WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevailing ambient conditions

  1. Benthic diversity of River Gomti in relation to the prevailing environmental conditions in Lucknow

    OpenAIRE

    Varshney, P.K.; Agrahari, R.K.; Singh, S.K.; Jain, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the benthic diversity of River Gomti in relation to the prevailing environmental conditions, four stations, viz., Maa Chandrika Devi, Daliganj, Ambedkar Park and Aquaduct, were identified from upstream to downstream along the course of the river in Lucknow. Dissolved oxygen was low on many occasions at all the stations except Maa Chandrika Devi and chemical oxygen demand values were high. There was a gradual increase in mean nitrite and phosphate values from up to downstream. Bent...

  2. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2001-12-20

    The purpose of Revision 00 of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada.

  3. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  4. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.; Hu, Q.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of Revision 00 of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada

  5. Convergent acclimation of leaf photosynthesis and respiration to prevailing ambient temperatures under current and warmer climates in Eucalyptus tereticornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinwall, Michael J; Drake, John E; Campany, Courtney; Vårhammar, Angelica; Ghannoum, Oula; Tissue, David T; Reich, Peter B; Tjoelker, Mark G

    2016-10-01

    Understanding physiological acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration is important in elucidating the metabolic performance of trees in a changing climate. Does physiological acclimation to climate warming mirror acclimation to seasonal temperature changes? We grew Eucalyptus tereticornis trees in the field for 14 months inside 9-m tall whole-tree chambers tracking ambient air temperature (Tair ) or ambient Tair  + 3°C (i.e. 'warmed'). We measured light- and CO2 -saturated net photosynthesis (Amax ) and night-time dark respiration (R) each month at 25°C to quantify acclimation. Tree growth was measured, and leaf nitrogen (N) and total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) concentrations were determined to investigate mechanisms of acclimation. Warming reduced Amax and R measured at 25°C compared to ambient-grown trees. Both traits also declined as mean daily Tair increased, and did so in a similar way across temperature treatments. Amax and R (at 25°C) both increased as TNC concentrations increased seasonally; these relationships appeared to arise from source-sink imbalances, suggesting potential substrate regulation of thermal acclimation. We found that photosynthesis and respiration each acclimated equivalently to experimental warming and seasonal temperature change of a similar magnitude, reflecting a common, nearly homeostatic constraint on leaf carbon exchange that will be important in governing tree responses to climate warming. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Thermal explosion in oscillating ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2016-07-01

    Thermal explosion problem for a medium with oscillating ambient temperature at its boundaries is considered. This is a new problem in thermal explosion theory, not previously considered in a distributed system formulation, but important for combustion and fire science. It describes autoignition of wide range of fires (such as but not limited to piles of biosolids and other organic matter; storages of munitions, explosives, propellants) subjected to temperature variations, such as seasonal or day/night variation. The problem is considered in formulation adopted in classical studies of thermal explosion. Critical conditions are determined by frequency and amplitude of ambient temperature oscillations, as well as by a number of other parameters. Effects of all the parameters on critical conditions are quantified. Results are presented for the case of planar symmetry. Development of thermal explosion in time is also considered, and a new type of unsteady thermal explosion development is discovered where thermal runaway occurs after several periods of temperature oscillations within the medium.

  7. Relationship between Prevailing Redox Conditions, Water Type, Topographic Location and Methane Concentrations in Susquehanna County, NE Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molofsky, L. J.; McHugh, T. E.; Connor, J. A.; Richardson, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Historical occurrence of methane in residential water wells in parts of the Appalachian basin (Pennsylvania, New York, West Virginia) has long been recognized as a natural phenomenon. The recent increase in shale gas extraction activities in these areas has highlighted the need to distinguish between baseline methane concentrations and those that may results from gas extraction activities. For the first time, this study shows that natural dissolved methane in Northeastern Pennsylvania exhibits a relationship with prevailing redox conditions of groundwater, though this relationship is not entirely as predicted. Specifically, methane concentrations in 806 pre-drill samples from residential water wells in Susquehanna County, NE Pennsylvania, were found to be highest in samples with low SO4 concentrations but low Fe(II) concentrations. This is opposite from what would be expected if high methane concentrations were associated with a reduction of insoluble Fe(III)-minerals resulting in the release of soluble Fe(II) (and therefore, an increase in measurable dissolved iron). The water type (i.e., Na-rich vs. Ca-rich), and topographic location (i.e., valley vs. upland) was also evaluated for each of the prevailing redox states to identify associations and potential driving factors. Based on this information, this talk identifies a combination of easily identifiable natural environmental "risk" factors (i.e., advanced redox state, Na-rich water type, and valley setting) that are highly predictive of naturally elevated methane concentrations in water wells. These findings highlight simple and meaningful relationships that may be used to infer whether methane in residential water sources is natural or associated with stray gas migration.

  8. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive

  9. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.; Hu, Q.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids, and

  10. Risk related behaviour under different ambient scent conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Gagarina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the effect of two ambient scents (peppermint and vanilla and their intensiveness on risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Purpose of the article: The purpose of this article is to identify the relationship of ambient scent type and intensiveness with risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Methodology/methods: 2×2 factorial experiment with control group was run. Ambient scent type (vanilla vs. peppermint and intensiveness (8 (1mg vs. 16 sprays (2mg of scent concentrate in the same room were manipulated as between subject variables. Risk aversion, effect of anchoring heuristic on bidding, and affect (risk and benefit heuristics were tracked as dependent variables. Scientific aim: To identify whether ambient scent type and intensiveness have effect on risk related behaviour. Findings: Evidence suggests that there are effects of ambient scent on risk related behaviour, thus fulfilling the missing gap to relate ambient environment to decision making heuristics when risks are involved. However, not all heuristics were affected by experimental conditions. Subjects were bidding significantly higher amounts under low anchor conditions, when peppermint scent was around (if compared to vanilla group. Affect risk was perceived as lower in peppermint ambient scent conditions, if compared to the control group. Intensity of ambient scent also had influence on affect risk: subjects perceived less risk under high scent intensity conditions. Conclusions: By manipulating ambient scent, marketers may reduce or increase consumers risk perception and behaviour and as a consequence influence their purchase decisions. Marketers could use peppermint scent in high intensiveness in the situations where they want consumers to undertake higher risks (expensive purchases, gambling, insurance, since stakes were higher under peppermint ambient scent condition

  11. The Prevailing Weather and Traffic Conditions in the Evaluation of a Future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. A view into the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Castells i Sanabra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Appendix III of MARPOL's Annex VI sets out the criteria and procedures for designating an emission control area (ECA.These criteria includes: a clear delineation of the proposed ECA; types of emissions proposed for control, land and sea areas at risk; emission quantification and impact assessment; prevailing weather conditions; data and quality on marine traffic; land based measures concurrent with the ECA adoption and the relative costs of reducing emissions from ships. This paper analyses the climate parameter together with traffic conditions: prevailing weather conditions as a parameter to be kept in mind for the adoption of a future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. Preliminary results would show how marine emissions coming from existing traffic will impact the sea and land ecology in the Mediterranean area.

  12. Charge injection from carbon nanofibers into hexane under ambient conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agiral, A.; Eral, Burak; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2011-01-01

    The observation of charge injection from carbon nanofibers (CNFs) into liquid hexane under ambient conditions is reported. A CNF-coated electrode and a counter electrode are brought into micrometer proximity in a quasi-parallel geometry using a strain-gauge-based proximity sensor. Controlled charge

  13. Trapping of cubic ZnO nanocrystallites at ambient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decremps, F.; Pellicer-Porres, J.; Datchi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Dense powder of nanocrystalline ZnO has been recovered at ambient conditions in the metastable cubic structure after a heat treatment at high pressure (15 GPa and 550 K). Combined x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments have been performed to probe both long-ra...

  14. Investigation of Transmission Warming Technologies at Various Ambient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jehlik, Forrest; Iliev, Simeon; Wood, Eric; Gonder, Jeff

    2017-03-28

    This work details two approaches for evaluating transmission warming technology: experimental dynamometer testing and development of a simplified transmission efficiency model to quantify effects under varied real world ambient and driving conditions. Two vehicles were used for this investigation: a 2013 Ford Taurus and a 2011 Ford Fusion. The Taurus included a production transmission warming system and was tested over hot and cold ambient temperatures with the transmission warming system enabled and disabled. A robot driver was used to minimize driver variability and increase repeatability. Additionally the Fusion was tested cold and with the transmission pre-heated prior to completing the test cycles. These data were used to develop a simplified thermally responsive transmission model to estimate effects of transmission warming in real world conditions. For the Taurus, the fuel consumption variability within one standard deviation was shown to be under 0.5% for eight repeat Urban Dynamometer Driving Cycles (UDDS). These results were valid with the transmission warming system active or passive. Using the transmission warming system under 22 degrees C ambient temperature, fuel consumption reduction was shown to be 1.4%. For the Fusion, pre-warming the transmission reduced fuel consumption 2.5% for an urban drive cycle at -7 degrees C ambient temperature, with 1.5% of the 2.5% gain associated with the transmission, while consumption for the US06 test was shown to be reduced by 7% with 5.5% of the 7% gain associated with the transmission. It was found that engine warming due to conduction between the pre-heated transmission and the engine resulted in the remainder of the benefit. For +22 degrees C ambient tests, the pre-heated transmission was shown to reduce fuel consumption approximately 1% on an urban cycle, while no benefit was seen for the US06 cycle. The simplified modeling results showed gains in efficiency ranging from 0-1.5% depending on the ambient

  15. Complex interplay of body condition, life history, and prevailing environment shapes immune defenses of garter snakes in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Maria G; Cunnick, Joan E; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2013-01-01

    The immunocompetence "pace-of-life" hypothesis proposes that fast-living organisms should invest more in innate immune defenses and less in adaptive defenses compared to slow-living ones. We found some support for this hypothesis in two life-history ecotypes of the snake Thamnophis elegans; fast-living individuals show higher levels of innate immunity compared to slow-living ones. Here, we optimized a lymphocyte proliferation assay to assess the complementary prediction that slow-living snakes should in turn show stronger adaptive defenses. We also assessed the "environmental" hypothesis that predicts that slow-living snakes should show lower levels of immune defenses (both innate and adaptive) given the harsher environment they live in. Proliferation of B- and T-lymphocytes of free-living individuals was on average higher in fast-living than slow-living snakes, opposing the pace-of-life hypothesis and supporting the environmental hypothesis. Bactericidal capacity of plasma, an index of innate immunity, did not differ between fast-living and slow-living snakes in this study, contrasting the previously documented pattern and highlighting the importance of annual environmental conditions as determinants of immune profiles of free-living animals. Our results do not negate a link between life history and immunity, as indicated by ecotype-specific relationships between lymphocyte proliferation and body condition, but suggest more subtle nuances than those currently proposed.

  16. Effects of ambient conditions on fuel cell vehicle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsson, K.; Alvfors, P.

    Ambient conditions have considerable impact on the performance of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Here, the vehicle fuel consumption, the air compressor power demand, the water management system and the heat loads of a fuel cell hybrid sport utility vehicle (SUV) were studied. The simulation results show that the vehicle fuel consumption increases with 10% when the altitude increases from 0 m up to 3000 m to 4.1 L gasoline equivalents/100 km over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). The increase is 19% on the more power demanding highway US06 cycle. The air compressor is the major contributor to this fuel consumption increase. Its load-following strategy makes its power demand increase with increasing altitude. Almost 40% of the net power output of the fuel cell system is consumed by the air compressor at the altitude of 3000 m with this load-following strategy and is thus more apparent in the high-power US06 cycle. Changes in ambient air temperature and relative humidity effect on the fuel cell system performance in terms of the water management rather in vehicle fuel consumption. Ambient air temperature and relative humidity have some impact on the vehicle performance mostly seen in the heat and water management of the fuel cell system. While the heat loads of the fuel cell system components vary significantly with increasing ambient temperature, the relative humidity did not have a great impact on the water balance. Overall, dimensioning the compressor and other system components to meet the fuel cell system requirements at the minimum and maximum expected ambient temperatures, in this case 5 and 40 °C, and high altitude, while simultaneously choosing a correct control strategy are important parameters for efficient vehicle power train management.

  17. Photoelectron Spectroscopy under Ambient Pressure and Temperature Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogletree, D. Frank; Bluhm, Hendrik; Hebenstreit, Eleonore B.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-02-27

    We describe the development and applications of novel instrumentation for photoemission spectroscopy of solid or liquid surfaces in the presence of gases under ambient conditions or pressure and temperature. The new instrument overcomes the strong scattering of electrons in gases by the use of an aperture close to the surface followed by a differentially-pumped electrostatic lens system. In addition to the scattering problem, experiments in the presence of condensed water or other liquids require the development of special sample holders to provide localized cooling. We discuss the first two generations of Ambient Pressure PhotoEmission Spectroscopy (APPES) instruments developed at synchrotron light sources (ALS in Berkeley and BESSY in Berlin), with special focus on the Berkeley instruments. Applications to environmental science and catalytic chemical research are illustrated in two examples.

  18. Autocatalytic water dissociation on Cu(110) at near ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulleregan, Alice; Andersson, Klas; Ketteler, Guido; Bluhm, Hendrik; Yamamoto, Susumu; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Pettersson, Lars G.M.; Salmeron, Miquel; Nilsson, Anders

    2007-05-16

    Autocatalytic dissociation of water on the Cu(110) metal surface is demonstrated based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies carried out in-situ under near ambient conditions of water vapor pressure (1 Torr) and temperature (275-520 K). The autocatalytic reaction is explained as the result of the strong hydrogen-bond in the H{sub 2}O-OH complex of the dissociated final state, which lowers the water dissociation barrier according to the Broensted-Evans-Polanyi relations. A simple chemical bonding picture is presented which predicts autocatalytic water dissociation to be a general phenomenon on metal surfaces.

  19. Magnetic Criticality Enhanced Hybrid Nanodiamond Thermometer under Ambient Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Liu, Gang-Qin; Leong, Weng-Hang; Zeng, Hualing; Feng, Xi; Li, Si-Hong; Dolde, Florian; Fedder, Helmut; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Cui, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Sen; Li, Quan; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are attractive as quantum sensors owing to their superb coherence under ambient conditions. However, the NV center spin resonances are relatively insensitive to some important parameters such as temperature and pressure. Here we design and experimentally demonstrate a hybrid nanothermometer composed of NV centers and a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP), in which the temperature sensitivity is enhanced by the critical magnetization of the MNP near the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition temperature. The temperature susceptibility of the NV center spin resonance reaches 14 MHz /K , nearly 200 times larger than that of bare NV centers. The sensitivity of a hybrid nanothermometer composed of a Cu1 -xNix MNP and a nanodiamond is measured to be 11 mK /√{Hz } under ambient conditions. The working range of the hybrid thermometer can be designed from cryogenic temperature to about 600 K by tuning the chemical composition of the Cu1 -xNix MNP. We demonstrate in situ detection of the magnetic phase transition of a single magnetic nanoparticle using the hybrid nanothermometer. This hybrid nanothermometer provides a novel approach to studying a broad range of thermal processes at nanoscales such as nanoplasmonics, heat-stimulated subcellular processes, and thermodynamics of nanosystems.

  20. Magnetic Criticality Enhanced Hybrid Nanodiamond Thermometer under Ambient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen-vacancy (NV centers in diamond are attractive as quantum sensors owing to their superb coherence under ambient conditions. However, the NV center spin resonances are relatively insensitive to some important parameters such as temperature and pressure. Here we design and experimentally demonstrate a hybrid nanothermometer composed of NV centers and a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP, in which the temperature sensitivity is enhanced by the critical magnetization of the MNP near the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition temperature. The temperature susceptibility of the NV center spin resonance reaches 14  MHz/K, nearly 200 times larger than that of bare NV centers. The sensitivity of a hybrid nanothermometer composed of a Cu_{1-x}Ni_{x} MNP and a nanodiamond is measured to be 11  mK/sqrt[Hz] under ambient conditions. The working range of the hybrid thermometer can be designed from cryogenic temperature to about 600 K by tuning the chemical composition of the Cu_{1-x}Ni_{x} MNP. We demonstrate in situ detection of the magnetic phase transition of a single magnetic nanoparticle using the hybrid nanothermometer. This hybrid nanothermometer provides a novel approach to studying a broad range of thermal processes at nanoscales such as nanoplasmonics, heat-stimulated subcellular processes, and thermodynamics of nanosystems.

  1. Kinetic effects in thermal explosion with oscillating ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2018-03-05

    Thermal explosion problem for a medium with oscillating ambient temperature at its boundaries is a new problem which was introduced in the preceding publication by the present author. It is directly applicable to a range of practical fire autoignition scenarios (e.g. in the storages of organic matter, explosives, propellants, etc.). Effects of kinetic mechanisms, however, need be further investigated as they are expected to alter critical conditions of thermal explosion. We consider several global kinetic mechanisms: first order reaction, second order reaction, and first order autocatalysis. It is demonstrated that kinetic effects related to reactants consumption do indeed shift respective critical boundaries. Effect of kinetics on oscillatory development of thermal explosion is of particular interest. In line with conclusions of the preceding publication, it is confirmed that temperature oscillations may develop during induction phase of thermal explosion when the effect of reactants consumption is properly taken into account. Moreover, development of thermal explosion instability through the prior oscillations is an inevitable and natural scenario. This fact is confirmed by a number of examples. Besides, effects of the other relevant parameter, Zeldovich number on critical conditions are also investigated.

  2. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air conditioning environmental test... conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements. The goal of an air conditioning test facility is... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating...

  3. Exergy Based Performance Analysis of a Gas Turbine Unit at Various Ambient Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Idris A. Elfeituri

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of ambient conditions on the performance of a 285 MW gas turbine unit using the exergy concept. Based on the available exergy balance models developed, a computer program has been constructed to investigate the performance of the power plant under varying ambient temperature and relative humidity conditions. The variations of ambient temperature range from zero to 50 ºC and the relative humidity ranges from zero to 100%, while the unit load kept constant at 100% ...

  4. How Ambient Pressure Influences Water Droplet Nucleation at Tropospheric Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Brus, David; Wedekind, J.; Lihavainen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2010), L21802 ISSN 0094-8276 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nucleations theories * ambient pressure * condensation of droplets Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.505, year: 2010

  5. The use of ambient humidity conditions to improve influenza forecast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Shaman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and epidemiological evidence indicate that ambient humidity modulates the survival and transmission of influenza. Here we explore whether the inclusion of humidity forcing in mathematical models describing influenza transmission improves the accuracy of forecasts generated with those models. We generate retrospective forecasts for 95 cities over 10 seasons in the United States and assess both forecast accuracy and error. Overall, we find that humidity forcing improves forecast performance (at 1-4 lead weeks, 3.8% more peak week and 4.4% more peak intensity forecasts are accurate than with no forcing and that forecasts generated using daily climatological humidity forcing generally outperform forecasts that utilize daily observed humidity forcing (4.4% and 2.6% respectively. These findings hold for predictions of outbreak peak intensity, peak timing, and incidence over 2- and 4-week horizons. The results indicate that use of climatological humidity forcing is warranted for current operational influenza forecast.

  6. The use of ambient humidity conditions to improve influenza forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, Jeffrey; Kandula, Sasikiran; Yang, Wan; Karspeck, Alicia

    2017-11-01

    Laboratory and epidemiological evidence indicate that ambient humidity modulates the survival and transmission of influenza. Here we explore whether the inclusion of humidity forcing in mathematical models describing influenza transmission improves the accuracy of forecasts generated with those models. We generate retrospective forecasts for 95 cities over 10 seasons in the United States and assess both forecast accuracy and error. Overall, we find that humidity forcing improves forecast performance (at 1-4 lead weeks, 3.8% more peak week and 4.4% more peak intensity forecasts are accurate than with no forcing) and that forecasts generated using daily climatological humidity forcing generally outperform forecasts that utilize daily observed humidity forcing (4.4% and 2.6% respectively). These findings hold for predictions of outbreak peak intensity, peak timing, and incidence over 2- and 4-week horizons. The results indicate that use of climatological humidity forcing is warranted for current operational influenza forecast.

  7. Measuring method to impulse neutron scattering background in complicated ambient condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Zhangkui; Peng Taiping; Tang Zhengyuan; Liu Hangang; Hu Mengchun; Fan Juan

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduced a measuring method and calculative formula about impulse neutron scattering background in complicated ambient condition. The experiment had been done in the lab, and the factors to affect measurement conclusion were analysised. (authors)

  8. The Effects of Ambient Conditions on Helicopter Harmonic Noise Radiation: Theory and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben W.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of ambient atmospheric conditions, air temperature and density, on rotor harmonic noise radiation are characterized using theoretical models and experimental measurements of helicopter noise collected at three different test sites at elevations ranging from sea level to 7000 ft above sea level. Significant changes in the thickness, loading, and blade-vortex interaction noise levels and radiation directions are observed across the different test sites for an AS350 helicopter flying at the same indicated airspeed and gross weight. However, the radiated noise is shown to scale with ambient pressure when the flight condition of the helicopter is defined in nondimensional terms. Although the effective tip Mach number is identified as the primary governing parameter for thickness noise, the nondimensional weight coefficient also impacts lower harmonic loading noise levels, which contribute strongly to low frequency harmonic noise radiation both in and out of the plane of the horizon. Strategies for maintaining the same nondimensional rotor operating condition under different ambient conditions are developed using an analytical model of single main rotor helicopter trim and confirmed using a CAMRAD II model of the AS350 helicopter. The ability of the Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustics Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) technique to generalize noise measurements made under one set of ambient conditions to make accurate noise predictions under other ambient conditions is also validated.

  9. Aural-Nondetectability Model Predictions for Night-Vision Goggles across Ambient Lighting Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Ambient Lighting Conditions by Jeremy Gaston, Ashley Foots, Christopher Stachowiak , and Samantha Chambers Approved for...Lighting Conditions Jeremy Gaston, Ashley Foots, Christopher Stachowiak , and Samantha Chambers Human Research and Engineering Directorate, ARL...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jeremy Gaston, Ashley Foots, Christopher Stachowiak , and Samantha

  10. Behaviour of lactic acid bacteria populations in Pecorino di Carmasciano cheese samples submitted to environmental conditions prevailing in the gastrointestinal tract: evaluation by means of a polyphasic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Annamaria; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Succi, Mariantonietta; Aponte, Maria

    2014-06-02

    The survival of the autochthonous microflora, of samples collected during Pecorino di Carmasciano cheese manufacturing, was evaluated along the passage through a model mimicking the gastro-intestinal tract. The aim was the selection of lactic acid bacteria potentially able to arrive alive and metabolically active to the colon. The dynamics of lactic microbiota, throughout simulated digestion of cheese samples, were evaluated by means of an approach PCR-DGGE-based. Dominant species after cheese digestion could be related to the Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei groups. Sixty-three strains, which survived to simulated gastro-intestinal transit, were further evaluated for technological features and tolerance to human digestion in several experimental conditions, according to routinely used protocols. Bacterial survival appeared to be, more than strain-specific, strongly affected by experimental conditions, i.e. some strains showed an acceptable survival when resuspended in skim milk but not in ewe milk and vice versa. Nevertheless according to data, one gram of fresh Pecorino di Carmasciano cheese may convey to human colon about the same amount of viable LAB of a probiotic drink. Although it cannot be assumed that lactobacilli introduced with Pecorino have beneficial effects on the host, the healthy impact of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria of naturally fermented food has a broad consensus in the current literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of ambient oxygen concentration on biodiesel and diesel spray combustion under simulated engine conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the effect of ambient oxygen concentration on biodiesel and diesel spray combustion under simulated compression-ignition engine conditions in a constant-volume chamber. The apparent heat release rate (AHRR) is calculated based on the measured pressure. High-speed imaging of OH* chemiluminescence and natural luminosity (NL) is employed to visualize the combustion process. Temporally and spatially resolved NL and OH* contour plots are obtained. The result indicates that AHRR depends monotonically on the ambient oxygen concentration for both fuels. A lower oxygen concentration yields a slower AHRR increase rate, a lower peak AHRR value, but a higher AHRR value during the burn-out stage when compared with higher ambient oxygen concentration conditions. OH* chemiluminescence and NL contours indicate that biodiesel may experience a longer premixed-combustion duration. The 18% ambient O2 condition works better for biodiesel than diesel in reducing soot luminosity. With 12% O2, diesel combustion is significantly degraded. However, both fuels experience low temperature combustion at 10% O2. These results may imply that biodiesel is able to achieve the desired lower soot production under a moderate oxygen level with higher combustion efficiency, while diesel needs to be burned under very low ambient oxygen concentration for low soot production. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Desulfurization of Hydrocarbon Fuels at Ambient Conditions Using Supported Silver Oxide-Titania Sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    then be integrated to commercial refining operations or portable power applications using process simulation application such as Aspen . Such an...of sulfur in transportation fuels. Sulfur does not hamper the performance of internal combustion engines. However, the use of sulfur containing...cells and catalyst beds. Operability of a desulfurizer at ambient conditions without the requirement for hydrogen provides many advantages over

  13. [The energy metabolism of the Emperor penguin (Aptendodytes patagonica J. F. Miller) in ambient natural conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorst, M J

    1976-01-05

    In natural ambient conditions at Possession Island the resting metabolism of the emancipated King Penguin is 50.40 kcal/kg/D. A bird whose insulation is good and which maintains its stomachic temperature at a high level can reduce its heat production by 42% during the long fasting periods which characterize its reproductive cycle, in particular by social and individual thermoregulating behaviour.

  14. Effect of ambient storage condition on the pH and vitamin C content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of ambient storage condition on the pH and vitamin C content of selected Tetra-Pak packaged fruit juices marketed in Nigeria were evaluated. These selected commercial fruit juices included Cofrutos Orange, Cofrutos Tropical Mixed Fruit, Chivita Mango, Chivita Pineapple, Don Simon Multifruta and PureJoy Apple ...

  15. Highly selective defect-mediated photochemical CO2 conversion over fluorite ceria under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong; Wang, Wenzhong; Gao, Erping; Sun, Songmei; Zhang, Ling

    2014-02-25

    A highly selective defect-mediated photochemical CO2 conversion to CO over defective CeO2 nanorods under ambient conditions (CO2 400 ppm) is presented. The local strain and surface oxygen vacancies embedded in the defect-rich CeO2 are suggested to play a decisive role in mediating the photochemical CO2 conversion.

  16. Characterization of gamma irradiated peanut kernels stored one year under ambient and frozen conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, R.Y.Y.; Shyu, S.L.; Tsai, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    Peanut kernels were gamma irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, and 20 KGy, and stored 1 yr at ambient and frozen (-14 degrees C) conditions. Irradiated peanuts lost germination capabilities during storage. Molds were detected only on peanuts irradiated with 2.5 KGy and stored at ambient temperature. Peanut oil in kernels stored at -14 degrees C was comparatively more stable than that in peanuts stored at ambient temperature. Oxidation of oil was not significantly changed by irradiation. Changes in fatty acid content varied slightly with exception of linoleic and linolenic acids which decreased with increased radiation depending on storage temperature. The SDS-PAGE protein patterns of peanuts revealed no noticeable variation of protein subunits resulting from irradiation and storage

  17. Estimating the effects of ambient conditions on the performance of UVGI air cleaners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Josephine; Bahnfleth, William; Freihaut, James [Indoor Environment Center, Department of Architectural Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) uses UVC radiation produced by low pressure mercury vapor lamps to control biological air contaminants. Ambient air velocity and temperature have a strong effect on lamp output by influencing the lamp surface cold spot temperature. In-duct UVGI systems are particularly susceptible to ambient effects due to the range of velocity and temperature conditions they may experience. An analytical model of the effect of ambient conditions on lamp surface temperature was developed for three common lamp types in cross flow from a convective-radiative energy balance assuming constant surface temperature. For one lamp type, a single tube standard output lamp, UVC output and cold spot temperature data were obtained under typical in-duct operating conditions. Over an ambient temperature range of 10-32.2 C and an air velocity range of 0-3.25 m/s, measured cold spot temperature varied from 12.7 to 41.9 C and measured lamp output varied by 68% of maximum. Surface temperatures predicted by the heat transfer model were 6-17 C higher than corresponding measured cold spot temperatures, but were found to correlate well with cold spot temperature via a two-variable linear regression. When corrected using this relationship, the simple model predicted the cold spot temperature within 1 C and lamp UVC output within {+-}5%. To illustrate its practical use, the calibrated lamp model was employed in a simulation of the control of a contaminant in a single-zone ventilation system by an in-duct UVGI device. In this example, failure to account for the impact of ambient condition effects resulted in under-prediction of average space concentration by approximately 20% relative to a constant output system operating at maximum UVC output. (author)

  18. Impact Analysis of Temperature and Humidity Conditions on Electrochemical Sensor Response in Ambient Air Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng; Ning, Zhi; Ye, Sheng; Sun, Li; Yang, Fenhuan; Wong, Ka Chun; Westerdahl, Dane; Louie, Peter K K

    2018-01-23

    The increasing applications of low-cost air sensors promises more convenient and cost-effective systems for air monitoring in many places and under many conditions. However, the data quality from such systems has not been fully characterized and may not meet user expectations in research and regulatory uses, or for use in citizen science. In our study, electrochemical sensors (Alphasense B4 series) for carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and oxidants (O x ) were evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions to identify the influencing factors and quantify their relation with sensor outputs. Based on the laboratory tests, we developed different correction methods to compensate for the impact of ambient conditions. Further, the sensors were assembled into a monitoring system and tested in ambient conditions in Hong Kong side-by-side with regulatory reference monitors, and data from these tests were used to evaluate the performance of the models, to refine them, and validate their applicability in variable ambient conditions in the field. The more comprehensive correction models demonstrated enhanced performance when compared with uncorrected data. One over-arching observation of this study is that the low-cost sensors may promise excellent sensitivity and performance, but it is essential for users to understand and account for several key factors that may strongly affect the nature of sensor data. In this paper, we also evaluated factors of multi-month stability, temperature, and humidity, and considered the interaction of oxidant gases NO₂ and ozone on a newly introduced oxidant sensor.

  19. Preservative solution that stabilizes erythrocyte morphology and leukocyte viability under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlin, Rebecca D; Wong, Keith H K; Boneschansker, Leo; Carey, Thomas R; Miller, Kathleen L; Rose, Gregory; Haber, Daniel A; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Irimia, Daniel; Stott, Shannon L; Toner, Mehmet

    2017-07-18

    The deterioration of whole blood ex vivo represents a logistical hurdle in clinical and research settings. Here, a cocktail preservative is described that stabilizes leukocyte viability and erythrocyte morphology in whole blood under ambient storage. Neutrophil biostabilization was explored using a sophisticated microfluidic assay to examine the effectiveness of caspase inhibition to stabilize purified neutrophils. Following 72 h ambient storage, neutrophils remained fully functional to migrate towards chemical cues and maintained their ability to undergo NETosis after stimulation. Furthermore, stored neutrophils exhibited improved CD45 biomarker retention and reduced apoptosis and mortality compared to untreated controls. To stabilize erythrocyte morphology, a preservative solution was formulated using Taguchi methods of experimental design, and combined with the caspase inhibitor to form a whole blood cocktail solution, CS WB . CS WB was evaluated in blood from healthy donors and from women with metastatic breast cancer stored under ambient conditions for 72 h. CS WB -treated samples showed a significant improvement in erythrocyte morphology compared to untreated controls. Leukocytes in CS WB -treated blood exhibited significantly higher viability and CD45 biomarker retention compared to untreated controls. This 72 h shelf life under ambient conditions represents an opportunity to transport isolates or simply ease experimental timelines where blood degradation is problematic.

  20. Recent progress in transition-metal-catalyzed reduction of molecular dinitrogen under ambient reaction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki

    2015-10-05

    This paper describes our recent progress in catalytic nitrogen fixation by using transition-metal-dinitrogen complexes as catalysts. Two reaction systems for the catalytic transformation of molecular dinitrogen into ammonia and its equivalent such as silylamine under ambient reaction conditions have been achieved by the molybdenum-, iron-, and cobalt-dinitrogen complexes as catalysts. Many new findings presented here may provide new access to the development of economical nitrogen fixation in place of the Haber-Bosch process.

  1. Aerobic oxidation of aldehydes under ambient conditions using supported gold nanoparticle catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsden, Charlotte Clare; Taarning, Esben; Hansen, David

    2008-01-01

    A new, green protocol for producing simple esters by selectively oxidizing an aldehyde dissolved in a primary alcohol has been established, utilising air as the oxidant and supported gold nanoparticles as catalyst. The oxidative esterifications proceed with excellent selectivities at ambient...... conditions; the reactions can be performed in an open flask and at room temperature. Benzaldehyde is even oxidised at a reasonable rate below -70 degrees C. Acrolein is oxidised to methyl acrylate in high yield using the same protocol....

  2. Postharvest quality of cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) stored under ambient condition

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva; Railene Hérica Carlos Rocha; Luiz Carlos Chamhum Salomão

    2011-01-01

    Cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) is an important genetic resource that has been traditionally used for a variety of purposes, including food, medical and cosmetics applications. The objective of this study was evaluated the quality and the period of postharvest shelf life of cocona 'Mosquet", through the physical, chemical and physiological characterization of fruits stored under the ambient conditions. Physiologically mature fruits were harvested from an orchard, washed with tap water an...

  3. Development of new microscope unit for single molecule spectroscopy under various ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T; Kaji, T; Ueda, R; Otomo, A

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces techniques we previously developed for single molecule spectroscopy and continues on to describe our studies on dipole orientation imaging of single molecules under various ambient conditions. In these studies, we successfully obtained defocused images of single perylene diimide (PDI) molecules under air, high-vacuum, and pure N 2 gas conditions by utilizing the advantages of our new microscope unit. The studies are positioned as one of the important applications of our microscope unit for single molecule spectroscopy. We expect a wide range of applications for this unit for various microscope measurements for many types of materials.

  4. Soot measurements for diesel and biodiesel spray combustion under high temperature highly diluted ambient conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel, namely fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and diesel fuel combustion in a constant volume chamber using a two-color technique. The KL factor is a parameter for soot concentration, where K is an absorption coefficient and proportional to the number density of soot particles, L is the geometric thickness of the flame along the optical detection axis, and KL factor is proportional to soot volume fraction. The main objective is to explore a combustion regime called high-temperature and highly-diluted combustion (HTHDC) and compare it with the conventional and low-temperature combustion (LTC) modes. The three different combustion regimes are implemented under different ambient temperatures (800 K, 1000 K, and 1400 K) and ambient oxygen concentrations (10%, 15%, and 21%). Results are presented in terms of soot temperature and KL factor images, time-resolved pixel-averaged soot temperature, KL factor, and spatially integrated KL factor over the soot area. The time-averaged results for these three regimes are compared for both diesel and biodiesel fuels. Results show complex combined effects of the ambient temperature and oxygen concentration, and that two-color temperature for the HTHDC mode at the 10% oxygen level can actually be lower than the conventional mode. Increasing ambient oxygen and temperature increases soot temperature. Diesel fuel results in higher soot temperature than biodiesel for all three regimes. Results also show that diesel and biodiesel fuels have very different burning and sooting behavior under the three different combustion regimes. For diesel fuel, the HTHDC regime offers better results in terms of lower soot than the conventional and LTC regimes, and the 10% O2, 1400 K ambient condition shows the lowest soot concentration while maintaining a moderate two-color temperature. For biodiesel, the 15% O2, 800 K ambient condition shows some advantages in terms of reducing soot

  5. Impact Analysis of Temperature and Humidity Conditions on Electrochemical Sensor Response in Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing applications of low-cost air sensors promises more convenient and cost-effective systems for air monitoring in many places and under many conditions. However, the data quality from such systems has not been fully characterized and may not meet user expectations in research and regulatory uses, or for use in citizen science. In our study, electrochemical sensors (Alphasense B4 series for carbon monoxide (CO, nitric oxide (NO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, and oxidants (Ox were evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions to identify the influencing factors and quantify their relation with sensor outputs. Based on the laboratory tests, we developed different correction methods to compensate for the impact of ambient conditions. Further, the sensors were assembled into a monitoring system and tested in ambient conditions in Hong Kong side-by-side with regulatory reference monitors, and data from these tests were used to evaluate the performance of the models, to refine them, and validate their applicability in variable ambient conditions in the field. The more comprehensive correction models demonstrated enhanced performance when compared with uncorrected data. One over-arching observation of this study is that the low-cost sensors may promise excellent sensitivity and performance, but it is essential for users to understand and account for several key factors that may strongly affect the nature of sensor data. In this paper, we also evaluated factors of multi-month stability, temperature, and humidity, and considered the interaction of oxidant gases NO2 and ozone on a newly introduced oxidant sensor.

  6. Detoxification of wood preserving waste under ambient, enhanced and chemical pretreatment conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, M.S.; Brown, K.W.; Dale, B.E.; Donnelly, K.C.; He, L.Y.; Markiewicz, K.V. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Detoxification of pentachlorophenol-containing wood preserving waste was monitored under ambient, enhanced and chemical pretreatment conditions for genotoxicity and parent compound removal. Samples were collected throughout the treatment periods and sequentially extracted with dichloromethane and methanol with the Tecator Soxtec apparatus. The organic extracts were analyzed on GC/ECD and GC/MS. The extract mutagenic and genotoxic potentials were evaluated with and without metabolic activation with the Salmonella Microsomal and E. coli Prophage Induction assays. The Salmonella mutagenic responses of extracts from Weswood soil amended with wood preserving waste and treated under ambient conditions were 2.0, 34.6 and 2.4 times greater than the solvent control on days 0, 540 and 1,200 respectively. Organic extracts of soil amended with wood preserving waste and treated under enhanced conditions in a solid-phase rotating drum bioreactor had mutagenic potentials of 3.4, 4.9 and 3.5 on days 0, 14 and 30, respectively. Extracts from wood preserving waste sludge treated with potassium polyethylene glycol were shown to have mutagenic potentials of 2.8, 6.1 and 3.8 at 0, 10 and 30 minutes. The results indicate that the initial products of the wood preserving waste detoxification under all treatment conditions appear to have greater genotoxic potentials than the starting material. The results also suggest that a more rapid detoxification occurs under enhanced and chemical pretreatment conditions.

  7. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial sludges in the ambient air conditions: automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Tasdemir, Yucel

    2013-01-01

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) existed in automotive industry treatment sludge was examined by considering the effects of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and diethyl amine (DEA) in different dosages (i.e., 5% and 20%) in this study. Application of TiO2 and DEA to the sludge samples in ambient environment was studied. Ten PAH (Σ10 PAH) compounds were targeted and their average value in the sludge was found to be 4480 ± 1450 ng/g dry matter (DM). Total PAH content of the sludge was reduced by 25% in the ambient air environment. Meteorological conditions, atmospheric deposition, evaporation and sunlight irradiation played an effective role in the variations in PAH levels during the tests carried out in ambient air environment. Moreover, it was observed that when the ring numbers of PAHs increased, their removal rates also increased. Total PAH level did not change with the addition of 5% DEA and only 10% decreased with 5% TiO2 addition. PAH removal ratios were 8% and 32% when DEA (20%) and TiO2 (20%) were added, respectively. It was concluded that DEA was a weak photo-sensitizer yet TiO2 was effective only at 20% dosage.

  8. MODELING THE AMBIENT CONDITION EFFECTS OF AN AIR-COOLED NATURAL CIRCULATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Rui; Lisowski, Darius D.; Bucknor, Matthew; Kraus, Adam R.; Lv, Qiuping

    2017-07-02

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a passive safety concept under consideration for the overall safety strategy of advanced reactors such as the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). One such variant, air-cooled RCCS, uses natural convection to drive the flow of air from outside the reactor building to remove decay heat during normal operation and accident scenarios. The Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (“Argonne”) is a half-scale model of the primary features of one conceptual air-cooled RCCS design. The facility was constructed to carry out highly instrumented experiments to study the performance of the RCCS concept for reactor decay heat removal that relies on natural convection cooling. Parallel modeling and simulation efforts were performed to support the design, operation, and analysis of the natural convection system. Throughout the testing program, strong influences of ambient conditions were observed in the experimental data when baseline tests were repeated under the same test procedures. Thus, significant analysis efforts were devoted to gaining a better understanding of these influences and the subsequent response of the NSTF to ambient conditions. It was determined that air humidity had negligible impacts on NSTF system performance and therefore did not warrant consideration in the models. However, temperature differences between the building exterior and interior air, along with the outside wind speed, were shown to be dominant factors. Combining the stack and wind effects together, an empirical model was developed based on theoretical considerations and using experimental data to correlate zero-power system flow rates with ambient meteorological conditions. Some coefficients in the model were obtained based on best fitting the experimental data. The predictive capability of the empirical model was demonstrated by applying it to the new set of experimental data. The

  9. Efficient elimination of trace ethylene over nano-gold catalyst under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinjun; Ma, Chunyan; Xu, Xiuyan; Yu, Junjie; Hao, Zhengping; Qiao, Shizhang

    2008-12-01

    Nano-Au/Co3O4 catalyst with high gold loading was found to be a good catalytic material for the elimination of trace ethylene (ppb) at ambient conditions. The gold nanoparticles dispersed on the support nano-Co3O4 surface contribute to this high activity at room temperature. The relatively rapid deactivation trend was observed under high concentrations of ethylene (1000 ppm), because coke deposits were present on the catalyst surface during the reaction process. This type of nano-gold catalytic material shows great potential as a meaningfully environmental catalyst, particularly for indoor environmental control of trace ethylene (ppb) and keeping fruits fresh during warehouse storage.

  10. SURVEY OF PEANUT FUNGAL CONTAMINATION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH AMBIENT CONDITIONS IN THE BAZAR OF ZANJAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rostami ، K. Naddafi ، A. Aghamohamadi ، H. Najafi saleh ، M. Fazlzadeh davil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Different food products such as corn, wheat and peanut have shown high potential to be contaminated in suitableenvironmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity. Some fungi can produce toxins, like Aflatoxin,and some of them are carcinogen. The purpose of this research was to study fungal contamination in peanutsbeing sold in the BAZAR of the city of Zanjan. 20 samples of 50g roasted and salted peanuts and 16 samplesof 50g unsalted peanuts (pure were collected from Zanjan BAZAR. Ambient conditions such as light intensity,temperature and air flow of the BAZAR and also the relative humidity of peanuts were measured. Samples wereanalyzed for fungal colony and were identified using slide culture technique. Results showed that Mold fungiwere dominant among the colonies as. Aspergillus flavus (39.1%, Penicillium (9.2%, Rhizopus (7.2%, Mucor(2.5%, Alternaria (1.03% and Nigrospora (0.5%. Temperature and the samples relative humidity were higherthan the standard range. The results indicated a significant relation between relative humidity, light intensity,temperature and peanuts’ type (pure or salted with level of fungal contamination. Also, roasting and processingreduced the relative humidity of peanuts and the level of contamination. Hence roasting, salting and provision ofappropriate ambient conditions can be useful to peanut storage

  11. Leaching behaviour of hazardous waste under the impact of different ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorini, Isabella; Baldi, Francesco; Bacchi, Donata; Carnevale, Ennio Antonio; Corti, Andrea

    2017-05-01

    The overall objective of this study is to provide an improved basis for the assessment of the leaching behaviour of waste marked as hazardous partly stabilised (European waste catalogue code 19 03 04 ∗ ). Four samples of hazardous partly stabilised waste were subjected to two leaching tests: up-flow column tests and batch equilibrium tests. The research was carried out in two directions: the first aims at comparing the results of the two experimental setups while the second aims at assessing the impact of different ambient conditions on the leaching behaviour of waste. Concerning this latter objective the effect of mesophilic temperature, mechanical constraints and acid environment were tested through column percolation tests. Results showed no significant differences between batch and column leaching test outcomes when comparing average concentrations calculated at a liquid to solid ratio of 10:1 l kg -1  TS. Among the tested ambient conditions, the presence of an acid environment (pH=4.5) accelerated the leaching process resulting in a higher cumulative released quantity measured on the majority of the investigated polluting substances. On the contrary, the effect of temperature and mechanical constraints seemed to not affect the process showing final contents even lower than values found for the standard test. This result was furthermore confirmed by the application of the principal component analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An Amorphous Noble-Metal-Free Electrocatalyst that Enables Nitrogen Fixation under Ambient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chade; Yan, Chunshuang; Chen, Gang; Ding, Yu; Sun, Jingxue; Zhou, Yansong; Yu, Guihua

    2018-02-23

    N 2 fixation by the electrocatalytic nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) under ambient conditions is regarded as a potential approach to achieve NH 3 production, which still heavily relies on the Haber-Bosch process at the cost of huge energy and massive production of CO 2 . A noble-metal-free Bi 4 V 2 O 11 /CeO 2 hybrid with an amorphous phase (BVC-A) is used as the cathode for electrocatalytic NRR. The amorphous Bi 4 V 2 O 11 contains significant defects, which play a role as active sites. The CeO 2 not only serves as a trigger to induce the amorphous structure, but also establishes band alignment with Bi 4 V 2 O 11 for rapid interfacial charge transfer. Remarkably, BVC-A shows outstanding electrocatalytic NRR performance with high average yield (NH 3 : 23.21 μg h -1  mg -1 cat. , Faradaic efficiency: 10.16 %) under ambient conditions, which is superior to the Bi 4 V 2 O 11 /CeO 2 hybrid with crystalline phase (BVC-C) counterpart. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Isobaric-isothermal Monte Carlo simulations from first principles: Application to liquid water at ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, M; Siepmann, J I; Kuo, I W; Mundy, C J; VandeVondele, J; Hutter, J; Mohamed, F; Krack, M

    2004-12-02

    A series of first principles Monte Carlo simulations in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble were carried out for liquid water at ambient conditions (T = 298 K and p = 1 atm). The Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) exchange and correlation energy functionals and norm-conserving Goedecker-Teter-Hutter (GTH) pseudopotentials were employed with the CP2K simulation package to examine systems consisting of 64 water molecules. The fluctuations in the system volume encountered in simulations in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble requires a reconsideration of the suitability of the typical charge density cutoff and the regular grid generation method previously used for the computation of the electrostatic energy in first principles simulations in the microcanonical or canonical ensembles. In particular, it is noted that a much higher cutoff is needed and that the most computationally efficient method of creating grids can result in poor simulations. Analysis of the simulation trajectories using a very large charge density cutoff at 1200 Ry and four different grid generation methods point to a substantially underestimated liquid density of about 0.85 g/cm{sup 3} resulting in a somewhat understructured liquid (with a value of about 2.7 for the height of the first peak in the oxygen/oxygen radial distribution function) for BLYP-GTH water at ambient conditions.

  14. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer of gas-phase ions under ultra high vacuum and ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankevich, Vladimir; Chagovets, Vitaliy; Widjaja, Fanny; Barylyuk, Konstantin; Yang, Zhiyi; Zenobi, Renato

    2014-05-21

    We report evidence for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) of gas-phase ions under ultra high vacuum conditions (10(-9) mbar) inside a mass spectrometer as well as under ambient conditions inside an electrospray plume. Two different FRET pairs based on carboxyrhodamine 6G (donor) and ATTO590 or Bodipy TR (acceptor) dyes were examined and their gas-phase optical properties were studied. Our measurements indicate a different behavior for the two FRET pairs, which can be attributed to their different conformations in the gas phase. Upon desolvation via electrospray ionization, one of the FRET pairs undergoes a conformational change that leads to disappearance of FRET. This study shows the promise of FRET to obtain a direct correlation between solution and gas-phase structures.

  15. Respiratory alkalosis and primary hypocapnia in Labrador Retrievers participating in field trials in high-ambient-temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiss, Janet E; Wright, James C

    2008-10-01

    To determine whether Labrador Retrievers participating in field trials develop respiratory alkalosis and hypocapnia primarily in conditions of high ambient temperatures. 16 Labrador Retrievers. At each of 5 field trials, 5 to 10 dogs were monitored during a test (retrieval of birds over a variable distance on land [1,076 to 2,200 m]; 36 assessments); ambient temperatures ranged from 2.2 degrees to 29.4 degrees C. For each dog, rectal temperature was measured and a venous blood sample was collected in a heparinized syringe within 5 minutes of test completion. Blood samples were analyzed on site for Hct; pH; sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, bicarbonate, and total CO2 concentrations; and values of PvO2 and PvCO2. Scatterplots of each variable versus ambient temperature were reviewed. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of ambient temperature ( 21 degrees C) on each variable. Compared with findings at ambient temperatures 21 degrees C; rectal temperature did not differ. Two dogs developed signs of heat stress in 1 test at an ambient temperature of 29 degrees C; their rectal temperatures were higher and PvCO2 values were lower than findings in other dogs. When running distances frequently encountered at field trials, healthy Labrador Retrievers developed hyperthermia regardless of ambient temperature. Dogs developed respiratory alkalosis and hypocapnia at ambient temperatures > 21 degrees C.

  16. Modeling level instrumentation response to variations on drywell ambient conditions for a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecenas F, M.; Ovando C, R.; Cruz G, M. A.; Vargas A, A.; Cardenas J, J.

    2010-10-01

    For a BWR, the water level instrumentation is based on the differential pressure existing between two lines known as the reference and variable legs. The latter corresponds to the actual vessel level hydrostatic column from the reactor down to the differential pressure instrument location. The reference leg column is produced by piping connecting the instrumentation with a condensing chamber maintained at constant level. The calibration of the piping hydrostatic pressures associated to both legs is performed in BWRs using an average temperature representative of the drywell and one average temperature for the secondary containment. During reactor operation at steady state, there are temperature gradients in the ambient temperatures inside the primary containment that produce density changes in the water of both legs and will show a small change in the reactor level even when no physical change occurs. More important is the modification of the temperature distribution of the containment, which would lead to significant changes in the level reported by the instrumentation. In this work, a thermal model of the level instrumentation piping is developed to evaluate ambient temperature changes and gradients along the piping trajectory. The model takes into account axial and radial heat transfer for both the reference and variable legs. It is shown that possible changes in the drywell temperature may lead to apparent changes in level when no physical change occurs. In the practice, the model can be useful to evaluate the effect of heat and air conditioning systems inside the primary containment. (Author)

  17. Light-induced magnetoresistance in solution-processed planar hybrid devices measured under ambient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreetama Banerjee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report light-induced negative organic magnetoresistance (OMAR measured in ambient atmosphere in solution-processed 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynylpentacene (TIPS-pentacene planar hybrid devices with two different device architectures. Hybrid electronic devices with trench-isolated electrodes (HED-TIE having a channel length of ca. 100 nm fabricated in this work and, for comparison, commercially available pre-structured organic field-effect transistor (OFET substrates with a channel length of 20 µm were used. The magnitude of the photocurrent as well as the magnetoresistance was found to be higher for the HED-TIE devices because of the much smaller channel length of these devices compared to the OFETs. We attribute the observed light-induced negative magnetoresistance in TIPS-pentacene to the presence of electron–hole pairs under illumination as the magnetoresistive effect scales with the photocurrent. The magnetoresistance effect was found to diminish over time under ambient conditions compared to a freshly prepared sample. We propose that the much faster degradation of the magnetoresistance effect as compared to the photocurrent was due to the incorporation of water molecules in the TIPS-pentacene film.

  18. Light-induced magnetoresistance in solution-processed planar hybrid devices measured under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sreetama; Bülz, Daniel; Reuter, Danny; Hiller, Karla; Zahn, Dietrich R T; Salvan, Georgeta

    2017-01-01

    We report light-induced negative organic magnetoresistance (OMAR) measured in ambient atmosphere in solution-processed 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) planar hybrid devices with two different device architectures. Hybrid electronic devices with trench-isolated electrodes (HED-TIE) having a channel length of ca. 100 nm fabricated in this work and, for comparison, commercially available pre-structured organic field-effect transistor (OFET) substrates with a channel length of 20 µm were used. The magnitude of the photocurrent as well as the magnetoresistance was found to be higher for the HED-TIE devices because of the much smaller channel length of these devices compared to the OFETs. We attribute the observed light-induced negative magnetoresistance in TIPS-pentacene to the presence of electron-hole pairs under illumination as the magnetoresistive effect scales with the photocurrent. The magnetoresistance effect was found to diminish over time under ambient conditions compared to a freshly prepared sample. We propose that the much faster degradation of the magnetoresistance effect as compared to the photocurrent was due to the incorporation of water molecules in the TIPS-pentacene film.

  19. The effect of changing ambient humidity on moisture condition in timber elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hozjan, Tomaẑ; Turk, Goran; Srpĉiĉ, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the changing ambient humidity on moisture conditions in timber elements. The naturally varying humidity is possible to model as a relative combination of different harmonic cycles, with different periods and amplitudes. For the determination of the moisture field...... a fully coupled transport model including a model for the influential sorption hysteresis of wood is used. The coupled model accounts for both vapor transport in pores and bound water transport in wood tissue. Moisture state history influences relationship between moisture state of wood and air humidity......, it must therefore be taken into account. In order to include history dependency, a hysteresis model is used here. Results from numerical calculations for timber specimen exposed to combined daily and annually cyclic variation of outside humidity are presented. Copyright © (2012) by WCTE 2012 Committee....

  20. The effect of changing ambient humidity on moisture condition in timber elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hozjan, Tomaž; Turk, Goran; Srpcic, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the changing ambient humidity on moisture conditions in timber elements. The naturally varying humidity is possible to model as a relative combination of different harmonic cycles, with different periods and amplitudes. For the determination of the moisture field...... fully coupled transport model including a model for the influential sorption hysteresis of wood is used. The coupled model accounts for both vapor transport in pores and bound water transport in wood tissue. Moisture state history influences relationship between moisture state of wood and air humidity......, it must therefore be taken into account. In order to include history dependency, a hysteresis model is used here. Numerical results for timber specimen exposed to combined daily and annually cyclic variation of outside humidity are presented....

  1. Water adsorption on alpha-Fe2O3(0001) at near ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Susumu; Kendelewicz, Tom; Newberg, John T.; Ketteler, Guido; Starr, David E.; Mysak, Erin R.; Andersson, Klas J.; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Bluhm, Henrik; Salmeron, Miquel; Brown Jr., Gordon E.; Nilsson, Anders

    2009-11-23

    We have investigated hydroxylation and water adsorption on {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) at water vapor pressures up to 2 Torr and temperatures ranging from 277 to 647 K (relative humidity (RH) {<=} 34%) using ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Hydroxylation occurs at the very low RH of 1 x 10{sup -7}% and precedes the adsorption of molecular water. With increasing RH, the OH coverage increases up to one monolayer (ML) without any distinct threshold pressure. Depth profiling measurements showed that hydroxylation occurs only at the topmost surface under our experimental conditions. The onset of molecular water adsorption varies from {approx}2 x 10{sup -5} to {approx}4 x 10{sup -2}% RH depending on sample temperature and water vapor pressure. The coverage of water reaches I ML at {approx} 15% RH and increases to 1.5 ML at 34% RH.

  2. Active Sensing in Ambient Conditions Using an Electrostatically Driven Silicon Microcantilever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. KESKAR

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the behavior of a non-functionalized microcantilever sensor which can be used for active sensing of gaseous species under ambient conditions. Our sensing platform measures the changes in the mechanical response (in amplitude and/or phase of the vibrating cantilever in air at its resonant frequency when exposed to several vapors and gases. We also demonstrate the detection of isotopes of hydrogen (protium and deuterium, the flammable gas methane, and laughing gas (nitrous oxide based on change in mass in air. The responses of the microcantilever when exposed to puffs of vapors of water, iso-propanol, benzene and n-hexane were correlated with their polarity index, dielectric constant and molecular mass. Thus, we introduce this promising approach for an easy-to-use and highly versatile sensing platform.

  3. Water Adsorption on a-Fe2O3(0001) at Near Ambient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Susumu

    2011-08-19

    We have investigated hydroxylation and water adsorption on {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) at water vapor pressures up to 2 Torr and temperatures ranging from 277 to 647 K (relative humidity (RH) {le} 34%) using ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Hydroxylation occurs at the very low RH of 1 x 10{sup -7} % and precedes the adsorption of molecular water. With increasing RH, the OH coverage increases up to one monolayer (ML) without any distinct threshold pressure. Depth profiling measurements showed that hydroxylation occurs only at the topmost surface under our experimental conditions. The onset of molecular water adsorption varies from {approx}2 x 10{sup -5} to {approx} 4 x 10{sup -2} % RH depending on sample temperature and water vapor pressure. The coverage of water reaches 1 ML at {approx}15% RH and increases to 1.5 ML at 34% RH.

  4. Microporous metal-organic framework with potential for carbon dioxide capture at ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shengchang; He, Yabing; Zhang, Zhangjing; Wu, Hui; Zhou, Wei; Krishna, Rajamani; Chen, Banglin

    2012-07-17

    Carbon dioxide capture and separation are important industrial processes that allow the use of carbon dioxide for the production of a range of chemical products and materials, and to minimize the effects of carbon dioxide emission. Porous metal-organic frameworks are promising materials to achieve such separations and to replace current technologies, which use aqueous solvents to chemically absorb carbon dioxide. Here we show that a metal-organic frameworks (UTSA-16) displays high uptake (160 cm(3) cm(-3)) of CO(2) at ambient conditions, making it a potentially useful adsorbent material for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture and biogas stream purification. This has been further confirmed by simulated breakthrough experiments. The high storage capacities and selectivities of UTSA-16 for carbon dioxide capture are attributed to the optimal pore cages and the strong binding sites to carbon dioxide, which have been demonstrated by neutron diffraction studies.

  5. Experimental Adiabatic Quantum Factorization under Ambient Conditions Based on a Solid-State Single Spin System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kebiao; Xie, Tianyu; Li, Zhaokai; Xu, Xiangkun; Wang, Mengqi; Ye, Xiangyu; Kong, Fei; Geng, Jianpei; Duan, Changkui; Shi, Fazhan; Du, Jiangfeng

    2017-03-31

    The adiabatic quantum computation is a universal and robust method of quantum computing. In this architecture, the problem can be solved by adiabatically evolving the quantum processor from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to that of a final one, which encodes the solution of the problem. Adiabatic quantum computation has been proved to be a compatible candidate for scalable quantum computation. In this Letter, we report on the experimental realization of an adiabatic quantum algorithm on a single solid spin system under ambient conditions. All elements of adiabatic quantum computation, including initial state preparation, adiabatic evolution (simulated by optimal control), and final state read-out, are realized experimentally. As an example, we found the ground state of the problem Hamiltonian S_{z}I_{z} on our adiabatic quantum processor, which can be mapped to the factorization of 35 into its prime factors 5 and 7.

  6. Controlled synthesis of quantum confined CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huimei; Tang, Bing; Ma, Ying

    2018-02-01

    Room temperature recrystallization is a simple and convenient method for synthesis of all-inorganic perovskite nanomaterials with excellent luminescent properties. However, the fast crystallization usually brings the colloidal stability and uncontrollable synthesis issues in the formation of all-inorganic perovskite. In the present study, we present a new strategy to prepare the quantum confined CsPbBr3 nanocrystals with controlled morphology under ambient condition. With the assist of fatty acid-capped precursor, the crystallization and the following growth rate can be retarded. Thanks to the retarded reaction, the morphology can be varied from nanowires to nanoplates and the thickness can be controlled from 5-7 monolayers by simply adjusting the amount of octylammonium cations and oleic acid. The nanoplates exhibit a higher photoluminescence quantum yield than the nanowires possibly due to fewer defects in the nanoplates.

  7. Controlled Synthesis of Quantum Confined CsPbBr3 perovskite Nanocrystals under Ambient Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huimei; Tang, Bing; Ma, Ying

    2017-11-21

    Room temperature recrystallization is a simple and convenient method for synthesis of all-inorganic perovskite nanomaterials with excellent luminescent properties. However, the fast crystallization usually brings the colloidal stability and uncontrollable synthesis issues in the formation of all-inorganic perovskite. In the present study, we present a new strategy to prepare the quantum confined CsPbBr3 nanocrystals with controlled morphology under ambient condition. With the assist of fatty acid-capped precursor, the crystallization and the following growth rate can be retarded. Thanks to the retarded reaction, the morphology can be varied from nanowires to nanoplates and the thickness can be controlled from 5 to 7 monolayers by simply adjusting the amount of octylammonium cations and oleic acid. The nanoplates exhibit a higher photoluminescence quantum yield than the nanowires possibly due to fewer defects in the nanoplates. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

    2011-12-01

    According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during

  9. An electrophysiological and behavioral study of sleep in emperor penguins under natural ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchet, C; Dewasmes, G; Le Maho, Y

    1986-01-01

    In two pairs of emperor penguins surgically implanted for chronic recordings of EEG, EOG and EMG, four arousal stages were characterized on the basis of behavioral and electrophysiological criteria: wakefulness (W), drowsiness (D), slow-wave sleep (SWS) and paradoxical sleep (PS). The general patterns of electrographic correlates observed for each arousal stage resemble those reported in other birds. Sleep patterns were examined with these two pairs placed under natural ambient conditions of light and air temperature, the first pair being exposed to moderate cold under alternate conditions of day and night, and the second studied when daylight was total at thermoneutrality. The time spent in sleep (TST) by each group was 41.3% and 45.1% of the 24 hr period respectively, the difference not being significant. As in other birds, PS occurred in very brief episodes lasting, on average, 8 to 10 seconds and occupying only 5 to 6% of the 24 hr period. Whatever the external conditions, the PS to TST ratio appeared to remain unchanged (12 to 14%). Its relatively high value is discussed in relation to predation susceptibility.

  10. The correlation between mixed refrigerant composition and ambient conditions in the PRICO LNG process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiongwen; Liu, Jinping; Jiang, Chuanshuo; Cao, Le

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► PRICO LNG process was modelled by Aspen Plus. ► The optimal energy solution of the PRICO process was searched by the genetic algorithm. ► MR composition solutions under different cold box inlet temperature from 263.15 K through 313.15 K were searched. ► MR composition varies with the cold box inlet temperature was linearly regressed to be a set of functions. ► Feasibility and energy efficiency of the composition function were validated. -- Abstract: The mixed refrigerant (MR) process is widely used for the liquefaction of natural gas (NG). The determination of MR composition with respect to variations in ambient conditions is crucial but difficult. PRICO is one of the simplest MR processes, and it is frequently used in small and mid-scale natural gas liquefaction plants. However, the determination of MR composition in the PRICO process is not easy. In this work, we presented a potential solution to this problem. First, operating pressures in the PRICO process were assumed to be fixed. We then programmed a genetic algorithm (GA) method coupling the process simulation software Aspen Plus and optimised the MR composition solution under different cold box inlet temperatures. Linear regression was performed on the MR composition to derive a set of functions, which were then validated for feasibility and energy efficiency. The results show that when the ambient temperature increases, the concentrations of methane, ethylene and propane should decrease, and isopentane should increase. This work may be helpful for designers and operators working with the PRICO process.

  11. Prevailing Torque Locking Feature in Threaded Fasteners Using Anaerobic Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alan; Hess, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests to assess the use of anaerobic adhesive for providing a prevailing torque locking feature in threaded fasteners. Test procedures are developed and tests are performed on three fastener materials, four anaerobic adhesives, and both unseated assembly conditions. Five to ten samples are tested for each combination. Tests for initial use, reuse without additional adhesive, and reuse with additional adhesive are performed for all samples. A 48-hour cure time was used for all initial use and reuse tests. Test data are presented as removal torque versus removal angle with the specification required prevailing torque range added for performance assessment. Percent specification pass rates for the all combinations of fastener material, adhesive, and assembly condition are tabulated and reveal use of anaerobic adhesive as a prevailing torque locking feature is viable. Although not every possible fastener material and anaerobic adhesive combination provides prevailing torque values within specification, any combination can be assessed using the test procedures presented. Reuse without additional anaerobic adhesive generally provides some prevailing torque, and in some cases within specification. Reuse with additional adhesive often provides comparable removal torque data as in initial use.

  12. Experimental Assessment of residential split type air-conditioning systems using alternative refrigerants to R-22 at high ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joudi, Khalid A.; Al-Amir, Qusay R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • R290, R407C and R410A in residential split A/C units at high ambient. • 1 and 2 TR residential air conditioners with R22 alternatives at high ambient. • Residential split unit performance at ambients up to 55 °C with R22 alternatives. - Abstract: Steady state performance of residential air conditioning systems using R22 and alternatives R290, R407C, R410A, at high ambient temperatures, have been investigated experimentally. System performance parameters such as optimum refrigerant charge, coefficient of performance, cooling capacity, power consumption, pressure ratio, power per ton of refrigeration and TEWI environmental factor have been determined. All refrigerants were tested in the cooling mode operation under high ambient air temperatures, up to 55 °C, to determine their suitability. Two split type air conditioner of 1 and 2 TR capacities were used. A psychrometric test facility was constructed consisting of a conditioned cool compartment and an environmental duct serving the condenser. Air inside the conditioned compartment was maintained at 25 °C dry bulb and 19 °C wet bulb for all tests. In the environmental duct, the ambient air temperature was varied from 35 °C to 55 °C in 5 °C increments. The study showed that R290 is the better candidate to replace R22 under high ambient air temperatures. It has lower TEWI values and a better coefficient of performance than the other refrigerants tested. It is suitable as a drop-in refrigerant. R407C has the closest performance to R22, followed by R410A

  13. Seasonal prevailing surface winds in Northern Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Ivana; Gavrilov, Milivoj B.; Marković, Slobodan B.; Ruman, Albert; Putniković, Suzana

    2018-02-01

    Seasonal prevailing surface winds are analyzed in the territory of Northern Serbia, using observational data from 12 meteorological stations over several decades. In accordance with the general definition of prevailing wind, two special definitions of this term are used. The seasonal wind roses in 16 directions at each station are analyzed. This study shows that the prevailing winds in Northern Serbia have northwestern and southeastern directions. Circulation weather types over Serbia are presented in order to determine the connections between the synoptic circulations and prevailing surface winds. Three controlling pressure centers, i.e., the Mediterranean cyclone, Siberian high, and the Azores anticyclone, appear as the most important large-scale factors that influence the creation of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia. Beside the synoptic cause of the prevailing winds, it is noted that the orography of the eastern Balkans has a major influence on the winds from the second quadrant. It was found that the frequencies of circulation weather types are in agreement with those of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia.

  14. Compensation for the Effects of Ambient Conditions on the Calibration of Multi-Capillary Pressure Drop Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colard S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette draw resistance and filter pressure drop (PD are both major physical parameters for the tobacco industry. Therefore these parameters must be measured reliably. For these measurements, specific equipment calibrated with PD transfer standards is used. Each transfer standard must have a known and stable PD value, such standards usually being composed of several capillary tubes associated in parallel. However, PD values are modified by ambient conditions during calibration of such standards, i.e. by temperature and relative humidity (RH of air, and atmospheric pressure. In order to reduce the influence of these ambient factors, a simplified model was developed for compensating the effects of ambient conditions on the calibration of multi-capillary PD standards.

  15. Multisensor Capacitance Probes for Simultaneously Monitoring Rice Field Soil-Water-Crop-Ambient Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Multisensor capacitance probes (MCPs) have traditionally been used for soil moisture monitoring and irrigation scheduling. This paper presents a new application of these probes, namely the simultaneous monitoring of ponded water level, soil moisture, and temperature profile, conditions which are particularly important for rice crops in temperate growing regions and for rice grown with prolonged periods of drying. WiFi-based loggers are used to concurrently collect the data from the MCPs and ultrasonic distance sensors (giving an independent reading of water depth). Models are fit to MCP water depth vs volumetric water content (VWC) characteristics from laboratory measurements, variability from probe-to-probe is assessed, and the methodology is verified using measurements from a rice field throughout a growing season. The root-mean-squared error of the water depth calculated from MCP VWC over the rice growing season was 6.6 mm. MCPs are used to simultaneously monitor ponded water depth, soil moisture content when ponded water is drained, and temperatures in root, water, crop and ambient zones. The insulation effect of ponded water against cold-temperature effects is demonstrated with low and high water levels. The developed approach offers advantages in gaining the full soil-plant-atmosphere continuum in a single robust sensor. PMID:29278397

  16. A simple degradation method for sulfur mustard at ambient conditions using nickelphthalocyanine incorporated polypyrrole modified electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pushpendra K.; Sikarwar, Bhavna; Gupta, Garima; Nigam, Anil K.; Tripathi, Brijesh K.; Pandey, Pratibha; Boopathi, Mannan; Ganesan, Kumaran; Singh, Beer

    2014-01-01

    Electrocatalytic degradation of sulfur mustard (SM) was studied using a gold electrode modified with nickelphthalocyanine and polypyrrole (NiPc/pPy/Au) in the presence of a cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide. Several techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been employed for the characterization of modified electrodes. NiPc/pPy/Au modified electrode exhibited excellent electrochemical sensing and degradation ability towards SM. The present modification indicated two electron involvements in the electrocatalytic degradation of SM in addition to being an irreversible adsorption controlled process. Degraded products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moreover, electrochemical parameters of oxidation of SM such as heterogeneous rate constant (0.436 s-1), transfer coefficient (0.47) and the number of electrons involved (2) were deduced from cyclic voltammetry results. The NiPc/pPy/Au modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic degradation towards SM when compared to bare gold, pPy/Au and NiPc/Au modified electrode at ambient conditions.

  17. Single-shot readout of multiple nuclear spin qubits in diamond under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    Nuclear spins are attractive candidates for solid-state quantum information storage and processing owing to their extremely long coherence time. However, since this appealing property results from a high level of isolation from the environment, it remains a challenging task to polarize, manipulate and readout with high fidelity individual nuclear spins. A promising approach to overcome this limitation consists in utilizing an ancillary single electronic spin to detect and control remote nuclear spins coupled by hyperfine interaction. In this talk, I will show how the electronic spin of a single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) defect in diamond can be used as a robust platform to observe the real-time evolution of surrounding single nuclear spins under ambient conditions. Using a diamond sample with a natural abundance of 13C isotopes, we first demonstrate high fidelity initialization and single-shot readout of an individual 13C nuclear spin. By including the intrinsic 14N nuclear spin of the NV defect in the quantum register, we then report the simultaneous observation of quantum jumps linked to both nuclear spin species, providing an efficient initialization of the two qubits. These results open up new avenues for diamond-based quantum information processing (QIP) including active feedback in quantum error correction protocols and tests of quantum correlations with solid-state single spins at room temperature.

  18. Laser-Induced Reductive Sintering of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles under Ambient Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Paeng, Dongwoo

    2015-03-19

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. This work is concerned with the kinetics of laser-induced reductive sintering of nonstoichiometric crystalline nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles (NPs) under ambient conditions. The mechanism of photophysical reductive sintering upon irradiation using a 514.5 nm continuous-wave (CW) laser on NiO NP thin films has been studied through modulating the laser power density and illumination time. Protons produced due to high-temperature decomposition of the solvent present in the NiO NP ink, oxygen vacancies in the NiO NPs, and electronic excitation in the NiO NPs by laser irradiation all affect the early stage of the reductive sintering process. Once NiO NPs are reduced by laser irradiation to Ni, they begin to coalesce, forming a conducting material. In situ optical and electrical measurements during the reductive sintering process take advantage of the distinct differences between the oxide and the metallic phases to monitor the transient evolution of the process. We observe four regimes: oxidation, reduction, sintering, and reoxidation. A characteristic time scale is assigned to each regime.

  19. Barium Titanate Nanoparticles Formed by Chlorine-Free Ambient Condition Sol Process Using Tetrabutylammonium Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooje Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate (BaTiO3: BTO nanoparticles (NPs were synthesized by chlorine-free ambient condition sol (ACS process using heat reflux at low temperature of 90°C. The size distribution and morphology of BTO NPs were investigated by varying the concentration of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH. The crystalline size of BTO NPs was decreased with increasing the amount of TBAH capping agent (average size changes from 54.3 to 38.7 nm for 0 to 0.5 M TBAH in X-ray diffraction measurement. The particle size of BTO NPs was principally controlled by a synthetic control of butyl chain of TBAH and also a steric effect of excess amount of TBAH. The dielectric constant of BTO NPs was decreased from 152 to 144 at 1 MHz after an adoption of TBAH capping agent with almost uniform dielectric loss (<0.027. But the dielectric constant of BTO NPs synthesized with various molar ratio of TBAH (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 did not show a distinguished decrease. At the particle size range in this experiment, the dielectric behavior of BTO NPs was found to be mainly dependent on the TBAH ligands at BTO NPs formed during capping process, not on the size of BTO NPs.

  20. Multisensor Capacitance Probes for Simultaneously Monitoring Rice Field Soil-Water- Crop-Ambient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Brinkhoff

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Multisensor capacitance probes (MCPs have traditionally been used for soil moisture monitoring and irrigation scheduling. This paper presents a new application of these probes, namely the simultaneous monitoring of ponded water level, soil moisture, and temperature profile, conditions which are particularly important for rice crops in temperate growing regions and for rice grown with prolonged periods of drying. WiFi-based loggers are used to concurrently collect the data from the MCPs and ultrasonic distance sensors (giving an independent reading of water depth. Models are fit to MCP water depth vs volumetric water content (VWC characteristics from laboratory measurements, variability from probe-to-probe is assessed, and the methodology is verified using measurements from a rice field throughout a growing season. The root-mean-squared error of the water depth calculated from MCP VWC over the rice growing season was 6.6 mm. MCPs are used to simultaneously monitor ponded water depth, soil moisture content when ponded water is drained, and temperatures in root, water, crop and ambient zones. The insulation effect of ponded water against cold-temperature effects is demonstrated with low and high water levels. The developed approach offers advantages in gaining the full soil-plant-atmosphere continuum in a single robust sensor.

  1. Postharvest quality of cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal stored under ambient condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal is an important genetic resource that has been traditionally used for a variety of purposes, including food, medical and cosmetics applications. The objective of this study was evaluated the quality and the period of postharvest shelf life of cocona 'Mosquet", through the physical, chemical and physiological characterization of fruits stored under the ambient conditions. Physiologically mature fruits were harvested from an orchard, washed with tap water and soaked in a solution of the fungicide Prochloraz (49.5 g/100 L of water for 5 minutes. After air drying, the fruits were packed in plastic containers and stored at 24 ± 2 ºC and relative humidity 60 ± 5% for 15 days. The fruits developed a respiratory climacteric respiratory patern and remained fit for consumption up to day 6 of storage, that is, without visual symptoms of loss of water and firmness. At this stage, the fruits showed firmness of 117,42 kPa, soluble solids of 6.62º Brix and citric acid of 1.22 %.

  2. Studying the role of ambient conditions in laser-induced Al-plasma expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdellatif, Galila; Imam, Hisham; Gamal, Yosr [Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2010-01-15

    The role of ambient conditions on the spatial and temporal evolution of the aluminum plasma spectral emission is studied. Measurements were carried out in vacuum as well as in air at atmospheric pressure to determine the optimum value of both distances from target and of the delay time at which the spectral line emission is most intense. The plasma is generated using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 532 nm and a pulse duration of 8 ns. The analysis revealed that the intensities of the spectral atomic line (305.00 nm) and the ionic line (281.61 nm) were strongly enhanced in air. Moreover, the plasma expansion velocity was determined using a time-of-flight (TOF) measurements technique. Within the experimentally investigated distance range, its peak value was found to be descending from 1.2 x 10{sup 5} cm/sec and 5.1 x 10{sup 4}cm/sec in air while in vacuum, it was ascending from 5.0 x 10{sup 5}cm/sec 2.5 x 10{sup 6}cm/sec. In addition, these measurements enabled us to determine the temporal and spatial evolutions of the electron temperature and the electron density by using a Boltzmann plot and a Stark broadening profile, respectively. The estimated values of both the electron temperature and the electron density showed an exponential decrease with time, ending with a leveling off behavior.

  3. Spectroscopic analysis of Zirconium plasma in different ambient and optimizing conditions for nanoclusters formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Dheerendra; Thareja, Raj K.

    2010-01-01

    The laser produced zirconium plasma has been studied by emission spectroscopy and fast photography using intensified charged coupled device at different ambient pressures of nitrogen (0.1, 1.0 and 10 mbar). Formation of zirconium clusters are arising at ambient pressure of 1.0 mbar at the plume periphery due to the chemical reactions between the plasma plume and the ambient and confirmed using optical emission spectroscopy. The optimum parameters for existence cluster formation are reported. The ZrN clusters are deposited on silicon substrate and characterized by AFM, XRD and EDAX techniques. (author)

  4. The Effects of Ambient Conditions on Helicopter Rotor Source Noise Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Frederic H.; Greenwood, Eric

    2011-01-01

    A new physics-based method called Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustic Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) is used to demonstrate the change in rotor harmonic noise of a helicopter operating at different ambient conditions. FRAME is based upon a non-dimensional representation of the governing acoustic and performance equations of a single rotor helicopter. Measured external noise is used together with parameter identification techniques to develop a model of helicopter external noise that is a hybrid between theory and experiment. The FRAME method is used to evaluate the main rotor harmonic noise of a Bell 206B3 helicopter operating at different altitudes. The variation with altitude of Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise, known to be a strong function of the helicopter s advance ratio, is dependent upon which definition of airspeed is flown by the pilot. If normal flight procedures are followed and indicated airspeed (IAS) is held constant, the true airspeed (TAS) of the helicopter increases with altitude. This causes an increase in advance ratio and a decrease in the speed of sound which results in large changes to BVI noise levels. Results also show that thickness noise on this helicopter becomes more intense at high altitudes where advancing tip Mach number increases because the speed of sound is decreasing and advance ratio increasing for the same indicated airspeed. These results suggest that existing measurement-based empirically derived helicopter rotor noise source models may give incorrect noise estimates when they are used at conditions where data were not measured and may need to be corrected for mission land-use planning purposes.

  5. Mechanistic Variants in Gas-Phase Metal-Oxide Mediated Activation of Methane at Ambient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jilai; Zhou, Shaodong; Zhang, Jun; Schlangen, Maria; Usharani, Dandamudi; Shaik, Sason; Schwarz, Helmut

    2016-09-07

    The C-H bond activation of methane mediated by a prototypical heteronuclear metal-oxide cluster, [Al2Mg2O5](•+), was investigated by using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) in conjunction with high-level quantum mechanical calculations. Experimentally, hydrogen-atom abstraction from methane by the cluster ion [Al2Mg2O5](•+) takes place at ambient conditions. As to the mechanism, according to our computational findings, both the proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) and the conventional hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) are feasible and compete with each other. This is in distinct contrast to the [XYO2](+) (X, Y = Mg, Al, Si) cluster oxide ions which activate methane exclusively via the PCET route (Li, J.; Zhou, S.; Zhang, J.; Schlangen, M.; Weiske, T.; Usharani, D.; Shaik, S.; Schwarz, H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 7973-7981). The electronic origins of the mechanistically rather complex reactivity scenarios of the [Al2Mg2O5](•+)/CH4 couple were elucidated. For the PCET mechanism, in which the Lewis acid-base pair [Al(+)-O(-)] of the cluster acts as the active site, a clear correlation has been established between the nature of the transition state, the corresponding barrier height, the Lewis acidity-basicity of the [M(+)-O(-)] unit, as well as the bond order of the M(+)-O(-) bond. Also addressed is the role of the spin and charge distributions of a terminal oxygen radical site in the direct HAT route. The knowledge of the factors that control the reactivity of PCET and HAT pathways not only deepens our mechanistic understanding of metal-oxide mediated C-H bond activation but may also provide guidance for the rational design of catalysts.

  6. Isoprene and terpenoid emissions from Abies alba: Identification and emission rates under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorska, Olga; Dewulf, Jo; Amelynck, Crist; Schoon, Niels; Šimpraga, Maja; Steppe, Kathy; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2012-11-01

    In this study, biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from Abies alba were studied under ambient conditions in Flanders (Belgium). Emission patterns and rates were investigated from April till November 2010 by using the dynamic branch enclosure technique. The present work revealed that A. alba is an isoprene emitter, with isoprene accounting for 86-93% of total BVOC emissions, except during budburst (67%) in May. The emission spectrum of A. alba consisted of 27 compounds. Next to isoprene, the main emitted compounds were α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and limonene. BVOC emissions showed a peak in June after development of the young needles, followed by a constant emission during summer months and September and a decrease in October. In all the samples isoprene was the most abundant compound with standardized emission rates between 27 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June and 4.6 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October, while the total standardized terpenoid emission rates ranged from 2.85 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June to 0.26 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October. The obtained average β coefficients according to the temperature dependent algorithm of Guenther et al. (1993) during April-June, July, August and September-October were as follows: for terpenoids 0.12 ± 0.03, 0.11 ± 0.05, 0.12 ± 0.04, 0.24 ± 0.01 K-1 and sesquiterpenes (SQTs) 0.09 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.10 ± 0.05, 0 K-1, respectively. Overall, isoprene detected in this study was never quantified in previous studies on A. alba and this finding could have a significant impact on the regional BVOCs budget. Therefore, the result of this study is very important for modeling and local air quality.

  7. Formation of imines by selective gold-catalysed aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols and amines under ambient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kegnæs, Søren; Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    2010-01-01

    The formation of imines by aerobic oxidative coupling of mixtures of alcohols and amines was studied using gold nanoparticles supported on titanium dioxide, TiO2, as a heterogeneous catalyst. The reactions were performed at ambient conditions (room temperature and atmospheric pressure) and occurr......-product represents a new green reaction protocol for imine formation.......The formation of imines by aerobic oxidative coupling of mixtures of alcohols and amines was studied using gold nanoparticles supported on titanium dioxide, TiO2, as a heterogeneous catalyst. The reactions were performed at ambient conditions (room temperature and atmospheric pressure) and occurred...... with excellent selectivity (above 98%) at moderate conversion under optimized conditions. The effect of catalytic amounts of different bases was studied, along with reaction temperature and time. Utilisation of a selective catalyst system that uses dioxygen as an oxidant and only produces water as by...

  8. Interface engineering of hybrid perovskite solar cells with poly(3-thiophene acetic acid) under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shit, Arnab; Nandi, Arun K

    2016-04-21

    The properties of methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite solar cells with poly(3-thiophene acetic acid) (P3TAA) as a hole transporting material (HTM) and a dense layer of ZnO nanoparticle film as an electron transporting material (ETM) are described using the conventional ZnO (n)/perovskite (i)/P3TAA (p) (n-i-p) architecture. The FT-IR spectra of a MAPbI3/P3TAA mixture indicate a shift of the N-H stretching and the abolition of the N-H bending peak indicating the interaction between the components. UV-Vis spectra of the mixture exhibit a large red shift of the π-π* transition peak of the conjugated chain arising from the interaction causing an increase of the conjugation length. The cross-sectional SEM image of the device shows the sequence of the individual layers of ZnO, MAPbI3, P3TAA and Ag, respectively. The current density (J)-voltage (V) curves obtained upon illumination with a light of 100 mW cm(-2) indicate the average PCE to be 7.38 ± 0.59% under ambient conditions. The IPCE values of these cells reach about 63% across a broad range of wavelength (300-800 nm). The HOMO and the LUMO of P3TAA are measured using cyclic voltammetry and the optical band gap and the relative energy level of the components explain the operation of photocurrent in the cell. For comparison purposes a device using poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) as the HTM is fabricated under similar conditions and it exhibits a lower PCE (5.85 ± 0.51%) than that of the P3TAA based device. The longevity of the P3TAA based cell is also found to be better than that of the P3HT based cell for storing in air. The UV-Vis and impedance spectral results clearly explain the above results, signifying the influence of the interface on the performance of hybrid solar cells.

  9. Structural Studies of NH4-exchanged Natrolites at Ambient Conditions and High Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Lee; D Seoung; Y Jang; J Bai; Y Lee

    2011-12-31

    We report here for the first time that fully and partially NH{sub 4}-exchanged natrolites can be prepared in hydrated states using the solution exchange method with potassium-natrolite. The structural models of the as-prepared hydrated phases and their dehydrated forms at elevated temperature were refined in space group Fdd2 using in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and Rietveld methods. The unit-cell volumes of the hydrated NH{sub 4}-exchanged natrolites at ambient conditions, (NH{sub 4}){sub 16(2)}Al{sub 16}Si{sub 24}O{sub 80}{center_dot}14.1(9)H{sub 2}O and (NH{sub 4}){sub 5.1(1)}K{sub 10.9(1)}Al{sub 16}Si{sub 24}O{sub 80}{center_dot}15.7(3)H{sub 2}O, are found to be larger than that the original sodium-natrolite by ca. 15.6% and 12.8%, respectively. Upon temperature increase, the fully NH{sub 4}-exchanged natrolite undergoes dehydration at ca. 150 C with ca. 16.4% contraction in the unit-cell volume. The dehydrated phase of the fully NH{sub 4}-exchanged natrolite exhibits marginal volume expansion up to 425 C and then becomes amorphized during temperature decrease and exposure to atmospheric condition. In the case of the partially NH{sub 4}-exchanged natrolite, the dehydration starts from ca. 175 C with {approx}15.1% volume contraction and leads to a partial phase separation to show a phase related to the dehydrated K-natrolite. The degree of the phase separation decreases with temperature increase up to 475 C, concomitant to the gradual volume contraction occurring in the partially NH{sub 4}-exchanged natrolite in the dehydrared state. Upon temperature decrease and exposure to atmospheric condition, only the dehydrated K-natrolite is recovered as a crystalline phase from the partially NH{sub 4}-exchanged natrolite. In the hydrated model of the fully NH{sub 4}-exchanged natrolite, the ammonium cations and water molecules are statistically distributed along the elliptical channels, similar to the disordered pattern observed in natrolites exchanged

  10. Performance evaluation of an open-cathode PEM fuel cell stack under ambient conditions: Case study of United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zeyoudi, Hend; Sasmito, Agus P.; Shamim, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance evaluation of open-cathode PEM fuel cell stacks with forced air-convection. • Stack performance can vary up to 40% from winter to summer. • Hot and arid condition leads to membrane drying and performance deterioration. • Anode humidification improves the stack performance up to 40% during summer. - Abstract: The open-cathode polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack has been a promising candidate as a sustainable energy conversion system for replacing fossil fuel-based energy conversion devices in portable and automotive applications. As the ambient air is directly used to provide both oxidant and cooling, the complex cooling loop can be avoided which reduces the complexity and cost. However, the stack performance is highly affected by ambient conditions, i.e., ambient temperature and humidity. In this study, the effect of monthly ambient air conditions (temperature and humidity) is evaluated with respect to the stack’s power production performance as well as thermal, water and gas management by employing a validated three-dimensional open-cathode PEM fuel cell stack model. The annual climate data from the hot and arid environment of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE) are used as a case study. The objective is to develop a better fundamental understanding of the interactions of physical phenomena in a fuel cell stack, which can assist in improving the performance and operation of an open-cathode PEM fuel cell-powered vehicle. The results indicate that the stack performance can vary significantly (up to 40%) from winter to summer, especially at high operating currents, with significant changes in the stack temperature and the water content at the membrane. Moreover, the anode humidification results in a significant improvement in the stack performance (up to 40%) in hot and dry conditions. However, a careful balance has to be struck between the humidifier parasitic load and the stack power.

  11. Electrospray soft-landing for the construction of non-covalent molecular nanostructures using charged droplets under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jian; Zheng, Qingna; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K; Xiong, Caiqiao; Guan, Cuizhong; Chen, Suming; Nie, Zongxiu; Wang, Dong; Wan, Lijun

    2016-11-17

    An electrospray soft-landing (SL) technique was utilized to create 2D nano-networks on HOPG under ambient conditions. A 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexahydroxy-triphenylene close-packing structure was observed by STM instead of unorganized clusters, as well as amine and acid nanostructures. On C 18 H 37 NH 2 networks, C 18 H 37 NH 3 + was identified by XPS analysis revealing retaining of charges on the SL-modified surface.

  12. Effects of PCM on power consumption and temperature control performance of a thermal control system subject to periodic ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Hong; Wang, Zijun; Wang, Liwei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase change thermal control with under periodic ambient condition was studied. • Influences of PCM on thermal control effects were explored. • The simulated results agreed well with the experimental results. • Conditions of achieving the optimal thermal control effects were proposed. • An optimal phase change range can be obtained according to TMY data. - Abstract: Thermal control systems operating under periodic outdoor ambient conditions have numerous important applications in industrial fields. Reducing system energy consumption and enhancing temperature control effects are crucial to improving the performance of these systems. To this end, the application of phase change material (PCM) in the envelope of a thermal control system was investigated through experiment and simulation. A simulation model of an active ventilated thermal control system was constructed and verified with experimental results, and the influences of PCM incorporated in the envelope on the power consumption and temperature control effects were discussed in two time scales. The results for typical meteorological days indicate that excellent thermal control effects can be achieved when the phase change range of PCM brackets the temperature control setpoint and is consistent with the fluctuation range of the ambient temperature. The results for a typical meteorological year (TMY) demonstrate that an optimal phase change range can be determined according to TMY data to realize the optimal thermal control effects of PCM. When the required temperature control setpoint is not within the optimal phase change range, the phase change range bracketing the temperature control setpoint is recommended.

  13. Correlation between corneal and ambient temperature with particular focus on polar conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slettedal, Jon Klokk; Ringvold, Amund

    2015-08-01

    To examine the relationship between human corneal and environmental temperature. An infrared camera was used to measure the corneal surface temperature in a group of healthy volunteers as well as in an experimental setting with donor corneas and an artificial anterior chamber, employing circulating saline at +37°C. Liquid nitrogen was used to obtain a very low temperature in the experimental setting. High ambient temperature measurements were performed in a sauna. In healthy volunteers, the cornea required at least 20-30 min to adapt to change in ambient temperature. The relationship between corneal and external temperature was relatively linear. At the two extremes, +83°C and -40°C, the corneal temperature was +42°C and +25.1°C, respectively. In the experimental setting, corneal temperature was +24.3°C at air temperature -40°C. A rather stable aqueous humour temperature of +37°C and high thermal conductivity of the corneal tissue prevent corneal frostbite even at extremely low ambient temperatures. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Simultaneous electropolishing and electrodeposition of aluminum in ionic liquid under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yuanyuan; Li, Ruiqian; Liang, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Electrodeposition and electropolishing of aluminum are achieved simultaneously in the ionic liquid composed of anhydrous aluminum chloride and trimethylamine hydrochloride. With the protection of a hydrocarbon layer, the process can be carried out under ambient atmosphere. As a result, a smooth mirror-like surface with the roughness only several nanometers is obtained on the anode Al and a uniform Al coating with the thickness about 5 μm is covered on the cathode. Importantly, this work presents the recycling of Al resource in a closed system.

  15. Surface chemistry of rare-earth oxide surfaces at ambient conditions: reactions with water and hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külah, Elçin; Marot, Laurent; Steiner, Roland; Romanyuk, Andriy; Jung, Thomas A; Wäckerlin, Aneliia; Meyer, Ernst

    2017-03-22

    Rare-earth (RE) oxide surfaces are of significant importance for catalysis and were recently reported to possess intrinsic hydrophobicity. The surface chemistry of these oxides in the low temperature regime, however, remains to a large extent unexplored. The reactions occurring at RE surfaces at room temperature (RT) in real air environment, in particular, in presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were not addressed until now. Discovering these reactions would shed light onto intermediate steps occurring in automotive exhaust catalysts before reaching the final high operational temperature and full conversion of organics. Here we first address physical properties of the RE oxide, nitride and fluoride surfaces modified by exposure to ambient air and then we report a room temperature reaction between PAH and RE oxide surfaces, exemplified by tetracene (C 18 H 12 ) on a Gd 2 O 3 . Our study evidences a novel effect - oxidation of higher hydrocarbons at significantly lower temperatures (~300 K) than previously reported (>500 K). The evolution of the surface chemical composition of RE compounds in ambient air is investigated and correlated with the surface wetting. Our surprising results reveal the complex behavior of RE surfaces and motivate follow-up studies of reactions between PAH and catalytic surfaces at the single molecule level.

  16. Germination of tropical forage seeds stored for six years in ambient and controlled temperature and humidity conditions in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The germination performances of fresh seed lots were determined for 5 tropical forage species: Mulato II hybrid brachiaria [Urochloa ruziziensis (syn. Brachiaria ruziziensis x U. decumbens (syn. B. decumbens x U. brizantha (syn. B. brizantha], Mombasa guinea [Megathyrsus maximus (syn. Panicum maximum], Tanzania guinea [M. maximus (syn. P. maximum], Ubon paspalum (Paspalum atratum and Ubon stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis, stored under ambient conditions in Thailand (mean monthly temperatures 23‒34 ºC; mean monthly relative humidity 40‒92% or in a cool room (18‒20 ºC and 50% relative humidity for up to 6 years. The first paper of this study showed all seeds, except unscarified Ubon stylo seed, were dead after a single year of storage in ambient conditions. This second paper shows that cool-room storage extended seed viability, but performance varied considerably between species. Germination percentage under laboratory conditions declined to below 50%, after 3 years storage for Mombasa guinea seed and Tanzania guinea seed, 4 years for Ubon paspalum seed and 4‒5 years for Mulato II seed. Ubon stylo seed maintained high germination for 5 years, in both cool-room storage (96% and ambient-room storage (84%. Apparent embryo dormancy in acid-scarified Mulato II seed steadily increased with time in cool-storage and this seed had to be acid-scarified again each year at the time of germination testing to overcome dormancy. Physical dormancy of Mulato II seeds, imposed by the tightly bound lemma and palea in unscarified seed, was not overcome by length of time in cool-storage and these seeds had to be acid-scarified to induce germination. Hardseeded percentage in Ubon stylo seed remained high throughout the study and could be overcome only by acid-scarification. The difficulties of maintaining acceptable seed germination percentages when storing forage seeds in the humid tropics are discussed.

  17. Modification of GaAs/AlGaAs growth-interrupted interfaces through changes in ambient conditions during growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, R. F.; Schubert, E. F.; Harris, T. D.; Becker, R. S.; Gilmer, G. H.

    1993-11-01

    The effect of the ambient conditions in the growth chamber of the molecular beam epitaxy machine during the growth of GaAs/Al0.35Ga0.65As structures was investigated. Both growth-interrupted (120 s at each heterointerface) and uninterrupted surfaces and interfaces were evaluated using a growth temperature of 580 °C. Two ambient conditions were studied: (a) ˜1×10-10 Torr O2; and (b) ultrahigh vacuum (UHV, ˜5×10-11 Torr, with no intentional introduction of contaminants). A striking difference was observed in both the 1.7 K photoluminescence (PL) spectra of single quantum well (SQW) structures and UHV scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) of surfaces, which were grown under ambient condition (a) as opposed to (b). When consecutive growth-interrupted SQW samples were grown with different well widths (25 and 28 Å) under condition (a), the emission energy splitting into several peaks was observed, indicating discrete thicknesses of the well. However, the peak energies shifted as the laser spot was scanned across each sample. Additionally, the peak energy shifted from sample to sample for the same nominal well width. On the other hand, when SQW samples were grown under condition (b), no variation in the emission energy was observed as the laser was scanned across the sample, or from sample to sample for a given well width. Furthermore, the PL observations are supported by UHV-STM results. UHV-STM images indicated a very rough surface with large islands containing small terraces on top (a bimodal distribution) for condition (a). Conversely, when samples were grown under condition (b), only large islands were observed. For growth interrupted GaAs surfaces, 400 Å×600 Å islands were observed, and for Al0.35Ga0.65As, they were 150 Å×400 Å, with a one-monolayer step in between islands. These data are consistent with abrupt interfaces with only a single-mode distribution for growth-interrupted surfaces. On the other hand, UHV-STM images of uninterrupted GaAs surfaces

  18. Ascorbic acid as a bifunctional hydrogen bond donor for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from CO2 under ambient conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Arayachukiat, Sunatda

    2017-07-14

    Readily available ascorbic acid was discovered as an environmentally benign hydrogen bond donor (HBD) for the synthe-sis of cyclic organic carbonates from CO2 and epoxides in the presence of nucleophilic co-catalysts. The ascorbic acid/TBAI (TBAI: tetrabutylammonium iodide) binary system could be applied for the cycloaddition of CO2 to various epoxides under ambient or mild conditions. DFT calculations and catalysis experiments revealed an intriguing bifunctional mechanism in the step of CO2 insertion involving different hydroxyl moieties (enediol, ethyldiol) of the ascorbic acid scaffold.

  19. Ambient condition bias stress stability of vanadium (IV) oxide phthalocyanine based p-channel organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaidulla, Sk Md; Singh, Subhash; Mohapatra, Y. N.; Giri, P. K.

    2018-01-01

    High bias-stress stability and low threshold voltage (V th) shift under ambient conditions are highly desirable for practical applications of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). We demonstrate here a 20-fold enhancement in the bias-stress stability for hexamethyledisilazane (HMDS) treated vanadium (IV) oxide phthalocyanine (VOPc) based OFETs as compared to the bare VOPc case under ambient conditions. VOPc based OFETs were fabricated on bare (non treated) SiO2 and a HMDS monolayer passivated SiO2 layer, with an operating voltage of 40 V. The devices with top contact gold (Au) electrodes exhibit excellent p-channel behavior with a moderate hole mobility for the HMDS-treated device. It is demonstrated that the time dependent ON-current decay and V th shift can be effectively controlled by using self-assembled monolayers of HMDS on the VOPc layer. For the HMDS-treated case, the bias stress stability study shows the stretched exponential decay of drain current by only ~15% during the long-term operation with constant bias voltage under ambient conditions, while it shows a large decay of  >70% for the nontreated devices operated for 1000 s. The corresponding characteric decay time constant (τ) is 104 s for the HMDS treated case, while that of the the non-treated SiO2 case is only ~480 s under ambient conditions. The inferior performance of the device with bare SiO2 is traced to the charge trapping at the voids in the inter-grain region of the films, while it is almost negligible for the HMDS-treated case, as confirmed from the AFM and XRD analyses. It is believed that HMDS treatment provides an excellent interface with a low density of traps and passivates the dangling bonds, which improve the charge transport characteristics. Also, the surface morphology of the VOPc film clearly influences the device performance. Thus, the HMDS treatment provides a very attractive approach for attaining long-term air stability and a low V th shift for the VOPc based OFET

  20. Ambient Pressure Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy for Functional Material Systems as Fuel Cells under Working Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yasumasa; Uruga, Tomoya; Tada, Mizuki; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro; Yokoyama, Toshihiko

    2018-03-20

    Heterogeneous interfaces play important roles in a variety of functional material systems and technologies, such as catalysis, batteries, and devices. A fundamental understanding of efficient functions at interfaces under realistic conditions is crucial for sophisticated designs of useful material systems and novel devices. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is one of the most promising and common methods to investigate such material systems. Although X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is usually conducted under high vacuum because of the requirement of electron detection with the precise measurement of kinetic energies, extensive efforts have been devoted to the measurements in gaseous environments. Very recently, we have succeeded in measuring X-ray photoelectron spectra under real ambient atmosphere (10 5 Pa), using synchrotron radiation hard X-rays with the photon energy of 8 keV and the windowless electron spectrometer system. In this Account, the novel useful technique of real ambient pressure hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is reviewed. As examples of (near) ambient pressure hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, hydrogen storage of Pd nanoparticles is at first investigated by recording Pd 3d and valence band spectra under hydrogen atmosphere. The Pd 3d and valence band spectra are found to change rather abruptly depending on the hydrogen pressure, demonstrating a behavior like phase transformation. Subsequently, as a main topic in this Account, we describe investigations of the electronic states of platinum nanoparticles on the cathode electrocatalyst in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) under the voltage operating conditions using the near ambient pressure hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic system. The Pt 4f and 3d X-ray photoelectron spectra of the cathode Pt/C catalysts clearly show that the oxidized Pt species is at most divalent and the tetravalent Pt species does not exist on the Pt nanoparticles even at the positive cathode-anode voltage

  1. Detection and mapping of trace explosives on surfaces under ambient conditions using multiphoton electron extraction spectroscopy (MEES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shisong; Vinerot, Nataly; Fisher, Danny; Bulatov, Valery; Yavetz-Chen, Yehuda; Schechter, Israel

    2016-08-01

    Multiphoton electron extraction spectroscopy (MEES) is an analytical method in which UV laser pulses are utilized for extracting electrons from solid surfaces in multiphoton processes under ambient conditions. Counting the emitted electrons as a function of laser wavelength results in detailed spectral features, which can be used for material identification. The method has been applied to detection of trace explosives on a variety of surfaces. Detection was possible on dusty swabs spiked with explosives and also in the standard dry-transfer contamination procedure. Plastic explosives could also be detected. The analytical limits of detection (LODs) are in the sub pmole range, which indicates that MEES is one of the most sensitive detection methods for solid surface under ambient conditions. Scanning the surface with the laser allows for its imaging, such that explosives (as well as other materials) can be located. The imaging mode is also useful in forensic applications, such as detection of explosives in human fingerprints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Design and Application of Variable Temperature Setup for Scanning Electron Microscopy in Gases and Liquids at Ambient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asadi, Ahmed S; Zhang, Jie; Li, Jianbo; Potyrailo, Radislav A; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2015-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of nanoscale objects in dry and fully hydrated conditions at different temperatures is of critical importance in revealing details of their interactions with an ambient environment. Currently available WETSEM capsules are equipped with thin electron-transparent membranes and allow imaging of samples at atmospheric pressure, but do not provide temperature control over the sample. Here, we developed and tested a thermoelectric cooling/heating setup for WETSEM capsules to allow ambient pressure in situ SEM studies with a temperature range between -15 and 100°C in gaseous, liquid, and frozen conditions. The design of the setup also allows for correlation of the SEM with optical microscopy and spectroscopy. As a demonstration of the possibilities of the developed approach, we performed real-time in situ microscopy studies of water condensation on a surface of Morpho sulkowskyi butterfly wing scales. We observed that initial water nucleation takes place on top of the scale ridges. These results confirmed earlier discovery of a preexisting polarity gradient of the ridges of Morpho butterflies. Our developed thermoelectric cooling/heating setup for environmental capsules meets the diverse needs for in situ nanocharacterization in material science, catalysis, microelectronics, chemistry, and biology.

  3. Substrate-Mediated Laser Ablation under Ambient Conditions for Spatially-Resolved Tissue Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatou, Benoit; Wisztorski, Maxence; Focsa, Cristian; Salzet, Michel; Ziskind, Michael; Fournier, Isabelle

    2015-12-17

    Numerous applications of ambient Mass Spectrometry (MS) have been demonstrated over the past decade. They promoted the emergence of various micro-sampling techniques such as Laser Ablation/Droplet Capture (LADC). LADC consists in the ablation of analytes from a surface and their subsequent capture in a solvent droplet which can then be analyzed by MS. LADC is thus generally performed in the UV or IR range, using a wavelength at which analytes or the matrix absorb. In this work, we explore the potential of visible range LADC (532 nm) as a micro-sampling technology for large-scale proteomics analyses. We demonstrate that biomolecule analyses using 532 nm LADC are possible, despite the low absorbance of biomolecules at this wavelength. This is due to the preponderance of an indirect substrate-mediated ablation mechanism at low laser energy which contrasts with the conventional direct ablation driven by sample absorption. Using our custom LADC system and taking advantage of this substrate-mediated ablation mechanism, we were able to perform large-scale proteomic analyses of micro-sampled tissue sections and demonstrated the possible identification of proteins with relevant biological functions. Consequently, the 532 nm LADC technique offers a new tool for biological and clinical applications.

  4. Substrate-Mediated Laser Ablation under Ambient Conditions for Spatially-Resolved Tissue Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatou, Benoit; Wisztorski, Maxence; Focsa, Cristian; Salzet, Michel; Ziskind, Michael; Fournier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Numerous applications of ambient Mass Spectrometry (MS) have been demonstrated over the past decade. They promoted the emergence of various micro-sampling techniques such as Laser Ablation/Droplet Capture (LADC). LADC consists in the ablation of analytes from a surface and their subsequent capture in a solvent droplet which can then be analyzed by MS. LADC is thus generally performed in the UV or IR range, using a wavelength at which analytes or the matrix absorb. In this work, we explore the potential of visible range LADC (532 nm) as a micro-sampling technology for large-scale proteomics analyses. We demonstrate that biomolecule analyses using 532 nm LADC are possible, despite the low absorbance of biomolecules at this wavelength. This is due to the preponderance of an indirect substrate-mediated ablation mechanism at low laser energy which contrasts with the conventional direct ablation driven by sample absorption. Using our custom LADC system and taking advantage of this substrate-mediated ablation mechanism, we were able to perform large-scale proteomic analyses of micro-sampled tissue sections and demonstrated the possible identification of proteins with relevant biological functions. Consequently, the 532 nm LADC technique offers a new tool for biological and clinical applications. PMID:26674367

  5. One-Step Printable Perovskite Films Fabricated under Ambient Conditions for Efficient and Reproducible Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Heo, Youn-Jung; Kim, Jueng-Eun; Lee, Donmin; Lee, Cheol-Ho; Joh, Han-Ik; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2017-08-23

    Despite the potential of roll-to-roll processing for the fabrication of perovskite films, the realization of highly efficient and reproducible perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) through continuous coating techniques and low-temperature processing is still challenging. Here, we demonstrate that efficient and reliable CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 (MAPbI 3 ) films fabricated by a printing process can be achieved through synergetic effects of binary processing additives, N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Notably, these perovskite films are deposited from premixed perovskite solutions for facile one-step processing under a room-temperature and ambient atmosphere. The CHP molecules result in the uniform and homogeneous perovskite films even in the one-step slot-die system, which originate from the high boiling point and low vapor pressure of CHP. Meanwhile, the DMSO molecules facilitate the growth of perovskite grains by forming intermediate states with the perovskite precursor molecules. Consequently, fully printed PeSC based on the binary additive system exhibits a high PCE of 12.56% with a high reproducibility.

  6. Oxidation of copper nanowire based transparent electrodes in ambient conditions and their stabilization by encapsulation: application to transparent film heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celle, Caroline; Cabos, Anthony; Fontecave, Thomas; Laguitton, Bruno; Benayad, Anass; Guettaz, Laure; Pélissier, Nathalie; Huong Nguyen, Viet; Bellet, Daniel; Muñoz-Rojas, David; Simonato, Jean-Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Whereas the integration of silver nanowires in functional devices has reached a fair level of maturity, the integration of copper nanowires still remains difficult, mainly due to the intrinsic instability of copper nanowires in ambient conditions. In this paper, copper nanowire based transparent electrodes with good performances (33 Ω sq-1 associated with 88% transparency) were obtained, and their degradation in different conditions was monitored, in particular by electrical measurements, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectrometry and Auger electron spectroscopy. Several routes to stabilize the random networks of copper nanowires were evaluated. Encapsulation through laminated barrier film with optical clear adhesive and atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition were found to be efficient and were used for the fabrication of transparent film heaters.

  7. Host location behavior of Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in ambient and moderately elevated ozone in field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, D.M. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: delia.pinto@uku.fi; Himanen, S.J. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nissinen, A. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Protection, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Nerg, A.-M.; Holopainen, J.K. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    In field O{sub 3}-enrichment experiments increased herbivore densities have been reported, which could be due to negatively affected host location behavior of natural enemies. We addressed the impact of doubling background O{sub 3} on the host location of the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae by conducting 24-h trials in an open-air O{sub 3}-fumigation system during two consecutive years. Two circles (radii 1.40 and 4.00 m) of Plutella xylostella-infested potted cabbage plants were placed in the O{sub 3} and ambient plots. Female wasps were released into each plot from the center, and observed 5 times over a 24-h period to assess their host location capability. Thereafter, plants were kept in laboratory conditions until larvae pupation to determine parasitism rates. No significant differences were detected between ambient and O{sub 3}-enriched environments either in the number of wasps found in the field, or in the percentages of parasitized larvae. This suggests that moderately elevated O{sub 3} will not affect the behavior of this parasitoid. - Atmospheric ozone increases do not directly affect the biological control of the cabbage pest, Plutella xylostella.

  8. Oxidation and Reduction of Liquid SnPb (60/40) under Ambient and Vacuum Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhmann, Jochen Friedrich; Maly, K.; Preuss, A.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most straightforward approaches to fluxless solder bonding is using vacuum conditions to prevent further oxidation and, where needed, to reduce solder oxides by the use of molecular hydrogen (H-2).(1-3) This study On oxidation and reduction of solder oxides on SnPb (60/40) is aimed...... to provide a better understanding for fluxless solder bonding applications under controlled atmospheric conditions; By means of scanning Auger spectroscopy it is shown, that growth of oxide films on metallic SnPb above the eutectic temperature can be significantly reduced by decreasing the O-2 partial...

  9. Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC) Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Annual reports of the Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC), which studies the prevailing (market) rate system for wages and other matters pertinent to...

  10. Investigations into the environmental conditions experienced during ambient sample transport: impact to dried blood spot sample shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Chester L; Dopson, Wesley; Kemp, Daniel C; Lewis, Mark; Lad, Rakesh; Overvold, Carol

    2011-07-01

    Prior to bioanalysis, sample transport and storage are critical considerations in any pharmacokinetic or toxicokinetic study design. Care must be taken to ensure the shipment is properly packaged and tracked to make certain it arrives at the desired, final destination in the appropriate timeframe, and that the integrity of the sample is not compromised. When dealing with biological specimens, environmental conditions may have a deleterious effect on the stability and conditions of the sample. Currently, frozen plasma or blood samples are the matrix of choice within the pharmaceutical industry for analysis within both preclinical and clinical trials. Liquid samples are shipped and received frozen and, therefore, the assumption is made that the frozen conditions are maintained throughout the entire transit process. Dried blood spot and dried matrix spot samples are becoming popular alternatives to plasma sampling in many small- and even large-molecule applications. With the implementation of dried blood spot and dried matrix spot samples, shipping and storage occurs under ambient conditions. In this article we discuss various shipping containers for these samples, illustrate the environmental extremes encountered during the shipping process, demonstrate a cost-effective method of monitoring both temperature and humidity, and discuss validation steps that may be implemented to minimize the impact of these variables on your study design.

  11. Individual aerosol particles in ambient and updraft conditions below convective cloud bases in the Oman mountain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeniuk, T. A.; Bruintjes, R. T.; Salazar, V.; Breed, D. W.; Jensen, T. L.; Buseck, P. R.

    2014-03-01

    An airborne study of cloud microphysics provided an opportunity to collect aerosol particles in ambient and updraft conditions of natural convection systems for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Particles were collected simultaneously on lacey carbon and calcium-coated carbon (Ca-C) TEM grids, providing information on particle morphology and chemistry and a unique record of the particle's physical state on impact. In total, 22 particle categories were identified, including single, coated, aggregate, and droplet types. The fine fraction comprised up to 90% mixed cation sulfate (MCS) droplets, while the coarse fraction comprised up to 80% mineral-containing aggregates. Insoluble (dry), partially soluble (wet), and fully soluble particles (droplets) were recorded on Ca-C grids. Dry particles were typically silicate grains; wet particles were mineral aggregates with chloride, nitrate, or sulfate components; and droplets were mainly aqueous NaCl and MCS. Higher numbers of droplets were present in updrafts (80% relative humidity (RH)) compared with ambient conditions (60% RH), and almost all particles activated at cloud base (100% RH). Greatest changes in size and shape were observed in NaCl-containing aggregates (>0.3 µm diameter) along updraft trajectories. Their abundance was associated with high numbers of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and cloud droplets, as well as large droplet sizes in updrafts. Thus, compositional dependence was observed in activation behavior recorded for coarse and fine fractions. Soluble salts from local pollution and natural sources clearly affected aerosol-cloud interactions, enhancing the spectrum of particles forming CCN and by forming giant CCN from aggregates, thus, making cloud seeding with hygroscopic flares ineffective in this region.

  12. Survival of Pochonia chlamydosporia on the soil surface after different exposure intervals at ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rafael Henrique; Lopes, Everaldo Antônio; Borges, Darlan Ferreira; Bontempo, Amanda Ferreira; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    Exposure of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia to solar radiation and elevated temperatures before being incorporated into the soil can reduce its survival and efficiency as biocontrol agent. A field experiment was carried out to assess the effect of the exposure period on the viability of P. chlamydosporia applied on the soil surface. A commercial bionematicide based on P. chlamydosporia was sprayed on soil, and soil samples were collected before and at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150min after fungal application. Relative humidity (RH), the irradiance (IR), air temperature (AT), and soil temperature (ST) were recorded. The number of P. chlamydosporia colony forming units (CFUs) was evaluated after 20 days of incubation. P. chlamydosporia survival decreased over the time of exposure on the soil surface. Overall, the number of CFUs decreased by more than 90% at 150min after application. Exposure to RH ≥61%, ST and AT between 25-35°C and 19-29°C, and IR between 1172 and 2126μmol of photons m -2 s -1 induced a negative exponential effect on the survival of the fungus over the time. Exposure to climatic conditions on the soil surface reduces P. chlamydosporia viability. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Charged Metalloporphyrin Polymers for Cooperative Synthesis of Cyclic Carbonates from CO2 under Ambient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaju; Luo, Rongchang; Xu, Qihang; Jiang, Jun; Zhou, Xiantai; Ji, Hongbing

    2017-06-09

    A facile and one-pot synthesis of metalloporphyrin-based ionic porous organic polymers (M-iPOPs) was performed through a typical Yamamoto-Ullmann coupling reaction for the first time. We used various characterization techniques to demonstrate that these strongly polar Al-based materials (Al-iPOP) possessed a relatively uniform microporosity, good swellable features, and a good CO 2 capture capacity. If we consider the particular physicochemical properties, heterogeneous Al-iPOP, which bears both a metal active center and halogen anion, acted as a bifunctional catalyst for the solvent- and additive-free synthesis of cyclic carbonates from various epoxides and CO 2 with an excellent activity and good recyclability under mild conditions. Interestingly, these CO 2 -philic materials could catalyze the cycloaddition reaction smoothly by using simulated flue gas (15 % CO 2 in N 2 , v/v) as a raw material, which indicates that a stable local microenvironment and polymer swellability might promote the transformation. Thus, the introduction of polar ionic liquid units into metalloporphyrin-based porous materials is regarded as a promising new strategy for the chemical conversion of CO 2 . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Synthesis of iron oxide nanorods via chemical scavenging and phase transformations of intermediates at ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Ruchi; Mehra, Anurag; Thaokar, Rochish, E-mail: rochish@che.iitb.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, Department of Chemical Engineering (India)

    2017-01-15

    Chemically induced shape transformations of isotropic seeds, comprised of iron oxyhydroxides and iron oxide borate into nanorods, is reported. Transient growth studies show that the nanorods are formed via phase transformation and aggregation of various metastable species. Addition of tetra-methyl-ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to the in situ synthesized seeds ensures a typical reaction pathway that favors formation of magnetite (Fe {sub 3}O{sub 4}) via the steps of chemical etching, phase transformation of intermediates, and crystal consolidation. Whereas, with addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), either magnetite (Fe {sub 3}O{sub 4}) or a mixture of (γ-Fe {sub 2}O{sub 3} + α-FeOOH) is obtained. The shape with both the additives is always that of nanorods. When the seeds treated with TMAH were aged in an ultrasonication bath, rods with almost twice the length and diameter (length = 2800 nm, diameter = 345 nm) are obtained as compared to the sample aged without ultrasonication (length = 1535 nm, diameter = 172 nm). The morphology of nanostructures depending upon other experimental conditions such as, aging the sample at 60 {sup ∘}C, seeds synthesized under ultrasonication/ stirring or externally added are also examined and discussed in detail. All the samples show high coercivity and strong ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature and should be promising candidates as ferro-fluids for various applications.

  15. Graphene-metal interaction and its effect on the interface stability under ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Aiyi; Fu, Qiang, E-mail: qfu@dicp.ac.cn; Wei, Mingming; Bao, Xinhe

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Graphene (Gr)/transition metal (TM: Fe, Co, Pt, and Au) interfaces form through TM intercalation at Gr/Ru(0001) surface. • Graphene-metal interaction strength follows the order of Ru ≈ Fe ≈ Co > Pt > Au. • Oxygen intercalation occurs at Gr/Fe, Gr/Co, Gr/Pt, and Gr/Ru interfaces but not at Gr/Au interface in air around 100 °C. - Abstract: Interaction between graphene (Gr) and metal plays an important role in physics and chemistry of graphene/metal interfaces. In this work, well-defined interfaces between graphene and transition metals (TMs) including Fe, Co, Pt, and Au were prepared through TM intercalation on Gr/Ru(0001) surface. The Gr-metal interaction was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. We found that graphene interacts most strongly with Ru, Fe and Co and most weakly with Au, following the order of Ru ≈ Fe ≈ Co > Pt > Au. The Gr/Fe, Gr/Co, Gr/Pt, and Gr/Ru interfaces can be readily intercalated by oxygen when exposed to air and illuminated by an infrared lamp. In contrast, oxygen intercalation does not happen at the Gr/Au interface under the same condition. It is suggested that both Gr-metal interaction and oxygen adsorption on the underlying metal surface are critical in the oxygen intercalation and the Gr/metal interface stability.

  16. Surgical instrument biocontaminant fluorescence detection in ambient lighting conditions for hospital reprocessing and sterilization department (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baribeau, François; Bubel, Annie; Dumont, Guillaume; Vachon, Carl; Lépine, André; Rochefort, Stéphane; Massicotte, Martin; Buteau-Vaillancourt, Louis; Gallant, Pascal; Mermut, Ozzy

    2017-03-01

    Hospitals currently rely on simple human visual inspection for assessing cleanliness of surgical instruments. Studies showed that surgical site infections are in part attributed to inadequate cleaning of medical devices. Standards groups recognize the need to objectively quantify the amount of residues on surgical instruments and establish guidelines. We developed a portable technology for the detection of contaminants on surgical instruments through fluorescence following cleaning. Weak fluorescence signals are usually detected in the obscurity only with the lighting of the excitation source. The key element of this system is that it works in ambient lighting conditions, a requirement to not disturb the normal workflow of hospital reprocessing facilities. A biocompatible fluorescent dye is added to the detergent and labels the proteins of organic residues. It is resistant to the harsh environment in a washer-disinfector. Two inspection devices have been developed with a 488nm laser as the excitation source: a handheld scanner and a tabletop station using spectral-domain and time-domain ambient light cancellation schemes. The systems are eye safe and equipped with image processing and interfacing software to provide visual or audible warnings to the operator based on a set of adjustable signal thresholds. Micron-scale residues are detected by the system which can also evaluate soil size and mass. Unlike swabbing, it can inspect whole tools in real-time. The technology has been validated in an independent hospital decontamination research laboratory. It also has potential applications in the forensics, agro-food, and space fields. Technical aspects and results will be presented and discussed.

  17. Design of Organic Transformations at Ambient Conditions: Our Sincere Efforts to the Cause of Green Chemistry Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Goutam

    2016-02-01

    This account summarizes our recent efforts in designing a good number of important organic transformations leading to the synthesis of biologically relevant compounds at room temperature and pressure. Currently, the concept of green chemistry is globally acclaimed and has already advanced quite significantly to emerge as a distinct branch of chemical sciences. Among the principles of green chemistry, one principle is dedicated to the "design of energy efficiency" - that is, to develop synthetic strategies that require less or the minimum amount of energy to carry out a specific reaction with optimum productivity - and the most effective way to save energy is to develop strategies/protocols that are capable enough to carry out the transformations at ambient temperature! As part of on-going developments in green synthetic strategies, the design of reactions under ambient conditions coupled with other green aspects is, thus, an area of current interest. The concept of developing reaction strategies at room temperature and pressure is now an emerging field of research in organic chemistry and is progressing steadily. This account is aimed to offer an overview of our recent research works directly related to this particular field of interest, and highlights the green chemistry practice leading to carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond-forming reactions of topical significance. Green synthetic routes to a variety of biologically relevant organic molecules (heterocyclic, heteroaromatic, alicyclic, acyclic, etc.) at room temperature and pressure are discussed. © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Scope and Mechanism of a True Organocatalytic Beckmann Rearrangement with a Boronic Acid/Perfluoropinacol System under Ambient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xiaobin; Morgan, Timothy D R; Ang, Hwee Ting; Hall, Dennis G

    2018-04-18

    Catalytic activation of hydroxyl functionalities is of great interest for the production of pharmaceuticals and commodity chemicals. Here, 2-alkoxycarbonyl- and 2-phenoxycarbonyl-phenylboronic acid were identified as efficient catalysts for the direct and chemoselective activation of oxime N-OH bonds in the Beckmann rearrangement. This classical organic reaction provides a unique approach to prepare functionalized amide products that may be difficult to access using traditional amide coupling between carboxylic acids and amines. Using only 5 mol % of boronic acid catalyst and perfluoropinacol as an additive in a polar solvent mixture, the operationally simple protocol features mild conditions, a broad substrate scope, and a high functional group tolerance. A wide variety of diaryl, aryl-alkyl, heteroaryl-alkyl, and dialkyl oximes react under ambient conditions to afford high yields of amide products. Free alcohols, amides, carboxyesters, and many other functionalities are compatible with the reaction conditions. Investigations of the catalytic cycle revealed a novel boron-induced oxime transesterification providing an acyl oxime intermediate involved in a fully catalytic nonself-propagating Beckmann rearrangement mechanism. The acyl oxime intermediate was prepared independently and was subjected to the reaction conditions. It was found to be self-sufficient; it reacts rapidly, unimolecularly without the need for free oxime. A series of control experiments and 18 O labeling studies support a true catalytic pathway involving an ionic transition structure with an active and essential role for the boronyl moiety in both steps of transesterification and rearrangement. According to 11 B NMR spectroscopic studies, the additive perfluoropinacol provides a transient, electrophilic boronic ester that is thought to serve as an internal Lewis acid to activate the ortho-carboxyester and accelerate the initial, rate-limiting step of transesterification between the precatalyst

  19. Evolution of Chemical Composition, Morphology, and Photovoltaic Efficiency of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 Perovskite under Ambient Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Weixin

    2016-01-12

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The surface composition and morphology of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films stored for several days under ambient conditions were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Chemical analysis revealed the loss of CH3NH3 + and I- species from CH3NH3PbI3 and its subsequent decomposition into lead carbonate, lead hydroxide, and lead oxide. After long-term storage under ambient conditions, morphological analysis revealed the transformation of randomly distributed defects and cracks, initially present in the densely packed crystalline structure, into relatively small grains. In contrast to PbI2 powder, CH3NH3PbI3 exhibited a different degradation trend under ambient conditions. Therefore, we propose a plausible CH3NH3PbI3 decomposition pathway that explains the changes in the chemical composition of CH3NH3PbI3 under ambient conditions. In addition, films stored under such conditions were incorporated into photovoltaic cells, and their performances were examined. The chemical changes in the decomposed films were found to cause a significant decrease in the photovoltaic efficiency of CH3NH3PbI3.

  20. In situ investigation of wet chemical processes for chalcopyrite solar cells by L-edge XAS under ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, Stefanie M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Lauermann, Iver, E-mail: Iver.lauermann@helmholtz-berlin.d [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, Ahmed; Kropp, Timo; Lange, Kathrin M.; Weber, Matthieu [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Aziz, Emad F., E-mail: Emad.Aziz@helmholtz-berlin.d [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Two instrumental setups for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid systems are demonstrated in this work. One for investigating chemical reactions in solutions and a new one for the solid component of a liquid / (as in both / absorber) solid interface. We used these setups for investigating two production processes for chalcopyrite solar cells under ambient conditions, probing the L-edge of Zn and Cu. The first one is a flow cell with a silicon nitride membrane to study the chemical bath deposition process for Cd-free buffer layers. Examining the electronic structure of involved Zn complexes allows to determine the exact reaction mechanism taking place during this process. The second setup is a rotating disk for investigating the bath/absorber interface upon the etching process of superficial binary copper compounds of the absorber as a function of time. The time resolution of the chemical reaction demonstrated in this study ranges from the second to minute time scale.

  1. In situ investigation of wet chemical processes for chalcopyrite solar cells by L-edge XAS under ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greil, Stefanie M.; Lauermann, Iver; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Kropp, Timo; Lange, Kathrin M.; Weber, Matthieu; Aziz, Emad F.

    2010-01-01

    Two instrumental setups for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid systems are demonstrated in this work. One for investigating chemical reactions in solutions and a new one for the solid component of a liquid / (as in both / absorber) solid interface. We used these setups for investigating two production processes for chalcopyrite solar cells under ambient conditions, probing the L-edge of Zn and Cu. The first one is a flow cell with a silicon nitride membrane to study the chemical bath deposition process for Cd-free buffer layers. Examining the electronic structure of involved Zn complexes allows to determine the exact reaction mechanism taking place during this process. The second setup is a rotating disk for investigating the bath/absorber interface upon the etching process of superficial binary copper compounds of the absorber as a function of time. The time resolution of the chemical reaction demonstrated in this study ranges from the second to minute time scale.

  2. In situ investigation of wet chemical processes for chalcopyrite solar cells by L-edge XAS under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greil, Stefanie M.; Lauermann, Iver; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Kropp, Timo; Lange, Kathrin M.; Weber, Matthieu; Aziz, Emad F.

    2010-02-01

    Two instrumental setups for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid systems are demonstrated in this work. One for investigating chemical reactions in solutions and a new one for the solid component of a liquid / (as in both / absorber) solid interface. We used these setups for investigating two production processes for chalcopyrite solar cells under ambient conditions, probing the L-edge of Zn and Cu. The first one is a flow cell with a silicon nitride membrane to study the chemical bath deposition process for Cd-free buffer layers. Examining the electronic structure of involved Zn complexes allows to determine the exact reaction mechanism taking place during this process. The second setup is a rotating disk for investigating the bath/absorber interface upon the etching process of superficial binary copper compounds of the absorber as a function of time. The time resolution of the chemical reaction demonstrated in this study ranges from the second to minute time scale.

  3. Effects of Calcination on the Crystallography and Nonbiogenic Aragonite Formation of Ark Clam Shell under Ambient Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Wah Loy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of crystallographic evolution of disposed ark clam shell (ACS after calcination at 400–1400°C which was kept at room temperature under ambient condition in Malaysia during nine months. A better understanding of hydration and recarbonation of ACS powder (≤63 μm after calcination was discovered by PXRD and FTIR. The research focuses on the crystallographic transformation, biogenic calcite decomposition, and unusual atmospheric aragonite formation in ACS after calcination and atmospheric air exposure. Ex situ PXRD showed calcite present in ACS at ≤900°C. ACS transformed to pyrogenic fcc CaO at ≥800°C after three months. Long term atmospheric air exposure of decarbonized ACS caused nucleation of nonbiogenic aragonite, vaterite, calcite, and portlandite. However, in situ PXRD analysis of ACS at instantaneous temperature without cooling process does not indicate the presence of aragonite, vaterite, and portlandite crystals. FTIR spectra revealed CaO–CO2 bond in ACS dissociated with temperature (600–900°C to form CaO and CO2. Ca–OH bond was also traced in FTIR spectra of ≥700°C. It resulted by hydroadsorption of CaO with H2O in atmospheric air.

  4. Preparation of magnetic imprinted graphene oxide composite for catalytic degradation of Congo red under dark ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaochao; You, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Bin; Guo, Chuigen; Yu, Chaosheng

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic imprinted N-doped P25/Fe 3 O 4 -graphene oxide (MIGNT) was prepared with methyl orange as the dummy template and pyrrole as functional monomer for catalytic degradation of Congo red (CR). Hummers method and the hydrothermal method were used to synthesize Fe 3 O 4 -GO and N-doped P25, respectively. The results of adsorption and degradation experiments showed that the adsorption capacity and catalytic degradation ability of the imprinted composite for CR were obviously higher than those of a non-imprinted one. Moreover, the effect factors on degradation efficiency of CR, such as the initial concentration of CR, catalysis time, pH of the solution and temperature, were investigated. The MIGNT was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, a physical property measurement system and a thermal gravimetric analyzer. The degradation products of CR were detected with high performance liquid chromatography and a mass spectrometer. The MIGNT was a brand-new imprinted composite and had high degradation efficiency for CR under dark ambient conditions. The MIGNT could be recycled conveniently, due to its magnetic property, and could be used as an effective, environmentally friendly and low-cost catalytic degradation material for the treatment of water contaminated by CR.

  5. NMR Profiling of Metabolites in Larval and Juvenile Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) under Ambient and Low Salinity Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Melissa A; Bishop, Karl D; Rawson, Paul D

    2017-07-06

    Blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis ) are ecologically and economically important marine invertebrates whose populations are at risk from climate change-associated variation in their environment, such as decreased coastal salinity. Blue mussels are osmoconfomers and use components of the metabolome (free amino acids) to help maintain osmotic balance and cellular function during low salinity exposure. However, little is known about the capacity of blue mussels during the planktonic larval stages to regulate metabolites during osmotic stress. Metabolite studies in species such as blue mussels can help improve our understanding of the species' physiology, as well as their capacity to respond to environmental stress. We used 1D ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 2D total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) experiments to describe baseline metabolite pools in larval (veliger and pediveliger stages) and juvenile blue mussels (gill, mantle, and adductor tissues) under ambient conditions and to quantify changes in the abundance of common osmolytes in these stages during low salinity exposure. We found evidence for stage- and tissue-specific differences in the baseline metabolic profiles of blue mussels, which reflect variation in the function and morphology of each larval stage or tissue type of juveniles. These differences impacted the utilization of osmolytes during low salinity exposure, likely stemming from innate physiological variation. This study highlights the importance of foundational metabolomic studies that include multiple tissue types and developmental stages to adequately evaluate organismal responses to stress and better place these findings in a broader physiological context.

  6. Ion association in concentrated NaCl brines from ambient to supercritical conditions: results from classical molecular dynamics simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collings Matthew D

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Highly concentrated NaCl brines are important geothermal fluids; chloride complexation of metals in such brines increases the solubility of minerals and plays a fundamental role in the genesis of hydrothermal ore deposits. There is experimental evidence that the molecular nature of the NaCl–water system changes over the pressure–temperature range of the Earth's crust. A transition of concentrated NaCl–H2O brines to a "hydrous molten salt" at high P and T has been argued to stabilize an aqueous fluid phase in the deep crust. In this work, we have done molecular dynamic simulations using classical potentials to determine the nature of concentrated (0.5–16 m NaCl–water mixtures under ambient (25°C, 1 bar, hydrothermal (325°C, 1 kbar and deep crustal (625°C, 15 kbar conditions. We used the well-established SPCE model for water together with the Smith and Dang Lennard-Jones potentials for the ions (J. Chem. Phys., 1994, 100, 3757. With increasing temperature at 1 kbar, the dielectric constant of water decreases to give extensive ion-association and the formation of polyatomic (NanClmn-m clusters in addition to simple NaCl ion pairs. Large polyatomic (NanClmn-m clusters resemble what would be expected in a hydrous NaCl melt in which water and NaCl were completely miscible. Although ion association decreases with pressure, temperatures of 625°C are not enough to overcome pressures of 15 kbar; consequently, there is still enhanced Na–Cl association in brines under deep crustal conditions.

  7. Modeling Temperature Development of Li-Ion Battery Packs in Hybrid Refuse Truck Operating at Different Ambient Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat dissipation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the peak temperature in Lithium-ion batteries during discharging operation of a hybrid truck under different ambient temperatures.......This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat dissipation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the peak temperature in Lithium-ion batteries during discharging operation of a hybrid truck under different ambient temperatures....

  8. Ambient conditions and fate and transport simulations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in Beaver Lake, Arkansas, 2006--10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W. Reed

    2013-01-01

    Beaver Lake is a large, deep-storage reservoir located in the upper White River Basin in northwestern Arkansas, and was completed in 1963 for the purposes of flood control, hydroelectric power, and water supply. Beaver Lake is affected by point and nonpoint sources of minerals, nutrients, and sediments. The City of Fayetteville discharges about half of its sewage effluent into the White River immediately upstream from the backwater of the reservoir. The City of West Fork discharges its sewage effluent into the West Fork of the White River, and the City of Huntsville discharges its sewage effluent into a tributary of War Eagle Creek. A study was conducted to describe the ambient conditions and fate and transport of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations in Beaver Lake. Dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate are components of wastewater discharged into Beaver Lake and a major concern of the drinking water utilities that use Beaver Lake as their source. A two-dimensional model of hydrodynamics and water quality was calibrated to include simulations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate for the period January 2006 through December 2010. Estimated daily dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate loads were increased in the White River and War Eagle Creek tributaries, individually and the two tributaries together, by 1.2, 1.5, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 times the baseline conditions to examine fate and transport of these constituents through time at seven locations (segments) in the reservoir, from upstream to downstream in Beaver Lake. Fifteen dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate fate and transport scenarios were compared to the baseline simulation at each of the seven downstream locations in the reservoir, both 2 meters (m) below the surface and 2 m above the bottom. Concentrations were greater in the reservoir at model segments closer to where the tributaries entered the reservoir. Concentrations resulting from the increase in loading became more diluted

  9. Physiological Effects of Ergot Alkaloid and Indole-Diterpene Consumption on Sheep under Hot and Thermoneutral Ambient Temperature Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. E. Henry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A controlled feeding study was undertaken to determine the physiological and production effects of consuming perennial ryegrass alkaloids (fed via seed under extreme heat in sheep. Twenty-four Merino ewe weaners (6 months; initial BW 30.8 ± 1.0 kg were selected and the treatment period lasted 21 days following a 14 day acclimatisation period. Two levels of two factors were used. The first factor was alkaloid, fed at a nil (NilAlk or moderate level (Alk; 80 μg/kg LW ergovaline and 20.5 μg/kg·LW lolitrem B. The second factor was ambient temperature applied at two levels; thermoneutral (TN; constant 21–22 °C or heat (Heat; 9:00 AM–5:00 PM at 38 °C; 5:00 PM–9:00 AM at 21–22 °C, resulting in four treatments, NilAlk TN, NilAlk Heat, Alk TN and Alk Heat. Alkaloid consumption reduced dry matter intake ( p = 0.008, and tended to reduce liveweight ( p = 0.07. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were increased by both alkaloid and heat ( p < 0.05 for all. Respiration rate increased to severe levels when alkaloid and heat were combined, indicating the short term effects which may be occurring in perennial ryegrass toxicosis (PRGT areas during severe weather conditions, a novel finding. When alkaloid ingestion and heat were administered separately, similar physiological responses occurred, indicating alkaloid ingestion causes a similar heat stress response to 38 °C heat.

  10. A CFD analysis on the effect of ambient conditions on the hygro-thermal stresses distribution in a planar ambient air-breathing PEM fuel cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2011-01-01

    The need for improved lifetime of air-breathing proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells for portable applications necessitates that the failure mechanisms be clearly understood and life prediction models be developed, so that new designs can be introduced to improve long-term performance. An operating air-breathing PEM fuel cell has varying local conditions of temperature and humidity. As a result of in the changes in temperature and moisture, the membrane, GDL and bipolar plates will all e...

  11. Surface tension prevails over solute effect in organic-influenced cloud droplet activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Zuend, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Sanchez, Kevin J.; Roberts, Greg; Ceburnis, Darius; Decesari, Stefano; Rinaldi, Matteo; Hodas, Natasha; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Seinfeld, John H.; O' Dowd, Colin

    2017-06-01

    The spontaneous growth of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) into cloud droplets under supersaturated water vapour conditions is described by classic Köhler theory. This spontaneous activation of CCN depends on the interplay between the Raoult effect, whereby activation potential increases with decreasing water activity or increasing solute concentration, and the Kelvin effect, whereby activation potential decreases with decreasing droplet size or increases with decreasing surface tension, which is sensitive to surfactants. Surface tension lowering caused by organic surfactants, which diminishes the Kelvin effect, is expected to be negated by a concomitant reduction in the Raoult effect, driven by the displacement of surfactant molecules from the droplet bulk to the droplet-vapour interface. Here we present observational and theoretical evidence illustrating that, in ambient air, surface tension lowering can prevail over the reduction in the Raoult effect, leading to substantial increases in cloud droplet concentrations. We suggest that consideration of liquid-liquid phase separation, leading to complete or partial engulfing of a hygroscopic particle core by a hydrophobic organic-rich phase, can explain the lack of concomitant reduction of the Raoult effect, while maintaining substantial lowering of surface tension, even for partial surface coverage. Apart from the importance of particle size and composition in droplet activation, we show by observation and modelling that incorporation of phase-separation effects into activation thermodynamics can lead to a CCN number concentration that is up to ten times what is predicted by climate models, changing the properties of clouds. An adequate representation of the CCN activation process is essential to the prediction of clouds in climate models, and given the effect of clouds on the Earth’s energy balance, improved prediction of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions is likely to result in improved assessments of future

  12. Surface tension prevails over solute effect in organic-influenced cloud droplet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Zuend, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Sanchez, Kevin J; Roberts, Greg; Ceburnis, Darius; Decesari, Stefano; Rinaldi, Matteo; Hodas, Natasha; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Seinfeld, John H; O' Dowd, Colin

    2017-06-29

    The spontaneous growth of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) into cloud droplets under supersaturated water vapour conditions is described by classic Köhler theory. This spontaneous activation of CCN depends on the interplay between the Raoult effect, whereby activation potential increases with decreasing water activity or increasing solute concentration, and the Kelvin effect, whereby activation potential decreases with decreasing droplet size or increases with decreasing surface tension, which is sensitive to surfactants. Surface tension lowering caused by organic surfactants, which diminishes the Kelvin effect, is expected to be negated by a concomitant reduction in the Raoult effect, driven by the displacement of surfactant molecules from the droplet bulk to the droplet-vapour interface. Here we present observational and theoretical evidence illustrating that, in ambient air, surface tension lowering can prevail over the reduction in the Raoult effect, leading to substantial increases in cloud droplet concentrations. We suggest that consideration of liquid-liquid phase separation, leading to complete or partial engulfing of a hygroscopic particle core by a hydrophobic organic-rich phase, can explain the lack of concomitant reduction of the Raoult effect, while maintaining substantial lowering of surface tension, even for partial surface coverage. Apart from the importance of particle size and composition in droplet activation, we show by observation and modelling that incorporation of phase-separation effects into activation thermodynamics can lead to a CCN number concentration that is up to ten times what is predicted by climate models, changing the properties of clouds. An adequate representation of the CCN activation process is essential to the prediction of clouds in climate models, and given the effect of clouds on the Earth's energy balance, improved prediction of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions is likely to result in improved assessments of future

  13. Development of rabbit embryos during a 96-h period of in vitro culture after superovulatory treatment under conditions of elevated ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H; Dooley, M P; Hopkins, S M; Anderson, L L; Yibchok-anun, S; Hsu, W H

    1999-08-16

    The effects of elevated ambient temperature on the response to exogenous gonadotropins were evaluated in female New Zealand White rabbits exposed to 33+/-1 degrees C (mean +/- SE) and 10-30% relative humidity (8 h/day) during a 5-day period. Does were treated with pFSH (0.3 mg/0.3 ml Standard Armour) twice daily during three consecutive days with a minimum interval of 8 h between injections. Six hours after the last FSH injection all does were removed from the experimental chamber, given hCG (25 IU/kg) and paired overnight. Nineteen hours after pairing, embryos were flushed from the reproductive tracts, evaluated, and subjected to in vitro culture during a 96-h period. The ovulatory responses to exogenous gonadotropins and fertilization rates did not differ significantly under conditions of elevated ambient temperature, whereas fewer blastocysts and increased number of degenerate embryos were observed after culture. We conclude that although hyperthermia was induced during exposure to elevated ambient temperature, it did not alter the ovulatory responses to gonadotropin treatment and plasma concentrations of FSH and LH compared with does in a thermoneutral environment. Exposure of donor rabbits to elevated ambient temperature before mating, however, increased embryonic degeneration.

  14. Familiar units prevail over statistical cues in word segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Perruchet, Pierre; Tillmann, Barbara; Peereman, Ronald

    2017-09-01

    In language acquisition research, the prevailing position is that listeners exploit statistical cues, in particular transitional probabilities between syllables, to discover words of a language. However, other cues are also involved in word discovery. Assessing the weight learners give to these different cues leads to a better understanding of the processes underlying speech segmentation. The present study evaluated whether adult learners preferentially used known units or statistical cues for segmenting continuous speech. Before the exposure phase, participants were familiarized with part-words of a three-word artificial language. This design allowed the dissociation of the influence of statistical cues and familiar units, with statistical cues favoring word segmentation and familiar units favoring (nonoptimal) part-word segmentation. In Experiment 1, performance in a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) task between words and part-words revealed part-word segmentation (even though part-words were less cohesive in terms of transitional probabilities and less frequent than words). By contrast, an unfamiliarized group exhibited word segmentation, as usually observed in standard conditions. Experiment 2 used a syllable-detection task to remove the likely contamination of performance by memory and strategy effects in the 2AFC task. Overall, the results suggest that familiar units overrode statistical cues, ultimately questioning the need for computation mechanisms of transitional probabilities (TPs) in natural language speech segmentation.

  15. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central...

  16. Is the Economic Crisis Challenging the Prevailing Gender Regime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Jepsen, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether the current economic and financial crisis is challenging the prevailing gender-equality model in four European countries: Denmark, Germany, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom. After situating the countries in relation to the underlying gender regime...... and analysing the corresponding position of women and men in paid and unpaid work, the paper contains an in-depth discussion of the short- and medium-term policy responses to the crisis. Our analysis shows that independent of the prevailing gender regime, scant public attention has been directed to gender...

  17. Controlled environment laboratory for the energy certification of refrigeration and air conditioning systems; Laboratorio de ambiente controlado para la certificacion energetica de sistemas de refrigeracion y aire acondicionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambriz, Juan Jose; Romero Paredes, Hernando; Dorantes, Ruben [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper the general characteristics of the Controlled Environment Laboratory (CELAB) are described and some of the possible tests that could be performed in this device to evaluate the energy efficiency in air conditioning systems, domestic refrigeration and industrial refrigeration, as well as tests to evaluate the hydrothermal comfort in national populations, are presented. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describen las caracteristicas generales del Laboratorio de Ambiente Controlado (LAB), y se presentan algunas de las posibles pruebas que podran ser desarrolladas en este dispositivo para evaluar la eficiencia energetica en sistemas de aire acondicionado, refrigeracion domestica y refrigeracion industrial, asi como para pruebas para evaluar el confort hidrotermico en poblaciones nacionales.

  18. Promoting the ambient-condition stability of Zr-doped barium cerate: Toward robust solid oxide fuel cells and hydrogen separation in syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Zeng, Yimin; Amirkhiz, Babak S.; Luo, Jing-Li; Yan, Ning

    2018-02-01

    Increasing the stability of perovskite proton conductor against atmospheric CO2 and moisture attack at ambient conditions might be equally important as that at the elevated service temperatures. It can ease the transportation and storage of materials, potentially reducing the maintenance cost of the integral devices. In this work, we initially examined the surface degradation behaviors of various Zr-doped barium cerates (BaCe0.7Zr0.1Y0.1Me0.1O3) using XRD, SEM, STEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Though that the typical lanthanide (Y, Yb and Gd) and In incorporated Zr-doped cerates well resisted CO2-induced carbonation in air at elevated temperatures, they were unfortunately vulnerable at ambient conditions, suffering slow decompositions at the surface. Conversely, Sn doped samples (BCZYSn) were robust at both conditions yet showed high protonic conductivity. Thanks to that, the anode supported solid oxide fuel cells equipped with BCZYSn electrolyte delivered a maximum power density of 387 mW cm-2 at 600 °C in simulated coal-derived syngas. In the hydrogen permeation test using BCZYSn based membrane, the H2 flux reached 0.11 mL cm-2 min-1 at 850 °C when syngas was the feedstock. Both devices demonstrated excellent stability in the presence of CO2 in the syngas.

  19. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central......, dehierarchization, ubiquity and the production of unfocused sensations in contrast to the conventional notion of the aesthetic experience as a focused contemplation of a stationary object....

  20. Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaub, M.; Skelly, J.M.; Zhang, J.W.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E.; Davis, D.D.; Steiner, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential (ψ L ) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (g wv ) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (P n ), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P wv and P n demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies. - Within the heterogeneous environment of a mature forest, many factors in addition to soil moisture play a significant role in determining exposure/response relationships to ozone

  1. Physicochemical risk factors for building-related symptoms in air-conditioned office buildings: Ambient particles and combined exposure to indoor air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kenichi; Ikeda, Koichi; Kagi, Naoki; Yanagi, U; Osawa, Haruki

    2018-03-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological study to examine the correlation between indoor air quality (IAQ) and building-related symptoms (BRSs) of office workers in air-conditioned office buildings. We investigated 11 offices during winter and 13 offices during summer in 17 buildings with air-conditioning systems in Tokyo, Osaka, and Fukuoka, and we included 107 office workers during winter and 207 office workers during summer. We conducted environmental sampling for evaluating IAQ and concurrently administered self-reported questionnaires to collect information regarding work-related symptoms. Multivariate analyses revealed that upper respiratory symptoms showed a significant correlation with increased indoor temperature [odds ratio (OR), 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.18] and increased indoor concentration of suspended particles released from the ambient air pollution via air-conditioning systems (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08-1.59) during winter. In particular, smaller particles (particle size>0.3μm), which possibly penetrated through the filter media in air-conditioning systems from ambient air, were correlated with upper respiratory symptoms. The use of high-efficiency particulate air filters in air-conditioning systems and their adequate maintenance may be an urgent solution for reducing the indoor air concentration of submicron particles. Several irritating volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes) that were positively correlated with the indoor air concentration among their VOCs, were associated with upper respiratory symptoms, although their indoor air concentrations were lower than those specified by the indoor air quality guideline. A new approach and strategy for decreasing the potential combined health risks (i.e., additive effect of risks) associated with multiple low-level indoor pollutants that have similar hazardous properties are required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  2. Room temperature magnetism of few-nanometers-thick Fe3O4(111) films on Pt(111) and Ru(0001) studied in ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, M.; Miłosz, Z.; Michalak, N.; Ranecki, R.; Sveklo, I.; Kurant, Z.; Maziewski, A.; Mielcarek, S.; Luciński, T.; Jurga, S.

    2015-01-01

    Few-nanometers-thick Fe 3 O 4 (111) films were epitaxially grown on Pt(111) and Ru(0001) single crystal supports by sequential iron deposition and oxidation in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. The growth of well-ordered magnetite films was confirmed by low energy electron diffraction. The films were covered with a protective Au layer and subjected to magnetic and structural studies in ambient conditions. Magnetic hysteresis loops, recorded using magneto-optical Kerr effect apparatus, confirmed magnetic ordering in both films at room temperature. The Kerr measurements indicated in-plane orientation of magnetization, which was supported by the lack of magnetic contrast in magnetic force microscopy images. Atomic force microscopy revealed significant differences in morphology of the films, tentatively attributed to different lattice mismatch with Pt(111) and Ru(0001) single crystal supports. - Highlights: • Few-nanometers-thick Fe 3 O 4 (111) films were grown on Pt(111) and Ru(0001). • Magnetic properties were studied using MOKE and AFM/MFM in ambient conditions. • The films exhibited in-plane magnetic ordering at room temperature. • Differences in magnetic properties were tentatively assigned to structural differences.

  3. Au Sub-Nanoclusters on TiO2 toward Highly Efficient and Selective Electrocatalyst for N2 Conversion to NH3 at Ambient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Miao-Miao; Bao, Di; Wulan, Ba-Ri; Li, Yong-He; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Yan, Jun-Min; Jiang, Qing

    2017-05-01

    As the NN bond in N 2 is one of the strongest bonds in chemistry, the fixation of N 2 to ammonia is a kinetically complex and energetically challenging reaction and, up to now, its synthesis is still heavily relying on energy and capital intensive Haber-Bosch process (150-350 atm, 350-550 °C), wherein the input of H 2 and energy are largely derived from fossil fuels and thus result in large amount of CO 2 emission. In this paper, it is demonstrated that by using Au sub-nanoclusters (≈0.5 nm ) embedded on TiO 2 (Au loading is 1.542 wt%), the electrocatalytic N 2 reduction reaction (NRR) is indeed possible at ambient condition. Unexpectedly, NRR with very high and stable production yield (NH 3 : 21.4 µg h -1 mg -1 cat. , Faradaic efficiency: 8.11%) and good selectivity is achieved at -0.2 V versus RHE, which is much higher than that of the best results for N 2 fixation under ambient conditions, and even comparable to the yield and activation energy under high temperatures and/or pressures. As isolated precious metal active centers dispersed onto oxide supports provide a well-defined system, the special structure of atomic Au cluster would promote other important reactions besides NRR for water splitting, fuel cells, and other electrochemical devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Comparison of Biomass and Lipid Production under Ambient Carbon Dioxide Vigorous Aeration and 3% Carbon Dioxide Condition Among the Lead Candidate Chlorella Strains Screened by Various Photobioreactor Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Naoko [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Barnes, Austin [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Jensen, Travis [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Noel, Eric [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Andlay, Gunjan [Synaptic Research, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rosenberg, Julian N. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Betenbaugh, Michael J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Guarnieri, Michael T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oyler, George A. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Synaptic Research, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Chlorella species from the UTEX collection, classified by rDNA-based phylogenetic analysis, were screened based on biomass and lipid production in different scales and modes of culture. Lead candidate strains of C. sorokiniana UTEX 1230 and C. vulgaris UTEX 395 and 259 were compared between conditions of vigorous aeration with filtered atmospheric air and 3% CO2 shake-flask cultivation. We found that the biomass of UTEX 1230 produced 2 times higher at 652 mg L-1 dry weight under both ambient CO2 vigorous aeration and 3% CO2 conditions, while UTEX 395 and 259 under 3% CO2 increased to 3 times higher at 863 mg L-1 dry weight than ambient CO2 vigorous aeration. The triacylglycerol contents of UTEX 395 and 259 increased more than 30 times to 30% dry weight with 3% CO2, indicating that additional CO2 is essential for both biomass and lipid accumulation in UTEX 395 and 259.

  5. Rapid degradation of Congo red by molecularly imprinted polypyrrole-coated magnetic TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in dark at ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Shoutai; Hu, Xiaolei; Liu, Hualong; Wang, Qiang; He, Chiyang, E-mail: chiyanghe@hotmail.com

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted polypyrrole-coated magnetic TiO{sub 2} catalyst was prepared. • The catalyst degraded Congo red rapidly in dark at ambient conditions. • Degradation mechanism was proposed according to LC–MS analysis. • The catalyst can be easily recycled by a magnet. - Abstract: A novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-coated magnetic TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite was prepared, using methyl orange (MO) as the dummy template and pyrrole as functional monomer, for degradation of Congo red (CR). The nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The imprinting efficiency of the imprinted nanoparticles was investigated by static binding test, and their degradation ability toward CR was also studied. Moreover, the effects of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and oscillation rate on degradation rate of CR were investigated. Results showed that the imprinted nanocomposite had higher adsorption ability for MO compared with the non-imprinted one. Moreover, it could degrade CR rapidly in dark at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and could be recycled easily by a magnet with a good reusability. A degradation mechanism was proposed according to LC–MS analysis of degradation products of CR. The new imprinted nanoparticles showed high catalytic activity at ambient conditions without light illumination and additional chemicals, and therefore, it can be potentially applied to the rapid, “green” and low-cost degradation of CR in industrial printing and dyeing wastewater.

  6. Experimental and modelling studies on the exposure of wall surfaces to tritium gas in ambient room conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housiadas, C.; Douglas, K.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental set-up is used to carry out static exposure tests to study the uptake and oxidation of tritium released in ambient room air, routinely or accidentally, in the presence of selected surface materials. Tritium, in its elemental form at concentrations of the order of approx.0.4 GBq/m 3 (10 -2 Ci/m 3 ), is injected into the glass exposure chamber containing the selected surface material and air at atmospheric pressure. Periodically, samples of the chamber atmosphere are analysed, using liquid scintillation counting, to obtain the concentrations of HTO and T 2 . The exposures have been performed using aluminium, 316L stainless steel and painted stainless steel plates, as the selected surface materials. Results are compared with predictions using the ITER approved TMAP4 code. The results indicate practically the same conversion rate, of about 0.02% per day, for both the aluminium and stainless steel samples and give reasonable agreement with modelling predictions. Strong absorption of both T 2 and HTO by the painted surface is observed, suggesting the use of high values for the solubility constant to correctly predict this behaviour. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. An Experimental Measurement on Laminar Burning Velocities and Markstein Length of Iso-Butane-Air Mixtures at Ambient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif Alaeldeen Altag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, experimental investigation on laminar combustion of iso-butane-air mixtures was conducted in constant volume explosion vessel. The experiments were conducted at wide range of equivalence ratios ranging between Ф = 0.6 and 1.4 and atmospheric pressure of 0.1 MPa and ambient temperature of 303K. Using spherically expanding flame method, flame parameters including stretched, unstretched flame propagation speeds, laminar burning velocities and Markstein length were calculated. For laminar burning velocities the method of error bars of 95% confidence level was applied. In addition, values of Markstein lengths were measured in wide range of equivalence ratios to study the influence of stretch rate on flame instability and burning velocity. It was found that the stretched flame speed and laminar burning velocities increased with equivalence ratios and the peak value was obtained at equivalence ratio of Ф = 1.1. The Markstein length decreased with the increases in equivalence ratios, which indicates that the diffusion thermal flame instability increased at high equivalence ratios in richer mixture side. However, the total deviations in the laminar burning velocities have discrepancies of 1.2-2.9% for all investigated mixtures.

  8. Measured versus calculated thermal conductivity of high-grade metamorphic rocks – inferences on the thermal properties of the lower crust at ambient and in-situ conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, Labani; Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Förster, Andrea

    The bulk thermal conductivity (TC) of 26 rock samples representing felsic, intermediate and mafic granulites, from the Southern Granulite Province, India, is measured at dry and saturated conditions with the optical-scanning method. Thermal conductivity is also calculated from modal mineralogy...... (determined by XRD and EPMA), applying mixing models commonly used in thermal studies. Most rocks are fine- to medium -grained equigranular in texture. All samples are isotropic to weakly anisotropic and possess low porosities (..., between 2.5 and 3.5 W/(mK) for intermediate granulites and between 2.4 and 2.7 W/(mK) for mafic granulites. Considering this data and literature compilations, rocks representative for the lower continental crust typically display values between 2 and 3 W/(mK) at ambient temperature and pressure conditions...

  9. Image processing techniques revealing the relationship between the field-measured ambient gamma dose equivalent rate and geological conditions at a granitic area, Velence Mountains, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran Torres, Silvana; Petrik, Attila; Zsuzsanna Szabó, Katalin; Jordan, Gyozo; Szabó, Csaba

    2017-04-01

    In order to estimate the annual dose that the public receive from natural radioactivity, the identification of the potential risk areas is required which, in turn, necessitates understanding the relationship between the spatial distribution of natural radioactivity and the geogenic risk factors (e.g., rock types, dykes, faults, soil conditions, etc.). A detailed spatial analysis of ambient gamma dose equivalent rate was performed in the western side of Velence Mountains, the largest outcropped granitic area in Hungary. In order to assess the role of local geology in the spatial distribution of ambient gamma dose rates, field measurements were carried out at ground level at 300 sites along a 250 m x 250 m regular grid in a total surface of 14.7 km2. Digital image processing methods were applied to identify anomalies, heterogeneities and spatial patterns in the measured gamma dose rates, including local maxima and minima determination, digital cross sections, gradient magnitude and gradient direction, second derivative profile curvature, local variability, lineament density, 2D autocorrelation and directional variogram analyses. Statistical inference showed that different gamma dose rate levels are associated with the rock types (i.e., Carboniferous granite, Pleistocene colluvial, proluvial, deluvial sediments and talus, and Pannonian sand and pebble), with the highest level on the Carboniferous granite including outlying values. Moreover, digital image processing revealed that linear gamma dose rate spatial features are parallel to the SW-NE dyke system and possibly to the NW-SE main fractures. The results of this study underline the importance of understanding the role of geogenic risk factors influencing the ambient gamma dose rate received by public. The study also demonstrates the power of the image processing techniques for the identification of spatial pattern in field-measured geogenic radiation.

  10. Silver endotaxy in silicon under various ambient conditions and their use as surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juluri, R.R.; Ghosh, A.; Bhukta, A.; Sathyavathi, R.; Satyam, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    Search for reliable, robust and efficient substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) leads to the growth of various shapes and nanostructures of noble metals, and in particular, Ag nanostructures for this purpose. Coherently embedded (also known as endotaxial) Ag nanostructures in silicon substrates can be made robust and reusable SERS substrates. In this paper, we show the possibility of the growth of Ag endotaxial structures in Si crystal during Ar and low-vacuum annealing conditions while this is absent in O 2 and ultra high vacuum (UHV) annealing conditions and along with their respective use as SERS substrates. Systems annealed under air-annealing and low-vacuum conditions were found to show larger enhancement factors (typically ≈ 5 × 10 5 in SERS measurement for 0.5 nM Crystal Violet (CV) molecule) while the systems prepared under UHV-annealing conditions (where no endotaxial Ag structures were formed) were found to be not effective as SERS substrates. Extensive electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry techniques were used to understand the structural aspects. - Highlights: • Various aspects on the growth of endotaxial Ag nanostructures are presented. • Optimum amount of oxygen is necessary for the growth of endotaxial structures. • Reaction of oxygen with GeOx and SiOx plays a crucial role. • Ag nanostructures prepared under UHV conditions show low SERS activity • SERS enhancement is better for low-vacuum and argon annealing conditions

  11. Efecto del almacenamiento al ambiente en semillas de Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham sometidas a hidratación parcial Effect of storage under ambient conditions on seeds from Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham subject to partial hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda González

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar el efecto del almacenamiento al ambiente en la germinación de las semillas de Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham sometidas a hidratación parcial. Los tratamientos fueron: control, sin escarificación (T0; escarificación térmica (ET con H2O a 80°C, durante dos minutos (T1; ET más hidratación parcial, en bandeja con agua corriente por 28 horas (T2; ET más hidratación parcial, en saco de yute humedecido con agua corriente por 28 horas (T3; ET más hidratación parcial, en bandeja con agua corriente y TMTD al 0,1% (plaguicida por 28 horas (T4; ET más hidratación parcial, en saco de yute humedecido con agua corriente y TMTD al 0,1% (plaguicida por 28 horas (T5. Las semillas hidratadas se deshidrataron durante 72 horas al aire y a la sombra, antes de almacenarlas. Se midió la germinación y la viabilidad a 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 18, 30 y 42 meses. Se utilizó un diseño totalmente aleatorizado y cuatro réplicas por tratamiento. Hubo diferencias significativas (PThe objective of the work was to study the effect of storage under ambient conditions on the germination of seeds from Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham subject to partial hydration. The treatments were: control, no scarification (T0; thermal scarification (TS with H2O at 80ºC, for two minutes (T1; TS plus partial hydration, on tray with tap water for 28 hours (T2; TS plus partial hydration, in jute sac moist with tap water for 28 hours (T3; TS plus partial hydration in tray with tap water and TMTD at 0,1% (pesticide for 28 hours (T4; TS plus partial hydration, in jute sac moist with tap water and TMTD at 0,1% (pesticide for 28 hours (T5. The hydrated seeds were dehydrated during 72 hours exposed to air and under shade, before being stored. Germination and viability were measured after 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 18, 30 and 42 months. A completely randomized design and four replications per treatment were used. There were significant differences (P<0

  12. Effects of ambient solar UV radiation on grapevine leaf physiology and berry phenolic composition along one entire season under Mediterranean field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Castillo-Alonso, María-Ángeles; Diago, María P; Tomás-Las-Heras, Rafael; Monforte, Laura; Soriano, Gonzalo; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación

    2016-12-01

    In the present study we assessed the effects of ambient solar UV exclusion on leaf physiology, and leaf and berry skin phenolic composition, of a major grapevine cultivar (Tempranillo) grown under typically Mediterranean field conditions over an entire season. In general, the effects of time were stronger than those of UV radiation. Ambient UV caused a little stressing effect (eustress) on leaf physiology, with decreasing net photosynthesis rates and stomatal conductances. However, it was not accompanied by alterations in F v /F m or photosynthetic pigments, and was partially counterbalanced by the UV-induced accumulation of protective flavonols. Consequently, Tempranillo leaves are notably adapted to current UV levels. The responses of berry skin phenolic compounds were diverse, moderate, and mostly transitory. At harvest, the clearest response in UV-exposed berries was again flavonol accumulation, together with a decrease in the flavonol hydroxylation level. Contrarily, responses of anthocyanins, flavanols, stilbenes and hydroxycinnamic derivatives were much more subtle or nonexistent. Kaempferols were the only compounds whose leaf and berry skin contents were correlated, which suggests a mostly different regulation of phenolic metabolism for each organ. Interestingly, the dose of biologically effective UV radiation (UV BE ) was correlated with the leaf and berry skin contents of quercetins and kaempferols; relationships were linear except for the exponential relationship between UV BE dose and berry skin kaempferols. This opens management possibilities to modify kaempferol and quercetin contents in grapevine through UV manipulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of adding methionine supplements to low-protein diets and subsequent re-feeding with a normal diet on the productive performance, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profiles and antibody response in broiler chickens reared under heat stress conditions. During the whole experimental period (6-49 days), the birds were raised in battery cages located in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. A total of 360 6-day-old male chickens were divided into six treatments in six replicates with ten chicks each. Six isoenergetic diets, with similar total sulfur amino acids levels, were formulated to provide 100 and 100 (control), 85 and 100 (85S), 70 and 100 (70S), 85 and 85 (85SG), 70 and 85 (70S85G), and 70 and 70 % (70SG) of National Research Council recommended levels for crude protein during the starter (6-21 day) and grower (22-42 day) periods, respectively. Subsequently, all groups received a diet containing the same nutrients during the finisher period (43-49 day). The results showed that, under heat stress conditions, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and performance index from day 6 to 49, breast and thigh yields and antibody titer against Newcastle disease in the birds fed diets 85S, 70S and 85SG were similar to those of birds fed control diet, whereas feeding diets 70S85G and 70SG significantly decreased the values of above-mentioned parameters. Additionally, diets 85S, 70S and 85SG significantly decreased mortality rate and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that supplementation of methionine to diets 85S, 70S and 85SG, and then re-feeding with a conventional diet is an effective tool to maintain productive performance and to improve health indices and heat resistance in broilers under high ambient temperature conditions.

  14. Evaluation of the effect of intrinsic material properties and ambient conditions on the dimensional stability of white mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Josette

    2011-02-01

    A number of factors affect the dimensional stability of a material. These factors include curing conditions, material solubility, leaching, and time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the restrained dimensional change in the vertical direction as a function of the ambient conditions, fluid uptake, solubility, and leaching of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement stored in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) over a period of 28 days. The dimensional change in the vertical direction over a 28-day period was determined using a linear variable differential transducer (LVDT) on laterally restrained test samples. The fluid uptake and solubility of both MTA and Portland cement was also evaluated. The leaching in water and HBSS was assessed using inductively coupled plasma. MTA was more soluble than Portland cement. Both materials absorbed water and physiological solution, with Portland cement displaying a lower uptake than MTA. Both cements exhibited a net expansion when in contact with a physiological solution and released high levels of calcium. MTA leached bismuth. Both calcium and bismuth ion release was higher in HBSS than in water. Phosphorus ions in HBSS were depleted when in contact with both MTA and Portland cement. The MTA was very susceptible to ambient conditions. The addition of bismuth oxide to MTA reduced the leaching of calcium hydroxide, increased the material solubility, and caused deterioration in material dimensional stability. Further research is necessary to establish the material porosity and its effect on the dimensional stability. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing the effect of marginal water use efficiency on water use of loblolly pine and sweetgum in ambient and elevated CO2 conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Medvigy, D.; Xu, X.; Oren, R.; Ward, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Stomata are the common pathways through which diffusion of CO2 and water vapor take place in a plant. Therefore, the responses of stomatal conductance to environmental conditions are important to quantify carbon assimilation and water use of plants. In stomatal optimality theory, plants may adjust the stomatal conductance to maximize carbon assimilation for a given water availability. The carbon cost for unit water loss, marginal water use efficiency (λ), depends on changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and pre-dawn leaf water potential. The relationship can be described by λ with no water stress (λ0) and the sensitivity of λ to pre-dawn leaf water potential (β0), which may vary by plant functional type. Assessment of sensitivity of tree and canopy water use to those parameters and the estimation of the parameters for individual plant functional type or species are needed. We modeled tree water use of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) in ambient and elevated CO2 (+200 µmol mol-1) at the Duke Forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) site with Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2), a demographic terrestrial biosphere model that scales up individual-level competition for light, water and nutrients to the ecosystem-level. Simulated sap flux density for different tree size classes and species was compared to observations. The sensitivity analysis with respect to the model's hydraulic parameters was performed. The initial results showed that the impacts of λ on tree water use were greater than other hydraulic traits in the model, such as vertical hydraulic conductivity and leaf and stem capacitance. With 10% increase in λ, modeled water flow from root to leaf decreased by 2.5 and 1.6% for P. taeda and by 7.9 and 5.1% for L. styraciflua in ambient and elevated CO2 conditions, respectively. Values of hydraulic traits (λ0 and β0) for P. taeda and L. styraciflua in ambient an elevated CO2 conditions were also suggested.

  16. Det ambiente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Om begrebet "det ambiente", der beskriver, hvad der sker, når vi fornemmer baggrundsmusikkens diskrete beats, betragter udsigten gennem panoramavinduet eller tager 3D-brillerne på og læner os tilbage i biografsædet. Bogen analyserer, hvorfan ambiente oplevelser skabes, og hvilke konsekvenser det...

  17. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under

  18. Environmental impact of the programs of substitution of room type air conditioning equipment; Impacto ambiental de los programas de sustitucion de equipos de aire tipo cuarto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon Aleman, Jose Mauricio [OLADE, Quito (Ecuador)

    2002-09-01

    The present article approaches in a general way the relation that exists between the environment and the saving of electrical energy, especially in the Programs of Demand Side Management (DSM). In particular form the potential environmental impacts are described, derived of the use and the discard of the room type air conditioning equipment, goes deep into the characteristics of their cooling fluids, as well as in the relation that these keep with the protocols of Montreal and Kyoto. Finally, this article comments the incidence which have, the manufacturers as the institutions that implement DSM programs, on the environmental part of the programs of substitution of room type air conditioning equipment. In addition it is briefly described, the pilot program developed by Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE) as a successful case. [Spanish] En forma general, el presente articulo aborda la relacion que existe entre el medio ambiente y el ahorro de energia electrica, especialmente en los Programas de Administracion por el Lado de la Demanda (ALD). En forma particular se describen los impactos ambientales potenciales, derivados del uso y desecho de los equipos de aire acondicionado tipo cuarto, se ahonda en las caracteristicas de sus refrigerantes, asi como en la relacion que estos guardan con los protocolos de Montreal y Kioto. Finalmente, se comenta la incidencia que tienen, tanto los fabricantes como las instituciones que implementan programas de ALD, sobre la parte ambiental de los programas de sustitucion de equipos de aire acondicionado tipo cuarto. Ademas se describe brevemente, el programa piloto desarrollado por el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE) como un caso exitoso.

  19. Det Ambiente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Det ambiente er iscenesættelsen af en karakteristisk sanseoplevelse, der er kendetegnet ved fornemmelsen af at være omgivet. I dag bliver begrebet om det ambiente mest anvendt i forbindelse med musikgenren ’ambient musik’. Det ambiente er dog ikke essentielt knyttet til det musikalske, men må...... forstås som et betydeligt bredere fænomen i den moderne æstetiske kultur, der spiller en væsentlig rolle i oplevelsen af moderne transportformer, arkitektur, film, lydkunst, installationskunst og digitale multimedieiscenesættelser. En forståelse af det ambiente er derfor centralt for forståelsen af en...... moderne æstetiseret oplevelseskultur i almindelighed. Da det ambiente ikke hidtil har været gjort til genstand for en mere indgående teoretisk behandling, er der dog stor usikkerhed omkring, hvad fænomenet overhovedet indebærer. Hovedformålet med Det ambiente – Sansning, medialisering, omgivelse er derfor...

  20. Chemoselective Synthesis of Dithioacetals from Bio-aldehydes with Zeolites under Ambient and Solvent-free Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hu; Yang, Tingting; Riisager, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Dithioacetals are an important class of versatile compounds extensively applied in pharmaceuticals, separations, electrochemistry, and organic synthesis, but few heterogeneous catalytic systems are reported to be generally applicable for their synthesis from a wide range of substrates. A series...... of commercial and modified zeolites are excellent catalysts for thioacetalization of different thiols with carbonyl compounds, including biomass-derived aldehydes, at room temperature under solvent-free conditions. A near quantitative yield of dithioacetal was obtained over H-beta(19) at room temperature...

  1. Effects of processing conditions and ambient environment on the microstructure and fracture strength of copper/niobium/copper interlayer joints for alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Robert Alan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Partial transient liquid phase (PTLP) bonding is a technique which can be used to join ceramics with metals and is used to form niobium-based joints for alumina. The principal advantage to PTLP bonding is that it enables refractory joints to be fabricated at temperatures below those typically required by solid state diffusion bonding. A thorough review of the important parameters (chemical compatibility, thermal expansion match, sufficient wettability of the liquid phase on the solid phases) in choosing a joining material for ceramics by the PTLP method is provided. As in conventional PTLP joining, the current study uses thin (=3 μm) copper layers sandwiched between the alumina (bulk) and niobium (127 μm). However, unlike the case of copper/nickel/copper obium is limited. Consequently, the copper is not entirely dissolved in the process, resulting in a two phase (copper-rich and niobium-rich phases) microstructure. Different processing conditions (temperature and applied load) result in different morphologies of the copper-rich and niobium-rich phases at the interface. These different microstructures exhibit distinct strength characteristics. Extended annealing of as-processed joints can influence the strengths differently depending on the ambient partial oxygen pressure at the annealing temperature. The focus of this work is to correlate processing conditions, microstructure, and resulting joint strength. Under optimum processing conditions (1400°C, 2.2 MPa), joints with strengths in excess of 200 MPa at 1200°C are fabricated.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of AlCl3 Impregnated Molybdenum Oxide as Heterogeneous Nano-Catalyst for the Friedel-Crafts Acylation Reaction in Ambient Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Arvind H; Chinnappan, Amutha; Hiremath, Vishwanath; Seo, Jeong Gil

    2015-10-01

    Aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) impregnated molybdenum oxide heterogeneous nano-catalyst was prepared by using simple impregnation method. The prepared heterogeneous catalyst was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, SEM imaging, and EDX mapping. The catalytic activity of this protocol was evaluated as heterogeneous catalyst for the Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction at room temperature. The impregnated MoO4(AlCl2)2 catalyst showed tremendous catalytic activity in Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction under solvent-free and mild reaction condition. As a result, 84.0% yield of acyl product with 100% consumption of reactants in 18 h reaction time at room temperature was achieved. The effects of different solvents system with MoO4(AlCl2)2 catalyst in acylation reaction was also investigated. By using optimized reaction condition various acylated derivatives were prepared. In addition, the catalyst was separated by simple filtration process after the reaction and reused several times. Therefore, heterogeneous MoO4(AlCl2)2 catalyst was found environmentally benign catalyst, very convenient, high yielding, and clean method for the Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction under solvent-free and ambient reaction condition.

  3. Foundry industries: environmental aspects and environmental condition indicators; Industrias de fundicion: aspectos ambientales e indicadores de condicion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, B. s.; Banda-Noriega, R. B.; Guerrero, E. M.

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays, environmental indicators are widely used as effective tools to assist decision-making in both public and private sectors. The lack of literature and research about local and regional Environmental Condition Indicators (ECI), the poor knowledge regarding solid waste generation, effluents and gas emissions from foundry industries, and their particular location in the urban area of Tandil, Argentina are the main reasons for this investigation, aiming to develop a set a of ECI to provide information about the environment in relation to the foundry industry. The study involves all the foundries located in the city between March and April 2010. The set of ECI developed includes 9 indicators for air, 5 for soil and 1 for water. Specific methodology was used for each indicator. (Author) 31 refs.

  4. Evidence for CO2 reactive adsorption on nanoporous S- and N-doped carbon at ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandosz, Teresa J. [City College of New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Seredych, Mykola [City College of New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique [Univ. of Malaga (Spain). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Cheng, Yongqiang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Engineering Materials Division; Daemen, Luke L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Engineering Materials Division; Ramírez-Cuesta, Anibal J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Engineering Materials Division

    2015-10-08

    CO2 interactions with nanoporous S- and N-doped polymer-derived carbon and commercial wood-based carbon were investigated in a broad range of conditions. The results showed that during CO2 adsorption nitrogen and sulfur species as well as water were released from the carbon surface as a result of chemical reactions of the surface groups with CO2. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments provided the unprecedented ability to characterize very small amounts of CO2 and H2O and revealed for the first time their physical/chemical status in the confined space of nanoporous carbons. The results obtained suggest that the reactivity of the carbon surface should be considered when CO2 storage media are chosen and when CO2 is used as a probe to determine the microporosity of carbon materials.

  5. Growth kinetics and long-term stability of CdS nanoparticles in aqueous solution under ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullaugh, Katherine M.; Luther, George W.

    2011-01-01

    The ubiquity of naturally occurring nanoparticles in the aquatic environment is now widely accepted, but a better understanding of the conditions that promote their formation and persistence is needed. Using cadmium sulfide (CdS) as a model metal sulfide species, thiolate-capped CdS nanoparticles were prepared in the laboratory to evaluate how aquatic conditions influence metal sulfide nanoparticle growth and stability. This work examines CdS nanoparticle growth directly in aqueous solution at room temperature by utilizing the size-dependent spectroscopic properties of semiconductors detectable by UV/vis. CdS nanoparticle growth was governed by oriented attachment, a non-classical mechanism of crystallization in which small precursor nanoparticles coalesce to form larger nanoparticle products. Nanoparticle growth was slowed with increasing capping agent and decreasing ionic strength. In addition to examining the short-term (hours) growth of the nanoparticles, a long-term study was conducted in which cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were monitored over 3 weeks in solutions of various ionic strengths. The long-term study revealed an apparent shift from small nanoparticles to nanoparticles twice their original size, suggesting nanoparticle growth may continue through oriented attachment over longer time scales. High-ionic strength solutions resulted in salt-induced aggregation and eventual settling of nanoparticles within days, whereas low-ionic strength solutions were stable against settling over the course of the experiment. Sulfide recovery from cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles as acid volatile sulfide was nearly quantitative after 2 weeks in fully oxygenated water, demonstrating significantly slowed oxidation of sulfide when complexed to Cd(II) within CdS nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were also shown to be resistant to oxidation by Fe(III) (hydr)oxide. This study illustrates that aggregation, rather than chemical oxidation, is likely more important to the

  6. [Influence of industrial pollution of ambient air on health of workers engaged into open air activities in cold conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chashchin, V P; Siurin, S A; Gudkov, A B; Popova, O N; Voronin, A Iu

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study on assessment of occupational exposure to air pollutants and related health effects in3792 outdoor workers engaged in operations performed in the vicinity of non-ferrous metallurgical facilities in Far North. Findings are that during cold season repeated climate and weather conditions are associated with higher level of chemical hazards and dust in surface air. At the air temperature below -17 degrees C, maximal single concentrations of major pollutants can exceed MAC up to 10 times. With that, transitory disablement morbidity parameters and occupational accidents frequency increase significantly. The workers with long exposure to cooling meteorological factors and air pollution demonstrate significantly increased prevalence of respiratory and circulatory diseases, despite relatively low levels of sculpture dioxide and dust in the air, not exceeding the occupational exposure limits. It has been concluded that severe cold is to be considered asa factor increasing occupational risk at air polluted outdoor worksites dueto more intense air pollution, higher traumatism risk and lower efficiency of filter antidust masks respiratory PPE and due to modification of the toxic effects.

  7. Effects of ambient conditions on the risk of pressure injuries in bedridden patients-multi-physics modelling of microclimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeevi, Tal; Levy, Ayelet; Brauner, Neima; Gefen, Amit

    2017-12-17

    Scientific evidence regarding microclimate and its effects on the risk of pressure ulcers (PU) remains sparse. It is known that elevated skin temperatures and moisture may affect metabolic demand as well as the mechanical behaviour of the tissue. In this study, we incorporated these microclimate factors into a novel, 3-dimensional multi-physics coupled model of the human buttocks, which simultaneously determines the biothermal and biomechanical behaviours of the buttocks in supine lying on different support surfaces. We compared 3 simulated thermally controlled mattresses with 2 reference foam mattresses. A tissue damage score was numerically calculated in a relevant volume of the model, and the cooling effect of each 1°C decrease of tissue temperature was deduced. Damage scores of tissues were substantially lower for the non-foam mattresses compared with the foams. The percentage tissue volume at risk within the volume of interest was found to grow exponentially as the average tissue temperature increased. The resultant average sacral skin temperature was concluded to be a good predictor for an increased risk of PU/injuries. Each 1°C increase contributes approximately 14 times as much to the risk with respect to an increase of 1 mmHg of pressure. These findings highlight the advantages of using thermally controlled support surfaces as well as the need to further assess the potential damage that may be caused by uncontrolled microclimate conditions on inadequate support surfaces in at-risk patients. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Sequence-Dependent Structure/Function Relationships of Catalytic Peptide-Enabled Gold Nanoparticles Generated under Ambient Synthetic Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedford, Nicholas M.; Hughes, Zak E.; Tang, Zhenghua; Li, Yue; Briggs, Beverly D.; Ren, Yang; Swihart, Mark T.; Petkov, Valeri G.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Knecht, Mark R.; Walsh, Tiffany R.

    2016-01-20

    Peptide-enabled nanoparticle (NP) synthesis routes can create and/or assemble functional nanomaterials under environmentally friendly conditions, with properties dictated by complex interactions at the biotic/abiotic interface. Manipulation of this interface through sequence modification can provide the capability for material properties to be tailored to create enhanced materials for energy, catalysis, and sensing applications. Fully realizing the potential of these materials requires a comprehensive understanding of sequence-dependent structure/function relationships that is presently lacking. In this work, the atomic-scale structures of a series of peptide-capped Au NPs are determined using a combination of atomic pair distribution function analysis of high-energy X-ray diffraction data and advanced molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The Au NPs produced with different peptide sequences exhibit varying degrees of catalytic activity for the exemplar reaction 4-nitrophenol reduction. The experimentally derived atomic-scale NP configurations reveal sequence-dependent differences in structural order at the NP surface. Replica exchange with solute-tempering MD simulations are then used to predict the morphology of the peptide overlayer on these Au NPs and identify factors determining the structure/catalytic properties relationship. We show that the amount of exposed Au surface, the underlying surface structural disorder, and the interaction strength of the peptide with the Au surface all influence catalytic performance. A simplified computational prediction of catalytic performance is developed that can potentially serve as a screening tool for future studies. Our approach provides a platform for broadening the analysis of catalytic peptide-enabled metallic NP systems, potentially allowing for the development of rational design rules for property enhancement.

  9. Estabilidade oxidativa de óleo de peixe encapsulado em diferentes tipos de embalagem em condição ambiente Encapsulated fish oil oxidative stability stored in different types of packing under ambient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Guidorizzi Antonio Pacheco

    2009-12-01

    due to oxidation. This research main interest was the stability of encapsulated fish oil stored in different types of packagings. The fish oil used in this experiment was supplied by Cardinal Pharmaceutical Industry in soft gel capsules. After encapsulation, half of the samples were sent to SERPAC Industry LTDA for blistering, where polychlortrifluoroethylene (PCTFE, commercially known as Aclar Rx 160 (15 μ, polyvinyldichloride (PVDC-60 gsm², and polyvinylchoride (PVC-250 μ films were used as treatments. The blisters were packed in carton boxes. The other half of the capsules was packed in amber glass or high density polyethylene (PEAD rigid flasks with and without silica bags. Each treatment contained 60 capsules in triplicate and all packs were stored under ambient conditions for 12 months. Analytical determinations were performed on the oil every 28 days and included acid and peroxide values and absortivities in the ultraviolet region at 232 and 270 nm. The fatty acid composition determinations, specifically EPA and DHA content, were performed during the experiment. The package which presented the largest changes in quality of the oil was the PVC film "blister". The best results were found in the encapsulated oil stored in PEAD flasks with silica bags. EPA and DHA contents were kept constant for all samples.

  10. Geochemical Data for Upper Mineral Creek, Colorado, Under Existing Ambient Conditions and During an Experimental pH Modification, August 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.; Steiger, Judy I.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Mineral Creek, an acid mine drainage stream in south-western Colorado, was the subject of a water-quality study that employed a paired synoptic approach. Under the paired synoptic approach, two synoptic sampling campaigns were conducted on the same study reach. The initial synoptic campaign, conducted August 22, 2005, documented stream-water quality under existing ambient conditions. A second synoptic campaign, conducted August 24, 2005, documented stream-water quality during a pH-modification experiment that elevated the pH of Mineral Creek. The experimental pH modification was designed to determine the potential reductions in dissolved constituent concentrations that would result from the implementation of an active treatment system for acid mine drainage. During both synoptic sampling campaigns, a solution containing lithium bromide was injected continuously to allow for the calculation of streamflow using the tracer-dilution method. Synoptic water-quality samples were collected from 30 stream sites and 11 inflow locations along the 2-kilometer study reach. Data from the study provide spatial profiles of pH, concentration, and streamflow under both existing and experimentally-altered conditions. This report presents the data obtained August 21-24, 2005, as well as the methods used for sample collection and data analysis.

  11. Periodismo ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Lemos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los periodistas toman el tema del medio ambiente cada vez más en serio. El uso de temas relacionados con el medio ambiente, debe estar ligado al análisis socio-económico y a las posibilidades de comunicación y educación de diferentes regiones del mundo. A continuación se presenta un resumen de la situación ambiental, las acciones de prensa y comunicación que se llevan a cabo en América Central (Panamá, El Salvador, Costa Rica y en Sudamérica Brasil,Colombia, Chile, México, y Perú. Se concluye en la necesidad de formar hábitos ecológicos. Los comunicadores deben presentar soluciones a los problemas, fomentar campañas comunes, compartir información y velar por el ambiente ambiente para que las generaciones futuras no tengan que perecer.

  12. Farmers prevailing perception profiles regarding GM crops: A classification proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Carla; Massarani, Luisa

    2018-04-01

    Genetically modified organisms have been at the centre of a major public controversy, involving different interests and actors. While much attention has been devoted to consumer views on genetically modified food, there have been few attempts to understand the perceptions of genetically modified technology among farmers. By investigating perceptions of genetically modified organisms among Brazilian farmers, we intend to contribute towards filling this gap and thereby add the views of this stakeholder group to the genetically modified debate. A comparative analysis of our data and data from other studies indicate there is a complex variety of views on genetically modified organisms among farmers. Despite this diversity, we found variations in such views occur within limited parameters, concerned principally with expectations or concrete experiences regarding the advantages of genetically modified crops, perceptions of risks associated with them, and ethical questions they raise. We then propose a classification of prevailing profiles to represent the spectrum of perceptions of genetically modified organisms among farmers.

  13. Analysis of vertical flow during ambient and pumped conditions in four monitoring wells at the Pantex Plant, Carson County, Texas, July-September 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Gregory P.; Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stoval, Jeffery

    2009-01-01

    The Pantex Plant is a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (USDOE/NNSA)-owned, contractor-operated facility managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Pantex, LLC (B&W Pantex) in Carson County, Texas, approximately 17 miles northeast of Amarillo. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with B&W Pantex through the USDOE/NNSA, made a series of flowmeter measurements and collected other borehole geophysical logs during July–September 2008 to analyze vertical flow in screened intervals of four selected monitoring wells (PTX01–1012, PTX06–1044, PTX06–1056, and PTX06–1068) at the Pantex Plant. Hydraulic properties (transmissivity values) of the section of High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer penetrated by the wells also were computed. Geophysical data were collected under ambient and pumped flow conditions in the four monitoring wells. Unusually large drawdowns occurred at two monitoring wells (PTX06–1044 and PTX06–1056) while the wells were pumped at relatively low rates. A decision was made to redevelop those wells, and logs were run again after redevelopment in the two monitoring wells.

  14. Subnanometer Resolution and Enhanced Friction Contrast at the Surface of Perylene Diimide PDI8-CN2 Thin Films in Ambient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzio, Renato; Gerbi, Andrea; Barra, Mario; Chiarella, Fabio; Gnecco, Enrico; Cassinese, Antonio

    2018-03-13

    We report high-resolution surface morphology and friction force maps of polycrystalline organic thin films derived by deposition of the n-type perylene diimide semiconductor PDI8-CN 2 . We show that the in-plane molecular arrangement into ordered, cofacial slip-stacked rows results in a largely anisotropic surface structure, with a characteristic sawtooth corrugation of a few Ångstroms wavelength and height. Load-controlled experiments reveal different types of friction contrast between the alternating sloped and stepped regions, with transitions from atomic-scale dissipative stick-slip to smooth sliding with ultralow friction within the surface unit cell. Notably, such a rich phenomenology is captured under ambient conditions. We demonstrate that friction contrast is well reproduced by numerical simulations assuming a reduced corrugation of the tip-molecule potential nearby the step edges. We propose that the side alkyl chains pack into a compact low-surface-energy overlayer, and friction modulation reflects periodic heterogeneity of chains bending properties and subsurface anchoring to the perylene cores.

  15. Rapid degradation of Congo red by molecularly imprinted polypyrrole-coated magnetic TiO2 nanoparticles in dark at ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shoutai; Hu, Xiaolei; Liu, Hualong; Wang, Qiang; He, Chiyang

    2015-08-30

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-coated magnetic TiO2 nanocomposite was prepared, using methyl orange (MO) as the dummy template and pyrrole as functional monomer, for degradation of Congo red (CR). The nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The imprinting efficiency of the imprinted nanoparticles was investigated by static binding test, and their degradation ability toward CR was also studied. Moreover, the effects of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and oscillation rate on degradation rate of CR were investigated. Results showed that the imprinted nanocomposite had higher adsorption ability for MO compared with the non-imprinted one. Moreover, it could degrade CR rapidly in dark at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and could be recycled easily by a magnet with a good reusability. A degradation mechanism was proposed according to LC-MS analysis of degradation products of CR. The new imprinted nanoparticles showed high catalytic activity at ambient conditions without light illumination and additional chemicals, and therefore, it can be potentially applied to the rapid, "green" and low-cost degradation of CR in industrial printing and dyeing wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 77 FR 34854 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Special Wage Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ...-AM63 Prevailing Rate Systems; Special Wage Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics... for the Department of Defense's (DOD's) nonappropriated fund (NAF) automotive mechanics. These special... practice for compensating NAF automotive mechanics with current prevailing pay practices in the private...

  17. A dynamic organic Rankine cycle using a zeotropic mixture as the working fluid with composition tuning to match changing ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, Peter; Yu, Zhibin; Wang, Enhua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic ORC using a zeotropic mixture with composition tuning is proposed. • The working principle is verified theoretically, based on a thermodynamic model. • Improvements in the resultant power plant’s annual power production are analysed. • The economic benefits have been demonstrated by an economic analysis. - Abstract: Air-cooled condensers are widely used for Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plants where cooling water is unavailable or too costly, but they are then vulnerable to changing ambient air temperatures especially in continental climates, where the air temperature difference between winter and summer can be over 40 °C. A conventional ORC system using a single component working fluid has to be designed according to the maximum air temperature in summer and thus operates far from optimal design conditions for most of the year, leading to low annual average efficiencies. This research proposes a novel dynamic ORC that uses a binary zeotropic mixture as the working fluid, with mechanisms in place to adjust the mixture composition dynamically during operation in response to changing heat sink conditions, significantly improving the overall efficiency of the plant. The working principle of the dynamic ORC concept is analysed. The case study results show that the annual average thermal efficiency can be improved by up to 23% over a conventional ORC when the heat source is 100 °C, while the evaluated increase of the capital cost is less than 7%. The dynamic ORC power plants are particularly attractive for low temperature applications, delivering shorter payback periods compared to conventional ORC systems.

  18. The influence of boron on the crystal structure and properties of mullite. Investigations at ambient, high-pressure, and high-temperature conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luehrs, Hanna

    2013-11-21

    Mullite is one of the most important synthetic compounds for advanced structural and functional ceramic materials. The crystal structure of mullite with the composition Al{sub 2}[Al{sub 2+2x}Si{sub 2-2x}]O{sub 10-x} can incorporate a large variety of foreign cations, including (amongst others) significant amounts of boron. However, no chemical or crystal structure analyses of boron-mullites (B-mullites) were available prior to this work, thus representing the key aspects of this thesis. Furthermore, the influence of boron on selected properties of mullite under ambient, high-temperature, and high-pressure conditions are addressed. Starting from a 3:2 mullite composition (Al{sub 4.5}Si{sub 1.5}O{sub 9.75}), the initial hypothesis for this study was a 1:1 isomorphous replacement of silicon by boron according to the coupled substitution mechanism: 2 Si{sup 4+} + O{sup 2-} → 2 B{sup 3+} + □. Based on a series of compounds synthesized from sol-gel derived precursors at ambient pressure and 1200 C, the formation conditions and physical properties of B-mullites were investigated. The formation temperature for B-mullites decreases with increasing boron-content, as revealed by thermal analyses. An anisotropic development of lattice parameters is observed: Whereas lattice parameters a and b only exhibit minor changes, a linear relationship between lattice parameter c and the amount of boron in the crystal structure was established, on the basis of prompt gamma activation analyses (PGAA) and Rietveld refinements. According to this relationship about 15% of the silicon in mullite can be replaced by boron yielding single-phase B-mullite. B-mullites with significantly higher (∝ factor 3) boron-contents in the mullite structure were also observed but the respective samples contain alumina impurities. Fundamental new details regarding the response of B-mullite to high-temperature and highpressure are presented in this thesis. On the one hand, long-term thermal stability at

  19. Genetics of Schizophrenia: Historical Insights and Prevailing Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Leemput, J; Hess, J L; Glatt, S J; Tsuang, M T

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia's (SZ's) heritability and familial transmission have been known for several decades; however, despite the clear evidence for a genetic component, it has been very difficult to pinpoint specific causative genes. Even so genetic studies have taught us a lot, even in the pregenomic era, about the molecular underpinnings and disease-relevant pathways. Recurring themes emerged revealing the involvement of neurodevelopmental processes, glutamate regulation, and immune system differential activation in SZ etiology. The recent emergence of epigenetic studies aimed at shedding light on the biological mechanisms underlying SZ has provided another layer of information in the investigation of gene and environment interactions. However, this epigenetic insight also brings forth another layer of complexity to the (epi)genomic landscape such as interactions between genetic variants, epigenetic marks-including cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone modification processes-, gene expression regulation, and environmental influences. In this review, we seek to synthesize perspectives, including limitations and obstacles yet to overcome, from genetic and epigenetic literature on SZ through a qualitative review of risk factors and prevailing hypotheses. Encouraged by the findings of both genetic and epigenetic studies to date, as well as the continued development of new technologies to collect and interpret large-scale studies, we are left with a positive outlook for the future of elucidating the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying SZ and other complex neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface-Water Quality Conditions and Long-Term Trends at Selected Sites within the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network in Missouri, Water Years 1993-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.; Davis, Jerri V.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, collects data pertaining to the surface-water resources of Missouri. These data are collected as part of the Missouri Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network and constitute a valuable source of reliable, impartial, and timely information for developing an improved understanding of water resources in the State. Six sites from the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network, with data available from the 1993 through 2008 water years, were chosen to compare water-quality conditions and long-term trends of dissolved oxygen, selected physical properties, total suspended solids, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorous, fecal indicator bacteria, and selected trace elements. The six sites used in the study were classified in groups corresponding to the physiography, main land use, and drainage basin size, and represent most stream types in Missouri. Long-term trends in this study were analyzed using flow-adjusted and non-flow adjusted models. Highly censored datasets (greater than 5 percent but less than 50 percent censored values) were not flow-adjusted. Trends that were detected can possibly be related to changes in agriculture or urban development within the drainage basins. Trends in nutrients were the most prevalent. Upward flow-adjusted trends in dissolved nitrate plus nitrite (as nitrogen) concentrations were identified at the Elk River site, and in total phosphorus concentrations at the South Fabius and Grand River sites. A downward flow-adjusted trend was identified in total phosphorus concentrations from Wilson Creek, the only urban site in the study. The downward trend in phosphorus possibly was related to a phosphorus reduction system that began operation in 2001 at a wastewater treatment plant upstream from the sampling site. Total suspended solids concentrations indicated an upward non-flow adjusted trend at the two northern sites (South Fabius

  1. Exchange of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) at the Atmosphere-Soil Interface under Ambient Conditions: a Coated-Wall Flow Tube Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H.; Li, G.; Kuhn, U.; Meusel, H.; Poeschl, U.; Shao, M.; Cheng, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent a large fraction of organic carbon in the atmosphere and play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Deep insight into the VOCs-related tropospheric chemistry requires a profound understanding of sources and sinks of different VOCs species. Multiphase processes on the surface of soil and airborne soil-derived particles have been suggested as an important mechanism for the production/removal of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. In this work, we investigated the exchange of 13 species of VOCs at the atmosphere-soil interface using a coated-wall flow tube system coupled to a PTR-MS, under ambient conditions at an urban background site in Beijing. The results show that most of the species tend to be absorbed/adsorbed and further retained or converted into other products by soil (net influx into soil) while formic acid can most probably be produced by soil either due to chemical transformation of other absorbed/adsorbed species or emission from soil itself (net efflux from soil). For the species showing noticeable uptake, their uptake coefficients display a gradually decrease along the measurement time, suggesting a progressive saturation of the soil surface. The uptake of several species (e.g., methanol, acetic acid and formaldehyde), however, don't exhibit marked dependence on time. Correlation studies show a dependence of uptake on temperature or relative humidity for several species: the uptake of methanol, acetic acid and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) decreases with increasing temperature; and the uptake of isoprene, acetaldehyde and methyl vinyl ketone/methacrolein (MVK+MACR) increases with increasing relative humidity. Based on our results, mineral soil serves as a sink rather than a source for most VOC species.

  2. Laboratory and modeling studies on the effects of water and soot emissions and ambient conditions on the properties of contrail ice particles in the jet regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-W. Wong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Contrails and contrail-induced cirrus clouds are identified as the most uncertain components in determining aviation impacts on global climate change. Parameters affecting contrail ice particle formation immediately after the engine exit plane (< 5 s in plume age may be critical to ice particle properties used in large-scale models predicting contrail radiative forcing. Despite this, detailed understanding of these parametric effects is still limited. In this paper, we present results from recent laboratory and modeling studies conducted to investigate the effects of water and soot emissions and ambient conditions on near-field formation of contrail ice particles and ice particle properties. The Particle Aerosol Laboratory (PAL at the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Aerodyne microphysical parcel model for contrail ice particle formation were employed. Our studies show that exhaust water concentration has a significant impact on contrail ice particle formation and properties. When soot particles were introduced, ice particle formation was observed only when exhaust water concentration was above a critical level. When no soot or sulfuric acid was introduced, no ice particle formation was observed, suggesting that ice particle formation from homogeneous nucleation followed by homogeneous freezing of liquid water was unfavorable. Soot particles were found to compete for water vapor condensation, and higher soot concentrations emitted into the chamber resulted in smaller ice particles being formed. Chamber conditions corresponding to higher cruising altitudes were found to favor ice particle formation. The microphysical model captures trends of particle extinction measurements well, but discrepancies between the model and the optical particle counter measurements exist as the model predicts narrower ice particle size distributions and ice particle sizes nearly a factor of two larger than measured. These discrepancies are likely due to particle

  3. Efeitos de diferentes sistemas de acondicionamento ambiente sobre o desempenho produtivo de frangos de corte Effect of different environment conditioning systems on the productive performance of chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermeval A. Furtado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência ambiental nos índices de conforto térmico e produtivo, em instalações abertas de frangos de corte, cobertos com telha de cimento amianto, com três sistemas de acondicionamento térmico: ventilação artificial e aspersão sobre a cobertura (TAVA, ventilação artificial (TACV e ventilação artificial e nebulização (TAVN, localizados no distrito de São José da Mata, município de Campina Grande, PB. A avaliação ambiental foi feita com base na umidade relativa do ar (UR, no índice de temperatura do globo negro e umidade (ITGU, na carga térmica radiante (CTR e pela umidade da cama. Os índices produtivos foram avaliados pelo peso final, ganho de peso diário, conversão alimentar e taxa de mortalidade. Em todos os sistemas, os índices de conforto variaram ao longo do dia, sendo que o ITGU apresentou valores considerados acima do ideal e a UR e a CTR ficaram dentro da zona de conforto térmico recomendada. O sistema TAVN aumentou a umidade da cama em relação aos outros sistemas. Os valores dos índices de desempenho das aves estiveram dentre as faixas consideradas ideais para a indústria de frangos de corte, no Nordeste do Brasil.The principal objective of this work was to evaluate the environmental influence on the thermal comfort and productive indices, in poultry farm installations, covered with cement asbestos tiles using three diferent thermal air conditioning systems: artificial ventilation and water sprinkling over the roof, artificial ventilation and artificial ventilation and humidification. The poultry farm is located in the district of São José da Mata, in the municipality of Campina Grande, Paraiba state, Brazil. The environmental evaluation was based on the relative humidity of the air, black globe temperature and humidity index, thermal radiation load, and humidity of the bed. The production indices were evaluated through the final weight, daily weight

  4. Ambient diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Part I. FundamentalsIntroductionWhat is Ambient Diagnostics?Diagnostic ModelsMultimedia IntelligenceCrowd SourcingSoft SensorsScience of SimplicityPersonal DiagnosesBasic AlgorithmsBasic ToolsSummaryProblemsTransformationEarly Discoveries of Heartbeat PatternsTransforms, Features, and AttributesSequential FeaturesSpatiotemporal FeaturesShape FeaturesImagery FeaturesFrequency Domain FeaturesMulti-Resolution FeaturesSummaryProblemsPattern RecognitionSimilarities and DistancesClustering MethodsClassification MethodsClassifier Accuracy MeasuresSummaryProblemsPart II. Multimedia IntelligenceSound RecognitionMicrophone AppsModern Acoustic Transducers (Microphones)Frequency Response CharacteristicsDigital Audio File FormatsHeart Sound SensingLung Sound SensingSnore MeterSpectrogram (STFT)Ambient Sound AnalysisSound RecognitionRecognizing Asthma SoundPeak ShiftFeature CompressionRegroupingNoise IssuesFuture ApplicationsSummaryProblemsColor SensorsColor SensingHuman Color VisionColor SensorsColor Matching ExperimentsC...

  5. A 3D numerical study of humidity evolution and condensation risk on a printed circuit board (PCB) exposed to harsh ambient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shojaee Nasirabadi, Parizad; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2018-01-01

    . The presence of components inside the enclosure damps the response of the internal climate to the ambient changes and this is especially the case for the aluminum heatsink. In case of exposure to RH of 100%, controlling the moisture concentration appears to be more effective than controlling temperature...... with the aim of reducing the condensation risk on the PCB....

  6. Caracterização pós-colheita de laranjas 'Baianinha' submetidas ao armazenamento refrigerado e a condições ambientais Postharvest characterization of oranges 'Baianinha' stored under refrigeration and ambient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara J Teruel M

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade pós colheita de laranjas in natura (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, 'Baianinha', foi avaliada em termos de suas propriedades químicas e físicas, em maio de 1998. Foi aplicado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições, submetendo os frutos a dois tratamentos: armazenamento a temperatura ambiente (21 ± 0,4°C e UR= 60 ± 1,0%, e em uma câmara frigorífica (1 ± 0,5°C e UR = 85 ± 2,5%. Após 15 dias de armazenamento, foi observada uma diferença altamente significativa (P=0,01, nos níveis de ácido ascórbico (diminuição de 20% e 8%, nas laranjas expostas a temperatura ambiente e nos frutos refrigerados, respectivamente. A acidez titulável teve uma diminuição de aproximadamente 14%, para os frutos mantidos à temperatura ambiente, e de 8% para os frutos refrigerados. Comprovou-se um aumento de 30% (frutos em condições ambientais e de 18% (frutos refrigerados, na relação sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável. Os resultados apontam uma tendência à perda da qualidade nos frutos mantidos em condições ambientais, o que reafirma a necessidade do uso de refrigeração para a conservação pós-colheita de laranja in natura.The postharvest quality of fresh oranges (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, 'Baianinha' was evaluated in terms of chemical and physical properties, in May of 1998. An experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, with two replications, submitting the fruits to two treatments: storage at ambient conditions (21 ± 0.4°C and RH = 60 ± 1.0%, and in cold room (1 ± 0,5°C and RH = 85 ± 2,5%. After 15 days of storage, a highly significant difference was observed (P=0,01 in the levels of ascorbic acid (decrease of 20% and 8%, at ambient condition and refrigerated fruits, respectively. Titratable acidity decrease approximately 14%, for fruits at ambient condition, and 8% for the refrigerated fruits. It was observed an increase of 30% (ambient condition and 18% (refrigerated fruits

  7. Radiolysis of cesium iodide solutions in conditions prevailing in a pressurized water reactor severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements were made of I/sub 2/ formed when aqueous cesium iodide (CsI) solutions were exposed to two temperatures, 43 and 95 0 C, with irradiation. Iodine partition coefficients were obtained from the experiments. The parameters varied were dose, CsI concentration, and Cs/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ concentration, in the presence of air-carbon dioxide and air-carbon dioxide-hydrogen mixtures, to provide information to calculate the form in which iodine released from fuel as CsI in a reactor accident might reach the environment. In a series of experiments, a two-compartment cell was used to trap the gaseous iodine produced. In this case, it was found that the quantity of gaseous iodine produced increased approximately linearly with the dose (at the dose rate used)

  8. IS CROATIAN HEALTHCARE SYSTEM READY TO PERFORM IN THE MARKET CONDITIONS PREVAILING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION?

    OpenAIRE

    Nevenka Kovac

    2013-01-01

    As Croatia is nearing its accession to the EU, it is facing a process of implementation of a number of newly introduced legal frameworks which also act to enable access to new market opportunities for certain industries. The most important Directive concerning healthcare providers is Directive 2011/24 on cross-border healthcare, which grants the patients freedom of choice of providers in another EU member state given that the necessary standards of quality and safety are met. A member state i...

  9. Neoseismotectonics and glacial isostatic uplift. Deformations and changes of prevailing conditions in the Swedish bedrock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerner, N.A. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    The conclusions from this contribution are that no bedrock repository can be considered to be safely placed in the bedrock at the event of new glaciations, which are to be expected over Sweden in 5, 23, and 60 thousand years AP (following the astronomical, natural or long-term variability). Instead, there are all reasons to expect that such a repository would be seriously damaged, and constitute a threat to the biosphere on Earth. These conclusions are based on an extensive observational network of records on the multiple glacial dynamics and the interaction of different variables. 24 refs.

  10. Electroreduction of N2 to ammonia at ambient conditions on mononitrides of Zr, Nb, Cr, and V – A DFT guide for experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abghoui, Younes; Garden, Anna L.; Howalt, Jakob Geelmuyden

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and facile reduction of nitrogen to achieve a sustainable and energy efficient production of ammonia is critical to its use as a hydrogen storage medium, chemical feedstock and especially for manufacturing inorganic fertilizers. For a decentralization of catalytic ammonia production, small......-scale N2 reduction devices are required that are equipped with the most stable, selective and active catalysts that operate at low temperature and ambient pressure. Here, we report the development of new and cost-efficient catalysts, transition metal nitrides, which enable electrochemical reduction...

  11. Prevailing public perceptions of the ethics of gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Julie M; Roskams-Edris, Dylan; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Illes, Judy

    2014-08-01

    Gene therapy research is advancing rapidly, and hopes of treating a large number of brain disorders exist alongside ethical concerns. Most surveys of public attitudes toward these ethical issues are already dated and the content of these surveys has been researcher-driven. To examine current public perceptions, we developed an online instrument that is responsive and relevant to the latest research about ethics, gene therapy, and the brain. The 16-question survey was launched with the platform Amazon Mechanical Turk and was made available to residents of Canada and the United States. The survey was divided into six themes: (1) demographic information, (2) general opinions about gene therapy, (3) medical applications of gene therapy, (4) identity and moral/belief systems, (5) enhancement, and (6) risks. We received and analyzed responses from a total of 467 participants. Our results show that a majority of respondents (>90%) accept gene therapy as a treatment for severe illnesses such as Alzheimer disease, but this receptivity decreases for conditions perceived as less severe such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (79%), and for nontherapeutic applications (47%). The greatest area of concern for the application of gene therapy to brain conditions is the fear of not receiving sufficient information before undergoing the treatment. The main ethical concerns with enhancement were the potential for disparities in resource allocation, access to the procedure, and discrimination. When comparing these data with those from the 1990s, our findings suggest that the acceptability of gene therapy is increasing and that this trend is occurring despite lingering concerns over ethical issues. Providing the public and patients with up-to-date information and opportunities to engage in the discourse about areas of research in gene therapy is a priority.

  12. Evaluation of I/Ca ratios in benthic foraminifera from the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone as proxy for redox conditions in the ambient water masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glock, N.; Liebetrau, V.; Eisenhauer, A.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are most important areas of oxygen depletion in today´s oceans and nutrient cycling in these regions has a large socio-economic impact because they account for about 17% of the global commercial fish catches(1). Possibly increasing magnitude and area of oxygen depletion in these regions, might endanger rich pelagic fish habitats in the future threatening the global marine food supply. By the use of a quantitative redox proxy in OMZs, reconstruction of the temporal variation in OMZ extension eventually providing information about past and future changes in oxygenation and the anthropogenic role in the recent trend of expanding OMZs(2). Recent work has shown that iodine/calcium (I/Ca) ratios in marine carbonates are a promising proxy for ambient oxygen concentration(3). Our study explores the correlation of I/Ca ratios in four benthic foraminiferal species (three calcitic, one aragonitic) from the Peruvian OMZ to bottom water oxygen concentrations ([O2]BW) and evaluates foraminiferal I/Ca ratios as a possible redox proxy for the ambient water masses. Our results show that all species have a positive trend in the I/Ca ratios as a function of [O2]BW. Only for the aragonitic species Hoeglundina elegans this trend is not significant. The highest significance has been found for Uvigerina striata (I/Ca = 0.032(±0.004).[O2]BW + 0.29(±0.03), R² = 0.61, F = 75, P solutions, (ii) a species dependency of the I/Ca-[O2]BW relationship which is either related to a strong vital effect or toa species dependency on the calcification depth within sediment, and (iii) the inter-test variability of I/Ca between different specimens from the same species and habitat. (1): FAO FishStat: Fisheries and aquaculture software. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department[online]. Rome. Updated 28 Nov. 2013. (2): Stramma et al.: Expanding Oxygen-Minimum Zones in the Tropical Oceans, Science, 320, 655-658, 2008. (3): Lu et al.: Iodine to calcium ratios in

  13. Surface decoration of amine-rich carbon nitride with iron nanoparticles for arsenite (As{sup III}) uptake: The evolution of the Fe-phases under ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiou, Y., E-mail: yiannisgeorgiou@hotmail.com [Physics Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Mouzourakis, E., E-mail: emouzou@cc.uoi.gr [Physics Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Bourlinos, A.B., E-mail: bourlino@cc.uoi.gr [Physics Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Chemistry and Experimental Physics, Palacky University in Olomouc, 77146 (Czech Republic); Zboril, R., E-mail: radek.zboril@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Chemistry and Experimental Physics, Palacky University in Olomouc, 77146 (Czech Republic); Karakassides, M.A., E-mail: mkarakas@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Douvalis, A.P., E-mail: adouval@uoi.gr [Physics Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Bakas, Th., E-mail: tbakas@cc.uoi.gr [Physics Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Deligiannakis, Y., E-mail: ideligia@cc.uoi.gr [Physics Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Novel hybrid based on carbon nitride and iron nanoparticles (gC{sub 3}N{sub 4}-rFe). • gC{sub 3}N{sub 4}-rFe superior As{sup III} sorbent(76.5 mg g{sup −1}). • Surface complexation modeling of As{sup III} adsorption. • Dual mode EPR,monitoring of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} evolution. - Abstract: A novel hybrid material (gC{sub 3}N{sub 4}-rFe) consisting of amine-rich graphitic carbon nitride (gC{sub 3}N{sub 4}), decorated with reduced iron nanoparticles (rFe) is presented. XRD and TEM show that gC{sub 3}N{sub 4}-rFe bears aggregation-free Fe-nanoparticles (10 nm) uniformly dispersed over the gC{sub 3}N{sub 4} surface. In contrast, non-supported iron nanoparticles are strongly aggregated, with non-uniform size distribution (20–100 nm). {sup 57}Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, dual-mode electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and magnetization measurements, allow a detailed mapping of the evolution of the Fe-phases after exposure to ambient O{sub 2}. The as-prepared gC{sub 3}N{sub 4}-rFe bears Fe{sup 2+} and Fe° phases, however only after long exposure to ambient O{sub 2}, a Fe-oxide layer is formed around the Fe° core. In this [Fe°/Fe-oxide] core-shell configuration, the gC{sub 3}N{sub 4}-rFe hybrid shows enhanced As{sup III} uptake capacity of 76.5 mg g{sup −1}, i.e., ca 90% higher than the unmodified carbonaceous support, and 300% higher than the non-supported Fe-nanoparticles. gC{sub 3}N{sub 4}-rFe is a superior As{sup III} sorbent i.e., compared to its single counterparts or vs. graphite/graphite oxide or activated carbon analogues (11–36 mg g{sup −1}). The present results demonstrate that the gC{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix is not simply a net that holds the particles, but rather an active component that determines particle formation dynamics and ultimately their redox profile, size and surface dispersion homogeneity.

  14. Room temperature magnetism of few-nanometers-thick Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}(111) films on Pt(111) and Ru(0001) studied in ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, M., E-mail: lewandowski@amu.edu.pl [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Miłosz, Z.; Michalak, N.; Ranecki, R. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Sveklo, I.; Kurant, Z.; Maziewski, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Białystok, Lipowa 41, 15-424 Białystok (Poland); Mielcarek, S. [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Luciński, T. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Jurga, S. [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2015-09-30

    Few-nanometers-thick Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}(111) films were epitaxially grown on Pt(111) and Ru(0001) single crystal supports by sequential iron deposition and oxidation in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. The growth of well-ordered magnetite films was confirmed by low energy electron diffraction. The films were covered with a protective Au layer and subjected to magnetic and structural studies in ambient conditions. Magnetic hysteresis loops, recorded using magneto-optical Kerr effect apparatus, confirmed magnetic ordering in both films at room temperature. The Kerr measurements indicated in-plane orientation of magnetization, which was supported by the lack of magnetic contrast in magnetic force microscopy images. Atomic force microscopy revealed significant differences in morphology of the films, tentatively attributed to different lattice mismatch with Pt(111) and Ru(0001) single crystal supports. - Highlights: • Few-nanometers-thick Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}(111) films were grown on Pt(111) and Ru(0001). • Magnetic properties were studied using MOKE and AFM/MFM in ambient conditions. • The films exhibited in-plane magnetic ordering at room temperature. • Differences in magnetic properties were tentatively assigned to structural differences.

  15. Características de qualidade de cebola múltipla durante armazenamento sob condição ambiental não controlada Characteristics of multiplier onion during controlled storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. C Maia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando-se progênies de meios irmãos de cebola múltipla, foram avaliados caracteres de qualidade de bulbos durante o armazenamento pós-colheita sob condição de ambiente natural. Para tanto, foi conduzido um experimento em condições de laboratório, utilizando delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 14 tratamentos (progênies e três repetições. Os conteúdos de sólidos solúveis e matéria seca foram influenciados significativamente pelo tempo de armazenamento. A perda de peso máxima foi 21,70 % em cinco semanas.Bulb quality characteristics from multiplier onion half-sib families were evaluated during postharvest storage under natural ambient conditions. For this purpose, one experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with 14 treatments (families and three replications. Soluble solid and dry matter contents were significantly influenced by storage period. Maximum weight loss was 21.7% within five weeks.

  16. Produtividade, adaptabilidade e estabilidade fenotípica de cultivares de tomateiro sob diferentes condições de ambiente Productivity, adaptability and phenotypic stability of tomato cultivars grown under different environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Gualberto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o desempenho produtivo, adaptabilidade e estabilidade fenotípica de seis genótipos de tomateiro na região de Marília, SP. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em nove ambientes (seis sob condições de cultivo protegido e três sob condições de céu aberto, com seis genótipos (Carmen, Diva, Donador, Graziela, Vita e HE-295, em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Ocorreram diferenças significativas entre ambientes, e a média geral dos cultivos protegidos superou a dos cultivos a céu aberto quanto à produtividade, apesar de a média geral dos cultivos a céu aberto ser superior quanto ao peso médio de frutos. As cultivares, à exceção de HE-295, demonstraram alta estabilidade, merecendo destaque as cultivares Carmen, Donador e Vita, que tiveram rendimento médio superior ao da média geral, adaptabilidade geral e comportamento previsível em todos os ambientes estudados. Quanto ao peso médio dos frutos, as cultivares Diva e Vita foram as únicas que mostraram ampla adaptabilidade a todos os ambientes, comportamento previsível, além de apresentarem peso médio do fruto superior ao da média geral.The objective of this work was to evaluate productivity, adaptability and phenotypic stability of six tomato genotypes in Marília, SP, Brazil. The experiments were carried out at nine environments (six of them under conditions of protected cultivation and three under open air conditions, with six genotypes (Carmen, Diva, Donador, Graziela, Vita and HE-295, in a randomized block design, with four replications. There were significant differences among environments, independent of cultivation system. General average of protected cultivations overcame free cultivations considering yield, although the general average of free cultivations was overcame for mean fruit weights. All genotypes, except 'HE-295', showed high stability, with prominence for cultivars Carmen, Donador and Vita, which showed

  17. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  18. Prevailing trends of climatic extremes across Indus-Delta of Sindh-Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Farhat; Rehman, Iqra; Adrees, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Saleem, Farhan; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Salik, Muhammad Raza

    2018-02-01

    This study examines the variability and change in the patterns of climatic extremes experienced in Indus-Delta of Sindh province of Pakistan, comprising regions of Karachi, Badin, Mohenjodaro, and Rohri. The homogenized daily minimum and maximum temperature and precipitation data for a 36-year period were used to calculate 13 and 11 indices of temperature and precipitation extremes with the help of RClimDex, a program written in the statistical software package R. A non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimates were used to determine the statistical significance and magnitude of the calculated trend. Temperatures of summer days and tropical nights increased in the region with overall significant warming trends for monthly maximum temperature as well as for warm days and nights reflecting dry conditions in the study area. The warm extremes and nighttime temperature indices showed greater trends than cold extremes and daytime indices depicting an overall warming trends in the Delta. Historic decrease in the acreage of major crops and over 33% decrease in agriculture credit for Sindh are the indicators of adverse impacts of warmer and drier weather on Sindh agriculture. Trends reported for Karachi and Badin are expected to decrease rice cultivation, hatching of fisheries, and mangroves forest surrounding these cities. Increase in the prevailing temperature trends will lead to increasingly hotter and drier summers resulting to constraints on cotton, wheat, and rice yield in Rohri and Mohenjodaro areas due to increased crop water requirements that may be met with additional groundwater pumping; nonetheless, the depleted groundwater resources would have a direct impact on the region's economy.

  19. Measured versus calculated thermal conductivity of high-grade metamorphic rocks – inferences on the thermal properties of the lower crust at ambient and in-situ conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, Labani; Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Förster, Andrea

    The bulk thermal conductivity (TC) of 26 rock samples representing felsic, intermediate and mafic granulites, from the Southern Granulite Province, India, is measured at dry and saturated conditions with the optical-scanning method. Thermal conductivity is also calculated from modal mineralogy...... (determined by XRD and EPMA), applying mixing models commonly used in thermal studies. Most rocks are fine- to medium -grained equigranular in texture. All samples are isotropic to weakly anisotropic and possess low porosities (

  20. Evaluation of the CO2 sequestration capacity for coal fly ash using a flow-through column reactor under ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Ho Young; Ahn, Joon-Hoon; Jo, Hwanju

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A conceptual in-situ mineral carbonation method using a coal ash pond is proposed. ► CO 2 uptake occurred by carbonation reaction of CO 2 with Ca 2+ ions from coal fly ash. ► The CO 2 sequestration capacity was affected by the solid dosage. ► Seawater can be used as a solvent for mineral carbonation of coal fly ash. - Abstract: An in-situ CO 2 sequestration method using coal ash ponds located in coastal regions is proposed. The CO 2 sequestration capacity of coal fly ash (CFA) by mineral carbonation was evaluated in a flow-through column reactor under various conditions (solid dosage: 100–330 g/L, CO 2 flow rate: 20–80 mL/min, solvent type: deionized (DI) water, 1 M NH 4 Cl solution, and seawater). The CO 2 sequestration tests were conducted on CFA slurries using flow-through column reactors to simulate more realistic flow-through conditions. The CO 2 sequestration capacity increased when the solid dosage was increased, whereas it was affected insignificantly by the CO 2 flow rate. A 1 M NH 4 Cl solution was the most effective solvent, but it was not significantly different from DI water or seawater. The CO 2 sequestration capacity of CFA under the flow-through conditions was approximately 0.019 g CO 2 /g CFA under the test conditions (solid dosage: 333 g/L, CO 2 flow rate: 40 mL/min, and solvent: seawater).

  1. Ambient mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janfelt, Christian; Nørgaard, Asger W

    2012-01-01

    Easy ambient sonic spray ionization (EASI) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) were used for imaging of a number of samples, including sections of rat brain and imprints of plant material on porous Teflon. A novel approach termed Displaced Dual-mode Imaging was utilized for the direct...... comparison of the two methods: Images were recorded with the individual rows alternating between EASI and DESI, yielding a separate image for each technique recorded under perfectly similar conditions on the same sample. EASI works reliably for imaging of all samples, but the choice of spray solvent and flow...... rate is more critical in tissue imaging with EASI than with DESI. The overall sensitivity of EASI is, in general, slightly lower than that of DESI, and the representation of the dynamic range is different in images of the two techniques for some samples. However, for abundant compounds, EASI works well...

  2. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  3. Componentes da radiação solar em cultivo de tomate sob condições de ambiente protegido Components of the solar radiation in tomato cultivated under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia S. Reis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o saldo de radiação e a irradiação solar e fotossintética em condições de ambiente protegido cultivado com o tomateiro e suas relações com a irradiação solar do ambiente externo. O tomateiro foi cultivado em casa de vegetação não climatizada, com cobertura de polietileno de 0,12 mm de espessura. A irradiação solar (Rgi, o saldo de radiação (Rni e a densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossintéticos foram obtidos por radiômetros ligados a um datalogger instalado no interior do ambiente protegido. Os dados externos (irradiância solar global, Rg foram coletados na Estação Agrometeorológica do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Alagoas. O ambiente protegido promoveu redução na irradiação solar expressa como a transmitância do polietileno em 62%. As relações entre os componentes de radiação do ambiente interno e externo foram expressas satisfatoriamente por regressões lineares, com coeficientes de determinação (R² superiores a 0,88 enquanto para a irradiação fotossintética (PARi os R² foram maiores que 0,52. As relações obtidas mostraram que Rni representa 0,60 da Rgi e a PARi é proporcional a 0,28 da Rg e 0,44 da Rgi. O albedo médio da cultura durante o ciclo foi de 0,15.The objective of this paper was to evaluate of net radiation, photosynthetic and solar irradiation in greenhouse conditions cultivated with tomato crop and its relationship with the global solar irradiation of the external environment. The tomato was cultivated in greenhouse (not acclimatized, with covering of polyethylene 0.12 mm of thickness. The global solar irradiation (Rgi, the net radiation (Rni and the flux density of photosynthetic photons were obtained by radiometers connected to a datalogger installed into the protected environment. The external data (global solar irradiation, Rg were collected in the Agrometeorological Station of the Agricultural Science Center of

  4. 78 FR 60181 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Clayton-Cobb-Fulton, Georgia, Nonappropriated Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM84 Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition.... Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM..., from the wage area definition. The name of the wage area will be Cobb, GA. These changes are necessary...

  5. 20 CFR 656.40 - Determination of prevailing wage for labor certification purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... association of six or more professional sports teams whose total combined revenues exceed $10,000,000 per year... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of prevailing wage for labor certification purposes. 656.40 Section 656.40 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION...

  6. 78 FR 60182 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of Broward County, Florida, to a Nonappropriated Fund Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM83 Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of... Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing a final rule to define Broward County, FL, as an area of application county to the Miami-Dade, FL...

  7. 78 FR 29658 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of Broward County, Florida, to a Nonappropriated Fund Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Management is issuing a proposed rule that would define Broward County, Florida, as an area of application... Management (OPM) is issuing a proposed rule that would define Broward County, Florida, as an area of... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM83 Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of...

  8. 76 FR 9640 - Prevailing Rate Systems: Santa Clara, CA, Tulsa County, OK, and Angelina County, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ...: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing a final rule to define Tulsa... Management (OPM) issued a proposed rule (75 FR 45557) to define Tulsa County, Oklahoma, as an area of... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM22 Prevailing Rate Systems: Santa Clara...

  9. Lake Hickory, North Carolina; analysis of ambient conditions and simulation of hydrodynamics, constituent transport, and water-quality characteristics, 1993-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, J.D.; Giorgino, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    From January 1993 through March 1994, circulation patterns and water- quality characteristics in Lake Hickory varied seasonally and were strongly influenced by inflows from Rhodhiss Dam. The upper, riverine portion of Lake Hickory was unstratified during much of the study period. Downstream from the headwaters to Oxford Dam, Lake Hickory thermally stratified during the summer of 1993. During stratification, releases from Rhodhiss Dam plunged beneath the warmer surface waters of Lake Hickory and moved through the reservoir as interflow. During fall and winter, Lake Hickory was characterized by alternating periods of mixing and weak stratification. Water-quality conditions in the headwaters of Lake Hickory were largely driven by conditions in water being released from Rhodhiss Dam. In general, water clarity increased, and concentrations of suspended solids, phosphorus, and summertime chlorophyll a decreased in a downstream direction from the headwaters of Lake Hickory to Oxford Dam. Two chlorophyll a samples from the upper portion of Lake Hickory exceeded the North Carolina water-quality standard of 40 micrograms per liter during the investigation. Downstream from the headwaters, dissolved oxygen was rapidly depleted from Lake Hickory bottom waters beginning in May 1993, and anoxic conditions persisted in the hypolimnion throughout the summer. During summer stratification, concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, and orthophosphate were low in the epilimnion, but concentrations of ammonia near the bottom of the reservoir increased as the hypolimnion became anoxic. Concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria exceeded 200 colonies per 100 milliliters in only one of 60 samples collected from Lake Hickory. In contrast, concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria exceeded 200 colonies per 100 milliliters in 40 percent of samples collected from the Upper Little River, and in 60 percent of samples collected from the Middle Little River, two tributaries to Lake Hickory

  10. Ambient Aerosols in the Southern Hemisphere on Ascension Island during the LASIC Campaign: Biomass Burning Season versus Near Pristine Background Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, A. C.; Springston, S. R.; Watson, T. B.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Zuidema, P.; Adebiyi, A. A.; Uin, J.; Kuang, C.; Flynn, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Ascension Island is located 8 degrees South of the Equator and 15 degrees West Longitude in the middle of the South Atlantic Ocean, at least 1000 miles from any major shoreline and closest to the continent of Africa. While low Southern Hemisphere background aerosol and trace gas measurements are observed most of the year, that picture changes during the South African Biomass Burning (BB) season. BB emissions are a large source of carbon to the atmosphere via particles and gas phase species and with a potential rise in drought and extreme events in the future, these numbers are expected to increase. From approximately June-October every year, the plume of South African BB emissions, the largest BB source in the world, are advected West and are known to impact both the boundary layer and free troposphere at Ascension Island (Zuidema et al., 2016). During the U.S. DOE ARM field campaign, Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds (LASIC), aerosol and trace gas measurements were collected continuously from June 2016 through October 2017 over a 1.5 year period. Two BB seasons are contrasted with the near pristine background conditions during the campaign from the ARM Aerosol Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1) and Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS). Numerous direct in situ aerosol and trace gas measurements are presented, e.g. black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), PM1 and PM10 aerosol absorption and scattering, submicron non-refractory chemical composition (Organics, Sulfate, Nitrate, Ammonium, Chloride), etc. Aerosol and trace gas signatures are investigated along with backtrajectories to identify sources. Carbonaceous aerosols emitted with gas-phase CO are used to determine particulate emission ratios along with intrinsic and extrinsic aerosol properties. BC mass concentrations reach 1 µg m-3 during multiday plumes and exceed 25% of the total aerosol submicron mass concentration. Organic Aerosol (OA) to BC Ratios of 2.4 in the plume are much higher than previously

  11. A Moisture-Stable 3D Microporous CoII -Metal-Organic Framework with Potential for Highly Selective CO2 Separation under Ambient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Santanu; Pal, Arun; Das, Madhab C

    2018-02-13

    Selective adsorption and separation of CO 2 from flue gas and landfill gas mixtures have drawn great attention in industry. Porous MOF materials are promising alternatives to achieve such separations; however, the stability in the presence of moisture must be taken into consideration. Herein, we have constructed a microporous metal-organic framework (MOF) {[Co(OBA)(L) 0.5 ]⋅S} n (IITKGP-8), by employing a V-shaped organic linker with an azo-functionalized N,N' spacer forming a 3D network with mab topology and 1D rhombus-shaped channels along the crystallographic 'b' axis with a void volume of 34.2 %. The activated MOF reveals a moderate CO 2 uptake capacity of 55.4 and 26.5 cm 3  g -1 at 273 and 295 K/1 bar, respectively, whereas it takes up a significantly lower amount of CH 4 and N 2 under similar conditions and thus exhibits its potential for highly selective sorption of CO 2 with excellent IAST selectivity of CO 2 /N 2 (106 at 273 K and 43.7 at 295 K) and CO 2 /CH 4 (17.7 at 273 K and 17.1 at 295 K) under 1 bar. More importantly, this MOF exhibits excellent moisture stability as assessed through PXRD experiments coupled with surface area analysis. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The future is 'ambient'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugmayr, Artur

    2006-02-01

    The research field of ambient media starts to spread rapidly and first applications for consumer homes are on the way. Ambient media is the logical continuation of research around media. Media has been evolving from old media (e.g. print media), to integrated presentation in one form (multimedia - or new media), to generating a synthetic world (virtual reality), to the natural environment is the user-interface (ambient media), and will be evolving towards real/synthetic undistinguishable media (bio-media or bio-multimedia). After the IT bubble was bursting, multimedia was lacking a vision of potential future scenarios and applications. Within this research paper the potentials, applications, and market available solutions of mobile ambient multimedia are studied. The different features of ambient mobile multimedia are manifold and include wearable computers, adaptive software, context awareness, ubiquitous computers, middleware, and wireless networks. The paper especially focuses on algorithms and methods that can be utilized to realize modern mobile ambient systems.

  13. Hydride as a leaving group in the reaction of pinacolborane with halides under ambient Grignard and Barbier conditions. One-pot synthesis of alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, vinyl, and allyl pinacolboronic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Jacob W; Rettenmaier, Terry J; Snelling, Rachel; Bryks, Whitney; Banwell, Jesse; Wipke, W Todd; Singaram, Bakthan

    2011-12-02

    Grignard reagents (aliphatic, aromatic, heteroaromatic, vinyl, or allylic) react with 1 equiv of 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolane (pinacolborane, PinBH) at ambient temperature in tetrahydrofuran (THF) to afford the corresponding pinacolboronates. The initially formed dialkoxy alkylborohydride intermediate quickly eliminates hydridomagnesium bromide (HMgBr) and affords the product boronic ester in very good yield. Hydridomagnesium bromide (HMgBr) in turn disproportionates to a 1:1 mixture of magnesium hydride (MgH(2)) and magnesium bromide (MgBr(2)) on addition of pentane to the reaction mixture. DFT calculations (Gaussian09) at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory show that disproportionation of HMgBr to MgH(2) and MgBr(2) is viable in the coordinating ethereal solvents. This reaction also can be carried out under Barbier conditions, where the neat PinBH is added to the flask prior to the in situ formation of Grignard reagent from the corresponding organic halide and magnesium metal. Pinacolboronic ester synthesis under Barbier conditions does not give Wurtz coupling side products from reactive halides, such as benzylic and allylic halides. The reaction between PinBH and various Grignard reagents is an efficient, mild, and general method for the synthesis of pinacolboronates. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. 75 FR 11935 - Technical Change to the Filing Location of Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the H-1B, H...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... (Australia), and Permanent Labor Certification Programs; Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the... (Australia), and Permanent Labor Certification Programs; Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the...

  15. Interpolation study on ambient gamma levels in parts of Khasi Hills ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper discusses an experimental approach to examine uranium exploration avenue over the geologi- cally extended parts of Mahadek basin in Meghalaya, amid some of the environmental constraints. Study comprises periodic measurements of prevailing ambient gamma levels across 320 georeference points, in.

  16. Environmental sanitation conditions and health impact: a case-control study Condições de saneamento ambiental e impacto na saúde: um estudo caso-controle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo Heller

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This epidemiological investigation examines the impact of several environmental sanitation conditions and hygiene practices on diarrhea occurrence among children under five years of age living in an urban area. The case-control design was employed; 997 cases and 999 controls were included in the investigation. Cases were defined as children with diarrhea and controls were randomly selected among children under five years of age. After logistic regression adjustment, the following variables were found to be significantly associated with diarrhea: washing and purifying fruit and vegetables; presence of wastewater in the street; refuse storage, collection and disposal; domestic water reservoir conditions; feces disposal from swaddles; presence of vectors in the house and flooding in the lot. The estimates of the relative risks reached values up to 2.87. The present study revealed the feasibility of developing and implementing an adequate model to establish intervention priorities in the field of environmental sanitation.Esta investigação epidemiológica estuda o impacto das condições de saneamento ambiental e de práticas higiênicas sobre a ocorrência de diarréia entre crianças menores de 5 anos, residentes em uma área urbana. O delineamento caso-controle foi utilizado; 997 casos e 999 controles foram incluidos na investigação. Casos foram definidos como crianças com diarréia e controles foram selecionados, aleatoriamente, entre crianças com menos de 5 anos. Após ajustamento (regressão logística, as seguintes variáveis foram detectadas como significativamente associadas à diarréia: lavar e higienizar frutas e vegetais; presença de água de esgoto na rua; coleta, armazenagem e disposição do lixo; condições dos reservatórios domésticos de água; disposição das fezes de fraldas, presença de vetores nas casas e inundação do lote da casa. As estimativas pontuais do risco relativo alcançaram valores até 2,87. O presente

  17. Suscetibilidade do ambiente a ocorrências de queimadas sob condições climáticas atuais e de futuro aquecimento global Environmental susceptibility for the occurance of vegetacion burning under present day and future clobal warming conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anailton Sales Mélo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As queimadas, a nível global, são a segunda maior fonte de emissões de gases de efeito estufa. Um passo importante para a redução dos impactos das queimadas é por meio de investigação da suscetibilidade, que um determinado ambiente possui para a queima ou mesmo para o alastramento do fogo (risco de fogo. Diante da necessidade de se conhecer possíveis implicações das mudanças na circulação atmosférica em um futuro próximo, pretende-se neste trabalho investigar a suscetibilidade do ambiente à ocorrência de queimadas, baseado no índice de risco de queimadas, a saber: o Índice de Haines (IH. Para tanto, dados de modelagem numérica do modelo ECHAM5/MPI-OM, e dados das reanálises do NCEP são empregados para os cálculos do IH em dois períodos: atual (1980-2000 e projeções climáticas para o final do século (2080-2100. Com base nos resultados, concluiu-se que o modelo de risco de fogo reproduz bem as áreas com maior incidência de queimadas sob condições atuais, e que sob condições de aquecimento global detectou-se um aumento na área de risco em especial para a região Amazônica.Vegetation burning is the second source of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. An important step to reduce the climate impact of these emissions is to investigate the atmospheric susceptibility of a region for fire development (fire risk. This study aims to investigate the environmental susceptibility to fire development, based on the burning risk index: the Haines Index (HI. The study is carried out with data from the ECHAM5/MPI-OM climate model and the NCEP reanalysis data, to calculate the HI during two periods: present day (1980-2000 and climate projections for the end of the 21st century (2080-2100. Based upon the results, we concluded that the Haines index could reproduce properly the areas with the highest fire incidence under present conditions. Moreover, it has been found an enlargement in the fire risk area under global

  18. Why nature prevails over nurture in the making of the elite athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiades, Evelina; Klissouras, Vassilis; Baulch, Jamie; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2017-01-01

    While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes...

  19. Licenciamento ambiental e sustentabilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Macedo Valinhas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A sustentabilidade está apoiada principalmente nas dimensões econômica, ambiental e social. No entanto, sem a dimensão política ela não se constrói. Um dos principais instrumentos de comando e controle da política nacional de meio ambiente, o licenciamento ambiental é um processo contínuo de gestão ambiental pública e privada. Analisou-se o processo de licenciamento ambiental como acoplamento estrutural entre os sistemas social, econômico e ambiental. Apesar da constatação de críticas aos mecanismos de comando e controle dos últimos anos, foi verificado que o Estado do Rio de Janeiro tem buscado integrar a política ambiental do Estado à gestão ambiental privada e que esta integração busca atender às demandas dos sistemas sociais e econômicos para as questões ambientais. Em linhas gerais, este caminho segue as estratégias e ações propostas na Agenda 21 brasileira.

  20. 5 CFR 532.205 - The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates. 532.205 Section 532.205 Administrative... Determinations § 532.205 The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing... amended, or (2) The highest State or local minimum wage rate in the local wage area which is applicable to...

  1. GRAFTING METHODS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS FOR PRODUCING PEACH-TREE CV. ‘DIAMANTE’ SEEDLINGS MÉTODOS DE ENXERTIA E AMBIENTES NA PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE PESSEGUEIRO CV. ‘DIAMANTE’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida Reis

    2010-05-01

    ="margin-bottom: 0cm; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 120%; text-decoration: none;" lang="pt-BR" align="JUSTIFY">KEY-WORDS: Prunus persica (L.; environmental conditions; propagation.

    A qualidade da muda é fator essencial para o estabele-cimento de um pomar produtivo, capaz de produzir frutos de qualidade, mantendo a renda do produtor. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito de diferentes ambientes e três métodos de enxertia, na produção de mudas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. O trabalho foi conduzido no Setor de Fruticultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras (MG. O delineamento experimental adotado foi inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3x3 (três ambientes: estufa plástica, telado e campo aberto; e três tipos de enxertia: borbulhia em T normal, borbulhia em placa e garfagem de fenda cheia, com quatro repetições e 12 plantas por parcela. O porta-enxerto utilizado foi o pessegueiro ‘Okinawa’ e as borbulhias e garfos foram retirados da cultivar de pessegueiro ‘Diamante’. As características avaliadas foram pegamento da enxertia (% e tempo para a muda atingir a primeira poda de formação (dias. Concluiu-se que a porcentagem média de pegamento dos três tipos de enxertias foi de 91,94%, independentemente do ambiente. Verificou-se que, nos três ambientes estudados, as mudas enxertadas por garfagem atingiram mais rápido a primeira poda de formação e que a enxertia de borbulhia em placa propiciou menor tempo para a primeira poda de formação em campo aberto e telado, quando

  2. Acoustic ambient noise recorder

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saran, A.K.; Navelkar, G.S.; Almeida, A.M.; More, S.R.; Chodankar, P.V.; Murty, C.S.

    with a robust outfit that can withstand high pressures and chemically corrosion resistant materials. Keeping these considerations in view, a CMOS micro-controller-based marine acoustic ambient noise recorder has been developed with a real time clock...

  3. Careers in Industry: Pioneering Spirit Prevails at the Carlsberg Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skadhauge, Birgitte; Haldrup, Anna; Olsen, Ole

    2016-10-01

    The founder of the Carlsberg brewery, J.C Jacobsen, recognized the value of private-public partnership and established the Carlsberg Foundation in 1876 with the single aim of applying research and innovation to brew the best beer. One hundred and forty years on, Jacobsen's vision still prevails, and in this interview three scientists from the Carlsberg Research Laboratory (Birgitte Skadhauge, Anna Haldrup, and Ole Olsen) share their experience about finding a career at the crossroads between industry and basic research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV in an experimental environment Comunicación no verbal madre/hijo em la existencia del HIV materna en ambiente experimental Comunicação não-verbal mãe/filho na vigência do HIV materno em ambiente experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Sousa Paiva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-verbal communication is predominant in the mother-child relation. This study aimed to analyze non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV. In an experimental environment, five HIV-positive mothers were evaluated during care delivery to their babies of up to six months old. Recordings of the care were analyzed by experts, observing aspects of non-verbal communication, such as: paralanguage, kinesics, distance, visual contact, tone of voice, maternal and infant tactile behavior. In total, 344 scenes were obtained. After statistical analysis, these permitted inferring that mothers use non-verbal communication to demonstrate their close attachment to their children and to perceive possible abnormalities. It is suggested that the mother’s infection can be a determining factor for the formation of mothers’ strong attachment to their children after birth.La comunicación no verbal es predominante en la relación entre madre/hijo. Se tuvo por objetivo verificar la comunicación no verbal madre/hijo en la existencia del HIV materno. En ambiente experimental, fueron evaluadas cinco madres HIV+, que cuidaban de sus hijos de hasta seis meses de vida. Las filmaciones de los cuidados fueron analizadas por peritos, siendo observados los aspectos de la comunicación no verbal, como: paralenguaje, cinestésica, proximidad, contacto visual, tono de voz y comportamiento táctil materno e infantil. Se obtuvo 344 escenas que, después de un análisis estadístico, posibilitó inferir que la comunicación no verbal es utilizada por la madre para demonstrar su apego íntimo a los hijos y para percibir posibles anormalidades. Se sugiere que la infección materna puede ser un factor determinante para la formación del fuerte apego de la madre por su bebé después el nacimiento.A comunicação não-verbal é predominante na relação entre mãe/filho. Objetivou-se verificar a comunicação não-verbal mãe/filho na vigência do HIV

  5. Environmental Conditions of Surface Soils and Biomass Prevailing in the Training Area at CFB Gagetown, New Brunswick

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-26

    l’entrainement a tirs reels, le Ministere de Ia Defense Nationale sera en meilleure position afin de minimiser ou d’eliminer tout effet nefaste en adaptant...ete finance en partie par le directeur des forces terrestres et par un programme de financement de Ia recherche americain appele Strategic...the Queen as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2003 © Sa rnajeste Ia reine, representee par le ministre de Ia Defense nationale, 2003

  6. An investigation of ambient gameplay

    OpenAIRE

    Eyles, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by Brian Eno's ambient music, which is persistent and supports different levels of engagement, this research explores ambient gameplay in computer, video and pervasive games. Through the creation of original games containing ambient gameplay and looking for ambient gameplay in existing commercial games, this research focuses on gameplay that supports a range of depths of player engagement. This research is not concerned with ambient intelligent environments or other technologies that...

  7. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry: A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Cheng, Sy-Chi; Cho, Yi-Tzu [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Shiea, Jentaie, E-mail: jetea@fac.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-19

    Highlights: {yields} Ambient ionization technique allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. {yields} We sort ambient ionization techniques into three main analytical strategies, direct ionization, direct desorption/ionization, and two-step ionization. {yields} The underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques are described and compared. - Abstract: Ambient ionization is a set of mass spectrometric ionization techniques performed under ambient conditions that allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. Using combinations of different types of sample introduction systems and ionization methods, several novel techniques have been developed over the last few years with many applications (e.g., food safety screening; detection of pharmaceuticals and drug abuse; monitoring of environmental pollutants; detection of explosives for antiterrorism and forensics; characterization of biological compounds for proteomics and metabolomics; molecular imaging analysis; and monitoring chemical and biochemical reactions). Electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization are the two main ionization principles most commonly used in ambient ionization mass spectrometry. This tutorial paper provides a review of the publications related to ambient ionization techniques. We describe and compare the underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques.

  8. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry: A tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Cheng, Sy-Chi; Cho, Yi-Tzu; Shiea, Jentaie

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ambient ionization technique allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. → We sort ambient ionization techniques into three main analytical strategies, direct ionization, direct desorption/ionization, and two-step ionization. → The underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques are described and compared. - Abstract: Ambient ionization is a set of mass spectrometric ionization techniques performed under ambient conditions that allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. Using combinations of different types of sample introduction systems and ionization methods, several novel techniques have been developed over the last few years with many applications (e.g., food safety screening; detection of pharmaceuticals and drug abuse; monitoring of environmental pollutants; detection of explosives for antiterrorism and forensics; characterization of biological compounds for proteomics and metabolomics; molecular imaging analysis; and monitoring chemical and biochemical reactions). Electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization are the two main ionization principles most commonly used in ambient ionization mass spectrometry. This tutorial paper provides a review of the publications related to ambient ionization techniques. We describe and compare the underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques.

  9. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  10. El ambiente social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Granada

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el título de« Ambiente Social» se quiere enfatizar que el concepto de Ambiente no se agota en lo ecológico (físico-biótico. Así mismo, dentro lo psicosocial, la noción de territorio adquiere importancia y otorga significación a la «experiencia ambiental», ya que abre ventanas hacia la comprensión de actividades como el ordenamiento territorial y a la mediación de las dimensiones psicológica, social y cultural del espacio. Finalmente, aunque el ordenamiento del territorio suele enfocarse desde los componentes sociopolíticos y económicos con el ánimo de planificación, el componente psicosocial traduce aspectos del ordenamiento dentro de la vida cotidiana y relaciona nociones como identidad y arraigo, entre otras.

  11. Will the New Gnosticism prevail? Remarks on Synthetic Biology, Nanotechnologies and Genetic Manipulation facing the Century of the Big Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Riechmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Technological utopianism seduces many people, from the very origins of Western modernity –remember Francis Bacon’s island of Bensalem in his New Atlantis–, with the temptation of complete mastery over nature (which includes human immortality. Today, the prevailing mentality in the West, which tends to become a universal worldview, has much in common with the beliefs of the ancient Gnostics. According to this mindset, science and technology can allow the human mind to escape the limitations that characterize its natural state, releasing the anchor to biological stuff and escaping the human condition. In short, we would become gods –gods thought of as Immortal Super-Engineers. We must resist these destructive illusions and delusions, which means: technical rationality has to make his own critique of utopian reason (in the sense of Franz Hinkelammert. Without this self-criticism, a judicious use of techniques and technologies will be out of reach –and they do have an enormous potential for improving the human condition–, while avoiding –if it were still possible– the exterminist, nihilistic and suicidal drift of industrial civilization.

  12. Ambiente, patrimonio y turismo

    OpenAIRE

    Mantero, Juan Carlos

    2003-01-01

    El tema de la conferencia asignado por los responsables del Tercer Congreso Latinoamericano de Investigación Turística supuso asumir la problemática de la interacción ambiente patrimonio turismo para realizar una reflexión que a partir de la definición de tales nociones permitiera acceder a una reflexión respecto de su significación cultural en la comunidad. El patrimonio de la comunidad comprende el ambiente e incluye la naturaleza y la cultura, del ayer y del presente, en su dimensión tangi...

  13. Ambient environment in the coal mining complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    Environment is all pervading and therefore associated with all individuals. The ambient environment with respect to any activity lies a little outside and the receiving body outside the active zone denotes ambient environment. Basically, air quality and noise level are two physical ingredients whose assessment gives an idea of impact on the ambience. Though largely blamed for polluted conditions, the general ambient conditions in the coal fields do not show a tardy image. Being a low level dispersion industry, its impact remains concentrated in the active core zone. This has been brought out here. The paper presents the status of air quality, and noise level in some coal fields in India. It also discloses a brighter future and sustainable development due to increased concern for environment. (author)

  14. El suicidio: Una conducta antisocial que prevalece/Suicide: An antisocial behavior that prevails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alejandro De León Palomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The suicide has existed throughout history and has prevailed as a behavior that was contrary to the rules of the society in terms of preservation of life itself; the objective of this research was to make emphasis on the nature of antisocial behavior of this behavior and show its prevalence in the years 2006 to 2010 in Mexico and Tamaulipas, as well as from 1999 to 2008 in Reynosa, Tamaulipas. For which the data were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography to the country and the State and the books of the register of deaths by cause violent of the Regional Unit of Expert Services of the Attorney General of Justice, which has its headquarters in Reynosa; developed a theoretical framework on the impact of the conduct in society and the means to prevent it, The data obtained we revealed the continued presence of this conduct year-on-year, 23.554 cases appearing in Mexico and 819 in Tamaulipas in the period from 2006 to 2010; in Reynosa, Tamaulipas were presented 278 suicides in the period 1999 to 2008. The results show us a conduct stable in numbers, but without excessive overflows that prevails year-on-year, suicide, and the attempt of the same should be viewed as a social problem and not detract from the importance that it deserves a conduct of these dimensions, that is no more than a reflection of the situation in which are the means of social control toward the preservation of life itself.

  15. Comparación ambiental, mediante registros sedimentarios, entre las condiciones prehispánicas y actuales de un sistema lacustre Environmental comparison, through sedimentary records, between pre-Hispanic and current conditions of a lacustrine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO CISTERNAS

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan, a través de registros sedimentarios, palinológicos y diatomológicos, dos momentos de la historia ambiental del sistema lacustre de San Pedro. El primero, corresponde al periodo prehispánico, representando a las condiciones prístinas o línea base del sistema. El segundo periodo, el más reciente, representa aproximadamente a los últimos diez años de intervención antrópica. Para lograr lo anterior, se recolectaron muestras verticales de sedimento del fondo en los dos lagos del sistema lacustre de San Pedro (Lagunas Grande y Chica. Se realizaron análisis cronológicos (C14, palinológicos y diatomológicos de los estratos superiores e inferiores de la columna sedimentaria. Los resultados indican que el sistema lacustre de San Pedro ha experimentado drásticos cambios desde la llegada de los españoles, evolucionando desde una cobertura vegetacional natural, predominantemente nativa, a una fuerte presión de uso forestal. Del mismo modo, el estado cualitativo del agua presenta una variación en sus características tróficas, reconociéndose una evolución desde aguas oligotróficas a eutróficas, en Laguna Grande, y de oligotrofía a mesotrofía en Laguna Chica. Finalmente, se propone la incorporación del análisis de los registros sedimentarios en los estudios ambientales y planes de manejo de los sistemas lacustres. De esta forma será posible conocer la línea base (condiciones prehispánicas y la respuesta del ecosistema acuático a las influencias antrópicasTwo moments of the environmental history of San Pedro lacustrine system are compared through sedimentary, pollen and diatom records. The first one corresponds to the pre-Hispanic period, representing the pristine conditions or background of the system. The second period, more recently, represents the human disturbance conditions during the late ten years. To achieve the above mentioned, sediment cores were collected from the bottom of two lakes that conform the San

  16. Climate variations in greenhouse cultivated with gerbera and relationship with external conditions Variações meteorológicas em ambiente protegido cultivado com gérberas e suas relações com as condições externas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderson S. de Andrade Júnior

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Black meshes used in greenhouses provide shade to plants, affecting photosynthesis and presenting certain properties that change the microclimatic conditions in these environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation in climate elements in greenhouse cultivated with gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii, Vr. Rambo in relation to external conditions and the reference evapotranspiration (ETo at Teresina, State of Piauí, Brazil. The measurements were obtained from July to October 2007 by an automatic data acquisition system installed inside and outside the greenhouse. The global solar radiation, evapotranspiration, precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed were estimated. The results showed that major effect of the shading occurred on the mean air temperature during the 120 days, making it higher than the external environment. Inside the greenhouse, mean values of relative air humidity, reference evapotranspiração, global solar radiation and wind speed were lower compared to those outside the greenhouse.Os ambientes protegidos cobertos com malha negra fornecem sombreamento às plantas, têm forte influência no processo da fotossíntese e possuem propriedades particulares que interferem nas condições micrometeorológicas desses ambientes. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar os elementos meteorológicos no interior do ambiente protegido cultivado com gérbera (Gerbera jamesonii, Vr. Rambo em relação ao ambiente externo e na evapotranspiração de referência (ETo, a qual foi correlacionada às variáveis ambientais em Teresina-PI. No período de julho a outubro de 2007, os elementos meteorológicos foram obtidos por um sistema de aquisição de dados automático instalado no interior do ambiente protegido e externamente. Estimaram-se a radiação solar global, temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, evapotranspiração de referência, precipitação e velocidade do ar. Os resultados mostraram que o maior efeito

  17. Meio ambiente e literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli de Oliveira Fantini Scarpelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca reconhecer alguns pontos de tangência entre os romances Vidas secas, de Graciliano Ramos, As cidades invisíveis, de Italo Calvino, e Grande sertão: veredas, de Guimarães Rosa, sobretudo no que respeita às relações modalizantes entre literatura e meio ambiente. Em meio à diversidade temática das obras indicadas, subjaz o tema da consciência ambiental, que, nas últimas décadas, vem recebendo a crescente adesão não apenas de ambientalistas, mas também de intelectuais, políticos, escritores. O foco na degradação ambiental, no alerta implícito acerca das precárias condições de vida futura em nosso planeta revela um dos nucleares e contundentes problemas a desafiar a agenda contemporânea. Nesse sentido, revela-se paradigmático o “lugar-sertão” rosiano, que, ao difundir seu território, seus valores e denúncias, patenteia uma concepção ambiental inovadora e reticular, em estreito diálogo com as atuais pesquisas interdisciplinares sobre o tema, as quais deveriam doravante guardar, em seu horizonte de expectativa, os paradigmas, as perspectivas e os equacionamentos que alicerçam as artes em geral e a literatura em particular.

  18. Fixed Points in the Ambient Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Dal Zilio, Silvano

    2009-01-01

    We present an extension of the ambient logic with fixed points operators in the style of the mu-calculus. We give a simple syntactic condition for the equivalence between minimal and maximal fixpoint formulas and show how to subsume spatial analogues of the usual box and diamond operators.

  19. Molecular-based mechanisms of Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension: questioning the prevailing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Theodore W; Dominiczak, Anna F; DiCarlo, Stephen E; Pravenec, Michal; Morris, R Curtis

    2015-05-01

    This critical review directly challenges the prevailing theory that a transient increase in cardiac output caused by genetically mediated increases in activity of the ENaC in the aldosterone sensitive distal nephron, or of the NCC in the distal convoluted tubule, accounts entirely for the hemodynamic initiation of all Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension (Figure 1). The prevailing theory of how genetic mutations enable salt to hemodynamically initiate Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension in humans (Figure 1) depends on the results of salt-loading studies of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance in nongenetic models of hypertension that lack appropriate normal controls. The theory is inconsistent with the results of studies that include measurements of the initial hemodynamic changes induced by salt loading in normal, salt-resistant controls. The present analysis, which takes into account the results of salt-loading studies that include the requisite normal controls, indicates that mutation-induced increases in the renal tubular activity of ENaC or NCC that lead to transient increases in cardiac output will generally not be sufficient to enable increases in salt intake to initiate the increased BP that characterizes Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension (Table). The present analysis also raises questions about whether mutation-dependent increases in renal tubular activity of ENaC or NCC are even necessary to account for increased risk for salt-dependent hypertension in most patients with such mutations. We propose that for the genetic alterations underlying Mendelian forms of salt-dependent hypertension to enable increases in salt intake to initiate the increased BP, they must often cause vasodysfunction, ie, an inability to normally vasodilate and decrease systemic vascular resistance in response to increases in salt intake within dietary ranges typically observed in most modern societies. A subnormal ability to vasodilate in

  20. Indicadores de salud ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Posada de la Paz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta ponencia presenta una visión general del proyecto de Indicadores de Salud Ambiental, coordinado por la OMS a nivel internacional y liderado por el Centro de Investigación sobre el Síndrome del Aceite Tóxico y Enfermedades Raras (CISATER en España. En ella se describen los objetivos del proyecto, las gestiones realizadas y los resultados obtenidos durante la fase de viabilidad de este proyecto. El proyecto consiste en el establecimiento de un sistema de información sobre salud ambiental que permita desarrollar una vigilancia de los factores ambientales determinantes de los estados de salud, realizar comparaciones internacionales, elaborar políticas de acción, así como facilitar la comunicación con la ciudadanía. La OMS desarrolló una metodología para el desarrollo de estos indicadores dentro del marco conceptual de información ambiental DPSEEA (Fuerzas impulsoras, Presión, Estado, Exposición, Efecto, Acción y seleccionó un total de 55 indicadores (que incluyen 168 variables sobre 10 áreas de la salud ambiental. Durante la fase de viabilidad se predijo que podrían obtenerse el 89% de los indicadores. Sin embargo la recolección de los datos supuso muchas dificultades debido a la incompatibilidad de algunas variables en los sistemas de información españoles con las variables definidas por la OMS. A nivel de gestión del proyecto, la mayor dificultad radica en la disparidad de responsabilidades en materia de medio ambiente y salud entre las instituciones españolas. Además de la aportación técnica a la salud ambiental en España, un valor añadido de este proyecto ha sido el establecimiento de líneas de colaboración estrechas con los responsables de los diferentes Ministerios implicados.

  1. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  2. On the prevailing construction waste recycling practices: a South East Queensland study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Kotrayothar, Duangthidar; Loo, Yew-Chaye

    2009-03-01

    Waste generated from construction and building demolition work constitutes about 68% of all solid waste generated each year in South East Queensland. Consequently, it has created a serious waste management problem. The State Governments of Victoria and New South Wales have been encouraging the use of recycled materials from construction and related waste; they have also promulgated specifications for their use. In Queensland, however, similar regulations are not anticipated in the near future, which explains the lack of funded research conducted in this important arena. This paper presents an evaluation of the prevailing waste recycling practices in Queensland. Nine sites were visited, including two construction sites, three demolition sites, three recycling plants and one landfill in South East Queensland. The difficulties encountered by the recycling programme operators and their associates at these sites are described and the benefits of recycling construction materials are presented. One of the major barriers is that the local councils disallow the use of recycled materials in new construction work. To help rectify these impediments to recycling, recommendations are given to increase the use of recycled construction waste in South East Queensland.

  3. Prevailing practices in airway management: a prospective single-centre observational study of endotracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Geraldine Pei Chin; Kannan, Anusha; Koh, Kwong Fah; Venkatesan, Kumaresh; Seet, Edwin

    2018-03-01

    Airway management during anaesthesia has potential difficulties and risks. We aimed to investigate the utility of routine airway assessment for predicting difficult tracheal intubation, review the prevailing practice of videolaryngoscope use amongst anaesthetists in a teaching hospital and determine the incidence of intraoperative and postoperative airway-related complications. A prospective observational study of 1,654 patients undergoing general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation over a seven-month period was performed. Data regarding airway and anaesthetic management was collected and analysed. Videolaryngoscopes were used as the first-choice equipment in 60.5% of the cohort. The incidence of difficult intubation was 2.1%, of which 45.7% of cases were unanticipated. The sensitivity of airway assessment was 54.3%, with a positive predictive value of 8.1%. When difficult intubation was anticipated, more videolaryngoscopes were used as the first equipment of choice compared to the Macintosh laryngoscope (p < 0.001). In the Macintosh group, more patients required a change of airway equipment (p = 0.015), but the number of intubation attempts was similar (p = 0.293). The incidence of intraoperative (p = 0.920) and postoperative complications (p = 0.380) were similar in both groups. Using the current predictors of difficult intubation, half of the difficult airways we encountered were unanticipated. Videolaryngoscopes were preferred when difficulty was anticipated and were also used in routine tracheal intubation. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  4. Appreciation of the nature of light demands enhancement over the prevailing scientific epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar

    2011-09-01

    Based on attempts to resolve the problem of various self contradictory assumptions behind the prevailing belief on single photon interference, we have analyzed the process steps behind our experimental measurements and named the process as the Interaction Process Mapping Epistemology (IPM-E). This has helped us recognize that the quantum mechanical Measurement Problem has a much universal and deeper root in nature. Our scientific theorization process suffers from a Perpetual Information Challenge (PIC), which cannot be overcome by elegant and/or sophisticated mathematical theories alone. Iterative imaginative application of IPM-E needs to be used as a metaphorical analytical continuation to fill up the missing information gaps. IPM-E has also guided us to recognize the generic NIW-principle (Non-Interaction of Waves) in the linear domain, not explicitly recognized in current books and literature. Superposition effects become manifest through light-matter interactions. Detecting dipoles gets stimulated by multiple superposed beams; it sums the simultaneous multiple stimulations into a single resultant undulation, which then guides the resultant energy exchange. The consequent transformation in the detector corresponds to observed fringes. They neither represent interference of light; nor represent selective arrival or non-arrival of photons on the detector. Photons do not possess any force of mutual interaction to generate their redistribution. Implementation of IPM-E requires us to recognize our subjective interpretation propensity with which we are burdened due to our evolutionary successes.

  5. Global empirical wind model for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. I. Prevailing wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Portnyagin

    Full Text Available An updated empirical climatic zonally averaged prevailing wind model for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (70-110 km, extending from 80°N to 80°S is presented. The model is constructed from the fitting of monthly mean winds from meteor radar and MF radar measurements at more than 40 stations, well distributed over the globe. The height-latitude contour plots of monthly mean zonal and meridional winds for all months of the year, and of annual mean wind, amplitudes and phases of annual and semiannual harmonics of wind variations are analyzed to reveal the main features of the seasonal variation of the global wind structures in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Some results of comparison between the ground-based wind models and the space-based models are presented. It is shown that, with the exception of annual mean systematic bias between the zonal winds provided by the ground-based and space-based models, a good agreement between the models is observed. The possible origin of this bias is discussed.

    Key words: Meteorology and Atmospheric dynamics (general circulation; middle atmosphere dynamics; thermospheric dynamics

  6. Why nature prevails over nurture in the making of the elite athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Evelina; Klissouras, Vassilis; Baulch, Jamie; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2017-11-14

    While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes and the environment. It is widely accepted that superior performers are endowed with a high genetic potential actualised through hard and prodigious effort. Heritability studies using the twin model have provided the basis to disentangle genetic and environmental factors that contribute to complex human traits and have paved the way to the detection of specific genes for elite sport performance. Yet, the heritability for most phenotypes essential to elite human performance is above 50% but below 100%, meaning that the environment is also important. Furthermore, individual differences can potentially also be explained not only by the impact of DNA sequence variation on biology and behaviour, but also by the effects of epigenetic changes which affect phenotype by modifying gene expression. Despite this complexity, the overwhelming and accumulating evidence, amounted through experimental research spanning almost two centuries, tips the balance in favour of nature in the "nature" and "nurture" debate. In other words, truly elite-level athletes are built - but only from those born with innate ability.

  7. Phylogenomics resolves a spider backbone phylogeny and rejects a prevailing paradigm for orb web evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Jason E; Garrison, Nicole L; Hamilton, Chris A; Godwin, Rebecca L; Hedin, Marshal; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2014-08-04

    Spiders represent an ancient predatory lineage known for their extraordinary biomaterials, including venoms and silks. These adaptations make spiders key arthropod predators in most terrestrial ecosystems. Despite ecological, biomedical, and biomaterial importance, relationships among major spider lineages remain unresolved or poorly supported. Current working hypotheses for a spider "backbone" phylogeny are largely based on morphological evidence, as most molecular markers currently employed are generally inadequate for resolving deeper-level relationships. We present here a phylogenomic analysis of spiders including taxa representing all major spider lineages. Our robust phylogenetic hypothesis recovers some fundamental and uncontroversial spider clades, but rejects the prevailing paradigm of a monophyletic Orbiculariae, the most diverse lineage, containing orb-weaving spiders. Based on our results, the orb web either evolved much earlier than previously hypothesized and is ancestral for a majority of spiders or else it has multiple independent origins, as hypothesized by precladistic authors. Cribellate deinopoid orb weavers that use mechanically adhesive silk are more closely related to a diverse clade of mostly webless spiders than to the araneoid orb-weaving spiders that use adhesive droplet silks. The fundamental shift in our understanding of spider phylogeny proposed here has broad implications for interpreting the evolution of spiders, their remarkable biomaterials, and a key extended phenotype--the spider web. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cuticle Structure in Relation to Chemical Composition: Re-assessing the Prevailing Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Victoria; Guzmán-Delgado, Paula; Graça, José; Santos, Sara; Gil, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The surface of most aerial plant organs is covered with a cuticle that provides protection against multiple stress factors including dehydration. Interest on the nature of this external layer dates back to the beginning of the 19th century and since then, several studies facilitated a better understanding of cuticular chemical composition and structure. The prevailing undertanding of the cuticle as a lipidic, hydrophobic layer which is independent from the epidermal cell wall underneath stems from the concept developed by Brongniart and von Mohl during the first half of the 19th century. Such early investigations on plant cuticles attempted to link chemical composition and structure with the existing technologies, and have not been directly challenged for decades. Beginning with a historical overview about the development of cuticular studies, this review is aimed at critically assessing the information available on cuticle chemical composition and structure, considering studies performed with cuticles and isolated cuticular chemical components. The concept of the cuticle as a lipid layer independent from the cell wall is subsequently challenged, based on the existing literature, and on new findings pointing toward the cell wall nature of this layer, also providing examples of different leaf cuticle structures. Finally, the need for a re-assessment of the chemical and structural nature of the plant cuticle is highlighted, considering its cell wall nature and variability among organs, species, developmental stages, and biotic and abiotic factors during plant growth.

  9. Planejamento ambiental do turismo

    OpenAIRE

    Clauciana Schmidt Bueno de Moraes

    2002-01-01

    O planejamento ambiental municipal através da metodologia elaborada nesta pesquisa visa contribuir para a adequação das características físico-ambientais, sócio-econômicas, político-administrativas e histórico-culturais do município relacionado com as atividades turísticas. Neste sentido, a conscientização voltada para a conservação através da educação ambiental se torna indispensável para organizar o espaço turístico, direcionado à importância de uma satisfação das necessidades das gerações ...

  10. The Aesthetics of the Ambient Video Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Bizzocchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Video is an emergent cultural phenomenon, with roots that go deeply into the history of experimental film and video art. Ambient Video, like Brian Eno's ambient music, is video that "must be as easy to ignore as notice" [9]. This minimalist description conceals the formidable aesthetic challenge that faces this new form. Ambient video art works will hang on the walls of our living rooms, corporate offices, and public spaces. They will play in the background of our lives, living video paintings framed by the new generation of elegant, high-resolution flat-panel display units. However, they cannot command attention like a film or television show. They will patiently play in the background of our lives, yet they must always be ready to justify our attention in any given moment. In this capacity, ambient video works need to be equally proficient at rewarding a fleeting glance, a more direct look, or a longer contemplative gaze. This paper connects a series of threads that collectively illuminate the aesthetics of this emergent form: its history as a popular culture phenomenon, its more substantive artistic roots in avant-garde cinema and video art, its relationship to new technologies, the analysis of the viewer's conditions of reception, and the work of current artists who practice within this form.

  11. Armazenamento sob condições ambiente e aceitabilidade do melão 'F1 Jangada' produzido em sistema hidropônico Storage under atmosphere conditions and acceptability of the melon 'F1 Jangada' croped in hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M. Rinaldi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o período de armazenamento pós-colheita e a aceitabilidade pelo consumidor de melão híbrido 'F1 Jangada' (Cucumis melo L., produzido em sistema hidropônico, mantido em condições ambiente (22 ± 2 ºC e umidade relativa de 40 ± 5%. O experimento compreendeu o período de 21-6-2005 a 2-8-2005. Foi utilizado o esquema fatorial 5 x 2, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco períodos de armazenamento (0; 7; 21; 28 e 42 dias e dois tipos de substrato (areia e fibra de coco, com três repetições, em que cada repetição consistiu em cinco frutos de meloeiro. Foram avaliados o pH, a acidez titulável, os sólidos solúveis, a perda de massa fresca, a análise sensorial e a decisão de compra dos melões. Foram verificados efeitos do tipo de substrato e tempo de armazenamento sobre os valores de pH dos melões. A acidez titulável dos melões diminuiu significativamente nos primeiros sete dias de armazenamento, em ambos os substratos. Não foram verificados efeitos do tipo de substrato e tempo de armazenamento nos sólidos solúveis dos melões durante o armazenamento. Não houve diferença de perda de massa fresca dos frutos produzidos nos dois substratos, sendo de 7,1 ± 0,2%, durante os 42 dias de armazenamento. O tipo de substrato não interferiu na aparência geral, cor, textura e sabor dos melões. Aos 42 dias de armazenamento, os melões produzidos nos dois tipos de substrato apresentaram-se aceitáveis pelo consumidor. No entanto, os produzidos no substrato com areia apresentaram melhor aceitabilidade e decisão de compra ao longo do armazenamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the storage period postharvest and acceptability by consumer of hybrid melon 'F1 Jangada' (Cucumis melo L., produced in hydroponic system, stored in atmosphere conditions (22 ± 2 ºC and 40 ± 5% relative humidity. The research was carried from June 21st to August 2nd, 2005. It was

  12. MEIO AMBIENTE E DESENVOLVIMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Salgueiro Chacon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é resgatar elementos para subsidiar uma reflexão crítica sobre o modelo de desenvolvimento econômico prevalente na sociedade e as relações com o meio ambiente, sob a ameaça que ronda o destino da espécie humana, conforme afirmação de Lovelock (2006, p. 20 sobre o conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável: “uma ideia adorável se a tivéssemos aplicado 200 anos atrás, quando havia um bilhão de pessoas no mundo. Agora é tarde demais. Não há mais espaço para nenhum tipo de desenvolvimento. A humanidade tem que regredir”. Este artigo apresenta a evolução do conceito de desenvolvimento econômico sob a ótica da sustentabilidade, e interliga temas como: o ambientalismo, aglutinador de distintos pensamentos sobre as relações entre a sociedade e a natureza; o movimento ambiental, a fundamentar a disseminação do conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável, e a gestão ambiental, abordada como prática orientada pelo conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável.

  13. Heart rate and respiratory rate influence on heart rate variability repeatability: effects of the correction for the prevailing heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Sławomir Gąsior

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since heart rate variability (HRV is associated with average heart rate (HR and respiratory rate (RespRate, alterations in these parameters may impose changes in HRV. Hence the repeatability of HRV measurements may be affected by differences in HR and RespRate. The study aimed to evaluate HRV repeatability and its association with changes in HR and RespRate.Methods: Forty healthy volunteers underwent two ECG examinations seven days apart. Standard HRV indices were calculated from 5-min ECG recordings. The ECG-derived respiration signal was estimated to assess RespRate. To investigate HR impact on HRV, HRV parameters were corrected for prevailing HR. Results: Differences in HRV parameters between the measurements were associated with the changes in HR and RespRate. However, in multiple regression analysis only HR alteration proved to be independent determinant of the HRV differences – every change in HR by 1 bpm changed HRV values by 16.5% on average. After overall removal of HR impact on HRV, coefficients of variation of the HRV parameters significantly dropped on average by 26.8% (p < 0.001, i.e. by the same extent HRV reproducibility improved. Additionally, the HRV correction for HR decreased association between RespRate and HRV. Conclusions: In stable conditions, HR but not RespRate is the most powerful factor determining HRV reproducibility and even a minimal change of HR may considerably alter HRV. However, the removal of HR impact may significantly improve HRV repeatability. The association between HRV and RespRate seems to be, at least in part, HR dependent.

  14. Salud ambiental: conceptos y actividades

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo A. Ordóñez

    2000-01-01

    La finalidad del trabajo es aportar información y propuestas conceptuales que faciliten la tarea de quienes tienen a su cargo la sistematización institucional de la salud ambiental. Se hace un análisis de la noción de "ambiente" para la cual se sugiere una definición, y se examina el lugar de la salud ambiental en el contexto de los problemas ambientales y sus vertientes "verde" y "azul". Se examinan denominaciones equivalentes de salud ambiental y se introducen los servicios de salud ambient...

  15. Prevailing theories of consciousness are challenged by novel cross-modal associations acquired between subliminal stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ryan B; Samaha, Jason; Chrisley, Ron; Dienes, Zoltan

    2018-06-01

    While theories of consciousness differ substantially, the 'conscious access hypothesis', which aligns consciousness with the global accessibility of information across cortical regions, is present in many of the prevailing frameworks. This account holds that consciousness is necessary to integrate information arising from independent functions such as the specialist processing required by different senses. We directly tested this account by evaluating the potential for associative learning between novel pairs of subliminal stimuli presented in different sensory modalities. First, pairs of subliminal stimuli were presented and then their association assessed by examining the ability of the first stimulus to prime classification of the second. In Experiments 1-4 the stimuli were word-pairs consisting of a male name preceding either a creative or uncreative profession. Participants were subliminally exposed to two name-profession pairs where one name was paired with a creative profession and the other an uncreative profession. A supraliminal task followed requiring the timed classification of one of those two professions. The target profession was preceded by either the name with which it had been subliminally paired (concordant) or the alternate name (discordant). Experiment 1 presented stimuli auditorily, Experiment 2 visually, and Experiment 3 presented names auditorily and professions visually. All three experiments revealed the same inverse priming effect with concordant test pairs associated with significantly slower classification judgements. Experiment 4 sought to establish if learning would be more efficient with supraliminal stimuli and found evidence that a different strategy is adopted when stimuli are consciously perceived. Finally, Experiment 5 replicated the unconscious cross-modal association achieved in Experiment 3 utilising non-linguistic stimuli. The results demonstrate the acquisition of novel cross-modal associations between stimuli which are not

  16. The networked minority: How a small group prevailed in a local windfarm conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Carmel

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explain through a qualitative case study how a small protest group prevailed during a local windfarm conflict in south-eastern Australia. A social capital analytical framework was developed to analyse the data. The analysis found that two communities inhabited the area for which the windfarm development was proposed. The public participation process failed to address the concerns of both communities and led to the emergence of a social network of resistance. The network had high stocks of bridging social capital, which enabled an effective protest that led to the abandonment of the development. Their effectiveness was inadvertently aided by the windfarm supporters who were unable to act collectively to defend their interests because socio-economic changes in the community among other factors had led to a depletion of their social capital. In this context, different democratic participatory processes were needed to address the concerns of the two communities. Guidance and tools for researching and developing the types of participatory processes needed for vulnerable communities with low social capital and those similar to the social network with high social capital are provided. These will inform community-appropriate public participation processes and participatory planning policy. - Highlights: ► A case study of a local social network's resistance to a windfarm is undertaken. ► The link between high social capital and resistance is confirmed. ► Successful protest groups can be aided by passive windfarm supporters. ► Protesters are likely to participate in well-designed participatory processes. ► Guidance for developing community-specific participatory processes is provided

  17. Projected changes in prevailing winds for transatlantic migratory birds under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    A number of terrestrial bird species that breed in North America cross the Atlantic Ocean during autumn migration when travelling to their non-breeding grounds in the Caribbean or South America. When conducting oceanic crossings, migratory birds tend to associate with mild or supportive winds, whose speed and direction may change under global warming. The implications of these changes for transoceanic migratory bird populations have not been addressed. We used occurrence information from eBird (1950-2015) to estimate the geographical location of population centres at a daily temporal resolution across the annual cycle for 10 transatlantic migratory bird species. We used this information to estimate the location and timing of autumn migration within the transatlantic flyway. We estimated how prevailing winds are projected to change within the transatlantic flyway during this time using daily wind speed anomalies (1996-2005 and 2091-2100) from 29 Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models implemented under CMIP5. Autumn transatlantic migrants have the potential to encounter strong westerly crosswinds early in their transatlantic journey at intermediate and especially high migration altitudes, strong headwinds at low and intermediate migration altitudes within the Caribbean that increase in strength as the season progresses, and weak tailwinds at intermediate and high migration altitudes east of the Caribbean. The CMIP5 simulations suggest that, during this century, the likelihood of autumn transatlantic migrants encountering strong westerly crosswinds will diminish. As global warming progresses, the need for species to compensate or drift under the influence of strong westerly crosswinds during the initial phase of their autumn transatlantic journey may be diminished. Existing strategies that promote headwind avoidance and tailwind assistance will likely remain valid. Thus, climate change may reduce time and energy requirements and the chance of mortality or

  18. Prevailing negative soil biota effect and no evidence for local adaptation in a widespread Eurasian grass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Wagner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil biota effects are increasingly accepted as an important driver of the abundance and distribution of plants. While biogeographical studies on alien invasive plant species have indicated coevolution with soil biota in their native distribution range, it is unknown whether adaptation to soil biota varies among populations within the native distribution range. The question of local adaptation between plants and their soil biota has important implications for conservation of biodiversity and may justify the use of seed material from local provenances in restoration campaigns.We studied soil biota effects in ten populations of the steppe grass Stipa capillata from two distinct regions, Europe and Asia. We tested for local adaptation at two different scales, both within (ca. 10-80 km and between (ca. 3300 km regions, using a reciprocal inoculation experiment in the greenhouse for nine months. Generally, negative soil biota effects were consistent. However, we did not find evidence for local adaptation: both within and between regions, growth of plants in their 'home soil' was not significantly larger relative to that in soil from other, more distant, populations.Our study suggests that negative soil biota effects can prevail in different parts of a plant species' range. Absence of local adaptation points to the possibility of similar rhizosphere biota composition across populations and regions, sufficient gene flow to prevent coevolution, selection in favor of plasticity, or functional redundancy among different soil biota. From the point of view of plant--soil biota interactions, our findings indicate that the current practice of using seeds exclusively from local provenances in ecosystem restoration campaigns may not be justified.

  19. Ambient og intelligent teknologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

     Dette notat handler om hvordan humanistisk og samfundsfaglig forskning i øjeblikket nyttiggøres ved udformning af IKT-anvendelser, der er indlejret i vor dagligdag i den forstand, at de indgår som et element i de aktiviteter, vi foretager på arbejdet eller i fritiden. Sådanne anvendelser kaldes ...... undertiden ambiente – noget der omslutter os på alle sider. Rapporten peger også på virkemidler som kan forbedre og øge en humanistisk og samfundsfaglig forskningsindsats....

  20. El periodismo ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Grinberg, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    La problemática ambiental no posee una presencia estructurada en los medios de comunicación social de la Argentina. No encabeza secciones permanentes en los diarios de circulación nacional, donde es considerada parte de la información general. Y aparece como sección estable en muy pocos diarios provinciales. Surge episódicamente en la TV abierta o por cable, y en la radio, cuando hay catástrofes naturales (sequías o inundaciones), accidentes industriales y conflictos políticos o sectoriales r...

  1. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. 1427.25 Section 1427.25 Agriculture Regulations of the..., PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.25 Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. (a) CCC will...

  2. Monthly mean climatology of the prevailing winds and tides in the Arctic mesosphere/lower thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Portnyagin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic MLT wind regime parameters measured at the ground-based network of MF and meteor radar stations (Andenes 69° N, Tromsø 70° N, Esrange 68° N, Dixon 73.5° N, Poker Flat 65° N and Resolute Bay 75° N are discussed and compared with those observed in the mid-latitudes. The network of the ground-based MF and meteor radars for measuring winds in the Arctic upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere provides an excellent opportunity for study of the main global dynamical structures in this height region and their dependence from longitude. Preliminary estimates of the differences between the measured winds and tides from the different radar types, situated 125-273km apart (Tromsø, Andenes and Esrange, are provided. Despite some differences arising from using different types of radars it is possible to study the dynamical wind structures. It is revealed that most of the observed dynamical structures are persistent from year to year, thus permitting the analysis of the Arctic MLT dynamics in a climatological sense. The seasonal behaviour of the zonally averaged wind parameters is, to some extent, similar to that observed at the moderate latitudes. However, the strength of the winds (except the prevailing meridional wind and the diurnal tide amplitudes in the Arctic MLT region is, in general, less than that detected at the moderate latitudes, decreasing toward the pole. There are also some features in the vertical structure and seasonal variations of the Arctic MLT winds which are different from the expectations of the well-known empirical wind models CIRA-86 and HWM-93. The tidal phases show a very definite longitudinal dependence that permits the determination of the corresponding zonal wave numbers. It is shown that the migrating tides play an important role in the dynamics of the Arctic MLT region. However, there are clear indications with the presence in some months of non-migrating tidal modes of significant appreciable amplitude.

  3. Prevailing climatic trends and runoff response from Hindukush–Karakoram–Himalaya, upper Indus Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. U. Hasson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Largely depending on the meltwater from the Hindukush–Karakoram–Himalaya, withdrawals from the upper Indus Basin (UIB contribute half of the surface water availability in Pakistan, indispensable for agricultural production systems, industrial and domestic use, and hydropower generation. Despite such importance, a comprehensive assessment of prevailing state of relevant climatic variables determining the water availability is largely missing. Against this background, this study assesses the trends in maximum, minimum and mean temperatures, diurnal temperature range and precipitation from 18 stations (1250–4500 m a.s.l. for their overlapping period of record (1995–2012 and, separately, from six stations of their long-term record (1961–2012. For this, a Mann–Kendall test on serially independent time series is applied to detect the existence of a trend, while its true slope is estimated using the Sen's slope method. Further, locally identified climatic trends are statistically assessed for their spatial-scale significance within 10 identified subregions of the UIB, and the spatially (field- significant climatic trends are then qualitatively compared with the trends in discharge out of corresponding subregions. Over the recent period (1995–2012, we find warming and drying of spring (field-significant in March and increasing early melt season discharge from most of the subregions, likely due to a rapid snowmelt. In stark contrast, most of the subregions feature a field-significant cooling within the monsoon period (particularly in July and September, which coincides well with the main glacier melt season. Hence, a decreasing or weakly increasing discharge is observed from the corresponding subregions during mid- to late melt season (particularly in July. Such tendencies, being largely consistent with the long-term trends (1961–2012, most likely indicate dominance of the nival but suppression of the glacial melt regime

  4. Dioxinas y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Frejo Moya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el término genérico dioxinas se designa al grupo de las dibenzo-p-dioxinas policloradas (PCDD y de los dibenzofuranos policlorados (PCDF, representantes típicos de los compuestos orgánicos persistentes (COPs. Se obtienen como productos secundarios no deseados de diversos procesos industriales en los que se emplea cloro en alguna de sus etapas. Las dioxinas han centrado en la última década una parte importante de la investigación médica en salud ambiental debido a su notable toxicidad, ya que son las sustancias químicas peligrosas más potentes creadas por el hombre, afectando al sistema nervioso e inmunitario, estando implicadas en la aparición de distintos tipos de cáncer y provocando la aparición de alteraciones hormonales, clasificándose actualmente como disruptores endocrinos. Por otra parte, su persistencia en el medio ambiente, resistencia a la degradación, bioacumulación y capacidad de transporte atmosférico entre las diversas fases medioambientales hace que sean considerados actualmente como compuestos peligrosos para el ser humano.

  5. Crisis ambiental y cristianismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cárdenas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se identifican y reconocen algunas opciones que se pueden desarrollar en el cristianismo en relación con la problemática ambiental. Se aborda el dilema bíblico suscitado por interpretaciones antiecológicas y ecológicas. Con base en una lectura de la Biblia, de testimonios cristianos, y en una rememoria de estructuras institucionales, como la parroquia, se analiza el valor que tiene el mensaje cristiano en lo referido a la mitigación de la crisis ambiental.This article identifies and recognizes some options that can be developed in Christianity in relation to the environmental problem. It starts by analyzing the biblical dilemma provoked by both ecological and antiecological interpretations. Based on a reading of the Bible, testimonies from Christians and with a rememory of institutional structures, like the parish, the valué of the Christian message for mitigating the environmental crisis is analyzed.

  6. Types for BioAmbients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  7. Índice de área foliar e produtividade do tomate sob condições de ambiente protegido Leaf area index and productivity of tomatoes under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia S. Reis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de tomate tem-se expandido nos últimos anos em ambiente protegido, especialmente nas regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil, com o propósito de melhorar a produtividade e a qualidade dos produtos agrícolas, em razão de oferecer regularidade na produção. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, determinar, ao longo do ciclo da cultura, a relação entre o índice de área foliar e a produtividade e, ao final do ciclo, os componentes de produção do tomateiro, em ambiente protegido. Os modelos foram gerados por meio de equações polinomiais de 1ª e 2ª ordem tendo-se, como variável independente, o número de dias após o transplantio. Constatou-se ser possível determinar, em ambiente protegido e por meio de modelo matemático, o índice de área foliar dessa olerícola considerando-se os dias após o transplantio. A partir de valores de índice de área foliar pode-se determinar a produtividade da cultura e o período da máxima produtividade auxiliando os agricultores a estimar a melhor época de semeadura e o transplante do tomateiro.The tomato cultivation in the greenhouse has been expanded in the last years, mainly, in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil, whose purpose is to improve the productivity and the quality of the agricultural products, offering regularity in the production. The present study aimed to determine, along the crop cycle, the relationship between the leaf area index and the productivity, and at the end of the cycle, the components of production of the tomato in the greenhouse. The models were generated through polynomial equations of 1st and 2nd order, having as independent variable the number of days after the transplanting. It was verified that it is possible to determine, in the greenhouse, through mathematical models, the leaf area index of the tomato crop considering the days after the transplanting. Basing on values of leaf area index, the productivity of the crop and the period of the maximum

  8. A RESPONSABILIDADE CIVIL E O MEIO AMBIENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DELCYLENE VILLALBA SOARES

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo tem por finalidade realizar uma análise sobre a evolução da responsabilidade civil e suas teorias, subjetiva e objetiva aplicadas ao meio ambiente. Dentro desta área, deve-se ressaltar que a responsabilidade civil ao meio ambiente, é um assunto de importante relevância para o efetivo controle da depredação ambiental, permitindo que sejam alcançadas as metas propostas como condição de sobrevivência da espécie humana, ou seja, a conservação do meio ambiente e o desenvolvimento econômico social, visando desta maneira, permitir a qualidade e a continuação da vida. Existe o entendimento, que somente com educação ambiental e normas reguladoras fortes, como a penalidade de ter que indenizar quando praticar algum dano ao meio ambiente conseguirá atingir o objetivo maior de preservação. Necessitam-se além de uma mudança na legislação que responsabilize poluidores do meio ambiente, atribuindo-lhes sanções que inibam a prática de tal conduta ilícita e realizando assim, a aplicabilidade da justiça.Palavras-chave:Responsabilidade Civil; Responsabilidade; Meio Ambiente ABSTRACTThis article have objective to realize a analysis about civil responsibility evolution and your theories, subjective and objective apply environment. Inside this area have to stand out that civil responsibility environment, it is a theme very important relevance for environment depredation control effective, permitting have been obtain proposals target like been human survival condition, therefore, environment conservation and social economic development objective permit quality and continuation of life. There is understanding, that only with environment education and strong regulation principle, like penalty has to indemnify when practice some injury of environment, will obtain more preservation. Demand a change on legislation that responsible environment polluter attribute him inhibit sanctions for practice this illicit conduct and

  9. Ambient Volatility of Triethyl Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AMBIENT VOLATILITY OF TRIETHYL PHOSPHATE ECBC-TR-1476 James H. Buchanan John J. Mahle RESEARCH AND...2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Oct 2016 – Jan 2017 4. TITLE: Ambient Volatility of Triethyl Phosphate 5a. CONTRACT...humidity on TEPO volatility is nearly as predicted by Raoult’s law, that is, vapor pressure suppression is proportional to ambient relative humidity. An

  10. Viewpoint-based ambient occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Francisco; Sbert, Mateu; Feixas, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    A new ambient occlusion technique builds a channel between various viewpoints and an object's polygons, providing the information needed to create an occlusion map with multiple application possibilities.

  11. False-positive findings in mammography screening induces short-term distress - breast cancer-specific concern prevails longer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Pilvikki Absetz, S; van Elderen, T M

    2000-01-01

    -ups at 2 and 12 months postscreening. At 2 months, there was a moderate multivariate effect of group on distress; and intrusive thinking and worry about breast cancer, in particular, were most frequent amongst the false positives. Intrusive thinking still prevailed at 12 months, in addition to a higher...... findings (n=1407), false-positive findings (n=492) and referents from outside the screening programme (n=1718, age 48-49 years). Distress was measured as illness worry, anxiety, depression, cancer beliefs and early detection behaviour. Measurements were one month before screening invitation with follow...... perceived breast cancer risk and susceptibility. Distress related to screening and false-positive findings seems to be moderate, but prevailing cancer-specific concerns call for improvements in screening programmes....

  12. Validating Firewalls in Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Hansen, René Rydhof

    1999-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes (mobile ambients) to move between sites. A firewall is said to be protective whenever it denies entry to attackers not possessing the required passwords. We devise a polynomial time algorithm for rejecting proposed...

  13. Validating Firewalls in Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Hansen, René Rydhof

    1999-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes (mobile ambients) to move between sites. A firewall is said to be protective whenever it denies entry to attackers not possessing the required passwords. We devise a polynomial time algorithm for rejecting proposed fir...... are semantically sound, and we demonstrate that each process admits a least analysis....

  14. Foro Ambiental : CEDENMA, Asamblea Constituyente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Naizot

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen de la Mesa redonda: Orientaciones de la nueva Constitución ecuatoriana en materia ambiental: ¿avances o retrocesos en relación con el marco político y filosófico ambiental vigente en algunos países de la región?

  15. Regulation of Synaptic Transmission by Ambient Extracellular Glutamate

    OpenAIRE

    FEATHERSTONE, DAVID E.; SHIPPY, SCOTT A.

    2007-01-01

    Many neuroscientists assume that ambient extracellular glutamate concentrations in the nervous system are biologically negligible under nonpathological conditions. This assumption is false. Hundreds of studies over several decades suggest that ambient extracellular glutamate levels in the intact mammalian brain are ~0.5 to ~5 μM. This has important implications. Glutamate receptors are desensitized by glutamate concentrations significantly lower than needed for receptor activation; 0.5 to 5 μ...

  16. The surface oxidation kinetics of zirconium-niobium alloys and aα-Fe with prevailing cubical texture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhambetov, D.G.; Kargin, D.B.; Chalaya, O. V.; Berber, N.N.

    2002-01-01

    It is known, that the kinetics of oxidation of zirconium at formed heating is characterized by two consecutive stages. At the initial stage the thin protecting film will be derived. The relation of its depth from time h (t) is described predominantly by parabolic law. Some time later there can be a transition to the linear law of oxidation. The time moment divided these areas on the kinetic relation is called as a point of break. The film is formed at the second stage, has a developed grid of pores or cracks, can be flake away and be crumbled by losing its protective properties. At the oxidation of the surface shells of the heat generating elements and the technological channels of atomic boilers both stages are proceeded simultaneously. This phenomenon is called modular corrosion. Its consequences can be dangerous for the equipment. Its mechanism is not clear till now. Similar dependencies h(t), with the break point, beginning from which the thin film is transformed into the thick one were found by us at the oxidation α-Fe with prevailing cubical texture. The task of the work was to study the oxide film growth laws in order to clarify the mechanisms of transition of the thin film into the oxide layer on the α-Fe surface and Zr-Nb alloy modular corrosion emergence. Low-carbonate steel with contents 99.43 % of α-Fe was used as a model object of our research. In the texture of the steel surface planar direction [100] was prevalent. Its part accounted for about 40 %. The isothermal air oxidation was carried out in the interval of 450-500 deg. C . Phase composition of the film was determined with X-ray diffraction. The mathematical treatment of the dependencies h(t) obtained by experiment showed that the kinetics of the film growth can be conditionally divided into 4-stages. The initial stage is described by function logarithmic function, the other stages - by the power mode h n =A n ·t, namely, the second stage - is described by function close to cubical (n≅3

  17. Salud ambiental: conceptos y actividades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ordóñez Gonzalo A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La finalidad del trabajo es aportar información y propuestas conceptuales que faciliten la tarea de quienes tienen a su cargo la sistematización institucional de la salud ambiental. Se hace un análisis de la noción de "ambiente" para la cual se sugiere una definición, y se examina el lugar de la salud ambiental en el contexto de los problemas ambientales y sus vertientes "verde" y "azul". Se examinan denominaciones equivalentes de salud ambiental y se introducen los servicios de salud ambiental. Se proporcionan varias definiciones y se da la oficial de salud ambiental adoptada por la OMS en Sofía, Bulgaria (1993. A continuación se transcriben las áreas básicas que a la salud ambiental le han asignado diversas organizaciones o reuniones, como la OPS, la OMS, el Programa 21 y otros. A partir de aquí se construye un repertorio bastante completo de áreas y subáreas y se encuentra que todos los listados son, en realidad, una reunión asistemática de tres tipos de constituyentes: determinantes (factores o hechos de la realidad física, procesos (conjuntos de intervenciones y funciones (conjuntos de acciones de gestión, los cuales pueden enfocarse matricialmente y llevan a individualizar actividades de los servicios de salud ambiental. Se proponen unas reglas de operación que permiten, en una especie de álgebra, construir expresiones para especificar con precisión las actividades y sus agregados. De este modo se logra disponer de un lenguaje simbólico común que puede ayudar a la intercomunicación, enseñanza e investigación en el ámbito de la salud ambiental.

  18. Salud ambiental: conceptos y actividades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo A. Ordóñez

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available La finalidad del trabajo es aportar información y propuestas conceptuales que faciliten la tarea de quienes tienen a su cargo la sistematización institucional de la salud ambiental. Se hace un análisis de la noción de "ambiente" para la cual se sugiere una definición, y se examina el lugar de la salud ambiental en el contexto de los problemas ambientales y sus vertientes "verde" y "azul". Se examinan denominaciones equivalentes de salud ambiental y se introducen los servicios de salud ambiental. Se proporcionan varias definiciones y se da la oficial de salud ambiental adoptada por la OMS en Sofía, Bulgaria (1993. A continuación se transcriben las áreas básicas que a la salud ambiental le han asignado diversas organizaciones o reuniones, como la OPS, la OMS, el Programa 21 y otros. A partir de aquí se construye un repertorio bastante completo de áreas y subáreas y se encuentra que todos los listados son, en realidad, una reunión asistemática de tres tipos de constituyentes: determinantes (factores o hechos de la realidad física, procesos (conjuntos de intervenciones y funciones (conjuntos de acciones de gestión, los cuales pueden enfocarse matricialmente y llevan a individualizar actividades de los servicios de salud ambiental. Se proponen unas reglas de operación que permiten, en una especie de álgebra, construir expresiones para especificar con precisión las actividades y sus agregados. De este modo se logra disponer de un lenguaje simbólico común que puede ayudar a la intercomunicación, enseñanza e investigación en el ámbito de la salud ambiental.

  19. Effect van omgevingstemperatuur, kwaliteit verenkleed en huisvestingssysteem op energieverbruik en dierprestaties bij leghennen = Effect of ambient temperature, plumage condition, and housing system on energy partitioning and performance in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Anker, van den I.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Brand, van den H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite rather extreme differences between treatments, rate of lay, egg weight and egg mass were not affected, indicating the adaptive capacity of laying hens to a broad range of environmental conditions.

  20. Publicidade e ambiente: alguns contornos

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Jr.,Antonio Ribeiro de; Andrade,Thales Novaes de

    2007-01-01

    O presente artigo trata da importância da publicidade na construção social do debate ambiental. Os estudos sobre mídia e ambiente geralmente focam o conteúdo de jornais e programas televisivos, mas nas últimas décadas a publicidade passou a chamar a atenção dos estudiosos sobre o tema. O trabalho procurou discutir a importância do fenômeno do consumo no mundo moderno, e os efeitos sentidos na área ambiental. A seguir são discutidos alguns aspectos do aprimoramento do discurso publicitário no ...

  1. Effect of ambient temperature on female endurance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renberg, Julie; Sandsund, Mariann; Wiggen, Øystein Nordrum; Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo

    2014-10-01

    Ambient temperature can affect physical performance, and an ambient temperature range of -4 °C to 11 °C is optimal for endurance performance in male athletes. The few similar studies of female athletes appear to have found differences in response to cold between the genders. This study investigated whether ambient temperature affects female endurance performance. Nine athletes performed six tests while running on a treadmill in a climatic chamber at different ambient temperatures: 20, 10, 1, -4, -9 and -14 °C and a wind speed of 5 m s(-1). The exercise protocol consisted of a 10-min warm-up, followed by four 5-min intervals at increasing intensities at 76%, 81%, 85%, and 89% of maximal oxygen consumption. This was followed by an incremental test to exhaustion. Although peak heart rate, body mass loss, and blood lactate concentration after the incremental test to exhaustion increased as the ambient temperature rose, no changes in time to exhaustion, running economy, running speed at lactate threshold or maximal oxygen consumption were found between the different ambient temperature conditions. Endurance performance during one hour of incremental exercise was not affected by ambient temperature in female endurance athletes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ambient Monitoring Technology Information Center (AMTIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site contains information on ambient air quality monitoring programs, monitoring methods, quality assurance and control procedures, and federal regulations related to ambient air quality monitoring.

  3. Introdução e avaliação de gladíolos em ambiente de cerrado no Estado de Roraima. = The introduction and evaluation of gladiolus under Savannah (Cerrado conditions in The State of Roraima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Lanius Boyle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As plantas ornamentais de corte comercializadas no Estado de Roraima são importadas de outros Estados do Brasil ou do exterior, como por exemplo: rosas, gladíolos, crisântemos, antúrios, violetas e gérberas. Considerando a potencialidade do Estado de Roraima para o cultivo de plantas ornamentais, objetivou com este trabalho introduzir e avaliar o comportamento de três acessos de gladíolos em condições de casa de vegetação no ambiente de cerrado do Estado deRoraima. O experimento foi instalado entre os meses de setembro a novembro de 2007. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com três tratamentos e nove repetições. Os tratamentos foram três acessos de gladíolos, sendo: 1- Trader Horn; 2- White Friendship e 3- Peter Pears. As variáveis avaliadas foram: índice de germinação, altura da planta, número de dias entre a germinação e a emissão da inflorescência, número de flores por espiga e número de flores abertas por espiga para fins de corte. Os acessos Trader Horn, White Friendship e Peter Pears desenvolveram-se até a floração, tendo apresentado um ciclo comercial médio de 73 dias e oito flores por inflorescência, apresentando características de padrão comercial. = The ornamental plants of cutting marketed in the state of Roraima are imported from other states in Brazil orcountries, for example: roses, gladiolus, chrysanthemums, anthuriums, gerberas and violets. Considering the potential of thestate of Roraima to the cultivation of ornamental plants, this work objectived to introduce and evaluate the performance of threeacesses of gladiolus overhead covered in Savannah the State of Roraima. The experiment was conducted between September and November 2007. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three treatments and nine replications. The treatments were three species of gladioli, which: 1- Trader Horn; 2 - White Friendship and 3 - Peter Pears. The variables were

  4. A Comparison of Modified Atmosphere Packaging Under Ambient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fruits were then transferred to ambient conditions of air, temperature and RH for a further one-week to simulate marketing conditions. Samples were evaluated initially and thereafter every week for weight loss, titratable acidity (TA), soluble solids content (SSC), pH, chlorophyll content, ascorbic acid content and visual ...

  5. Comunicadores para la informaclon ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Cabrera Morillo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La Red Colombiana de Formación Ambiental en convenio con la Corporación Autónoma de los Valles del Sinú y del San Jorge y con el apoyo del Politécnico Grancolombiano, desarrolló un diplomado en Periodismo Ambiental en la ciudad de Montería, Departamento de Córdoba. La experiencia que ha contribuido a fortalecer la construcción de la cultura ambiental en la región; le ha permitido mayor visibilidad a los proyectos de la Corporación y facilitado la participación ciudadana. Este documento presenta el contexto de la formación de los comunicadores para la información ambiental, las características del diplomado y establece algunos de los logros alcanzados.

  6. Types of analysis of trompenaar's (1994 organizational culture prevailing in the area of controllership in family businesses in textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to identify the types of analysis of Trompenaar's (1994 organizational culture prevailing in the area of controllership in family businesses in textile industry. Descriptive research was performed, with quantitative and qualitative approach, using a multiple case study. Data were collected through interviews with the controller of the companies. In the four basic culture types suggested by Trompenaars (1994, it is concluded that there isn´t a pure kind, but there is a strong presence of family culture among the companies surveyed in dimensions relationship between employees, attitude in relation to the ways of change, forms of motivation and reward

  7. Assorted interactions of amino acids prevailing in aqueous vitamin C solutions probed by physicochemical and ab-initio contrivances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Koyeli; Roy, Milan Chandra; Rajbanshi, Biplab; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2017-11-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of molecular interaction prevailing in tyrosine and tryptophan in aqueous solution of vitamin C have been probed by thermophysical properties. The apparent molar volume (ϕV), viscosity B-coefficient, molal refraction (RM) of tyrosine and tryptophan have been studied in aqueous vitamin C solutions at diverse temperatures via Masson equation which deduced solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, respectively. Spectroscopic study along with physicochemical and computational techniques provides lots of interesting and highly significant insights of the model biological systems. The overall results established strong solute-solvent interactions between studied amino acids and vitamin C mixture in the ternary solutions.

  8. Gestão ambiental e interesses corporativos: imagem ambiental ou novas relações com o ambiente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Ribeiro de Almeida Júnior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da emergência de um novo sistema de comunicação ambiental a serviço das grandes corporações. Este sistema agrega novos agentes entre os quais podemos destacar: ONGs supostamente ambientalistas, empresas de certificação ambiental, instituições que promovem premiações ambientais. Argumenta-se que esta situação transformou as condições em que ocorre o embate sobre as questões ambientais e sobre as potenciais soluções para estas questões. A pesquisa funda-se em uma revisão da literatura sobre o assunto e em uma análise qualitativa de um conjunto de publicidades brasileiras que se utiliza de temas ambientais. Neste conjunto de publicidades, aparecem elementos para construirmos hipóteses sobre as articulações realizadas pelo setor corporativo para responder ao desafio ambientalista.Este articulo trata sobre la emergencia de un nuevo sistema de comunicación ambiental al servicio de grandes corporaciones. Este sistema agrega nuevos agentes entre los cuales podemos destacar ONG´s supuestamente ambientalistas, empresas de certificación ambiental, instituciones que promueven premios ambientales. Se argumenta que esta situación transformó las condiciones en que ocurre el debate sobre las cuestiones ambientales y sobre las potenciales soluciones para estas cuestiones. La investigación se basa en una revisión de la literatura sobre el tema y un análisis cualitativo de un conjunto de la publicidad brasileña que utiliza los temas ambientales.En esta serie de anuncios, los elementos aparecen para construir hipótesis sobre las articulaciones hechas por el sector empresarial para responder al desafío del medio ambiente.This article discusses the emergence of a new environmental communication system at the service of large corporations. This system includes new agents among which we highlight: environmental NGO's, environmental certification companies and institutions that promote environmental awards. It is

  9. Efeito do ambiente protegido cultivado com melão sobre os elementos meteorológicos e sua relação com as condições externas Effect of greenhouse cultivated with melon crop under meteorological elements and its relationship with external conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. N. Vásquez

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do ambiente protegido cultivado com melão (Cucumis melo L. sobre os elementos meteorológicos e sua relação com as condições externas. O experimento foi conduzido no período de 5-10-2001 a 7-1-2002, em estufa plástica de 420 m², construída com estrutura metálica galvanizada, com dois vãos de altura central de 4,6 m e lateral de 3,0 m, composto de quatro janelas frontais, cobertas com filme de polietileno transparente de alta densidade, com aditivo ultravioleta e espessura de 150 µm. A irrigação foi efetuada por gotejamento, com lâmina total de 279,6 mm, manejada utilizando um minitanque instalado no interior do ambiente. Os elementos meteorológicos foram obtidos por sistema de aquisição automático instalado no interior do ambiente protegido e, externamente, com medidas da radiação global, temperatura e umidade relativa do ar. Verificou-se que a radiação solar global e a umidade relativa no ambiente protegido foram, em média, inferiores às condições externas, enquanto a temperatura foi superior no período analisado. A relação entre os elementos meteorológicos medidos externamente e no interior do ambiente protegido foi expressa por meio de equações de regressão linear e quadrática.The objective of this research was to study the effect of greenhouse cultivated with melon (Cucumis melo L. under meteorological elements and its relationship with external conditions. The study was carried out during the period of October 5, 2001 to January 7, 2002. The greenhouse had 420 m², constructed in galvanized metallic structure with two voids, height in the central part of 4.6 m and lateral of 3.0 m, having four front windows covered with a film of transparent polyethylene of high density with addictive ultraviolet and thickness of 150 µm. A drip irrigation system was used with a total water depth of 279.6 mm applied. The irrigation management was done through a small

  10. Conhecimento, interdisciplinaridade e Psicologia Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ombretta Romice

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Responde às questões - como os métodos da Psicologia Ambiental devem ser discutidos em um enquadramento interdisciplinar; a Psicologia Ambiental pede alguma abordagem metodológica especial; como a intervenção ambiental é determinada pela interdisciplinaridade; quais são estas disciplinas e como elas se relacionam entre si - baseando-se em experiências profissionais como orientador em um projeto com comunidade, com habitação popular e exclusão social em vários países da Europa, e como consultora. Conclui que as abordagens usadas pelas diferentes profissões são muito separadas, e que apenas metas comuns não são suficientes, sendo também necessários um treino conjunto e identidade de valores.

  11. Efecto del método de secado en la longevidad y la calidad de las semillas de Bauhinia purpurea.: I. Almacenamiento en Condiciones Ambientales Effect of the drying method on the longevity and quality of seeds from Bauhinia purpurea.: I. Storage under ambient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Navarro

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento con el objetivo de determinar la influencia combinada de diferentes métodos de secado, las condiciones de almacenamiento al ambiente y la edad fisiológica de las semillas de B. purpurea, en la capacidad germinativa y en la calidad de estas. Los tratamientos para el secado fueron: A en las legumbres, B artificial, y C al sol. Se determinó el porcentaje de viabilidad y de germinación, así como el contenido de humedad (CH, con una frecuencia mensual durante un año de almacenamiento; además se registró la temperatura y la humedad relativa (máxima y mínima durante el período evaluado. En el procesamiento de la información se utilizaron análisis multivariados (GLM y Factorial. En los tratamientos A y C se observaron semejanzas en cuanto a la viabilidad y la germinación, aunque las semillas alcanzaron la muerte fisiológica a los siete y nueve meses de permanencia en el almacén, respectivamente. El secado de las semillas con silicagel mostró que la pérdida de la capacidad germinativa siguió un modelo polinomial cúbico, con una marcada tendencia a la linealidad, y al finalizar el estudio fue de 70%. Las diferencias entre el CH de las semillas secadas artificialmente (B y al sol (C permitieron confirmar que la longevidad en B fue dos a cuatro veces mayor que en C. Los factores más influyentes en el ritmo de pérdida de la calidad de las semillas B. purpurea almacenadas al ambiente fueron el contenido de humedad y la edad.A trial was carried out with the objective of determining the combined influence of different drying methods, the storage under ambient conditions and the physiological age of the seeds from B. purpurea, on their germination capacity and quality. The treatments for drying were: A in the pods, B artificial and C under sunlight. The percentage of viability and germination, as well as the moisture content (MC, were determined, with a monthly frequency during a year of storage; in addition the

  12. Pediatria ambiental: um tema emergente

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela,Patricia M.; Matus,M. Soledad; Araya,Gabriela I.; Paris,Enrique

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Revisar os artigos mais relevantes sobre a pediatria ambiental, seus efeitos potenciais para a saúde e, especialmente, seus avanços na prevenção. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi realizada uma pesquisa utilizando as bases de dados MEDLINE/PubMed e SciELO. Foram revisados artigos de 1990 a 2010, além de capítulos de livros relacionados à pediatria ambiental. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há uma variedade significativa de fatores que tornam as crianças altamente vulneráveis à exposição a riscos ambientais,...

  13. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary.

  14. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios [Bern University, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Cotsakis, Spiros [CERN, Theory Division, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); National Technical University, School of Applied Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Athens (Greece)

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary. (orig.)

  15. Ambient plasma treatment of silicon wafers for surface passivation recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Prinz, Markus; Markert, Thomas; Aberle, Armin G.; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the effect of an ambient plasma treatment powered by compressed dry air on the passivation quality of silicon wafers coated with intrinsic amorphous silicon sub-oxide is investigated. While long-time storage deteriorates the effective lifetime of all samples, a short ambient plasma treatment improves their passivation qualities. By studying the influence of the plasma treatment parameters on the passivation layers, an optimized process condition was identified which even boosted the passivation quality beyond its original value obtained immediately after deposition. On the other hand, the absence of stringent requirement on gas precursors, vacuum condition and longtime processing makes the ambient plasma treatment an excellent candidate to replace conventional thermal annealing in industrial heterojunction solar cell production.

  16. Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropic environment: 6 - Breeding in empty conditions of rice fields in South-Eastern Brazil Estudos sobre mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae e ambiente antrópico: 6 - Observações em campos de arroz não cultivados, na região sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on culicid breeding in empty rice fields were carried out during the cultivation cycle from May to November 1993. This period corresponded to stages 1 and 2, when empty conditions prevailed. Breeding occurred in stage 1 and the first part of stage 2, corresponding respectively to fallow uncultivated and ploughing situations. No breeding was found to take place during the second part of stage 2 when transient floods and harrowing occurred. The predominant species were Aedes scapularis, Culex nigripalpus and Cx. mollis. The Pilosus Group of Culex (Melanoconion was found at lower densities. Some epidemiological considerations are presented.Apresentam-se os resultados obtidos com a pesquisa sistemática de criadouros nas fases não cultivadas dos campos de arroz, correspondendo ao período de maio a novembro de 1993. Esse lapso de tempo foi o referente aos estádios de repouso, de aradura do terreno e de gradeamento. Este foi realizado mediante inundações transitórias e a homogeneização mecânica da terra. O primeiro correspondeu ao estádio 1, enquanto os outros dois, ao estádio 2. Foram encontrados criadouros nas etapas concernentes aos estados de repouso e de aradura. Foram negativas as pesquisas referentes às fases de gradeamento. As espécies predominantes foram Aedes scapularis, Culex nigripalpus e Cx. mollis. Observou-se a existência de associações com o ritmo local das precipitações atmosféricas. São apresentadas considerações sobre o potencial epidemiológico desses encontros.

  17. Radiographic progression with nonrising PSA in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: post hoc analysis of PREVAIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, A H; Alumkal, J J; Armstrong, A; Higano, C S; Iversen, P; Sternberg, C N; Rathkopf, D; Loriot, Y; de Bono, J; Tombal, B; Abhyankar, S; Lin, P; Krivoshik, A; Phung, D; Beer, T M

    2017-06-01

    Advanced prostate cancer is a phenotypically diverse disease that evolves through multiple clinical courses. PSA level is the most widely used parameter for disease monitoring, but it has well-recognized limitations. Unlike in clinical trials, in practice, clinicians may rely on PSA monitoring alone to determine disease status on therapy. This approach has not been adequately tested. Chemotherapy-naive asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic men (n=872) with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who were treated with the androgen receptor inhibitor enzalutamide in the PREVAIL study were analyzed post hoc for rising versus nonrising PSA (empirically defined as >1.05 vs ⩽1.05 times the PSA level from 3 months earlier) at the time of radiographic progression. Clinical characteristics and disease outcomes were compared between the rising and nonrising PSA groups. Of 265 PREVAIL patients with radiographic progression and evaluable PSA levels on the enzalutamide arm, nearly one-quarter had a nonrising PSA. Median progression-free survival in this cohort was 8.3 months versus 11.1 months in the rising PSA cohort (hazard ratio 1.68; 95% confidence interval 1.26-2.23); overall survival was similar between the two groups, although less than half of patients in either group were still at risk at 24 months. Baseline clinical characteristics of the two groups were similar. Non-rising PSA at radiographic progression is a common phenomenon in mCRPC patients treated with enzalutamide. As restaging in advanced prostate cancer patients is often guided by increases in PSA levels, our results demonstrate that disease progression on enzalutamide can occur without rising PSA levels. Therefore, a disease monitoring strategy that includes imaging not entirely reliant on serial serum PSA measurement may more accurately identify disease progression.

  18. Immediate occlusal loading of NanoTite PREVAIL implants: a prospective 1-year clinical and radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostman, Pär-Olov; Wennerberg, Ann; Albrektsson, Tomas

    2010-03-01

    Recently, a new implant surface texture, featuring application of nanometer-scale calcium phosphate has been shown to enhance early bone fixation and formation in preclinical studies and in human histomorphometric studies, which may be beneficial in immediate loading situations. The purpose of the present prospective clinical study was to, during 1 year, clinically and radiographically evaluate a nanometer scale surface modified implant placed for immediate loading of fixed prostheses in both maxillary and mandibular regions. Thirty-five out of 38 patients who needed implant treatment and met inclusion criteria agreed to participate in the study and were consecutively enrolled. Surgical implant placement requirements consisted of a final torque of a least 25 Ncm prior to final seating and an implant stability quotient above 55. A total of 102 NanoTite PREVAIL (NTP) implants (BIOMET 3i, Palm Beach Gardens, FL, USA) (66 maxillary and 36 mandibular) were placed by one investigator, and the majority of these were placed in posterior regions (65%) and in soft bone (69%). A total of 44 prosthetic constructions were evaluated consisting of 14 single-tooth restorations, 26 fixed partial dentures, and four complete fixed restorations. All provisional constructions were delivered within 1 hour, and the final constructions placed after 4 months. Implants were monitored for clinical and radiographic outcomes at follow-up examinations scheduled for 3, 6, and 12 months. Of the 102 study implants, one implant failed. The simple cumulative survival rate value at 1 year was 99.2%. The average marginal bone resorption was 0.37 mm (SD 0.39) during the first year in function. According to the success criteria of Albrektsson and Zarb, success grade 1 was found with 93% of the implants. Although limited to the short follow-up, immediate loading of NanoTite Prevail implants seems to be a viable option in implant rehabilitation, at least when a good initial fixation is achieved.

  19. When politics prevails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Snaith, Holly

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses Britain’s quest to negotiate its future membership of the European Union (EU) through the lens of Liberal intergovernmentalism. The article demonstrates that despite the significant economic consequences of a potential Brexit, party political factors have hitherto proven mor...... significant in defining the terrain of the debate than lobby group influence where a cross section of United Kingdom (UK) lobby groups are either actively or passively in favour of remaining within the EU ahead of the referendum....

  20. Can Cooler Heads Prevail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The significant correlation between dropping temperatures throughout the Pliocene and the concomitant explosive expansion of the Hominid brain has led a number of workers to postulate climate change drove human evolution. Our brain (that of Homo sapiens), comprises 1-2 percent of our body weight but consumes 20 -25 percent of the body's caloric intake. We are "hotheads". Brains are extremely sensitive to overheating but we are endowed with unparalleled thermal regulation, much of it given over to protecting the Central Nervous System (CNS). Will there be reversed trends with global warming? The human brain has been shrinking since the end of the Ice Ages, losing about 150cc over the past 10,000 years. Polar bear skulls have been downsizing as well. Almost all mass extinctions or evolutionary upheavals are attributed to global warming: e.g. the Permian/Triassic (P/T) event, i.e., "The Great Dying", 250 million years ago (~90% of all life forms wiped out); the Paleocene/ Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) 55 million years ago. They may be analogs for what might await us. Large creatures, whose body size inhibits cooling, melted away during the PETM. Horses, initially the size of dogs then, reduced to the size of cats. An unanticipated hazard for humans that may attend extreme global warming is dumbing down or needing to retreat to the Poles as did those creatures that survived the P/T event (some references: http://johnhawks.net/research/hawks-2011-brain-size-selection-holocene; Kandel, E. et al Principles of Neural Science 4th ed. New York (US): McGraw-Hill, 2000; Selective Brain Cooling in Early Hominids:phylogenetic and evolutionary implications, Reeser, H., reeser@flmnh.ufl.edu; How the body controls brain temperature; the temperature shielding effect of cerebral blood flow, Mingming Z. et al. J Appl Physiol. 2006 November; 101(5): 1481-1488; news.nationalgeographic.com/ news/2014/03/140327-climate-change-shrinks-salamanders-global-warming-science/; Heat illness and heat stroke, www.ozemedicine.com/wiki/doku.php?id=heat illness 7/3/2010)

  1. Where the signs prevail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardo Scavino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose to show in our paper that through his semiotic theory, Barthes developed a theory of subjectivity and society continued with the anti-utilitarian tradition of the Collège de Sociologie where George Bataille, Carl Einstein or Michel Leiris had favored the mythical and ritual dimension of collective life.

  2. Germinação de sementes de porta-enxertos de citros após o armazenamento em ambiente refrigerado Seed germination of citrus rootstocks after cooling conditions storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DALMO LOPES DE SIQUEIRA

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o período de viabilidade das sementes dos porta-enxertos limoeiros-'Cravo' e 'Volkameriano', tangerineira-'Cleópatra' e citrumeleiro-'Swingle' armazenadas em embalagem permeável sob temperatura controlada de 5-7ºC por 150 dias. A cada 30 dias, foram avaliadas a germinação em laboratório e a emergência das plântulas em casa de vegetação. Determinou-se o grau de umidade das sementes em cada época de testes. O armazenamento nas condições citadas induziu menor velocidade de germinação nas sementes de 'Cravo' e 'Volkameriano', as quais não tiveram a germinação prejudicada quando apresentavam umidade próxima a 5%. Houve correlação altamente significativa entre teor de água e germinação nas sementes de 'Cleópatra' e 'Swingle'. Para a manutenção da viabilidade das sementes destes porta-enxertos, deve-se procurar manter o seu grau de umidade em torno de 20%. As sementes dos limoeiros-'Cravo' e 'Volkameriano' apresentaram maior velocidade de germinação e emergência que os demais porta-enxertos, enquanto as da tangerineira-'Cleópatra' apresentaram menor velocidade de emergência. Sementes de citrumeleiro- 'Swingle' e tangerineira-'Cleópatra' não germinaram após armazenamento por 60 e 90 dias, respectivamente.The present work was carried out in order to verify the viability period of the rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime, 'Volkameriano' lemon, 'Cleópatra' mandarin and 'Swingle' citrumelo seeds stored in permeable package at 5-7ºC for 150 days. The Germination in laboratory, seedling emergence in greenhouse and seed moisture content were performed each 30 days. Seed storage in that conditions reduced the speed of emergence index in the 'Rangpur' and 'Volkameriano' seeds. The germination of these rootstocks seeds weren't reduced when the seed moisture content was near 5%. There was highly significative correlation between seed water content and germination porcentage of 'Cleópatra' and

  3. La crisis del medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quintero Vélez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, introducción al tema del medio ambiente, pretende proporcionar conceptos básicos para analizar y dimensionar el impacto que genera el hombre sobre los sistemas que soportan la vida. Para entender estos problemas, es indispensable partir de un análisis básico de la relación entre el hombre actual, su medio ambiente, sus necesidades y sus actividades. El autor revisa los antecedentes, las causas y las consecuencias de la crisis ambiental internacional, e intenta dar explicación a la problemática nacionalen este campo, y establecer los puntos más críticos en Colombia. Finalmente, con base en los parámetros establecidos por el gobierno, se presenta el concepto de“desarrollo sostenible" como modelo que interrelaciona los procesos económicos, sociales y tecnológicos con el medio ambiente.

  4. Shape analysis for Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes to move between sites. We present an analysis inspired by state-of-the-art pointer analyses that safety and accurately predicts which processes may turn up at what sites during the execution of a composite system...

  5. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  6. Shape analysis for mobile ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes to move between sites. We present an analysis inspired by state-of-the-art pointer analyses that safely and accurately predicts which processes may turn up at what sites during the execution of a composite system...

  7. Nanomaterials vs Ambient Ultrafine Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, Vicki; Miller, Mark R.; Clift, Martin J. D.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A rich body of literature exists that has demonstrated adverse human health effects following exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM), and there is strong support for an important role of ultrafine (nanosized) particles. At present, relatively few human health or epidemiology ...

  8. Construindo cidadania ambiental na escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Schwanke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-0221.2013v10n16p14 O forte componente transversal da Educação Ambiental possibilita sua inserção em vários espaços e níveis de escolaridade. No ensino fundamental, constitui-se em uma importante ferramenta para criar espaços que permitam a abordagem de temáticas socioambientais atuais, de forma crítica e participativa. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar o Projeto Construindo Cidadania Ambiental, executado por bolsistas do Grupo PET - Conexões Gestão Ambiental em unidades escolares, explicitando sua filosofia de implantação e resultados obtidos até o momento. Verifica-se que sua natureza interdisciplinar e integrada permite uma efetiva interação com o corpo docente e discente da escola, bem como permite a prática de uma educação ambiental crítica e transformadora.

  9. [On ambient experience medical products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jun

    2010-05-01

    Through the analysis on ambient experience medical products from Philips corporation, the article discusses the development trend of medical products, management strategy and design thinking as focusing on advantage industry, focusing on user experience, system integration of resources and opening and diverse design thinking.

  10. Computer vision for ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.; Sebe, N.; Vinciarelli, A.

    2011-01-01

    A natural way of conceptualizing ambient intelligence is by picturing an active environment with access to perceptual input, not via eyes and ears, but by their technological counterparts. Computer vision is an essential part of building context-aware environments that adapt and anticipate their

  11. O tempo e o tipo de embalagem sobre a erva-mate tipo chimarrão durante armazenagem em condições ambientais Influence of time and kind of packaging on mate during storage under ambient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Cabral-Malheiros

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência dos fatores embalagem e tempo na alteração da cor e degradação da clorofila, durante armazenamento de erva-mate tipo chimarrão em condições ambientais. Amostras de erva-mate, acondicionadas em embalagem de papel ou laminada, foram colocadas em câmara de armazenagem e analisadas em sete períodos, totalizando 12 semanas. Foram determinadas a concentração de clorofila (a, b e total, cor instrumental (CIELAB, umidade e atividade de água. Verificou-se degradação dos pigmentos clorofílicos nas amostras em embalagem laminada (redução de 59,5% na concentração de clorofila a e de 28,0% na de clorofila b e resultados controversos para as amostras em embalagem de papel, os quais provavelmente tiveram interferência da reação de Maillard. As alterações de cor durante o período de armazenamento foram: redução no valor de L* para a erva-mate acondicionada em embalagem de papel (de 49,3 para 48,1 e aumento de L* para o produto em embalagem laminada (de 49,3 para 51,5; redução de -a* e redução de b* para o produto de ambas as embalagens, papel (a*=de -13,2 para -5,9; b*=de 29,3 para 28,5 e laminada (a*=de -13,3 para -7,0; b*=de 29,5 para 24,9. Concluiu-se que o tempo de armazenagem e o tipo de embalagem influenciaram significativamente (PThe aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of packaging and time factors in color change and degradation of chlorophyll during storage of mate, mate type, in environmental conditions. Samples of mate, packaged in laminated flexible film or paper, were placed in a storage chamber, and analyzed at seven periods, during 12 weeks. Chlorophyll (a, b and total, instrumental color (CIELAB, moisture and water activity were determined. In the analysis of chlorophyllian pigments, it was verified their degradation in the samples packaged in laminated film (a reduction of 59.5% in chlorophyll a and 28.0% in chlorophyll b, and controversial results

  12. Formación de dirigente gremiales médicos de la ciudad de Buenos Aires en condiciones y medio ambiente de trabajo Training on work and environmental conditions for doctors union leaders of Buenos Aires city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Alberto Nieto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: presentar la experiencia que la Asociación de Médicos Municipales (A.M.M de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires desarrolló en materia de formación de delegados gremiales en prevención. Materiales y métodos: La AMM convocó a un grupo técnico especializado que diseñó, desarrolló y evaluó el primer curso de formación de delegados en prevención de riesgos laborales en CyMAT para médicos. Se presenta la programación general de dicho curso, sus contenidos y actividades, y los resultados de su evaluación. Resultados: Se presentan los resultados de las actividades de observación de los coordinadores del curso, los de una encuesta de evaluación a cargo de los alumnos y los emergentes cualitativos generales. Se han identificado: la toma de conciencia por parte de los delegados médicos sobre los riesgos a los que se encuentran expuestos en su ámbito laboral, haber establecido vínculos y adquirido conocimiento de otras realidades, y el reconocimiento de la responsabilidad del empleador. Asimismo, surgieron propuestas de acción colectiva que se comenzaron a desarrollar como parte de las acciones gremiales. Conclusión: Esta experiencia verifica la posibilidad de generar conocimiento traducido en acciones gremiales en el Sector Salud mediante el compromiso de los principales sujetos: los trabajadores médicos.Objectives: to present the experience of the Asociación de Médicos Municipales (AMM from the city of Buenos Aires developed for teaching and training of union delegates in prevention. Materials and methods: The AMM convened a group of specialists for this goal, who have developed and evaluated this first training course for delegates at preventing occupational hazards in work-related environment and conditions of job for physicians. We present a general planning of the course and its schedule, its contents and activities, and the results of its assessment. Results: The results of the monitoring activities by the coordinators of

  13. Derecho Ambiental Ecuatoriano, quo vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Ribadeneira Sarmiento

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El derecho ambiental, reconocido como tal, es una de las ramas más modernas del derecho y el estudio de su historia y evolución divide a los autores. Sobre la base de una revisión histórica, el artículo expone el concepto y los principios del derecho ambiental y concluye con un análisis del texto constitucional y prueba como en la práctica se debilitan varios principios de esta rama especializada que son resultados precisamente de la evolución histórica que se presenta en el artículo en su primera parte; se incluye entre las conclusiones una alerta sobre las consecuencias de este paulatino debilitamiento. El objetivo principal de este artículo es presentar la evolución del derecho ambiental para contribuir con su divulgación y evidenciar que la importancia de mantener técnica en su definición para evitar su debilitamiento. Durante su elaboración se trabajó principalmente con fuentes documentales, revisión bibliográfica de investigaciones y artículos de tratadistas reconocidos. El artículo contiene: (i introducción, (ii evolución histórica global y latinoamericana, (iii concepto y principios del derecho ambiental, (iv breve análisis de las normas ambientales en la Constitución del Ecuador, enfatizando en aquellas relativas a los derechos de la naturaleza y el caso de los transgénicos, también llamados organismos genéticamente modificados, y a modo de conclusión se expone sobre la perspectiva del desarrollo futuro del derecho ambiental en Ecuador.

  14. On Modal Parameter Estimates from Ambient Vibration Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agneni, A.; Brincker, Rune; Coppotelli, B.

    2004-01-01

    Modal parameter estimates from ambient vibration testing are turning into the preferred technique when one is interested in systems under actual loadings and operational conditions. Moreover, with this approach, expensive devices to excite the structure are not needed, since it can be adequately...

  15. Ambient effects on the electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roch, Aljoscha; Greifzu, Moritz; Roch Talens, Esther

    2015-01-01

    We show that the electrical conductivity of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) networks is affected by oxygen and air humidity under ambient conditions by more than a magnitude. Later, we intentionally modified the electrical conductivity by functionalization with iodine and investigated...

  16. Influence of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation measurements: insights from field and laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Sandro M.; Pietsch, Helga; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Rieder, Harald E.

    2016-04-01

    that precipitation (as simulated by spray-tests or observed under ambient conditions) significantly affects the thermal environment of the instruments and thus their stability. Statistical analyses during nighttime conditions showed that precipitation triggers zero offsets of 4 W/m2 or more, depending on the HV-system and prevailing ambient conditions (i.e., air temperature, wind), indicating a clear exceedance of BSRN targets. References: McArthur L. J. B.: World Climate Research Programme-Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) - Operations Manual Version 2.1, Experimental Studies Division, Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario, Canada, 2005. Olefs M., Baumgartner D. J., Obleitner F., Bichler C., Foelsche U., Pietsch H., Rieder H. E., Weihs P., Geyer F., Haiden T., Schöner W.: The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions, 8: 10663-10710, 2015. Ohmura A., Dutton E. G., Forgan B., Frohlich C., Gilgen H., Hegner H., Heimo A., Stephens G. L., König-Langlo G., McArthur B., Müller G., Philipona R., Pinker R., Whitlock C. H., Dehne K., Wild M.: Baseline surface radiation network (bsrn/wcrp): new precision radiometry for climate research, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79(10): 2115-2136, 1998.

  17. Acid-base regulation, metabolism and energetics in sipunculus nudus as a function of ambient carbon dioxide level

    Science.gov (United States)

    PORtner; ReipschlAGerY; n

    1998-01-01

    Changes in the rates of oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion, in intra- and extracellular acid-base status and in the rate of H+-equivalent ion transfer between animals and ambient water were measured during environmental hypercapnia in the peanut worm Sipunculus nudus. During exposure to 1 % CO2 in air, intracellular and coelomic plasma PCO2 values rose to levels above those expected from the increase in ambient CO2 tension. Simultaneously, coelomic plasma PO2 was reduced below control values. The rise in PCO2 also induced a fall in intra- and extracellular pH, but intracellular pH was rapidly and completely restored. This was achieved during the early period of hypercapnia at the expense of a non-respiratory increase in the extracellular acidosis. The pH of the extracellular space was only partially compensated (by 37 %) during long-term hypercapnia. The net release of basic equivalents under control conditions turned to a net release of protons to the ambient water before a net, albeit reduced, rate of base release was re-established after a new steady state had been achieved with respect to acid-base parameters. Hypercapnia also affected the mode and rate of metabolism. It caused the rate of oxygen consumption to fall, whereas the rate of ammonium excretion remained constant or even increased, reflecting a reduction of the O/N ratio in both cases. The transient intracellular acidosis preceded a depletion of the phosphagen phospho-l-arginine, an accumulation of free ADP and a decrease in the level of Gibbs free energy change of ATP hydrolysis, before replenishment of phosphagen and restoration of pHi and energy status occurred in parallel. In conclusion, long-term hypercapnia in vivo causes metabolic depression, a parallel shift in acid-base status and increased gas partial pressure gradients, which are related to a reduction in ventilatory activity. The steady-state rise in H+-equivalent ion transfer to the environment reflects an increased rate of

  18. Fluctuation factors of ambient dose rates in the vicinity of Hamaoka nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hideyuki; Ibuki, Yuko; Goto, Rensuke; Aika, Masahiro; Iki, Akio

    2004-01-01

    It is important to clearly distinguish between variations in natural ambient dose rates and those by small accidents at nuclear facilities from the viewpoint of radiation control. Therefore, we must have exact data of ambient dose rates during daily life. Ambient dose rates are influenced by meteorological conditions as well as geographical and geological features. We investigated the factors which cause fluctuations in ambient dose rates on fine and rainy days around Hamaoka nuclear power plant in Shizuoka Prefecture. Fluctuations in ambient dose rates depended on the concentration of radon daughters on fine days, whereas on rainy days they depended on gamma-rays from the uranium-series. Contributions of gamma-rays from the thorium-series and potassium-40 to fluctuations in ambient dose rates were not observed. (author)

  19. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  20. Prevailing hyperglycemia is critical in the regulation of glucose metabolism during exercise in poorly controlled alloxan-diabetic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Michael J; Rantzau, Christian; McConell, Glenn; Kemp, Bruce E; Alford, Frank P

    2005-03-01

    The separate impacts of the chronic diabetic state and the prevailing hyperglycemia on plasma substrates and hormones, in vivo glucose turnover, and ex vivo skeletal muscle (SkM) during exercise were examined in the same six dogs before alloxan-induced diabetes (prealloxan) and after 4-5 wk of poorly controlled hyperglycemic diabetes (HGD) in the absence and presence of approximately 300-min phlorizin-induced (glycosuria mediated) normoglycemia (NGD). For each treatment state, the approximately 15-h-fasted dog underwent a primed continuous 150-min infusion of [3-(3)H]glucose, followed by a 30-min treadmill exercise test (approximately 65% maximal oxygen capacity), with SkM biopsies taken from the thigh (vastus lateralis) before and after exercise. In the HGD and NGD states, preexercise hepatic glucose production rose by 130 and 160%, and the metabolic clearance rate of glucose (MCRg) fell by 70 and 37%, respectively, compared with the corresponding prealloxan state, but the rates of glucose uptake into peripheral tissues (Rd(tissue)) and total glycolysis (GF) were unchanged, despite an increased availability of plasma free fatty acid in the NGD state. Exercise-induced increments in hepatic glucose production, Rd(tissue), and plasma-derived GF were severely blunted by approximately 30-50% in the NGD state, but increments in MCRg remained markedly reduced by approximately 70-75% in both diabetic states. SkM intracellular glucose concentrations were significantly elevated only in the HGD state. Although Rd(tissue) during exercise in the diabetic states correlated positively with preexercise plasma glucose and insulin and GF and negatively with preexercise plasma free fatty acid, stepwise regression analysis revealed that an individual's preexercise glucose and GF accounted for 88% of Rd(tissue) during exercise. In conclusion, the prevailing hyperglycemia in poorly controlled diabetes is critical in maintaining a sufficient supply of plasma glucose for SkM glucose

  1. EMIC Waves Accompanied by a Sudden Decrease in Ambient Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J.; Kim, H.; Kim, K. H.; Jin, H.; Gerrard, A. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Soto-Chavez, A.; Cohen, R. J.; Manweiler, J. W.; Min, K.; Kletzing, C.; Spence, H. E.

    2016-12-01

    Generation and propagation characteristics of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves are significantly affected by ambient magnetic field and plasma conditions. Using data from the Van Allen Probes and GOES spacecraft and ground-based magnetometers at their conjugate locations, this study presents observations of EMIC waves accompanied by sudden changes in ambient magnetic fields and plasma conditions. Wave spectral power, polarization, and Poynting flux are compared with ambient magnetic fields and ring current particles to understand how the plasma conditions affect the wave generation and propagation. Instability threshold and wave growth rate are also calculated to examine how the ambient conditions are related with wave generation. Wave propagation from the magnetosphere to ionosphere is also investigated from space-ground conjugate observations in the context of plasma conditions and geomagnetic activity. The results suggest that ring current particles might play an important role in controlling the wave characteristics.

  2. Ambient Art: Creative Information Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Beale

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient art is the aesthetic presentation of information, using artistic techniques to achieve a pleasing image that also contains hidden depths, where exposure to it over time allows a viewer to understand something about the information sources that it represents. This paper reviews the artistic and computational background of ambient systems, and presents two case studies of systems developed by our research team, from their initial design to the experiences of the people encountering them. The first case presents a photo mosaic of images based on the news headlines coupled with a structured picture based on the weather; the second presents stylistic perspectives on activity in a public space. Both are evaluated and demonstrate that different forms of aesthetically pleasing displays can convey information to viewers.

  3. Responsabilidades municipales en materia ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Pichardo Pagaza

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo reflexiona en torno a las responsabilidades que la Constitución política impone de manera exclusiva a los municipios y que por su naturaleza tienen efectos directos en el medio ambiente. Se alude aquí a los servicios de agua po ta ble, drenaje, saneamiento, tratamiento de aguas residuales, disposición de residuos sólidos, rastros, panteones y mercados. Ahora son los desafíos ambientales de la autoridad municipal, por lo que deben ser también sus prioridades. Si esos servicios no se atienden oportuna y técnicamente la población sufrirá, se deteriorará gravemente el medio ambiente y disminuirá la calidad de la vida de la comunidad.

  4. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2000-01-01

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  5. Tipologia para a contabilidade ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazlhe Faride Chein Schekaiban

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo revê a visão, as propostas e o desenvolvimento da contabilidade ambiental, refletindo sobre suas implicações, com a finalidade de descobrir e encontrar sua importância e situação. Para se chegar a esse resultado foi preciso realizar uma revisão epistemológica moldada e processo reflexivo de sustentabilidade e da aproximação ao usuário, da percepção da realidade contábil no México e da gerência interna das organizações. As conclusões mostram a contabilidade ambiental no México fora da re-alidade operativa do modelo contábil regional, aumentando a importância de se criar uma cultura capaz de examinar o controle da missão deste tipo de contabilidade.

  6. THERMAL COMFORT FOR REQUIRED BODY TEMPERATURES AND AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    KAYNAKLI, Ömer; YAMANKARADENİZ, Recep

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACTIn industrialized countries about 90 % of the time is spent indoors. The environmental parameters affecting indoor thermal comfort are air temperature, humidity, air velocity and mean radiant temperature. In assessing thermal environment, besides these environmental parameters, we should also consider some personal parameters such as clothing and human activity. In this study, we tried to determine the thermal comfort factors with reference to required skin temperature (tsk,req) and s...

  7. Two oxidation pathways of bioactive flavonol rhamnazin under ambient conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ramešová, Šárka; Degano, I.; Sokolová, Romana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 133, JUL 2014 (2014), s. 359-363 ISSN 0013-4686 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR M200401201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : oxidation * flavonoids * rhamnazin Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.504, year: 2014

  8. Advanced microgel-functionalized polyester textiles adaptive to ambient conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glampedaki, P.

    2011-01-01

    A new approach toward textile-based multi-functional and stimuli-responsive materials is proposed. Polyelectrolyte microgel technology is combined with conventional functionalization methods of photo- and thermo-crosslinking to activate the surface of polyester textiles, making them interactive with

  9. Ambiente psicologico en las organizaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damarcy Cortés Baracaldo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El talento humano en las organizaciones se ha convertido en las ultimas decadas en un recurso que se administra de acuerdo al estilo de liderazgo del jefe, lo que implica una marcada relación hacia la tarea, hacia las relaciones con el personal o una combinación de estas dos, que desencadenan en un ambiente psicológico exclusive en cada organización.

  10. Ambient air monitoring of Beijing MSW logistics facilities in 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ping; Li, Guo-Xue; Luo, Yi-Ming; Li, Yan-Fu

    2008-11-01

    In China, "green" integrated waste management methods are being implemented in response to environmental concerns. We measured the air quality at several municipal solid waste (MSW) sites to provide information for the incorporation of logistics facilities within the current integrated waste management system. We monitored ambient air quality at eight MSW collecting stations, five transfer stations, one composting plant, and five disposal sites in Beijing during April 2006. Composite air samples were collected and analyzed for levels of odor, ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), total suspended particles (TSPs), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The results of our atmospheric monitoring demonstrated that although CO and SO2 were within acceptable emission levels according to ambient standards, levels of H2S, TSP, and NO2 in the ambient air at most MSW logistics facilities far exceeded ambient limits established for China. The primary pollutants in the ambient air at Beijing MSW logistics facilities were H2S, TSPs, NO2, and odor. To improve current environmental conditions at MSW logistics facilities, the Chinese government encourages the separation of biogenic waste from MSW at the source.

  11. Estrategia para la sustentabilidad ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Erbiti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto de los postulados conceptuales y metodológicos de la planificación estratégica y de sustentabilidad ambiental, el objetivo de esta investigación es describir el proceso de formulación del Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial del Municipio de Tandil (POTM y analizar su potencialidad para avanzar hacia la sustentabilidad ambiental del sistema. Los resultados de la misma muestran que el POTM no sólo prioriza principios, objetivos y estrategias que materializan las diferentes manifestaciones de la sustentabilidad (económica, social, ecológica y política, sino que la totalidad del Plan se fundamenta en el concepto de desarrollo sostenible y, con ello, se establecen prioridades de actuación que posibilitarán la gestión ambiental urbana. Si bien el POTM muestra una gran potencialidad para avanzar hacia la sustentabilidad del territorio, la implementación y cumplimiento del mismo constituye un fuerte desafío para las autoridades de aplicación.

  12. Modulation of Metabolism and Switching to Biofilm Prevail over Exopolysaccharide Production in the Response of Rhizobium alamii to Cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schue, Mathieu; Fekete, Agnes; Ortet, Philippe; Brutesco, Catherine; Heulin, Thierry; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Achouak, Wafa; Santaella, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd2+) affect microbial metabolic processes. Consequently, bacteria adapt by adjusting their cellular machinery. We have investigated the dose-dependent growth effects of Cd2+ on Rhizobium alamii, an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bacterium that forms a biofilm on plant roots. Adsorption isotherms show that the EPS of R. alamii binds cadmium in competition with calcium. A metabonomics approach based on ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry has showed that cadmium alters mainly the bacterial metabolism in pathways implying sugars, purine, phosphate, calcium signalling and cell respiration. We determined the influence of EPS on the bacterium response to cadmium, using a mutant of R. alamii impaired in EPS production (MSΔGT). Cadmium dose-dependent effects on the bacterial growth were not significantly different between the R. alamii wild type (wt) and MSΔGT strains. Although cadmium did not modify the quantity of EPS isolated from R. alamii, it triggered the formation of biofilm vs planktonic cells, both by R. alamii wt and by MSΔGT. Thus, it appears that cadmium toxicity could be managed by switching to a biofilm way of life, rather than producing EPS. We conclude that modulations of the bacterial metabolism and switching to biofilms prevails in the adaptation of R. alamii to cadmium. These results are original with regard to the conventional role attributed to EPS in a biofilm matrix, and the bacterial response to cadmium. PMID:22096497

  13. Ambient Levels of Primary and Secondary Pollutants in a Residential Area: Population Risk and Hazard Index Calculation over a Three Years Study Period

    OpenAIRE

    S. Al-Salem; A. Al-Fadhlee

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting data collected over the period of three years (2004-2006) in a residential area in the state of Kuwait. The data collected include ambient levels of primary and secondary pollutants with a number of metrological parameters. A series of unfiltered and filtered concentration roses were plotted to determine the predominant sources as well as the prevailing winds affecting the area under investigation. Local and international air quality regulations were cross refere...

  14. Virulence of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense on potato compared with that of other Pectobacterium and Dickeya species under climatic conditions prevailing in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Haan, de E.G.; Kastelein, P.; Krijger, M.C.; Haas, de B.H.; Velvis, H.; Mendes, O.; Kooman-Gersmann, M.; Zouwen, van der P.S.

    2017-01-01

    In western Europe, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense is emerging as a causal agent of blackleg disease. In field experiments in the Netherlands, the virulence of this pathogen was compared with strains of other Dickeya and Pectobacterium species. In 2013 and 2014, seed potato tubers were

  15. Ambient Cured Alkali Activated Flyash Masonry Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, K.; Radhakrishna; Sasalatti, Vinod M.

    2016-09-01

    Geopolymers belong to a category of non-conventional and non-Portland cement based cementitious binders which are produced using industrial by products like fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). This paper reports on the development of geopolymer mortars for production of masonry units. The geopolymer mortars were prepared by mixing various by products with manufactured sand and a liquid mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. After curing at ambient conditions, the masonry units were tested for strength properties such as water absorption, initial rate of absorption, compression, shear- bond, and stress-strain behaviour etc. It was observed that the flexural strength of the blocks is more than 2 MPa and shear bond strength is more than 0.4MPa. It was found that the properties of geopolymer blocks were superior to the traditional masonry units. Hence they can be recommended for structural masonry.

  16. Evaluation of the ORYZA2000 Rice Growth Model under Nitrogen-Limited Conditions in an Irrigated Mediterranean Environment Evaluación del Modelo de Crecimiento de Arroz ORYZA2000 bajo Condiciones Limitadas de Nitrógeno en un Ambiente Mediterráneo Regado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Artacho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ORYZA2000 is a growth model for tropical lowland rice ( Oryza sativa L. developed by the International Rice Research Institute and Wageningen University. This model has been evaluated extensively in a wide range of environments. However, reports examining japonica cultivars growing in temperate climates are scarce. In this study, ORYZA2000 was calibrated and evaluated using data from experiments carried out in the South-Central area of Chile. These experiments were performed on a japonica rice cultivar growing under an irrigated Mediterranean environment at various N rates. ORYZA2000 was then applied to explore potential yield and grain yield response to N fertilization under likely weather conditions in the major rice-producing area in Chile. ORYZA2000 was sufficiently accurate to simulate grain yield and crop N uptake at the end of the season. Final crop N uptake was simulated with a root mean squared error (RMSE of 20 kg ha-1 (15% and grain yield with a RMSE of 1666 kg ha-1 (19%. However, the prediction of biomass and N uptake of individual organs throughout the season was poor. A long-term simulation study confirmed a potential yield as high as 12 000 kg ha-1 in the Parral area, as well as the existence of a scope for yield increase. The yield response to N fertilization was predicted even at rates of 300 kg ha-1, although a significant probability of low yields was also observed. This trend supports the need to incorporate dynamic N management in Chilean rice production.ORYZA2000 es un modelo para arroz tropical regado desarrollado por el Instituto Internacional de Investigación en Arroz y Universidad de Wageningen, que ha sido evaluado en un amplio rango de ambientes. Sin embargo, los reportes para cultivares japónica creciendo en ambientes templados son escasos. En este estudio, ORYZA2000 fue calibrado y evaluado usando datos de experimentos realizados en el centro-sur de Chile, que incluyeron una variedad japónica cultivada bajo un

  17. Avaliação da qualidade de manga 'palmer' tratada com 1-metilciclopropeno e armazenada sob refrigeração e condição ambiente Evaluation of quality of 'palmer' mangoes fruit treated with 1-methylcyclopropene and stored under refrigeration and environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Toews Dollhojo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a qualidade de mangas da cv. Palmer tratadas com 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP mantidas sob armazenamento refrigerado e sob armazenamento refrigerado associado à exposição à temperatura ambiente por quatro dias. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial 3 x 6, sendo 3 níveis do fator dose de 1-MCP (0 -testemunha, 100 nL.L-1 e 150 nL.L-1 e 6 níveis do fator tempo de armazenamento (0; 7; 14; 21; 28 e 35 dias de armazenamento refrigerado, no experimento 1, e 0; 7 + 4; 14 + 4; 21 + 4; 28 + 4 e 35 dias de armazenamento refrigerado + 4 dias sob condição ambiente, no experimento 2, com 3 repetições. Cada parcela experimental foi composta por 2 frutos. O uso de 1-MCP em mangas 'Palmer' mantidas sob refrigeração reduz as perdas de massa e ácido ascórbico, retardando, mas não impedindo o amadurecimento. O tratamento com 150 nL.L-1 não é mais eficiente que o com 100 nL.L-1, pelas características químicas analisadas. As mangas 'Palmer' expostas à condição ambiente por quatro dias apresentam expressivo murchamento e perda de qualidade, com base nas análises de sólidos solúveis, açúcares solúveis e acidez titulável.The objective of this work was to verify the behavior of mangoes cv. Palmer treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP stored under refrigeration and under refrigeration associate in exposure for four days at room temperature. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomly design, 3 x 6 factorial, with 3 levels of the factor concentration of 1-methylcyclopropene (0 nL.L-1- witness, 100 nL.L-1 and 150 nL.L-1 and 6 levels of the factor period of storage (0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days of cool storage, on the set up 1, and 0, 7 + 4, 14 + 4, 21 + 4, 28 + 4 and 35 days of cool storage + 4 days of room storage, on the set up 2, with 3 replicates. The experimental units were built up with 2 fruits. The use of 1-methylcyclopropene on the fruit kept under

  18. Epidemiological and molecular characterization of community and hospital acquired Staphylococcus aureus strains prevailing in Shenyang, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Dan Sun

    curtail the spread of those MRSA and MSSA clones prevailing both in hospital and the community.

  19. Saúde e segurança no ambiente rural: uma análise das condições de trabalho em um setor de ordenha Health and safety at rural environment: an analysis of work conditions in a milking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Rocha Maia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A saúde e a segurança no trabalho são fatores preponderantes em todos os setores produtivos, assim como no agronegócio e, especificamente, na cadeia produtiva do leite. Neste artigo, apresentam-se os resultados de uma análise das condições do ambiente de trabalho de um setor de ordenha de leite localizado na região Sudoeste do Estado da Bahia. Buscou-se identificar os riscos ocupacionais (físicos, químicos, biológicos, ergonômicos e de acidentes, bem como aspectos relativos à higiene do alimento. A pesquisa consistiu de um estudo de caso, com características qualitativas e exploratórias, tendo por finalidade descrever a situação encontrada no setor, confrontando-a com as legislações vigentes. Foram diagnosticados, predominantemente, riscos ergonômicos e de acidentes, além de irregularidades nas condições higiênico-sanitárias, que podem constituir riscos biológicos. Não foram constatados riscos químicos ou físicos no setor. Os resultados apontam para a necessidade de melhoria no setor, que vão desde mudanças estruturais, questões organizacionais, como o oferecimento de treinamentos sobre procedimentos operacionais e em saúde e segurança no trabalho.The health and safety at work are important and might be considered as essential and relevant for all productive sectors, including agribusiness, specifically in the milk chain production. This paper presents the results of an environment work conditions analysis in a milking sector at southwest region of Bahia State. The study aimed to identify the occupational risks (physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic and accidents, as well as aspects related to food hygiene. The research consisted in a case study with qualitative and exploratory characteristics, aiming to observe and report the real conditions identified in the work environment and comparing with the current legislation. It was diagnosed predominantly ergonomic and accident risks, as well as irregular

  20. [The health status of children from industrial towns due ambient air pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meĭbaliev, M T

    2008-01-01

    The author's observations suggest that hygienic monitoring in an industrial city should be made in two areas: 1) ambient air quality and 2) human health. Ambient air quality should be monitored in each town in accordance with an individual program, by taking into account the volume and nature of hazardous substances from the stationary stations, as well as weather conditions, the planning system of residential areas, and the layout of an industrial zone. Monitoring of the population's health in the industrial town should be adapted to the forms and conditions of ambient air quality monitoring in order to reveal environmental pollution-induced changes.

  1. educación ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ojeda Barceló

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación (TICs pueden constituir una herramienta de primer orden para la Educación Ambiental para la Sostenibilidad (EApS, pero todavía existe cierta reticencia por parte de educadores ambientales a hacer un uso de ellas de forma habitual. El objetivo fundamental de este trabajo es ofrecer una revisión del estado de la cuestión tanto a nivel nacional como internacional e intentar hacer una propuesta didáctica de trabajo colaborativo a través de Internet para estudiantes de secundaria.

  2. Responsabilidades municipales en materia ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Pichardo Pagaza

    2009-01-01

    Los municipios tienen una responsabilidad directa, inmediata e ineludible hacia el medio ambiente que hasta hace pocos años no reconocían como pri mor dial sino como una función secundaria. Hoy es más que una obligación jurídica, es un compromiso so cial del nivel de gobierno más cercano a la sociedad. Este trabajo reflexiona en torno a las responsabilidades que la Constitución política impone de manera exclusiva a los municipios y que por su naturaleza tienen efectos directos en el medio ...

  3. Pediatria ambiental: um tema emergente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M. Valenzuela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os artigos mais relevantes sobre a pediatria ambiental, seus efeitos potenciais para a saúde e, especialmente, seus avanços na prevenção. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi realizada uma pesquisa utilizando as bases de dados MEDLINE/PubMed e SciELO. Foram revisados artigos de 1990 a 2010, além de capítulos de livros relacionados à pediatria ambiental. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há uma variedade significativa de fatores que tornam as crianças altamente vulneráveis à exposição a riscos ambientais, associados principalmente ao consumo comparativamente maior de água, comida e ar por parte da criança, em relação ao seu peso corporal. De acordo com a Organização Mundial de Saúde, mais de 3 milhões de crianças menores de 5 anos morrem devido a doenças relacionadas ao meio ambiente. Aproximadamente 30-40% das doenças pediátricas estão relacionadas a fatores ambientais. As crianças estão constantemente expostas a vários riscos ambientais para a saúde, dentre os quais se destacam: água contaminada, falta de condições adequadas de saneamento, poluição do ar, vetores de doenças, perigos químicos, injúrias e acidentes. CONCLUSÕES: Atualmente, os pediatras são desafiados a tratar das necessidades de saúde ligadas à pediatria ambiental. A história pediátrica deve ser mais abrangente, acrescentando-se questões pontuais que ajudem a identificar potenciais riscos ambientais. A conscientização e o entendimento sobre os efeitos nocivos das várias condições ambientais e o conhecimento sobre as medidas de prevenção relacionadas resultarão em intervenções oportunas e adequadas que melhorarão a saúde e o desenvolvimento das nossas crianças.

  4. Periodismo ambiental y periodismo sostenible

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Reyes, Rogelio

    2004-01-01

    En el presente artículo trataremos sobre el periodismo ambiental, para luego procurar teorizar sobre el periodismo sostenible. Finalizaremos deteniéndonos en los rasgos comunes y diferencias. El desarrollo sostenible es un nuevo modelo en la relación del ser humano con el entorno. En los medios de comunicación, cada vez aparecen más informaciones ambientales que se refieren a contenidos de este nuevo modelo. ¿Podemos hablar de periodismo sostenible? Nos decantamos por el sí, como una sub-espe...

  5. Shape analysis for mobile ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes to move between sites. We present an analysis inspired by state-of-the-art pointer analyses that safely and accurately predicts which processes may turn up at what sites during the execution of a composite system....... The analysis models sets of processes by sets of regular tree grammars enhanced with context dependent counts, and it obtains its precision by combining a powerful redex materialisation with a strong redex reduction (in the manner of the strong updates performed in pointer analyses)....

  6. Ambient Noise in an Urbanized Tidal Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Christopher

    the pressure fluctuations when the turbulent scales are on order of, or smaller than, the characteristic size of the hydrophone. At both sites, flow-noise levels can exceed ambient noise levels during slack currents by more than 50 dB at 20 Hz and flow-noise is measured at frequencies greater than 500 Hz. In Admiralty Inlet, the use of a compact flow shield is shown to reduce flow-noise levels by up to 30 dB. Below 1 kHz, the dominant source of ambient noise is vessel traffic, though during periods of strong currents, the propagating noise from vessels can be difficult to identify because of flow-noise. At frequencies above 1 kHz, during periods of strong currents, the dominant source of ambient noise is bedload transport. Observation of this higher frequency sound is not affected by flow-noise, which is limited to lower frequencies in northern Admiralty Inlet. These results are combined with marine species hearing thresholds, a turbine source spectrum, and a simple propagation model to roughly quantify the probability of marine animals detecting the sound of operating turbines against ambient noise. The results suggest that the likely detection range of operating turbines is limited to less than 1 km under most conditions. The sound produced by operating tidal turbines at the proposed demonstration-scale tidal power project is not likely to have any significant behavioral effect at greater range. Finally, the ambient statistics at the site are also combined with a sound propagation model and vocalization characteristics of Southern Resident killer whales to determine the effective range for passive acoustic monitoring techniques at the proposed project location. Due to the frequency overlap between sediment-generated noise and killer whale vocalizations, during peak currents the detection range for vocalizations is reduced by up to 90% when compared to slack current noise levels. Although the reduction in detection range is significant, this analysis suggests that

  7. Ambient air pollution and birth defects in brisbane, australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A Hansen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birth defects are a major public health concern as they are the leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality. Observational studies have linked environmental pollution to adverse birth outcomes, including congenital anomalies. This study examined potential associations between ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects and cleft lip or palate among births in Brisbane, Australia (1998-2004. METHODS: Ambient air pollution levels were averaged over weeks 3-8 of pregnancy among 150,308 births. Using a case-control design, we used conditional logistic regression and matched cases to 5 controls. Analyses were conducted using all births, and then births where the mother resided within 6 and 12 kilometers of an ambient air quality monitor. FINDINGS: When analyzing all births there was no indication that ambient air pollution in Brisbane was associated with a higher risk of cardiac defects. Among births where the mother resided within 6 kilometers of an ambient air quality monitor, a 5 ppb increase in O(3 was associated with an increased risk of pulmonary artery and valve defects (OR 2.96, 95% CI: 1.34, 7.52 while a 0.6 ppb increase in SO(2 was associated with an increased risk of aortic artery and valve defects (OR 10.76, 95% CI: 1.50, 179.8. For oral cleft defects among all births, the only adverse association was between SO(2 and cleft lip with or without cleft palate (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.62. However, various significant inverse associations were also found between air pollutants and birth defects. CONCLUSIONS: This study found mixed results and it is difficult to conclude whether ambient air pollution in Brisbane has an adverse association with the birth defects examined. Studies using more detailed estimates of air pollution exposure are needed.

  8. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day.

  9. Prevailing of sensitive blood driving to AIDS/HIV. Provincial Blood Bank of Sancti Spíritus. 2007-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Quesada Concepción

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of blood transfusions are one of the ways of transmitting the immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS/HIV; it constitutes warriness from the epidemiological point of view. A descriptive research was done with the objective of determining the prevailing of sensitive blood driving AIDS/HIV in the Provincial Blood Bank from Sancti Spíritus from January 1 st , 2007 to December 31 st, 2008. The sample was conformed by 312 donants with positive diagnosis to AIDS/HIV. Some variables were used such as prevailing, age, sex, race, home town. The scores of higher prevailing to AIDS/HIV were shown by the male sex (4,42, the 26-33 year old group (1,55; it prevailing volunteer blood driving (81,0 % , and Sancti Spíritus municipality gave more cases (27,5% .Just because sensibility to tests based on antibody, that is why it is important the constant checking of all processes that guarantee blood driving to be sired.

  10. QUANTIFICAÇÃO DE AÇÚCARES EM PÊSSEGOS DA VARIEDADE BIUTI, ARMAZENADOS SOB CONDIÇÕES DE AMBIENTE E REFRIGERAÇÃO QUANTIFICATION OF SUGARS IN 'BIUTI' VARIETY PEACHES STORAGE AT ENVIRONMENT CONDITIONS AND REFRIGERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO ALVARES DE OLIVEIRA

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e quantificar os açúcares em frutos de pessegueiro da variedade 'Biuti', armazenados sob condições de ambiente (27,3ºC; 70% UR e sob refrigeração (4ºC; 90%, comparar as diferenças entre os teores de açúcares nas duas condições de armazenamento. A identificação e a quantificação precisa dos açúcares (glicose, frutose e sacarose foi realizada por cromatografia em fase líquida HPLC. Verificou-se que a sacarose foi o açúcar encontrado em maior quantidade, sendo verificado apenas traços de glicose e frutose em alguns frutos. Sob condições ambientais, os teores de sacarose do 3º até o 9º dia de armazenamento não diferiram significativamente entre si; entretanto, no 12º dia, os frutos obtiveram baixos teores de sacarose, pois os mesmos já estavam em processo de senescência. Sob refrigeração, o aumento nos teores de açúcares dos frutos ocorreu gradativamente durante todo o armazenamento, e ao final do mesmo, verificaram-se os maiores teores de sacarose, frutose e glicose, os quais eram mais elevados do que os encontrados nos frutos armazenados sob condições ambientais.This work had the objective to identify and to quantify the sugars of the 'Biuti' peaches stored under environment conditions (27,3ºC; 70%UR and refrigeration (4ºC; 90%. The method utilized was chromatography in liquid phase. In both experiments that the sucrose was the sugar found in the largest amount, being just verified traces of glucose and frutose in some fruits. The experiment in environmental conditions the values of sucrose of the 3RD to the 9th day of storage didn't differ significantly, meantime in the 12th day, the fruits obtained low sucrose values, because the fruits were already in the senescence process. Now, in the experiment under refrigeration the increase in the values of sugars of the fruits happened during the whole storage. The values of sucrose, frutose and glucose values were higher

  11. Efeito de doses de potássio e da freqüência de irrigação na produção da alface-americana em ambiente protegido Effect of potassium doses and irrigation frequency in the production of the american lettuce in greenhouse condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Koetz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A produção da alface tipo americana em ambiente protegido, aliada ao emprego de práticas de manejo de irrigação e adubação, pode contribuir para o aumento da produtividade e expansão da cultura na região de Lavras - MG. Em uma estufa modelo capela, foi realizado um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de freqüências de irrigação e de doses de potássio sobre a produtividade da alface-americana e a eficiência do uso da água. O experimento foi composto pelos seguintes tratamentos de turnos de rega: (P1 - irrigação diária; (P2 - irrigação de dois em dois dias; (P3 - irrigação de três em três dias, e (P4 - irrigação de quatro em quatro dias. Nas parcelas subdivididas, foram aplicadas quatro doses de cloreto de potássio, via fertirrigação: (D1 - 100 kg de KCl ha-1; (D2 - 150 kg de KCl ha-1; (D3 - 200 kg de KCl ha-1, e (D4 - 250 kg de KCl ha-1. As variáveis avaliadas foram a produtividade de alface e a eficiência do uso da água, ou seja, a produtividade por milímetro de água aplicado. Concluiu-se que a maior produtividade (44,06 t ha-1 foi obtida com 119,36 kg ha-1 de K2O; o manejo de irrigação para a cultura da alface-americana em ambiente protegido poderá ser realizado com intervalo entre irrigações de quatro dias, e com o aumento dos intervalos houve aumento da eficiência de uso da água de irrigação.The production of the American lettuce type in greenhouse conditions using irrigation and fertilization, may contribute for the yield increase and expansion of the culture in the region of Lavras - MG, Brazil. In a greenhouse model chapel was carried out an experiment with the objective of evaluating the effects of irrigation frequencies and potassium doses on the yield of the American lettuce and the water use efficiency. The experiment was composed by the following treatments of irrigation frequency: (P1 - daily irrigation; (P2 _ every other day irrigation; (P3 - three in three days irrigation, and

  12. Prevailing of ischemia cardiopathy, demonstrated by gammagraphy in less than 40 years old persons and its association with risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano G, M.A.; Castillo M, L.; Orea T, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Coronary Arterial Illness (EAC) is the first cause of death of those Mexicans. Among their numerous risk factors it highlights the age with more bias starting from the 45 years. The objective of this investigation was to determine the prevailing of ischemic cardiopathy (Cl) and heart attack to the myocardium (IAM) in fellows smaller than 40 years and to identify risk factors. The study of myocardial perfusion (EPM) it is a non invasive study and of great sensibility and specificity that it allows to detect obstructive coronary lesions. The used method was retrospective-traverse Study in 125 patients smaller than 40 years. Files of patients to who EPM had been practiced with Technetium 99m-SESTAMlBI, protocol of one day, were revised, where its were analyzed the short and long axis (vertical and horizontal). General data, somatometry, emotional profile analysis, lipids and glucose profiles were gathered. Results. The population conformed it 53% women and 47% men with average of 31.9 year-old age of corporal mass index (IMC) 25.1 kg/cm 2 . 46% of abnormal studies was obtained, of which 35% was compatible with ischemic cardiopathy (Cl) and 11% with heart attack to the myocardium (IAM). The characteristics of these were: age 31.6±6 Vs 32.6±5.9 years; IMC 25.4±7.0 Vs 24.4±3.34 kg/cm 2 ; stature 161.6±9.8 Vs 165.5±9.7cm; TAS 139.1±29.2 Vs. 115±13.4 mm Hg, TAD 84.5±17.4 Vs. 75±9.4 mm Hg; civil state married 65.5% (p=0.005) Vs single 57%; bigger depression 32% Vs anxiety 28%, in the group of patients with Cl and IAM, respectively. In the IAM population it was found an additional IRC 21% (p=0.030), HAS 21% (p=0.025) and drug addiction 21% (p=0.002). The rest of the results didn't show significant differences. Conclusion: Only 6.5% of the patients that went to EPM- 99m Tc-SESTAMIBl in a 6 year-old lapse, were smaller than 40 years. 71% of them was referred by prechordal pain in who almost the half it was evidenced Cl or IAM. In this investigation besides the

  13. Photon Optimizer (PO) prevails over Progressive Resolution Optimizer (PRO) for VMAT planning with or without knowledge-based solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Wu, Hao; Yue, Haizhen; Jia, Fei; Zhang, Yibao

    2017-03-01

    increased monitor units were associated with the model-generated objectives but independent from the optimizers, indicating higher modulation in these plans. As a summary, PO prevails over PRO algorithm for VMAT planning with or without knowledge-based technique. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Near-ambient solid polymer fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells are extremely attractive for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications because of their high energy conversion efficiency without noise or environmental pollution. Among the various fuel cell systems the advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on sulfonated fluoropolymers (e.g., Nafion) are particularly attractive because they are fairly rugged, solid state, quite conductive, of good chemical and thermal stability and show good oxygen reduction kinetics due to the low specific adsorption of the electrolyte on the platinum catalyst. The objective of this program is to develop a solid polymer fuel cell which can efficiently operate at near ambient temperatures without ancillary components for humidification and/or pressurization of the fuel or oxidant gases. During the Phase 1 effort we fabricated novel integral electrode-membrane structures where the dispersed platinum catalyst is precipitated within the Nafion ionomer. This resulted in electrode-membrane units without interfacial barriers permitting unhindered water diffusion from cathode to anode. The integral electrode-membrane structures were tested as fuel cells operating on H2 and O2 or air at 1 to 2 atm and 10 to 50 C without gas humidification. We demonstrated that cells with completely dry membranes could be self started at room temperature and subsequently operated on dry gas for extended time. Typical room temperature low pressure operation with unoptimized electrodes yielded 100 mA/cm(exp 2) at 0.5V and maximum currents over 300 mA/cm(exp 2) with low platinum loadings. Our results clearly demonstrate that operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at ambient conditions is feasible. Optimization of the electrode-membrane structure is necessary to assess the full performance potential but we expect significant gains in weight and volume power density for the system. The reduced complexity will make fuel cells also attractive for smaller and portable power supplies and as

  15. Ambient air pollution and low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Nadja; Gehring, Ulrike; Slama, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Ambient air pollution is controllable, and it is one of the greatest environmental threats to human health. Studies conducted worldwide have provided evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy enhances the risk of low birth weight at term...... the effect of ambient air pollution. The aim of this commentary is to review the published literature on the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW regarding increased vulnerability for the above-mentioned subgroups.  Results: Although more than fifty epidemiological studies have examined...... the associations between ambient air pollution and TLBW to date, we only identified six studies that examined the potential effect modification of the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW by the above listed maternal risk factors. Two studies assessed effect modification caused by smoking...

  16. Det ambientes fænomenologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Det ambiente: sansning, medialisering, omgivelse er et aktuelt og ambitiøst værk. Bogen skildrer hvordan ambiente fænomener har fået en stigende betydning i den moderne verden, og redegør for måden hvorpå det ambiente virker ind på hele vores oplevelseskultur. Det er en levende, uprætentiøs og frem...

  17. 5th Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living

    CERN Document Server

    Siciliano, Pietro; Marletta, Vincenzo; Monteriù, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This book documents the state of the art in the field of ambient assisted living (AAL), highlighting the impressive potential of novel methodologies and technologies to enhance well-being and promote active ageing. The coverage is wide ranging, with sections on assistive devices, elderly people monitoring, home rehabilitation, ICT solutions for AAL, living with chronic conditions, robotic assistance for the elderly, sensing technologies for AAL, and smart housing. The book comprises a selection of the best papers presented at the Fifth Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living, which was held in Catania, Italy, in September 2014 and brought together end users, technology teams, and policy makers to develop a consensus on how to improve provision for elderly and impaired people. Readers will find that the expert contributions offer clear insights into the ways in which the most recent exciting advances may be expected to assist in addressing the needs of the elderly and those with chronic conditions.

  18. O FORTALECIMENTO DO TEMA MEIO AMBIENTE

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Rafael Bastos; Resende, Gisele Silva Lira de

    2013-01-01

    RESUMO: Para que se compreenda como o direito ao meio ambiente, pode ser considerado um direito fundamental é preciso estabelecer sua relação com o direito à vida, já que este se constitui como direito humano supremo. A partir do problema: o meio ambiente pela sua importância pode, de fato, ser considerado um Direito humano? , busca-se nesse artigo fazer uma reflexão acerca do tema meio ambiente, no quadro dos direitos humanos, uma vez que o meio ambiente equilibrado é essencial para a exist...

  19. A RESPONSABILIDADE CIVIL OBJETIVA NO DIREITO AMBIENTAL

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Colombo

    2016-01-01

    Associado ao princípio da precaução está o Princípio do Poluidor-Pagador no Direito Ambiental, expressamente previsto no artigo 225, parágrafo 3° da Constituição Federal. Assim, este artigo aborda o instituto da responsabilidade civil ambiental, já que a legislação ambiental impõe ao causador do dano ambiental o dever de repará-lo, seja por meio da represtinação e/ou indenização pecuniária. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Poluidor. Responsabilidade. Reparação integral.

  20. 76 FR 14679 - Prevailing Wage Rates for Construction Occupations on Guam for Purposes of the H-2B Temporary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... temporary, nonagricultural workers from abroad may petition for such workers under the H-2B nonimmigrant... employment will adversely affect the wages and working conditions of similarly employed U.S. workers (i.e... market test on Guam is a determination whether the wages and working conditions offered to U.S. workers...

  1. Spatial Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Programming language technology can contribute to the development and understanding of Systems Biology by providing formal calculi for specifying and analysing the dynamic behaviour of biological systems. Our focus is on BioAmbients, a variation of the ambient calculi developed for modelling...

  2. Control Flow Analysis for BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Priami, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a static analysis for investigating properties of biological systems specified in BioAmbients. We exploit the control flow analysis to decode the bindings of variables induced by communications and to build a relation of the ambients that can interact with each other. We...... eventually apply our analysis to an example of gene regulation by positive feedback taken from the literature....

  3. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...

  4. Desarrollo de un prototipo de bomba de flujo pulsátil para caracterizar las condiciones hidrodinámicas en un ambiente de circulación extracorpórea Development of a prototype of pulsatile flow pump for characterizing the hydrodinamic conditions in an extracorporeal circulation setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bustamante O

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Es difícil generar con bombas convencionales las condiciones de flujo del sistema cardiovascular, con las cuales se emulen condiciones hemodinámicas para evaluar diferentes dispositivos interpuestos a la corriente sanguínea. Para resolver este inconveniente, se desarrolló un sistema automatizado de bombeo de flujo pulsátil, conformado por un controlador difuso que captura datos de los instrumentos de monitoreo de variables hidrodinámicas a través de una interfaz de adquisición, y aplica señales de control a una bomba de flujo pulsátil. Este sistema permite hacer pruebas hidromecánicas que brindan elementos para interpretar la influencia de las variables que intervienen en el flujo pulsante y simular condiciones hemodinámicas en un ambiente de circulación extracorpórea. Mediante técnicas de diseño asistido por computador, se construyó una bomba de diafragma accionada neumáticamente. El controlador se desarrolló mediante la técnica de Fuzzi Control®, el cual regula el pulso y el flujo de acuerdo con parámetros y datos capturados con la interfaz de adquisición. Las pruebas del prototipo se realizaron en un laboratorio de fluidos variando frecuencia, resistencia hidráulica, viscosidad y presión de pulso, imitando las condiciones hemodinámicas de un adulto y usando como fluido de trabajo una solución acuosa con 5 cPo a 370C, para simular la viscosidad sanguínea a temperatura corporal. La reproducción de una bomba que sirve para analizar el efecto de las variables en el flujo pulsante, puede usarse en el estudio de diferentes dispositivos intravasculares y ayudar a refinar aspectos técnicos y funcionales en el estudio preliminar de máquinas de circulación extracorpórea.With conventional pumps, it is difficult to generate the cardiovascular system conditions that may emulate hemodynamic conditions for evaluating different devices interposed to the blood flow. In order to resolve this inconvenient, an automated pulsatile

  5. Methods for estimating on-site ambient air concentrations at disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Currently, Gaussian type dispersion modeling and point source approximation are combined to estimate the ambient air concentrations of pollutants dispersed downwind of an areawide emission source, using the approach of virtual point source approximation. This Gaussian dispersion modeling becomes less accurate as the receptor comes closer to the source, and becomes inapplicable for the estimation of on-site ambient air concentrations at disposal sites. Partial differential equations are solved with appropriate boundary conditions for use in estimating the on-site concentrations in the ambient air impacted by emissions from an area source such as land disposal sites. Two variations of solution techniques are presented, and their predictions are compared

  6. Contabilidade ambiental o passaporte para a competitividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabeth Pereira Kraemer

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Como todos os problemas ambientais provocaram grandes danos irreversíveis, que incidiram e incidem agora em todos os países subdesenvolvidos e desenvolvidos, nasce, então, como necessidade imperiosa, introduzir nos nossos sistemas econômicos a Contabilidade Ambiental, pois as organizações, até alguns anos atrás, preocupavam-se apenas com a eficiência dos sistemas produtivos. Chegamos a "era da revolução ambiental", e o ambiente não somente aparece como um conjunto de problemas relativos ao controle da contaminação, mas representa um custo no crescimento econômico. Neste sentido, o contador precisa de uma formação que se estenda além dos limites das técnicas e dos procedimentos. É necessário acrescentar o registro contábil do meio ambiente, dada a velocidade de sua afetação e a influência do mundo atual na utilização e disposição dos recursos naturais. Deve ser considerado como um dos princípios contábeis, onde é um desafio para a contabilidade. Precisa ser considerada como uma ciência contábil integrada, pois com a ciência ecológica e outras ciências são responsáveis pela natureza onde devem ser aplicados critérios de proteção ambiental, demonstrando que os recursos naturais constituem nosso principal capital. Partindo dessa premissa é que este trabalho está enfocando os seguintes tópicos: Responsabilidade Social da Empresa; A Empresa e o Meio Ambiente; Gestão Ambiental; Sistema de Gestão Ambiental; Ações para Preservar o Meio Ambiente - O Protocolo Verde, A Contabilidade, Custos Ambientais, Ativo Ambiental, Passivo Ambiental, Patrimônio Ambiental, Contabilidade Ambiental e Contabilidade Ambiental - o Passaporte para a Competitividade.

  7. Evaluating Ambient Displays in the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Molenaar, Daryn

    A prominent issue for evaluating ambient displays has been the conflict between the relative intrusiveness of evaluation methods and the intention to keep the display at the periphery of the user’s attention. There is a general lack of research discussing the difficulties of evaluating ambient...... displays in the wild, and in particular social aspects of use has received little attention. This paper presents a case study of an ambient light display designed for a public setting. Based on results from a non-intrusive in situ evaluation, we argue that viewing ambient displays as features of a broader...... social setting may aid our understanding of issues regarding the evaluation of ambient displays in the wild....

  8. 3D video bit rate adaptation decision taking using ambient illumination context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nur Yilmaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 3-Dimensional (3D video adaptation decision taking is an open field in which not many researchers have carried out investigations yet compared to 3D video display, coding, etc. Moreover, utilizing ambient illumination as an environmental context for 3D video adaptation decision taking has particularly not been studied in literature to date. In this paper, a user perception model, which is based on determining perception characteristics of a user for a 3D video content viewed under a particular ambient illumination condition, is proposed. Using the proposed model, a 3D video bit rate adaptation decision taking technique is developed to determine the adapted bit rate for the 3D video content to maintain 3D video quality perception by considering the ambient illumination condition changes. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique is capable of exploiting the changes in ambient illumination level to use network resources more efficiently without sacrificing the 3D video quality perception.

  9. Assessing the effects of global warming and local social and economic conditions on the malaria transmission Quantificando os efeitos do aquecimento global e das condições socioeconômicas locais na transmissão de malária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun M Yang

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To show how a mathematical model can be used to describe and to understand the malaria transmission. METHODS: The effects on malaria transmission due to the impact of the global temperature changes and prevailing social and economic conditions in a community were assessed based on a previously presented compartmental model, which describes the overall transmission of malaria. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: The assessments were made from the scenarios produced by the model both in steady state and dynamic analyses. Depending on the risk level of malaria, the effects on malaria transmission can be predicted by the temperature ambient or local social and-economic conditions.OBJETIVO: Apresenta-se um modelo matemático mostrando como esse instrumento pode ser importante para descrever a transmissão de malária. MÉTODOS: Baseado no modelo proposto previamente, foram quantificados os efeitos de dois fatores que podem afetar a transmissão da malaria: a temperatura ambiente e as condições socioeconômicas locais. RESULTADOS/CONCLUSÕES: A quantificação foi feita estudando o modelo proposto no estado estacionário e na sua dinâmica. Dependendo do nível de risco de malária, os principais efeitos na transmissão de malária são devidos à temperatura ambiente ou às condições socioeconômicas.

  10. Injúrias mecânicas na qualidade pós-colheita de lima ácida 'Tahiti' armazenada sob condição ambiente Mechanical injuries on post harvest quality of 'Tahiti' lime stored under enviromental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Berlingieri Durigan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes injúrias mecânicas na qualidade de limas ácidas 'Tahiti'. Foram testados três tipos de lesões: impacto, compressão e corte. Após esses tratamentos, os frutos foram armazenados em condições de ambiente (25±1 °C, 65±5% UR. As avaliações foram feitas a cada 3 dias, determinando-se atividade respiratória, aparência, perda de massa, pH, teores de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e de ácido ascórbico. Durante o período de armazenamento, as lesões mostraram-se prejudiciais à qualidade, afetando distintamente os parâmetros químicos, a aparência e diminuindo os dias de possível comercialização dos frutos, principalmente naqueles submetidos ao corte e ao impacto. Estas injúrias também ocasionaram maior aumento na atividade respiratória dos frutos. A perda de massa fresca também foi observada durante este período e foi agravada quando os frutos foram submetidos ao corte. A injúria por impacto foi a mais prejudicial para a qualidade das limas ácidas 'Tahiti', comprometendo a aparência dos frutos aos 9 dias de armazenamento.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of different mechanical injuries on 'Tahiti' lime. Three types of injuries were tested: impact, compression and cut, then the fruits were stored under environmental conditions (25ºC, 65%RH. The evaluations were done at each 3 days, when it was observed the respiratory activity and the appearance and it was determinated the loss of fresh mass and content of soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, and the pH. During the storage, the injured fruit showed the worst quality, affecting the chemical parameters and the appearance and reduced the days of possible comercialization, mainly the ones submitted to cut and impact. Those injuries also caused a greater increase on the respiratory activity. Loss of weight was also observed during this period and it was increased when the fruits were

  11. Wavelength and ambient luminance dependence of laser eye dazzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Craig A; McLin, Leon N; Rickman, J Michael; Manka, Michael A; Garcia, Paul V; Kinerk, Wesley T; Smith, Peter A

    2017-10-10

    A series of experiments has been conducted to quantify the effects of laser wavelength and ambient luminance on the severity of laser eye dazzle experienced by human subjects. Eight laser wavelengths in the visible spectrum were used (458-647 nm) across a wide range of ambient luminance conditions (0.1-10,000  cd·m -2 ). Subjects were exposed to laser irradiance levels up to 600  μW·cm -2 and were asked to recognize the orientation of optotypes at varying eccentricities up to 31.6 deg of visual angle from the laser axis. More than 40,000 data points were collected from 14 subjects (ages 23-64), and these were consolidated into a series of obscuration angles for comparison to a theoretical model of laser eye dazzle. Scaling functions were derived to allow the model to predict the effects of laser dazzle on vision more accurately by including the effects of ambient luminance and laser wavelength. The updated model provides an improved match to observed laser eye dazzle effects across the full range of conditions assessed. The resulting model will find use in a variety of laser safety applications, including the estimation of maximum dazzle exposure and nominal ocular dazzle distance values.

  12. Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Godzik, B

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data. - Sixteen species of verified bioindicator plants for ambient ozone are available for use in Central and Eastern Europe.

  13. Assessment of ambient air quality in Eskişehir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, O; Döğeroğlu, T; Kara, S

    2008-07-01

    ). Council Directive 1999/30/EC relating to limit values for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and lead in ambient air. Of J Eur Communities L 163: 14-30; 29.6.1999; EU (European Union). Council Directive 2002/3/EC relating to ozone in ambient air. Of J Eur Communities. L 67: 14-30; 9.3.2002.; USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Downloaded in January 2006, website: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/] ambient air standards, among all the pollutants studied, only the annual average SO(2) concentration was found to exceed one specific limit value (EU limit for protection of the ecosystem). A part of the data (VOC/NO(x) ratio), for determining the effects of photochemical interactions, indicated that VOC-limited regime was prevailing throughout the city.

  14. A organização espacial condiciona as relações entre ambiente e saúde: o exemplo da exposição ao mercúrio em uma fábrica de lâmpadas fluorescentes Environment and health relationships are conditioned by the spatial organization: the case of mercury exposure in a fluorescent lamp plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christovam Barcellos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O espaço tem sido utilizado nas análises que relacionam o ambiente com a saúde, ora como simples plano geométrico para a disposição de dados epidemiológicos, ora como uma aproximação para a diferenciação de condições sociais, ou mesmo como uma circunstância de fatores espaciais que induzem risco. Neste trabalho são descritas as três principais abordagens espaciais em saúde e suas limitações. O uso do geoprocessamento na área de saúde tem sido facilitado pelo amplo acesso a bases de dados epidemiológicos e pela disponibilização de ferramentas cartográficas e estatísticas computadorizadas. O uso desta ferramenta pressupõe, no entanto, modelos de explicação do processo saúde/doença, que são baseados em variáveis espaciais como a distância, vizinhança, e o interrelacionamento com dados de caracterização do lugar. O exemplo de uma fábrica de lâmpadas fluorescentes permite compreender o espaço como mediador de relações sociais. A localização e atividade dos trabalhadores na fábrica condicionam os riscos a que estes estarão submetidos. Através da análise espacial de indicadores de emissão, contaminação e exposição ao mercúrio, foi possível identificar áreas e atividades de risco aos trabalhadores. Estes fatores, por sua vez, estão intrinsecamente ligados à organização interna e externa da produção.Space has been used for the analyses relating environment and health, as simple geometric plan for the display of epidemiological data, as a proxy for the differentiation of social conditions, or as a circumstance of spatial factors inducing risk. In this work, the three main spatial approaches of health are described, as well as their theoretical limitations. The use geoprocessing in health has been facilitated due to the wide access to epidemiological data bases and the availability of computerized cartographic and statistical tools. However, the use of these tools presupposes models for the

  15. EL RACISMO AMBIENTAL EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS MEZA-LOPEHANDÍA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  16. GENES, POBLACIONES, AMBIENTES Y NACIONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noem\\u00ED Acreche

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la estructura genética de 32 poblaciones de Argentina, Bolivia y Paraguay en función de las frecuencias génicas de ocho sistemas de grupos eritocitarios. Los sistemas incluidos son: ABO, MN, Ss, DI, P, Cc, Dd y Ee. En el caso de Bolivia, Paraguay y el Chaco Argentino, los datos fueron obtenidos de la bibliografía. La relación entre las poblaciones y diferentes criterios de agrupación (Ambiente, País, Grupo Lingüístico y Altitud fueron evaluadas por medio de Análisis Discriminante. Se consideró el porcentaje de casos correctamente clasificados como medida de la relación entre el conjunto de variables analizadas y el criterio de agrupación. Se encontró que tanto las categorías geoestructurales como lingüísticas establecidas tienen mayor relación con la estructura genética de las poblaciones incluidas en el análisis que las fronteras nacionales, por lo que se concluye que el aislamiento reproductivo entre poblaciones, necesario para la diferenciación, se produce por diferencias culturales o del territorio de ocupación antes que por las fronteras políticas establecidas.

  17. Advanced Catalysts for the Ambient Temperature Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide and Formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalette, Tim; Eldridge, Christopher; Yu, Ping; Alpetkin, Gokhan; Graf, John

    2010-01-01

    The primary applications for ambient temperature carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation catalysts include emergency breathing masks and confined volume life support systems, such as those employed on the Shuttle. While Hopcalite is typically used in emergency breathing masks for terrestrial applications, in the 1970s, NASA selected a 2% platinum (Pt) on carbon for use on the Shuttle since it is more active and also more tolerant to water vapor. In the last 10-15 years there have been significant advances in ambient temperature CO oxidation catalysts. Langley Research Center developed a monolithic catalyst for ambient temperature CO oxidation operating under stoichiometric conditions for closed loop carbon dioxide (CO2) laser applications which is also advertised as having the potential to oxidize formaldehyde (HCHO) at ambient temperatures. In the last decade it has been discovered that appropriate sized nano-particles of gold are highly active for CO oxidation, even at sub-ambient temperatures, and as a result there has been a wealth of data reported in the literature relating to ambient/low temperature CO oxidation. In the shorter term missions where CO concentrations are typically controlled via ambient temperature oxidation catalysts, formaldehyde is also a contaminant of concern, and requires specially treated carbons such as Calgon Formasorb as untreated activated carbon has effectively no HCHO capacity. This paper examines the activity of some of the newer ambient temperature CO and formaldehyde (HCHO) oxidation catalysts, and measures the performance of the catalysts relative to the NASA baseline Ambient Temperature Catalytic Oxidizer (ATCO) catalyst at conditions of interest for closed loop trace contaminant control systems.

  18. 40 CFR 90.311 - Test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 90.311 Test conditions. (a) General requirements. (1) Ambient temperature levels encountered by the... must be installed on the test bed at their design installation angle to prevent abnormal fuel...

  19. Evaluative conditioning of food technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Consumer attitudes play an important role in the acceptance of new technologies. The success of food innovations depends on understanding how consumers form and change attitudes toward food technologies. Earlier post hoc explanations suggest that evaluative conditioning can change consumer...... attitudes toward food technologies. The present study tests how evaluative conditioning can affect consumer acceptance of new food technologies. Furthermore, authors investigate whether evaluative conditioning is resistant to extinction after a two-month period and whether the evaluative conditioning effect...... prevails in a product-related context. Within an evaluative conditioning paradigm including between-subjects control groups in addition to standard within-subjects control conditions, participants were presented with three food technologies (conventional, enzyme, and genetic technology) paired...

  20. Assessing plant response to ambient ozone: growth of young apple trees in open-top chambers and corresponding ambient air plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J. [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, 639 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9298 (United States)]. E-mail: wmanning@microbio.umass.edu; Cooley, D.R. [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, 639 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9298 (United States); Tuttle, A.F. [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, 639 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9298 (United States); Frenkel, M.A. [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, 639 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9298 (United States); Bergweiler, C.J. [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, 639 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9298 (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Open-top chambers (OTCs) and corresponding ambient air plots (AA) were used to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of newly planted apple trees at the Montague Field research center in Amherst, MA. Two-year-old apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh 'Rogers Red McIntosh') were planted in the ground in circular plots. Four of the plots were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was charcoal-filtered (CF); four were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was not charcoal-filtered (NF) and four were not enclosed, allowing access to ambient air conditions (AA). Conditions in both CF and NF OTCs resulted in increased tree growth and changed incidence of disease and arthropod pests, compared to trees in AA. As a result, we were not able to use the OTC method to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of young apple trees in Amherst, MA. - Capsule: Conditions in charcoal-filtered and non-filtered open-top chambers affected apple tree growth equally and prevented assessment of ambient ozone effects.

  1. O FORTALECIMENTO DO TEMA MEIO AMBIENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bastos Marques

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Para que se compreenda como o direito ao meio ambiente, pode ser considerado um direito fundamental é preciso estabelecer sua relação com o direito à vida, já que este se constitui como direito humano supremo. A partir do problema: o meio ambiente pela sua importância pode, de fato, ser considerado um Direito humano? , busca-se nesse artigo fazer uma reflexão acerca do tema meio ambiente, no quadro dos direitos humanos, uma vez que o meio ambiente equilibrado é essencial para a existência da vida e da saúde humana, discutindo sua importância para que se torne um direito humano. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, de cunho bibliográfico, a partir de análise da opinião doutrinária e da legislação que dispõe sobre educação ambiental. Abordou-se a inter-relação entre o direito ao meio ambiente ecologicamente equilibrado e os direitos à vida e à saúde, enfatizando a interdependência entre todos esses direitos. Conclui que a educação ambiental, tratada de forma séria, promove a conscientização da sociedade, fazendo com que se observe a interdependência entre os direitos fundamentais. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Direitos Humanos; Educação Ambiental; Meio Ambiente.

  2. Calidad ambiental interior: bienestar, confort y salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vargas Marcos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Distintas formas de interpretar las condiciones ambientales han llevado al desarrollo de conceptos tales como edificio enfermo, calidad del aire o calidad ambiental interior, todos ellos encaminados a entender la complejidad de los contaminantes en los ambientes cerrados y las implicaciones sobre la salud de la población. La propuesta de "Calidad ambiental interior" es un avance conceptual y operativo que supera ampliamente a los anteriores, puesto que orienta las acciones hacia ambientes saludables sin limitar al aire la idea de contaminación. El objetivo del trabajo es identificar las competencias y el marco legislativo que permiten actuar en la prevención de riesgos asociados a la exposición de contaminantes en ambientes interiores. Óptimas condiciones en los ambientes interiores deben redundar en salud, bienestar y confort, tanto en lo que respecta a la vida laboral como a los ámbitos donde se desarrollan las actividades cotidianas extralaborales, escolares, de descanso y de ocio. La sociedad actual exige lugares seguros, limpios y bien climatizados, para lo que es necesario integrar percepciones y exigencias de los habitantes y alcanzar un óptimo equilibrio entre estándares sociales, uso de la energía y desarrollo sostenible, buscando confort sin contaminar y sin aumentar el consumo de fuentes energéticas que degraden el medio ambiente. El desarrollo legislativo se orienta a la seguridad y la salud en los lugares de trabajo y la regulación de las sustancias químicas. La Sanidad Ambiental lleva a cabo tareas de prevención y control, participa en la ejecución de convenios internacionales de reducción de contaminantes y desechos y promueve acciones para el desarrollo de la Estrategia Europea de Salud y Medio Ambiente.

  3. Context Dependent Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    BioAmbients is a derivative of mobile ambients that has shown promise of describing interesting features of the behaviour of biological systems. The technical contribution of this paper is to extend the Flow Logic approach to static analysis with a couple of new techniques in order to give precise...... information about the behaviour of systems written in BioAmbients. Applying the development to a simple model of a cell releasing nutrients from food compunds we illustrate how the proposed analysis does indeed improve on previous efforts....

  4. Status of ambient air quality at Barauni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    Due to industrialization, Barauni has become a well developed industrial estate to be considered as industrial hub of Bihar. Contemporary to the industrial growth, the environmental quality also gradually deteriorated. Hence a need was felt to know the status of ambient air quality for proper planning of the future growth of industries. The ambient air quality was monitored at 16 stations in and around Barauni industrial estate during 3 major seasons for the period of one year. The results are discussed as to the status of the ambient air quality and suggestion have also been made for improvement. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Ambient intelligence systems for personalized sport training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vales-Alonso, Javier; López-Matencio, Pablo; Gonzalez-Castaño, Francisco J; Navarro-Hellín, Honorio; Baños-Guirao, Pedro J; Pérez-Martínez, Francisco J; Martínez-Álvarez, Rafael P; González-Jiménez, Daniel; Gil-Castiñeira, Felipe; Duro-Fernández, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Several research programs are tackling the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) at specific fields, such as e-Health, e-Inclusion or e-Sport. This is the case of the project "Ambient Intelligence Systems Support for Athletes with Specific Profiles", which intends to assist athletes in their training. In this paper, the main developments and outcomes from this project are described. The architecture of the system comprises a WSN deployed in the training area which provides communication with athletes' mobile equipments, performs location tasks, and harvests environmental data (wind speed, temperature, etc.). Athletes are equipped with a monitoring unit which obtains data from their training (pulse, speed, etc.). Besides, a decision engine combines these real-time data together with static information about the training field, and from the athlete, to direct athletes' training to fulfill some specific goal. A prototype is presented in this work for a cross country running scenario, where the objective is to maintain the heart rate (HR) of the runner in a target range. For each track, the environmental conditions (temperature of the next track), the current athlete condition (HR), and the intrinsic difficulty of the track (slopes) influence the performance of the athlete. The decision engine, implemented by means of (m, s)-splines interpolation, estimates the future HR and selects the best track in each fork of the circuit. This method achieves a success ratio in the order of 80%. Indeed, results demonstrate that if environmental information is not take into account to derive training orders, the success ratio is reduced notably.

  6. Ambient air pollution and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sarah; Miller, Mark R

    2018-01-03

    Air pollution is a growing public health concern of global significance. Acute and chronic exposure is known to impair cardiovascular function, exacerbate disease and increase cardiovascular mortality. Several plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed for these associations, however, at present, the pathways are incomplete. A seminal review by the American Heart Association (2010) concluded that the thrombotic effects of particulate air pollution likely contributed to their effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The aim of the current review is to appraise the newly accumulated scientific evidence (2009-2016) on contribution of haemostasis and thrombosis towards cardiovascular disease induced by exposure to both particulate and gaseous pollutants.Seventy four publications were reviewed in-depth. The weight of evidence suggests that acute exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) induces a shift in the haemostatic balance towards a pro-thrombotic/pro-coagulative state. Insufficient data was available to ascertain if a similar relationship exists for gaseous pollutants, and very few studies have addressed long-term exposure to ambient air pollution. Platelet activation, oxidative stress, interplay between interleukin-6 and tissue factor, all appear to be potentially important mechanisms in pollution-mediated thrombosis, together with an emerging role for circulating microvesicles and epigenetic changes.Overall, the recent literature supports, and arguably strengthens, the contention that air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity by promoting haemostasis. The volume and diversity of the evidence highlights the complexity of the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which air pollution promotes thrombosis; multiple pathways are plausible and it is most likely they act in concert. Future research should address the role gaseous pollutants play in the cardiovascular effects of air pollution mixture and direct comparison of potentially

  7. Flicker-induced retinal arteriole dilation is reduced by ambient lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Jonathan E; Dusting, Gregory J; Nguyen, Thanh T; Man, Ryan E K; Best, William J; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2014-08-07

    To investigate the impact of ambient room lighting on the magnitude of flicker light-induced retinal vasodilations in healthy individuals. Twenty healthy nonsmokers participated in a balanced 2 × 2 crossover study. Retinal vascular imaging was performed with the dynamic vessel analyzer under reduced or normal ambient lighting, then again after 20 minutes under the alternate condition. Baseline calibers of selected arteriole and venule segments were recorded in measurement units. Maximum percentage dilations from baseline during 20 seconds of luminance flicker were calculated from the mean of three measurement cycles. Within-subject differences were assessed by repeated measures analysis of variance with the assumption of no carryover effects and pairwise comparisons from the fitted model. Mean (SD) maximum arteriole dilations during flicker stimulation under reduced and normal ambient lighting were 4.8% (2.3%) and 4.1% (1.9%), respectively (P = 0.019). Maximum arteriole dilations were (mean ± 95% confidence interval) 0.7% ± 0.6% lower under normal ambient lighting compared with reduced lighting. Ambient lighting had no significant effect on maximum venular dilations during flicker stimulation or on the baseline calibers of arterioles or venules. Retinal arteriole dilation in response to luminance flicker stimulation is reduced under higher ambient lighting conditions. Reduced responses with higher ambient lighting may reflect reduced contrast between the ON and OFF flicker phases. Although it may not always be feasible to conduct studies under reduced lighting conditions, ambient lighting levels should be consistent to ensure that comparisons are valid. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  8. A high-resolution ambient seismic noise model for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Toni

    2014-05-01

    In the past several years, geological energy technologies receive growing attention and have been initiated in or close to urban areas. Some of these technologies involve injecting fluids into the subsurface (e.g., oil and gas development, waste disposal, and geothermal energy development) and have been found or suspected to cause small to moderate sized earthquakes. These earthquakes, which may have gone unnoticed in the past when they occurred in remote sparsely populated areas, are now posing a considerable risk for the public acceptance of these technologies in urban areas. The permanent termination of the EGS project in Basel, Switzerland after a number of induced ML~3 (minor) earthquakes in 2006 is one prominent example. It is therefore essential to the future development and success of these geological energy technologies to develop strategies for managing induced seismicity and keeping the size of induced earthquake at a level that is acceptable to all stakeholders. Most guidelines and recommendations on induced seismicity published since the 1970ies conclude that an indispensable component of such a strategy is the establishment of seismic monitoring in an early stage of a project. This is because an appropriate seismic monitoring is the only way to detect and locate induced microearthquakes with sufficient certainty to develop an understanding of the seismic and geomechanical response of the reservoir to the geotechnical operation. In addition, seismic monitoring lays the foundation for the establishment of advanced traffic light systems and is therefore an important confidence building measure towards the local population and authorities. Due to this development an increasing number of seismic monitoring networks are being installed in densely populated areas with strongly heterogeneous, and unfavorable ambient noise conditions. This poses a major challenge on the network design process, which aims to find the sensor geometry that optimizes the

  9. Circadian clock of Drosophila montana is adapted to high variation in summer day lengths and temperatures prevailing at high latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauranen, Hannele; Ala-Honkola, Outi; Kankare, Maaria; Hoikkala, Anneli

    2016-06-01

    Photoperiodic regulation of the circadian rhythms in insect locomotor activity has been studied in several species, but seasonal entrainment of these rhythms is still poorly understood. We have traced the entrainment of activity rhythm of northern Drosophila montana flies in a climate chamber mimicking the photoperiods and day and night temperatures that the flies encounter in northern Finland during the summer. The experiment was started by transferring freshly emerged females into the chamber in early and late summer conditions to obtain both non-diapausing and diapausing females for the studies. The locomotor activity of the females and daily changes in the expression levels of two core circadian clock genes, timeless and period, in their heads were measured at different times of summer. The study revealed several features in fly rhythmicity that are likely to help the flies to cope with high variation in the day length and temperature typical to northern summers. First, both the non-diapausing and the diapausing females showed evening activity, which decreased towards the short day length as observed in the autumn in nature. Second, timeless and period genes showed concordant daily oscillations and seasonal shifts in their expression level in both types of females. Contrary to Drosophila melanogaster, oscillation profiles of these genes were similar to each other in all conditions, including the extremely long days in early summer and the cool temperatures in late summer, and their peak expression levels were not locked to lights-off transition in any photoperiod. Third, the diapausing females were less active than the non-diapausing ones, in spite of their younger age. Overall, the study showed that D. montana clock functions well under long day conditions, and that both the photoperiod and the daily temperature cycles are important zeitgebers for seasonal changes in the circadian rhythm of this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Economía y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Alfonso Serna Mendoza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En ciertos escenarios académicos, políticos, sociales y ambientales se declara que el modelo económico dominante o los conceptos que lo integran son responsables de que el bienestar económico implique malestar ecológico.Al partir de este supuesto, una forma de comprender las causas y de contribuir a la solución de la problemática ambiental es develar en qué consisten, en qué términos plantean la relación ombre-medio ambiente, las propuestas que incluyen la dimensión ambiental en el campo de la economía. Y si, al igual que las teorías ambientales, acuden a la ética como factor adecuado para disminuir las externalidades negativas generadas en el ambiente por la actividad económica.

  11. Nonverbal and Bodily Interaction in Ambient Entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Ruttkay, Z.M.; van Welbergen, H.; Bos, Pieter; Esposito, Anna; Bratanic, Maja; Keller, Eric; Marinaro, Maria

    2007-01-01

    In future Ambient Intelligence environments we assume intelligence embedded in the environment and its virtual, sometimes visualized agents (virtual humans). These environments support the human inhabitants or visitors in their activities and interactions by perceiving them through their sensors. In

  12. Games and Entertainment in Ambient Intelligence Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Aghajan, H.; López-Cózar Delgado, R.; Augusto, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    In future ambient intelligence (AmI) environments we assume intelligence embedded in the environment and its objects (floors, furniture, mobile robots). These environments support their human inhabitants in their activities and interactions by perceiving them through sensors (proximity sensors,

  13. 2011 NATA - Risks and Annual Ambient Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes the modeled annual ambient concentrations and risks at the census tract level for the 2011 National Air Toxics Assessment. All concentrations...

  14. A RESPONSABILIDADE CIVIL OBJETIVA NO DIREITO AMBIENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Colombo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Associado ao princípio da precaução está o Princípio do Poluidor-Pagador no Direito Ambiental, expressamente previsto no artigo 225, parágrafo 3° da Constituição Federal. Assim, este artigo aborda o instituto da responsabilidade civil ambiental, já que a legislação ambiental impõe ao causador do dano ambiental o dever de repará-lo, seja por meio da represtinação e/ou indenização pecuniária. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Poluidor. Responsabilidade. Reparação integral.

  15. Ambient Noise Characteristics During the Sheba Experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaw, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    The ambient noise data recorded by two free-drifting buoys during the 1997-98 SHEBA experiment presented a unique opportunity to gauge the noise field of the Arctic Ocean in a unique and changing environment...

  16. Light availability prevails over soil fertility and structure in the performance of Asian knotweeds on riverbanks: new management perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommanget, Fanny; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Cavaillé, Paul; Evette, André

    2013-12-01

    Asian knotweeds (Fallopia spp.) are considered one of the world's most invasive species. Restoring habitats dominated by these exotic species requires a better understanding of the importance of abiotic factors controlling the invasive knotweeds performance. We used observational data obtained on the embankment of the Isère River (France) to study the performance of Fallopia spp. under different soil, light, and disturbance conditions. On the Isère riverbanks, light intensity assessed by light quantity transmitted through canopy was the most important factor explaining the variability observed on knotweed performance expressed as above-ground biomass per square meter. Asian knotweeds were more productive under intensive light conditions. Alternatively other factors such as mowing (twice a year), soil fertility, soil texture, position on the bank or exposure to the sun had no significant effect on knotweed biomass production. We conclude that decreasing light resources, for example, by increasing competitive pressure on sites dominated by Asian knotweeds could be included in management plans to control the populations of this invasive taxon.

  17. Towards new ambient light systems: a close look at existing encodings of ambient light systems

    OpenAIRE

    Matviienko, Andrii; Rauschenberger, Maria; Cobus, Vanessa; Timmermann, Janko; Fortmann, Jutta; Löcken, Andreas; Müller, Heiko; Trappe, Christoph; Heuten, Wilko; Boll, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Ambient systems provide information in the periphery of a user’s attention. Their aim is to present information as unobtrusively as possible to avoid interrupting primary tasks (e.g. writing or reading). In recent years, light has been used to create ambient systems to display information. Examples of ambient light systems range from simple notification systems such as displaying messages or calendar event reminders, to more complex systems such as focusing on conveying information regarding ...

  18. Ambient groundwater flow diminishes nitrogen cycling in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, M.; Grant, S. B.; Rippy, M.; Detwiler, R. L.; Boano, F.; Cook, P. L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling and experimental studies demonstrate that ambient groundwater reduces hyporheic exchange, but the implications of this observation for stream N-cycling is not yet clear. We utilized a simple process-based model (the Pumping and Streamline Segregation or PASS model) to evaluate N- cycling over two scales of hyporheic exchange (fluvial ripples and riffle-pool sequences), ten ambient groundwater and stream flow scenarios (five gaining and losing conditions and two stream discharges), and three biogeochemical settings (identified based on a principal component analysis of previously published measurements in streams throughout the United States). Model-data comparisons indicate that our model provides realistic estimates for direct denitrification of stream nitrate, but overpredicts nitrification and coupled nitrification-denitrification. Riffle-pool sequences are responsible for most of the N-processing, despite the fact that fluvial ripples generate 3-11 times more hyporheic exchange flux. Across all scenarios, hyporheic exchange flux and the Damkohler Number emerge as primary controls on stream N-cycling; the former regulates trafficking of nutrients and oxygen across the sediment-water interface, while the latter quantifies the relative rates of organic carbon mineralization and advective transport in streambed sediments. Vertical groundwater flux modulates both of these master variables in ways that tend to diminish stream N-cycling. Thus, anthropogenic perturbations of ambient groundwater flows (e.g., by urbanization, agricultural activities, groundwater mining, and/or climate change) may compromise some of the key ecosystem services provided by streams.

  19. Effect of high-dose pitavastatin on glucose homeostasis in patients at elevated risk of new-onset diabetes: insights from the CAPITAIN and PREVAIL-US studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M J; Orsoni, A; Robillard, P; Hounslow, N; Sponseller, C A; Giral, P

    2014-05-01

    Statin treatment may impair glucose homeostasis and increase the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus, although this may depend on the statin, dose and patient population. We evaluated the effects of pitavastatin 4 mg/day on glucose homeostasis in patients with metabolic syndrome in the CAPITAIN trial. Findings were validated in a subset of patients enrolled in PREVAIL-US. Participants with a well defined metabolic syndrome phenotype were recruited to CAPITAIN to reduce the influence of confounding factors. Validation and comparison datasets were selected comprising phenotypically similar subsets of individuals enrolled in PREVAIL-US and treated with pitavastatin or pravastatin, respectively. Mean change from baseline in parameters of glucose homeostasis (fasting plasma glucose [FPG], glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], insulin, quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index [QUICKI] and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and plasma lipid profile were assessed at 6 months (CAPITAIN) and 3 months (PREVAIL-US) after initiating treatment. In CAPITAIN (n = 12), no significant differences from baseline in HbA1c, insulin, HOMA-IR and QUICKI were observed at day 180 in patients treated with pitavastatin. A small (4%) increase in FPG from baseline to day 180 (P validation dataset (n = 9), no significant differences from baseline in glycemic parameters were observed at day 84 (all comparisons P > 0.05). Similar results were observed for pravastatin in the comparison dataset (n = 14). Other than a small change in FPG in the CAPITAIN study, neutral effects of pitavastatin on glucose homeostasis were observed in two cohorts of patients with metabolic syndrome, independent of its efficacy in reducing levels of atherogenic lipoproteins. The small number of patients and relatively short follow-up period represent limitations of the study. Nevertheless, these data suggest that statin-induced diabetogenesis may not represent a class effect.

  20. Establishment of a normal-derived estrogen receptor-positive cell line comparable to the prevailing human breast cancer subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkinson, Branden Michael; Klitgaard, Marie Christine; Petersen, Ole William

    2017-01-01

    Understanding human cancer increasingly relies on insight gained from subtype specific comparisons between malignant and non-malignant cells. The most frequent subtype in breast cancer is the luminal. By far the most frequently used model for luminal breast cancer is the iconic estrogen receptor......-positive (ERpos) MCF7 cell line. However, luminal specific comparisons have suffered from the lack of a relevant non-malignant counterpart. Our previous work has shown that transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβR) inhibition suffices to propagate prospectively isolated ERpos human breast luminal cells from...... reduction mammoplasties (HBEC). Here we demonstrate that transduction of these cells with hTERT/shp16 renders them immortal while remaining true to the luminal lineage including expression of functional ER (iHBECERpos). Under identical culture conditions a major difference between MCF7 and normal...

  1. Towards New Ambient Light Systems: a Close Look at Existing Encodings of Ambient Light Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Matviienko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambient systems provide information in the periphery of a user’s attention. Their aim is to present information as unobtrusively as possible to avoid interrupting primary tasks (e.g. writing or reading. In recent years, light has been used to create ambient systems to display information. Examples of ambient light systems range from simple notification systems such as displaying messages or calendar event reminders, to more complex systems such as focusing on conveying information regarding health activity tracking. However, for ambient light systems, there is a broad design space that lacks guidelines on when to make use of light displays and how to design them. In this paper we provide a systematic overview of existing ambient light systems over four identified information classes derived from 72 existing ambient light systems. The most prominent encoding parameters among the surveyed ambient light systems are color, brightness, and their combination. By analyzing existing ambient light systems, we provide a first step towards developing guidelines for designing future ambient light systems.

  2. Effects of ambient oxygen concentration on soot temperature and concentration for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji

    2015-06-01

    Ambient oxygen concentration, a key variable directly related to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels in diesel engines, plays a significant role in particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. The utilization of biodiesel in diesel engines has been investigated over the last decades for its renewable characteristics and lower emissions compared to diesel. In an earlier work, we demonstrated that the soot temperature and concentration of biodiesel were lower than diesel under regular diesel engine conditions without EGR. Soot concentration was quantified by a parameter called KL factor. As a continuous effort, this paper presents an experimental investigation of the ambient oxygen concentration on soot temperature and KL factor during biodiesel and diesel spray combustion. The experiment was implemented in a constant volume chamber system, where the ambient oxygen concentration varied from 21 to 10% and the ambient temperature was kept to 1,000 K. A high speed two-color pyrometry technique was used to measure transient soot temperature and the KL factor of the spray flame. The soot temperature of biodiesel is found to be lower than that of diesel under the same conditions, which follows the same trend from our previous results found when the ambient temperature changes to 21% oxygen conditions. A reduction in ambient oxygen concentration generally reduces the soot temperature for both fuels. However, this is a complicated effect on soot processes as the change of oxygen concentration greatly affects the balance between soot formation and oxidation. The KL factor is observed to be the highest at 12% O2 for diesel and 18% O2 for biodiesel, respectively. On the other hand, the 10% O2 condition shows the lowest KL factor for both fuels. These results can provide quantitative experimental evidences to optimize the ambient oxygen concentration for diesel engines using different fuels for better emissions characteristics. © 2014 American Society of

  3. Influence of prevailing disturbances on soil biology and biochemistry of montane habitats at Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India during wet and dry seasons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, S.K.; Singh, Anoop; Rai, J.P.N.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of prevailing disturbances in montane habitats of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) was studied on soil microbial population, biomass, soil respiration and enzyme activities during wet and dry seasons. The physico-chemical characteristics of soils exhibited conspicuous variation...... day− 1 and 4.8 μg g− 1 day− 1) in intact forest soil during dry season. The bacterial and fungal populations were also highest in grazed meadow soil followed by disturbed forest, residential area and lowest in intact forest soil, especially in wet season. The soil respiration and enzyme activities...

  4. The Utility of the Extended Images in Ambient Seismic Wavefield Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, A. J.; Shragge, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Active-source 3D seismic migration and migration velocity analysis (MVA) are robust and highly used methods for imaging Earth structure. One class of migration methods uses extended images constructed by incorporating spatial and/or temporal wavefield correlation lags to the imaging conditions. These extended images allow users to directly assess whether images focus better with different parameters, which leads to MVA techniques that are based on the tenets of adjoint-state theory. Under certain conditions (e.g., geographical, cultural or financial), however, active-source methods can prove impractical. Utilizing ambient seismic energy that naturally propagates through the Earth is an alternate method currently used in the scientific community. Thus, an open question is whether extended images are similarly useful for ambient seismic migration processing and verifying subsurface velocity models, and whether one can similarly apply adjoint-state methods to perform ambient migration velocity analysis (AMVA). Herein, we conduct a number of numerical experiments that construct extended images from ambient seismic recordings. We demonstrate that, similar to active-source methods, there is a sensitivity to velocity in ambient seismic recordings in the migrated extended image domain. In synthetic ambient imaging tests with varying degrees of error introduced to the velocity model, the extended images are sensitive to velocity model errors. To determine the extent of this sensitivity, we utilize acoustic wave-equation propagation and cross-correlation-based migration methods to image weak body-wave signals present in the recordings. Importantly, we have also observed scenarios where non-zero correlation lags show signal while zero-lags show none. This may be a valuable missing piece for ambient migration techniques that have yielded largely inconclusive results, and might be an important piece of information for performing AMVA from ambient seismic recordings.

  5. Field evaluation of durum wheat landraces for prevailing abiotic and biotic stresses in highland rainfed regions of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mohammadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stresses are major limiting factors for high crop productivity worldwide. A landrace collection consisting of 380 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum entries originating in several countries along with four check varieties were evaluated for biotic stresses: yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis Westendorf f. sp. tritici and wheat stem sawfly (WSS Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae, and abiotic stresses: cold and drought. The main objectives were to (i quantify phenotypic diversity and identify variation in the durum wheat landraces for the different stresses and (ii characterize the agronomic profiles of landraces in reaction to the stresses. Significant changes in reactions of landraces to stresses were observed. Landraces resistant to each stress were identified and agronomically characterized. Percentage reduction due to the stresses varied from 11.4% (yellow rust to 21.6% (cold stress for 1000-kernel weight (TKW and from 19.9 (yellow rust to 91.9% (cold stress for grain yield. Landraces from Asia and Europe showed enhanced genetic potential for both grain yield and cold tolerance under highland rainfed conditions of Iran. The findings showed that TKW and yield productivity could be used to assess the response of durum wheat landraces to different stresses. In conclusion, landraces showed high levels of resistance to both biotic and abiotic stresses, and selected landraces can serve in durum wheat breeding for adaptation to cold and drought-prone environments.

  6. Saúde e meio ambiente nas cidades: os desafios da saúde ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gouveia

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de alguns poucos anos, nosso planeta contará com mais habitantes em áreas urbanas do que em áreas rurais. A urbanização desenfreada, sem mecanismos regulatórios e de controle, típica dos países periféricos, trouxe consigo enormes repercussões na saúde da população. Problemas como a insuficiência dos serviços básicos de saneamento, coleta e destinação adequada do lixo e condições precárias de moradia, tradicionalmente relacionados com a pobreza e o subdesenvolvimento, somam-se agora à poluição química e física do ar, da água e da terra, problemas ambientais antes considerados "modernos". Novamente, é sobre as populações mais carentes que recai a maior parte dos efeitos negativos da urbanização, gerando uma situação de extrema desigualdade e iniqüidade ambiental e em saúde. Para reverter esse quadro é preciso que haja uma reincorporação das questões do meio ambiente nas políticas de saúde, e a integração dos objetivos da saúde ambiental numa ampla estratégia de desenvolvimento sustentável. Uma abordagem mais integrada, com mecanismos intersetoriais que possibilitem um diálogo amplo entre as partes, trará enormes benefícios na conquista de melhores condições de vida nas cidades. A saúde ambiental hoje tem o desafio de promover uma melhor qualidade de vida e saúde nas cidades e a oportunidade de enfrentar o absurdo quadro de exclusão social, sob a perspectiva da eqüidade.In a matter of few years there will be more urban than rural dwellers worldwide. The rapid urbanisation lacking adequate control and regulatory mechanisms typical of developing countries, brought along huge effects to the health of the population Environmental problems traditionally related to poverty and underdevelopment such as insufficient provision of sanitation services, waste collection and disposal, and precarious housing conditions, are now added to environmental problems considered of "modern life" such as the

  7. Ambient air pollution associated to domestic wood burning heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friboulet, I.; Durif, M.; Malherbe, L.

    2009-01-01

    Main publications are considering effects of wood burning appliances on indoor air quality, which is a major issue in some countries. But impacts on ambient air, close environment and human exposure are rather poorly characterised so far. Besides, woods burning for domestic purpose may develop in the next years while promoting bio fuels. The aim of the ongoing study is to assess in which conditions associated air pollution and population exposure could be significant, this poster shows preliminary results of the impact of a village of 98 houses equipped with a wood burning heating system. (N.C.)

  8. La protección internacional del medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Bou Franch, Valentín

    2017-01-01

    PowerPoint del Tema 14 de la asignatura "Derecho Internacional Público". Curso 2017-18. Tema 14. La protección internacional del medio ambiente: 1.- El Derecho Internacional del Medio Ambiente: caracteres específicos. 2.- Principios fundamentales del Derecho Internacional del Medio Ambiente. 3.- Medio ambiente y Desarrollo: el Desarrollo Sostenible.

  9. Ambient Weather Model Research and Development: Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Stel Nathan; Wade, John Edward

    1990-08-31

    Ratings for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) transmission lines are based upon the IEEE Standard for Calculation of Bare Overhead Conductor Temperatures and Ampacity under Steady-State Conditions (1985). This steady-state model is very sensitive to the ambient weather conditions of temperature and wind speed. The model does not account for wind yaw, turbulence, or conductor roughness as proposed by Davis (1976) for a real time rating system. The objective of this research has been to determine (1) how conservative the present rating system is for typical ambient weather conditions, (2) develop a probability-based methodology, (3) compile available weather data into a compatible format, and (4) apply the rating methodology to a hypothetical line. The potential benefit from this research is to rate transmission lines statistically which will allow BPA to take advantage of any unknown thermal capacity. The present deterministic weather model is conservative overall and studies suggest a refined model will uncover additional unknown capacity. 14 refs., 40 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Annual ambient atmospheric mercury speciation measurement from Longjing, a rural site in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Lo, Chaur-Tsuen; Cho, Meng-Hsien; Zhuang, Yuan-Jie; Tsai, Kai-Hsiang; Huang, Chao-Yang; Xiao, You-Fu

    2017-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to monitor ambient air particulates and mercury species [RGM, Hg(p), GEM and total mercury] concentrations and dry depositions over rural area at Longjing in central Taiwan during October 2014 to September 2015. In addition, passive air sampler and knife-edge surrogate surface samplers were used to collect the ambient air mercury species concentrations and dry depositions, respectively, in this study. Moreover, direct mercury analyzer was directly used to detect the mercury Hg(p) and RGM concentrations. The result indicated that: (1) The average highest RGM, Hg(p), GEM and total mercury concentrations, and dry depositions were observed in January, prevailing dust storm occurred in winter season was the possible major reason responsible for the above findings. (2) The highest average RGM, Hg(p), GEM and total mercury concentrations, dry depositions and velocities were occurred in winter. This is because that China is the largest atmospheric mercury (Hg) emitter in the world. Its Hg emissions and environmental impacts need to be evaluated. (3) The results indicated that the total mercury ratios of Kaohsiung to that of this study were 5.61. This is because that Kaohsiung has the largest industry density (~60 %) in Taiwan. (4) the USA showed average lower mercury species concentrations when compared to those of the other world countries. The average ratios of China/USA values were 89, 76 and 160 for total mercury, RGM and Hg(p), respectively, during the years of 2000-2012.

  11. The housing, geography, and mobility of Latin American urban poor: the prevailing model and the case of Quito, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klak, T; Holtzclaw, M

    1993-01-01

    circumstance may not be linear and evolutionary as predicted, but the pattern is not diverse enough to warrant abandoning the model. The recommendation is for a flexible model for adapting a universal model to local and global conditions.

  12. Prevailing Status and Treatment Seeking Awareness Among Patients Attending in The Orthodontics Department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzila Rafique

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malocclusion is problem since antiquity. But people’s perception about the problem varies with their geographical location and cultural background. The problem seems to be more acute in developing countries like Bangladesh. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to assess the awareness about aesthetic problem of malocclusion and treatment seeking behavior among the patients attending in orthodontic department of BSMMU. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Orthodontic, Faculty of Dentistry, BSMMU, over a period 24 months from January 2008 to December 2009. A total of 110 participants who were suffering from malocclusion and came for dental treatment were the study population. Results: The mean age of the patients was 21 years and the youngest and the oldest patients were 8 and 32 years old respectively with female to male ratio being roughly 3:2. Graduate or postgraduate level educated patients were predominant (53.6%. Over 70% of the respondents viewed malocclusion as an aesthetic problem, 50% as functional problem, 55.5% social problem and 69.1% oral problem. Two-third (67% told that malocclusion was a treatable condition. Approximately 43% of the patients identified trauma as a cause of malocclusion, 40% gingivitis or periodontitis and 35.5% dental caries. About one-third (32.7% of the respondents was of the opinion that certain habits should be avoided to prevent malocclusion, 15.5% told timely treatment of malocclusion, 30% told prevention of early loss of teeth due to caries, 12.7% were in favour of the use of a space maintainer in places of premature loss of a deciduous tooth. Over 90% of the respondents held the view that symptoms of malocclusion, its prevention and different treatment options should get the priority in educating the society about malocclusion. However, 80% of the respondents told that causative factors should discussed. Regarding ways of behaviour change

  13. Laser-Induced Graphite Plasma Kinetic Spectroscopy under Different Ambient Pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, K.; Rosalan, S.; Aziz, M. S.; Bohadoran, M.; Ali, J; Bidin, N.; Saktioto; Yupapin, P. P.

    2015-01-01

    The laser induced plasma dynamics of graphite material are investigated by optical emission spectroscopy. Ablation and excitation of the graphite material is performed by using an 1064nm Nd:YAG laser in different ambient pressures. Characteristics of graphite spectra as line intensity variations and signal-to-noise ratio are presented with a main focus on the influence of the ambient pressure on the interaction of laser-induced graphite plasma with an ambient environment. Atomic emission lines are utilized to investigate the dynamical behavior of plasma, such as the excitation temperature and electron density, to describe emission differences under different ambient conditions. The excitation temperature and plasma electron density are the primary factors which contribute to the differences among the atomic carbon emission at different ambient pressures. Reactions between the plasma species and ambient gas, and the total molecular number are the main factors influencing molecular carbon emission. The influence of laser energy on the plasma interaction with environment is also investigated to demonstrate the dynamical behavior of carbon species so that it can be utilized to optimize plasma fluctuations. (paper)

  14. Effect of ambient pressure on laser ablation and plume expansion dynamics: A numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhaoyang; Bleiner, Davide; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive numerical model is applied to the study of the effect of ambient pressure in laser ablation, more specifically on the copper target heating, melting and vaporization, and the resulting plume expansion in the helium gas, as well as on plasma formation in the plume. Under the laser pulse condition investigated [5 ns full width at half maximum (FWHM) and 10 9 W/cm 2 peak irradiance], the calculated results show that the characteristics of the surface temperature and the evaporation depth are very similar even when the ambient pressure varies greatly. The influence of the ambient pressure on the fraction of absorbed laser energy is also small. The maximum ablated material vapor density in the plume is influenced slightly by the different pressures. Before 40 ns, the maximum plume temperature for various ambient pressures is in the order of a few 10 4 K. However, the effect of ambient pressure on the plume length is quite large. A specific calculation for a Gaussian-shaped laser pulse with 6 ns FWHM and 2.76x10 9 W/cm 2 peak irradiance is made. The calculated evaporation depth agrees well with the experimental data. Therefore, the model can be useful to predict trends in target and plume (plasma) characteristics, which are difficult to obtain experimentally for various ambient pressures

  15. Selected physico-mechanical characteristics of cryogenic and ambient ground turmeric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwal, Pradyuman; Mohite, Ashish M.; Singh, Krishna K.; Kumar, Pankaj

    2014-03-01

    In this communication, selected physicomechanical characteristics of ground turmeric (cv. Prabha) were investigated for cryogenic and ambient grinding conditions of turmeric at different moisture contents (4, 6, 8 and 10% w.b.). A cryogenic grinder (Model: 100 UPZ, Hosokawa Alpine, Germany) and a micro pulverizer (hammer mill) were used for cryogenic and ambient grinding, respectively. The ground turmeric was graded in three grades viz. Gr-I, Gr-II and Gr-III with a sieve shaker using BSS Nos. 40, 85 and pan, respectively. Tap densities for cryogenic and ambient ground turmeric decreased from 678.7 (Gr-I) to 546.7 kgm-3 (Gr-III) and from 642.3 (Gr-I) to 468.6 kgm-3 (Gr-III), respectively, with the moisture increase. The angle of repose for cryogenic and ambient ground turmeric increased linearly from 26.85 (Gr-I) to 34.0° (Gr-III) and from 23.10 (Gr-I) to 28.06° (Gr-III), respectively with the increase in moisture content. The static coefficient of friction was the highest on plywood surface followed by mild steel sheet and galvanized iron sheet. The cryoground samples were found better in colour. Thermal conductivity of cryo-ground samples was higher than that of ambient ground samples. These physico-mechanical characteristics of cryogenic and ambient ground turmeric will be helpful for packaging, handling, and storage.

  16. Effect of ambient pressure on Leidenfrost temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orejon, Daniel; Sefiane, Khellil; Takata, Yasuyuki

    2014-11-01

    The accurate prediction and control of the interaction of liquids with hot surfaces is paramount in numerous areas, including cooling applications. We present results illustrating the effect of ambient pressure on the temperature required for a droplet to levitate over a hot surface, i.e., the Leidenfrost temperature. In the present study the dependence of wetting and levitating temperatures on ambient pressure in a range of subatmospheric pressures is reported. Experimental data indicate that the Leidenfrost temperature decreases with decreasing pressure at subatmospheric pressures. A physical approach for the dependence of Leidenfrost temperature on ambient pressure, based on an analogy with saturation pressure dependence, is proposed. Furthermore, previous literature data for pressures above atmospheric are also included in the analysis to support and validate the proposed approach. In addition, the effect of substrate material, substrate roughness, and type of fluid on the Leidenfrost temperature is discussed.

  17. La Gestión Ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Darío Muriel, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    Aquest text tanca la sèrie iniciada amb l'article Orígens de la problemàtica Ambiental, al que l'autor plantejava la problemàtica ambiental des d'una perspectiva de relació entre subsistemes (natural i social). Seguint en la mateixa línia, ara Muriel argumenta que la naturalesa és objecte i els humans objecte-subjecte de la gestió ambiental. És a dir, que de la nostra actuació com a subjectes depèn la sostenibilitat de la naturalesa i de la societat, ambdós objectes de la gestió. El presen...

  18. Care services ecosystem for ambient assisted living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarinha-Matos, Luis M.; Rosas, Joao; Ines Oliveira, Ana; Ferrada, Filipa

    2015-08-01

    Effective provision of care and assistance services in ambient assisted living requires the involvement and collaboration of multiple stakeholders. To support such collaboration, the development of an ecosystem of products and services for active ageing plays an important role. This article introduces a conceptual architecture that supports such care ecosystem. In order to facilitate understanding and better interrelate concepts, a 3-layered model is adopted: Infrastructure layer, Care and assistance services layer and Ambient Assisted Living ecosystem layer. A holistic perspective of ambient assisted living, namely considering four important life settings is adopted: (1) independent living; (2) health and care in life; (3) occupation in life and (4) recreation in life. The proposed architecture is designed in the context of a national Portuguese project and in accordance with the findings of a large European road mapping initiative on ICT and ageing.

  19. Evaluación ambiental del PRMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo López Moya

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es una revisión constructiva de las actuales disposiciones sobre la evaluación ambiental de los planes reguladores, intentada con el propósito de contribuir a mejorar los procedimientos en práctica. En este sentido, aboga porque al plan regulador no se le exijan contribuciones ambientales que excedan a sus verdaderas competencias, para lo cual introduce el concepto de "efectos territoriales"; justifica que su evaluación ambiental deba ser realizda mediante una "declaración", y ahonda en la forma de elaborar y presentar esta declaración, acogiendo lo que a este respecto estipula el Art. 15° del Reglamento de la ley sobre Bases Generales del Medio Ambiente.

  20. Ocean Ambient Noise Measurement and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Carey, William M

    2011-01-01

    This book develops the theory of ocean ambient noise mechanisms and measurements, and also describes general noise characteristics and computational methods.  It concisely summarizes the vast ambient noise literature using theory combined with key representative results.  The air-sea boundary interaction zone is described in terms of non-dimensional variables requisite for future experiments.  Noise field coherency, rare directional measurements, and unique basin scale computations and methods are presented.  The use of satellite measurements in these basin scale models is demonstrated.  Finally, this book provides a series of appendices giving in-depth mathematical treatments.  With its complete and careful discussions of both theory and experimental results, this book will be of the greatest interest to graduate students and active researchers working in fields related to ambient noise in the ocean.

  1. Effect of ambient temperature on caffeine ergogenicity during endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganio, Matthew S; Johnson, Evan C; Klau, Jennifer F; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Casa, Douglas J; Maresh, Carl M; Volek, Jeff S; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2011-06-01

    It is well established that caffeine ingestion during exercise enhances endurance performance. Conversely, the physiological and psychological strain that accompanies increased ambient temperature decreases endurance performance. Little is known about the interaction between environmental temperature and the effects of caffeine on performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of ambient temperature (12 and 33°C) on caffeine ergogenicity during endurance cycling exercise. Eleven male cyclists (mean ± SD; age, 25 ± 6 years; [Formula: see text] 58.7 ± 2.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed four exercise trials in a randomized, double blind experimental design. After cycling continuously for 90 min (average 65 ± 7% [Formula: see text]) in either a warm (33 ± 1°C, 41 ± 5%rh) or cool (12 ± 1°C, 60 ± 7%rh) environment, subjects completed a 15-min performance trial (PT; based on total work accumulated). Subjects ingested 3 mg kg(-1) of encapsulated caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA) 60 min prior to and after 45 min of exercise. Throughout exercise, subjects ingested water so that at the end of exercise, independent of ambient temperature, their body mass was reduced 0.55 ± 0.67%. Two-way (temperature × treatment) repeated-measures ANOVA were conducted with alpha set at 0.05. Total work (kJ) during the PT was greater in 12°C than 33°C [P performance versus PLA independent of temperature (P = 0.006, η(2) = 0.542 CI: 3.60-16.86). However, performance differences with CAF were not dependent on ambient temperature (i.e., non-significant interaction; P = 0.662). CAF versus PLA in 12 and 33°C resulted in few differences in other physiological variables. However, during exercise, rectal temperature (T (re)) increased in the warm environment (peak T (re); 33°C, 39.40 ± 0.45; 12°C, 38.79 ± 0.42°C; P 0.05). Increased ambient temperature had a detrimental effect on cycling performance in both the CAF and PLA conditions. CAF improved performance

  2. Psychophysics of a nociceptive test in the mouse: ambient temperature as a key factor for variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanne Pincedé

    Full Text Available The mouse is increasingly used in biomedical research, notably in behavioral neurosciences for the development of tests or models of pain. Our goal was to provide the scientific community with an outstanding tool that allows the determination of psychophysical descriptors of a nociceptive reaction, which are inaccessible with conventional methods: namely the true threshold, true latency, conduction velocity of the peripheral fibers that trigger the response and latency of the central decision-making process.Basically, the procedures involved heating of the tail with a CO(2 laser, recording of tail temperature with an infrared camera and stopping the heating when the animal reacted. The method is based mainly on the measurement of three observable variables, namely the initial temperature, the heating rate and the temperature reached at the actual moment of the reaction following random variations in noxious radiant heat. The initial temperature of the tail, which itself depends on the ambient temperature, very markedly influenced the behavioral threshold, the behavioral latency and the conduction velocity of the peripheral fibers but not the latency of the central decision-making.We have validated a psychophysical approach to nociceptive reactions for the mouse, which has already been described for rats and Humans. It enables the determination of four variables, which contribute to the overall latency of the response. The usefulness of such an approach was demonstrated by providing new fundamental findings regarding the influence of ambient temperature on nociceptive processes. We conclude by challenging the validity of using as "pain index" the reaction time of a behavioral response to an increasing heat stimulus and emphasize the need for a very careful control of the ambient temperature, as a prevailing environmental source of variation, during any behavioral testing of mice.

  3. A Kleene analysis of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Sagiv, M.

    2000-01-01

    We show how a program analysis technique originally developed for C-like pointer structures can be adapted to analyse the hierarchical structure of processes in the ambient calculus. The technique is based on modeling the semantics of the language in a two-valued logic; by reinterpreting the logi......We show how a program analysis technique originally developed for C-like pointer structures can be adapted to analyse the hierarchical structure of processes in the ambient calculus. The technique is based on modeling the semantics of the language in a two-valued logic; by reinterpreting...

  4. Qualidade do ar em ambientes internos hospitalares

    OpenAIRE

    Quadros, Marina Eller

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Ambiental. A qualidade de vida das pessoas é grandemente influenciada pela qualidade do ar que respiram. Em centros urbanos, mais de 80% do tempo é passado em ambientes internos. No caso específico de unidades de saúde, a qualidade do ar pode exercer influência direta no tempo de recuperação dos pacientes e na ocorrência de infecções hospitalares. O objetivo deste tr...

  5. Human-Centric Interfaces for Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajan, Hamid; Delgado, Ramon Lopez-Cozar

    2009-01-01

    To create truly effective human-centric ambient intelligence systems both engineering and computing methods are needed. This is the first book to bridge data processing and intelligent reasoning methods for the creation of human-centered ambient intelligence systems. Interdisciplinary in nature, the book covers topics such as multi-modal interfaces, human-computer interaction, smart environments and pervasive computing, addressing principles, paradigms, methods and applications. This book will be an ideal reference for university researchers, R&D engineers, computer engineers, and graduate s

  6. The brave new world of ambient intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    This chapter provides an overview of ambient intelligence in order to set the stage for the subsequent identification and discussion of threats, vulnerabilities and safeguards In this chapter, we provide a somewhat high-level description of the key technologies that are crucial to the development and deployment of ambient intelligence. The development and deployment of AmI are being propelled by certain visions of the future, which we reference in this chapter. For the most part, the development and deployment are taking place in a rather structured context composed of visions, scenarios, roadmaps, strategic research agendas, platforms and projects. We highlight the most important of these.

  7. Ensinar e aprender em ambientes virtuais tridimensionais

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Vitor

    2012-01-01

    Os mundos virtuais constituem ambientes simulados, normalmente tridimensionais, mediados através de tecnologias de informação e comunicação e que se destinam a ser frequentados por utilizadores que interagem com outros através de avatares. Estes ambientes virtuais tridimensionais (3D) podem ser desenvolvidos recorrendo a software de desenho 3D em versões comerciais e open source ou criados em servidores de mundos virtuais tridimensionais já existentes, tais como o Second Life ou similares. No...

  8. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate a rational reconstruction of a previously published control flow analysis for the mobile ambients calculus and we further show how a more precise flow-sensitive analysis, that takes the ordering of action sequences into account, can be formulated...... in a natural way. We show that hybrid logic is very well suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can be exploited to reduce the "administrative overhead" of the analysis specification and thus simplify it. Finally, we use HyLoTab, a fully automated...

  9. 7th Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living

    CERN Document Server

    Marletta, Vincenzo; Monteriù, Andrea; Siciliano, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    This book documents the state of the art in the field of ambient assisted living (AAL), highlighting the impressive potential of novel methodologies and technologies to enhance well-being and promote active ageing. The coverage is wide ranging, with sections on assistive devices, elderly people monitoring, home rehabilitation, ICT solutions for AAL, living with chronic conditions, robotic assistance for the elderly, sensing technologies for AAL, and smart housing. The book comprises a selection of the best papers presented at the 7th Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living (ForitAAL 2016), which was held in Pisa, Italy, in June 2016 and brought together end users, technology teams, and policy makers to develop a consensus on how to improve provision for elderly and impaired people. Readers will find that the expert contributions offer clear insights into the ways in which the most recent exciti ng advances may be expected to assist in addressing the needs of the elderly and those with chronic conditions.

  10. Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, W J; Godzik, B

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data.

  11. Produtividade e qualidade do melão cantaloupe, cultivado em ambiente protegido, variando o número e a posição dos frutos na planta Fruit yield and quality of cantaloupe melon, under greenhouse conditions, as affected by number of fruits and position in the plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cleiton Fernandes de Queiroga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os frutos do meloeiro são considerados fortes drenos que alteram a distribuição de fotoassimilados entre os órgãos da planta. Objetivou-se nesse trabalho determinar a produção e a qualidade de frutos de meloeiro em ambiente protegido em função do número e da posição de fixação dos frutos na planta. O experimento foi desenvolvido em fatorial 2 x 2 em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, provenientes da combinação de número de frutos por planta (1 e 2 e posição de fixação dos frutos na planta (entre 5.º e 8.° nós e entre 15.° e 18.° nós. O melão cultivar 'Torreon', do grupo Cantalupensis, foi plantado em vasos de 11,5 dm³ contendo como substrato apenas fibra de coco adubada com macro e micronutrientes. Comparado a plantas com dois frutos, nas plantas com apenas um fruto ocorreram os maiores valores de: massa dos frutos (MF, reticulação da casca (RC, comprimento, índice de formato, espessura da polpa, índice de maturação (IM, sólidos solúveis (SS, açúcares solúveis totais, açúcares não redutores. Em plantas com apenas um fruto, ocorreu redução na produtividade comercial (PC de 21,4% em frutos fixados especificamente entre o 5.° e 8.° nós e 24,9% em frutos do 15.° e 18.° nós comparada a plantas com dois frutos. Em frutos fixados na posição do 15.° e 18.° nós ocorreram maiores MF, IM, PC e ciclo da cultura, bem como, menores RC e acidez total titulável. Foram obtidas correlações significativas para área foliar por fruto (AF x MF de 0,81, AF x SS de 0,79, MF x SS de 0,68, MF x RC de 0,72 e RC x SS de 0,51.Muskmelon fruits are strong sink affecting assimilate distribution among the plant organs. This experiment aimed at to determine yield and quality of 'Torreon' cultivar in greenhouse conditions as affected by fruit number and position in the plant. A 2 x 2 factorial was set in randomized block design, with five replications. Treatments combined fruit number per plant (1 and 2 and

  12. CUIDADO AMBIENTAL E RESPONSABILIDADE: POSSÍVEL DIÁLOGO ENTRE PSICOLOGIA AMBIENTAL E LOGOTERAPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Arnaldo Corrêa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available O cuidado ambiental vem sendo marcado pela tônica da conservação e da promoção da sustentabilidade. A premente necessidade de um dado compromisso e educação ambiental e de condutas pró-ambientais vem sendo defendida em vários contextos: na mídia, nas políticas públicas, por meio de campanhas sazonais. Todavia, pouco se descreve acerca do sentido presente nos modos de cuidado configurados a partir da inter-relação pessoa-ambiente. Nesta perspectiva, este estudo objetivou promover um possível diálogo a partir das contribuições da Psicologia Ambiental e da Logoterapia visando aproximar a noção de cuidado ambiental, delineada pela Psicologia Ambiental, à ideia de responsabilidade, como defendida pela Logoterapia, por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica. As articulações propositadas corroboraram, portanto, para acenar que a relação pessoa-ambiente pode ser arraigada em qualidade se a responsabilidade é reconhecida em sua propriedade de potencial humano, o que pode favorecer na emergência do sentido das atitudes e condutas pró-ambientais e explicitar o caráter de tarefa única e irrepetível inerente à vida.

  13. The fate of eggs and larvae of three pelagic species, mackerel (Scomber scombrus, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus and sardine (Sardina pilchardus in relation to prevailing currents in the Bay of Biscay: Could they affect larval survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Alvarez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of eggs and larvae of three pelagic species, mackerel, horse mackerel and sardine, in the Bay of Biscay was studied in 1998, 2001 and 2004. The spatial distribution was clearly different between the years studied and corresponds quite precisely to different water circulation regimes. Mackerel and horse mackerel larvae are more affected by the prevailing currents than sardine, as their spawning grounds are located offshore, far from the shelf break where the current velocities are higher. Survival rates for mackerel and horse mackerel were higher in 2001, when the offshore larval transport was stronger. However, for sardine, the mortality rate hardly varied between years. The abundance of 25-day-old larvae, considered as an index of the survival rate, appears to be a good recruitment indicator, at least for 1998, 2001 and 2004. Our results did not support the hypothesis of Bakun (1996, which states that dispersion of early life stages towards open ocean waters should cause high larval mortality. At least under the conditions observed for the years studied, the retention of larvae offshore appears to have a positive effect on larval growth and/or survival.

  14. Monitoring and imaging the atmosphere with infrasonic ambient noise correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Matthew; Evers, Laslo

    2010-05-01

    The existence of widespread infrasonic ambient noise (e.g., microbaroms) opens up the possibility of investigating atmospheric acoustic structure with new techniques designed for continuous stochastic signals. This is in contrast to classical approaches that use deterministic signals (e.g., explosions) with clear phase arrivals. Here, we review some recent advances in the monitoring and imaging of the atmosphere derived from analysis of continuous infrasound noise. From two microbarometers located at Fourpeaked Volcano in Alaska, we observe coherent arrivals in cross-correlations of ambient noise in the microbarom band (0.2-0.5 Hz) at time lags that agree well with speeds expected for a direct infrasound wave in the atmosphere (300-340 m/s). A striking example of the dependence of the ambient noise correlations on atmospheric conditions is evident from a comparison with temperature and wind data measured on nearby ocean buoys. Application of the multiple-filter technique reveals that the group velocity of the infrasound wave is dispersive, with higher group velocities at lower frequencies. This supports the existence of a low-level atmospheric waveguide at Fourpeaked Volcano during the time period under study. We invert the observed time-dependent group velocity dispersion curves for average sound speed profiles as a function of time. The inverted sound speed profiles show that a time-dependent, surface-based inversion layer became stronger over a period of 24 hours, with a colder, denser, and lower sound speed layer moving between the stations. This layer is imaged in the lower 2 km of the atmosphere and demonstrates the sensitivity of ambient noise correlations to the atmospheric boundary layer. Independent analysis of meteorological data in and around Fourpeaked volcano from the same time period supports the results derived from the infrasound ambient noise correlations. We also show examples of ambient noise correlations from time periods of normal temperature

  15. An excess of pedestrian injuries in icy conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Ulrik; Bak, Soeren

    1983-01-01

    comprised women 50 and over, in contrast to the rest of the winter period where younger men prevailed. The investigation indicates that pedestrians have a need for prophylactic measures including (1) broadcast warnings of icy conditions both on the radio and T.V. on days of high risk, (2) more extensive...

  16. Sanitary conditions of food establishments in Mekelle town, Tigray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    restaurants, hotels, clubs, and other food establishments. (6). Similar epidemiologic patterns were observed in foodborne outbreaks in Poland (4). In Ethiopia, data on sanitation conditions and ensuing effects on health are very limited. Few studies conducted in Addis Ababa, Awassa, and Zeway indicate the prevailing poor ...

  17. Environmentally Persistent Free Radical (EPFRs) - Ambient Air Particulates, Soils and Fate of Some Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnicki, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFRs) are relatively recently discovered species that are present on ambient air particulates. Their origin is typically associated with the combustion borne PM, where in the cool zone of the combustion process aromatic precursors react with the metal centers of particulates forming surface-organic complex with radical characteristics. EPFRs have been found to be sufficiently resistant to be emitted from the combustion sources and persist in the ambient air on particulates. Their inhalation has been associated with severe health effects, and potentially are one of the major agents contributing the epidemiological risks of PM exposure. Interestingly, EPFRs can be formed not only at the elevated temperatures but also in ambient conditions, where the contact of precursor molecules with transition metal (but not only) domains can result in adsorbate complexes. In fact, EPFRs have been detected in the contaminated soils, or during the oil spill incidents. It is very likely, that the interaction of some molecules released to the air can result in the formation of EPFRs on the ambient air particulates in atmospheric conditions. These species can be a natural degradation by-products that lead to the formation of oxygenated organics in ambient atmosphere.

  18. Fluxes of CH4 and N2O in aspen stands grown under ambient and twice-ambient CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Robertson, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    -ambient CO2 concentrations crossed with `high' and low soil-N conditions. Flux measurements with small static chambers indicated net CH4 oxidation in the open-top chambers. Across dates, CH4 oxidation activity was significantly (P ....05) with twice-ambient CO2 than with ambient CO2. Fluxes of N2O in the open-top chambers and in separate 44 cm(2) cores +/-N fertilization were not affected by CO2 treatment and soil N status. Our data show that elevated atmospheric CO2 may have a negative effect on terrestrial CH4 oxidation. The data also...

  19. Ambient air pollution and the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing evidence on the hazards of ambient air pollution on fetal development. Several review articles have been published on the adverse fetal outcomes including low birth weight, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and congenital anomalies. Recent studies have linked ambient air pollution to gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia which may be related to the detrimental effect of ambient air pollution on placental growth and function. Short-term and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution may cause systemic inflammatory response which may trigger preterm delivery in pregnant women. Environmental toxic chemicals that alter intrauterine environment disregulates fetal epigenome causing epigenetic-mediated changes in gene expression that may be linked to later childhood and adulthood diseases. Exposure to ambient air pollution during the whole pregnancy especially in third-trimester may cause intrauterine vitamin D deficiency which is critical for the normal development of the lung, and immune system in fetus. However, more research is needed to understand the cause and effect interaction between air pollution and fetal development. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  20. Energías vs medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Victoria Landa Fitzgerald; Juana María Robles Caycho

    2010-01-01

    Se presenta una actividad ABP de química en la que los alumnos investigan sobre diferentes tipos de energía: combustibles fósiles, energías alternativas y energía nuclear, y la influencia de ellas en el medio ambiente: efecto invernadero, smog fotoquímico, capa de ozono, lluvia ácida.

  1. Visualizing ambient user experiences : any how

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, Marije; Robben, Saskia; Kröse, Ben; Veenstra, Mettina

    2012-01-01

    As interactive systems become increasingly complex and entwined with the environment, technology is becoming more and more invisible. This means that much of the technology that people come across every day goes unnoticed and that the (potential) workings of ambient systems are not always clearly

  2. a near ambient pressure UV photoelectron spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj Kumar Ghosalya

    2018-03-02

    Mar 2, 2018 ... VB photoelectron spectroscopy with low energy photons is an important tool to access mostly sur- face specific electronic changes. Indeed, near ambient pressure (NAP) ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. (NAP-UPS) is fully relevant to explore silver-oxygen interaction, since Ag 4d and O 2p orbitals ...

  3. 688 AMBIENT VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    of some countries. It is the nation's economy nerve centre with over 2000 industries. Currently, over 200,000 vehicles are registered annually (NPC, 2009; LASG, ..... of ambient VOCs in Mumbai City. Atmospheric Environment. 38, 6829 - 6843. Suh, H. H., Bahadori, T., Vallarino, J. and. Spengler, J. D. (2000), Criteria for air.

  4. Territorios vulnerables e injusticia ambiental en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lacabana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Justicia ambiental es un concepto fructífero en tanto modificó la perspectiva clásica de análisis sobre el problema de la degradación ambiental al establecer como principal interrogante no tanto las "causas" que producen tal degradación sino que interroga el proceso político, económico y social que consolida la desigual distribución social de las cargas nocivas de la contaminación. El conurbano sur de Buenos Aires y dentro de este el Municipio de Quilmes condensan distintas situaciones se vulnerabilidad social ambiental donde los conflictos son acallados, ocultos o simplemente quedan latentes frente a la emergencia de mantener o crear nuevas fuentes de empleo. La cuestión ambiental no se constituyó durante años en un problema con relevancia pública si bien existieron tímidas políticas públicas que tendieron a regular los efectos de polución industrial y sus efectos sobre la calidad de vida de las personas.

  5. Setting priorities for ambient air quality objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    Alberta has ambient air quality objectives in place for several pollutants, toxic substances and other air quality parameters. A process is in place to determine if additional air quality objectives are required or if existing objectives should be changed. In order to identify the highest priority substances that may require an ambient air quality objective to protect ecosystems and public health, a rigorous, transparent and cost effective priority setting methodology is required. This study reviewed, analyzed and assessed successful priority setting techniques used by other jurisdictions. It proposed an approach for setting ambient air quality objective priorities that integrates the concerns of stakeholders with Alberta Environment requirements. A literature and expert review were used to examine existing priority-setting techniques used by other jurisdictions. An analysis process was developed to identify the strengths and weaknesses of various techniques and their ability to take into account the complete pathway between chemical emissions and damage to human health or the environment. The key strengths and weaknesses of each technique were identified. Based on the analysis, the most promising technique was the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Several considerations for using TRACI to help set priorities for ambient air quality objectives were also presented. 26 refs, 8 tabs., 4 appendices

  6. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010, 29 November-3 December). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. Poster presented at the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education, Putrajaya, Malaysia:

  7. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. In B. Chang, T. Hirashima, & H. Ogata (Eds.), Joint Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium for the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education (pp.

  8. EXPERIENCIA INTEGRADORA PARA EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F. Coronel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se relacionó la práctica experimental de laboratorio co n el análisis de problemas ambientales. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar una propuesta que vinculó el trabajo experimental con la situación del ambiente local para promover el cuidado de la naturaleza y su uso con sostenibilidad . Esta estrategia brindó un enfoque integrador aportando a los alumnos de profesorado una alternativa de aprendizaje con exper iencias sencillas para el estudio cualitativo de l ambiente local y motivar a l análisis de problemas asociad o s. Las experiencias permitieron caracterizar las muestras de suelo, agua y aire del lugar de residencia de los alumnos. La información experimental obtenida potenció la discusión de la situación ambiental actual. E l enfoque de enseñanza basado en problemas socio - científicos posibilit ó la visión interdisciplinar del tema , redimensionando valores y acciones para el cuidado ambiental y el desarrollo sustentable.

  9. Ambient Surveillance by Probabilistic-Possibilistic Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittermann, M.S.; Ciftcioglu, O.

    2013-01-01

    A method for quantifying ambient surveillance is presented, which is based on probabilistic-possibilistic perception. The human surveillance of a scene through observing camera sensed images on a monitor is modeled in three steps. First immersion of the observer is simulated by modeling perception

  10. Training Engineers for the Ambient Intelligence Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corno, Fulvio; De Russis, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    The increasing complexity of the new breed of distributed intelligent systems, such as the Internet of Things, which require a diversity of languages and protocols, can only be tamed with design and programming best practices. Interest is also growing for including the human factor, as advocated by the "ambient intelligence" (AmI)…

  11. Determination of triacetonetriperoxide in ambient air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, R.J.; Karst, U.

    2003-01-01

    A method for the analysis of the explosive triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) in ambient air is introduced. The high volatility of the peroxide leads to significant concentrations in the air surrounding even minute quantities of TATP, thus enabling the analyst to avoid direct contact with the sensitive

  12. Automated Processing Workflow for Ambient Seismic Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, A. J.; Shragge, J.

    2017-12-01

    Structural imaging using body-wave energy present in ambient seismic data remains a challenging task, largely because these wave modes are commonly much weaker than surface wave energy. In a number of situations body-wave energy has been extracted successfully; however, (nearly) all successful body-wave extraction and imaging approaches have focused on cross-correlation processing. While this is useful for interferometric purposes, it can also lead to the inclusion of unwanted noise events that dominate the resulting stack, leaving body-wave energy overpowered by the coherent noise. Conversely, wave-equation imaging can be applied directly on non-correlated ambient data that has been preprocessed to mitigate unwanted energy (i.e., surface waves, burst-like and electromechanical noise) to enhance body-wave arrivals. Following this approach, though, requires a significant preprocessing effort on often Terabytes of ambient seismic data, which is expensive and requires automation to be a feasible approach. In this work we outline an automated processing workflow designed to optimize body wave energy from an ambient seismic data set acquired on a large-N array at a mine site near Lalor Lake, Manitoba, Canada. We show that processing ambient seismic data in the recording domain, rather than the cross-correlation domain, allows us to mitigate energy that is inappropriate for body-wave imaging. We first develop a method for window selection that automatically identifies and removes data contaminated by coherent high-energy bursts. We then apply time- and frequency-domain debursting techniques to mitigate the effects of remaining strong amplitude and/or monochromatic energy without severely degrading the overall waveforms. After each processing step we implement a QC check to investigate improvements in the convergence rates - and the emergence of reflection events - in the cross-correlation plus stack waveforms over hour-long windows. Overall, the QC analyses suggest that

  13. Ambient role playing games: towards a grammar of endlessness

    OpenAIRE

    Eyles, Mark; Eglin, Roger

    2007-01-01

    If the seminal 1976 ambient music album Music for Airports (Eno, 1978) became a 21st century ambient role playing game, what would it play like? What technologies would be required? What would we need to know for this to happen? Who would be the target audience? This paper sets out to define ambient role playing games. A computer role playing game definition is suggested; the evolution of ambient technologies is outlined and a prototyped ambient game is described. The heart of ambient gaming ...

  14. Ambient temperature influences the neural benefits of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Mark E; Chung, Chasity; Comer, Ashley; Nelson, Katharine; Tran, Jamie; Werries, Nadja; Barton, Emily A; Spinetta, Michael; Leasure, J Leigh

    2016-02-15

    Many of the neural benefits of exercise require weeks to manifest. It would be useful to accelerate onset of exercise-driven plastic changes, such as increased hippocampal neurogenesis. Exercise represents a significant challenge to the brain because it produces heat, but brain temperature does not rise during exercise in the cold. This study tested the hypothesis that exercise in cold ambient temperature would stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis more than exercise in room or hot conditions. Adult female rats had exercise access 2h per day for 5 days at either room (20 °C), cold (4.5 °C) or hot (37.5 °C) temperature. To label dividing hippocampal precursor cells, animals received daily injections of BrdU. Brains were immunohistochemically processed for dividing cells (Ki67+), surviving cells (BrdU+) and new neurons (doublecortin, DCX) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Animals exercising at room temperature ran significantly farther than animals exercising in cold or hot conditions (room 1490 ± 400 m; cold 440 ± 102 m; hot 291 ± 56 m). We therefore analyzed the number of Ki67+, BrdU+ and DCX+ cells normalized for shortest distance run. Contrary to our hypothesis, exercise in either cold or hot conditions generated significantly more Ki67+, BrdU+ and DCX+ cells compared to exercise at room temperature. Thus, a limited amount of running in either cold or hot ambient conditions generates more new cells than a much greater distance run at room temperature. Taken together, our results suggest a simple means by which to augment exercise effects, yet minimize exercise time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Refined ambient PM2.5 exposure surrogates and the risk of myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a case-crossover study design and conditional logistic regression, we compared the relative odds of transmural (full-wall) myocardial infarction (MI) calculated using exposure surrogates that account for human activity patterns and the indoor transport of ambient PM2....

  16. 75 FR 51039 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... and recommendations of applicable sections of the ``Quality Assurance Handbook for Air Pollution... any of these conditions should be reported to: Director, Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9190-5] Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air...

  17. Psicologia Ambiental e estudos pessoas-ambiente: que tipo de colaboração multidisciplinar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moser

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura definir quais as colaborações existentes entre a Psicologia Ambiental e os diversos estudos pessoas-ambiente a partir dos trabalhos inscritos no Congresso IAPS-16 (Paris, 2000. Na relação entre transdiciplinaridade, pluridisciplinaridade e interdisciplinaridade, entende que o funcionamento científico é necessariamente mono-disciplinar, enquanto a intervenção nas relações pessoas-ambiente envolve uma dinâmica complexa. Quanto à intervenção (manejo sócio-ambiental, distingue dois tipos de funcionamento: interdisciplinar e transdisciplinar. Conclui por um conhecimento que integre as diversas abordagens disciplinares em abordagens transdiciplinares.

  18. Variability in exposure to ambient ultrafine particles in urban schools: Comparative assessment between Australia and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Mandana; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Crilley, Leigh R; Álvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Viana, Mar; Tobias, Aurelio; Alastuey, Andrés; Sunyer, Jordi; Querol, Xavier; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-03-01

    Ambient ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNC) have inhomogeneous spatio-temporal distributions and depend on a number of different urban factors, including background conditions and distant sources. This paper quantitatively compares exposure to ambient ultrafine particles at urban schools in two cities in developed countries, with high insolation climatic conditions, namely Brisbane (Australia) and Barcelona (Spain). The analysis used comprehensive indoor and outdoor air quality measurements at 25 schools in Brisbane and 39 schools in Barcelona. PNC modes were analysed with respect to ambient temperature, land use and urban characteristics, combined with the measured elemental carbon concentrations, NOx (Brisbane) and NO2 (Barcelona). The trends and modes of the quantified weekday average daily cycles of ambient PNC exhibited significant differences between the two cities. PNC increases were observed during traffic rush hours in both cases. However, the mid-day peak was dominant in Brisbane schools and had the highest contribution to total PNC for both indoors and outdoors. In Barcelona, the contribution from traffic was highest for ambient PNC, while the mid-day peak had a slightly higher contribution for indoor concentrations. Analysis of the relationships between PNC and land use characteristics in Barcelona schools showed a moderate correlation with the percentage of road network area and an anti-correlation with the percentage of green area. No statistically significant correlations were found for Brisbane. Overall, despite many similarities between the two cities, school-based exposure patterns were different. The main source of ambient PNC at schools was shown to be traffic in Barcelona and mid-day new particle formation in Brisbane. The mid-day PNC peak in Brisbane could have been driven by the combined effect of background and meteorological conditions, as well as other local/distant sources. The results have implications for urban development

  19. Pedagogía ambiental y didáctica ambiental: tendencias en la educación superior

    OpenAIRE

    TOVAR-GÁLVEZ, JULIO CÉSAR

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN El artículo aborda el problema del currículo de educación ambiental en la educación superior, para lo que se centra en los conceptos pedagogía ambiental y didáctica ambiental. La metodología consiste en realizar un estado del arte para identificar las tendencias existentes sobre pedagogía ambiental y didáctica ambiental, para desde allí diseñar una encuesta que es dirigida a profesores y estudiantes de programas con formación en lo ambiental, de algunas universidades en Bogotá, con el...

  20. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Rooftop Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Bargach, Youssef [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low-Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants relative to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in packaged or Rooftop Unit (RTU) air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  1. Cuidado ambiental: ponte entre psicologia e educação ambiental?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro, José Q. (Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuidado ambiental é termo comum no cotidiano e em atividades como educação ambiental, embora pesquisas psicológicas façam pouco uso do conceito, o que justificou investigar a compreensão popular do termo e analisar suas possíveis relações com indicadores científicos de predisposição pró-ambiental. O questionário aplicado a 355 estudantes universitários da cidade de Natal, RN, de ambos os sexos, continha questões abertas sobre prática pelo respondente de cuidado ambiental e sobre sua disposição pessoal para participar de eventuais campanhas ecológicas futuras, e incluía ainda: Escala de Ecocentrismo e Antropocentrismo, Questionário de Individualismo-Coletivismo, e Inventário Zimbardo de Perspectiva Temporal. As duas formas utilizadas para o relato de cuidado ambiental se mostraram positivamente correlacionados com medidas de ambientalismo econcêntrico, e negativamente com apatia ambiental e individualismo, evidenciando-se como um importante controle metodológico-conceitual quando se busca a "tradução" de resultados de pesquisas psicológicas para o cotidiano das ações de intervenção e educação ambientais

  2. AmI in good care? Developing design principles for ambient intelligent domotics for elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulendijk, Michiel; Van De Wijngaert, Lidwien; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Leenstra, Herbert

    2011-03-01

    The combination of ambient intelligence (AmI) and domotics has the potential to respond to elderly people's desire to live independent from extensive forms of care. Their slow adoption of technological aids shows reluctance, though. This article investigates their motivations to adopt ambient intelligent domotics, and proposes design principles specifically based on their preferences and experiences. Respondents appeared to be more acceptive of tangible problems they expected with AmI domotics than intangible ones. In addition, their opinions seemed to be profoundly influenced by the way they perceived their psychological quality of life, while their physical conditions did not seem to have noticeable impacts.

  3. Significance and influence of the ambient temperature as a rate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    , undoubtedly is dependent even on the level of the ambient temperature. Therefore, the ambient temperature seems to be an important factor of the corrosion rate and the durability of the reinforced concrete structures in aggressive ...

  4. Response of radiation monitors for ambient dose equivalent, H*(10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecco, Claudio Henrique dos Santos

    2001-01-01

    Radiation monitors are used all over the world to evaluate if places with presence of ionising radiation present safe conditions for people. Radiation monitors should be tested according to international or national standards in order to be qualified for use. This work describes a methodology and procedures to evaluate the energy and angular responses of any radiation monitor for ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), according to the recommendations of ISO and IEC standards. The methodology and the procedures were applied to the Monitor Inteligente de Radiacao MIR 7026, developed by the Instituto em Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), to evaluate and to adjust its response for H*(10), characterizing it as an ambient dose equivalent meter. The tests were performed at the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI), at Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), and results showed that the Monitor Inteligente de Radiacao MIR 7026 can be used as an EI*(10) meter, in accordance to the IEC 60846 standard requirements. The overall estimated uncertainty for the determination of the MIR 7026 response, in all radiation qualities used in this work, was 4,5 % to a 95 % confidence limit. (author)

  5. New Look at BTEX: Are Ambient Levels a Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, Ashley L; Kwiatkowski, Carol F; Colborn, Theo

    2015-05-05

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) are retrieved during fossil fuel extraction and used as solvents in consumer and industrial products, as gasoline additives, and as intermediates in the synthesis of organic compounds for many consumer products. Emissions from the combustion of gasoline and diesel fuels are the largest contributors to atmospheric BTEX concentrations. However, levels indoors (where people spend greater than 83% of their time) can be many times greater than outdoors. In this review we identified epidemiological studies assessing the noncancer health impacts of ambient level BTEX exposure (i.e., nonoccupational) and discussed how the health conditions may be hormonally mediated. Health effects significantly associated with ambient level exposure included sperm abnormalities, reduced fetal growth, cardiovascular disease, respiratory dysfunction, asthma, sensitization to common antigens, and more. Several hormones including estrogens, androgens, glucocorticoids, insulin, and serotonin may be involved in these health outcomes. This analysis suggests that all four chemicals may have endocrine disrupting properties at exposure levels below reference concentrations (i.e., safe levels) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These data should be considered when evaluating the use of BTEX in consumer and industrial products and indicates a need to change how chemicals present at low concentrations are assessed and regulated.

  6. Ambient noise levels and detection threshold in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Andrea; Ottemöller, Lars; Keers, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Ambient seismic noise is caused by a number of sources in specific frequency bands. The quantification of ambient noise makes it possible to evaluate station and network performance. We evaluate noise levels in Norway from the 2013 data set of the Norwegian National Seismic Network as well as two temporary deployments. Apart from the station performance, we studied the geographical and temporal variations, and developed a local noise model for Norway. The microseism peaks related to the ocean are significant in Norway. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between oceanic weather conditions and noise levels. We find a correlation of low-frequency noise (0.125-0.25 Hz) with wave heights up to 900 km offshore. High (2-10 Hz) and intermediate (0.5-5 Hz) frequency noise correlates only up to 450 km offshore with wave heights. From a geographic perspective, stations in southern Norway show lower noise levels for low frequencies due to a larger distance to the dominant noise sources in the North Atlantic. Finally, we studied the influence of high-frequency noise levels on earthquake detectability and found that a noise level increase of 10 dB decreases the detectability by 0.5 magnitude units. This method provides a practical way to consider noise variations in detection maps.

  7. The relationship between body and ambient temperature and corneal temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Johnson, Leif; Arvidsson, Henrik Sven

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature.......Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature....

  8. Saúde Ambiental: uma Análise dos Resultados das Conferências Nacionais de Meio Ambiente, Saúde e Saúde Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Maury de Carvalho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A representação nas políticas públicas do conceito de saúde ambiental, como expressão do equilíbrio da rede de conexões entre a sociedade humana e a natureza é discutida neste trabalho, no intuito de demonstrar o status quo da saúde ambiental nas políticas públicas no país. Primeiro foi traçado o histórico da “ambientalização na saúde”, do conceito de saúde ambiental e da institucionalização das políticas ambientais e de saúde ambiental no âmbito dos Ministérios do Meio Ambiente e da Saúde. As interações entre as políticas de Saúde e de Meio Ambiente para a efetivação de uma Política Nacional de Saúde Ambiental e as intersecções dos resultados das Conferências Nacionais de Saúde, Meio Ambiente e Saúde Ambiental foram analisadas; concluindo- se com os avanços conseguidos pelos dois setores, os desafios para a articulação intersetorial e a participação social para a construção de políticas públicas de saúde ambiental.

  9. MODIFICANDO O AMBIENTE ESCOLAR ATRAVÉS DO PROJETO MEIO AMBIENTE: CULTIVANDO E CONHECENDO AS PLANTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Caroline Lopes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho intitulado “MODIFICANDO O AMBIENTE ESCOLAR ATRAVÉS DO PROJETO MEIO AMBIENTE: CULTIVANDO E CONHECENDO AS PLANTAS” tem como desígnio apresentar o desenvolvimento do projeto “meio ambiente: cultivando e conhecendo as plantas”, no qual teve como proposta sensibilizar os alunos sobre a importância e preservação do meio ambiente através da prática e modificação do ambiente escolar, onde procurou-se utilizar materiais reciclados, tais como, garrafas pet, pneus velhos, carreteis de fios de eletricidade, e também mudas de arvore, plantas e hortaliças. Desta forma buscou se utilizar da criatividade dos envolvidos no processo para a transformação do ambiente escolar seco e vazio, para uma ambiente alegre, e acolhedor. O projeto foi elaborado pelas professoras da Extensão Betel, e aplicado em parceria com acadêmicos do sexto semestre do curso de Licenciatura em Pedagogia da Universidade do Estado do Mato Grosso (UNEMAT, campus de Sinop. Tendo como proposta a interdisciplinaridade, o projeto foi divido em três eixos orientados pelas professoras Edneuza Alves Trugillo, Sinóvia Rauber e Mariza Kreinner, abrangendo assim alunos e professoras de duas turmas de 2º Ano do Ensino Fundamental, e acadêmicos e professores da Universidade, os eixos foram arborização, jardinagem e horta, onde teve a duração de aproximadamente dois meses. A finalização das práticas obteve resultados satisfatórios e objetivos alcançados, tanto pela sensibilização dos alunos sobre a preservação e importância do meio-ambiente, quanto pela prática de intervenção pelos acadêmicos envolvidos no processo, que em coletividade conseguiram modificar o ambiente escolar através do objetivo do projeto, meio-ambiente, proporcionando assim um enriquecimento na formação acadêmica enquanto práticas pedagógicas.

  10. Next generation intelligent environments ambient adaptive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nothdurft, Florian; Heinroth, Tobias; Minker, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This book covers key topics in the field of intelligent ambient adaptive systems. It focuses on the results worked out within the framework of the ATRACO (Adaptive and TRusted Ambient eCOlogies) project. The theoretical background, the developed prototypes, and the evaluated results form a fertile ground useful for the broad intelligent environments scientific community as well as for industrial interest groups. The new edition provides: Chapter authors comment on their work on ATRACO with final remarks as viewed in retrospective Each chapter has been updated with follow-up work emerging from ATRACO An extensive introduction to state-of-the-art statistical dialog management for intelligent environments Approaches are introduced on how Trust is reflected during the dialog with the system.

  11. Multiagent robotic systems' ambient light sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iureva, Radda A.; Maslennikov, Oleg S.; Komarov, Igor I.

    2017-05-01

    Swarm robotics is one of the fastest growing areas of modern technology. Being subclass of multi-agent systems it inherits the main part of scientific-methodological apparatus of construction and functioning of practically useful complexes, which consist of rather autonomous independent agents. Ambient light sensors (ALS) are widely used in robotics. But speaking about swarm robotics, the technology which has great number of specific features and is developing, we can't help mentioning that its important to use sensors on each robot not only in order to help it to get directionally oriented, but also to follow light emitted by robot-chief or to help to find the goal easier. Key words: ambient light sensor, swarm system, multiagent system, robotic system, robotic complexes, simulation modelling

  12. Ambiente sociomoral e desenvolvimento da autonomia

    OpenAIRE

    Jakeline Alencar Andrade

    2003-01-01

    Esta dissertação aborda as relações entre o ambiente sociomoral e o desenvolvimento da autonomia das crianças de uma Escola da comunidade do Município de Porto Alegre-RS. O objetivo é descrever o ambiente sociomoral de cada sala de aula, construído nas relações interindividuais entre professores e alunos, e analisar o desenvolvimento da autonomia das crianças através do estudo do juízo moral. A pesquisa teórica fundamenta-se em vários estudos e abordagens sobre a moralidade e, em especial, no...

  13. Alberta ambient air quality objectives : sulphur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) is a colourless, non-flammable gas with a pungent odour. Exposure to SO 2 can result in numerous effects to the pulmonary system. This paper outlined current Alberta ambient air quality objectives in relation to SO 2 . The 1-hour average Alberta ambient air quality objective for SO 2 is currently 450 μg per m 3 . Studies conducted with healthy humans showed increased airway resistance and bronchoconstriction, as well as decreased maximum expiratory flow. Exercise can increase the severity of response to SO 2 in healthy and asthmatic individuals. Long-term exposure to SO 2 levels can also impact the metabolic activity of vegetation. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently announced their intention to reduce the 1-hour SO 2 standard to between 131 to 262 μg per m 3 . 7 refs.

  14. A Hybrid Indoor Ambient Light and Vibration Energy Harvester for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hua; Yue, Qiuqin; Zhou, Jielin; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To take advantage of applications where both light and vibration energy are available, a hybrid indoor ambient light and vibration energy harvesting scheme is proposed in this paper. This scheme uses only one power conditioning circuit to condition the combined output power harvested from both energy sources so as to reduce the power dissipation. In order to more accurately predict the instantaneous power harvested from the solar panel, an improved five-parameter model for small-scale solar p...

  15. The relationship between ambient illumination and psychological factors in viewing of display Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanami, Takuya; Kikuchi, Ayano; Kaneko, Takashi; Hirai, Keita; Yano, Natsumi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we have clarified the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological factors in viewing of display images. Psychological factors were obtained by the factor analysis with the results of the semantic differential (SD) method. In the psychological experiments, subjects evaluated the impressions of displayed images with changing ambient illuminating conditions. The illumination conditions were controlled by a fluorescent ceiling light and a color LED illumination which was located behind the display. We experimented under two kinds of conditions. One was the experiment with changing brightness of the ambient illumination. The other was the experiment with changing the colors of the background illumination. In the results of the experiment, two factors "realistic sensation, dynamism" and "comfortable," were extracted under different brightness of the ambient illumination of the display surroundings. It was shown that the "comfortable" was improved by the brightness of display surroundings. On the other hand, when the illumination color of surroundings was changed, three factors "comfortable," "realistic sensation, dynamism" and "activity" were extracted. It was also shown that the value of "comfortable" and "realistic sensation, dynamism" increased when the display surroundings were illuminated by the average color of the image contents.

  16. Characterization of an Outdoor Ambient Radio Frequency Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 06-2-595 Characterization of an Outdoor Ambient ...DTIC), AD No.: 14. ABSTRACT This TOP provides procedures to characterize an ambient radio frequency (RF) environment (sometimes referred to as...spectrum analyzer, ambient RF noise floor, RF interference 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18

  17. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  18. ANÁLISE DA QUALIDADE AMBIENTAL URBANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Minaki

    2012-01-01

    mostrando que, a pesar de ser una pequeña ciudad, sus características de la ocupación son suficientes para generar una disminución en la calidad ambiental. En este trabajo, también fue posible proponer ideas para mejorar la calidad de estos espacios, desde el punto de vista de la Planificación del Paisaje.

  19. Nonsymbolic Gestural Interaction for Ambient Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    the addressee with subtle clues about personality or cultural background. Gestures are an extremly rich source of communication-specific and contextual information for interactions in ambient intelligence environments. This chapter reviews the semantic layers of gestural interaction, focusing on the layer...... beyond communicative intent, and presents interface techniques to capture and analyze gestural input, taking into account nonstandard approaches such as acceleration analysis and the use of physiological sensors....

  20. Fuelling of TCA cycle in hepatic cells Marwari goat during ambient temperature associated stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataria N.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was launched to assess the effect of extreme ambient temperature associated stress on fuelling of TCA cycle in hepatic cells of Marwari goat. Based on the fact that whenever a hepatocyte needs fuel for TCA cycle, the activity of enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GD increases making alpha-ketoglutarate available for TCA cycle, 600 apparently healthy Marwari goats of either sex, between 6 months to 3 years of age were screened and blood samples were collected during moderate, cold and hot ambient temperature periods to determine the serum glutamate dehydrogenase enzyme and glucose concentration. The mean value of serum GD was significantly (p≤0.05 higher during cold and hot ambient temperature periods in comparison to overall moderate mean value. However, the rise was greater in cold (2.20 times than hot ambient temperature (1.19 times. The serum GD activity was higher in male and younger animals. Serum glucose concentration showed a reverse trend as compared to serum GD activity. The results indicated that in cold condition associated stress the fuelling to TCA cycle was more than moderate and hot ambient temperature periods. Serum GD activity was also found related with glucose homeostasis. Further the study has shown that variations in the enzyme levels are not always pathological and while interpreting clinical data, a clinician must consider these variations.

  1. Ambient air quality and asthma cases in Niğde, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Ertan; Özdilek, Hasan Göksel; Kara, Emine Erman

    2013-06-01

    Urban air quality is one of the key factors affecting human health. Turkey has transformed itself into an urban society over the last 30 years. At the same time, air pollution has become a serious impairment to health in many urban areas in the country. This is due to many reasons. In this study, a nonparametric evaluation was conducted of health effects that are triggered by urban air pollution. Niğde, the city which is the administrative centre of Nigde province was chosen of the effects of air pollution since, like many central Turkish cities, it is situated on a valley where atmospheric inversion occurs. In this paper, the relationship between ambient urban air quality, namely PM10 and sulphur dioxide (SO2), and human health, specifically asthma, during the winter season is examined. Air pollution data and asthma cases from 2006 to 2010 are covered in this study. The results of our study indicate that total asthma cases reported in Nigde between 2008 and 2010 were highly dependent on ambient SO2 concentration. More asthma cases were recorded when 30 μg m(-3) or higher SO2 was present in the ambient air than those recorded under cleaner ambient air conditions. Moreover, it was determined that in Nigde in 2010, asthma cases reported in males aged between 45 and 64 were closely correlated with ambient SO2 (α=0.05).

  2. Por uma nova ética ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Parizzi de Viveiros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo procura abordar a relação do homem com o ambiente. Entre outros pontos de discussão, argumenta que o cientificismo contribuiu para que se aprofundasse a visão de posse absoluta e exploração implacável sobre a natureza (terra, água, florestas, e que as fragilidades apresentadas pelo Planeta na atualidade são resultados do modo pelo qual se deu essa relação, ou seja, o modo como a partir do "domínio" sobre a natureza, o homem dilapidou e continua dilapidando os recursos naturais, com o intuito de produzir cada vez mais bens para o consumo, gerar e concentrar riquezas. Por fim, o artigo trata da emergência da educação ambiental e da prática interdisciplinar entre saberes, para que se possa construir uma nova ética ambiental, tão necessária à sobrevivência do Planeta.

  3. LA DIMENSION AMBIENTAL Y LA EDUCACION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Humberto Arias Pabón

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available El evidente deterioro ambiental al cual se enfrenta nuestra civilización, constituye una seria amenaza para la supervivencia de la especie humana por cuanto afecta sustancialmente la disponibilidad de recursos para mante ner el ritmo de producción de bienes y el avance tecnológico, característicos de la sociedad actual. Tal situación es causada no solamente por un equivocado modelo de desarrollo que considera incompatibles los conceptos de progreso material y conservación, sino por la ignorancia generalizada sobre la dinámica de los diversos procesos ecológicos que de forma natural buscan mantener el equilibrio ambiental del entorno. Ante este fenómeno la Fundación UNIVERSIDAD CENTRAL plantea una estrategia educativa como parte de la solución al problema con el ofrecimiento del programa de Ingeniería en Recursos Hídricos, a través del cual busca integrar la Dimensión Ambiental con la formación universitaria de las juventudes colombianas.

  4. Environment. Chapter 5; Medio ambiente. Capitulo 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this chapter it is mentioned the concern for the care of the environment in Mexico by prominent foreign and Mexican scientists who impelled the creation of a Forest Law. The ecological policies for the conservation of natural resources that cause a sustainable development in Mexico are commented; it is described what the environmental infrastructure consists of; the case of trash handling is analyzed and the Chapter concludes with the relationship of the environment, the climatic change, the infrastructure and the planning. [Spanish] En este capitulo se menciona la preocupacion por el cuidado del medio ambiente en Mexico, por prominentes cientificos extranjeros y mexicanos que impulsaron la creacion de una Ley Forestal. Se comentan las politicas ecologicas para la conservacion de recursos naturales que propicien un desarrollo sustentable en Mexico; se describe en que consiste la infraestructura ambiental; se analiza el caso del manejo de la basura y; se concluye con la relacion del medio ambiente, el cambio climatico, la infraestructura y la planeacion.

  5. 6th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Novais, Paulo; Pereira, António; González, Gabriel; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence (ISAmI 2015), held in Salamanca, Spain on June 3th-5th at the University of Salamanca. After a careful review, 27 papers from 10 different countries were selected to be presented in ISAmI 2015 at the conference and published in the proceedings.  ISAmI has been running annually and aiming to bring together researchers from various disciplines that constitute the scientific field of Ambient Intelligence to present and discuss the latest results, new ideas, projects and lessons learned, namely in terms of software and applications, and aims to bring together researchers from various disciplines that are interested in all aspects of this area. Ambient Intelligence is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence, where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human comput...

  6. Li-Isotope Fractionation into the Octahedral Framework of Clays: A Way to Understand the Weathering of Basalt in Early Mars Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa-Adams, E.; Gil-Lozano, C.; Bishop, J. L.; Hoser, A.; Davila, A. F.; Fairen, A. G.; Chevrier, V. F.; Gago-Duport, L.

    2017-10-01

    We track the use of lithium isotopes as a proxy to understand the degree and extent of basalt weathering in aqueous mediums, providing important information about the prevailing conditions during the formation of water bodies in the past of Mars.

  7. Stable oxygen isotope reconstruction of ambient temperature during the collapse of a cod (Gadus morhua) fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J Brin; Campana, Steven E

    2009-09-01

    Changing environmental conditions set against a backdrop of high exploitation can result in severe consequences for commercially harvested stocks. The collapse of the Eastern Scotian Shelf cod (Gadus morhua L.) off eastern Canada was primarily due to overexploitation but may have been exacerbated by a widespread temperature decline. Recent studies have called for accurate determination of ambient temperature (the actual temperature exposure history of the fish) before discarding environmental conditions as a factor in the collapse. We used the stable oxygen isotope composition of otoliths (delta18O(oto)) to reconstruct the ambient temperature history of Eastern Scotian Shelf cod from 1970 to 2000 in order to determine whether the stock experienced the temperature decline or shifted their distribution to avoid it. To correct delta18O(oto) for seawater isotope content (deltaO(w)), we generated a new meta-equation for the relationship between delta18O(w) (per mil) and salinity (S, in psu) on the Eastern Scotian Shelf: delta18O(w) = 0.539 x S - 18.790. The ambient temperature series revealed that the large-scale geographic distribution of mature cod remained constant through the cooling period, although their ambient temperature was cooler than expected in warmer periods and warmer than expected in cooler periods, indicating small-scale thermoregulatory movement. Although the mean hydrographic temperature was 4 degrees C, mature cod usually inhabited the coldest available waters (mean ambient temperature = 3 degrees C), while the juveniles usually inhabited warmer waters (mean ambient temperature = 5.5 degrees C). Length-at-age was significantly related to ambient temperature, especially in the early years of growth, and therefore declining ambient temperatures were at least partially responsible for declines in asymptotic length (up to age 8 yr). The most active thermoregulatory movement occurred during a moderate warming period; therefore extreme warming events (such

  8. Microturbogas cogeneration systems for distributed generation: Effects of ambient temperature on global performance and components’ behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caresana, F.; Pelagalli, L.; Comodi, G.; Renzi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrical power reduces with temperature, heat recovery remains almost constant. • Thermal-to-electrical power ratio increases with ambient temperature. • Not only the density of sucked air decreases but also its volumetric flow. • Putting a limit to shaft speed causes TIT to decrease with ambient temperature. • Power reduction with ambient temperature more than doubles that of great GTs. - Abstract: Microturbines (MGTs) are a relatively new technology that is currently attracting a lot of interest in the distributed generation market. Particularly interesting is their use as backup source for integrating photovoltaic panels or/and wind turbines in hybrid systems. In this case the sensitivity to ambient conditions of the MGT adds to that of the renewables and the knowledge of the effects of ambient conditions on its performance becomes a key subject both for the sizing of the energy system and for its optimal dynamic control. Although the dependence of medium/large gas turbines performance on atmospheric conditions is well known and documented in literature, there are very limited reports available on MGTs and they regard only global parameters. The paper aims at filling this lack of information by analyzing the ambient temperature effect on the global performance of an MGT in cogeneration arrangement and by entering in detail into its machines’ behavior. A simulation code, tuned on experimental data, is used for this purpose. Starting from the nominal ISO conditions, electrical power output is shown to decrease with ambient temperature at a rate of about 1.22%/°C, due to a reduction of both air density and volumetric flow. Meanwhile, thermal to electrical power ratio increases at a rate of about 1.30%/°C. As temperature increases compressor delivers less air at a lower pressure, and the turbine expansion ratio and mass flow reduce accordingly. With the in-use control system the turbine inlet temperature reduces at a rate of 0.07%/

  9. Fungos associados às sementes (Cariopses de cana-de-açúcar: métodos para detecção, incidência e relação entre incidência fúngica e ambiente de produção das sementes Sugarcane seedborne (Caryopses fungi: detection methods, incidence and relation between fungical incidence and seed production conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Dias Martins

    2009-09-01

    freqüentemente encontrados foram: Bipolaris sacchari; Bipolaris spp.; Cladosporium spp.; Curvularia spp.; Fusarium verticillioides; Fusarium semitectum e Phoma herbarum. Quando se comparou a porcentagem de incidência dos diversos fungos com o ambiente de produção das sementes, observou-se que não houve relação de temperatura e umidade relativa com incidência fúngica. Supõe-se que as variações de incidência possam estar relacionadas com diferentes fontes de inóculo nos locais de cruzamento ou características genéticas das sementes.This study had as objectives: to determine the most adequate method for detection and identification of sugarcane seedborne fungi; to characterize the associated fungi; to verify the incidences and to relate the fungical incidence in these seeds with the conditions where they were produced. To know the most adequate method of detection, two substrates were compared in Petri dishes: filter paper on agar-water culture medium and only filter paper. Glass and plastic Petri plates were utilized, to verify the recipient influence. It was also compared two light regimens (12h alternating cycles of light and darkness and continuous darkness. The seeds were kept during seven days under constant temperature of 28 ± 2ºC, when the evaluations were proceeded. The requirements for comparison of the methods were sensitivity, economicity and practicity. After the determination of the most adequate method, were done health tests of 29 crosses of the years 2002, 2003 and 2004, to characterize the seedborne fungi and verify their incidences. Later, these incidences were compared to the conditions of temperature and relative humidity from where the seeds were produced at the breeding program. The method considered most appropriated, in agreement with the analyzed parameters, was the filter paper in plastic Petri plate and the incubation under light regimen (12h alternating cycles of light and darkness. The detected fungi were: Alternaria

  10. Uma escuta ética de psicologia ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Freire,José Célio; Vieira,Emanuel Meireles

    2006-01-01

    O artigo propõe uma nova abordagem da dimensão ética da Psicologia Ambiental e da educação ambiental, a partir da ética da alteridade radical de Emmanuel Lévinas. Inicia com uma síntese das várias perspectivas da Psicologia Ambiental e da Ética Ambiental para, em seguida, tratar de conceitos centrais da Psicologia Ambiental - apropriação do espaço, identidade de lugar e pertencimento - à luz de uma ética radicalizada.

  11. ASPECTOS DA RESPONSABILIDADE CIVIL EM MATÉRIA AMBIENTAL

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar Filho, Valfredo de Andrade

    2008-01-01

    Diante da imprescindível necessidade de garantia do direito ao meio ambiente saudável, faz-se necessário o estudo do tradicional instituto da responsabilidade civil frente aos novos desafios de proteção ambiental. Desta forma, analisa-se o conceito de dano ambiental, e de meio ambiente, esboçando alguns problemas doutrinários, logo após, traçam-se alguns comentários a respeito da responsabilidade civil, para assim, introduzir alguns aspectos da responsabilidade civil em matéria ambiental. Den...

  12. Modeling Users, Context and Devices for Ambient Assisted Living Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillejo, Eduardo; Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Chen, Liming

    2014-01-01

    The participation of users within AAL environments is increasing thanks to the capabilities of the current wearable devices. Furthermore, the significance of considering user's preferences, context conditions and device's capabilities help smart environments to personalize services and resources for them. Being aware of different characteristics of the entities participating in these situations is vital for reaching the main goals of the corresponding systems efficiently. To collect different information from these entities, it is necessary to design several formal models which help designers to organize and give some meaning to the gathered data. In this paper, we analyze several literature solutions for modeling users, context and devices considering different approaches in the Ambient Assisted Living domain. Besides, we remark different ongoing standardization works in this area. We also discuss the used techniques, modeled characteristics and the advantages and drawbacks of each approach to finally draw several conclusions about the reviewed works. PMID:24643006

  13. Ambient air monitoring to support HLW repository site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransioli, P.M.; Dixon, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    Site characterization at the Yucca Mountain site includes an ambient air quality and meteorological monitoring program to provide information for environmental and site characterization issues. The program is designed to provide data for four basic purposes: Atmospheric dispersion calculations to estimate impacts of possible airborne releases of radiological material; Engineering design and extreme weather event characterization; Local climate studies for environmental impact analyses and climate characterization; and, Air quality permits required for site characterization work. The program is compiling a database that will provide the basis for analyses and reporting related to the purposes of the program. Except for reporting particulate matter and limited meteorological data to the State of Nevada for an air quality permit condition, the data have yet to be formally analyzed and reported

  14. Experiment of ambient temperature distribution in ICF driver's target building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yi; He Jie; Yang Shujuan; Zhang Junwei; Zhou Hai; Feng Bin; Xie Na; Lin Donghui

    2009-01-01

    An experiment is designed to explore the ambient temperature distribution in an ICF driver's target building, Multi-channel PC-2WS temperature monitoring recorders and PTWD-2A precision temperature sensors are used to measure temperatures on the three vertical cross-sections in the building, and the collected data have been handled by MATLAB. The experiment and analysis show that the design of the heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system can maintain the temperature stability throughout the building. However, because of the impact of heat in the target chamber, larger local environmental temperature gradients appear near the marshalling yard, the staff region on the middle floor, and equipments on the lower floor which needs to be controlled. (authors)

  15. CO oxidation on Pt(111) at near ambient pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krick Calderón, S.; Grabau, M.; Ã`vári, L.; Kress, B.; Steinrück, H.-P.; Papp, C.

    2016-01-01

    The oxidation of CO on Pt(111) was investigated simultaneously by near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and online gas analysis. Different CO:O2 reaction mixtures at total pressures of up to 1 mbar were used in continuous flow mode to obtain an understanding of the surface chemistry. By temperature-programmed and by isothermal measurements, the onset temperature of the reaction was determined for the different reactant mixtures. Highest turnover frequencies were found for the stoichiometric mixture. At elevated temperatures, the reaction becomes diffusion-limited in both temperature-programmed and isothermal measurements. In the highly active regime, no adsorbates were detected on the surface; it is therefore concluded that the catalyst surface is in a metallic state, within the detection limits of the experiment, under the applied conditions. Minor bulk impurities such as silicon were observed to influence the reaction up to total inhibition by formation of non-platinum oxides.

  16. CO oxidation on Pt(111) at near ambient pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krick Calderón, S.; Grabau, M.; Kress, B.; Papp, C.; Óvári, L.; Steinrück, H.-P.

    2016-01-01

    The oxidation of CO on Pt(111) was investigated simultaneously by near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and online gas analysis. Different CO:O 2 reaction mixtures at total pressures of up to 1 mbar were used in continuous flow mode to obtain an understanding of the surface chemistry. By temperature-programmed and by isothermal measurements, the onset temperature of the reaction was determined for the different reactant mixtures. Highest turnover frequencies were found for the stoichiometric mixture. At elevated temperatures, the reaction becomes diffusion-limited in both temperature-programmed and isothermal measurements. In the highly active regime, no adsorbates were detected on the surface; it is therefore concluded that the catalyst surface is in a metallic state, within the detection limits of the experiment, under the applied conditions. Minor bulk impurities such as silicon were observed to influence the reaction up to total inhibition by formation of non-platinum oxides

  17. Environmental embrittlement of ordered intermetallics at ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasugi, Takayuki

    1993-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the environmental embrittlement of ordered intermetallics, which is caused by hydrogen released from moisture in air or hydrogen gas in environment at ambient temperatures, takes place in various kinds of crystal structures, alloys and microstructures. First, the phenomenology of the environmental embrittlement, i.e. atmosphere, temperature and strain rate dependencies, as well as alloying, doping and microstructural effects, is presented in terms of mechanical properties, fractography and microstructural features. Next, possible mechanisms of embrittlement involving the kinetics (i.e. decomposition, migration and condensation of hydrogen) and the bond breaking are discussed. Finally, some evidence indicating suppression of the embrittlement through selection of deformation condition, alloying and microstructural modification is presented. 52 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Keeping track of time under ice and snow in a sub-arctic lake: plasma melatonin rhythms in Arctic charr overwintering under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Jo Espen Tau; Aarseth, Jo Jorem; Hanebrekke, Tanja Lexau; Jørgensen, Even Hjalmar

    2008-04-01

    Although photoperiod is considered as a major environmental cue for timing of seasonal events in fish, little is known about the photic information perceived by fish in different aquatic environments. The strongly seasonal Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, reside in lakes covered by thick ice and snow throughout the dark winter in the north. In the present study, we have measured diel changes in their plasma melatonin concentrations from September to June in Lake Storvatnet (70 degrees N), northern Norway. In addition, we have measured the in vitro melatonin production of Arctic charr pineal glands held at experimental light conditions. From September to April a diel profile in plasma melatonin was seen in the charr in Lake Storvatn, with highest concentrations at night. This profile reflected the prevailing above-surface photoperiod, even in February when there were minimal changes in sub-surface irradiance between day and night. In June, plasma melatonin was low throughout the 24-hr cycle, despite there being a marked sub-surface difference in irradiance between night and day. At this time the irradiance in night probably remained above the threshold for suppression of melatonin production. The in vitro experiments revealed no endogenous rhythm in the pineal melatonin secretion, supporting the conclusion that the diel profile seen in the Arctic charr in their natural habitat was driven by ambient photoperiod. In conclusion, the Arctic charr appear to keep track of time even under the extreme conditions of high latitudes during winter, when lakes have thick ice and snow cover.

  19. Analysis of high injection pressure and ambient temperature on biodiesel spray characteristics using computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Akasha; Khalid, Amir; Jaat, Norrizam; Sapit, Azwan; Razali, Azahari; Nizam, Akmal

    2017-09-01

    Efficiency of combustion engines are highly affected by the formation of air-fuel mixture prior to ignition and combustion process. This research investigate the mixture formation and spray characteristics of biodiesel blends under variant in high ambient and injection conditions using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The spray characteristics such as spray penetration length, spray angle and fluid flow were observe under various operating conditions. Results show that increase in injection pressure increases the spray penetration length for both biodiesel and diesel. Results also indicate that higher spray angle of biodiesel can be seen as the injection pressure increases. This study concludes that spray characteristics of biodiesel blend is greatly affected by the injection and ambient conditions.

  20. Non-classic multiscale modeling of manipulation based on AFM, in aqueous and humid ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korayem, M. H.; Homayooni, A.; Hefzabad, R. N.

    2018-05-01

    To achieve a precise manipulation, it is important that an accurate model consisting the size effect and environmental conditions be employed. In this paper, the non-classical multiscale modeling is developed to investigate the manipulation in a vacuum, aqueous and humid ambient. The manipulation structure is considered into two parts as a macro-field (MF) and a nano-field (NF). The governing equations of the AFM components (consist of the cantilever and tip) in the MF are derived based on the modified couple stress theory. The material length scale parameter is used to study the size effect. The fluid flow in the MF is assumed as the Couette and Creeping flows. Moreover, the NF is modeled using the molecular dynamics. The Electro-Based (ELBA) model is considered to model the ambient condition in the NF. The nanoparticle in the different conditions is taken into account to study the manipulation. The results of the manipulation indicate that the predicted deflection of the non-classical model is less than the classical one. Comparison of the nanoparticle travelled distance on substrate shows that the manipulation in the submerged condition is close to the ideal manipulation. The results of humid condition illustrate that by increasing the relative humidity (RH) the manipulation force decreases. Furthermore, Root Mean Square (RMS) as a criterion of damage demonstrates that the submerged nanoparticle has the minimum damage, however, the minimum manipulation force occurs in superlative humid ambient.