objective: Assess the uptake of BCV and TVR across Europe from a health authority perspective to offer future guidance on dealing with new high cost medicines. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of medicines to treat HCV (pegIFN, ribavirin, BCV and TVR among European countries from 2008 to 2013. Utilisation measured in defined daily doses (DDDs/ 1000 patients/ quarter (DIQs and expenditure in Euros/ DDD. Health authority activities to influence treatments categorised using the 4E methodology (Education, Engineering, Economics and Enforcement. Results: Similar uptake of BCV and TVR among European countries and regions, ranging from 0.5 DIQ in Denmark, Netherlands and Slovenia to 1.5 DIQ in Tayside and Catalonia in 2013. However, different utilisation of the new PIs versus ribavirin indicates differences in dual versus triple therapy, which is down to factors including physician preference and genotypes. Reimbursed prices for BCV and TVR were comparable across countries. Conclusion: There was reasonable consistency in the utilisation of BCV and TVR among European countries in comparison with other high priced medicines. This may reflect the social demand to limit the transmission of HCV. However, the situation is changing with new curative medicines for HCV genotype 1 (GT1 with potentially an appreciable budget impact. These concerns have resulted in different prices negotiations across countries, with their impact

  16. Effect of antiviral therapy for HCV on lipid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauss, Stefan; Berger, Florian; Wehmeyer, Malte H; Ingiliz, Patrick; Hueppe, Dietrich; Lutz, Thomas; Simon, Karl G; Schewe, Knud; Rockstroh, Juergen K; Baumgarten, Axel; Christensen, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    HCV has complex interactions with human lipid metabolism leading to down regulation of cholesterol levels. Interferon (IFN) therapy has been shown to decrease cholesterol even further. With the availability of second-generation direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) the effect of suppressing and eliminating HCV on lipid metabolism warrants reevaluation. Prospective German multicentre cohort on HCV- and HIV-HCV-infected patients treated with direct-antiviral agents (GECCO). Lipids were assessed at baseline, during and after therapy. Wilcoxon test corrected for multiple testing was used. For the analysis, 520 patients with chronic hepatitis C were available. Patients with chronic hepatitis C were treated as follows: sofosbuvir (SOF)/pegylated IFN (PEG-IFN)/ribavirin (RBV; HCV=34, HIV-HCV=36), SOF/RBV (HCV=47, HIV-HCV=16), SOF/simeprevir (HCV=9, HCV-HIV=2), SOF/daclatasvir +/- RBV (HCV=27, HIV-HCV=47), SOF/ledipasvir +/- RBV (HCV=147, HCV-HIV=100) and ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir +/- dasabuvir +/- RBV (2D, HCV=2, HCV-HIV=6; 3D, HCV=39, HCV-HIV=8). On treatment there was a statistically significant increase in total cholesterol for any IFN-free DAA regimen, which was maintained after end of therapy. Changes of total cholesterol were driven by changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol remained unchanged. In contrast, total cholesterol decreased on SOF/PEG-IFN/RBV and increased after end of therapy above baseline levels. Triglycerides increased during treatment with SOF/PEG-IFN/RBV, but not on DAA-only regimens. Suppressing and eliminating HCV with IFN-free DAA regimens increased cholesterol levels, but had no effect on triglycerides. In contrast IFN-based therapy decreased cholesterol and increased triglycerides during treatment and led to increases in cholesterol after achieving sustained virological response.

  17. Comparison of neutralization profiles for anti-HCV reactive donor samples with or without detectable HCV RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroishi, A; Yasui, K; Matsukura, H; Tani, Y; Furuta, R A

    2015-11-01

    At Japanese Red Cross (JRC) Blood Centers, all donated blood is screened for hepatitis C virus (HCV) by serological and nucleic acid amplification testing. Donor plasma that tested reactive for anti-HCV by serological test is disqualified even if the donor tests negative for HCV RNA. These test results reflect both true-positive results because of past HCV infection and false-positive results because the cross-reactivity of plasma IgG, which current testing methods are unable to distinguish. To characterize these antibody test results, we examined the neutralizing activity of these plasma samples. Donor plasma samples that tested reactive for anti-HCV by serological test but negative for HCV RNA (n = 43) were analysed for determining their neutralizing activities measured by the inhibition of the cellular entry of pseudoparticles harbouring HCV envelope glycoproteins (HCVpp). Strong and broad neutralizing activities against HCVpp entry similar to the samples that tested reactive for anti-HCV serological test and positive for HCV RNA (considered to be derived from individuals with chronic HCV infection) were observed in three of 43 plasma samples from donors who tested anti-HCV reactive but HCV RNA negative. By examining the neutralizing activities of plasma samples, we identified individuals with a past HCV infection from those in whom we were unable to confirm HCV infection according to the current testing algorithms of JRC, which do not perform anti-HCV confirmatory tests. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  18. Daclatasvir plus peginterferon alfa and ribavirin for treatment-naive chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 or 4 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hézode, Christophe; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Ghesquiere, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of daclatasvir, an HCV NS5A inhibitor with pangenotypic activity, administered with peginterferon-alfa-2a/ribavirin. DESIGN: In this Phase 2b double-blind, placebo-controlled study, treatment-naive adults with HCV genotype 1 (N=365) or 4 (N=30) infec...

  19. How physicians describe outcomes to HCV therapy: prevalence and meaning of "cure" during provider-patient in-office discussions of HCV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Heidi E; Gordon, Cynthia; Nelson, Meaghan; Cotler, Scott J; Martin, Paul

    2008-04-01

    How physicians convey information about hepatitis C virus (HCV) impacts patients' perceptions of treatment outcomes and informed therapy decisions. However, HCV patients reported difficulties communicating with their physicians in a recent study. Another study showed that 45% of patients did not understand projected response rates conveyed by providers, and patients with unfavorable projected treatment outcomes were more likely to lack understanding. This article analyzes naturally occurring patient-provider interactions to evaluate physicians' use of the word 'cure', and framing of HCV response as optimistic, pessimistic, or neutral, to suggest possible reasons why patients with unfavorable projected sustained virologic response rates might perceive their odds as more favorable than they are. Gastroenterologists, allied health professionals, and HCV patients were video and audio-recorded during regular scheduled visits. Recordings were transcribed and analyzed using validated sociolinguistic techniques. Sixty-three percent of physicians used the word 'cure' in 38% of visits involving response discussions. 'Cure' most frequently meant 'absolute cure' and occurred more commonly in visits conducted before therapy initiation, and with patients having favorable genotypes. Physicians hedged the meaning of 'cure' in 29% of visits. Moreover, 69.5% of response-related utterances were framed optimistically. HCV dialogs are characterized by the prevalence of 'cure' and optimistic framing. These positive language attributes could potentially contribute to the misunderstanding regarding the projected response rates. During treatment outcome discussions, the physicians should attempt to (1) operate using the same definition of the therapy outcome as the patient, (2) balance medically accurate information with patient comprehension, and (3) consider possible consequences of discussing treatment options on the basis of message framing.

  20. Evidence that both HIV and HIV-induced immunodeficiency enhance HCV replication among HCV seroconverters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beld, M.; Penning, M.; Lukashov, V.; McMorrow, M.; Roos, M.; Pakker, N.; van den Hoek, A.; Goudsmit, J.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective cohort study is to assess the mechanism by which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) influences hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in injecting drug users. Virological (HCV and HIV RNA levels) and immunological (CD4+, CD8+ cell counts, and anti-CD3

  1. Is the Economic Crisis Challenging the Prevailing Gender Regime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Jepsen, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether the current economic and financial crisis is challenging the prevailing gender-equality model in four European countries: Denmark, Germany, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom. After situating the countries in relation to the underlying gender regime...... and analysing the corresponding position of women and men in paid and unpaid work, the paper contains an in-depth discussion of the short- and medium-term policy responses to the crisis. Our analysis shows that independent of the prevailing gender regime, scant public attention has been directed to gender...

  2. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA profiles among chronic HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals in ESPRIT; spontaneous HCV RNA clearance observed in nine individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grint, D; Tedaldi, Ellen; Peters, L

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Studies have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels remain stable over time in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), while spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA during the persistent infection phase has been documented only rarely among tho...

  3. Identification of the transcripts associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in individuals co-infected with HIV and HCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV influences the outcome and natural disease progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. While the majority of HCV mono-infected and HCV/HIV co-infected subjects develop chronic HCV infection, 20–46% of mono- and co-infected subjects spontaneously clear HCV infection. The mechanism underlying viral clearance is not clearly understood. Analysis of differential cellular gene expression (mRNA between HIV-infected patients with persistent HCV infection or spontaneous clearance could provide a unique opportunity to decipher the mechanism of HCV clearance. Methods Plasma RNA from HIV/HCV co-infected subjects who cleared HCV and those who remained chronically infected with HCV was sequenced using Ion Torrent technology. The sequencing results were analyzed to identify transcripts that are associated with HCV clearance by measuring differential gene expression in HIV/HCV co-infected subjects who cleared HCV and those who remained chronically infected with HCV. Results We have identified plasma mRNA, the levels of which are significantly elevated (at least 5 fold, False Discovery Rate (FDR <0.05 before HCV infection in subjects who cleared HCV compared to those who remained chronically infected. Upon further analysis of these differentially expressed genes, before and after HCV infection, we found that before HCV infection 12 genes were uniquely upregulated in the clearance group compared to the chronically infected group. Importantly, a number of these 12 genes and their upstream regulators (such as CCL3, IL17D, LBP, SOCS3, NFKBIL1, IRF are associated with innate immune response functions. Conclusions These results suggest that subjects who spontaneously clear HCV may express these unique genes associated with innate immune functions.

  4. Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir Plus Ribavirin for Treatment of HCV Infection in Patients With Advanced Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Michael; Everson, Gregory T; Flamm, Steven L; Kumar, Princy; Landis, Charles; Brown, Robert S; Fried, Michael W; Terrault, Norah A; O'Leary, Jacqueline G; Vargas, Hugo E; Kuo, Alexander; Schiff, Eugene; Sulkowski, Mark S; Gilroy, Richard; Watt, Kymberly D; Brown, Kimberly; Kwo, Paul; Pungpapong, Surakit; Korenblat, Kevin M; Muir, Andrew J; Teperman, Lewis; Fontana, Robert J; Denning, Jill; Arterburn, Sarah; Dvory-Sobol, Hadas; Brandt-Sarif, Theo; Pang, Phillip S; McHutchison, John G; Reddy, K Rajender; Afdhal, Nezam

    2015-09-01

    There are no effective and safe treatments for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection of patients who have advanced liver disease. In this phase 2, open-label study, we assessed treatment with the NS5A inhibitor ledipasvir, the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir, and ribavirin in patients infected with HCV genotypes 1 or 4. Cohort A enrolled patients with cirrhosis and moderate or severe hepatic impairment who had not undergone liver transplantation. Cohort B enrolled patients who had undergone liver transplantation: those without cirrhosis; those with cirrhosis and mild, moderate, or severe hepatic impairment; and those with fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Patients were assigned randomly (1:1) to receive 12 or 24 weeks of a fixed-dose combination tablet containing ledipasvir and sofosbuvir, once daily, plus ribavirin. The primary end point was sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12). We enrolled 337 patients, 332 (99%) with HCV genotype 1 infection and 5 (1%) with HCV genotype 4 infection. In cohort A (nontransplant), SVR12 was achieved by 86%-89% of patients. In cohort B (transplant recipients), SVR12 was achieved by 96%-98% of patients without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis, by 85%-88% of patients with moderate hepatic impairment, by 60%-75% of patients with severe hepatic impairment, and by all 6 patients with fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Response rates in the 12- and 24-week groups were similar. Thirteen patients (4%) discontinued the ledipasvir and sofosbuvir combination prematurely because of adverse events; 10 patients died, mainly from complications related to hepatic decompensation. The combination of ledipasvir, sofosbuvir, and ribavirin for 12 weeks produced high rates of SVR12 in patients with advanced liver disease, including those with decompensated cirrhosis before and after liver transplantation. ClinTrials.gov: NCT01938430. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc

  5. The interaction of genetic determinants in the outcome of HCV infection: evidence for discrete immunological pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydes, T J; Moesker, B; Traherne, J A; Ashraf, S; Alexander, G J; Dimitrov, B D; Woelk, C H; Trowsdale, J; Khakoo, S I

    2015-10-01

    Diversity within the innate and adaptive immune response to hepatitis C is important in determining spontaneous resolution (SR) and treatment response. The aim of this study was to analyze how these variables interact in combination; furthering our understanding of the mechanisms that drive successful immunological clearance. Multivariate analysis was performed on retrospectively collected data for 357 patients previously genotyped for interferon (IFN)-λ3/4, killer cell immunoglobulin (KIR), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II and tapasin. High resolution KIR genotyping was performed for individuals with chronic infection and haplotypes determined. Outcomes for SR, IFN response and cirrhosis were examined. Statistical analysis included univariate methods, χ(2) test for trend, multivariate logistic regression, synergy and principal component analysis (PCA). Although KIR2DL3:HLA-C1C1 (P = 0.027), IFN-λ3/4 rs12979860 CC (P = 0.027), tapasin G in individuals with aspartate at residue 114 of HLA-B (TapG:HLA-B(114D) ) (P = 0.007) and HLA-DRB1*04:01 (P = 0.014) were associated with SR with a strong additive influence (χ(2) test for trend P < 0.0001); favorable polymorphisms did not interact synergistically, nor did patients cluster by outcome. In the treatment cohort, IFN-λ3/4 rs12979860 CC was protective in hepatitis C virus (HCV) G1 infection and KIR2DL3:HLA-C1 in HCV G2/3. In common with SR, variables did not interact synergistically. Polymorphisms predictive of viral clearance did not predict disease progression. In summary, different individuals resolve HCV infection using discrete and non-interacting immunological pathways. These pathways are influenced by viral genotype. This work provides novel insights into the complexity of the interaction between host and viral factors in determining the outcome of HCV infection. © 2015 The Authors. Tissue Antigens published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sofosbuvir based treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 3 infections-A Scandinavian real-life study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgard, Olav; Weiland, Ola; Noraberg, Geir

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3 infection with advanced liver disease has emerged as the most challenging to treat. We retrospectively assessed the treatment outcome of sofosbuvir (SOF) based regimes for treatment of HCV genotype 3 infections in a real life setting...... was similar for all treatment regimens, but lower in men (p = 0.042), and in patients with decompensated liver disease (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: We found that sofosbuvir based treatment in a real-life setting could offer SVR rates exceeding 90% in patients with HCV genotype 3 infection and advanced liver...... in Scandinavia. METHODS: Consecutive patients with chronic HCV genotype 3 infection were enrolled at 16 treatment centers in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland. Patients who had received a SOF containing regimen were included. The fibrosis stage was evaluated by liver biopsy or transient liver elastography...

  7. Autophagy in HCV Infection: Keeping Fat and Inflammation at Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Vescovo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease. Viral persistence and pathogenesis rely mainly on the ability of HCV to deregulate specific host processes, including lipid metabolism and innate immunity. Recently, autophagy has emerged as a cellular pathway, playing a role in several aspects of HCV infection. This review summarizes current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms that link the HCV life cycle with autophagy machinery. In particular, we discuss the role of HCV/autophagy interaction in dysregulating inflammation and lipid homeostasis and its potential for translational applications in the treatment of HCV-infected patients.

  8. Changing of hepatitis C virus genotype patterns in France at the beginning of the third millenium: The GEMHEP GenoCII Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payan, C; Roudot-Thoraval, F; Marcellin, P; Bled, N; Duverlie, G; Fouchard-Hubert, I; Trimoulet, P; Couzigou, P; Cointe, D; Chaput, C; Henquell, C; Abergel, A; Pawlotsky, J M; Hezode, C; Coudé, M; Blanchi, A; Alain, S; Loustaud-Ratti, V; Chevallier, P; Trepo, C; Gerolami, V; Portal, I; Halfon, P; Bourlière, M; Bogard, M; Plouvier, E; Laffont, C; Agius, G; Silvain, C; Brodard, V; Thiefin, G; Buffet-Janvresse, C; Riachi, G; Grattard, F; Bourlet, T; Stoll-Keller, F; Doffoel, M; Izopet, J; Barange, K; Martinot-Peignoux, M; Branger, M; Rosenberg, A; Sogni, P; Chaix, M L; Pol, S; Thibault, V; Opolon, P; Charrois, A; Serfaty, L; Fouqueray, B; Grange, J D; Lefrère, J J; Lunel-Fabiani, F

    2005-07-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate, during a short period between 2000 and 2001, in a large population of patients with chronic hepatitis C, the epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in France. Data from 26 referral centres, corresponding to 1769 patients with chronic hepatitis C were collected consecutively during a 6-month period. HCV genotyping in the 5'-non-coding region (NCR) was performed in each center using the line probe assay (LiPA, in 63% of cases), sequencing (25%) or primer-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (12%). HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 2, 3, 4, 5, non-subtyped 1 and mixed infection were found in 18, 27, 9, 21, 9, 3, 11 and 1% of our population, respectively. HCV genotype distribution was associated with gender, age, source and duration of infection, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, cirrhosis, alcohol consumption, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. In multivariate analysis, only the source of infection was the independent factor significantly associated with genotype (P = 0.0001). In conclusion, this study shows a changing pattern of HCV genotypes in France, with i.v. drug abuse as the major risk factor, an increase of genotype 4, and to a lesser extent 1a and 5, and a decrease of genotypes 1b and 2. The modification of the HCV genotype pattern in France in the next 10 years may require new therapeutic strategies, and further survey studies.

  9. HBV Genotypic Variability in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Carmen L.; Aguilar, Julio C.; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions. PMID:25742179

  10. Liver Fibrosis in HCV Monoinfected and HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients: Dysregulation of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs and Their Tissue Inhibitors TIMPs and Effect of HCV Protease Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Latronico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs may contribute to liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C (HCV infection. We measured the circulating levels of different MMPs and TIMPs in HCV monoinfected and HIV/HCV coinfected patients and evaluated the potential for anti-HCV therapy to modulate MMP and TIMP levels in HCV subjects. We analyzed 83 plasma samples from 16 HCV monoinfected patients undergoing dual or triple anti-HCV therapy, 15 HIV/HCV coinfected patients with undetectable HIV load, and 10 healthy donors (HD. Levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 were measured by a SearchLight Multiplex Immunoassay Kit. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were the highest expressed MMPs among all the analyzed samples and their levels significantly increased in HCV monoinfected and HIV/HCV coinfected subjects compared to HD. TIMP-1 levels were significantly higher in HCV and HIV/HCV subjects compared to HD and were correlated with liver stiffness. These findings raise the possibility of using circulating TIMP-1 as a non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis in HCV infection. A longitudinal study demonstrated that MMP-9 levels significantly decreased (40% reduction from baseline in patients receiving dual as well as triple direct-acting antivirals (DAA anti-HCV therapy, which had no effect on MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2. As the dysregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 may reflect inflammatory processes in the liver, the decrease of MMP-9 following HCV protease inhibitor treatment suggests a positive effect on the reduction of liver inflammation.

  11. Hepatitis C virus genotypes among multiply transfused hemoglobinopathy patients from Northern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil A Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Owing to the scarcity of data on hepatitis C virus (HCV genotypes in Iraq and due to their epidemiological as well as therapy implications, this study was initiated aiming at determining these genotypes in Northern Iraq. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 HCV antibody positive multi transfused patients with hemoglobinopathies, who had detectable HCV ribonucleic acid, were recruited for genotyping using genotype-specific nested polymerase chain reaction. Results: The most frequent genotype detected was genotype 4 (52.9% followed by 3a (17.1%, 1b (12.9% and 1a (1.4%, while mixed genotypes (4 with either 3a or 1b were detected in 7.1%. Conclusion: The predominance of genotype 4 is similar to other studies from surrounding Eastern Mediterranean Arab countries and to the only earlier study from central Iraq, however the significant high proportion of 3a and scarcity of 1a, are in contrast to the latter study and may be explainable by the differing population interactions in this part of Iraq. This study complements previous studies from Eastern Mediterranean region and demonstrates relative heterogeneity of HCV genotype distribution within Iraq and should trigger further studies in other parts of the country.

  12. Limited evidence of HCV transmission in stable heterosexual couples from Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Bessa

    Full Text Available HCV infected patients frequently ask their physician about the risk of transmission to their partners. Although it is easy to answer that the risk does exist, it is difficult to quantify. We studied the transmission of HCV infection in stable heterosexual couples: anti-HCV positive patients in hemodialytic therapy and their partners. Thirty-four couples were tested by third generation ELISA and RIBA. Blood samples of anti-HCV positive patients were evaluated by RT-PCR and detected sequences were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Concordance of infection was observed in only one couple in which both subjects were in dialytic therapy. One other partner had two positive ELISA tests and an indeterminate RIBA, with negative RT-PCR, which may suggest a false positive or a previous resolved infection. Either sexual relations, sharing of personal items and history of parenteral exposure (hemodialysis, blood transfusion could explain transmission in the only couple with concordant infection. We observed, in accordance with previous reports, that this risk is minimal or negligible in stable heterosexual couples.

  13. New Insights in Recurrent HCV Infection after Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hsien Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a small-enveloped RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Since first identified in 1989, HCV has been estimated to infect 170 million people worldwide. Mostly chronic hepatitis C virus has a uniform natural history, from liver cirrhosis to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The current therapy for HCV infection consists of a combination of Pegylated interferon and ribavirin. On the other hand, HCV-related liver disease is also the leading indication for liver transplantation. However, posttransplant HCV re-infection of the graft has been reported to be universal. Furthermore, the graft after HCV re-infection often results in accelerated progression to liver failure. In addition, treatment of recurrent HCV infection after liver transplantation is often compromised by enhanced adverse effects and limited efficacy of interferon-based therapies. Taken together, poor outcome after HCV re-infection, regardless of grafts or recipients, poses a major issue for the hepatologists and transplant surgeons. The aim of this paper is to review several specific aspects regarding HCV re-infection after transplant: risk factors, current therapeutics for HCV in different stages of liver transplantation, cellular function of HCV proteins, and molecular mechanisms of HCV entry. Hopefully, this paper will inspire new strategies and novel inhibitors against recurrent HCV infection after liver transplantation and greatly improve its overall outcome.

  14. Nonresponder patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 2/3 infection: a question of low systemic interferon concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsiö, Asa; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Färkkilä, Martti

    2010-01-01

    Twelve of 303 per-protocol patients were nonresponders in a 12-week versus 24-week treatment study of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2/3 infection. The nonresponders had significantly lower interferon concentrations, as well as significantly greater mean age, body mass index, and viral load....... Suboptimal drug concentrations may thus contribute to lack of response to therapy in patients with infection due to HCV genotype 2/3....

  15. Analysis of the Enzymatic Activity of an NS3 Helicase Genotype 3a Variant Sequence Obtained from a Relapse Patient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola J S Provazzi

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV is a species of diverse genotypes that infect over 170 million people worldwide, causing chronic inflammation, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV genotype 3a is common in Brazil, and it is associated with a relatively poor response to current direct-acting antiviral therapies. The HCV NS3 protein cleaves part of the HCV polyprotein, and cellular antiviral proteins. It is therefore the target of several HCV drugs. In addition to its protease activity, NS3 is also an RNA helicase. Previously, HCV present in a relapse patient was found to harbor a mutation known to be lethal to HCV genotype 1b. The point mutation encodes the amino acid substitution W501R in the helicase RNA binding site. To examine how the W501R substitution affects NS3 helicase activity in a genotype 3a background, wild type and W501R genotype 3a NS3 alleles were sub-cloned, expressed in E. coli, and the recombinant proteins were purified and characterized. The impact of the W501R allele on genotype 2a and 3a subgenomic replicons was also analyzed. Assays monitoring helicase-catalyzed DNA and RNA unwinding revealed that the catalytic efficiency of wild type genotype 3a NS3 helicase was more than 600 times greater than the W501R protein. Other assays revealed that the W501R protein bound DNA less than 2 times weaker than wild type, and both proteins hydrolyzed ATP at similar rates. In Huh7.5 cells, both genotype 2a and 3a subgenomic HCV replicons harboring the W501R allele showed a severe defect in replication. Since the W501R allele is carried as a minor variant, its replication would therefore need to be attributed to the trans-complementation by other wild type quasispecies.

  16. Sex hormones and HCV: an unresolved mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekky, Radwa Y; Abdelaziz, Ahmed I

    2013-01-01

    The biological differences between males and females advocate the ultimate need for gender-specific medicine. The variation in response to viral infection as well as therapy among different genders makes it very intriguing to reveal the responsible factors for causing this discrepancy. HCV is one of the most noxious infectious diseases, however the impact of gender on the response to HCV has received negligible attention in the literature. The controversial studies concerning the effect of gender on the outcome of interferon-based therapy urge a need to judge the gender discrepancy in host factors responsible for both interferon release and action. The main aim of this review is to disentangle the interplay between sex hormones and several viral and host factors responsible for viral clearance in an attempt to clarify the role of gender in modulating the response to HCV as well as interferon-based therapy.

  17. Expression signature of microRNA-155 in hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riad, Sarah Ehab; El-Ekiaby, Nada; Mekky, Radwa Yehia; Ahmed, Rasha; El Din, Mohammad Ahmed Mohey; El-Sayed, Mohammad; Abouelkhair, Mahmoud Mohammad; Salah, Ayman; Zekri, Abdel Rahman; Esmat, Gamal; Abdelaziz, Ahmed Ihab

    2015-01-01

    Hepatits C virus (HCV) genotype 4 (GT4) shows low treatment response rates and discrepancies when compared to other genotypes. However, the reason underlying these discrepancies remains unclear due to the limited number of studies on GT4. microRNA-155 ( miR-155 ) is a noteworthy example of a discrepancy in GT4, as it was found to be upregulated in genotypes 1, 2 and 3 HCV infection, but downregulated in GT4-HCV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The present study aimed to investigate the expression of miR-155 in PBMCs, serum and liver tissues of GT4-HCV-infected patients. miR-155 expression was assessed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in GT4-HCV-infected PBMCs, serum and liver tissues, as well as GT2- and GT4-infected Huh7 cells, and compared to the healthy controls. There was no difference in miR-155 expression observed between naïve GT4-HCV patients and healthy controls in the PBMCs and serum. In HCV-infected liver tissues, however, a significant downregulation was observed. The unique miR-155 expression pattern during GT4 infection was confirmed in the infected Huh7 cell lines when compared to GT2 infection. Clinical data showed a positive correlation between liver transaminases and serum miR-155 expression. In addition, serum miR-155 expression was significantly lower in naïve non-responders (NRs) than naïve sustained virological responders (SVRs), and in post-treatment NRs compared to post-treatment SVRs. In conclusion, miR-155 was not only proven to be a genotype-specific microRNA that is not induced during GT4-HCV infection, but also a good prognostic factor and predictor of response to treatment enabling a non-invasive differentiation between NRs and SVRs during GT4-HCV infection.

  18. Molecular characterization, distribution, and dynamics of hepatitis C virus genotypes in blood donors in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Mónica Viviana Alvarado; Romano, Camila Malta; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Carrilho, Flair José; Pinho, João Renato Rebello

    2010-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a frequent cause of acute and chronic hepatitis and a leading cause for cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is classified in six major genotypes and more than 70 subtypes. In Colombian blood banks, serum samples were tested for anti-HCV antibodies using a third-generation ELISA. The aim of this study was to characterize the viral sequences in plasma of 184 volunteer blood donors who attended the "Banco Nacional de Sangre de la Cruz Roja Colombiana," Bogotá, Colombia. Three different HCV genomic regions were amplified by nested PCR. The first of these was a segment of 180 bp of the 5'UTR region to confirm the previous diagnosis by ELISA. From those that were positive to the 5'UTR region, two further segments were amplified for genotyping and subtyping by phylogenetic analysis: a segment of 380 bp from the NS5B region; and a segment of 391 bp from the E1 region. The distribution of HCV subtypes was: 1b (82.8%), 1a (5.7%), 2a (5.7%), 2b (2.8%), and 3a (2.8%). By applying Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation, it was estimated that HCV-1b was introduced into Bogotá around 1950. Also, this subtype spread at an exponential rate between about 1970 to about 1990, after which transmission of HCV was reduced by anti-HCV testing of this population. Among Colombian blood donors, HCV genotype 1b is the most frequent genotype, especially in large urban conglomerates such as Bogotá, as is the case in other South American countries. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Evolution of HVR-1 quasispecies after 1-year treatment in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients according to the pattern of response to highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmone, Mariacarmela; Girardi, Enrico; Lalle, Eleonora; Abbate, Isabella; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Alessandrini, Anna; Piscopo, Rita; Ebo, Francesca; Cosco, Lucio; Antonucci, Giorgio; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Capobianchi, Maria R

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) variability is mainly attributed to the ability of the virus to respond to host immune pressure, acting as a driving force for the evolution of quasispecies. This study was aimed at studying the changes in HVR-1 heterogeneity and the evolution of HCV quasispecies in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients according to the pattern of response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Sixteen HIV/HCV-coinfected patients harbouring HCV genotype 1 and who had been on HAART for at least 1 year, 8 showing increasing CD4+ T-cell counts (immunological responders) and 8 showing a stable or decreasing CD4+ T-cell counts (immunological nonresponders), were selected from a prospective cohort study. After 1 year of HAART, 11 patients showed HIV viral load HVR-1 region of HCV. Nonsynonymous/synonymous substitutions ratio (Ka/Ks), aminoacidic complexity (normalized Shannon entropy) and diversity (p-distance), were considered as parameters of quasispecies heterogeneity. After 1 year of HAART, heterogeneity of HVR-1 quasispecies significantly decreased in virological non-responders, whereas the heterogeneity tended to increase in virological responders. The differences in the evolution were less stringent, when considering immunological response. On the other hand, profound qualitative modifications of HVR-1 quasispecies were observed only in patients with both immunological and virological HAART response. On the whole, these findings suggest that, in patients undergoing HAART, the extent of HCV variability and the evolution of HVR-1 quasispecies is influenced by the pattern of response to antiretroviral therapy.

  20. Development and validation of a clinical scoring system for predicting risk of HCC in asymptomatic individuals seropositive for anti-HCV antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hsuan Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of a risk assessment tool for long-term hepatocellular carcinoma risk would be helpful in identifying high-risk patients and providing information of clinical consultation. METHODS: The model derivation and validation cohorts consisted of 975 and 572 anti-HCV seropositives, respectively. The model included age, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, the ratio of aspirate aminotransferase to ALT, serum HCV RNA levels and cirrhosis status and HCV genotype. Two risk prediction models were developed: one was for all-anti-HCV seropositives, and the other was for anti-HCV seropositives with detectable HCV RNA. The Cox's proportional hazards models were utilized to estimate regression coefficients of HCC risk predictors to derive risk scores. The cumulative HCC risks in the validation cohort were estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods. The area under receiver operating curve (AUROC was used to evaluate the performance of the risk models. RESULTS: All predictors were significantly associated with HCC. The summary risk scores of two models derived from the derivation cohort had predictability of HCC risk in the validation cohort. The summary risk score of the two risk prediction models clearly divided the validation cohort into three groups (p<0.001. The AUROC for predicting 5-year HCC risk in the validation cohort was satisfactory for the two models, with 0.73 and 0.70, respectively. CONCLUSION: Scoring systems for predicting HCC risk of HCV-infected patients had good validity and discrimination capability, which may triage patients for alternative management strategies.

  1. A case of rapid amelioration of hepatitis C virus-associated cryoglobulinemic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis treated by interferon-free directly acting antivirals for HCV in the absence of immunosuppressant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Fumiaki; Murakami, Taichi; Miyagi, Junko; Ueda, Sayo; Inagaki, Taizo; Minato, Masanori; Ono, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Kenji; Shibata, Eriko; Tamaki, Masanori; Yoshimoto, Sakiya; Kishi, Fumi; Kishi, Seiji; Matsuura, Motokazu; Nagai, Kojiro; Abe, Hideharu; Doi, Toshio

    2017-05-01

    Mixed cryoglobulinemic syndrome, which is a systemic vasculitis characterized by the immune complex deposition in small- and medium-sized arteries and most often due to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, sometimes clinically manifests as refractory glomerulonephritis or nephritic syndrome. Patients with mixed cryoglobulinemic nephropathy who have a rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis should receive immunosuppressive therapy. After disease stabilization, patients should receive concurrent therapy for the underlying HCV infection. The standard therapy of a chronic HCV infection is IFN monotherapy or IFN combined with ribavirin; however, after the introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), the standard therapy for patients with HCV genotype 1 has dramatically changed. We report a case of HCV-associated cryoglobulinemic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) successfully treated by daclatasvir and asunaprevir, which are IFN-free DAAs for HCV, in combination with angiotensin II receptor blocker without immunosuppressive therapy. The patient developed severe nephrotic syndrome with progressive kidney dysfunction. Blood examination revealed a high copy number of HCV-RNA (6.4 log IU/mL, type 1), cryoglobulinemia, paraproteinemia of IgM-κ, and hypocomplementemia. Histological analysis showed MPGN type 1. These findings were compatible with those observed in HCV-associated cryoglobulinemic MPGN. This case offers original evidence for the application of newer generation of IFN-free DAAs in the treatment of HCV-associated cryoglobulinemic nephropathy.

  2. HCV tumor promoting effect is dependent on host genetic background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama Klopstock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hepatitis C virus (HCV is one of the major risk factors for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Nevertheless, transgenic mice which express the whole HCV polyprotein (HCV-Tg do not develop HCC. Whereas chronic HCV infection causes inflammation in patients, in HCV-Tg mice, the host immune reaction against viral proteins is lacking. We aimed to test the role of HCV proteins in HCC development on the background of chronic inflammation in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We crossed HCV-Tg mice that do not develop HCC with the Mdr2-knockout (Mdr2-KO mice which develop inflammation-associated HCC, to generate Mdr2-KO/HCV-Tg mice. We studied the effect of the HCV transgene on tumor incidence, hepatocyte mitosis and apoptosis, and investigated the potential contributing factors for the generated phenotype by gene expression and protein analyses. The Mdr2-KO/HCV-Tg females from the N2 generation of this breeding (having 75% of the FVB/N genome and 25% of the C57BL/6 genome produced significantly larger tumors in comparison with Mdr2-KO mice. In parallel, the Mdr2-KO/HCV-Tg females had an enhanced inflammatory gene expression signature. However, in the N7 generation (having 99.2% of the FVB/N genome and 0.8% of the C57BL/6 genome there was no difference in tumor development between Mdr2-KO/HCV-Tg and Mdr2-KO animals of both sexes. The HCV transgene was similarly expressed in the livers of Mdr2-KO/HCV-Tg females of both generations, as revealed by detection of the HCV transcript and the core protein. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the HCV transgene accelerated inflammation-associated hepatocarcinogenesis in a host genetic background-dependent manner.

  3. Packaging of HCV-RNA into lentiviral vector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caval, Vincent [INSERM U966, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Faculte de Medecine, 10 Bd. Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France); Piver, Eric [INSERM U966, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Faculte de Medecine, 10 Bd. Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France); Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, CHRU de Tours (France); Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Darlix, Jean-Luc [LaboRetro, ENS-Lyon INSERM, U758, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon (France); Pages, Jean-Christophe, E-mail: jean-christophe.pages@univ-tours.fr [INSERM U966, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Faculte de Medecine, 10 Bd. Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France); Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, CHRU de Tours (France)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of HCV-RNA Core-D1 interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vivo evaluation of the packaging of HCV genome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of the role of the three basic sub-domains of D1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heterologous system involving HIV-1 vector particles to mobilise HCV genome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full length mobilisation of HCV genome and HCV-receptor-independent entry. -- Abstract: The advent of infectious molecular clones of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has unlocked the understanding of HCV life cycle. However, packaging of the genomic RNA, which is crucial to generate infectious viral particles, remains poorly understood. Molecular interactions of the domain 1 (D1) of HCV Core protein and HCV RNA have been described in vitro. Since compaction of genetic information within HCV genome has hampered conventional mutational approach to study packaging in vivo, we developed a novel heterologous system to evaluate the interactions between HCV RNA and Core D1. For this, we took advantage of the recruitment of Vpr fusion-proteins into HIV-1 particles. By fusing HCV Core D1 to Vpr we were able to package and transfer a HCV subgenomic replicon into a HIV-1 based lentiviral vector. We next examined how deletion mutants of basic sub-domains of Core D1 influenced HCV RNA recruitment. The results emphasized the crucial role of the first and third basic regions of D1 in packaging. Interestingly, the system described here allowed us to mobilise full-length JFH1 genome in CD81 defective cells, which are normally refractory to HCV infection. This finding paves the way to an evaluation of the replication capability of HCV in various cell types.

  4. Prior to the oral therapy, what do we know about HCV-4 in Egypt: a randomized survey of prevalence and risks using data mining computed analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elrazek, Abd Elrazek; Bilasy, Shymaa E; Elbanna, Abduh E M; Elsherif, Abd Elhalim A

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects over 180 million people worldwide and it's the leading cause of chronic liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is classified into seven major genotypes and a series of subtypes. In general, HCV genotype 4 (HCV-4) is common in the Middle East and Africa, where it is responsible for more than 80% of HCV infections. Although HCV-4 is the cause of approximately 20% of the 180 million cases of chronic hepatitis C worldwide, it has not been a major subject of research yet. The aim of the current study is to survey the morbidities and disease complications among Egyptian population infected with HCV-4 using data mining advanced computing methods mainly and other complementary statistical analysis. Six thousand six hundred sixty subjects, aged between 17 and 58 years old, from different Egyptian Governorates were screened for HCV infection by ELISA and qualitative PCR. HCV-positive patients were further investigated for the incidence of liver cirrhosis and esophageal varices. Obtained data were analyzed by data mining approach. Among 6660 subjects enrolled in this survey, 1018 patients (15.28%) were HCV-positive. Proportion of infected-males was significantly higher than females; 61.6% versus 38.4% (P=0.0052). Around two-third of infected-patients (635/1018; 62.4%) were presented with liver cirrhosis. Additionally, approximately half of the cirrhotic patients (301/635; 47.4%) showed degrees of large esophageal varices (LEVs), with higher variceal grade observed in males. Age for esophageal variceal development was 47±1. Data mining analysis yielded esophageal wall thickness (>6.5 mm), determined by conventional U/S, as the only independent predictor for esophageal varices. This study emphasizes the high prevalence of HCV infection among Egyptian population, in particular among males. Egyptians with HCV-4 infection are at a higher risk to develop cirrhotic liver and esophageal varices. Data mining, a new analytic technique in

  5. Prior to the Oral Therapy, What Do We Know About HCV-4 in Egypt: A Randomized Survey of Prevalence and Risks Using Data Mining Computed Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elrazek, Abd Elrazek; Bilasy, Shymaa E.; Elbanna, Abduh E. M.; Elsherif, Abd Elhalim A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects over 180 million people worldwide and it's the leading cause of chronic liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is classified into seven major genotypes and a series of subtypes. In general, HCV genotype 4 (HCV-4) is common in the Middle East and Africa, where it is responsible for more than 80% of HCV infections. Although HCV-4 is the cause of approximately 20% of the 180 million cases of chronic hepatitis C worldwide, it has not been a major subject of research yet. The aim of the current study is to survey the morbidities and disease complications among Egyptian population infected with HCV-4 using data mining advanced computing methods mainly and other complementary statistical analysis. Six thousand six hundred sixty subjects, aged between 17 and 58 years old, from different Egyptian Governorates were screened for HCV infection by ELISA and qualitative PCR. HCV-positive patients were further investigated for the incidence of liver cirrhosis and esophageal varices. Obtained data were analyzed by data mining approach. Among 6660 subjects enrolled in this survey, 1018 patients (15.28%) were HCV-positive. Proportion of infected-males was significantly higher than females; 61.6% versus 38.4% (P = 0.0052). Around two-third of infected-patients (635/1018; 62.4%) were presented with liver cirrhosis. Additionally, approximately half of the cirrhotic patients (301/635; 47.4%) showed degrees of large esophageal varices (LEVs), with higher variceal grade observed in males. Age for esophageal variceal development was 47 ± 1. Data mining analysis yielded esophageal wall thickness (>6.5 mm), determined by conventional U/S, as the only independent predictor for esophageal varices. This study emphasizes the high prevalence of HCV infection among Egyptian population, in particular among males. Egyptians with HCV-4 infection are at a higher risk to develop cirrhotic liver and esophageal varices. Data mining, a new

  6. Genetic variants in IL-6 and IL-10 genes and susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma in HCV infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, Ikram; Mouelhi, Leila; Rabia, Noor A; Alsaleh, Bano R; Ghazoueni, Ezzedine; Almawi, Wassim Y; Loueslati, Besma Yacoubi

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a common primary liver malignancy, and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. The HCC risk increases with the severity of liver inflammation, and the clinical course of HCV infection depends on a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The former includes interleukin (IL)-6, while the latter includes IL-10. However, the exact pathogenic mechanisms underlying IL-6 and IL-10 effects remain unclear. The present study evaluated 174 chronic HCV Tunisian patients. Polymorphisms of IL-6 (rs1880242, rs1474847, rs2069840, rs1800797, rs1800796, rs2069845, rs2069827, rs1474348, rs1800795), and IL-10 (rs1800896, rs1800871, rs1800872, rs1554286, rs1878672, rs1518111) were determined by real-time PCR. Notable differences between chronic HCV-infected patients and HCC patients were observed for the three IL-10 SNPs; rs1800871 (-819T/C), rs1800872 (-592A/C), and rs1878672. Carriage of IL-6 rs1800796 G/G genotype, IL-6 rs1474358 C-allele, and IL-6 rs1800797 A-allele was more frequent in chronic HCV-infected patients than in HCC patients. On the other hand, IL-6 rs1474358 GG genotype had a favourable factor for HCC establishment. IL-10 and IL-6 SNPs markedly influence the clinical outcomes of HCV infection. These SNPs could be used as biomarkers for early detection and molecular therapy for preventing HCC, and prognostic factors for predicting the clinical outcomes of HCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficient cell culture system for hepatitis C virus genotype 7a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Genotype 7a has been identified recently, thus not much is known about the biology of this new, major HCV genotype. The present inventors developed hepatitis C virus 7a/2a intergenotypic recombinants in which the JFH1 structural genes (Core, E1 and E2), p7 and the complete NS2 were replaced...

  8. An autochthonous case of hepatitis C virus genotype 5a in Brazil: phylogenetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, L.C.; Souto, F.J.D.; do Espirito-Santo, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Genotype 5 of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been rarely identified in South America. A female of African descent who never left Brazil was found to be infected by this genotype in Mato Grosso state, Central Brazil. The patient denied drug injections and revealed that she had received blood transfus...

  9. Prevalence of HCV Infections Among Hemodialysis Patients in Al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1527 patients (11%) who were HCV free at the start of the study. By the end of the study, a total of 42.2% were found to be anti-HCV reactive. Conclusion: The study demonstrated high prevalence of anti-HCV in HD units in Al Gharbiyah Governorate. Similar studies must be conducted in all Egyptian governorates' HD units ...

  10. HCV Co-infection is Associated with Metabolic Abnormalities among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 3 shows results of simple linear regression of glucose and the cholesterol fractions against HCV co- infection status. HIV/HCV co infection predicted a statistically significant reduction in all the cholesterol containing fractions. No such relationship existed between the HCV co infection and glucose or triglycerides. The.

  11. Resistance Patterns Associated with HCV NS5A Inhibitors Provide Limited Insight into Drug Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moheshwarnath Issur

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs have significantly improved the treatment of infection with the hepatitis C virus. A promising class of novel antiviral agents targets the HCV NS5A protein. The high potency and broad genotypic coverage are favorable properties. NS5A inhibitors are currently assessed in advanced clinical trials in combination with viral polymerase inhibitors and/or viral protease inhibitors. However, the clinical use of NS5A inhibitors is also associated with new challenges. HCV variants with decreased susceptibility to these drugs can emerge and compromise therapy. In this review, we discuss resistance patterns in NS5A with focus prevalence and implications for inhibitor binding.

  12. Sequence-based in silico analysis of well studied Hepatitis C Virus epitopes and their variants in other genotypes (particularly genotype 5a against South African human leukocyte antigen backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabdial-Sing Nishi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host genetics influence the outcome of HCV disease. HCV is also highly mutable and escapes host immunity. HCV genotypes are geographically distributed and HCV subtypes have been shown to have distinct repertoires of HLA-restricted viral epitopes which explains the lack of cross protection across genotypes observed in some studies. Despite this, immune databases and putative epitope vaccines concentrate almost exclusively on HCV genotype 1 class I-epitopes restricted by the HLA-A*02 allele. While both genotype and allele predominate in developed countries, we hypothesise that HCV variation and population genetics will affect the efficacy of proposed epitope vaccines in South Africa. This in silico study investigates HCV viral variability within well-studied epitopes identified in genotype 1 and uses algorithms to predict the immunogenicity of their variants from other less studied genotypes and thus rate the most promising vaccine candidates for the South African population. Six class I- and seven class II- restricted epitope sequences within the core, NS3, NS4B and NS5B regions were compared across the six HCV genotypes using local genotype 5a sequence data together with global data. Common HLA alleles in the South African population are A30:01, A02:01, B58:02, B07:02; DRB1*13:01 and DRB1*03:01. Epitope binding to 13 class I- and 8 class –II alleles were described using web-based prediction servers, Immune Epitope Database, (IEDB and Propred. Online population coverage tools were used to assess vaccine efficacy. Results Despite the homogeneity of genotype 1 and genotype 5 over the epitopes, there was limited promiscuity to local HLA-alleles.Host differences will make a putative vaccine less effective in South Africa. Of the 6 well-characterized class I- epitopes, only 2 class I- epitopes were promiscuous and 3 of the 7 class-II epitopes were better conserved and promiscuous. By fine tuning the putative vaccine using an

  13. Influence of HIV and HCV on T cell antigen presentation and challenges in the development of vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina eJohn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Some of the central challenges for developing effective vaccines against HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV are similar. Both infections are caused by small, highly mutable, rapidly replicating RNA viruses with the ability to establish long-term chronic pathogenic infection in human hosts. HIV has caused 60 million infections globally and HCV 180 million and both viruses may co-existent among certain populations by virtue of common blood-borne, sexual or vertical transmission. Persistence of both pathogens is achieved by evasion of intrinsic, innate and adaptive immune defenses but with some distinct mechanisms reflecting their differences in evolutionary history, replication characteristics, cell tropism and visibility to mucosal versus systemic and hepatic immune responses. A potent and durable antibody and T cell response is a likely requirement of future HIV and HCV vaccines. Perhaps the single biggest difference between the two vaccine design challenges is that in HCV, a natural model of protective immunity can be found in those who resolve acute infection spontaneously. Such spontaneous resolvers exhibit durable and functional CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. However frequent re-infection suggests partial or lack of protective immunity against heterologous HCV strains, possibly indicative of the degree of genetic diversity of circulating HCV genotypes and subtypes. There is no natural model of protective immunity in HIV, however studies of elite controllers, or individuals who have durably suppressed levels of plasma HIV RNA without antiretroviral therapy has provided the strongest evidence for CD8+ T cell responses in controlling viremia and limiting reservoir burden in established infection. Here we compare and contrast the specific mechanisms of immune evasion used by HIV and HCV, which subvert adaptive human leucocyte antigen (HLA-restricted T cell immunity in natural infection, and the challenges these pose for designing effective

  14. HCV Integrated Care: A Randomized Trial to Increase Treatment Initiation and SVR with Direct Acting Antivirals

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    Erik J. Groessl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Psychiatric or substance use disorders are barriers to successful HCV antiviral treatment. In a randomized, controlled trial (RCT, the effects of HCV Integrated Care (IC for increasing treatment rates and sustained viral response (SVR were studied with direct acting antivirals (DAA. Methods. In 2012-13, VA patients, whose screening was positive for depression, PTSD, or substance use (N=79, were randomized to IC or Usual Care (UC. IC consisted of brief psychological interventions and case management. The primary endpoint was SVR among patients followed for an average of 16.6 months. Results. 42% of the study participants were previously homeless and 79% had HCV genotype 1. Twice as many IC participants (45% initiated treatment compared with UC participants (23% (χ2 = 4.59, p=0.032. Among those treated, SVR rates did not significantly differ (IC: 12/18 = 67%; UC: 5/9 = 55%; p=0.23. Among all randomized participants, IC participants trended toward better SVR rates (30.0% versus 12.8% in UC; p=0.07. Conclusions. Although first-generation DAAs are no longer used, this smaller RCT helps confirm the results of a larger multisite RCT showing that Integrated Care results in higher treatment initiation and SVR rates among HCV-infected persons with comorbid psychological disorders. Integrated mental health services can facilitate treatment among the most challenging HCV patients, many of whom have not been successfully treated. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00722423.

  15. Correlates of HCV seropositivity among familial contacts of HCV positive patients

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    Matera Antonio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determinants of intrafamilial HCV transmission are still being debated. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlates of HCV seropositivity among familial contacts of HCV positive patients in Italy. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 175 HCV positive patients (index cases, recruited from Policlinico Gemelli in Rome as well as other hospitals in Central Italy between 1995 and 2000 (40% female, mean age 57 ± 15.2 years, and 259 familial contacts. Differences in proportions of qualitative variables were tested with non-parametric tests (χ2, Yates correction, Fisher exact test, and a p value Results Seropositivity for HCV was found in 8.9% of the contacts. From the univariate analysis, risk factors significantly associated to HCV positivity in the contacts were: intravenous drug addiction (p = 0.004 and intercourse with drug addicts (p = 0.005. The only variables associated significantly and independently to HCV seropositivity in patients' contacts were intercourse with drug addicts (OR = 19.28; 95% CI: 2.01 – 184.94, the retirement status from work (OR = 3.76; 95% CI: 1.17 – 11.98, the time of the relationship (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.00 – 1.11 and tattoos (OR = 7.68; 95% CI: 1.00 – 60.20. Conclusion The present study confirms that having intercourse with a drug addict is the most significant risk factor for intrafamilial HCV transmission. The association with retirement status from work could be related to both a long-term relationship with an index case and past exposure to common risk factors.

  16. Modeling HCV disease in animals: virology, immunology and pathogenesis of HCV and GBV-B infections

    OpenAIRE

    Manickam, Cordelia; Reeves, R. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has become a global public health burden costing billions of dollars in health care annually. Even with rapidly advancing scientific technologies this disease still poses a significant threat due to a lack of vaccines and affordable treatment options. The immune correlates of protection and predisposing factors toward chronicity remain major obstacles to development of HCV vaccines and immunotherapeutics due, at least in part, to lack of a tangible infection ...

  17. Virological patterns of HCV patients with failure to interferon-free regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starace, Mario; Minichini, Carmine; De Pascalis, Stefania; Macera, Margherita; Occhiello, Laura; Messina, Vincenzo; Sangiovanni, Vincenzo; Adinolfi, Luigi E; Claar, Ernesto; Precone, Davide; Stornaiuolo, Gianfranca; Stanzione, Maria; Ascione, Tiziana; Caroprese, Mara; Zampino, Rosa; Parrilli, Gianpaolo; Gentile, Ivan; Brancaccio, Giuseppina; Iovinella, Vincenzo; Martini, Salvatore; Masarone, Mario; Fontanella, Luca; Masiello, Addolorata; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Punzi, Rodolfo; Salomone Megna, Angelo; Santoro, Renato; Gaeta, Giovanni B; Coppola, Nicola

    2018-05-01

    The study characterized the virological patterns and the resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) in patients with failure to IFN-free regimens enrolled in the real-life setting. All 87 consecutive HCV patients with failed IFN-free regimens, observed at the laboratory of the University of Campania, were enrolled. All patients had been treated with DAA regimens according to the HCV genotype, international guidelines, and local availability. Sanger sequencing of NS3, NS5A, and NS5B regions was performed at failure by home-made protocols. Of the 87 patients enrolled, 13 (14.9%) showed a misclassified HCV genotype, probably causing DAA failure, 16 had been treated with a sub-optimal DAA regimen, 19 with a simeprevir-based regimen and 39 with an optimal DAA regimen. A major RAS was identified more frequently in the simeprevir regimen group (68.4%) and in the optimal regimen group (74.4%) than in the sub-optimal regimen group (56.3%). The prevalence of RASs in NS3 was similar in the three groups (30.8-57.9%), that in NS5A higher in the optimal regimen group (71.8%) than in the sub-optimal regimen group (12.5%, P < 0.0001) and in the simeprevir regimen group (31.6%, P < 0.0005), and that in NS5B low in all groups (0-25%). RASs in two or more HCV regions were more frequently identified in the optimal regimen group (46.6%) than in the simeprevir-based regimen group (31.6%) and sub-optimal regimen group (18.7%). In our real-life population the prevalence of RASs was high, especially in NS3 and NS5A and in those treated with suitable DAA regimens. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. High rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence in HIV-infected individuals with spontaneous HCV RNA clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, L; Mocroft, A; Soriano, V

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Following resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, recurrence has been shown to occur in some persons with repeated exposure to HCV. We aimed to investigate the rate and factors associated with HCV RNA recurrence among HIV-1-infected patients with prior spontaneous HCV RNA...... clearance in the EuroSIDA cohort. METHODS: All HIV-infected patients with documented prior spontaneous HCV clearance, and at least one subsequently collected plasma sample, were examined. The last sample was tested for HCV RNA and those with HCV RNA ≥ 615 IU/mL were defined as having HCV recurrence...... less likely to have HCV RNA recurrence, whereas IDUs were over 6 times more likely to have HCV RNA recurrence compared with non-IDUs (OR 6.58; 95% CI 1.48-29.28; P = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Around 1 in 5 HIV-infected patients with prior spontaneous HCV RNA clearance had detectable HCV RNA during follow...

  19. A new decision model for economic evaluation of novel therapies for HCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ruggeri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the European Medicines Agency (EMA has given the license to two new direct-acting antiviral: sofosbuvir and simeprevir. The evidence provided by the studies, reported a high rate of SVR even in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. This and other innovative elements are potentially adept at changing the entire natural course of HCV. However, the dramatic prevalence rates of HCV observed in Italy, and the high prices that are expected to be required by the pharmaceutical industry, raises some critical issues about how to regulate access to such drugs. The objective of this article is to present a new decision model for the evaluation of novel therapies for HCV. This model is intended to provide a tool for the decision-maker that seeks to address the main issues related to the introduction of HCV new treatments. The model that we have structured follows the classic Bayesian approach, using data from reference literature for staging the action of treatments depending on the level of fibrosis (F0, F1, F2, F3, F4. The model is designed to consider patients with all genotypes and allows to make comparisons between innovative and traditional therapies (dual, triple, IFN free, PI combinations, etc., for both experienced and naïve patients. In addition, the model is used to simulate mixed cohorts of patients, representing a population with HCV with different levels of fibrosis and different genotypes. To show the potential of the model, we created some simple scenarios assuming different levels of SVR and pricing. The results of our model show that, even assuming an SVR rate of 100%, the administration of new treatments for HCV subjects F1 / 2 has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio not sustainable. In contrast, for the subjects F3 and F4, low incremental SVR rates and an incremental cost of the innovative therapy of € 40,000 would be cost effective. The added value of this model is its versatility and applicability to diverse assessment

  20. In Silico Design and Experimental Validation of siRNAs Targeting Conserved Regions of Multiple Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElHefnawi, Mahmoud; Kim, TaeKyu; Kamar, Mona A; Min, Saehong; Hassan, Nafisa M; El-Ahwany, Eman; Kim, Heeyoung; Zada, Suher; Amer, Marwa; Windisch, Marc P

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism that mediates the sequence-specific degradation of targeted RNA and thus provides a tremendous opportunity for development of oligonucleotide-based drugs. Here, we report on the design and validation of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting highly conserved regions of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome. To aim for therapeutic applications by optimizing the RNAi efficacy and reducing potential side effects, we considered different factors such as target RNA variations, thermodynamics and accessibility of the siRNA and target RNA, and off-target effects. This aim was achieved using an in silico design and selection protocol complemented by an automated MysiRNA-Designer pipeline. The protocol included the design and filtration of siRNAs targeting highly conserved and accessible regions within the HCV internal ribosome entry site, and adjacent core sequences of the viral genome with high-ranking efficacy scores. Off-target analysis excluded siRNAs with potential binding to human mRNAs. Under this strict selection process, two siRNAs (HCV353 and HCV258) were selected based on their predicted high specificity and potency. These siRNAs were tested for antiviral efficacy in HCV genotype 1 and 2 replicon cell lines. Both in silico-designed siRNAs efficiently inhibited HCV RNA replication, even at low concentrations and for short exposure times (24h); they also exceeded the antiviral potencies of reference siRNAs targeting HCV. Furthermore, HCV353 and HCV258 siRNAs also inhibited replication of patient-derived HCV genotype 4 isolates in infected Huh-7 cells. Prolonged treatment of HCV replicon cells with HCV353 did not result in the appearance of escape mutant viruses. Taken together, these results reveal the accuracy and strength of our integrated siRNA design and selection protocols. These protocols could be used to design highly potent and specific RNAi-based therapeutic oligonucleotide

  1. Prevalence, genotype distribution, and risk factors for hepatitis C infection among HIV-infected individuals in Slovenia: a 1986-2013 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škamperle, Mateja; Seme, Katja; Lunar, Maja M; Maver, Polona J; Tomažič, Janez; Vovko, Tomaž D; Pečavar, Blaž; Matičič, Mojca; Poljak, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, chronic hepatitis C has become one of the leading causes of non-AIDS-related morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. Two previous Slovenian nationwide studies published in 2002 and 2009 showed a very low prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among Slovenian HIV-infected individuals (14.5% and 10.7%, respectively). The presence of HCV infection was tested in 579/639 (90.6%) patients that were confirmed as HIV-positive in Slovenia by the end of 2013. Among them, 7.6% (44/579) of HIV-infected individuals were anti-HCV-positive, and 33/44 (75%) anti-HCV-positive patients were also HCV RNA-positive. HCV genotype 1 was most prevalent among HIV-infected patients (68%), followed by genotype 3 (20%), genotype 4 (8%), and genotype 2 (4%). Anti-HCV positivity was significantly higher in those that acquired HIV by the parenteral route (91.8%) than in those that acquired HIV by the sexual route (2.8%). Slovenia remains among the countries with the lowest prevalence of HCV infection in HIV-infected individuals. Because the burden of HIV among men who have sex with men in Slovenia is disproportionately high and increasing rapidly, the current favorable situation could change quickly and should be therefore monitored regularly.

  2. Co-infecção por HIV/HCV em hospital universitário de Recife, Brasil Coinfección por HIV/HCV en hospital universitario de Recife, Brasil HIV/HCV coinfection at an university hospital in Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Helena Pontes de Carvalho

    2009-02-01

    álisis estadísticos utilizados fueron la univariada, la multivariada y la regresión logística múltiple. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia encontrada para el HCV fue de 4,1% (14/343 por ELISA y de 3,2% (11/343 por RT-PCR. Los genotipos mas frecuentes fueron 1b (45%, 3 (33% y 1a (22%. El rango de edad con mayor proporción de coinfectados fue la de 30-39 años, con predominio del sexo masculino (64,3%. Posterior a la regresión logística múltiple, sólo la variable transfusión sanguínea permaneció como factor de riesgo para el HCV (OR=4,28; IC 95%: 1,44; 12,73. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de la coinfección HIV/HCV fue baja, la transfusión sanguínea fue un factor de riesgo y el genotipo 1b de HCV fue el más frecuente.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and risks factors associated with coinfection in HIV-positive individuals. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 343 HIV patients attended at a university hospital in Recife, Northeastern Brazil, from March to December 2003. A standardized questionnaire about risk factors was administered. Serum samples were analyzed for anti-HCV antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, HCV-RNA using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and genotyping using the ABI 377 (PE Biosystems®. Univariate and multivariate analyses and multiple logistic regression were performed. RESULTS: HCV prevalence was 4.1% (14/343 using ELISA and 3.2% (11/343 using RT-PCR. The most common genotypes were 1b (45%, 3 (33% and 1a (22%. Co-infection was higher among those aged 30 to 39 years, and predominantly in males (64.3 %. In the multiple logistic regression, the variable blood transfusion was the single remaining risk factor for HCV (OR=4.28; 95% CI 1.44;12.73. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HIV/HCV coinfection was low. Blood transfusion was a risk factor and HCV genotype 1b was the most frequently found.

  3. Seroprevalence of HCV among Cairo University students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmat, Gamal; Raziky, Maissa El; Nabeel, Mohammed M; Maher, Rabab; Zakaria, Zeinab

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly prevalent in Egypt. This work aimed at determining the seroprevalence of HCV among Cairo University students. The present study included 3,000 students from Cairo University, Egypt. Blood sample was obtained from each participant to be tested for HCV seromarker. HCV RNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out for those with positive anti-HCV. Overall prevalence rate of HCV antibody (anti-HCV) was 4.6%. It showed that the prevalence was relatively higher among females (86/1660; 5.2%) while males (51/1340; 3.8%) with no significant difference. PCR for HCV RNA was detected in 31.4% of the HCV antibody positive subjects (43/137). Which showed statistical significant difference between males (29/51) and females (14/86) at P = 0.001. Despite the prevalence rate reported in the present study was similar to anti-HCV prevalence among persons in the same age group, confirmed that HCV infection is detected among Cairo University students. J. Med. Virol. 88:1384-1387, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir regimen promises an effective pan-genotypic hepatitis C virus cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir F

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fazia Mir, Alp S Kahveci, Jamal A Ibdah, Veysel Tahan Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a global pandemic, with nearly 200 million infected patients worldwide. HCV is the most common blood-borne infection in the US with numerous health implications including liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer. Traditional genotype-based HCV therapies with interferon resulted in moderate success in the sustained elimination of viral genome. Recent clinical trials of the once-daily combination tablet of sofosbuvir, a nonstructural (NS 5B polymerase inhibitor, and velpatasvir, an NS5A inhibitor, demonstrate sustained virologic response rates of about 95%, regardless of prior treatment experience or presence of cirrhosis across all HCV genotypes. Patients reported improvements in general health, fatigue, and emotional and mental well-being after completing combination therapy. The combination treatment is effective, but does need to be administered with caution in patients receiving certain medications or with certain diseases. Herein, we review the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir combination regimen for all HCV genotypes. Keywords: sofosbuvir, velpatasvir, hepatitis C, treatment, pan-genotypic, genotype

  5. Pan-genotypic treatment regimens for hepatitis C virus: Advantages and disadvantages in high- and low-income regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hézode, C

    2017-02-01

    During the last 5 years, the availability of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents has revolutionized the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Compared with interferon/ribavirin-the previous standard of care-DAA combination regimens offer improved sustained virological response (SVR) rates, shorter treatment durations of 8-24 weeks, convenient once-daily single-tablet formulations and more favourable tolerability profiles. HCV treatment is complex, and the choice of therapy must consider a complex range of factors, including baseline viral load, fibrosis stage, the HCV genotype and subgenotype, and the presence of resistance-associated substitutions at baseline. Globally, HCV genotype 1 predominates, and there are extensive data and various treatment options available for this genotype. Genotypes 2-6 are prevalent and may even predominate in different geographical regions, reflecting diverse factors including human migration patterns and unsafe use of injection drugs and blood products. Such factors are themselves influenced by socio-economic factors, and poor regions often have the greatest unmet need for effective HCV therapies. The latest pan-genotypic DAA combination regimens provide the potential to eradicate HCV around the globe, regardless of genotype, hence minimizing the need for virological testing services, which often are unavailable in poorer regions. Economics inevitably remain a barrier to access, and extensive cooperation will be required between clinical organisations and pharmaceutical manufacturers to agree appropriate pricing policies, especially in poorer economic regions. This review considers key data and treatment guidelines for DAA therapies, including pan-genotypic combination regimens, in the context of regional differences in HCV genotype and socio-economic factors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroki, Misao [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Ariumi, Yasuo, E-mail: ariumi@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Hijikata, Makoto [Department of Viral Oncology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ikeda, Masanori; Dansako, Hiromichi [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Wakita, Takaji [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Shimotohno, Kunitada [Research Center for Hepatitis and Immunology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Ichikawa, Chiba 272-8516 (Japan); Kato, Nobuyuki [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PML is dispensable for HCV RNA replication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCV could not alter formation of PML-NBs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer INI1 and DDX5, PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV life cycle. -- Abstract: PML tumor suppressor protein, which forms discrete nuclear structures termed PML-nuclear bodies, has been associated with several cellular functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and antiviral defense. Recently, it was reported that the HCV core protein colocalizes with PML in PML-NBs and abrogates the PML function through interaction with PML. However, role(s) of PML in HCV life cycle is unknown. To test whether or not PML affects HCV life cycle, we examined the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity of HCV in the culture supernatants as well as the level of HCV RNA in HuH-7-derived RSc cells, in which HCV-JFH1 can infect and efficiently replicate, stably expressing short hairpin RNA targeted to PML. In this context, the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity in the supernatants from PML knockdown cells was remarkably reduced, whereas the level of HCV RNA in the PML knockdown cells was not significantly affected in spite of very effective knockdown of PML. In fact, we showed that PML is unrelated to HCV RNA replication using the subgenomic HCV-JFH1 replicon RNA, JRN/3-5B. Furthermore, the infectivity of HCV-like particle in the culture supernatants was significantly reduced in PML knockdown JRN/3-5B cells expressing core to NS2 coding region of HCV-JFH1 genome using the trans-packaging system. Finally, we also demonstrated that INI1 and DDX5, the PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV production. Taken together, these findings suggest that PML is required for HCV production.

  7. Hepatitis C virus deep sequencing for sub-genotype identification in mixed infections: A real-life experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, José A; Parra-Sánchez, Manuel; Figueruela, Blanca; García-Rey, Silvia; Quer, Josep; Gregori, Josep; Bernal, Samuel; Grande, Lourdes; Palomares, José C; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    The effectiveness of the new generation of hepatitis C treatments named direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) depends on the genotype, subtype, and resistance-associated substitutions present in individual patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate a massive sequencing platform for the analysis of genotypes and subtypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in order to optimize therapy. A total of 84 patients with hepatitis C were analyzed. The routine genotyping methodology for HCV used at the study institution (Versant HCV Assay, LiPA) was compared with a deep sequencing platform (454/GS-Junior and Illumina MiSeq). The mean viral load in these HCV patients was 6.89×10 6 ±7.02×10 5 . Viral genotypes analyzed by LiPA were distributed as follows: 26% genotype 1a (22/84), 55% genotype 1b (46/84), 1% genotype 1 (1/84), 2.5% genotype 3 (2/84), 6% genotype 3a (5/84), 6% genotype 4a/c/d (5/84). When analyzed by deep sequencing, the samples were distributed as follows: 27% genotype 1a (23/84), 56% genotype 1b (47/84), 8% genotype 3a (7/84), 5% genotype 4d (4/84), 2.5% genotype 4f (2/84). Six of the 84 patients (7%) were infected with more than one subtype. Among these, 33% (2/6) failed DAA-based triple therapy. The detection of mixed infection could explain some treatment failures. Accurate determination of viral genotypes and subtypes would allow optimal patient management and improve the effectiveness of DAA therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-genotype-specific role of the hepatitis C virus 5' untranslated region in virus production and in inhibition by interferon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Ramirez, Santseharay; Gottwein, Judith M

    2011-01-01

    in Huh7.5 cells; therefore, the 5'UTR apparently functions in a non-genotype-specific manner in HCV production in vitro. However, adenine at the 5'-terminus was required. We demonstrated that J6/JFH1 with 5'UTR of genotypes 1-6 responded similarly to interferon-a2b. This study provides novel insight......The 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is structured into four domains (I-IV) with numerous genotype-specific nucleotides. It is unknown whether the polymorphisms confer genotype-specific functions to the 5'UTR. Using viable JFH1-based Core-NS2 recombinants, we developed...... into the role of the 5'UTR in the HCV life cycle and facilitates HCV basic research and testing of 5'UTR-targeting antivirals....

  9. Prediction of Intraoperative Blood Loss during Total Knee Arthroplasty in HCV+ and HCV- Patients with Hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurkhina, E S; Polyanskaya, T Yu; Zorenko, V Yu; Nesterenko, V M

    2017-03-01

    We examined HCV+ and HCV- hemophilia A patients with knee arthropathy and hematocrit above 38.5%. The mean density of erythrocytes was studied by the phthalate method, intraoperative blood loss was assessed gravimetrically. The volume of blood loss in HCV+ patients with manifest adhesive process and chronic synovitis varied from 300 to 1900 ml, in patients with moderate adhesive process from 400 to 1500 ml. The volume of blood loss in HCV- patients was 300-800 ml. A positive correlation between the blood loss volume and mean density of erythrocytes was detected. Blood loss >1000 ml during total knee arthroplasty can be expected in patients with hemophilia A with HCV and high mean density of erythrocytes. Blood loss >1000 ml is unlikely in HCV- and HCV+ patients with the mean density of erythrocytes not surpassing the normal values.

  10. Complementary role of HCV and HIV in T-cell activation and exhaustion in HIV/HCV coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuth, Thijs; Arends, Joop E; Fransen, Justin H; Nanlohy, Nening M; van Erpecum, Karel J; Siersema, Peter D; Hoepelman, Andy I M; van Baarle, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether T-cell activation and exhaustion is linked to HCV- and HIV disease parameters in HIV/HCV infected individuals, we studied T-cell characteristics in HIV/HCV coinfected patients and controls. 14 HIV/HCV coinfected, 19 HCV monoinfected, 10 HIV monoinfected patients and 15 healthy controls were included in this cross-sectional study. Differences in expression of activation and exhaustion markers (HLA-DR, CD38, PD-1, Tim-3 and Fas) and phenotypic markers on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells were analysed by flow cytometry and were related to HCV disease parameters (HCV-viremia, ALT and liver fibrosis). Frequencies of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells were higher in HIV/HCV-coinfected compared to healthy controls and HCV or HIV mono-infected individuals. Coinfected patients also showed high expression of the exhaustion marker PD-1 and death receptor Fas. In contrast, the exhaustion marker Tim-3 was only elevated in HIV-monoinfected patients. T-cell activation and exhaustion were correlated with HCV-RNA, suggesting that viral antigen influences T-cell activation and exhaustion. Interestingly, increased percentages of effector CD8(+) T-cells were found in patients with severe (F3-F4) liver fibrosis compared to those with no to minimal fibrosis (F0-F2). HIV/HCV coinfected patients display a high level of T-cell activation and exhaustion in the peripheral blood. Our data suggest that T-cell activation and exhaustion are influenced by the level of HCV viremia. Furthermore, high percentages of cytotoxic/effector CD8(+) T-cells are associated with liver fibrosis in both HCV monoinfected and HIV/HCV coinfected patients.

  11. Inhibition of full length Hepatitis C Virus particles of 1a genotype through small interference RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Sidra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV, a member of the Flaviviridae family of viruses, is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Currently, the only treatment available consists of a combination of Pegylated interferon alpha (INF-α and ribavirin, but only half of the patients treated show a sufficient antiviral response. Thus there is a great need for the development of new treatments for HCV infections. RNA interference (RNAi represents a new promising approach to develop effective antiviral drugs and has been extremely effective against HCV infection. Results This study was design to assess or explore the silencing effect of small interference RNAs (siRNAs against full length HCV particles of genotype 1a. In the present study six 21-bp siRNAs were designed against different regions of HCV structural genes (Core, E1 and E2. Selected siRNAs were labeled as Csi 301, Csi 29, E1si 52, E1si 192, E2si 86 and E2si 493. Our results demonstrated that siRNAs directed against HCV core gene showed 70% reduction in viral titer in HCV infected liver cells. Moreover, siRNAs against E1 and E2 envelop genes showed a dramatic reduction in HCV viral RNA, E2si 86 exhibited 93% inhibition, while E1si 192, E2si 493 and E1si 52 showed 87%, 80%, and 66% inhibition respectively. No significant inhibition was detected in cells transfected with the negative control siRNA. Conclusion Our results suggested that siRNAs targeted against HCV structural genes efficiently silence full length HCV particles and provide an effective therapeutic option against HCV infection.

  12. Stability of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels among interferon-naïve HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals treated with combination antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grint, D; Peters, L; Reekie, J

    2013-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. High HCV RNA levels have been associated with poor treatment response. This study aimed to examine the natural history of HCV RNA in chronically HCV/HIV-coinfected individuals.......Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. High HCV RNA levels have been associated with poor treatment response. This study aimed to examine the natural history of HCV RNA in chronically HCV/HIV-coinfected individuals....

  13. Model projections on the impact of HCV treatment in the prevention of HCV transmission among people who inject drugs in Europe"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Hannah; Martin, Natasha K; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Henrikki

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevention of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) is critical to eliminating HCV in Europe. We estimate impact of current and scaled-up HCV treatment with and without scaling-up opioid substitution therapy (OST) and needle and syringe programmes...... (NSP) across Europe over the next 10 years. METHODS: We collected data on PWID HCV treatment rates, PWID prevalence, HCV prevalence, OST and NSP coverage from 11 European settings. We parameterized a HCV transmission model to setting-specific data that projects chronic HCV prevalence and incidence...... among PWID. RESULTS: At baseline, chronic HCV prevalence varied from 55% (Finland/Sweden), and

  14. Challenge pools of hepatitis C virus genotypes 1-6 prototype strains: replication fitness and pathogenicity in chimpanzees and human liver-chimeric mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens; Meuleman, Philip; Tellier, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Chimpanzees represent the only animal model for studies of the natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV). To generate virus stocks of important HCV variants, we infected chimpanzees with HCV strains of genotypes 1-6 and determined the infectivity titer of acute-phase plasma pools in additional...... animals. The courses of first- and second-passage infections were similar, with early appearance of viremia, HCV RNA titers of >10(4.7) IU/mL, and development of acute hepatitis; the chronicity rate was 56%. The challenge pools had titers of 10(3)-10(5) chimpanzee infectious doses/mL. Human liver...

  15. [Comparison of eight screening tests for ant-HCV antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Matsuo; Kagita, Masanori; Yamashita, Naoko; Nakano, Takasi; Tahara, Kazuko; Asari, Seishi; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2002-09-01

    We compared eight HCV screening tests for detection of anti-HCV antibody; Ortho Quick Chaser HCV Ab (QC), Ortho HCV Ab ELISA III (ELISA), Ortho HVC Ab PA test III (PA), Lumipulse II Ortho HCV (LUMI), IMx HCV.DAINAPACKII (IMx), ARCHITECT HCV (ARCH), Immucheck.F-HCV C50 Ab (Immu), RANREAM HCV Ab Ex II (RAN). Sera from six hundred patients were examined by these eight screening tests. The positive rates of the eight screening tests were from 9.0% to 13.2%. Forty-five sera showed discrepant results between the eight screening tests, and about half of them showed weak positive reaction and/or false positive. Twenty-five of the forty-five sera were negative for ant-HCV antibody in the CHIRON RIBA III confirmatory test, and forty-four of them were negative for HCV-RNA in the PCR method. The agreement rates between the two reagents were from 95.5% to 99.2%, but were not always high between the two reagents that used similar antigen. The specificities and sensitivities evaluated by using the RIBA III confirmatory test were excellent in ELISA, LUMI, IMx, ARCH and Immu. Three BBI seroconversion panels were used to compare the positive readings in the initial stage of HCV infection by eight screening tests. ELISA and ARCH showed the earliest positive readings, and then IMx, LUMI = RAN, PA, QC and Immu in this order. These findings indicate that ELISA and ARCH were the most excellent in the sensitivity, specificity and early diagnosis of HCV infection. However, we must pay attention to the weak positive reaction in the screening tests, because there is a possibility of "false positive".

  16. The prevalence and severity of 25-(OH)-vitamin D insufficiency in HCV infected and in HBV infected patients: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkan-Kawińska, Aleksandra; Koślińska-Berkan, Ewa; Piekarska, Anna

    2015-05-01

    To assess the prevalence and severity of vitamin D insufficiency in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This prospective study included 90 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 35 patients with chronic hepatitis B admitted to the Infectious Diseases Department between March 2013 and May 2014. Patients with chronic liver disease other than viral hepatitis, HIV co-infection, advanced liver disease and a history of diseases influencing vitamin D status were excluded. Serum vitamin D measurement as well as liver function, viral load, HCV genotype, interleukin 28 and liver fibrosis assessments were performed. In all patients, the mean vitamin D serum concentration was 18.8 (± 8.9) ng/ml. The mean vitamin D level in HBV infected patients was lower than in HCV infected patients (17.6 ng/ml vs. 19.3 ng/ml; p = 0.43). Vitamin D status was assessed in relation to viral load, HCV genotype, interleukin 28 and sex, but the differences were not significant. In both groups, serum vitamin D levels were significantly lower in winter compared to summer (14.2 ng/ml vs. 23.9 ng/ml in patients infected with HCV [ p D concentrations occur very often, but are not associated with poor virological characteristics. The only factor influencing the vitamin D level was the season.

  17. Development of a New Structural Class of Broadly Acting HCV Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors Leading to the Discovery of MK-8876

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McComas, Casey C.; Palani, Anandan; Chang, Wei; Holloway, M. Katharine; Lesburg, Charles A.; Li, Peng; Liverton, Nigel; Meinke, Peter T.; Olsen, David B.; Peng, Xuanjia; Soll, Richard M.; Ummat, Ajay; Wu, Jie; Wu, Jin; Zorn, Nicolas; Ludmerer, Steven W. (Merck); (WuXi App Tec)

    2017-07-25

    Studies directed at developing a broadly acting non-nucleoside inhibitor of HCV NS5B led to the discovery of a novel structural class of 5-aryl benzofurans that simultaneously interact with both the palm I and palm II binding regions. An initial candidate was potent in vitro against HCV GT1a and GT1b replicons, and induced multi-log reductions in HCV viral load when orally dosed to chronic GT1 infected chimpanzees. However, in vitro potency losses against clinically relevant GT1a variants prompted a further effort to develop compounds with sustained potency across a broader array of HCV genotypes and mutants. Ultimately, a biology and medicinal chemistry collaboration led to the discovery of the development candidate MK-8876. MK-8876 demonstrated a pan-genotypic potency profile and maintained potency against clinically relevant mutants. It demonstrated moderate bioavailability in rats and dogs, but showed low plasma clearance characteristics consistent with once-daily dosing. Herein we describe the efforts which led to the discovery of MK-8876, which advanced into Phase 1 monotherapy studies for evaluation and characterization as a component of an all-oral direct-acting drug regimen for the treatment of chronic HCV infection.

  18. Sustained virological response with intravenous silibinin: individualized IFN-free therapy via real-time modeling of HCV kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahari, Harel; Shteingart, Shimon; Gafanovich, Inna; Cotler, Scott J.; D'Amato, Massimo; Pohl, Ralf T.; Weiss, Gali; Ashkenazi, Yaakov Jack; Tichler, Thomas; Goldin, Eran; Lurie, Yoav

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Intravenous silibinin (SIL) is a potent antiviral agent against hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype-1. In this proof of concept case-study we tested: (i) whether interferon-alfa (IFN)-free treatment with SIL plus ribavirin (RBV) can achieve sustained virological response (SVR), (ii) whether SIL is safe and feasible for prolonged duration of treatment, and (iii) whether mathematical modeling of early on-treatment HCV kinetics can guide duration of therapy to achieve SVR. Methods A 44 year-old female HCV-(genotype-1)-infected patient who developed severe psychiatric adverse events to a previous course of pegIFN+RBV, initiated combination treatment with 1200 mg/day of SIL, 1200 mg/day of RBV and 6000 u/day vitamin D. Blood samples were collected frequently till week 4, thereafter every 1 to 12 weeks until the end of therapy. The standard-biphasic-mathematical model was used to predict the duration of therapy to achieve SVR. Results Based on modeling the observed viral kinetics during the first 3 weeks of treatment, SVR was predicted to be achieved within 34 weeks of therapy. Provided with this information, the patient agreed to complete 34 weeks of treatment. IFN-free treatment with SIL+RBV was feasible, safe, and achieved SVR (week-33). Conclusions We report, for the first time, the use of real-time mathematical modeling of HCV kinetics to individualize duration of IFN-free therapy and to empower a patient to participate in shared decision making regarding length of treatment. SIL-based individualized therapy provides a treatment option for patients who do not respond to or cannot receive other HCV agents and should be further validated. PMID:25251042

  19. Sustained virological response with intravenous silibinin: individualized IFN-free therapy via real-time modelling of HCV kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahari, Harel; Shteingart, Shimon; Gafanovich, Inna; Cotler, Scott J; D'Amato, Massimo; Pohl, Ralf T; Weiss, Gali; Ashkenazi, Yaakov J; Tichler, Thomas; Goldin, Eran; Lurie, Yoav

    2015-02-01

    Intravenous silibinin (SIL) is a potent antiviral agent against hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype-1. In this proof of concept case-study we tested: (i) whether interferon-alfa (IFN)-free treatment with SIL plus ribavirin (RBV) can achieve sustained virological response (SVR); (ii) whether SIL is safe and feasible for prolonged duration of treatment and (iii) whether mathematical modelling of early on-treatment HCV kinetics can guide duration of therapy to achieve SVR. A 44 year-old female HCV-(genotype-1)-infected patient who developed severe psychiatric adverse events to a previous course of pegIFN+RBV, initiated combination treatment with 1200 mg/day of SIL, 1200 mg/day of RBV and 6000 u/day vitamin D. Blood samples were collected frequently till week 4, thereafter every 1-12 weeks until the end of therapy. The standard biphasic mathematical model with time-varying SIL effectiveness was used to predict the duration of therapy to achieve SVR. Based on modelling the observed viral kinetics during the first 3 weeks of treatment, SVR was predicted to be achieved within 34 weeks of therapy. Provided with this information, the patient agreed to complete 34 weeks of treatment. IFN-free treatment with SIL+RBV was feasible, safe and achieved SVR (week-33). We report, for the first time, the use of real-time mathematical modelling of HCV kinetics to individualize duration of IFN-free therapy and to empower a patient to participate in shared decision making regarding length of treatment. SIL-based individualized therapy provides a treatment option for patients who do not respond to or cannot receive other HCV agents and should be further validated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses: a review of viral genomes, viral induced host immune responses, genotypic distributions and worldwide epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Saeed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HCV are frequently propagating blood borne pathogens in global community. Viral hepatitis is primarily associated with severe health complications, such as liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic fibrosis and steatosis. A literature review was conducted on hepatitis B virus (HBV, HBV genome, genotypic distribution and global epidemiology of HBV, HCV, HCV genome, HCV and host immune responses, HCV genotypic distribution and global epidemiology. The valued information was subjected for review. HBV has strict tissue tropism to liver. The virus infecting hepatocytes produces large amount of hepatitis B surface antigen particles which lack the DNA. It has capability to integrate into host genome. It has been found that genotype C is most emerging genotype associated with more severe liver diseases (cirrhosis. The approximate prevalence rate of genotype C is 27.7% which represents a major threat to future generations. Approximately 8% of population is chronic carrier of HBV in developing countries. The chronic carrier rate of HBV is 2%-7% in Middle East, Eastern and Southern Europe, South America and Japan. Among HCV infected individuals, 15% usually have natural tendency to overcome acute viral infection, where as 85% of individuals were unable to control HCV infection. The internal ribosomal entry site contains highly conserved structures important for binding and appropriate positioning of viral genome inside the host cell. HCV infects only in 1%-10% of hepatocytes, but production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (from CD8+ cells and interferon-gamma cause destruction of both infected cells and non-infected surrounding cells. Almost 11 genotypes and above 100 subtypes of HCV exists worldwide with different geographical distribution. Many efforts are still needed to minimize global burden of these infections. For the complete eradication of HBV (just like small pox and polio via vaccination strategies

  1. [Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes among patients with chronic hepatitis C infection in Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya, Turkey: a five-year evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlik, İmran; Mutlu, Derya; Öngut, Gözde; İnan, Dilara; Öğünç, Dilara; Can Sarinoğlu, Rabia; Özhak Baysan, Betil; Gültekin, Meral; Çolak, Dilek

    2014-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major causes of chronic hepatitis. It is important to know the genotypes of HCV in the decision of the HCV related chronic hepatitis therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HCV genotypes determined at the Microbiology Laboratory of Akdeniz University Hospital, and to evaluate the changes in the distribution of the genotypes within the last five years. A total of 422 blood samples from HCV-RNA positive chronic hepatitis C patients (219 male, 203 female; age range: 8-79 yrs, mean age 46.3 ± 15.5 yrs) which were sent to our laboratory for genotyping between 2009-2013 period, were analyzed retrospectively. HCV-RNA extractions were performed in an automated system (EZ1 Virus Mini Kit v2.0, Qiagen, Germany), and a commercial reverse hybridization line probe-based assay (LIPA; GEN-C RT-PCR, Italy) was carried out for genotyping, For viral load determinations, a real-time PCR method (Cobas TaqMan HCV, Roche Diagnostics, Germany) was used. Demographic data of the patients were obtained from the hospital information systems and electronic patients' files. Out of the 422 patients, genotype 1b was detected in 63.3% (n= 267), genotype 1a in 14.7% (n= 62), genotype 3a in 11.1% (n= 47), genotype 2b in 0.9% (n= 4), genotype 4e in 0.2% (n= 1). The subtypes couldn't be determined for 5.4% (n= 23), 2.6% (n= 11) and 1.4% (n= 6) of the patients infected with genotype 1, 2 and 4, respectively. One (0.2%) patient, was coinfected with genotype 1 and 4. Of the patients, 40 were foreign-born (16 cases from Russia; 4 of each from Ukraine and Georgia; 3 of each from Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Germany; one of each from Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Chechnya, Moldova, Switzerland and Romania) and among these patients genotype 3a (19/40; 47.5%) was the most common genotype followed by genotype 1b (17/40; 42.5%). Median values of HCV viral load were 668.500 IU/ml (range: 2.000-9.630.000) in the whole group; while it was 732.000 IU

  2. An NS5A single optimized method to determine genotype, subtype and resistance profiles of Hepatitis C strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Andre-Garnier

    Full Text Available The objective was to develop a method of HCV genome sequencing that allowed simultaneous genotyping and NS5A inhibitor resistance profiling. In order to validate the use of a unique RT-PCR for genotypes 1-5, 142 plasma samples from patients infected with HCV were analysed. The NS4B-NS5A partial region was successfully amplified and sequenced in all samples. In parallel, partial NS3 sequences were analyzed obtained for genotyping. Phylogenetic analysis showed concordance of genotypes and subtypes with a bootstrap >95% for each type cluster. NS5A resistance mutations were analyzed using the Geno2pheno [hcv] v0.92 tool and compared to the list of known Resistant Associated Substitutions recently published. In conclusion, this tool allows determination of HCV genotypes, subtypes and identification of NS5A resistance mutations. This single method can be used to detect pre-existing resistance mutations in NS5A before treatment and to check the emergence of resistant viruses while undergoing treatment in major HCV genotypes (G1-5 in the EU and the US.

  3. HCV kinetic and modeling analyses indicate similar time to cure among sofosbuvir combination regimens with daclatasvir, simeprevir or ledipasvir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahari, Harel; Canini, Laetitia; Graw, Frederik; Uprichard, Susan L; Araújo, Evaldo S A; Penaranda, Guillaume; Coquet, Emilie; Chiche, Laurent; Riso, Aurelie; Renou, Christophe; Bourliere, Marc; Cotler, Scott J; Halfon, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Recent clinical trials of direct-acting-antiviral agents (DAAs) against hepatitis C virus (HCV) achieved >90% sustained virological response (SVR) rates, suggesting that cure often took place before the end of treatment (EOT). We sought to evaluate retrospectively whether early response kinetics can provide the basis to individualize therapy to achieve optimal results while reducing duration and cost. 58 chronic HCV patients were treated with 12-week sofosbuvir+simeprevir (n=19), sofosbuvir+daclatasvir (n=19), or sofosbuvir+ledipasvir in three French referral centers. HCV was measured at baseline, day 2, every other week, EOT and 12weeks post EOT. Mathematical modeling was used to predict the time to cure, i.e., <1 virus copy in the entire extracellular body fluid. All but one patient who relapsed achieved SVR. Mean age was 60±11years, 53% were male, 86% HCV genotype-1, 9% HIV coinfected, 43% advanced fibrosis (F3), and 57% had cirrhosis. At weeks 2, 4 and 6, 48%, 88% and 100% of patients had HCV<15IU/ml, with 27%, 74% and 91% of observations having target not detected, respectively. Modeling results predicted that 23 (43%), 16 (30%), 7 (13%), 5 (9%) and 3 (5%) subjects were predicted to reach cure within 6, 8, 10, 12 and 13weeks of therapy, respectively. The modeling suggested that the patient who relapsed would have benefitted from an additional week of sofosbuvir+ledipasvir. Adjusting duration of treatment according to the modeling predicts reduced medication costs of 43-45% and 17-30% in subjects who had HCV<15IU/ml at weeks 2 and 4, respectively. The use of early viral kinetic analysis has the potential to individualize duration of DAA therapy with a projected average cost saving of 16-20% per 100-treated persons. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Farmers prevailing perception profiles regarding GM crops: A classification proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Carla; Massarani, Luisa

    2018-04-01

    Genetically modified organisms have been at the centre of a major public controversy, involving different interests and actors. While much attention has been devoted to consumer views on genetically modified food, there have been few attempts to understand the perceptions of genetically modified technology among farmers. By investigating perceptions of genetically modified organisms among Brazilian farmers, we intend to contribute towards filling this gap and thereby add the views of this stakeholder group to the genetically modified debate. A comparative analysis of our data and data from other studies indicate there is a complex variety of views on genetically modified organisms among farmers. Despite this diversity, we found variations in such views occur within limited parameters, concerned principally with expectations or concrete experiences regarding the advantages of genetically modified crops, perceptions of risks associated with them, and ethical questions they raise. We then propose a classification of prevailing profiles to represent the spectrum of perceptions of genetically modified organisms among farmers.

  5. Influence of hepatitis C virus and IL28B genotypes on liver stiffness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Fogt Lundbo

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis has been associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV genotype and genetic variation near the interleukin 28B (IL28B gene, but the relative contribution is unknown. We aimed to investigate the relation between HCV genotypes, IL28B and development of liver stiffness.This cross-sectional study consists of 369 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC. Liver stiffness was evaluated using transient elastograhy (TE. Factors associated with development of liver fibrosis were identified by logistic regression analysis.We identified 369 patients with CHC. 235 were male, 297 Caucasians, and 223 had been exposed to HCV through intravenous drug use. The overall median TE value was 7.4 kPa (interquartile range (IQR 5.7-12.1. HCV replication was enhanced in patients carrying the IL28B CC genotype compared to TT and TC (5.8 vs. 5.4 log10 IU/mL, p = 0.03. Patients infected with HCV genotype 3 had significantly higher TE values (8.2 kPa; IQR, 5.9-14.5 compared to genotype 1 (6.9 kPa; IQR, 5.4-10.9 and 2 (6.7 kPa; IQR, 4.9-8.8 (p = 0.02. Within patients with genotype 3, IL28B CC genotype had the highest TE values (p = 0.04. However, in multivariate logistic regression, using various cut-off values for fibrosis and cirrhosis, only increasing age (odds ratio (OR 1.09 (95% confidence interval (CI, 1.05-1.14 per year increment, ALT (OR 1.01 (95% CI, 1.002-1.011, per unit increment and HCV genotype 3 compared to genotype 1 (OR 2.40 (95% CI, 1.19-4.81, were consistently associated with cirrhosis (TE>17.1 kPa.Age, ALT and infection with HCV genotype 3 were associated with cirrhosis assessed by TE. However, IL28B genotype was not an independent predictor of fibrosis in our study.

  6. TRAIL receptor I (DR4) polymorphisms C626G and A683C are associated with an increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in HCV-infected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Körner, Christian; Nattermann, Jacob; Spengler, Ulrich; Nischalke, Hans Dieter; Riesner, Katarina; Krämer, Benjamin; Eisenhardt, Marianne; Glässner, Andreas; Wolter, Franziska; Berg, Thomas; Müller, Tobias; Sauerbruch, Tilman

    2012-01-01

    Tumour surveillance via induction of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis is a key mechanism, how the immune system prevents malignancy. To determine if gene variants in the TRAIL receptor I (DR4) gene affect the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced liver cancer (HCC), we analysed DR4 mutations C626G (rs20575) and A683C (rs20576) in HCV-infected patients with and without HCC. Frequencies of DR4 gene polymorphisms were determined by LightSNiP assays in 159 and 234 HCV-infected patients with HCC and without HCC, respectively. 359 healthy controls served as reference population. Distribution of C626G and A683C genotypes were not significantly different between healthy controls and HCV-positive patients without HCC. DR4 variants 626C and 683A occurred at increased frequencies in patients with HCC. The risk of HCC was linked to carriage of the 626C allele and the homozygous 683AA genotype, and the simultaneous presence of the two risk variants was confirmed as independent HCC risk factor by Cox regression analysis (Odds ratio 1.975, 95% CI 1.205-3.236; p = 0.007). Furthermore HCV viral loads were significantly increased in patients who simultaneously carried both genetic risk factors (2.69 ± 0.36 × 10 6 IU/ml vs. 1.81 ± 0.23 × 10 6 IU/ml, p = 0.049). The increased prevalence of patients with a 626C allele and the homozygous 683AA genotype in HCV-infected patients with HCC suggests that these genetic variants are a risk factor for HCC in chronic hepatitis C

  7. Virological Mechanisms in the Coinfection between HIV and HCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carla Liberto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to shared transmission routes, coinfection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV is common in patients infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. The immune-pathogenesis of liver disease in HIV/HCV coinfected patients is a multifactorial process. Several studies demonstrated that HIV worsens the course of HCV infection, increasing the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Also, HCV might increase immunological defects due to HIV and risk of comorbidities. A specific cross-talk among HIV and HCV proteins in coinfected patients modulates the natural history, the immune responses, and the life cycle of both viruses. These effects are mediated by immune mechanisms and by a cross-talk between the two viruses which could interfere with host defense mechanisms. In this review, we focus on some virological/immunological mechanisms of the pathogenetic interactions between HIV and HCV in the human host.

  8. Mechanisms of accelerated liver fibrosis in HIV-HCV coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysanthidis, Theofilos; Loli, Georgia; Metallidis, Simeon; Germanidis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Although there is evidence that HCV progresses rapidly in HIV/HCV coinfected patients in comparison with HCV monoinfected, the HIV-, HCV- and host/genetic-related factors, as well as the exact mechanisms implicated in this process are not fully elucidated. Furthermore, cure of HCV in those coinfected seems possible with the new antiviral drugs, but high cost as well as insufficient identification, linkage with care and treatment hamper the achievement of this goal. Research on the subject, could reveal an important prognostic marker for the effectiveness of persuasion of patients with HIV/HCV coinfection with a predicted accelerated fibrosis course, in order to facilitate and prioritize, not in terms of guidelines but in the real life situation, their treatment with a medically just framework.

  9. Impact of IL28B-related single nucleotide polymorphisms on liver histopathology in chronic hepatitis C genotype 2 and 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rembeck, Karolina; Alsiö, Asa; Christensen, Peer Brehm

    2012-01-01

    Recently, several genome-wide association studies have revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in proximity to IL28B predict spontaneous clearance of HCV infection as well as outcome following peginterferon and ribavirin therapy among HCV genotype 1 infected patients. The present study...... aimed to evaluate the impact of IL28B SNP variability on liver histology in the context of a phase III treatment trial (NORDynamIC) for treatment-naïve patients with chronic HCV genotype 2 or 3 infection, where pretreatment liver biopsies were mandatory....

  10. Animal models for HCV and HBV studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Chemin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The narrow host range of infection and lack of suitable tissue culture systems for the propagation of hepatitis B and C viruses are limitations that have prevented a more thorough understanding of persistent infection and the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease.

    Despite decades of intensive research and significant progresses in understanding of viral hepatitis, many basic questions and clinical problems still await to be resolved. For example, the HBV cellular receptor and related mechanisms of viral entry have not yet been identified. Little is also known about the function of certain non-structural viral products, such as the hepatitis B e antigen and the X protein, or about the role of excess hepadnavirus subviral particles circulating in the blood stream during infection. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and the role of the immune system in determining the fate of infection are not fully understood.

    The reason for these drawbacks is essentially due to the lack of reliable cell-based in vitro infection systems and, most importantly, convenient animal models.

    This lack of knowledge has been partially overcome for hepatitis B virus (HBV, by the discovery and characterization of HBV-like viruses in wild animals while for hepatitis C virus (HCV, related flaviviruses have been used as surrogate systems.

    Other laboratories have developed transgenic mice that express virus gene products and/or support virus replication. Some HBV transgenic mouse models

  11. 77 FR 34854 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Special Wage Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ...-AM63 Prevailing Rate Systems; Special Wage Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics... for the Department of Defense's (DOD's) nonappropriated fund (NAF) automotive mechanics. These special... practice for compensating NAF automotive mechanics with current prevailing pay practices in the private...

  12. Detection of hepatitis C virus in patients with terminal renal disease undergoing dialysis in southern Brazil: prevalence, risk factors, genotypes, and viral load dynamics in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidales-Braz, Beatris Maria; da Silva, Naylê Maria Oliveira; Lobato, Rubens; Germano, Fabiana Nunes; da Mota, Luiza Dias; Barros, Elvino J G; de Martinez, Ana Maria Barral

    2015-02-03

    Hepatitis C (HCV) is a serious public health issue, and it is estimated that 3% of the world's population is infected. Patients in hemodialysis units have an increased risk for contracting HCV, and high prevalence rates have been found in hemodialysis units around the world. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of HCV in patients with terminal chronic renal disease (tCRD) who have been submitted to hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis in southern Brazil to characterize the most prevalent genotypes, the viral load, and possible risk factors and to assess the validity between the ELISA and RT-PCR detection methods. Of 320 patients from three dialysis units, 318 participated in this study. According to the medical records, 55 patients were reactive to HCV, as determined via ELISA. All 318 samples were submitted to RT-PCR and genotyped using an Abbott Realtime m2000 system. Data obtained through a questionnaire and chemical variables were associated with the HCV. The prevalence of HCV was 18.24% (58), and the concordance between the HCV serology and the RT-PCR was 94%. Three patients were diagnosed to be negative for HCV using the ELISA assay but positive when using RT-PCR. Genotype 1 was the most prevalent (46.7%) genotype, within which subtype 1a was the most frequent (74.1%). One of the risk factors associated with HCV infection was the length of time that the patient had been undergoing hemodialysis treatments (p HCV in dialysis units continues to remain high, indicating nosocomial contamination. RT-PCR detected the presence of the hepatitis C virus in patients with a non-reactive serology, which highlights the importance of performing molecular tests on dialysis patients. The variation in the viral load in patients submitted to hemodialysis indicates a possible destruction or gripping of viral particles to the dialyzer membrane.

  13. Influence of hepatitis C virus and IL28B genotypes on liver stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Weis, Nina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Liver fibrosis has been associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype and genetic variation near the interleukin 28B (IL28B) gene, but the relative contribution is unknown. We aimed to investigate the relation between HCV genotypes, IL28B and development of liver stiffness. PATIENTS...... AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study consists of 369 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Liver stiffness was evaluated using transient elastograhy (TE). Factors associated with development of liver fibrosis were identified by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: We identified 369 patients with CHC...

  14. HCV-RNA quantification in liver bioptic samples and extrahepatic compartments, using the abbott RealTime HCV assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, FrancescoPaolo; Cento, Valeria; Sorbo, Maria Chiara; Manuelli, Matteo Ciancio; Lenci, Ilaria; Sforza, Daniele; Di Carlo, Domenico; Milana, Martina; Manzia, Tommaso Maria; Angelico, Mario; Tisone, Giuseppe; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the performance of a rapid method to quantify HCV-RNA in the hepatic and extrahepatic compartments, by using for the first time the Abbott RealTime HCV-assay. Non-tumoral (NT), tumoral (TT) liver samples, lymph nodes and ascitic fluid from patients undergoing orthotopic-liver-transplantation (N=18) or liver resection (N=4) were used for the HCV-RNA quantification; 5/22 patients were tested after or during direct acting antivirals (DAA) treatment. Total RNA and DNA quantification from tissue-biopsies allowed normalization of HCV-RNA concentrations in IU/μg of total RNA and IU/10 6 liver-cells, respectively. HCV-RNA was successfully quantified with high reliability in liver biopsies, lymph nodes and ascitic fluid samples. Among the 17 untreated patients, a positive and significant HCV-RNA correlation between serum and NT liver-samples was observed (Pearson: rho=0.544, p=0.024). Three DAA-treated patients were HCV-RNA "undetectable" in serum, but still "detectable" in all tested liver-tissues. Differently, only one DAA-treated patient, tested after sustained-virological-response, showed HCV-RNA "undetectability" in liver-tissue. HCV-RNA was successfully quantified with high reliability in liver bioptic samples and extrahepatic compartments, even when HCV-RNA was "undetectable" in serum. Abbott RealTime HCV-assay is a good diagnostic tool for HCV quantification in intra- and extra-hepatic compartments, whenever a bioptic sample is available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Interleukin-28B TT genotype is frequently found in patients with hepatitis C virus cirrhosis but does not influence hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Sara; Citores, María-Jesús; Duca, Ana; Cisneros, Elisa; Baños, Isolina; Vilches, Carlos; Cuervas-Mons, Valentín

    2017-05-01

    Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with progressive hepatic fibrosis and ultimately hepatocellular carcinoma. The interleukin-28B (IL28B) rs12979860 polymorphism is associated with fibrosis progression in chronic HCV infection. IL28B encodes interferon-λ, which has both antiviral and anti-proliferative properties. This study aimed to determine whether IL28B rs12979860 polymorphism is also associated with development of hepatocellular carcinoma both in chronic HCV infection and in non-viral-related cirrhosis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and melting curve analyses were used to genotype 311 patients who underwent liver transplantation for HCV cirrhosis (n = 202) or alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 109). HCV patients were older (p = 0.012) and less likely males (p < 0.001) than patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. IL28B rs12979860 TT genotype [OR 6.08, 95 % CI 2.11-17.53; p < 0.001] and T allele carriage (CT + TT; OR 2.3, CI 95 % 1.42-3.72; p = 0.001) were more frequent among HCV patients and, among them, more common in patients infected with HCV genotype 1 (CT + TT; OR 1.79, CI 95 % 1.03-3.09; p = 0.009). Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma was higher in HCV cirrhosis (OR 2.7, CI 95 % 1.5-4.7; p < 0.001), with no differences according to HCV genotype. IL28B genotype distribution was similar among patients with or without hepatocellular carcinoma, in both HCV patients regardless viral genotype (p = 0.84) and alcoholic patients (p = 0.91). Multivariate analysis showed that older age (OR 1.06, CI 95 % 1.02-1.1; p = 0.003) and male gender (OR 2.49, CI 95 % 1.24-5; p = 0.01) were independent risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in HCV patients. In summary, the current study did not find a significant association between IL28B rs12979860 polymorphism and hepatocarcinogenesis.

  16. [Contribution to determination of hepatitis C virus genotypes in Black Sea region: data from single high volume center in Zonguldak, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Tarık; Aynıoğlu, Aynur; Dındar, Gökhan; Babür, Taner

    2014-07-01

    We've read with great interest the article entitled "Determination of hepatitis C virus genotypes among hepatitis C patients in Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey" by Buruk et al. published in Mikrobiyol Bul 2013; 47(4): 650-7. In that study, the authors described the determination and distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in Eastern Black Sea Region comprehensively. According to the current information, the determination of HCV genotypes is the most important factor for the management of therapy and virus-related complications, such as chirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The distribution of HCV genotypes varies geographically throughout the world. Therefore every country and even each region within the country should know the distribution of HCV genotypes to determine the appropriate treatment strategy. Herein we would like to contribute the data about distribution of HCV genotypes in whole Black Sea Region by presenting our current results obtained from Zonguldak province, where maximum number of chronic hepatit C patients have already been identified in Eastern Black Sea Region. A total of 53 chronic hepatitis C patients (26 female, 27 male; mean age: 57.1 ± 14.3, age range: 21-82 years) who were admitted to Zonguldak Ataturk State Hospital between January 2012-December 2013 were evaluated. Genotype analysis was performed by RealTime HCV Genotype II (Abbott Molecular, ABD) system. Genotype-1 was found to be the most frequently detected type with a rate of 96.2% (51/53). The prevalences of genotype-2 (1/53) and genotype-4 (1/53) were same, with a rate of 1.9%, in our study. Subtyping of genotype-1 strains yielded 52.9% (27/51) genotype-1b, 3.9% genotype-1a (2/51) and 47% untypeable genotype-1 (24/51). The present study was the second study from the Western Black Sea Region in our country, regarding HCV genotypes. In conclusion, considering entire Black Sea Region, genotype-1 is the most common genotype (96.2%), and 1b (52.9%) is the most common

  17. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) status in newborns born to HCV positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A low risk of HCV vertical transmission has been reported especially in those born to women with viraemia. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) being an assisted reproduction technique includes procedures that may increase risk of transmission. Objective: To determine the rate of vertical transmission of ...

  18. Modeling HCV Disease in Animals: Virology, Immunology and Pathogenesis of HCV and GBV-B Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordelia eManickam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has become a global public health burden costing billions of dollars in health care annually. Even with rapidly advancing scientific technologies, this disease still looms large due to a lack of vaccines and affordable treatment options. The immune correlates of protection and predisposing factors towards chronicity remain major obstacles to development of HCV vaccines and immunotherapeutics due, at least in part, to lack of a tangible infection animal model. This review discusses the currently available animal models for HCV disease, with a primary focus on GB virus B (GBV-B infection of New World primates that recapitulates the dual hepacivirus phenotypes of acute viral clearance and chronic pathologic disease. HCV and GBV-B are also closely phylogenetically related, and advances in characterization of the immune systems of New World primates have already led to the use of this model for drug testing and vaccine trials. Herein, we discuss the benefits and caveats of the GBV-B infection model and discuss potential avenues for future development of novel vaccines and immunotherapies.

  19. Health Beliefs and Co-morbidities Associated with Appointment-Keeping Behavior Among HCV and HIV/HCV Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundhir, Pooja; North, Carol S; Fatunde, Oluwatomilade; Jain, Mamta K

    2016-02-01

    Appointment-keeping behavior is an important requisite for HCV linkage and treatment initiation. In this study we examine what impact hepatitis C (HCV) knowledge and attitudes has on appointment-keeping behavior among a cohort of HCV and HCV/HIV patients. Knowledge scores and attitude scales, obtained from a cross-sectional survey, were correlated with proportion of appointments kept 1 year prior to taking the survey. Independent risk factors for missing appointments were examined by multiple regression analysis. 292 HCV patients completed the survey, and 149 (51%) were co-infected with HIV. HCV patients kept 67.5 ± 17.4% of their total appointments and a similar proportion (67 ± 38.2) of Liver Clinic appointments, but they attended a higher proportion (73 ± 24.4) of Primary Care Clinic appointments. However, certain health beliefs, psychiatric illness, and HIV co-infection were independently associated with lower levels of appointment-keeping behavior. HCV knowledge was not associated with appointment-keeping behavior. Health beliefs, psychiatric illness, and HIV co-infection are associated with missing appointments, but no link between knowledge and appointment keeping behavior is apparent. In order to increase engagement into HCV care, HCV care coordination programs need to focus on addressing health beliefs and providing resources to those at highest risk for missing appointments.

  20. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody dynamics following acute HCV infection and reinfection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhommerig, Joost W.; Thomas, Xiomara V.; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Geskus, Ronald B.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Molenkamp, Richard; Prins, Maria; Schinkel, Janke; Arends, J.; van Baarle, D.; van den Berk, G.; Brinkman, K.; Coutinho, R.; van den Ende, M.; Grady, B.; Gras, L.; Ho, C.; Kwa, D.; van de Laar, T.; Lambers, F.; Mulder, J.; Reesink, H.; Smit, C.; van der Valk, M.; van der Veldt, W.; Karlas, J.; Bakker, M.; Visser, G.; Buswell, C.

    2014-01-01

    A decline of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody titers (anti-HCV), ultimately resulting in seroreversion, has been reported following clearance of viremia in both acute and chronic HCV infection. However, frequency of seroreversion remains unknown in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected

  1. New Automated Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Core Antigen Assay as an Alternative to Real-Time PCR for HCV RNA Quantification▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yongjung; Lee, Jong-Han; Kim, Beom Seok; Kim, Do Young; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2010-01-01

    An automated hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigen (Ag) assay was evaluated with clinical samples. Determination of HCV Ag and RNA levels in 282 subjects using Abbott HCV Ag and Roche Cobas TaqMan assays revealed that these two tests were highly correlated (r = 0.9464). Thus, the HCV Ag assay could be an alternative test to quantitative reverse transcription-PCR.

  2. Prevalence and follow-up of occult HCV infection in an Italian population free of clinically detectable infectious liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Marco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis C virus infection (OCI is a recently described phenomenon characterized by undetectable levels of HCV-RNA in serum/plasma by current laboratory assays, with identifiable levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and/or liver tissue by molecular tests with enhanced sensitivity. Previous results from our group showed an OCI prevalence of 3.3% in a population unselected for hepatic disease. The present study aimed to evaluate OCI prevalence in a larger cohort of infectious liver disease-free (ILDF subjects. Clinical follow-up of OCI subjects was performed to investigate the natural history of the infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 439 subjects referred to a Turin Blood Bank for phlebotomy therapy were recruited. They included 314 ILDF subjects, 40 HCV-positive subjects and 85 HBV-positive subjects, of whom 7 were active HBV carriers. Six subjects (4/314 ILDF subjects [1.27%] and 2/7 active HBV carriers [28%] were positive for HCV-RNA in PBMCs, but negative for serological and virological markers of HCV, indicating OCI. HCV genotypes were determined in the PBMCs of 3/6 OCI subjects two had type 1b; the other had type 2a/2c. OCI subjects were followed up for at least 2 years. After 12 months only one OCI persisted, showing a low HCV viral load (3.73×10(1 UI/ml. By the end of follow-up all OCI subjects were negative for HCV. No seroconversion, alteration of liver enzyme levels, or reduction of liver synthesis occurred during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the existence of OCI in ILDF subjects, and suggested a high OCI prevalence among active HBV carriers. Follow-up suggested that OCI could be transient, with a trend toward the decrease of HCV viral load to levels undetectable by conventional methods after 12-18 months. Confirmation studies with a longer follow-up period are needed for identification of the OCI clearance or recurrence rates, and to characterize the viruses involved.

  3. HCV IRES-mediated core expression in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhao

    Full Text Available The lack of small animal models for hepatitis C virus has impeded the discovery and development of anti-HCV drugs. HCV-IRES plays an important role in HCV gene expression, and is an attractive target for antiviral therapy. In this study, we report a zebrafish model with a biscistron expression construct that can co-transcribe GFP and HCV-core genes by human hepatic lipase promoter and zebrafish liver fatty acid binding protein enhancer. HCV core translation was designed mediated by HCV-IRES sequence and gfp was by a canonical cap-dependent mechanism. Results of fluorescence image and in situ hybridization indicate that expression of HCV core and GFP is liver-specific; RT-PCR and Western blotting show that both core and gfp expression are elevated in a time-dependent manner for both transcription and translation. It means that the HCV-IRES exerted its role in this zebrafish model. Furthermore, the liver-pathological impact associated with HCV-infection was detected by examination of gene markers and some of them were elevated, such as adiponectin receptor, heparanase, TGF-β, PDGF-α, etc. The model was used to evaluate three clinical drugs, ribavirin, IFNα-2b and vitamin B12. The results show that vitamin B12 inhibited core expression in mRNA and protein levels in dose-dependent manner, but failed to impact gfp expression. Also VB12 down-regulated some gene transcriptions involved in fat liver, liver fibrosis and HCV-associated pathological process in the larvae. It reveals that HCV-IRES responds to vitamin B12 sensitively in the zebrafish model. Ribavirin did not disturb core expression, hinting that HCV-IRES is not a target site of ribavirin. IFNα-2b was not active, which maybe resulted from its degradation in vivo for the long time. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of the zebrafish model for screening of anti-HCV drugs targeting to HCV-IRES. The zebrafish system provides a novel evidence of using zebrafish as a HCV model organism.

  4. Neutralizing antibodies in patients with chronic hepatitis C, genotype 1, against a panel of genotype 1 culture viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jannie; Jensen, Tanja B; Carlsen, Thomas H R

    2013-01-01

    , infection treated with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin. Thirty-nine patients with chronic hepatitis C, genotype 1a or 1b, with either sustained virologic response (n = 23) or non-sustained virologic response (n = 16) were enrolled. Samples taken prior to treatment were tested for their ability...... to neutralize 6 different HCV genotype 1 cell culture recombinants (1a: H77/JFH1, TN/JFH1, DH6/JFH1; 1b: J4/JFH1, DH1/JFH1, DH5/JFH1). The results were expressed as the highest dilution yielding 50% neutralization (NAb50-titer). We observed no genotype or subtype specific differences in NAb50-titers between......The correlation of neutralizing antibodies to treatment outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether neutralizing antibodies could be used as an outcome predictor in patients with chronic HCV, genotype 1...

  5. Genetics of Schizophrenia: Historical Insights and Prevailing Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Leemput, J; Hess, J L; Glatt, S J; Tsuang, M T

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia's (SZ's) heritability and familial transmission have been known for several decades; however, despite the clear evidence for a genetic component, it has been very difficult to pinpoint specific causative genes. Even so genetic studies have taught us a lot, even in the pregenomic era, about the molecular underpinnings and disease-relevant pathways. Recurring themes emerged revealing the involvement of neurodevelopmental processes, glutamate regulation, and immune system differential activation in SZ etiology. The recent emergence of epigenetic studies aimed at shedding light on the biological mechanisms underlying SZ has provided another layer of information in the investigation of gene and environment interactions. However, this epigenetic insight also brings forth another layer of complexity to the (epi)genomic landscape such as interactions between genetic variants, epigenetic marks-including cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone modification processes-, gene expression regulation, and environmental influences. In this review, we seek to synthesize perspectives, including limitations and obstacles yet to overcome, from genetic and epigenetic literature on SZ through a qualitative review of risk factors and prevailing hypotheses. Encouraged by the findings of both genetic and epigenetic studies to date, as well as the continued development of new technologies to collect and interpret large-scale studies, we are left with a positive outlook for the future of elucidating the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying SZ and other complex neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Familiar units prevail over statistical cues in word segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Perruchet, Pierre; Tillmann, Barbara; Peereman, Ronald

    2017-09-01

    In language acquisition research, the prevailing position is that listeners exploit statistical cues, in particular transitional probabilities between syllables, to discover words of a language. However, other cues are also involved in word discovery. Assessing the weight learners give to these different cues leads to a better understanding of the processes underlying speech segmentation. The present study evaluated whether adult learners preferentially used known units or statistical cues for segmenting continuous speech. Before the exposure phase, participants were familiarized with part-words of a three-word artificial language. This design allowed the dissociation of the influence of statistical cues and familiar units, with statistical cues favoring word segmentation and familiar units favoring (nonoptimal) part-word segmentation. In Experiment 1, performance in a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) task between words and part-words revealed part-word segmentation (even though part-words were less cohesive in terms of transitional probabilities and less frequent than words). By contrast, an unfamiliarized group exhibited word segmentation, as usually observed in standard conditions. Experiment 2 used a syllable-detection task to remove the likely contamination of performance by memory and strategy effects in the 2AFC task. Overall, the results suggest that familiar units overrode statistical cues, ultimately questioning the need for computation mechanisms of transitional probabilities (TPs) in natural language speech segmentation.

  7. Hepatitis C virus genotypes: A plausible association with viral loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Ghulam Nabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The basic aim of this study was to find out the association of genotypes with host age, gender and viral load. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted at Social Security Hospital, Pakistan. This study included 320 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection who were referred to the hospital between November 2011 and July 2012. HCV viral detection and genotyping was performed and the association was seen between genotypes and host age, gender and viral load. Results : The analysis revealed the presence of genotypes 1 and 3 with further subtypes 1a, 1b, 3a, 3b and mixed genotypes 1b + 3a, 1b + 3b and 3a + 3b. Viral load quantification was carried out in all 151 HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA positive patients. The genotype 3a was observed in 124 (82.12% patients, 3b was found in 21 (13.91%, 1a was seen in 2 (1.32%, 1b in 1 (0.66%, mixed infection with 1b + 3a in 1 (0.66%, 1b + 3b in 1 (0.66% and 3a + 3b was also found in 1 (0.66% patient. Viral load quantification was carried out in all 151 HCV RNA positive patients and was compared between the various genotypes. The mean viral load in patients infected with genotype 1a was 2.75 × 10 6 , 1b 3.9 × 10 6 , 3a 2.65 × 10 6 , 3b 2.51 × 10 6 , 1b + 3a 3.4 × 106, 1b + 3b 2.7 × 106 and 3a + 3b 3.5 × 10 6 . An association between different types of genotypes and viral load was observed. Conclusion : Further studies should be carried out to determine the association of viral load with different genotypes so that sufficient data is available and can be used to determine the type and duration of therapy needed and predict disease outcome.

  8. Seroprevalence, genotypic distribution and potential risk factors of hepatitis B and C virus infections among adults in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroko; Fujimoto, Mayumi; Svay, Somana; Lim, Olline; Hok, Sirany; Goto, Noboru; Ohisa, Masayuki; Akita, Tomoyuki; Matsuo, Junko; Do, Son Huy; Katayama, Keiko; Miyakawa, Yuzo; Tanaka, Junko

    2015-04-01

    We investigated hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among adults in Siem Reap, Cambodia, to consider the prevention strategy in cooperation with the Ministry of Health in Cambodia. Serological tests for determining HBV and HCV infections and questionnaires were performed from 2010 to 2012 among the general population in the province of Siem Reap. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to clarify the factors related to HBV and HCV infections. There were 483 participants, comprising 194 men and 289 women (age range, 18-89 years). The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen was not very high at 4.6%, while anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) was high at 38.5%. All HBV DNA samples were classified as genotype C. Anti-HBc showed the trend that the older the age, the higher the positive rate (P = 0.0002). The prevalence of HCV RNA and anti-HCV were 2.3% and 5.8%, respectively. HCV RNA was detected in 39.3% of anti-HCV positive samples and most of them were classified as genotype 6 (54.5%) and 1 (27.3%). Remarkably, in multivariate logistic regression analysis, history of operation and blood transfusion were significantly associated with the positivity for HBV infection and HCV RNA, respectively. Our results showed that operation and blood transfusion were potential risk factors for HBV and HCV infection, respectively, and supposed that horizontal HBV transmission may be frequent in adults in Cambodia. Hence, for reducing HBV and HCV infections, it is necessary to improve the safety of blood and medical treatment. © 2014 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  9. HCV-related liver cancer in people with haemophilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, K.; Haagsma, E. B.

    . The topic of this monograph is liver cancer associated with chronic HCV infection. We start with some background information on chronic HCV infection and its long-term sequelae, one of which is liver cancer. The rest of the article is concerned with liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

  10. HCV and HBV infections in Nigerian Patients with Liver Cirrhosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HBV) infection in Nigerians with chronic liver disease, the role of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has not been fully elucidated. The present study is aimed at determining the incidence of HCV and HBV infections in Nigerian patients with Liver ...

  11. Evaluation of serum angiopoietin-II in HCV related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hoda A. Abd-El-Moety

    2011-08-30

    Aug 30, 2011 ... The mechanism of stimulation of VEGF by HCV infection is through the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor 1o. Table 5 Comparison of distribution of rheumatoid factor, complement 3, cryoglobulins and values of urinary albumin creatinine ratio between the two groups of chronic HCV patients. Group I.

  12. Transfusion Related Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection in Sickle Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine retrospectively, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in relation to a background history of blood transfusion; through anti HCV antibody screening test, amongst adult sickle cell disease patients. Anti HCV antibody was tested for in the serum of 92 consecutively selected ...

  13. Socioeconomic status in HCV infected patients – risk and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Osler, Merete; Jepsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or a prognostic factor following infection.......It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or a prognostic factor following infection....

  14. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Co-infection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is rare in people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) but where it occurs, it causes treatment dilemma. Many people with HIV are unaware that they may also be infected with HCV; but due to shared routes of transmission it happens. Coinfection with this virus ...

  15. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) antibodies in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health concern. The aim of this study was to ascertain the seroprevalence and risk factors of HCV antibodies among pregnant women in Anyigba, Kogi State North Central Nigeria. Materials and methods:Blood samples (5mls) were collected from one hundred ...

  16. Correlation between alanine aminotransferase level, HCV-RNA titer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reham Al Swaff

    2012-04-04

    Apr 4, 2012 ... Abstract The relationship of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level and viral replication to liver damage in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the stage of fibrosis correlates with HCV-. RNA titer and/or serum ALT level in ...

  17. HCV RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been found to infect peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), using them as a reservoir, which might contribute to the development of resistance to treatment. Objectives: To study hepatitis virus C (HCV) RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with ...

  18. HCV RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdel Fatah Fahmy Hanno

    2013-06-27

    Jun 27, 2013 ... Abstract Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been found to infect peripheral blood mono- nuclear cells (PBMCs), using them as a reservoir, which might contribute to the development of resistance to treatment. Objectives: To study hepatitis virus C (HCV) RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  19. Treatment of HCV Infection by Targeting MicroRNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Harry L. A.; Reesink, Hendrik W.; Lawitz, Eric J.; Zeuzem, Stefan; Rodriguez-Torres, Maribel; Patel, Keyur; van der Meer, Adriaan J.; Patick, Amy K.; Chen, Alice; Zhou, Yi; Persson, Robert; King, Barney D.; Kauppinen, Sakari; Levin, Arthur A.; Hodges, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The stability and propagation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is dependent on a functional interaction between the HCV genome and liver-expressed microRNA-122 (miR-122). Miravirsen is a locked nucleic acid-modified DNA phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide that sequesters mature miR-122

  20. Expression of chimeric HCV peptide in transgenic tobacco plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression of chimeric HCV peptide in transgenic tobacco plants infected with recombinant alfalfa mosaic virus for development of a plant-derived vaccine against HCV. AK El Attar, AM Shamloul, AA Shalaby, BY Riad, A Saad, HM Mazyad, JM Keith ...

  1. Lymphocytes and liver fibrosis in HIV & HCV coinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feuth, M.

    2014-01-01

    Coinfection with HIV has an important impact on immunity against hepatitis C virus (HCV). In the present dissertation, phenotypes of lymphocytes derived from the peripheral blood of HCV-infected patients were studied into detail, with special attention to changes in phenotype of lymphocytes

  2. An overview of HCV molecular biology, replication and immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz Zafar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV causes acute and chronic hepatitis which can eventually lead to permanent liver damage, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. Currently, there is no vaccine available for prevention of HCV infection due to high degree of strain variation. The current treatment of care, Pegylated interferon α in combination with ribavirin is costly, has significant side effects and fails to cure about half of all infections. In this review, we summarize molecular virology, replication and immune responses against HCV and discussed how HCV escape from adaptive and humoral immune responses. This advance knowledge will be helpful for development of vaccine against HCV and discovery of new medicines both from synthetic chemistry and natural sources.

  3. Addressing HCV infection in Europe: reported, estimated and undiagnosed cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkinaite, Simona; Lazarus, Jeff; Gore, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem due to its high prevalence, high rate of onward transmission and health complications. As many as 85% of people infected with HCV may go on to become chronic carriers of the disease with the risk of developing liver cancer or cirrhosis....... At present, it is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and liver transplantation in a number of countries, with an estimated 250,000 people dying annually from HCV-related causes. Despite the magnitude of the problem, the virus does not receive adequate attention from either the general public...... or from health policy-makers. This study assesses HCV prevalence from both estimated totals and undiagnosed cases in selected European countries. Secondary sources were assessed and experts in 17 European countries were interviewed about HCV prevalence, reporting strategies and transmission. Available...

  4. Impact of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1b Infection on Triglyceride Concentration in Serum Lipoprotein Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohisa Nagano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol level is a characteristic feature of dyslipidemia in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. However, abnormality in serum triglyceride (TG has not been fully investigated. To clarify the impact of HCV genotype 1b (G1b infection and advanced fibrosis on serum TG profiles, TG concentrations in lipoprotein fractions were examined in fasting sera from 185 subjects with active or cleared HCV infection by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum lipoproteins were fractionated into four classes: chylomicron, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, LDL, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Then, the significance of HCV G1b infection on TG levels in each lipoprotein fraction was determined using multiple regression models. We found that active HCV G1b infection was positively associated with high HDL-TG levels and low VLDL-TG levels, independent of other factors included in the regression model. In VLDL sub-fractions, active HCV infection was only found to be associated with low levels of large VLDL-TG. Similarly, advanced liver fibrosis in chronic HCV G1b infection was associated with high levels of LDL-TG, HDL-TG, and small VLDL-TG, independent of other clinical factors. These findings indicate that active HCV G1b infection and advanced fibrosis are closely associated with abnormal serum TG profiles.

  5. Intra-host evolution of multiple genotypes of hepatitis C virus in a chronically infected patient with HIV along a 13-year follow-up period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culasso, A C A; Baré, P; Aloisi, N; Monzani, M C; Corti, M; Campos, R H

    2014-01-20

    The intra-host evolutionary process of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was analyzed by phylogenetic and coalescent methodologies in a patient co-infected with HCV-1a, HCV-2a, HCV-3a and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) along a 13-year period. Direct sequence analysis of the E2 and NS5A regions showed diverse evolutionary dynamics, in agreement with different relationships between these regions and the host factors. The Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses of the E2 sequences (cloned) yielded different intra-host evolutionary patterns for each genotype: a steady state of a "consensus" sequence for HCV-1a; a pattern of lineage splitting and extinction for HCV-2a; and a two-phase (drift/diversification) process for HCV-3a. Each genotype evolving in the same patient and at the same time presents a different pattern apparently modulated by the immune pressure of the host. This study provides useful information for the management of co-infected patients and provides insights into the mechanisms behind the intra-host evolution of HCV. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. microRNA-122 abundance in hepatocellular carcinoma and non-tumor liver tissue from Japanese patients with persistent HCV versus HBV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Spaniel

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of hepatic carcinogenesis in chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C are incompletely defined but often assumed to be similar and related to immune-mediated inflammation. Despite this, several studies hint at differences in expression of miR-122, a liver-specific microRNA with tumor suppressor properties, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV versus hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Differences in the expression of miR-122 in these cancers would be of interest, as miR-122 is an essential host factor for HCV but not HBV replication. To determine whether the abundance of miR-122 in cancer tissue is influenced by the nature of the underlying virus infection, we measured miR-122 by qRT-PCR in paired tumor and non-tumor tissues from cohorts of HBV- and HCV-infected Japanese patients. miR-122 abundance was significantly reduced from normal in HBV-associated HCC, but not in liver cancer associated with HCV infection. This difference was independent of the degree of differentiation of the liver cancer. Surprisingly, we also found significant differences in miR-122 expression in non-tumor tissue, with miR-122 abundance reduced from normal in HCV- but not HBV-infected liver. Similar differences were observed in HCV- vs. HBV-infected chimpanzees. Among HCV-infected Japanese subjects, reductions in miR-122 abundance in non-tumor tissue were associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism near the IL28B gene that predicts poor response to interferon-based therapy (TG vs. TT genotype at rs8099917, and correlated negatively with the abundance of multiple interferon-stimulated gene transcripts. Reduced levels of miR-122 in chronic hepatitis C thus appear to be associated with endogenous interferon responses to the virus, while differences in miR-122 expression in HCV- versus HBV-associated HCC likely reflect virus-specific mechanisms contributing to carcinogenesis. The continued expression of miR-122 in HCV

  7. HCV subtype characterization among injection drug users: implication for a crucial role of Zhenjiang in HCV transmission in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiyu Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HCV transmission is closely associated with drug-trafficking routes in China. However, the transmission route of HCV in Eastern China remains unclear. Here, we investigate the role of Zhenjiang city of Jiangsu province, an important transportation hub linking Shanghai with other regions of China, in HCV transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 141 whole blood samples were collected from injection drug users (IDUs in Zhenjiang and then tested for HCV infection. Of them, 115 HCV positive plasmas were subjected to RNA extraction, RT-PCR amplification, and sequencing. The subtype characterization and the evolutionary origin of HCV strains circulating in Zhenjiang were determined using polygenetic or phylogeographic analyses. Seven HCV subtypes 1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6e and 6n were detected among Zhenjiang IDUs, showing a complex HCV epidemic. The most predominant subtypes were 3a (38% and 1b (26.8%. Among these subtypes, subtypes 3b, 6n and 6e originated from Southwestern China (i.e., Yunnan and/or Guangxi, subtypes 2a and 6a from Southern China (i.e., Guangdong, subtype 1b from Central (i.e., Henan and Northwestern (i.e., Xinjiang China, and subtype 3a from Southwestern (i.e., Yunnan and Northwestern (i.e., Xinjiang China. From Zhenjiang, subtypes 1b and 2a were further spread to Eastern (i.e., Shanghai and Northern (i.e., Beijing China, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The mixing of seven HCV subtypes in Zhenjiang from all quarters of China indicates that as an important middle station, Zhenjiang plays a crucial role in HCV transmission, just as it is important in population migration between other regions of China and Eastern China.

  8. Differential in vitro effects of intravenous versus oral formulations of silibinin on the HCV life cycle and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Wagoner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Silymarin prevents liver disease in many experimental rodent models, and is the most popular botanical medicine consumed by patients with hepatitis C. Silibinin is a major component of silymarin, consisting of the flavonolignans silybin A and silybin B, which are insoluble in aqueous solution. A chemically modified and soluble version of silibinin, SIL, has been shown to potently reduce hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA levels in vivo when administered intravenously. Silymarin and silibinin inhibit HCV infection in cell culture by targeting multiple steps in the virus lifecycle. We tested the hepatoprotective profiles of SIL and silibinin in assays that measure antiviral and anti-inflammatory functions. Both mixtures inhibited fusion of HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp with fluorescent liposomes in a dose-dependent fashion. SIL inhibited 5 clinical genotype 1b isolates of NS5B RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp activity better than silibinin, with IC50 values of 40-85 µM. The enhanced activity of SIL may have been in part due to inhibition of NS5B binding to RNA templates. However, inhibition of the RdRps by both mixtures plateaued at 43-73%, suggesting that the products are poor overall inhibitors of RdRp. Silibinin did not inhibit HCV replication in subgenomic genotype 1b or 2a replicon cell lines, but it did inhibit JFH-1 infection. In contrast, SIL inhibited 1b but not 2a subgenomic replicons and also inhibited JFH-1 infection. Both mixtures inhibited production of progeny virus particles. Silibinin but not SIL inhibited NF-κB- and IFN-B-dependent transcription in Huh7 cells. However, both mixtures inhibited T cell proliferation to similar degrees. These data underscore the differences and similarities between the intravenous and oral formulations of silibinin, which could influence the clinical effects of this mixture on patients with chronic liver diseases.

  9. Identification of Variants of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Entry Factors in Patients Highly Exposed to HCV but Remaining Uninfected: An ANRS Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste Fouquet

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV causes persistent infection in 75% of cases and is a major public health problem worldwide. More than 92% of intravenous drug users (IDU infected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 are seropositive for HCV, and it is conceivable that some HIV-1-infected IDU who remain uninfected by HCV may be genetically resistant.Here we conducted a case-control study to identify mutations in HCV entry coreceptors in HIV-infected IDU who remained uninfected by HCV. We recruited 138 patients, comprising 22 HIV+ HCV- case IDU and 116 HIV+ HCV+ control IDU. We focused on coreceptors in which point mutations are known to abolish HCV infectivity in vitro. Our previous study of the Claudin-1 gene revealed no specific variants in the same case population. Here we performed direct genomic sequencing of the Claudin-6, Claudin-9, Occludin and Scavenger receptor-B1 (SCARB1 gene coding regions. Most HIV+ HCV- IDU had no mutations in HCV coreceptors. However, two HIV+ HCV- patients harbored a total of four specific mutations/variants of HCV entry factors that were not found in the HIV+ HCV+ controls. One case patient harbored heterozygous variants of both Claudin-6 and Occludin, and the other case patient harbored two heterozygous variants of SCARB1. This suggests that HCV resistance might involve complex genetic events and factors other than coreceptors, a situation similar to that reported for HIV-1 resistance.

  10. Therapeutic potential of Taraxacum officinale against HCV NS5B polymerase: In-vitro and In silico study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Sidra; Ijaz, Bushra; Fatima, Nighat; Muhammad, Syed Aun; Riazuddin, Sheikh

    2016-10-01

    Discovery of alternative and complementary regimens for HCV infection treatment is a need of time from clinical as well as economical point of views. Low cost of bioactive natural compounds production, high biochemical diversity and inexistent/milder side effects contribute to new therapies. Aim of this study is to clarify anti-HCV role of Taraxacum officinale, a natural habitat plant rich of flavonoids. In this study, methanol extract of T. officinale leaves was initially analyzed for its cytotoxic activity in human hepatoma (Huh-7) and CHO cell lines. Hepatoma cells were transfected with pCR3.1/Flagtag/HCV NS5B gene cloned vector (genotype 1a) along with T. officinale extract. Considering NS5B polymerase as potential therapeutic drug target, twelve phytochemicals of T. officinale were selected as ligands for molecular interaction with NS5B protein using Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) software. Sofosbuvir (Sovaldi: brand name) currently approved as new anti-HCV drug, was used as standard in current study for comparative analysis in computational docking screening. HCV NS5B polymerase as name indicates plays key role in viral genome replication. On the basis of which NS5B gene is targeted for determining antiviral role of T. officinale extract and 65% inhibition of NS5B expression was documented at nontoxic dose concentration (200μg/ml) using Real-time PCR. In addition, 57% inhibition of HCV replication was recorded when incubating Huh-7 cells with high titer serum of HCV infected patients along with leaves extract. Phytochemicals for instance d-glucopyranoside (-31.212 Kcal/mol), Quercetin (-29.222 Kcal/mol), Luteolin (-26.941 Kcal/mol) and some others displayed least binding energies as compared to standard drug Sofosbuvir (-21.0746 Kcal/mol). Results of our study strongly revealed that T. officinale leaves extract potentially blocked the viral replication and NS5B gene expression without posing any toxic effect on normal fibroblast cells of body

  11. HCV treatment initiation in persons with chronic kidney disease in the directly acting antiviral agents era: Results from ERCHIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Adeel A; Ren, Yanjie; Puenpatom, Amy; Arduino, Jean-Marie; Kumar, Ritesh; Abou-Samra, Abdul-Badi

    2017-12-22

    Newer direct acting antiviral agents against HCV (DAAs) are safe and efficacious in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Whether approval of newer DAAs has resulted in more persons with CKD initiating HCV treatment remains unknown. We identified HCV+ persons in ERCHIVES between October 1999 and July 2016. We excluded HIV+ and HBsAg+ and those with missing baseline HCV RNA and baseline eGFR data. We identified persons initiated on any approved DAA-regimen through July 2016, by CKD stage. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with treatment initiation. Among 83 706 evaluable persons, 21.1% initiated treatment. Rates differed significantly by CKD stage: 22.1% for eGFR>90 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and CKD stage-2; 14.9% for CKD stage 3; and 8.0% for CKD stage-4/5. Those with CKD stage-3 were 33% less likely and those with CKD stage-4/5 were 60% less likely to initiate treatment with a DAA compared with those with baseline eGFR>90 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Treatment initiation was less likely in HCV genotype 2 (OR 0.59; 95%CI 0.53,0.66) or 3 (OR 0.53; 95%CI 0.47,0.61) and those with diabetes (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.81,0.94), cardiovascular disease (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.70,0.84), alcohol abuse or dependence (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.70,0.79) or cirrhosis (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.80,0.92) at baseline. Persons with more advanced CKD are less likely to receive treatment for HCV despite recent data on safety and efficacy. Strategies are needed to improve treatment rates in the HCV/CKD population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in HCV transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Bradford, Blair U. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Boorman, Gary A. [Covance, Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States); Chatterjee, Saurabh; Mason, Ronald P. [Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, RTP, NC 27713 (United States); Melnyk, Stepan B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72201 (United States); Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribny, Igor P. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan, E-mail: iir@unc.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. -- Highlights: ► Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is a significant clinical challenge. ► HCV-infected subjects may be at higher risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. ► We used HCV transgenics to test if liver injury due to acetaminophen is exacerbated.

  13. Analysis of hepatitis C virus core/NS5A protein co-localization using novel cell culture systems expressing core-NS2 and NS5A of genotypes 1-7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, Andrea; Scheel, Troels K H; Prentoe, Jannick C

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen infecting hepatocytes. With the advent of infectious cell culture systems, the HCV particle assembly and release processes are finally being uncovered. The HCV core and NS5A proteins co-localize on cytoplasmic lipid droplets (cLDs) or on the ......Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen infecting hepatocytes. With the advent of infectious cell culture systems, the HCV particle assembly and release processes are finally being uncovered. The HCV core and NS5A proteins co-localize on cytoplasmic lipid droplets (c......LDs) or on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) at different stages of particle assembly. Current knowledge on assembly and release is primarily based on studies in genotype 2a cell culture systems; however, given the high genetic heterogeneity of HCV, variations might exist among genotypes. Here, we developed novel HCV strain...... JFH1-based recombinants expressing core-NS2 and NS5A from genotypes 1-7, and analysed core and NS5A co-localization in infected cells. Huh7.5 cells were transfected with RNA of core-NS2/NS5A recombinants and putative adaptive mutations were analysed by reverse genetics. Adapted core-NS2/NS5A...

  14. Interactive Effects of Immunoglobulin Gamma and Human Leucocyte Antigen Genotypes on Response to Interferon Based Therapy of Hepatitis C Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Howayda E; Mahmoud, Mohamed; Saad, Nevine E; Hussein, Amal S; Ismail, Somaia; Thabet, Eman H; Farouk, Hebatallah; Kandil, Dina; Heiba, Ahmed; Hafez, Wael

    2015-06-15

    We examined the role that immunoglobulin GM 23 and KM allotypes-genetic markers of γ and κ chains, respectively-play in response to treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Egyptian patients. A total of 120 persons who had responded to HCV treatment and 125 with persistent HCV infection were genotyped for the presence of GM23 and KM determinants. HLA -C genotyping was also done. Association of GM 23+ and KM3 was significantly associated with non response to treatment (P combinations of HLA and GM genotypes were associated significantly with the response to HCV treatment. The combination of HLAC2C2 and GM23+ was associated with persistence of infection (P = 0.027) while the association of HLAC2C2 and heterozygous GM23+/- was associated with SVR (P = 0.001). The association of HLAC1C1 and heterozygous GM23+/- was significantly associated with SVR (P = 0.001) and also subjects with HLA C1/C2 and heterozygous GM23+/- were likely to respond to treatment (P = 0.003) while subjects with HLA C1/C2 and GM23+ show tendency to resist to treatment (P = 0.0001). Our results didn't support a role for KM allotypes, GM23 allotype plays a role in the persistence of HCV infection in the presence or absence of KM1,3. Interaction between certain GM and HLA-C genotypes may favor adequate response to interferon based therapies.

  15. The Usefulness of Anti-HCV Signal to Cut-off Ratio in Predicting Viremia in Anti-HCV in Patients With Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjbar Kermani, Fahimeh; Sharifi, Zohreh; Ferdowsian, Fereshteh; Paz, Zahrah; Tavassoli, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is diagnosed by antibody and RNA based methods. Patients with anti-HCV sample rate/cutoff rate (S/CO) ratios > 1 are reported as anti-HCV positive. RNA based methods are introduced to confirm positivity in seropositive samples. Objectives: The current study aimed to assess relationship between S/CO rates and HCV-RNA levels in the laboratory to identify HCV viremia in patients with a positive anti-HCV. Patients and Methods: All serum samples were a...

  16. Cloned genome of infectious hepatitis C virus of genotype 2A and uses thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention discloses nucleic acid sequence which encodes infectious hepatitis C virus of strain HC-J6.sub.CH, genotype 2a, and the use of the sequence, and polypeptides encoded by all or part of the sequence, in the development of vaccines and diagnostics for HCV and in the development...

  17. Prevalence of hePatitis c virus and its genotyPes among a cohort of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-07-07

    Jul 7, 2008 ... Background: Prevalence of hepatitis c virus and that of its main genotypes varies between the worlds geographic regions. the risk factors ... into chronic hepatitis. the virus cannot be cultured in vitro and this has hampered ..... including alcoholism and others. infection rates with Hcv and Hiv were high among ...

  18. Infectious hepatitis C viruses of genotype 3A and 4A and uses thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    (strain S52) or genotype 4a (strain ED43). The invention therefore relates to the use of the nucleic acid sequences and polypeptides encoded by all or part of the sequences in the development of vaccines and diagnostic assays for HCV and in the development of screening assays for the identification...

  19. Interleukin 28B Gene Variation at rs12979860 Determines Early Viral Kinetics During Treatment in Patients Carrying Genotypes 2 or 3 of Hepatitis C Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindh, Magnus; Lagging, Martin; Färkkilä, Martti

    2011-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms upstream of the interleukin 28B (interferon λ3) gene (IL28B) strongly influence treatment efficacy in patients carrying hepatitis C virus (HCV) of genotype 1. In patients receiving 12 or 24 weeks of interferon-ribavirin therapy for infection with genotype 2 or 3 (n...

  20. Outcome of HCV/HIV-coinfected liver transplant recipients: a prospective and multicenter cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miro, J.M.; Montejo, M.; Castells, L.; Rafecas, A.; Moreno, S.; Aguero, F.; Abradelo, M.; Miralles, P.; Torre-Cisneros, J.; Pedreira, J.D.; Cordero, E.; Rosa, G. De; Moyano, B.; Moreno, A.; Perez, I.; Rimola, A.; Barrera, P.; et al.,

    2012-01-01

    Eighty-four HCV/HIV-coinfected and 252-matched HCV-monoinfected liver transplant recipients were included in a prospective multicenter study. Thirty-six (43%) HCV/HIV-coinfected and 75 (30%) HCV-monoinfected patients died, with a survival rate at 5 years of 54% (95% CI, 42-64) and 71% (95% CI, 66 to

  1. Frequent HCV reinfection and superinfection in a cohort of injecting drug users in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, Thijs J. W.; Molenkamp, Richard; van den Berg, Charlotte; Schinkel, Janke; Beld, Marcel G. H. M.; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims:This study investigates the occurrence of HCV reinfection and superinfection among HCV seroconverters participating in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies among drug users from 1985 through 2005. Methods: HCV seroconverters (n = 59) were tested for HCV RNA at five different time points: the

  2. Combination treatment with hepatitis C virus protease and NS5A inhibitors is effective against recombinant genotype 1a, 2a, and 3a viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottwein, Judith M; Jensen, Sanne B; Li, Yi-Ping

    2013-01-01

    -FL) recombinants relying only on the JFH1 NS3 helicase, NS5B, and the 3' untranslated region. With identified adaptive mutations, semi-FL recombinants of genotypes(isolates) 1a(TN) and 3a(S52) produced supernatant infectivity titers of ~4 log(10) focus-forming units/ml in Huh7.5 cells. Genotype 1a(TN) adaptive......With the development of directly acting antivirals, hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy entered a new era. However, rapid selection of resistance mutations necessitates combination therapy. To study combination therapy in infectious culture systems, we aimed at developing HCV semi-full-length (semi....... Inhibitors showed synergism at drug concentrations reported in vivo. In summary, semi-FL HCV recombinants, including the most advanced reported genotype 3a infectious culture system, permitted genotype-specific analysis of combination treatment in the context of the complete viral life cycle. Despite...

  3. HCV carriers with normal aminotransferase levels: “normal” does not always mean “healthy”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Puoti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Approximately 30% of patients with chronic HCV infection show persistently normal ALT levels (PNALT, and another 40% have minimally raised ALT values. Although formerly referred to as “healthy” or “asymptomatic” HCV carriers, it has now become clear that the majority of these patients have some degree of histological liver damage. Controversies still exist regarding the definition of “persistent” ALT normality, the virological and histological features of these subjects, and the natural history and optimal management of chronic hepatitis C (CHC with normal ALT. Most patients with normal ALT have histologically proven liver damage that may be significant (> F2 in up to 20% of patients, and might progress toward more severe degree of liver fibrosis. A significant proportion of patients (≥ 20% experiences periods of increased serum ALT (flare associated with disease progression. AIM OF THE STUDY The introduction of the new combination therapy of PEG-IFN plus ribavirin allowed response rates higher than 50%, with a favourable risk-benefit ratio also in patients with benign or slow progressive disease. Given the efficacy of the new treatments, which soon became the standard of care for CHC, it has been suggested that the issue of whether or not to treat subjects with PNALT should be re-evaluated. ALT levels may have less importance in deciding who should be treated. Many other factors might influence the decision to treat, such as the age of the patient, HCV genotype, liver histology, patient’s motivation, symptoms, extrahepatic manifestations, comorbid illness. The role of non-invasive tools for the assessment of liver fibrosis (transient hepatic elastography remains to be further validated.

  4. Pattern of hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes circulating in war-stricken Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: Review of published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Waheed; Nawab, Sadia; Nasim, Zeeshan; Khan, Abdul Haleem; Ahmad, Syed Ishfaq; Zahir, Fazli; Din, Israr Ud

    2017-11-01

    Infection due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in Pakistan. In the current review, pattern of HCV genotypes and subtypes in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province was ascertained in light of the available literature. After thorough analysis, genotype 3 (58.27%) was determined to be the leading HCV genotype, followed by genotypes 2 (12.39%), 1 (9.54%) and 4 (0.86%). The proportions of genotypes 5 and 6 were recorded as 0.09% and 0.22% respectively. Subtype wise, 3a accounted for 48.67%, followed by subtype 2a (10.91%), 3b (9.43%), 1a (5.84%), 1b (3.66%), 2b (1.45%) and genotype 4 with its undefined subtypes contributed a portion of 0.86%. The cumulative share of subtypes 1c, 2c, 3c, 5a and 6a was less than 1%. In 11.51% cases, the subtype was untypeable while in 7.17% cases mixed subtypes were recorded. Gender wise, proportions of most HCV subtypes were marginally higher among males as compared to females. On the basis of studied groups, 3a was pervasive among all groups except in intravenous drug users where 2a was the major HCV subtype. Similarly, based on various geographical locations (provincial divisions), subtype 3a revealed a ubiquitous distribution. Conclusively, HCV 3a persists to be the principal subtype across the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The considerable number of untypeable subtypes in most studies urges for an improved genotyping system on the basis of local sequence data and practice of sequencing for determination of underlying subtype in untypeable cases. Further, studies on identification of subtypes transmission pattern are imperative for assessment of transmission origin and reinforcement of efficient control strategies. In addition, the current review emphasizes the need of attention toward HCV risk groups and ignored southern side of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province for better holistic understanding of HCV genotype distribution pattern in the province. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University

  5. Determining major genotypes of hepatitis C virus among transplant recipients by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyznezhad, Roya; Behzadi, Mohammad Amin; Yaghobi, Ramin; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection still exists as a health concern among the transplant patients. Because of the severity of the disease, different responses to treatment, and side effects resulting from long therapeutic period, determination of genotypes and viral loads can help choose the best treatment protocols. This study aimed to determine the HCV genotypes and its distribution patterns among liver, kidney, and bone marrow recipient candidates across Iran, referred to Namazi Hospital, southern Iran. A total of 101 individuals, including 44 (43.6%) liver, 55 (54.5%) kidney, and 2 (2%) bone marrow recipient candidates, with ages ranging between 5 and 74 years (Mean ±SD: 46.53 ± 13.73 y) participated in this study. From those, whole blood sample were collected and anti-HCV antibodies, RNA detection, and genotyping were performed on plasma using commercial chromatographic immunoassay, TaqMan one-step real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and genotyping RT-PCR kits, respectively. The frequencies of anti-HCV antibodies, RNA, various genotypes, and the viral load were compared with respect to gender, age, and transplant recipient groups. Of 101 individuals, 47 (46.5%) were positive for anti-HCV antibodies and 34 (33.7%) for RNA with a significant difference (P < 0.05). RNA copy number ranged from 4.6 × 103 to 3.11 × 107 copies/mL, median: 2.92 × 106 copies/mL, with no statistical differences in all groups. Analyses revealed no significant differences between the frequencies of anti-HCV antibodies or RNA in different groups. The frequencies of the genotypes 1 (50%) and 3 (35.3%) were higher than those of the genotypes 2 (2.9%), 4 (2.9%), and undetermined one (8.8%). Genotype 1 was significantly more prevalent in liver transplant recipients, those older than 40 years, and male cases (P < 0.05). Considering the high frequency of genotypes 1 and 3 among the studied groups, it is suggested that before and after transplantation programs be improved to manage

  6. Development of a VLP-based HCV vaccine candidate

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Marina Isabel Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Biologia Molecular e Genética, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2016 The Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infects approximately 3% of the world population, being one of the major causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The development of safe, effective and affordable prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against HCV has become an important medical priority; however, there are many obstacles to its development. In recent years, strategies of viral ant...

  7. Unsolved Puzzles Surrounding HCV Immunity: Heterologous Immunity Adds Another Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Babita; Singh, Shakti; Gupta, Nancy; Li, Wen; Vedi, Satish; Kumar, Rakesh

    2017-07-27

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) afflicts 3% of the world's population and can lead to serious and late-stage liver diseases. Developing a vaccine for HCV is challenging because the correlates of protection are uncertain and traditional vaccine approaches do not work. Studies of natural immunity to HCV in humans have resulted in many enigmas. Human beings are not immunologically naïve because they are continually exposed to various environmental microbes and antigens, creating large populations of memory T cells. Heterologous immunity occurs when this pool of memory T cells cross-react against a new pathogen in an individual. Such heterologous immunity could influence the outcome when an individual is infected by a pathogen. We have recently made an unexpected finding that adenoviruses, a common environmental pathogen and an experimental vaccine vector, can induce robust cross-reactive immune responses against multiple antigens of HCV. Our unique finding of previously uncharacterized heterologous immunity against HCV opens new avenues to understand HCV pathogenesis and develop effective vaccines.

  8. Small molecule inhibitors of HCV replication from Pomegranate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B. Uma; Mullick, Ranajoy; Kumar, Anuj; Sudha, Govindarajan; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Das, Saumitra

    2014-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the causative agent of end-stage liver disease. Recent advances in the last decade in anti HCV treatment strategies have dramatically increased the viral clearance rate. However, several limitations are still associated, which warrant a great need of novel, safe and selective drugs against HCV infection. Towards this objective, we explored highly potent and selective small molecule inhibitors, the ellagitannins, from the crude extract of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit peel. The pure compounds, punicalagin, punicalin, and ellagic acid isolated from the extract specifically blocked the HCV NS3/4A protease activity in vitro. Structural analysis using computational approach also showed that ligand molecules interact with the catalytic and substrate binding residues of NS3/4A protease, leading to inhibition of the enzyme activity. Further, punicalagin and punicalin significantly reduced the HCV replication in cell culture system. More importantly, these compounds are well tolerated ex vivo and`no observed adverse effect level' (NOAEL) was established upto an acute dose of 5000 mg/kg in BALB/c mice. Additionally, pharmacokinetics study showed that the compounds are bioavailable. Taken together, our study provides a proof-of-concept approach for the potential use of antiviral and non-toxic principle ellagitannins from pomegranate in prevention and control of HCV induced complications.

  9. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus and genotype distribution in immigrants crossing to Europe from North and sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Mohamed A; El-Bouzedi, Abdallah; Ahmed, Mohamed O; Dau, Aghnyia A; Agnan, Mohamed M

    The association between the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and immigration is rarely studied, particularly for the immigrants crossing to the resettlement countries. Most of the published data are confined to those immigrants who were resident in European countries and rarely immigrated before they reach the final destination. Libya is a large country in North Africa with the longest coast of the Mediterranean Sea facing the European Union. It has been considered as the main transient station for African immigrants to Europe. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the prevalence of HCV in African immigrants gathered in Libya from different African countries on their way to Europe and (2) HCV genotype distribution in these immigrants and its correlation with different demographic factors. A total of 14 205 serum samples were collected in a 3-year period (2013-2015) from different immigrants from North and sub-Saharan Africa who resided in the African immigrant campus, Tripoli, Libya. The participants were interviewed, and relevant information was collected, including socio-demographic, ethnic, and geographic variables. Each serum sample was tested for anti-HCV antibody using ELISA. The genotypes were determined and assigned using a specific genotyping assay and correlated with demographic and potential risk factors of the recruited individuals. Of the immigrants studied, 1078 (7.6%) were positive for HCV. The prevalence of HCV infection ranged from 1.4% to 18.7%; it was higher among individuals arriving from Nile river (3.6-18.7%) of North Africa, followed by those who arrived from the West African region (2.1-14.1%), Horn of Africa (HOA, 6.8-9.9%), and Maghreb countries (1.4-2.7%). The relative risk factor attributable to gender variation was not significant (95% Cl: 0.8513-1.2381). Five genotypes were detected in 911 African immigrants. Genotypic analysis showed that the predominant HCV genotypes in this group were genotypes 4, 1, and 2 that

  10. Neutralizing antibodies in patients with chronic hepatitis C, genotype 1, against a panel of genotype 1 culture viruses: lack of correlation to treatment outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannie Pedersen

    Full Text Available The correlation of neutralizing antibodies to treatment outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether neutralizing antibodies could be used as an outcome predictor in patients with chronic HCV, genotype 1, infection treated with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin. Thirty-nine patients with chronic hepatitis C, genotype 1a or 1b, with either sustained virologic response (n = 23 or non-sustained virologic response (n = 16 were enrolled. Samples taken prior to treatment were tested for their ability to neutralize 6 different HCV genotype 1 cell culture recombinants (1a: H77/JFH1, TN/JFH1, DH6/JFH1; 1b: J4/JFH1, DH1/JFH1, DH5/JFH1. The results were expressed as the highest dilution yielding 50% neutralization (NAb50-titer. We observed no genotype or subtype specific differences in NAb50-titers between patients with chronic HCV infection with and without sustained virologic response when tested against any of the included culture viruses. However, NAb50-titers varied significantly with a mean reciprocal NAb50-titer of 800 (range: 100-6400 against DH6/JFH1 compared to a mean NAb50-titer of 50 (range: <50-400 against all other included isolates. Subsequent studies demonstrated that the efficient neutralization of DH6/JFH1 could be linked to engineered adaptive mutations in the envelope-2 protein. In analysis of envelope 1 and 2 sequences of HCV, recovered from a subset of patients, we observed no apparent link between relatedness of patient sequences with culture viruses used and the corresponding neutralization results. In conclusion, pre-treatment levels of neutralizing antibodies against HCV genotype 1 isolates could not predict treatment outcome in patients with chronic HCV infection. High neutralization susceptibility of DH6/JFH1 could be correlated with adaptive envelope mutations previously highlighted as important for neutralization. Our

  11. Rapid decline of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies following early treatment of incident HCV infections in HIV-infected men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi-Popp, K; Wandeler, G; Salazar-Vizcaya, L; Metzner, K; Stöckle, M; Cavassini, M; Hoffmann, M; Lüthi, A; Suter, F; Bernasconi, E; Fehr, J; Furrer, H; Rauch, A

    2018-03-24

    Following clearance of incident hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, HCV antibody levels may decline, resulting in seroreversion. It is unclear to what extent HCV antibody level trajectories differ between patients with treatment-induced sustained virological response (SVR), those with spontaneous clearance and those with untreated replicating HCV infection. We investigated HCV antibody level dynamics in HIV-infected MSM with different clinical outcomes. We investigated anti-HCV antibody level dynamics following an incident HCV infection in 67 HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) with different clinical outcomes: SVR (n = 33), spontaneous clearance (n = 12), and untreated replicating infection (n = 22). Antibody levels were measured at the time of HCV diagnosis, and at yearly intervals for 3 years thereafter. At baseline, median HCV antibody levels were similar in the three groups: 13.4, 13.8 and 13.5 sample to cut-off (S/CO) for SVR, spontaneous clearance and untreated infection, respectively. Over 3 years of follow-up, SVR was associated with a more pronounced decrease in anti-HCV levels compared with spontaneous clearance and untreated infection [median decline 71% [interquartile range (IQR: 43-87%), 38% (IQR: 29-60%) and 12% (IQR: 9-22%), respectively; P < 0.001]. Seroreversions occurred in five of 33 (15%) patients with SVR and in one of 12 (8%) with spontaneous clearance. A shorter delay between time of infection and treatment start correlated with higher rates of decline in antibody levels. Seven patients experienced a reinfection. Treatment-induced HCV clearance was associated with a more pronounced decline in anti-HCV antibody levels and with higher rates of seroreversion compared with spontaneous clearance or untreated replicating HCV infection among HIV-infected MSM with incident HCV infections. Rapid clearance of HCV RNA following early HCV treatment might impair the development of persistent antibody titres. © 2018 British HIV Association.

  12. Mucosal-associated invariant T-cell frequency and function in blood and liver of HCV mono- and HCV/HIV co-infected patients with advanced fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beudeker, Boris J B; van Oord, Gertine W; Arends, Joop E; Schulze Zur Wiesch, Julian; van der Heide, Marieke S; de Knegt, Robert J; Verbon, Annelies; Boonstra, Andre; Claassen, Mark A A

    2018-03-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are important innate T cells with antimicrobial and immunoregulatory activity, recently found to be depleted in blood of patients with HIV and HCV mono-infections. In this study, we assessed the impact of HIV, HCV and HCV/HIV co-infection on circulating and intrahepatic MAIT-cells and correlations with liver fibrosis. In this cross-sectional study, nine healthy subjects, nine HIV, 20 HCV and 22 HCV/HIV co-infected patients were included. Blood and liver fine needle aspirate biopsies were studied using flowcytometry for CD3 + CD161 + Vα7.2 + MAIT-cell frequency, phenotype and function in HCV mono-infected and HCV/HIV co-infected patients without or with mild fibrosis (Metavir-score F0-F1) or severe fibrosis to cirrhosis (Metavir-score F3-F4). Circulating MAIT-cells were decreased in blood of HCV, HIV and HCV/HIV patients with F0-F1. In HCV/HIV co-infected individuals with severe fibrosis to cirrhosis, the frequency of circulating MAIT-cells was even further depleted, whereas their function was comparable to HCV/HIV co-infected patients with low or absent fibrosis. In contrast, in HCV mono-infected patients, MAIT-cell frequencies were not related to fibrosis severity; however, MAIT-cell function was impaired in mono-infected patients with more fibrosis. More advanced liver fibrosis in HCV or HCV/HIV-infected patients was not reflected by increased accumulation of MAIT-cells in the affected liver. Severe liver fibrosis is associated with dysfunctional MAIT-cells in blood of HCV mono-infected patients, and lower MAIT frequencies in blood of HCV/HIV co-infected patients, without evidence for accumulation in the liver. © 2017 The Authors. Liver International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Impedimetric genosensor for detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV1) DNA using viral probe on methylene blue doped silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Chaitali; Ingle, Aviraj; Chakraborty, Dhritiman; Pn, Anoop Krishna; Pundir, C S; Narang, Jagriti

    2017-05-01

    An impedimetric genosensor was fabricated for detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 in serum, based on hybridization of the probe with complementary target cDNA from sample. To achieve it, probe DNA complementary to HCVgene was immobilized on the surface of methylene blue (MB) doped silica nanoparticles MB@SiNPs) modified fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode. The synthesized MB@SiNPs was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. This modified electrode (ssDNA/MB@SiNPs/FTO) served both as a signal amplification platform (due to silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) as well as an electrochemical indicator (due to methylene blue (MB)) for the detection of the HCV DNA in patient serum sample. The genosensor was optimized and evaluated. The sensor showed a dynamic linear range 100-10 6 copies/mL, with a detection limit of 90 copies/mL. The sensor was applied for detection of HCV in sera of hepatitis patient and could be renewed. The half life of the sensor was 4 weeks. The MB@SiNPs/FTO electrode could be used for preparation of other gensensors also. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ongoing risk behavior and the presence of HCV-RNA affect the hepatitis C virus (HCV)-Specific CD4(+) T cell response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Charlotte H. S. B.; Nanlohy, Nening M.; van de Laar, Thijs J. W.; Prins, Maria; van Baarle, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    The largest population of people at risk for HCV-infection is injecting drug users (DU). We hypothesize that recurrent exposure to HCV, by continuing risk behavior, influences the development of an HCV-specific T-cell response. Therefore, we studied the association between repeated exposure to and

  15. Clinical performance of the new Roche COBAS TaqMan HCV Test and High Pure System for extraction, detection and quantitation of HCV RNA in plasma and serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, Huub C.; Menting, Sandra; Beld, Marcel G.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the Roche COBAS TaqMan HCV Test For Use With The High Pure System (TaqMan HPS; Roche Diagnostics), for the extraction, detection and quantitation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in serum or plasma of HCV-infected individuals. The TaqMan HPS is a real-time PCR assay with a reported linear

  16. Model projections on the impact of HCV treatment in the prevention of HCV transmission among people who inject drugs in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraser, Hannah; Martin, Natasha K.; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Henrikki; Carrieri, Patrizia; Dalgard, Olav; Dillon, John; Goldberg, David; Hutchinson, Sharon; Jauffret-Roustide, Marie; Kåberg, Martin; Matser, Amy A.; Matičič, Mojca; Midgard, Havard; Mravcik, Viktor; Øvrehus, Anne; Prins, Maria; Reimer, Jens; Robaeys, Geert; Schulte, Bernd; van Santen, Daniela K.; Zimmermann, Ruth; Vickerman, Peter; Hickman, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Prevention of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) is critical for eliminating HCV in Europe. We estimated the impact of current and scaled-up HCV treatment with and without scaling up opioid substitution therapy (OST) and needle and syringe programmes (NSPs)

  17. Evaluation of a hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigen assay for routine HCV screening among men who have sex with men infected with HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhommerig, Joost W.; van de Laar, Thijs J. W.; Koot, Maarten; van Rooijen, Martijn S.; Schinkel, Janke; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Prins, Maria; de Vries, Henry J.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.

    2015-01-01

    For detection of early HCV infection and reinfection, commercial HCV-RNA tests are available. However, these tests are relatively time-consuming and expensive. A commercially available test that may supplement current screening methods, targets the HCV core protein. During five waves of anonymous

  18. High awareness of hepatitis C virus (HCV) but limited knowledge of HCV complications among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers, Femke A. E.; Prins, Maria; Davidovich, Udi; Stolte, Ineke G.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has emerged as a sexually transmitted infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income countries. Little is reported about HCV awareness among MSM, although this is essential for developing targeted prevention strategies. We, therefore, studied HCV

  19. In Silico Design and Experimental Validation of siRNAs Targeting Conserved Regions of Multiple Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud ElHefnawi

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is a post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism that mediates the sequence-specific degradation of targeted RNA and thus provides a tremendous opportunity for development of oligonucleotide-based drugs. Here, we report on the design and validation of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs targeting highly conserved regions of the hepatitis C virus (HCV genome. To aim for therapeutic applications by optimizing the RNAi efficacy and reducing potential side effects, we considered different factors such as target RNA variations, thermodynamics and accessibility of the siRNA and target RNA, and off-target effects. This aim was achieved using an in silico design and selection protocol complemented by an automated MysiRNA-Designer pipeline. The protocol included the design and filtration of siRNAs targeting highly conserved and accessible regions within the HCV internal ribosome entry site, and adjacent core sequences of the viral genome with high-ranking efficacy scores. Off-target analysis excluded siRNAs with potential binding to human mRNAs. Under this strict selection process, two siRNAs (HCV353 and HCV258 were selected based on their predicted high specificity and potency. These siRNAs were tested for antiviral efficacy in HCV genotype 1 and 2 replicon cell lines. Both in silico-designed siRNAs efficiently inhibited HCV RNA replication, even at low concentrations and for short exposure times (24h; they also exceeded the antiviral potencies of reference siRNAs targeting HCV. Furthermore, HCV353 and HCV258 siRNAs also inhibited replication of patient-derived HCV genotype 4 isolates in infected Huh-7 cells. Prolonged treatment of HCV replicon cells with HCV353 did not result in the appearance of escape mutant viruses. Taken together, these results reveal the accuracy and strength of our integrated siRNA design and selection protocols. These protocols could be used to design highly potent and specific RNAi-based therapeutic

  20. Pharmacogenetics of efficacy and safety of HCV treatment in HCV-HIV coinfected patients: significant associations with IL28B and SOCS3 gene variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Vidal

    Full Text Available This was a safety and efficacy pharmacogenetic study of a previously performed randomized trial which compared the effectiveness of treatment of hepatitis C virus infection with pegylated interferon alpha (pegIFNα 2a vs. 2b, both with ribavirin, for 48 weeks, in HCV-HIV coinfected patients.The study groups were made of 99 patients (efficacy pharmacogenetic substudy and of 114 patients (safety pharmacogenetic substudy. Polymorphisms in the following candidate genes IL28B, IL6, IL10, TNFα, IFNγ, CCL5, MxA, OAS1, SOCS3, CTLA4 and ITPA were assessed. Genotyping was carried out using Sequenom iPLEX-Gold, a single-base extension polymerase chain reaction. Efficacy end-points assessed were: rapid, early and sustained virological response (RVR, EVR and SVR, respectively. Safety end-points assessed were: anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, flu-like syndrome, gastrointestinal disturbances and depression. Chi square test, Student's T test, Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regression were used for statistic analyses.As efficacy is concerned, IL28B and CTLA4 gene polymorphisms were associated with RVR (p<0.05 for both comparisons. Nevertheless, only polymorphism in the IL28B gene was associated with SVR (p = 0.004. In the multivariate analysis, the only gene independently associated with SVR was IL28B (OR 2.61, 95%CI 1.2-5.6, p = 0.01. With respect to safety, there were no significant associations between flu-like syndrome or depression and the genetic variants studied. Gastrointestinal disturbances were associated with ITPA gene polymorphism (p = 0.04. Anemia was associated with OAS1 and CTLA4 gene polymorphisms (p = 0.049 and p = 0.045, respectively, neutropenia and thromobocytopenia were associated with SOCS3 gene polymorphism (p = 0.02 and p = 0.002, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, the associations of the SOCS3 gene polymorphism with neutropenia (OR 0.26, 95%CI 0.09-0.75, p = 0.01 and thrombocytopenia (OR

  1. Development of hepatitis C virus genotyping by real-time PCR based on the NS5B region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli M Nakatani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV genotyping is the most significant predictor of the response to antiviral therapy. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel real-time PCR method for HCV genotyping based on the NS5B region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two triplex reaction sets were designed, one to detect genotypes 1a, 1b and 3a; and another to detect genotypes 2a, 2b, and 2c. This approach had an overall sensitivity of 97.0%, detecting 295 of the 304 tested samples. All samples genotyped by real-time PCR had the same type that was assigned using LiPA version 1 (Line in Probe Assay. Although LiPA v. 1 was not able to subtype 68 of the 295 samples (23.0% and rendered different subtype results from those assigned by real-time PCR for 12/295 samples (4.0%, NS5B sequencing and real-time PCR results agreed in all 146 tested cases. Analytical sensitivity of the real-time PCR assay was determined by end-point dilution of the 5000 IU/ml member of the OptiQuant HCV RNA panel. The lower limit of detection was estimated to be 125 IU/ml for genotype 3a, 250 IU/ml for genotypes 1b and 2b, and 500 IU/ml for genotype 1a. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The total time required for performing this assay was two hours, compared to four hours required for LiPA v. 1 after PCR-amplification. Furthermore, the estimated reaction cost was nine times lower than that of available commercial methods in Brazil. Thus, we have developed an efficient, feasible, and affordable method for HCV genotype identification.

  2. Intrahepatic Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells from HCV-infected patients show an exhausted phenotype but can inhibit HCV replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, E; Bordoni, V; Sacchi, A; Visco-Comandini, U; Montalbano, M; Taibi, C; Casetti, R; Lalle, E; D'Offizi, G; Capobianchi, M R; Agrati, C

    2018-01-02

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) persistence results from inefficiencies of both innate and adaptive immune responses to eradicate the infection. A functional impairment of circulating Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells was described but few data are available on Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells in the liver that, however, represents the battlefield in the HCV/host interaction. Aim of this work was to compare circulating and intrahepatic Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells in chronic HCV-infected patients (HCV pos ) and in HCV-negative (HCV neg ) subjects. Phenotypic and functional analysis was performed by flow cytometry. Anti-HCV activity was analyzed by using an in vitro autologous liver culture system. Independently from HCV infection, the liver was enriched of Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells expressing an effector/activated phenotype. In contrast, an enrichment of PD-1 expressing Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells was observed both in the peripheral blood and in the liver of HCV pos patients, probably due to a persistent antigenic stimulation. Moreover, a lower frequency of IFN-γ producing Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells was observed in the liver of HCV pos patients, suggesting a functional impairment in the cytokine production in HCV pos liver. Despite this hypo-responsiveness, intrahepatic Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells are able to exert an anti-HCV activity after specific stimulation. Altogether, our data show that HCV infection induced a dysregulation of intrahepatic Vγ9Vδ2 T cells that maintain their anti-HCV activity after specific stimulation. A study aimed to evaluate the mechanisms of the antiviral activity may be useful to identify new pathways able to improve Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells intrahepatic function during HCV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Eltrombopag increases platelet numbers in thrombocytopenic patients with HCV infection and cirrhosis, allowing for effective antiviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afdhal, Nezam H; Dusheiko, Geoffrey M; Giannini, Edoardo G; Chen, Pei-Jer; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Mohsin, Aftab; Rodriguez-Torres, Maribel; Rugina, Sorin; Bakulin, Igor; Lawitz, Eric; Shiffman, Mitchell L; Tayyab, Ghias-Un-Nabi; Poordad, Fred; Kamel, Yasser Mostafa; Brainsky, Andres; Geib, James; Vasey, Sandra Y; Patwardhan, Rita; Campbell, Fiona M; Theodore, Dickens

    2014-02-01

    Thrombocytopenia is common among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis, limiting initiation and dose of peginterferon-alfa (PEG) and ribavirin (RBV) therapy. The phase 3 randomized, controlled studies, Eltrombopag to Initiate and Maintain Interferon Antiviral Treatment to Benefit Subjects with Hepatitis C-Related Liver Disease (ENABLE)-1 and ENABLE-2, investigated the ability of eltrombopag to increase the number of platelets in patients, thereby allowing them to receive initiation or maintenance therapy with PEG and RBV. Patients with HCV infection and thrombocytopenia (platelet count therapy (95% from ENABLE-1 and 94% from ENABLE-2) entered the antiviral treatment phase, and were assigned randomly (2:1) to groups that received eltrombopag or placebo along with antiviral therapy (24 or 48 weeks, depending on HCV genotype). The primary end point was sustained virologic response (SVR) 24 weeks after completion of antiviral therapy. More patients who received eltrombopag than placebo achieved SVRs (ENABLE-1: eltrombopag, 23%; placebo, 14%; P = .0064; ENABLE-2: eltrombopag, 19%; placebo, 13%; P = .0202). PEG was administered at higher doses, with fewer dose reductions, in the eltrombopag groups of each study compared with the placebo groups. More patients who received eltrombopag than placebo maintained platelet counts of 50,000/μL or higher throughout antiviral treatment (ENABLE-1, 69% vs 15%; ENABLE-2, 81% vs 23%). Adverse events were similar between groups, with the exception of hepatic decompensation (both studies: eltrombopag, 10%; placebo, 5%) and thromboembolic events, which were more common in the eltrombopag group of ENABLE-2. Eltrombopag increases platelet numbers in thrombocytopenic patients with HCV and advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, allowing otherwise ineligible or marginal patients to begin and maintain antiviral therapy, leading to significantly increased rates of SVR. Clinical trial no: NCT00516321, NCT

  4. Real-Time PCR Assays for the Quantification of HCV RNA: Concordance, Discrepancies and Implications for Response Guided Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassl, Robert; Rutter, Karoline; Stättermayer, Albert Friedrich; Beinhardt, Sandra; Kammer, Michael; Hofer, Harald; Ferenci, Peter; Popow-Kraupp, Theresia

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) treatment relies on HCV RNA quantification by means of real-time PCR methods. Assay specific analytical sensitivities may impact therapy management. Comparative analysis between three commercial assays (Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan Version 1 (CAP/CTM Ver. 1), Version 2 (CAP/CTM Ver. 2) and the Abbott RealTime HCV (ART) assay) was performed on 247 available samples taken at key decision time points during antiviral therapy of 105 genotype 1 patients (triple therapy: n = 70; dual therapy: n = 35). Overall concordance of HCV RNA measurements was high between the two Roche systems (89%; n = 220/247) but lower between the Roche assays and the ART (CAP/CTM Ver. 1 vs ART: 77.3%; n = 191/247 and CAP/CTM v.2 vs ART: 80.1%; n = 198/247). Most discrepancies were noted in week 4/8 samples with residual viremia (HCV RNA by CAP/CTM Ver. 1 (

  5. Real-Time PCR Assays for the Quantification of HCV RNA: Concordance, Discrepancies and Implications for Response Guided Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Strassl

    Full Text Available Monitoring of chronic Hepatitis C (CHC treatment relies on HCV RNA quantification by means of real-time PCR methods. Assay specific analytical sensitivities may impact therapy management.Comparative analysis between three commercial assays (Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan Version 1 (CAP/CTM Ver. 1, Version 2 (CAP/CTM Ver. 2 and the Abbott RealTime HCV (ART assay was performed on 247 available samples taken at key decision time points during antiviral therapy of 105 genotype 1 patients (triple therapy: n = 70; dual therapy: n = 35.Overall concordance of HCV RNA measurements was high between the two Roche systems (89%; n = 220/247 but lower between the Roche assays and the ART (CAP/CTM Ver. 1 vs ART: 77.3%; n = 191/247 and CAP/CTM v.2 vs ART: 80.1%; n = 198/247. Most discrepancies were noted in week 4/8 samples with residual viremia (HCV RNA by CAP/CTM Ver. 1 (

  6. Treatment of HCV infection in Poland at the beginning of the interferon-free era-the EpiTer-2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisiak, R; Zarębska-Michaluk, D; Janczewska, E; Staniaszek, A; Gietka, A; Mazur, W; Tudrujek, M; Tomasiewicz, K; Belica-Wdowik, T; Baka-Ćwierz, B; Dybowska, D; Halota, W; Lorenc, B; Sitko, M; Garlicki, A; Berak, H; Horban, A; Orłowska, I; Simon, K; Socha, Ł; Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska, M; Jaroszewicz, J; Deroń, Z; Czauż-Andrzejuk, A; Citko, J; Krygier, R; Piekarska, A; Laurans, Ł; Dobracki, W; Białkowska, J; Tronina, O; Pawłowska, M

    2018-01-06

    The aim of the EpiTer-2 study was to analyse patient characteristics and their medication for HCV infection in Poland at the beginning of the interferon-free era. Analysis of data of HCV infected patients treated during the initial period of availability of interferon-free regimens in Poland, who started therapy after 1 July 2015 and had available an efficacy evaluation report before 30 June 2017 was undertaken. A total of 2879 patients with chronic hepatitis C were entered, including 46% with liver cirrhosis. The most common was genotype 1b (86.8%). The study population was gender balanced, the majority of patients were overweight or obese and 69% presented comorbidities, with the highest prevalence that for hypertension. More than half of patients were retreated due to failure of previous therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Almost two-third of patients received current therapy with ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir±dasabuvir (OPrD) ±ribavirin. Other patients received mostly sofosbuvir-based regimens including combination with ledipasvir and pegylated interferon and ribavirin for genotype 3-infected patients. Efficacy of treatment in the whole study population measured as intent-to-treat analysis was 95%. The most frequent regimen, administered for patients infected with genotype 1b, was 12 weeks of OPrD, resulting in an SVR rate of 98%. At least one adverse event was reported in 38% of patients, and the death rate was 0.8%. In conclusion, data from the EpiTer-2 study confirmed the excellent efficacy and safety profile of the real-world experience with recently introduced therapeutic options for genotype 1 HCV infection, but demonstrated weakness of the current therapeutic programme regarding genotype 3 infections. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Model projections on the impact of HCV treatment in the prevention of HCV transmission among people who inject drugs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Hannah; Martin, Natasha K; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Henrikki

    2018-01-01

    (NSP) across Europe over the next 10 years. METHODS: We collected data on PWID HCV treatment rates, PWID prevalence, HCV prevalence, OST and NSP coverage from 11 European settings. We parameterized a HCV transmission model to setting-specific data that projects chronic HCV prevalence and incidence...... in Sweden and Finland. Scaling-up OST and NSP to 80% coverage with current treatment rates using DAAs could achieve observable reductions in HCV prevalence (18-79%) in all sites. Using DAAs, Slovenia and Amsterdam are projected to reduce incidence to 2 per 100pyrs or less in 10 years. Moderate...

  8. Antiretroviral Effects on Host Lipoproteins Are Associated With Changes in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA Levels in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/HCV Coinfected Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naggie, Susanna; Patel, Keyur; Yang, Lan-Yan; Chow, Shein-Chung; Johnson, Victoria; Guyton, John R.; Muir, Andrew J.; Sulkowski, Mark; Hicks, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of antiretroviral-induced dyslipidemia on hepatitis C virus (HCV) biogenesis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV coinfected patients. This study used serum samples from antiretroviral-naive HIV/HCV patients initiating their first regimen as part of AIDS Clinical Trials Group study protocols (A5142, A5202). Initiation of antiretrovirals increased most lipoproteins and apolipoproteins. In the multivariable model, changes in apolipoproteins were associated with changes in log10 HCV RNA from baseline to week-24 of therapy. Off-target lipogenic changes need to be considered in the context of liver and other metabolic disease in HIV/HCV patients. PMID:26110167

  9. Production of infectious genotype 1b virus particles in cell culture and impairment by replication enhancing mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pietschmann

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of subgenomic hepatitis C virus (HCV replicons, studies of the intracellular steps of the viral replication cycle became possible. These RNAs are capable of self-amplification in cultured human hepatoma cells, but save for the genotype 2a isolate JFH-1, efficient replication of these HCV RNAs requires replication enhancing mutations (REMs, previously also called cell culture adaptive mutations. These mutations cluster primarily in the central region of non-structural protein 5A (NS5A, but may also reside in the NS3 helicase domain or at a distinct position in NS4B. Most efficient replication has been achieved by combining REMs residing in NS3 with distinct REMs located in NS4B or NS5A. However, in spite of efficient replication of HCV genomes containing such mutations, they do not support production of infectious virus particles. By using the genotype 1b isolate Con1, in this study we show that REMs interfere with HCV assembly. Strongest impairment of virus formation was found with REMs located in the NS3 helicase (E1202G and T1280I as well as NS5A (S2204R, whereas a highly adaptive REM in NS4B still allowed virus production although relative levels of core release were also reduced. We also show that cells transfected with the Con1 wild type genome or the genome containing the REM in NS4B release HCV particles that are infectious both in cell culture and in vivo. Our data provide an explanation for the in vitro and in vivo attenuation of cell culture adapted HCV genomes and may open new avenues for the development of fully competent culture systems covering the therapeutically most relevant HCV genotypes.

  10. HBV-DNA in hemodialysis patients infected by HCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein; Yousefi, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    End-stage renal disease patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients are at risk for both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and they may coexist. To determine the prevalence and clinical impact of HBV and HCV infection, we studied poly chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR on the blood samples of 90 HD patients in Kerman, Iran. ELISA test was used to detect anti-HBc, anti-HBs and HBs Ag. We found that 30 out of 90 (33.3%) patients were PCR-RT-PCR positive for HCV-RNA. No HBV-DNA (0%) was detected through the PCR study in both positive and negative HCV-RNA patient groups. Though none of the samples was HBsAg positive, 10 (33.3%) HCV-RNA positive patients were anti-HBc positive, and 12 (40.7%) were anti-HBs positive. We conclude that prevalence of hepatitis C infection is high in HD patients in our region, but not associated with active HBV infection. (author)

  11. [HCV and HBV prevalence in hemodialyzed pediatric patients. Multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañero-Velasco, M C; Mutti, J E; Gonzalez, J E; Alonso, A; Otegui, L; Adragna, M; Antonuccio, M; Laso, M; Montenegro, M; Repetto, L; Brandi, M; Canepa, J; Baimberg, E

    1998-01-01

    Hemodialized pediatric patients are a risk population for the hepatitis B and C virus infection. The aim of this paper was to study the serum prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in hemodialized children. We study 61 pediatric patients at hemodialisis, 12 on renal transplant, range between 2 and 20 years old (mean: 12.9 years), 23 male and 38 female. The specific anti-HCV IgC were measured by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA Abbott) and confirmed by LIA-TEK (Organon). The anti-HBV were measured by ELISA Abbott and transaminases by cinetic method (ASAT: 29 UI/L and ALT: 33 UI/L). The 19.7% of studied children were HCV (+) and 29.5% were HBV (+), 38.9% of them were HbsAg (+) and 50% anti-HBs (+). The HCV and HBV infection was more elevated in relation to the transfusion number and the hemodilisis time. The elevation of ALT/ASAT activity isn't a right infection index for HCV and HBV in this children.

  12. Evolution of multi-drug resistant HCV clones from pre-existing resistant-associated variants during direct-acting antiviral therapy determined by third-generation sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Haruhiko; Ueda, Yoshihide; Inuzuka, Tadashi; Yamashita, Yukitaka; Osaki, Yukio; Nasu, Akihiro; Umeda, Makoto; Takemura, Ryo; Seno, Hiroshi; Sekine, Akihiro; Marusawa, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Resistance-associated variant (RAV) is one of the most significant clinical challenges in treating HCV-infected patients with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). We investigated the viral dynamics in patients receiving DAAs using third-generation sequencing technology. Among 283 patients with genotype-1b HCV receiving daclatasvir + asunaprevir (DCV/ASV), 32 (11.3%) failed to achieve sustained virological response (SVR). Conventional ultra-deep sequencing of HCV genome was performed in 104 patients (32 non-SVR, 72 SVR), and detected representative RAVs in all non-SVR patients at baseline, including Y93H in 28 (87.5%). Long contiguous sequences spanning NS3 to NS5A regions of each viral clone in 12 sera from 6 representative non-SVR patients were determined by third-generation sequencing, and showed the concurrent presence of several synonymous mutations linked to resistance-associated substitutions in a subpopulation of pre-existing RAVs and dominant isolates at treatment failure. Phylogenetic analyses revealed close genetic distances between pre-existing RAVs and dominant RAVs at treatment failure. In addition, multiple drug-resistant mutations developed on pre-existing RAVs after DCV/ASV in all non-SVR cases. In conclusion, multi-drug resistant viral clones at treatment failure certainly originated from a subpopulation of pre-existing RAVs in HCV-infected patients. Those RAVs were selected for and became dominant with the acquisition of multiple resistance-associated substitutions under DAA treatment pressure.

  13. Efficient Culture Adaptation of Hepatitis C Virus Recombinants with Genotype-Specific Core-NS2 by Using Previously Identified Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Troels Kasper Høyer; Gottwein, Judith M; Carlsen, Thomas H R

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of chronic liver disease, and interferon-based therapy cures only 40 to 80% of patients, depending on HCV genotype. Research was accelerated by genotype 2a (strain JFH1) infectious cell culture systems. We previously developed viable JFH1-based...... mutations did not adapt to culture. Universal adaptive effects of mutations in NS3 (Q1247L, I1312V, K1398Q, R1408W, and Q1496L) and NS5A (V2418L) were investigated for JFH1-based genotype 1 to 5 core-NS2 recombinants; several mutations conferred adaptation to H77C (1a), J4 (1b), S52 (3a), and SA13 (5a......-specific patterns in HCV disease and control....

  14. HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Soon [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the coexistence of HBV viremia in HCV infected patients HCC who have apparent HBsAg seronegativity. The serological profiles of HBV and HCV in 616 patients with HCC were analysed and coinfection rate of HBV and HCV investigated. Sera were obtained from 16 patients who were both anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive but HbsAg negative, and tested for HBV BY PCR. As a control group, sera were obtained from 15 patients with HCC and 30 non-A abd non-B chronic hepatitis patients without HCC; both were anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, and HBsAg negative and tested for HBV PCR. Of 616 patients with HCC, 450 (73.1 %) had current HBV infection, 48 (7.8 %) had anti-HCV antibodies, and nine (1.5 %) had viral markers of both HCV abd HBV by serological profiles. Of 27 the patients with HCV viremia and HBsAg seronegativity, 14 (51.9 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. In contrast, of the 75 patients in the control group who were both HCV PCR negative and HBsAg negative, five (11.1 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. The PCR for HBV revealed coexistent HBV viremia in HCV viremia patients, despite HBsAg negativity by EIA. In HBV-endemic areas, the possibility of coinfection of HBV in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia should be considered and molecular analysis for HBV-DNA performed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Registry Veterans in VHA Care in 2015, for the Nation, by VISN and by Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report describes the number of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) registry Veterans in VHA care in 2015 based on serologic evidence of HCV infection status (HCV Positive)...

  16. HCV RNA traffic and association with NS5A in living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiches, Guillaume N.; Eyre, Nicholas S.; Aloia, Amanda L.; Van Der Hoek, Kylie [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Adelaide, Adelaide and Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Betz-Stablein, Brigit; Luciani, Fabio [Systems Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Chopra, Abha [Institute for Immunology and infectious diseases (IIID), Murdoch University, Perth, WA (Australia); Beard, Michael R., E-mail: michael.beard@adelaide.edu.au [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Adelaide, Adelaide and Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA localisation are poorly understood. To address this we engineered HCV genomes harbouring MS2 bacteriophage RNA stem-loops within the 3′-untranslated region to allow tracking of HCV RNA via specific interaction with a MS2-Coat-mCherry fusion protein. Despite the impact of these insertions on viral fitness, live imaging revealed that replication of tagged-HCV genomes induced specific redistribution of the mCherry-tagged-MS2-Coat protein to motile and static foci. Further analysis showed that HCV RNA was associated with NS5A in both static and motile structures while a subset of motile NS5A structures was devoid of HCV RNA. Further investigation of viral RNA traffic with respect to lipid droplets (LDs) revealed HCV RNA-positive structures in close association with LDs. These studies provide new insights into the dynamics of HCV RNA traffic with NS5A and LDs and provide a platform for future investigations of HCV replication and assembly. - Highlights: • HCV can tolerate can bacteriophage MS2 stem-loop insertions within the 3′ UTR. • MS2 stem-loop containing HCV genomes allow for real-time imaging of HCV RNA. • HCV RNA is both static and motile and associates with NS5A and lipid droplets.

  17. Simeprevir in combination with sofosbuvir in treatment-naïve and -experienced patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection: a Phase III, open-label, single-arm study (PLUTO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buti, M; Calleja, J L; Lens, S; Diago, M; Ortega, E; Crespo, J; Planas, R; Romero-Gómez, M; Rodríguez, F G; Pascasio, J M; Fevery, B; Kurland, D; Corbett, C; Kalmeijer, R; Jessner, W

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and subsequent hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV genotype 4 is found widely in the Middle East, Egypt and Africa, and has also spread into Europe. There are limited data available regarding the use of direct-acting antiviral agents in HCV genotype 4-infected patients with cirrhosis. To evaluate in the phase III, open-label, single-arm PLUTO study the efficacy and safety of 12 weeks of simeprevir (HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor) plus sofosbuvir (HCV nucleotide-analogue NS5B polymerase inhibitor) in treatment-naïve and (peg)interferon ± ribavirin-experienced HCV genotype 4-infected patients, with or without compensated cirrhosis. Adult patients with chronic HCV genotype 4 infection received simeprevir 150 mg once-daily and sofosbuvir 400 mg once-daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12). Safety was also assessed. Forty patients received treatment; the majority were male (73%) and treatment-experienced (68%). Overall, 7/40 (18%) patients had compensated cirrhosis. All patients achieved SVR12 [100% (Clopper-Pearson 95% confidence interval: 91-100%)]. Adverse events, all Grade 1 or 2, were reported in 20/40 (50%) patients. No serious adverse events were reported and no patients discontinued study treatment. Grade 3 treatment-emergent laboratory abnormalities were noted in 2/40 (5%) patients. Treatment with simeprevir plus sofosbuvir for 12 weeks resulted in SVR12 rates of 100% in treatment-naïve and -experienced patients with HCV genotype 4 infection with or without compensated cirrhosis, and was well tolerated. [NCT02250807]. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. HBV Viral Load and Liver Enzyme Levels May Be Associated with the Wild MBL2 AA Genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuane Carolina Ferreira Moura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the frequencies of rs1800450 (MBL ⁎B, G>A, rs1800451 (MBL ⁎C, G>A, and rs5030737 (MBL ⁎D, C>T polymorphisms in exon 1 of the MBL2 gene among patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Blood samples from patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV; n=65, hepatitis C virus (HCV; n=92, and a noninfected control group (n=300 were investigated. The presence of polymorphisms was detected using a real-time polymerase chain reaction to correlate with liver disease pathogenesis and fibrosis staging according to the Metavir classification. The genotypic and allelic frequencies showed no significant differences between the groups, but patients with active HBV and the wild AA genotype presented a positive correlation between increased transaminase and HBV DNA levels and the presence of mild to moderate fibrosis. Patients with HCV and the wild AA genotype presented mild inflammation and higher HCV RNA levels, although the same association was not observed for the fibrosis scores. The results suggest that the mutations in exon 1 of the MBL2 gene do not contribute directly to the clinical and laboratory features of HCV and HBV infections, but further studies should be performed to confirm whether the wild AA genotype has indirect effect on disease progression.

  19. HIV infection and hepatitis C virus genotype 1a are associated with phylogenetic clustering among people with recently acquired hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Sofia R; Jacka, Brendan; Bull, Rowena A; Luciani, Fabio; Matthews, Gail V; Lamoury, Francois M J; Hellard, Margaret E; Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Teutsch, Suzy; White, Bethany; Maher, Lisa; Dore, Gregory J; Lloyd, Andrew R; Grebely, Jason; Applegate, Tanya L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with phylogenetic clustering among people with recently acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Participants with available sample at time of HCV detection were selected from three studies; the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C, the Hepatitis C Incidence and Transmission Study - Prison and Community. HCV RNA was extracted and Core to E2 region of HCV sequenced. Clusters were identified from maximum likelihood trees with 1000 bootstrap replicates using 90% bootstrap and 5% genetic distance threshold. Among 225 participants with available Core-E2 sequence (ATAHC, n=113; HITS-p, n=90; and HITS-c, n=22), HCV genotype prevalence was: G1a: 38% (n=86), G1b: 5% (n=12), G2a: 1% (n=2), G2b: 5% (n=11), G3a: 48% (n=109), G6a: 1% (n=2) and G6l 1% (n=3). Of participants included in phylogenetic trees, 22% of participants were in a pair/cluster (G1a-35%, 30/85, mean maximum genetic distance=0.031; G3a-11%, 12/106, mean maximum genetic distance=0.021; other genotypes-21%, 6/28, mean maximum genetic distance=0.023). Among HCV/HIV co-infected participants, 50% (18/36) were in a pair/cluster, compared to 16% (30/183) with HCV mono-infection (P=HIV co-infection [vs. HCV mono-infection; adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.24; 95%CI 1.91, 9.39], and HCV G1a infection (vs. other HCV genotypes; AOR 3.33, 95%CI 0.14, 0.61).HCV treatment and prevention strategies, including enhanced antiviral therapy, should be optimised. The impact of targeting of HCV treatment as prevention to populations with higher phylogenetic clustering, such as those with HIV co-infection, could be explored through mathematical modelling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. All-oral DAA therapy against HCV in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects in real-world practice: Madrid-CoRe Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Juan; Gil-Martin, Ángela; Jarrin, Inmaculada; Moreno, Ana; Dominguez, Lourdes; Montes, Marisa; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Teresa; Téllez, María J; Santos, Ignacio; Benitez, Laura; Sanz, José; Ryan, Pablo; Gaspar, Gabriel; Alvarez, Beatriz; Losa, Juan E; Torres-Perea, Rafael; Barros, Carlos; San Martin, Juan V; Arponen, Sari; de Guzmán, María Teresa; Monsalvo, Raquel; Vegas, Ana; Garcia-Benayas, María T; Serrano, Regino; Gotuzzo, Luis; Menendez, María Antonia; Belda, Luis M; Malmierca, Eduardo; Calvo, María J; Cruz-Martos, Encarnación; González-García, Juan J

    2018-01-29

    We evaluated treatment outcomes in a prospective registry of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated with interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agent (DAA)-based therapy in hospitals from the region of Madrid between November 2014 and August 2016. We assessed sustained viral response (SVR) at 12 weeks after completion of treatment and used multivariable logistic regression to identify predictors of treatment failure. We evaluated 2,369 patients, of whom 59.5% were non-cirrhotic (Non-C), 33.9% had compensated cirrhosis (Co-C), and 6.6% had decompensated cirrhosis (De-C). The predominant HCV genotypes were 1a (40.9%), 4 (22.4%), 1b (15.1%), and 3 (15.0%). Treatment regimens included sofosbuvir (SOF)/ledipasvir (LDV) (61.9%), SOF plus daclatasvir (DCV) (14.6%), dasabuvir plus ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir (DSV+OBV/PTV/r) (13.2%), and other regimens (10.3%). Ribavirin was used in 30.6% of patients. Less than 1% of patients discontinued therapy owing to adverse events. The frequency of SVR by intention-to-treat analysis was 92.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 90.9-93.1%) overall, 93.8% (95%CI: 92.4-95.0%) for Non-C, 91.0% (95%CI: 88.8-92.9%) for Co-C, and 80.8% (95%CI: 73.7-86.6%) for De-C. The factors associated with treatment failure were male sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.75; 95%CI 1.14-2.69), Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) category C (aOR 1.65; 95%CI 1.12-2.41), a baseline CD4+ T-cell count <200/mm 3 (aOR 2.30; 95%CI 1.35-3.92), an HCV RNA load ≥ 800,000 IU/mL (aOR 1.63; 95%CI 1.14-2.36), Co-C (aOR 1.35; 95%CI 0.96-1.89), De-C (aOR 2.92; 95%CI 1.76-4.87), and the use of SOF plus simeprevir, SOF plus ribavirin, and SMV plus DCV. In conclusion, in this large real-world study, DAA-based therapy was safe and highly effective in coinfected patients. Predictors of failure included gender, HIV-related immunosuppression, HCV RNA load, severity of liver disease, and the use of suboptimal DAA-based regimens. This article is protected by

  1. The role of PTEN - HCV core interaction in hepatitis C virus replication

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Qi; Li, Zhubing; Mellor, Paul; Zhou, Yan; Anderson, Deborah H.; Liu, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to severe liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a tumour suppressor, is frequently mutated or deleted in HCC tumors. PTEN has previously been demonstrated to inhibit HCV secretion. In this study, we determined the effects of PTEN on the other steps in HCV life cycle, including entry, translation, and replication. We showed that PTEN inhibits HCV entry through its lipid ph...

  2. Effect of route of delivery on heterologous protection against HCV induced by an adenovirus vector carrying HCV structural genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Jie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An effective vaccine and new therapeutic methods for hepatitis C virus (HCV are needed, and a potent HCV vaccine must induce robust and sustained cellular-mediated immunity (CMI. Research has indicated that adenoviral and vaccinia vectors may have the ability to elicit strong B and T cell immune responses to target antigens. Results A recombinant replication-defective adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5 vector, rAd5-CE1E2, and a recombinant Tian Tan vaccinia vector, rTTV-CE1E2, were constructed to express the HCV CE1E2 gene (1-746 amino acid HCV 1b subtype. Mice were prime-immunised with rAd5-CE1E2 delivered via intramuscular injection (i.m., intranasal injection (i.n., or intradermal injection (i.d. and boosted using a different combination of injection routes. CMI was evaluated via IFN-γ ELISPOT and ICS 2 weeks after immunisation, or 16 weeks after boost for long-term responses. The humoral response was analysed by ELISA. With the exception of priming by i.n. injection, a robust CMI response against multiple HCV antigens (core, E1, E2 was elicited and remained at a high level for a long period (16 weeks post-vaccination in mice. However, i.n. priming elicited the highest anti-core antibody levels. Priming with i.d. rAd5-CE1E2 and boosting with i.d. rTTV-CE1E2 carried out simultaneously enhanced CMI and the humoral immune response, compared to the homologous rAd5-CE1E2 immune groups. All regimens demonstrated equivalent cross-protective potency in a heterologous surrogate challenge assay based on a recombinant HCV (JFH1, 2a vaccinia virus. Conclusions Our data suggest that a rAd5-CE1E2-based HCV vaccine would be capable of eliciting an effective immune response and cross-protection. These findings have important implications for the development of T cell-based HCV vaccine candidates.

  3. Engineered exosomes boost the HCV NS3-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte immunity in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Anticoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present, no anti-Hepatitis C virus (HCV HCV vaccine is available, and many patients failed the treatment with new class of HCV inhibitors. In HCV infection, both experimental and clinic evidences indicate that a strong CTL-immune response could have significant therapeutic effects. We developed an innovative anti-HCV CD8+ T immunogen based on the uploading in engineered exosomes of full-length HCV-NS3 protein. HCV NS3 exosomes appeared immunogenic when injected in mice, as proven by the detection of a memory CD8+ T lymphocyte pool two weeks after the last of three immunizations. On the other hand, dendritic cells isolated from PBMCs of HCV infected patients activate autologous HCV NS3-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes upon challenge with HCV NS3 exosomes. These results provide the proof-of-principle that engineered exosomes can boost the CD8+ T cell immunity in HCV-infected patients, thus representing a suitable option for patients resisting the therapies with recently discovered HCV inhibitors.

  4. Anti-HCV antibody among newly diagnosed HIV patients in Ughelli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    persistent HCV to cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular car- cinoma has also been shown to be associated with HIV ..... 52. Park Y, Lee JH, Kim BS, et al. New Automated. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Core Antigen Assay as an Al- ternative to Real-Time PCR for HCV RNA Quantifica- tion. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2010; 48(6): 2253–56. 53.

  5. The Association between Female Genital Cutting and Spousal HCV Infection in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris R. Kenyon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the risk factors for HCV infection within married couples in Egypt. Methods. In 2008 Egypt conducted its first nationally representative survey of HCV prevalence. 11126 of the 12780 individuals aged 15–59 year who were sampled agreed to participate and provided information via a questionnaire about demographic and behavioural characteristics and blood for HCV antibody and RNA analysis. We assessed the risk factors for HCV infection in a subsample of 5182 married individuals via multivariate logistic regression. Results. Overall HCV antibody prevalence in the married couples was 18.2% (95% CI, 16.8–19.6. HCV antibody prevalence was higher in the husbands (23.7% than the wives (12.1%; P<0.001. Having a spouse who was infected with HCV was an independent risk factor for HCV infection with odds ratios of 2.1 (95% CI, 1.6–2.9 and 2.2 (95% CI, 1.6–3.1 for women and men, respectively. Husbands whose wives had experienced female genital cutting (FGC had a higher prevalence of HCV and this relationship was driven by a strong association in urban areas. Amongst the women there was no association between FGC and HCV overall but in urban areas only women who had experienced FGC were HCV infected. Conclusions. This study provides additional evidence of the importance of intrafamilial transmission of HCV in Egypt.

  6. Association between risk factors, basal viral load, virus genotype and the degree of liver fibrosis with the response to the therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Vuk R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hepatitis C is an important sociomedical problem worldwide due to frequent progression to chronic disease, occurrence of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Standard pegylated interferon alfa 2a plus ribavirin therapy results in resolution of infection only in 50% of patients. The aim of this study was to determine the association of various factors with response to the therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Age and sex of patients, inoculation risk factors, histopathological changes in the liver, viral load and HCV genotype were analyzed. Methods. The study included a group of 121 patients with chronic HCV infection. The treatment was carried out 24 weeks for virus genotype 2 and 3, and 48 weeks for genotype 1 and 4. The degree of histopathological changes in the liver was determined by hematoxylin and eosin staining, whereas polimerase chain reaction was used for HCV genotyping. Results. In the group of non-responding patients genotype 1 was represented with 100%, while in the other groups, although predominantly present, its percentage was lower. Unresponsiveness to therapy and relapse of disease were associated with higher viral load and advanced fibrosis. Intravenous use of psychoactive substances, as a risk factor, was present in a high percentage in the group of patients with sustained response, while blood transfusion and dialysis were leading risk factors in the group of relapse responders and non-responders. Conclusion. The results of our study showed that the treatment outcome of chronic HCV infection was associated with baseline HCV ribonucleic acid, HCV genotype, route of infection and the degree of histopathological changes in the liver. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41010

  7. In vitro assessment of anti-HCV, antioxidant, cytotoxic and hypolipidemic activities of glycoprotein isolated from Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Abdelmageed Matloub

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the glycoprotein isolated from Spirulina platensis (S. platensis as antiHCV, cytotoxicity, antioxidant and hypolypidemic activities. Method: Cold and hot aqueous extraction methods (SCEM and SHEM of S. platensis were performed and their physico-chemical characterizations were studied. Further, monosaccharides and amino acids composition of SCEM and SHEM were studied using GLC and amino acid analyzer, respectively. Both glycoproteins SCEM and SHEM were evaluated in vitro for anti-HCV replicon, cytotoxicity, antioxidant and hypolipidemic activities. SCEM was fractionated and their physico-chemical characterization and anti-HCV replicon were studied. Results: The yield of SCEM and SHEM was 4.45% and 3.37% of dried algal sample, respectively. The physico-chemical characterizations of SCEM and SHEM revealed the presence of ash (13.33% and 10.42% w/w, sulfur (1.22% and 0.71% w/w, nitrogen (7.14% and 5.59% w/w and sugar (67.29% and 64.66% w/w contents. The physico-chemical characterizations confirmed that SCEM and SHEM were polysaccharide bounded protein (glycoprotein. Twelve and eleven sugars could be identified in SCEM and SHEM polysaccharide of S. platensis using gas chromatography analysis, respectively. Glucose, galactose and mannose are predominant sugars in both extracts. Further, amino acid analysis of SCEM and SHEM revealed the presence 16 amino acids. Aspartic acid and alanine were detected as predominant non-essential amino acids in SCEM while glutamic and aspartic acids were existed as dominant amino acids in glycoprotein SHEM. Whereas leucine, phenylalanine and valine were presented as mean essential amino acids. Evaluation of both glycoproteins of SCEM and SHEM for anti-HCV, cytotoxic, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic activities revealed that SCEM reduced the HCV (genotype 4 replicon to 50% at non-toxic dose (522 µg/mL. In addition, SCEM inhibitd enzyme activity, β-hydroxy-β- methyl glutaryl coA reductase, to 80

  8. Interactive Effects of Immunoglobulin Gamma and Human Leucocyte Antigen Genotypes on Response to Interferon Based Therapy of Hepatitis C Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howayda E. Gomaa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We examined the role that immunoglobulin GM 23 and KM allotypes—genetic markers of γ and κ chains, respectively—play in response to treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in Egyptian patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 120 persons who had responded to HCV treatment and 125 with persistent HCV infection were genotyped for the presence of GM23 and KM determinants. HLA –C genotyping was also done. RESULTS: Association of GM 23+ and KM3 was significantly associated with non response to treatment (P < 0.0001. Individuals who lacked this GM genotype (but were positive for KM1,2 and 3 were likely to respond to treatment (P=0.045. Association of heterozygous GM23 (+/- with KM 1,2 and 3 or KM3 alone was significantly associated with SVR (P = 0.001 and (P = 0.0001 respectively. Particular combinations of HLA and GM genotypes were associated significantly with the response to HCV treatment. The combination of HLAC2C2 and GM23+ was associated with persistence of infection (P = 0.027 while the association of HLAC2C2 and heterozygous GM23+/- was associated with SVR (P = 0.001.The association of HLAC1C1 and heterozygous GM23+/- was significantly associated with SVR (P = 0.001 and also subjects with HLA C1/C2 and heterozygous GM23+/- were likely to respond to treatment (P = 0.003 while subjects with HLA C1/C2 and GM23+ show tendency to resist to treatment (P = 0.0001. CONCLUSION: Our results didn’t support a role for KM allotypes, GM23 allotype plays a role in the persistence of HCV infection in the presence or absence of KM1,3. Interaction between certain GM and HLA-C genotypes may favor adequate response to interferon based therapies.

  9. Resistance Analyses of HCV NS3/4A Protease and NS5B Polymerase from Clinical Studies of Deleobuvir and Faldaprevir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L Berger

    Full Text Available The resistance profile of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV agents used in combination is important to guide optimal treatment regimens. We evaluated baseline and treatment-emergent NS3/4A and NS5B amino-acid variants among HCV genotype (GT-1a and -1b-infected patients treated with faldaprevir (HCV protease inhibitor, deleobuvir (HCV polymerase non-nucleoside inhibitor, and ribavirin in multiple clinical studies.HCV NS3/4A and NS5B population sequencing (Sanger method was performed on all baseline plasma samples (n = 1425 NS3; n = 1556 NS5B and on post-baseline plasma samples from patients with virologic failure (n = 113 GT-1a; n = 221 GT-1b. Persistence and time to loss of resistance-associated variants (RAVs was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis.Faldaprevir RAVs (NS3 R155 and D168 and deleobuvir RAVs (NS5B 495 and 496 were rare (90%. Virologic relapse was associated with RAVs in both NS3 and NS5B (53% GT-1b; 52% GT-1b; some virologic relapses had NS3 RAVs only (47% GT-1a; 17% GT-1b. Median time to loss of GT-1b NS5B P495 RAVs post-treatment (5 months was less than that of GT-1b NS3 D168 (8.5 months and GT-1a R155 RAVs (11.5 months.Faldaprevir and deleobuvir RAVs are more prevalent among virologic failures than at baseline. Treatment response was not compromised by common NS3 polymorphisms; however, alanine at NS5B amino acid 499 at baseline (wild-type in GT-1a, polymorphism in GT-1b may reduce response to this deleobuvir-based regimen.

  10. Expression of chimeric HCV peptide in transgenic tobacco plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated and sporadic non-A non-B hepatitis affecting more than 180 million worldwide. Vaccine development for HCV has been difficult and there is no vaccine or effective therapy against this virus. In this paper, we describe the development of an ...

  11. Correlation between alanine aminotransferase level, HCV-RNA titer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In contrast, an insignificant correlation was found between ALT level and grade of necroinflammation. In conclusion neither ALT level nor HCV viremia can reflect the histological liver change accurately. As a result, liver biopsy or other noninvasive procedures that measure liver stiffness (i.e., Fibroscan) remain essential for ...

  12. Frequencies of HBV, HCV, HIV, and Syphilis Markers Among Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the frequency rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis among blood donors. Methods: Physically fit persons aged 18 – 48 years who came for blood donation at the blood bank unit of the military hospital in Hodeidah, ...

  13. The effect of HCV serological status on Doxorubicin based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FAC Adjuvant chemotherapy was given for six cycles. Results: HCV seropositivity was detected in 52 cases. Two cases in the seropositive group developed toxic hepatitis and discontinued treatment and follow up. The remaining 100 patients suffered comparable toxicities, except for more frequent liver enzyme elevations in ...

  14. Strategies to manage hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedemeyer, H; Duberg, A S; Buti, M

    2014-01-01

    The number of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is projected to decline while those with advanced liver disease will increase. A modeling approach was used to forecast two treatment scenarios: (i) the impact of increased treatment efficacy while keeping the number of treated patients constant...

  15. Prevalence of HBV and HCV among blood donors in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejza, Hajrullah; Telaku, Skender

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis is disease of the liver caused by the infectious and non-infectious agents. The aim of study was to analyze the prevalence of HBV and HCV among voluntary blood donors in Kosovo, during 2000–2003. The data from National Center for Blood Transfusion of Kosovo were collected and analyzed through descriptive and comparative epidemiological method of retrospective study. All samples were tested by ELISA test. Out of 70348 samples of the blood donors, 3145 were positive. From overall positive samples, 2939 were HBV positive, 192 HCV positive while 14 samples were positive for both viruses. The HBV prevalence among the blood donors of Kosovo is 4.2%, which range Kosovo to the second zone according to the CDC classification of the geographical spread of the HBV infection. The HCV prevalence among the blood donors in Kosovo is 0.3%. Compared to the other European countries this level of prevalence is relatively low. Age group 30–39 years old was presented with 34.8% of cases. The higher number was among the workers, 842 or 26.8%. Based on the results we can conclude that Kosovo have the similar prevalence for HBV and HCV infections as other South East European countries. PMID:19216773

  16. The effect of HCV serological status on Doxorubicin based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karim Yousri Welaya

    2014-09-10

    Sep 10, 2014 ... Refusal of treatment. All patients included in this study were subjected to pre- treatment clinical, radiological and laboratory evaluation, including peripheral blood count, kidney and liver function tests. HCV antibody testing using Enzyme Linked Immuno- sorbent Assay (ELISA) was performed on all the ...

  17. Correlation between alanine aminotransferase level, HCV-RNA titer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reham Al Swaff

    2012-04-04

    Apr 4, 2012 ... Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, 30 Manshiet Al Bakry Street, Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt. Received 26 February 2012; ... Egypt has the highest prevalence of HCV worldwide (15%). [2] and the highest .... antitrypsin deficiency. 8. Current intravenous drug abuse. 9.

  18. seroprevalence of hav, hbv, hcv, and hev among acute hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-30

    Jul 30, 2013 ... place of residence, level of education,household size, drug abuse and sexual behaviours. Co-infection rate with hepatitis Viruses was at 4%, IgM ... Egypt has the highest HCV prevalence (7, 8, 19, and 23). The use of ... In a study carried out in Cairo, Egypt; HEV was found to be a common cause of acute ...

  19. HCV proteins and immunoglobulin variable gene (IgV) subfamilies in HCV-induced type II mixed cryoglobulinemia: a concurrent pathogenetic role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautto, Giuseppe; Mancini, Nicasio; Solforosi, Laura; Diotti, Roberta A; Clementi, Massimo; Burioni, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII) is well established, but the role played by distinct HCV proteins and by specific components of the anti-HCV humoral immune response remains to be clearly defined. It is widely accepted that HCV drives the expansion of few B-cell clones expressing a restricted pool of selected immunoglobulin variable (IgV) gene subfamilies frequently endowed with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity. Moreover, the same IgV subfamilies are frequently observed in HCV-transformed malignant B-cell clones occasionally complicating MCII. In this paper, we analyze both the humoral and viral counterparts at the basis of cryoglobulins production in HCV-induced MCII, with particular attention reserved to the single IgV subfamilies most frequently involved.

  20. Hypervariable region 1 differentially impacts viability of hepatitis C virus strains of genotypes 1 to 6 and impairs virus neutralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentoe, Jannick; Jensen, Tanja B; Meuleman, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 envelope glycoprotein has been implicated in virus neutralization and persistence. We deleted HVR1 from JFH1-based HCV recombinants expressing Core/E1/E2/p7/NS2 of genotypes 1 to 6, previously found to grow efficiently in human hepatoma...... genetics studies revealed adaptive envelope mutations that rescued the infectivity of 1a(ΔHVR1), 1b(ΔHVR1), 2b(ΔHVR1), and 3a(ΔHVR1) recombinants. Thus, HVR1 might have distinct functional roles for different HCV isolates. Ultracentrifugation studies showed that deletion of HVR1 did not alter HCV RNA...... density distribution, whereas infectious particle density changed from a range of 1.0 to 1.1 g/ml to a single peak at ∼1.1 g/ml, suggesting that HVR1 was critical for low-density HCV particle infectivity. Using chronic-phase HCV patient sera, we found three distinct neutralization profiles...

  1. Occult HCV infection: an unexpected finding in a population unselected for hepatic disease.

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    Laura De Marco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occult Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a new pathological entity characterized by presence of liver disease and absence or very low levels of detectable HCV-RNA in serum. Abnormal values of liver enzymes and presence of replicative HCV-RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells are also observed. Aim of the study was to evaluate occult HCV occurrence in a population unselected for hepatic disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We chose from previous epidemiological studies three series of subjects (n = 276, age range 40-65 years unselected for hepatic disease. These subjects were tested for the presence of HCV antibodies and HCV-RNA in plasma and in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs by using commercial systems. All subjects tested negative for HCV antibodies and plasma HCV-RNA and showed normal levels of liver enzymes; 9/276 patients (3.3% were positive for HCV-RNA in PBMCs, identifying a subset of subjects with potential occult HCV infection. We could determine the HCV type for 8 of the 9 patients finding type 1a (3 patients, type 1b (2 patients, and type 2a (3 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show evidence that occult HCV infection may occur in a population unselected for hepatic disease. A potential risk of HCV infection spread by subjects harbouring occult HCV infection should be considered. Design of prospective studies focusing on the frequency of infection in the general population and on the clinical evolution of occult HCV infection will be needed to verify this unexpected finding.

  2. Prevalence of HCV infection in nongastric marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaini, L; Burcheri, S; Rossi, A; Paulli, M; Bruno, R; Passamonti, F; Brusamolino, E; Molteni, A; Pulsoni, A; Cox, M C; Orsucci, L; Fabbri, A; Frezzato, M; Voso, M T; Zaja, F; Montanari, F; Merli, M; Pascutto, C; Morra, E; Cortelazzo, S; Lazzarino, M

    2007-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequently associated with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. We investigated the prevalence of HCV infection in nongastric marginal zone lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in order to define the relationship between the viral infection and the presenting features, treatment, and outcome. We retrospectively studied 172 patients with a histological diagnosis of marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT, except for stomach, and with available HCV serology, among a series of 208 patients. HCV infection was documented in 60 patients (35%). Most HCV-positive patients (97%) showed a single MALT organ involvement. HCV-positive patients showed a more frequent involvement of skin (35%), salivary glands (25%), and orbit (15%). The majority of stage IV HCV-positive patients (71%) had a single MALT site with bone marrow involvement. The overall response rate was similar in HCV-positive (93%) and HCV-negative patients (87%). Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) did not differ according to HCV infection. In multivariate analysis, advanced disease (stage III-IV) was associated with a poorer OS (P = 0.0001), irrespective of HCV serostatus. This study shows that nongastric marginal zone lymphomas are characterized by a high prevalence of HCV infection. Patients with involvement of a single MALT site have the highest prevalence of HCV. HCV-positive nongastric lymphomas of MALT show an indolent course similar to HCV-negative patients and seem an ideal target for exploiting the antilymphoma activity of antiviral treatments.

  3. Glomerular diseases associated with HBV and HCV infection

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    Boriana Kiperova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B and C viruses are human pathogens of major significance. Their extrahepatic manifestations are global health problem. HBV is a well-known cause of membranous nephropathy, membranoproliferative GN and IgA nephropathy, frequently in Asian populations. Polyarteritis nodosa is a rare, but serious systemic complication of chronic HBV. Immunosuppressive therapy in HBV-related GN is not recommended. Interferon alpha treatment produces sustained remission of porteinuria, often associated with clearance of HBeAg and/or HBsAg, however, it has many side effects. Compared to interferon, nucleos(tide analogues offer some advantages. These antiviral agents suppress HBV replication through their inhibitory effect on viral DNA polymerase. They have convenient administration and high tolerability. Lamivudine is well tolerated and safe in long-term studies, but the resistance of HBV is an escalating problem. The resistance to newer polymerase inhibitors Entecavir and Tenofovir is significantly lower. Hepatitis C virus causes cryoglobulinemia-mediated glomerulonephritis and other immune complex forms of GN. The renal manifestations are usually associated with long-lasting HCV infection. HCV glomerular disease is more frequent in adult males, and often leads to chronic renal insufficiency. The first line treatment in patients with mild to moderate clinical and histological kidney damage is the antiviral therapy with pegylated INF alpha and ribavirin. In case of severe HCV-associated cryoglobulinemic GN - nephrotic syndrome, nephritic syndrome and/or progressive renal failure, high activity score of glomerulonephritis on light microscopy, the initial treatment might consist of sequential administration of antiviral and immunosuppressive agents (corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and plasma exchange, or rituximab. The treatment of HCV-related glomerular disease is still under debate and based on scant experimental evidence. Large randomized and controlled

  4. High awareness of hepatitis C virus (HCV) but limited knowledge of HCV complications among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men.

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    Lambers, Femke A E; Prins, Maria; Davidovich, Udi; Stolte, Ineke G

    2014-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has emerged as a sexually transmitted infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income countries. Little is reported about HCV awareness among MSM, although this is essential for developing targeted prevention strategies. We, therefore, studied HCV awareness and knowledge among HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM from the Amsterdam Cohort Studies (ACS). During two visits, 1 year apart and starting in October 2007, MSM from the ACS answered questions regarding HCV awareness, knowledge of HCV transmission (7 items), complications (8 items) and sexual risk behaviour. We examined the percentage of HCV awareness and correctly answered knowledge items, and whether awareness and knowledge improved significantly over time. Using logistic regression, we studied whether HIV status and sexual risk behaviour were associated with awareness. Seventy percent (312/444) of HIV-negative and 80% (74/92) of HIV-positive MSM reported to have ever heard of HCV on the first visit. Overall, awareness increased with 9% between the first and second visit (p awareness was borderline significant (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.97-2.30). Compared with knowledge of transmission routes, knowledge of complications appeared to be limited. In the ACS, awareness of HCV is high, particularly among those reporting group sex, an important risk factor for HCV transmission. The majority of participants had good knowledge of transmission routes, but limited knowledge of complications of chronic HCV infection. HCV prevention messages could be strengthened, therefore, by further addressing the complications of HCV infection.

  5. Knowledge of HBV and HCV and individuals' attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues: a national cross-sectional study among a working population in Japan.

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    Hisashi Eguchi

    Full Text Available Prejudice and discrimination in the workplace regarding the risk of transmission of Hepatitis B virus (HBV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV are increased by excess concerns due to a lack of relevant knowledge. Education to increase knowledge about HBV and HCV and their prevention could be the first step to reduce prejudice and discrimination. This study aimed to determine the association between the level of knowledge and negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues among the Japanese working population. An online anonymous nationwide survey involving about 3,000 individuals was conducted in Japan. The questionnaire consisted of knowledge of HBV and HCV, and attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues in the workplace. Knowledge was divided into three categories: "ensuring daily activities not to be infected"; "risk of infection"; and "characteristics of HBV/HCV hepatitis", based on the result of factor analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied. A total of 3,129 persons responded to the survey: 36.0% reported they worried about the possibility of transmission of HBV and HCV from infected colleagues; 32.1% avoided contact with infected colleagues; and 23.7% had prejudiced opinions about HBV and HCV infection. The participants were classified into tertiles. A higher level of knowledge of HBV and HCV was significantly associated with these three negative attitudes (P for trend < 0.005. This study suggests that increasing knowledge may decrease individuals' negative attitudes towards HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues. Thus, we should promote increased knowledge of HBV and HCV in stages to reduce negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues.

  6. Inhibition of HCV replication by oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 4 (ORP4 through interaction with HCV NS5B and alteration of lipid droplet formation.

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    In-Woo Park

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA replication involves complex interactions among the 3'x RNA element within the HCV 3' untranslated region, viral and host proteins. However, many of the host proteins remain unknown. In this study, we devised an RNA affinity chromatography /2D/MASS proteomics strategy and identified nine putative 3' X-associated host proteins; among them is oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 4 (ORP4, a cytoplasmic receptor for oxysterols. We determined the relationship between ORP4 expression and HCV replication. A very low level of constitutive ORP4 expression was detected in hepatocytes. Ectopically expressed ORP4 was detected in the endoplasmic reticulum and inhibited luciferase reporter gene expression in HCV subgenomic replicon cells and HCV core expression in JFH-1-infected cells. Expression of ORP4S, an ORP4 variant that lacked the N-terminal pleckstrin-homology domain but contained the C-terminal oxysterol-binding domain also inhibited HCV replication, pointing to an important role of the oxysterol-binding domain in ORP4-mediated inhibition of HCV replication. ORP4 was found to associate with HCV NS5B and its expression led to inhibition of the NS5B activity. ORP4 expression had little effect on intracellular lipid synthesis and secretion, but it induced lipid droplet formation in the context of HCV replication. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ORP4 is a negative regulator of HCV replication, likely via interaction with HCV NS5B in the replication complex and regulation of intracellular lipid homeostasis. This work supports the important role of lipids and their metabolism in HCV replication and pathogenesis.

  7. Clinical characteristics, healthcare costs, and resource utilization in hepatitis C vary by genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby Hunter, Alyssa; Rosenblatt, Lisa; Patel, Chad; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Anduze-Faris, Beatrice

    2017-05-01

    In the United States, approximately 3 million people are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Genotypes of HCV variably affect disease progression and treatment response. However, the relationships between HCV genotypes and liver disease progression, healthcare resource utilization, and healthcare costs have not been fully explored. In this retrospective study of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), healthcare claims from a large US health plan were used to collect data on patient demographic and clinical characteristics. Main outcome measures include healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and healthcare costs. Linked laboratory data provided genotype and select measures to determine liver disease severity. The sample (mean age 50.6 years, 63.5% male) included 10,331 patients, of whom 79.1% had genotype (GT)1, 12.8% had GT2, and 8.1% had GT3. Descriptive analyses demonstrated variation by HCV genotype in liver and non-liver related comorbidities, liver disease severity, and healthcare costs. The highest percentage of patients with liver-related comorbidities and advanced liver disease was found among those with GT3. Meanwhile, patients with GT2 had lower HCRU and the lowest costs, and patients with GT1 had the highest total all-cause costs. These differences may reflect differing rates of non-liver-related comorbidities and all-cause care. Multivariable analyses showed that genotype was a significant predictor of costs and liver disease severity: compared with patients having GT1, those with GT3 were significantly more likely to have advanced liver disease. Patients with GT2 were significantly less likely to have advanced disease and more likely to have lower all-cause costs. Results may not be generalizable to patients outside the represented commercial insurance plans, and analysis of a prevalent population may underestimate HCRU and costs relative to a sample of treated patients. These results suggest that liver disease progression varies by genotype and

  8. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Vertical Transmission in 12-Month-Old Infants Born to HCV-Infected Women and Assessment of Maternal Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Jhaveri, Ravi; Hashem, Mohamed; El-Kamary, Samer S.; Saleh, Doa'a A.; Sharaf, Sahar A.; El-Mougy, Fatma; Abdelsalam, Lobna; Ehab, Mohamed; El-Ghazaly, Hesham

    2015-01-01

    Background. ?Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an underappreciated cause of pediatric liver disease, most frequently acquired by vertical transmission (VT). Current guidelines that include the option of