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Sample records for pretty darn rusty

  1. Schizamniogenesis in the rusty bat, Pipistrellus rusticus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schizamniogenesis in the rusty bat,. Pipistrellus rusticus. M. van der Merwe. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria,. 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received 20 September 1993; accepled 3 May 1994. Rusty bats are seasonally mono estrous, carrying a single foetus in each of the two uterine horns.

  2. Life is pretty meaningful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzelman, Samantha J; King, Laura A

    2014-09-01

    The human experience of meaning in life is widely viewed as a cornerstone of well-being and a central human motivation. Self-reports of meaning in life relate to a host of important functional outcomes. Psychologists have portrayed meaning in life as simultaneously chronically lacking in human life as well as playing an important role in survival. Examining the growing literature on meaning in life, we address the question "How meaningful is life, in general?" We review possible answers from various psychological sources, some of which anticipate that meaning in life should be low and others that it should be high. Summaries of epidemiological data and research using two self-report measures of meaning in life suggest that life is pretty meaningful. Diverse samples rate themselves significantly above the midpoint on self-reports of meaning in life. We suggest that if meaning in life plays a role in adaptation, it must be commonplace, as our analysis suggests. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Schizamniogenesis in the rusty bat, Pipistrellus rusticus | van der ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rusty bats are seasonally monoestrous, carrying a single foetus in each of the two uterine horns. Implantation is superficial with amniogenesis initiated very early during embryogenesis. Contrary to most other bat species where the amnion is formed by folding, it is formed by cavitation in the rusty bat.

  4. Ovarian activity and early embryonic development in the rusty bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive pattern of the female rusty bat, Pipistrellus rusticus, was investigated by means of a histological examination of the ovarian follicles as well as early embryonic development. Bats were collected from two localities in Limpopo Province. Female rusty bats are seasonal monestrous breeders, initiating ...

  5. Fungicide efficacy in peach rusty spot control in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Dolovac Nenad; Miletić Novica; Aleksić Goran; Savić Dušan; Živković Svetlana; Trkulja Nenad; Bulajić Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Rusty Spot has long been known as a harmful peach disease in many parts of the world. During the past several years, rusty spot infection of the late-maturing peach cultivars (Summerset, Suncrest, Fayette and O’Henry) caused significant yield losses in Serbia. Although the etiology of the disease is still unknown, there are numerous studies attempting to set a strategy for its control and recommend appropriate chemical and other peach protection methods. Ho...

  6. Food for thought: pretty good multispecies yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Dichmont, C. M.; Levin, P.S.

    2017-01-01

    good multidimensional yield to accommodate situations where the yield from a stock affects the ecosystem, economic and social benefits, or sustainability. We demonstrate in a European example that PGMY is a practical concept. As PGMY provides a safe operating space for management that adheres...... that broader ecosystem, economic, and social objectives are addressed. We investigate how the principles of a “pretty good yield” range of fishing mortalities assumed to provide >95% of the average yield for a single stock can be expanded to a pretty good multispecies yield (PGMY) space and further to pretty...

  7. Historical trends in rusty blackbird nonbreeding habitat in forested wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul B. Hamel; Diane De Steven; Ted Leininger; Randy. Wilson

    2009-01-01

    Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) populations have declined perhaps 95% in the recent past, creating legitimate concern that the species may become endangered. During the nonbreeding period the species occurs predominantly in southern U.S. forested wetland habitats, with concentrations in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and in the southeastern...

  8. Deriving Global Convection Maps From SuperDARN Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerloev, J. W.; Waters, C. L.; Barnes, R. J.

    2018-04-01

    A new statistical modeling technique for determining the global ionospheric convection is described. The principal component regression (PCR)-based technique is based on Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) observations and is an advanced version of the PCR technique that Waters et al. (https//:doi.org.10.1002/2015JA021596) used for the SuperMAG data. While SuperMAG ground magnetic field perturbations are vector measurements, SuperDARN provides line-of-sight measurements of the ionospheric convection flow. Each line-of-sight flow has a known azimuth (or direction), which must be converted into the actual vector flow. However, the component perpendicular to the azimuth direction is unknown. Our method uses historical data from the SuperDARN database and PCR to determine a fill-in model convection distribution for any given universal time. The fill-in data process is driven by a list of state descriptors (magnetic indices and the solar zenith angle). The final solution is then derived from a spherical cap harmonic fit to the SuperDARN measurements and the fill-in model. When compared with the standard SuperDARN fill-in model, we find that our fill-in model provides improved solutions, and the final solutions are in better agreement with the SuperDARN measurements. Our solutions are far less dynamic than the standard SuperDARN solutions, which we interpret as being due to a lack of magnetosphere-ionosphere inertia and communication delays in the standard SuperDARN technique while it is inherently included in our approach. Rather, we argue that the magnetosphere-ionosphere system has inertia that prevents the global convection from changing abruptly in response to an interplanetary magnetic field change.

  9. Fungicide Efficacy in Peach Rusty Spot Control in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Dolovac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rusty Spot has long been known as a harmful peach disease in many parts of the world. During the past several years, rusty spot infection of the late-maturing peach cultivars (Summerset, Suncrest, Fayette and O’Henry caused significant yield losses in Serbia.Although the etiology of the disease is still unknown, there are numerous studies attempting to set a strategy for its control and recommend appropriate chemical and other peach protection methods. However, because of specific environmental conditions in Serbia, recommended protection method using repeated fungicide treatments, starting from petal fall, did not prove to be efficient and the rate of infection in some susceptible peach cultivars reached 100%. In 2003 and 2004 a field trial was conducted in order to test the efficacy of fungicides (a.i. kresoxim-methyl, flusilazole and sulfur for the efficient control of Rusty Spot epidemics. The trial was carried out under conditions of natural infection on the peach cv. Summerset at the locality of Bela Crkva, Serbia. In the ntreated control plots,high disease incidence was recorded with the percentage of affected fruit surface ranging from 33.5% in the first, up to the 35.4% in the second year of the trail. Among fungicides included in the trial, kresoxim-methyl proved to be the most efficient (90.25% in the first and 91.12% in the second year of the trial, flusilazole exhibited lower efficacy (87.28% and 80.61%, respectively while sulfur was the least efficient 82.33% and 80.30%, respectively. Determination of the most efficient fungicide for the peach rusty spot control in Serbia provides basic nformation for further investigations which will include optimization of treatment terms, as well as additional agro-technical control measures.

  10. Analysis of the relationship between rusty root incidences and soil properties in Panax ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. X.; Xu, C. L.; Sun, H.; Ma, L.; Li, L.; Zhang, D. D.; Zhang, Y. Y.

    2016-08-01

    Rusty root is a serious problem in ginseng cultivation that limits the production and quality of ginseng worldwide. The Changbai Mountains are the most famous area for ginseng cultivation in China. To clarify the relationship between rusty root and soil characteristics, physico-chemical properties and enzymatic activities of soil collected from five different fields in the Changbai Mountains were analyzed and a controlled experiment carried out by increasing the concentration of Fe (II). Soil bulk density, moisture, total iron (Fe) and total manganese (Mn) concentrations and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were significantly higher in rusty root than healthy root groups (two-sample test, Ptest showed that there was a significant positive correlation between rusty root index and pH, N, Fe, Mn, Al, Zn and Ca of soil samples collected from fields (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and a significant positive correlation also occurred between rusty root index and Fe (II) added to soil in Fe (II) inducing rusty root (P<0.01). Physiological factors may be very important roles giving rise to ginseng rusty root. Fe (III) reduction and Fe (II) oxidation could be important in increasing the incidence of rusty root. Soil moisture and bulk density of non-rhizosphere soil not attached to the root surface, and pH, N and PPO content of rhizosphere soils attached to the root surface were heavily involved in the reduction, oxidation and sequestration of metal ions.

  11. Darning Needle Impacted in the Male Urethra | Singla | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign bodies of varied nature have been introduced into the urethra to achieve sexual stimulation. We report the case of a long (9.5 cm) darning needle impacted in the urethra of a male patient following urethral masturbation. After a failed trial at endoscopic extraction the needle had to be removed via open surgery.

  12. Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Observed by Midlatitude SuperDARN Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissell, N. A.; Baker, J. B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; West, M. L.; Bristow, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    Medium Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTIDs) are wave-like perturbations of the F-region ionosphere with horizontal wavelengths on the order of 100-250 km and periods between ~15 - 60 min, and are generally thought to be the ionospheric manifestation of Atmospheric Gravity Waves (AGWs). High-latitude MSTIDs have been studied using SuperDARN radars since 1989, and are typically attributed to auroral sources and propagated by the Earth Reflected Wave (ERW) mode. Tropospheric sources and earthquakes are also known to be sources of MSTIDs. Observations of MSTIDs using both mid- and high- latitude SuperDARN radars are presented. North American radar data from November 2010 - November 2011 were searched for signatures of MSTIDs. Initial results suggest that MSTIDs are observed at high latitudes primarily in the fall/winter months, which is consistent with published results. This search also reveals that mid-latitude MSTIDs often appear concurrently with high-latitude MSTIDs and share similar wave parameters. During the fall/winter months, SuperDARN mid-latitude MSTIDs appear more often than high-latitude MSTIDs, likely due to calmer ionospheric conditions at mid-latitudes. In the springtime, SuperDARN-observed MSTIDs are less likely to be seen at high-latitudes, but still appear at mid-latitudes. Selected events are analyzed for wave parameters using the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) technique.

  13. Some reduce facilities for pretty printing subscripts and formal derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, B.J.A.; van Hulzen, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Some REDUCE facilities are presented for pretty printing formal (partial) derivatives, for array-and matrix subcripts and for operators with arbitrary arguments. The package is completely written in Standard LISP and can be considered as an addition to the output repertoire of the algebraic mode of

  14. What Girls Say About: The Pressure to Be Pretty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español What Girls Say About: The Pressure to Be Pretty KidsHealth / ... presión que existe para ser bonita Survey Says: Girls Worry About Their Looks Imagine a group of ...

  15. Mapping ionospheric backscatter measured by the SuperDARN HF radars – Part 2: Assessing SuperDARN virtual height models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Yeoman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN network of HF coherent backscatter radars form a unique global diagnostic of large-scale ionospheric and magnetospheric dynamics in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Currently the ground projections of the HF radar returns are routinely determined by a simple rangefinding algorithm, which takes no account of the prevailing, or indeed the average, HF propagation conditions. This is in spite of the fact that both direct E- and F-region backscatter and 1½-hop E- and F-region backscatter are commonly used in geophysical interpretation of the data. In a companion paper, Chisham et al. (2008 have suggested a new virtual height model for SuperDARN, based on average measured propagation paths. Over shorter propagation paths the existing rangefinding algorithm is adequate, but mapping errors become significant for longer paths where the roundness of the Earth becomes important, and a correct assumption of virtual height becomes more difficult. The SuperDARN radar at Hankasalmi has a propagation path to high power HF ionospheric modification facilities at both Tromsø on a ½-hop path and SPEAR on a 1½-hop path. The SuperDARN radar at Þykkvibǽr has propagation paths to both facilities over 1½-hop paths. These paths provide an opportunity to quantitatively test the available SuperDARN virtual height models. It is also possible to use HF radar backscatter which has been artificially induced by the ionospheric heaters as an accurate calibration point for the Hankasalmi elevation angle of arrival data, providing a range correction algorithm for the SuperDARN radars which directly uses elevation angle. These developments enable the accurate mappings of the SuperDARN electric field measurements which are required for the growing number of multi-instrument studies of the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere.

  16. Geographic and seasonal variation in mercury exposure of the declining Rusty Blackbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel T. Edmonds; David C. Evers; Daniel A. Cristol; Claudia Mettke-Hofmann; Luke L. Powell

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that mercury exposure has negative effects on the health of songbirds, and species that forage in wetlands may be at a greater risk of bioaccumulation of mercury than are those of other habitats. We examined mercury concentrations in blood and feathers from the wetland obligate and rapidly declining Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) from...

  17. ZEBRA MUSSEL COLONIZATION OF RUSTY CRAYFISH IN GREEN BAY, LAKE MICHIGAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August, 1995 six rusty crayfish colonized with zebra mussels were captured in small-meshed fyke-nets sets set apart as of a fish sampling effort at Peter's Marsh and Long-Tail Point Wetland in lower Green Bay. Mussels colonized virtually all areas of the crayfish bodies, but ...

  18. Dirty pretty language: translation and the borders of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida Payson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the politics of English, and translation into Englishness, in the film Dirty Pretty Things (Frears. With a celebrated multilingual cast, some of whom did not speak much English, the film nevertheless unfolds in English as it follows migrant characters living illegally and on the margins in London. We take up the filmic representation of migrants in the “compromised, impure and internally divided” border spaces of Britain (Gibson 694 as one of translation into the imagined nation (Anderson. Dirty Pretty Things might seem in its style to be a kind of multicultural “foreignized translation” which reflects a heteropoetics of difference (Venuti; instead, we argue that Dirty Pretty Things, through its performance of the labour of learning and speaking English, strong accents, and cultural allusions, is a kind of domesticated translation (Venuti that homogenises cultural difference into a literary, mythological English and Englishness. Prompted by new moral panics over immigration and recent UK policies that heap further requirements on migrants to speak English in order to belong to “One Nation Britain” (Cameron, we argue that the film offers insights into how the politics of British national belonging continue to be defined by conformity to a type of deserving subject, one who labours to learn English and to translate herself into narrow, recognizably English cultural forms. By attending to the subtleties of language in the film, we trace the pressure on migrants to translate themselves into the linguistic and mythological moulds of their new host society.

  19. Determining characteristics of HF communications links using SuperDARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hughes

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Space weather effects can strongly influence high-frequency (HF communications by changing the ionospheric environment through which the radio waves propagate. Since many systems utilize HF communications, the ability to make real-time assessments of propagation conditions is an important part of space weather monitoring systems. In this paper, we present new techniques for measuring high-latitude HF communications link parameters using data from SuperDARN radars. These techniques use ground-scatter returns to define the variation in skip distance with frequency. From these data, the maximum usable frequency (MUF as a function of range is determined and ionospheric critical frequencies are estimated. These calculations are made in near-real-time and the results are made available on the World Wide Web. F-region critical frequencies calculated using this method show good agreement with ionosonde data.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; instruments and techniques – Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  20. Determining characteristics of HF communications links using SuperDARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hughes

    Full Text Available Space weather effects can strongly influence high-frequency (HF communications by changing the ionospheric environment through which the radio waves propagate. Since many systems utilize HF communications, the ability to make real-time assessments of propagation conditions is an important part of space weather monitoring systems. In this paper, we present new techniques for measuring high-latitude HF communications link parameters using data from SuperDARN radars. These techniques use ground-scatter returns to define the variation in skip distance with frequency. From these data, the maximum usable frequency (MUF as a function of range is determined and ionospheric critical frequencies are estimated. These calculations are made in near-real-time and the results are made available on the World Wide Web. F-region critical frequencies calculated using this method show good agreement with ionosonde data.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; instruments and techniques – Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  1. Polypropylene Darning: A New Alternative for Reconstruction of Orbital Floor after Total Maxillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant

    2015-06-01

    Removal of orbital floor is an integral part of total (radical) maxillectomy (type IIIa), which if not managed properly, may lead to some eye related distressing complications like diplopia, eyelid malposition, epiphora, dacryocystitis, enopthalmos and ectoprion. Among all, diplopia is the most distressing complication which hampers daily activity. Various options for orbital floor reconstruction are available like titanium sheet, polypropylene mesh, non-vascularized or vascularized bone graft, pedicled flaps, micro-vascular free flaps, prosthesis placement, and split skin graft followed by obturator placement. Till date no-body has tried stabilization of eye ball by 'darning' the orbital floor using non-absorbable suture. 'Polypropylene suture darning' is an easy to learn, novel method with equally good results. Five patients with potentially resectable tumors underwent total maxillectomy. I used polypropylene 3-0 round body suture and 'darning' was done at orbital floor, incorporating periosteum (if remaining) and peri-orbital fat into the sutures. Muscle flaps were done to provide bulk and palatal reconstruction. Assessment of patients was done post-operatively at day-5 i.e., before discharge and at 1 month after surgery, and also in further follow up visits. The results were very good in terms of clear vision & eye movements (directly related to 'darning'), and the aesthetic look of patients and bilateral symmetry were satisfactory (not related to darning). Darning of orbital floor by polypropylene after total maxillectomy is an easy to learn and cost-effective method of reconstruction with good results.

  2. What can we do with only a pair of rusty compasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingzhong; Yang Lu

    1989-04-01

    Compasses are called rusty, if one can draw only the unit circle with them. We prove that: From two points A and B, with only rusty compasses, one can draw the points of k-section of AB, and all the vertices of a regular n-gon which has a side AB, where k is any integer greater than 1, and n=3,4,5,6,8,12,17,257,..etc. Generally, let A be (0,0) and B be (λ,0), then one can draw all the points (λx,λy) where x and y are any elements in some regular 2 m -extension of the rational field, for m=1,2,3,... (author). 10 refs, 11 figs

  3. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Hamel, Paul B; Hofmann, Gerhard; Zenzal, Theodore J; Pellegrini, Anne; Malpass, Jennifer; Garfinkel, Megan; Schiff, Nathan; Greenberg, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes.

  4. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mettke-Hofmann

    Full Text Available Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes.

  5. When gay is pretty: physical attractiveness and low homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innala, S M; Ernulf, K E

    1994-06-01

    Photographs of physically attractive men and women were presented as depicting homosexuals and heterosexuals to subjects on the University of California at Berkeley campus who were generally judged to be nonhomophobic opposite-sexed students. Analysis showed that the 62 women rated 3 men as significantly more physically attractive when they believed the men were homosexual than when they believed the men were heterosexual. The 65 men did not rate photographs of 3 women as more physically attractive when they believed the women were lesbian compared to when they believed the women were heterosexual. The results illustrate an effect of the "gay-pretty-boy stereotype," namely, that women judged to be nonhomophobic perceived homosexual men as more physically attractive than comparable heterosexual men.

  6. PRETTY: Grazing altimetry measurements based on the interferometric method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Per; Fragner, Heinrich; Dielacher, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The exploitation of signals stemming from global navigation systems for passive bistatic radar applications has beenproposed and implemented within numerous studies. The fact that such missions do not rely on high power amplifiersand that the need of high gain antennas with large geometrical...... dimensions can be avoided, makes them suitable forsmall satellite missions. Applications where a continuous high coverage is needed, as for example disaster warning,have the demand for a large number of satellites in orbit, which in turn requires small and relatively low cost satellites.The proposed PRETTY...... (Passive Reflectometry and Dosimetry) mission includes a demonstrator payload for passivereflectometry and scatterometry focusing on very low incidence angles whereby the direct and reflected signal will bereceived via the same antenna. The correlation of both signals will be done by a specific FPGA based...

  7. A 5‑year Review of Darning Technique of Inguinal Hernia Repair

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    modes of presentation,[8,9] and in many hospitals where the experience ... will be ideal. This study aims to present our experience with the use of the. Darning technique for repair of inguinal hernia in a Nigerian ... Study Design: A descriptive retrospective study ... site infection was the most common complication occurring in.

  8. SUICIDAL INTRODUCTION OF A DARNING NEEDLE IN URETHRA OF A MALE CHILD: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Prasenjit; Himadri Sekhar; Amalesh; Sudipta; Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Foreign bodies of varied nature have been introduced into the urethra for autoerotic , psychiatric or therapeutic purposes found mostly in the adults. But in children self introduction of foreign body for suicidal purpose is extremely rare. We report a case of a long ( eight cm.) darning needle impacted in the urethra of a 12 year old male ...

  9. Comparison of DMSP cross-track ion drifts and SuperDARN line-of-sight velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Drayton

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Cross-track ion drifts measured by the DMSP satellites are compared with line-of-sight SuperDARN HF velocities in approximately the same directions. Good overall agreement is found for a data set comprising of 209 satellite passes over the field of view of nine SuperDARN radars in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The slope of the best linear fit line relating the SuperDARN and DMSP velocities is of the order of 0.7 with a tendency for SuperDARN velocities to be smaller. The agreement implies that the satellite and radar data can be merged into a common set provided that spatial and temporal variations of the velocity as measured by both instruments are smooth.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Ionospheric irregularities; Plasma convection; Auroral ionosphere

  10. Pretty leprosy: Another face of Hansen’s disease! A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Prem Anand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pretty leprosy is one of the rare severe forms of lepromatous leprosy. It is a reaction pattern that occurs in untreated pure primitive diffuse lepromatous leprosy or lepromatous leprosy. The skin of the patient is diffusely infiltrated and shiny, so that natural wrinkles are obliterated. It generates a moist and myxoedematous complexion imparting a healthy aspect to the patient. Thus the disease got the name. In this review we have reviewed almost all available literature to point more light toward the clinical variant pretty leprosy. A search was made in PubMed central to know the availability of information about pretty leprosy, but the response was nil for pretty leprosy. 37 articles were spotted in PubMed media on Lucioleprosy; 3 review articles are present and the rest were case reports.

  11. On the decline of the Rusty Blackbird and the use of ornithological literature to document long-term population trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R.; Droege, S.

    1999-01-01

    Unlike most North American blackbirds, Rusty Blackbirds (Euphagus carolensis) have shown steep population declines. Declines of approximately 90% are indicated for three recent decades from the Breeding Bird Survey, Christmas Bird Counts, and Quebec Checklist Program. Analyses of abundance classifications in bird distribution books and annotated checklists reveal an overlooked but long-term decline dating back to at least the early part of this century. Rusty Blackbirds were described as very common to abundant in 5656 of the pre-192O published accounts, 19% of the 1921-1950 accounts, and only 7% of the post-1950 accounts. Rusty Blackbirds were described as uncommon in none of the pre-1950 accounts, 18% of the 1951-1980 accounts, and 43% of the post-1980 accounts. A similar pattern was found for analyses based on local checklists. Destruction of wooded wetlands on wintering grounds, acid precipitation, and the conversion of boreal forest wetlands could have contributed to these declines. Systematic analysis of regional guides and checklists provides a valuable tool for examining large-scale and long-term population changes in birds.

  12. Natural history and breeding biology of the Rusty-breasted Antpitta (Grallaricula ferrugineipectus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklison, Alina M.; Areta, J.I.; Ruggera, R.A.; Decker, Karie L.; Bosque, C.; Martin, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    We provide substantial new information on the breeding biology of the Rusty-breasted Antpitta (Grallaricula ferrugineipectus ferrugineipectus) from 40 nests during four consecutive breeding seasons at Yacambu National Park in Venezuela. Vocalizations are quite variable in G. ferrugineipectus. Nesting activity peaked in April when laying began for half of all nests monitored. The date of nest initiation pattern suggests this species is single-brooded. Both parents incubate and the percent of time they incubate is high (87-99%) throughout the incubation period. The incubation period averaged (?? SE) 17.0 ?? 0.12 days, while the nestling period averaged 13.37 ?? 0.37 days. G. f. ferrugineipectus has the shortest developmental time described for its genus. Time spent brooding nestlings decreased as nestlings grew, but was still greater at pin feather break day than observed in north temperate species. The growth rate constant based on mass (k = 0.41) and tarsus length (k = 0.24) was lower than the k for north temperate species of similar adult mass. All nesting mortality was caused by predation and overall daily survival rate (?? SE) was relatively low (0.94 ?? 0.01) yielding an estimated 15% nest success.

  13. HF coherent backscatter in the ionosphere: In situ measurements of SuperDARN backscatter with e-POP RRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, G. W.; James, H. G.; Hussey, G. C.; Howarth, A. D.; Yau, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    We report in situ polarimetry measurements of HF scattering obtained by the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) during a coherent backscatter scattering event detected by the Saskatoon Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN). On April 1, 2015, e-POP conducted a 4 minute coordinated experiment with SuperDARN Saskatoon, starting at 3:38:44 UT (21:38:44 LT). Throughout the experiment, SuperDARN was transmitting at 17.5 MHz and e-POP's ground track moved in a northeastward direction, along SuperDARN's field-of-view, increasing in altitude from 331 to 352 km. RRI was tuned to 17.505 MHz, and recorded nearly 12,000 SuperDARN radar pulses during the experiment. In the first half of the experiment, radar pulses recorded by RRI were "well behaved": they retained their transmitted amplitude envelope, and their pulse-to-pulse polarization characteristics were coherent - Faraday rotation was easily measured. During the second half of the experiment the pulses showed clear signs of scattering: their amplitude envelopes became degraded and dispersed, and their pulse-to-pulse polarization characteristics became incoherent - Faraday rotation was difficult to quantify. While these pulses were being received by RRI, SuperDARN Saskatoon detected a latitudinal band of coherent backscatter at e-POP's location, indicating that the scattered pulses measured by RRI may be a signature of HF backscatter. In this presentation, we will outline the polarimetric details of the scattered pulses, and provide an analytic interpretation of RRI's measurements to give new insight into the nature of HF coherent backscatter mechanism taking place in the terrestrial ionosphere.

  14. Darning, doylies and dancing: the work of the Leeds Association of Girls' Clubs (1904-1913).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen M F

    2011-01-01

    The Leeds Association of Girls' Clubs (LAGC) was set up by a group of women, including Hilda Hargrove, Dr Lucy Buckley and Mary and Margaret Harvey, to promote collaboration between the city's girls' clubs. The organisation epitomised women working in partnership whilst reflecting their differing philanthropic and political interests. However LAGC's collaborative approach resulted in liberal consensus which downplayed the significance of girls' working conditions. Throughout the decade LAGC's focus was its annual competitions. These featured utilitarian and decorative handicrafts (darning and doylies) enshrining both frugality and aspiration, alongside dance and drill which channelled girls' vigour. Nevertheless, LAGC's resilience resulted in an organisation which is still in existence.

  15. Pretty-printing within the ASF+SDF meta-environment : a generic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.J. van den Brand (Mark); M. de Jonge (Merijn)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe automatic generation of formatters for (programming) languages within the Asf+Sdf Meta-Environment is a research topic that is concerned with the construction of language specific formatters (or pretty-printers) given a language definition in Sdf. In this paper, we give an overview

  16. Generic packet descriptions : Verified Parsing and Pretty Printing of Low-Level Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geest, Marcell; Swierstra, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    Complex protocols describing the communication or storage of binary data are difficult to describe precisely. This paper presents a collection of data types for describing a binary data formats; the corresponding parser and pretty printer are generated automatically from a data description. By

  17. Variations in the occurrence of SuperDARN F region echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghezelbash

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of F region ionospheric echoes observed by a number of SuperDARN HF radars is analyzed statistically in order to infer solar cycle, seasonal, and diurnal trends. The major focus is on Saskatoon radar data for 1994–2012. The distribution of the echo occurrence rate is presented in terms of month of observation and magnetic local time. Clear repetitive patterns are identified during periods of solar maximum and solar minimum. For years near solar maximum, echoes are most frequent near midnight during winter. For years near solar minimum, echoes occur more frequently near noon during winter, near dusk and dawn during equinoxes and near midnight during summer. Similar features are identified for the Hankasalmi and Prince George radars in the northern hemisphere and the Bruny Island TIGER radar in the southern hemisphere. Echo occurrence for the entire SuperDARN network demonstrates patterns similar to patterns in the echo occurrence for the Saskatoon radar and for other radars considered individually. In terms of the solar cycle, the occurrence rate of nightside echoes is shown to increase by a factor of at least 3 toward solar maximum while occurrence of the near-noon echoes does not significantly change with the exception of a clear depression during the declining phase of the solar cycle.

  18. A survey of plasma irregularities as seen by the midlatitude Blackstone SuperDARN radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. J.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B. H.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Greenwald, R. A.; Lester, M.

    2012-02-01

    The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) is a chain of HF radars that monitor plasma dynamics in the ionosphere. In recent years, SuperDARN has expanded to midlatitudes in order to provide enhanced coverage during geomagnetically active periods. A new type of backscatter from F region plasma irregularities with low Doppler velocity has been frequently observed on the nightside during quiescent conditions. Using three years of data from the Blackstone, VA radar, we have implemented a method for extracting this new type of backscatter from routine observations. We have statistically characterized the occurrence properties of the Sub Auroral Ionospheric Scatter (SAIS) events, including the latitudinal relationships to the equatorward edge of the auroral oval and the ionospheric projection of the plasmapause. We find that the backscatter is confined to local night, occurs on ≈70% of nights, is fixed in geomagnetic latitude, and is equatorward of both the auroral region and the plasmapause boundary. We conclude that SAIS irregularities are observed within a range of latitudes that is conjugate to the inner magnetosphere (plasmasphere).

  19. Ionospheric propagation effects on spectral widths measured by SuperDARN HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Vallières

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available SuperDARN HF radars provide a global survey of the large-scale convection transversely to the Earth's magnetic field in the high-latitude ionosphere. In addition to the mean plasma velocity, this network also provides measurements of spectral widths which are related to the level of turbulence of the sounded plasma. There is an increasing interest in using spectral widths in geophysical studies, since they are used to monitor the footprints of several magnetospheric regions. In the present paper, we show the effect of radio wave propagation through a typical turbulent ionosphere on spectral widths measured by SuperDARN radars. This effect has already been evidenced experimentally in a previous paper. Here, we model the effects of meso-scale structures on a radar wave front and study their impact on a typical measurement. Numerical simulations reproduce the effect evidenced experimentally and show the role of meso-scale structures (1-10km in the systematic bias that affects spectral width values. As in experimental data, this effect is shown to be increasing with decreasing radar frequency.

  20. Ionospheric propagation effects on spectral widths measured by SuperDARN HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Vallières

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available SuperDARN HF radars provide a global survey of the large-scale convection transversely to the Earth's magnetic field in the high-latitude ionosphere. In addition to the mean plasma velocity, this network also provides measurements of spectral widths which are related to the level of turbulence of the sounded plasma. There is an increasing interest in using spectral widths in geophysical studies, since they are used to monitor the footprints of several magnetospheric regions. In the present paper, we show the effect of radio wave propagation through a typical turbulent ionosphere on spectral widths measured by SuperDARN radars. This effect has already been evidenced experimentally in a previous paper. Here, we model the effects of meso-scale structures on a radar wave front and study their impact on a typical measurement. Numerical simulations reproduce the effect evidenced experimentally and show the role of meso-scale structures (1-10km in the systematic bias that affects spectral width values. As in experimental data, this effect is shown to be increasing with decreasing radar frequency.

  1. A Study of Solar Flare Effects on Mid and High Latitude Radio Wave Propagation using SuperDARN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Chakraborty, S.; Baker, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Over the Horizon (OTH) communication is strongly dependent on the state of the ionosphere, which is sensitive to solar X-ray flares. The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN), whose working principle is dependent on trans-ionospheric radio communication, uses HF radio waves to remotely sense the ionosphere. The backscatter returns from the terrestrial surface (also known as ground-scatter) transit the ionosphere four times and simulate the operation of an HF communications link. SuperDARN backscatter signal properties are altered (strongly attenuated and changes apparent phase) during a sudden ionospheric disturbance following a solar flare, commonly known as Short-Wave Fadeout or SWF. During an SWF the number of SuperDARN backscatter echoes drops suddenly (≈1 min) and sharply, often to near zero, and recovers within 30 minutes to an hour. In this study HF propagation data (SuperDARN backscatter) obtained during SWF events are analyzed for the purpose of validating and improving the performance of HF absorption models, such as, Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) D-region Absorption model (DRAP) and CCMC physics based AbbyNormal model. We will also present preliminary results from a physics based model for the mid and high latitude ionospheric response to flare-driven space weather anomalies, which can be used to estimate different physical parameters of the ionosphere such as electron density, collision frequency, absorption coefficients, response time of D-region etc.

  2. Annual and solar cycle dependencies of SuperDARN scatter occurrence and ionospheric convection measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, M.; Imber, S. M.; Milan, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) provides a long term data series which enables investigations of the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system. The network has been in existence essentially since 1995 when 6 radars were operational in the northern hemisphere and 4 in the southern hemisphere. We have been involved in an analysis of the data over the lifetime of the project and present results here from two key studies. In the first study we calculated the amount of ionospheric scatter which is observed by the radars and see clear annual and solar cycle variations in both hemispheres. The recent extended solar minimum also produces a significant effect in the scatter occurrence. In the second study, we have determined the latitude of the Heppner-Maynard Boundary (HMB) using the northern hemisphere SuperDARN radars. The HMB represents the equatorward extent of ionospheric convection for the interval 1996 - 2011. We find that the average latitude of the HMB at midnight is 61° magnetic latitude during solar the maximum of 2003, but it moves significantly poleward during solar minimum, averaging 64° latitude during 1996, and 68° during 2010. This poleward motion is observed despite the increasing number of low latitude radars built in recent years as part of the StormDARN network, and so is not an artefact of data coverage. We believe that the recent extreme solar minimum led to an average HMB location that was further poleward than the previous solar cycle. We have also calculated the Open-Closed field line Boundary (OCB) from auroral images during a subset of the interval (2000 - 2002) and find that on average the HMB is located equatorward of the OCB by ~7o. We suggest that the HMB may be a useful proxy for the OCB when global images are not available. The work presented in this paper has been undertaken as part of the European Cluster Assimilation Technology (ECLAT) project which is funded through the EU FP7 programme and involves groups at

  3. Pretty Woman, or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin; Jøker Bjerre, Henrik; Thykjær, Steen

    Pretty Woman” is not just a romantic comedy about the perfect relationship between a cynical businessman and a beautiful prostitute. It is a myth on the level of other great foundational myths of Western culture and should be read as such. The film thematizes the relation between romantic love...... and economy, but (like all great myths) in a way that raises more serious questions than one would expect…...

  4. SuperDARN Hokkaido radar observation of westward flow enhancement in subauroral latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kataoka

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Westward flow enhancement in subauroral latitudes is investigated based on the first one and a half year observation of the SuperDARN Hokkaido radar. A total of 15 events are identified with the criteria of westward flow speed of >1.0 km/s in magnetic latitude from 45 to 65 deg during geomagnetically disturbed period of Kp>3+ at 20 magnetic local time. It is found that especially during the storm recovery phase, the flow enhancement occurs in broad range of Dst amplitude, and the occurrence latitude depends on the amplitude of Dst. It is also found that the disturbed Kp condition is not sufficient for the appearance of the subauroral flow enhancement as seen by Hokkaido radar while storm-like Dst condition is necessary, supporting the idea that ring current particles play an essential role to enhance the westward flow in subauroral latitudes via magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling through the field-aligned current.

  5. Characterization of Nightside Mid-latitude Irregularities Observed with the Blackstone SuperDARN Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Ribeiro, A. J.; Baker, J. B.; Greenwald, R. A.; Newell, P. T.

    2009-12-01

    The new mid-latitude SuperDARN radars at Wallops Island and Blackstone observe strong coherent backscattering on an almost nightly basis from latitudes that appear to be subauroral. One study has demonstrated an excellent correlation with the occurrence of density and temperature gradients within the ionospheric projection of the plasmapause (Greenwald et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. [2006]). We have processed all the data collected with the Blackstone radar since its inception in February 2008 for a characterization of the occurrence and properties of ‘plasmapause’ scatter. We have determined the local time and Kp dependencies of the activity and the relation of the spatial distribution of the irregularities to magnetospheric boundaries and ionospheric density gradients. We establish that the irregularities are a feature of the quiet-time subauroral ionosphere and provide a valuable diagnostic of the electric fields in the inner magnetosphere.

  6. Solar Cycle variations in Earth's open flux content measured by the SuperDARN radar network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, S. M.; Milan, S. E.; Lester, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present a long term study, from 1996 - 2012, of the latitude of the Heppner-Maynard Boundary (HMB) determined using the northern hemisphere SuperDARN radars. The HMB represents the equatorward extent of ionospheric convection and is here used as a proxy for the amount of open flux in the polar cap. The mean HMB latitude (measured at midnight) is found to be at 64 degrees during the entire period, with secondary peaks at lower latitudes during the solar maximum of 2003, and at higher latitudes during the recent extreme solar minimum of 2008-2011. We associate these large scale statistical variations in open flux content with solar cycle variations in the solar wind parameters leading to changes in the intensity of the coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere.

  7. Transient plasma injections in the dayside magnetosphere: one-to-one correlated observations by Cluster and SuperDARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchaudon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctions in the cusp between the four Cluster spacecraft and SuperDARN ground-based radars offer unique opportunities to compare the signatures of transient plasma injections simultaneously in the high-altitude dayside magnetosphere and in the ionosphere. We report here on such observations on 17 March 2001, when the IMF initially northward and duskward, turns southward and dawnward for a short period. The changes in the convection direction at Cluster are well correlated with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF By variations. Moreover, the changes in the ionosphere follow those in the magnetosphere, with a 2–3min delay. When mapped into the ionosphere, the convection velocity at Cluster is about 1.5 times larger than measured by SuperDARN. In the high-altitude cusp, field and particle observations by Cluster display the characteristic signatures of plasma injections into the magnetosphere suggestive of Flux Transfer Events (FTEs. Simultaneous impulsive and localized convection plasma flows are observed in the ionospheric cusp by the HF radars. A clear one-to-one correlation is observed for three successive injections, with a 2–3min delay between the magnetospheric and ionospheric observations. For each event, the drift velocity of reconnected flux tubes (phase velocity has been compared in the magnetosphere and in the ionosphere. The drift velocity measured at Cluster is of the order of 400–600ms–1 when mapped into the ionosphere, in qualitative agreement with SuperDARN observations. Finally, the reconnected flux tubes are elongated in the north-south direction, with an east-west dimension of 30–60km in the ionosphere from mapped Cluster observations, which is consistent with SuperDARN observations, although slightly smaller. Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection – Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  8. You Pretty Little Flocker: Exploring the Aesthetic State Space of Creative Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Artificial life models constitute a rich compendium of tools for the generative arts; complex, self-organizing, emergent behaviors have great interactive and generative potential. But how can we go beyond simply visualizing scientific simulations and manipulate these models for use in design and creative art contexts? You Pretty Little Flocker is a proof-of-concept study in expanding and exploring the aesthetic state space of a model for generative design. A modified version of Reynolds' flocking algorithm (1987) is described in which the space of possible images is extended and navigable in a way that at once provides user control and maintains generative autonomy.

  9. A statistical approach for identifying the ionospheric footprint of magnetospheric boundaries from SuperDARN observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lointier

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and tracking the projection of magnetospheric regions on the high-latitude ionosphere is of primary importance for studying the Solar Wind-Magnetosphere-Ionosphere system and for space weather applications. By its unique spatial coverage and temporal resolution, the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN provides key parameters, such as the Doppler spectral width, which allows the monitoring of the ionospheric footprint of some magnetospheric boundaries in near real-time. In this study, we present the first results of a statistical approach for monitoring these magnetospheric boundaries. The singular value decomposition is used as a data reduction tool to describe the backscattered echoes with a small set of parameters. One of these is strongly correlated with the Doppler spectral width, and can thus be used as a proxy for it. Based on this, we propose a Bayesian classifier for identifying the spectral width boundary, which is classically associated with the Polar Cap boundary. The results are in good agreement with previous studies. Two advantages of the method are: the possibility to apply it in near real-time, and its capacity to select the appropriate threshold level for the boundary detection.

  10. Turbulence characteristics inside ionospheric small-scale expanding structures observed with SuperDARN HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. André

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Unusual structures characterized by a very high-velocity divergence have been observed in the high-latitude F-region with SuperDARN radars (André et al., 2000. These structures have been interpreted as due to local demagnetization of the plasma in the ionospheric F-region, during very specific geophysical conditions. In this study, the collective wave scattering theory is used to characterize the decameter-scale turbulence (l approx 15 m inside the structures. The distribution function of the diffusion coefficient is modified when the structures are generated, suggesting that two regimes of turbulence coexist. A temporal analysis decorrelates the two regimes and gives access to the dynamics associated with the structures. It is shown that a high turbulent regime precedes the plasma demagnetization and should be related to an energy deposition. Then a second regime appears when the plasma is demagnetized and disappears simultaneously with the structures. This study is the first application of the collective wave scattering theory to a specific geophysical event.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities – Space plasma physics (turbulence

  11. Solar Cycle Variations in Polar Cap Area Measured by the SuperDARN Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, S. M.; Milan, S. E.; Lester, M.

    2013-12-01

    We present a long term study, from January 1996 - August 2012, of the latitude of the Heppner-Maynard Boundary (HMB) measured at midnight using the northern hemisphere SuperDARN radars. The HMB represents the equatorward extent of ionospheric convection, and is used in this study as a measure of the global magnetospheric dynamics and activity. We find that the yearly distribution of HMB latitudes is single-peaked at 64° magnetic latitude for the majority of the 17-year interval. During 2003 the envelope of the distribution shifts to lower latitudes and a second peak in the distribution is observed at 61°. The solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function derived by Milan et al. (2012) suggests that the solar wind driving during this year was significantly higher than during the rest of the 17-year interval. In contrast, during the period 2008-2011 HMB distribution shifts to higher latitudes, and a second peak in the distribution is again observed, this time at 68° magnetic latitude. This time interval corresponds to a period of extremely low solar wind driving during the recent extreme solar minimum. This is the first statistical study of the polar cap area over an entire solar cycle, and the results demonstrate that there is a close relationship between the phase of the solar cycle and the area of the polar cap on a large scale statistical basis.

  12. SuperDARN HF Scattering and Propagation in the Presence of Polar Patches Imaged Using RISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, R. G.; Perry, G. W.; Varney, R. H.; Gillies, D. M.; Donovan, E.

    2017-12-01

    The global array of High Frequency (HF) Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radars continuously monitors ionospheric convection in the middle-to-high latitude region. The radars measure coherent backscatter from decameter scale field-aligned irregularities. One of the main generation mechanisms for these field-aligned irregularities is the gradient drift instability (GDI). The edges of ionospheric density structures, such as polar cap patches, provide ideal locations for GDI growth. The geometry required for GDI growth results in irregularities forming on the trailing edge of polar patches. However, irregularities generated by the non-linear evolution of the GDI can become prevalent throughout the patch within minutes. Modelling the irregularity growth and measurements of backscatter within patches have both confirmed this. One aspect that has often been overlooked in studies of coherent backscatter within patches is the effect of HF propagation on echo location. This study examines HF echo locations in the vicinity of patches that were imaged using the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radars (RISR). The effect of both vertical and lateral refraction of the HF wave on echo location is examined.

  13. The mid-latitude ionosphere under quiet geomagnetic conditions: propagation analysis of SuperDARN radar observations from large ionospheric perturbations

    OpenAIRE

    De Larquier, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    The Earth's ionosphere is a dynamic environment strongly coupled to the neutral atmosphere, magnetosphere and solar activity. In the context of this research, we restrict our interest to the mid-latitude (a.k.a., sub-auroral) ionosphere during quiet geomagnetic conditions. The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) is composed of more than 30 low-power High Frequency (HF, from 8-18 MHz) Doppler radars covering the sub-auroral, auroral and polar ionosphere in both hemispheres. SuperDARN ...

  14. On determining the noon polar cap boundary from SuperDARN HF radar backscatter characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pinnock

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that ionospheric HF radar backscatter in the noon sector can be used to locate the footprint of the magnetospheric cusp particle precipitation. This has enabled the radar data to be used as a proxy for the location of the polar cap boundary, and hence measure the flow of plasma across it to derive the reconnection electric field in the ionosphere. This work used only single radar data sets with a field of view limited to ~2 h of local time. In this case study using four of the SuperDARN radars, we examine the boundary determined over 6 h of magnetic local time around the noon sector and its relationship to the convection pattern. The variation with longitude of the latitude of the radar scatter with cusp characteristics shows a bay-like feature. It is shown that this feature is shaped by the variation with longitude of the poleward flow component of the ionospheric plasma and may be understood in terms of cusp ion time-of-flight effects. Using this interpretation, we derive the time-of-flight of the cusp ions and find that it is consistent with approximately 1 keV ions injected from a subsolar reconnection site. A method for deriving a more accurate estimate of the location of the open-closed field line boundary from HF radar data is described.

    Key words: Ionosphere (ionosphere–magnetosphere interactions; plasma convection · Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause · cusp · and boundary layers

  15. The quasi-two-day wave studied using the Northern Hemisphere SuperDARN HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Malinga

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Super Dual Radar Network (SuperDARN radars for 2002 were used to study the behaviour of the quasi-two-day wave (QTDW in the Northern Hemisphere auroral zone. The period of the QTDW is observed to vary in the range of ~42–56 h, with the most dominant period being ~48 h and secondary peaks at ~42- and ~52-h. The spectral power shows a seasonal variation with a peak power (max~70 in summer. The power shows variations of several days and there is also evidence of changes in wave strength with longitude. The 42-h and the 48-h components tend to be strongly correlated in summer. The onset of enhanced wave activity tends to coincide with the westward acceleration of the zonal mean flow and occurs at a time of strong southward meridional flow. The most frequent instantaneous hourly period is in the 40 to 50 h period band, in line with the simultaneous dominance of the 42-h and the 48-h components. The wave numbers are less variable and are around −2 to −4 during times of strong wave activity. For a period of ~48 h, the zonal wave number is about −3 to −4, using a negative value to indicate westward propagating waves. The 42-h and the 52-h components cover a wider band in the −4 to 1 range. The wide zonal wave number spectrum in our results may account for the observed longitudinal variation in the spectral power of the wave.

  16. SuperDARN observations of an unusually contracted ionospheric convection pattern during the recent deep solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, S. M.; Milan, S. E.; Lester, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present a long term study, from 1995 - 2011, of the latitude of the Heppner-Maynard Boundary (HMB) determined using the northern hemisphere SuperDARN radars. The HMB represents the equatorward extent of ionospheric convection. We find that the average latitude of the HMB at midnight is 61° magnetic latitude during the solar maximum of 2003, but it moves significantly poleward during solar minimum, averaging 64° latitude during 1996, and 68° during 2010. This poleward motion is observed despite the increasing number of low latitude radars built in recent years as part of the StormDARN network, and so is not an artefact of data coverage. We believe that the recent extreme solar minimum lead to an average HMB location that was further poleward than previous solar cycles. We also calculated the open-closed field line boundary (OCB) from auroral images during the years 2000-2002 and find that on average the HMB is located equatorward of the OCB by ~6°. We suggest that the HMB may be a useful proxy for the OCB when global auroral images are not available.

  17. The Heppner-Maynard Boundary measured by SuperDARN as a proxy for the latitude of the auroral oval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, S. M.; Milan, S. E.; Lester, M.

    2013-02-01

    We present a statistical study relating the latitude of the auroral oval measured by the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) SI-12 proton auroral camera to that of the Heppner-Maynard Boundary (HMB) determined from Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) data during the period 2000-2002. The HMB represents the latitudinal extent of the ionospheric convection pattern. The oval latitude from the proton auroral images is determined using the method of Milan et al. (2009a), which fits a circle centered on a point 2° duskward and 5° antisunward of the magnetic pole. The auroral latitude at midnight is determined for those images where the concurrent SuperDARN northern hemisphere maps contain more than 200 data points such that the HMB is well-defined. The statistical study comprises over 198,000 two-minute intervals, and we find that the HMB is located on average 2.2° equatorward of the proton auroral latitude. A superposed epoch analysis of over 2500 substorms suggests that the separation between the HMB and the oval latitude increases slightly during periods of high geomagnetic activity. We suggest that during intervals where there are no auroral images available, the HMB latitude and motion could be used as a proxy for that of the aurora, and therefore provide information about motions of the open/closed field line boundary.

  18. The Occurrence of Small-scale Irregularities in the Mid-latitude Ionosphere from SuperDARN HF Radar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B.; Maimaiti, M.; Oksavik, K.; Erickson, P. J.; Scales, W.; Eltrass, A.

    2017-12-01

    The mid-latitude radars of the SuperDARN network routinely observe backscatter from nighttime decameter-scale F region irregularities at latitudes well equatorward of the auroral boundary. This Sub-Auroral Ionospheric Scatter (SAIS) is strongly distinguished from auroral and SAPS backscatter by low Doppler velocities ( tens m/s) and stable, long-lived ( hours) occurrence in discrete events that are extended in both latitude and longitude. Statistical and event studies of SAIS with the SuperDARN radars indicate that the subauroral F region ionosphere is replete with irregularities during events, at least poleward of the 50° Λ horizon of the North American mid-latitude radars, and that radar observation of SAIS backscatter is then primarily limited by the magnetic aspect condition. Joint experiments with incoherent scatter radar have furnished sets of plasma measurements suitable for testing theories of plasma instability. Modeling work stimulated by the observations has explored the temperature-gradient instability (TGI) and the gradient drift instability (GDI) as possible sources of the irregularities. In this talk we review the findings on the occurrence of the SAIS category of mid-latitude F region irregularities, summarize the results of the modeling work, and discuss future research directions.

  19. Asymmetric distribution of the ionospheric electric potential in the opposite hemispheres as inferred from the SuperDARN observations and FAC-based convection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukianova, R.; Hanuise, C.; Christiansen, Freddy

    2008-01-01

    We compare the SuperDARN convection patterns with the predictions of a new numerical model of the global distribution of ionospheric electric potentials. The model utilizes high-precision statistical maps of field-aligned currents (FAC) derived from measurements made by polar-orbiting low-altitud...

  20. High-latitude poynting flux from combined Iridium and SuperDARN data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Waters

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Field-aligned currents convey stress between the magnetosphere and ionosphere, and the associated low altitude magnetic and electric fields reflect the flow of electromagnetic energy to the polar ionosphere. We introduce a new technique to measure the global distribution of high latitude Poynting flux, S||, by combining electric field estimates from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN with magnetic perturbations derived using magnetometer data from the Iridium satellite constellation. Spherical harmonic methods are used to merge the data sets and calculate S|| for any magnetic local time (MLT from the pole to 60° magnetic latitude (MLAT. The effective spatial resolutions are 2° MLAT, 2h MLT, and the time resolution is about one hour due to the telemetry rate of the Iridium magnetometer data. The technique allows for the assessment of high-latitude net S|| and its spatial distribution on one hour time scales with two key advantages: (1 it yields the net S|| including the contribution of neutral winds; and (2 the results are obtained without recourse to estimates of ionosphere conductivity. We present two examples, 23 November 1999, 14:00-15:00 UT, and 11 March 2000, 16:00-17:00 UT, to test the accuracy of the technique and to illustrate the distributions of S|| that it gives. Comparisons with in-situ S|| estimates from DMSP satellites show agreement to a few mW/m2 and in the locations of S|| enhancements to within the technique's resolution. The total electromagnetic energy flux was 50GW for these events. At auroral latitudes, S|| tends to maximize in the morning and afternoon in regions less than 5° in MLAT by two hours in MLT having S||=10 to 20mW/m2 and total power up to 10GW. The power poleward of the Region 1 currents is about one

  1. High-latitude poynting flux from combined Iridium and SuperDARN data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Waters

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Field-aligned currents convey stress between the magnetosphere and ionosphere, and the associated low altitude magnetic and electric fields reflect the flow of electromagnetic energy to the polar ionosphere. We introduce a new technique to measure the global distribution of high latitude Poynting flux, S||, by combining electric field estimates from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN with magnetic perturbations derived using magnetometer data from the Iridium satellite constellation. Spherical harmonic methods are used to merge the data sets and calculate S|| for any magnetic local time (MLT from the pole to 60° magnetic latitude (MLAT. The effective spatial resolutions are 2° MLAT, 2h MLT, and the time resolution is about one hour due to the telemetry rate of the Iridium magnetometer data. The technique allows for the assessment of high-latitude net S|| and its spatial distribution on one hour time scales with two key advantages: (1 it yields the net S|| including the contribution of neutral winds; and (2 the results are obtained without recourse to estimates of ionosphere conductivity. We present two examples, 23 November 1999, 14:00-15:00 UT, and 11 March 2000, 16:00-17:00 UT, to test the accuracy of the technique and to illustrate the distributions of S|| that it gives. Comparisons with in-situ S|| estimates from DMSP satellites show agreement to a few mW/m2 and in the locations of S|| enhancements to within the technique's resolution. The total electromagnetic energy flux was 50GW for these events. At auroral latitudes, S|| tends to maximize in the morning and afternoon in regions less than 5° in MLAT by two hours in MLT having S||=10 to 20mW/m2 and total power up to 10GW. The power poleward of the Region 1 currents is about one-third of the total power, indicating significant energy flux over the polar cap.

  2. More Than a Pretty Picture: Making WISE Data Accessible to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nancy; Mendez, B.; Fricke, K.; Wright, E. L.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Cutri, R. M.; Hurt, R.; WISE Team

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has surveyed the sky in four bands of infrared light, creating a treasure trove of data. This data is of interest not only to the professional astronomical community, but also to educators, students and the general public. The Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program for WISE is creating opportunities to make WISE data accessible to these audiences through the Internet as well as through teacher professional development programs. Shortly after WISE took its first light image in January 2010, images have been featured weekly on the WISE website. These images serve to engage the general public through "pretty pictures” that are accompanied by educational captions. Social media such as Facebook and Twitter are used to further engage the public with the images. For a more comprehensive view of WISE images, we are creating a guided tour of the infrared sky on the WorldWide Telescope. The public will be able to use the free WorldWide Telescope software to interact with WISE images and listen to narration that describes features of the Universe as seen in infrared light. We are also developing resources for teachers and students to access WISE data when in becomes public in 2011 to learn about astronomical imaging and to conduct authentic scientific investigations.

  3. Identity Crisis in Cormac McCarthy's All the Pretty Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder A. K. Gebreen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of identity is one of the main issues that encounters man in each culture. Identity is a set of behaviors, emotions, and thought patterns which are unique to every individual that define him as a member of a certain group. Identity is shaped by race, ethnicity, religious beliefs, language, physical features, childhood experiences, sexual  preferences and culture. Moreover, identity is usually recognized during adolescence or early adulthood in which both positive and negative features are essential in the development of individual identity. However, an identity crisis is the failure to establish identity during that age. In addition, an identity crisis is not only concerned with matters such as ethnicity or religion as it is also concerned with inner conflicts, search for identity, west vs. east, old Vs. modern. The diversity of identity in the American culture is expressed in many literary works by contemporary American writers who depict characters' search of their psychological and cultural identity. Among those contemporary writers is Cormac McCarthy (1933- whose All the Pretty Horses (1992 tackles this quest for identity as its basic theme, both psychologically and culturally. This paper is an attempt to investigate both dimensions of the quest in this novel as being one of McCarthy's masterpieces. Keywords: Identity, Identity Crisis, Cultural Criticism, Contemporary American fiction

  4. The sub-auroral electric field as observed by DMSP and the new SuperDARN mid-latitude radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, E. R.; Sotirelis, T.; Hairston, M. R.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Greenwald, R. A.; Lester, M.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper we present analyses of the sub-auroral electric field environment as observed from both space and ground. We discuss the dependency of the configuration and strength of the sub-auroral electric field on IMF and geomagnetic activity, longitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle variability. Primarily, e use ~20 years of electric field measurement dataset derived from the suite of DMSP ion drift meters. A major component of our analysis is correctly specifying the aurora boundary, as the behavior and magnitude of these fields will be drastically different away from the high-conductance auroral oval. As such, we use the coincident particle flux measurements from the DMSP SSJ4 monitors. We also present the solar minimum observations of the sub-auroral flow newly available from the mid-latitude SuperDARN radars at Wallops and Blackstone in Virginia. Preliminary comparisons between these flows and the DMSP climatology are discussed.

  5. Turbulence scales in the high-latitude ionosphere and their signatures upon echoes detected by SuperDARN HF radars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallieres, Xavier

    2002-01-01

    SuperDARN is a coherent HF radar network dedicated to the study of high-latitude ionospheric plasma convection and finds its major applications in the field of Sun/Earth connection. This work deals with the interactions between a transmitted radar wave and ionisation gradients at different scales and their impact on measurements. Studies are performed in order to detect the ion cyclotron signature, superimposed to turbulent motions, in observed spectra. On the other hand, the role of intermediate scales (from hundreds of meters to kilometers) on spectral width estimation is evidenced. Statistical studies show that the value of this parameter depends upon transmitted frequency and echo range. We propose an interpretation in terms of a wave front de-correlation during propagation and validate it with numerical simulations based upon realistic ionospheric parameters. (author) [fr

  6. SuperDARN HOP radars observation of ionospheric convection associated with low-latitude aurora observed at Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, N.; Hori, T.; Kataoka, R.; Ebihara, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2016-12-01

    The SuperDARN HOkkaido Pair of (HOP) radars, consisting of the Hokkaido East (2006-) and West (2014-) radars, are the SuperDARN radars located at the lowest geomagnetic latitude (36.5 degrees), and have been continuously measuring ionospheric convection at high to subauroral and middle latitudes with high temporal resolutions (Japan from 15 to 19 UT on March 17, 2015 and from 1900 to 2030 UT on December 20, 2015, identified using optical instruments such as all-sky CCD camera, wide field of view digital camera and meridian scanning photometer. Both events occurred during the main phase of the relatively large geomagnetic storms with minimum Dst of -223 nT and -170 nT respectively. The ionospheric convection at mid-latitude regions associated with the low-latitude auroral emission is characterized by (1) transient equatorward flows up to about 500 m/s in the initial phase of the emission (the geomagnetic field data at Paratunka, Far East Russia show corresponding negative excursions), and (2) sheared flow structure consisting of westward flow (about 500 m/s) equatorward of eastward flow (1000 m/s), with the equatorward boundary of auroral emission embedded in the westward flow region which expanded up to below 50 deg geomagnetic latitude. These observations imply that the electric field / convection distribution plays important roles in continuously generating the low latitude auroral emission. In particular the observation of the equatorward flow (dawn-dusk electric field) up to as low as about 50 deg geomagnetic latitude is the direct evidence for the presence of electric field to drive ring current particles into the plasmaspheric regions.

  7. Razkrita čustva: Romance v operi – v filmih Moonstruck (1987, Pretty Woman (1990 in Little Women (1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordula Knaus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Članek preučuje romantične komedije in romance, katerih zgodba vključuje prizore, v katerih vodilni igralci obiščejo operno predstavo. Analiza obiskov opernih predstav v filmih Moonstruck (1987, Pretty Woman (1990 in Little Women (1994 bo odgovorila na vprašanje o smislu in funkciji opere v zvrsti romance in postavila te ugotovitve v dau širše razprave o pomenu zvočnega filmskega traku za romantične komedije in za konvencije zadevnega žanra.

  8. Effect of ray and speed perturbations on ionospheric tomography by over-the-horizon radar: A new method, useful for SuperDarn radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbeis, J.; Roy, C.; Bland, E. C.; Occhipinti, G.

    2017-12-01

    Most recent methods in ionospheric tomography are based on the inversion of the total electron content measured by ground-based GPS receivers. As a consequence of the high frequency of the GPS signal and the absence of horizontal raypaths, the electron density structure is mainly reconstructed in the F2 region (300 km), where the ionosphere reaches the maximum of ionization, and is not sensitive to the lower ionospheric structure. We propose here a new tomographic method of the lower ionosphere (Roy et al., 2014), based on the full inversion of over-the-horizon (OTH) radar data and applicable to SuperDarn data. The major advantage of our methodology is taking into account, numerically and jointly, the effect that the electron density perturbations induce not only in the speed of electromagnetic waves but also on the raypath geometry. This last point is extremely critical for OTH/SuperDarn data inversions as the emitted signal propagates through the ionosphere between a fixed starting point (the radar) and an unknown end point on the Earth surface where the signal is backscattered. We detail our ionospheric tomography method with the aid of benchmark tests in order to highlight the sensitivity of the radar related to the explored observational parameters: frequencies, elevations, azimuths. Having proved the necessity to take into account both effects simultaneously, we apply our method to real backscattered data from Super Darn and OTH radar. The preliminary solution obtained with the Hokkaido East SuperDARN with only two frequencies (10MHz and 11MHz), showed here, is stable and push us to deeply explore a more complete dataset that we will present at the AGU 2017. This is, in our knowledge, the first time that an ionospheric tomography has been estimated with SuperDarn backscattered data. Reference: Roy, C., G. Occhipinti, L. Boschi, J.-P. Moliné, and M. Wieczorek (2014), Effect of ray and speed perturbations on ionospheric tomography by over-the-horizon radar: A

  9. High-time resolution conjugate SuperDARN radar observations of the dayside convection response to changes in IMF By

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chisham

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available We present data from conjugate SuperDARN radars describing the high-latitude ionosphere's response to changes in the direction of IMF By during a period of steady IMF Bz southward and Bx positive. During this interval, the radars were operating in a special mode which gave high-time resolution data (30 s sampling period on three adjacent beams with a full scan every 3 min. The location of the radars around magnetic local noon at the time of the event allowed detailed observations of the variations in the ionospheric convection patterns close to the cusp region as IMF By varied. A significant time delay was observed in the ionospheric response to the IMF By changes between the two hemispheres. This is explained as being partially a consequence of the location of the dominant merging region on the magnetopause, which is ~8-12RE closer to the northern ionosphere than to the southern ionosphere (along the magnetic field line due to the dipole tilt of the magnetosphere and the orientation of the IMF. This interpretation supports the anti-parallel merging hypothesis and highlights the importance of the IMF Bx component in solar wind-magnetosphere coupling.Key words: Ionosphere (plasma convection - Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; solar wind - magnetosphere interactions

  10. Seasonal and solar cycle variations in the ionospheric convection reversal boundary location inferred from monthly SuperDARN data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Koustov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi-year (1995–2013 velocity data collected by the Super Dual Auroral Network (SuperDARN HF radars are considered to investigate seasonal and solar cycle variations of the convection reversal boundary (CRB location for interplanetary magnetic field (IMF Bz < 0. By considering monthly data sets we show that the CRB is at higher latitudes in summer between 1995 and 2007. The poleward shifts are on the order of 2–5°. After 2007, the seasonal effect weakens, and the highest latitudes for the CRB start to occur during the winter time. We show that the CRB latitudes decrease with an increase of the IMF transverse component at a rate of (1–2°/2 nT. Because of this effect, on average, the CRB latitudes are lower during high solar activity periods with stronger IMFs. We also confirm the effect of the CRB dawn-dusk shifts related to the IMF changes in the IMF By sign.

  11. Strong sunward propagating flow bursts in the night sector during quiet solar wind conditions: SuperDARN and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Senior

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available High-time resolution data from the two Iceland SuperDARN HF radars show very strong nightside convection activity during a prolonged period of low geomagnetic activity and northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. Flows bursts with velocities ranging from 0.8 to 1.7 km/s are observed to propagate in the sunward direction with phase velocities up to 1.5 km/s. These bursts occur over several hours of MLT in the 20:00–01:00 MLT sector, in the evening-side sunward convection. Data from a simultaneous DMSP pass and POLAR UVI images show a very contracted polar cap and extended regions of auroral particle precipitation from the magnetospheric boundaries. A DMSP pass over the Iceland-West field-of-view while one of these sporadic bursts of enhanced flow is observed, indicates that the flow bursts appear within the plasma sheet and at its outward edge, which excludes Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at the magnetopause boundary as the generation mechanism. In the nightside region, the precipitation is more spot-like and the convection organizes itself as clockwise U-shaped structures. We interpret these flow bursts as the convective transport following plasma injection events from the tail into the night-side ionosphere. We show that during this period, where the IMF clock angle is around 70°, the dayside magnetosphere is not completely closed.Key words. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere; Ionospheremagnetosphere interactions; Particle precipitation

  12. Climatology of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances observed by the midlatitude Blackstone SuperDARN radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissell, N. A.; Baker, J. B. H.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Gerrard, A. J.; Miller, E. S.; Marini, J. P.; West, M. L.; Bristow, W. A.

    2014-09-01

    A climatology of daytime midlatitude medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) observed by the Blackstone Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar is presented. MSTIDs were observed primarily from fall through spring. Two populations were observed: a dominant population heading southeast (centered at 147° geographic azimuth, ranging from 100° to 210°) and a secondary population heading northwest (centered at -50° azimuth, ranging from -75° to -25°). Horizontal velocities ranged from 50 to 250 m s-1 with a distribution maximum between 100 and 150 m s-1. Horizontal wavelengths ranged from 100 to 500 km with a distribution peak at 250 km, and periods between 23 and 60 min, suggesting that the MSTIDs may be consistent with thermospheric gravity waves. A local time (LT) dependence was observed such that the dominant (southeastward) population decreased in number as the day progressed until a late afternoon increase. The secondary (northwestward) population appeared only in the afternoon, possibly indicative of neutral wind effects or variability of sources. LT dependence was not observed in other parameters. Possible solar-geomagnetic and tropospheric MSTID sources were considered. The auroral electrojet (AE) index showed a correlation with MSTID statistics. Reverse ray tracing with the HINDGRATS model indicates that the dominant population has source regions over the Great Lakes and near the geomagnetic cusp, while the secondary population source region is 100 km above the Atlantic Ocean east of the Carolinas. This suggests that the dominant population may come from a region favorable to either tropospheric or geomagnetic sources, while the secondary population originates from a region favorable to secondary waves generated via lower atmospheric convection.

  13. Survey of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus and Cherry green ring mottle virus incidence in Korea by Duplex RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Yeol Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV and Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV have recently been occurred in Korea, posing a problem for sweet cherry cultivation. Since infected trees have symptomless leaves or ring-like spots on the pericarp, it is difficult to identify a viral infection. In this study, the incidence of CNRMV and CGRMV in sweet cherry in Gyeongbuk province was surveyed using a newly developed duplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method that can detect both viruses in a single reaction. CNRMV and CGRMV co-infection rates were 29.6%, 53.6%, and 17.6%, respectively, in samples collected from three different sites (Daegu, Gyeongju and Gyeongsan in Gyeongbuk province during 2012 and 2013. This duplex RT-PCR method offers a simple, rapid, and effective way of identifying CNRMV and CGRMV simultaneously in sweet cherry trees, which can aid in the management of viral infections that could undermine yield.

  14. A statistical comparison of SuperDARN spectral width boundaries and DMSP particle precipitation boundaries in the morning sector ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chisham

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining reliable proxies for the ionospheric signature of the open-closed field line boundary (OCB is crucial for making accurate ionospheric measurements of many magnetospheric processes (e.g. magnetic reconnection. This study compares the latitudes of Spectral Width Boundaries (SWBs, identified in the morning sector ionosphere using the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN, with Particle Precipitation Boundaries (PPBs determined using the low-altitude Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP spacecraft, in order to determine whether the SWB represents a good proxy for the ionospheric projection of the OCB. The latitudes of SWBs and PPBs were identified using automated algorithms applied to 5 years (1997-2001 of data measured in the 00:00-12:00 Magnetic Local Time (MLT range. A latitudinal difference was measured between each PPB and the nearest SWB within a ±10min Universal Time (UT window and within a ±1h MLT window. The results show that the SWB represents a good proxy for the OCB close to midnight (~00:00-02:00 MLT and noon (~08:00-12:00 MLT, but is located some distance (~2°-4° equatorward of the OCB across much of the morning sector ionosphere (~02:00-08:00 MLT. On the basis of this and other studies we deduce that the SWB is correlated with the poleward boundary of auroral emissions in the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield ``Long" (LBHL UV emission range and hence, that spectral width is inversely correlated with the energy flux of precipitating electrons. We further conclude that the combination of two factors may explain the spatial distribution of spectral width values in the polar ionospheres. The small-scale structure of the convection electric field leads to an enhancement in spectral width in regions close to the OCB, whereas increases in ionospheric conductivity (relating to the level of incident electron energy flux lead to a reduction in spectral width in regions just equatorward of the OCB.

  15. The Influence of Micro-Oxygen Addition on Desulfurization Performance and Microbial Communities during Waste-Activated Sludge Digestion in a Rusty Scrap Iron-Loaded Anaerobic Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjun Ruan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, micro-oxygen was integrated into a rusty scrap iron (RSI-loaded anaerobic digester. Under an optimal RSI dosage of 20 g/L, increasing O2 levels were added stepwise in seven stages in a semi-continuous experiment. Results showed the average methane yield was 306 mL/g COD (chemical oxygen demand, and the hydrogen sulphide (H2S concentration was 1933 ppmv with RSI addition. O2 addition induced the microbial oxidation of sulphide by stimulating sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and chemical corrosion of iron, which promoted the generation of FeS and Fe2S3. In the 6th phase of the semi-continuous test, deep desulfurization was achieved without negatively impacting system performance. Average methane yield was 301.1 mL/g COD, and H2S concentration was 75 ppmv. Sulfur mass balance was described, with 84.0%, 11.90% and 0.21% of sulfur present in solid, liquid and gaseous phases, respectively. The Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that RSI addition could enrich the diversity of hydrogenotrophic methanogens and iron-reducing bacteria to benefit methanogenesis and organic mineralization, and impoverish the methanotroph (Methylocella silvestris to reduce the consumption of methane. Micro-oxygen supplementation could enhance the diversity of iron-oxidizing bacteria arising from the improvement of Fe(II release rate and enrich the sulphur-oxidising bacteria to achieved desulfurization. These results demonstrated that RSI addition in combination with micro-oxygenation represents a promising method for simultaneously controlling biogas H2S concentration and improving digestion performance.

  16. Survey of Pc3-5 ULF velocity oscillations in SuperDARN THEMIS-mode data: Occurrence statistics and driving mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B.; Lin, D.; Bland, E. C.; Hartinger, M.; Scales, W.

    2017-12-01

    Ultra-low frequency (ULF: 1 mHz-10 Hz) waves are believed to play an important role in the energization and transport of plasma within the magnetosphere-ionosphere system, as well as the transfer of energy from the solar wind. Most previous statistical studies of ionospheric ULF waves using Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) data have been constrained to the Pc5 band ( 1-7 mHz) and/or one or two radars covering a limited range of latitudes. This is partially due to lack of a database cataloging high time resolution data and an efficient way to identify wave events. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive survey of ULF wave signatures in the Pc3-5 band using 6 s resolution data from all SuperDARN radars in the northern hemisphere operating in THEMIS-mode from 2010 to 2016. Numerical experiments were conducted to derive dynamic thresholds for automated detection of ULF waves at different frequencies using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram technique. The spatial occurrence distribution, frequency characteristics, seasonal effects, solar wind condition and geomagnetic activity level dependence have been studied. We found Pc5 events dominate at high latitudes with a most probable frequency of 2 mHz while Pc3-4 are relatively more common at mid-latitudes on the nightside with a most probable frequency of 11 mHz. At high latitudes the occurrence rate of poloidal Pc3-5 peaks in the dusk sector and in winter while at mid-latitudes the poloidal Pc3-4 occurrence rate peaks at pre-midnight. This pre-midnight occurrence peak becomes more prominent with increasing AE index value, in equinox and during southward IMF, which suggests many of these events are most likely Pi2 pulsations associated with magnetotail dynamics during active geomagnetic intervals.

  17. Neotethyan rifting-related ore occurrences: study of an accretionary mélange complex (Darnó Unit, NE Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Gabriella B.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The geology of the NE Hungarian Darnó Unit is rather complicated, as it is composed mostly of a Jurassic accretionary mélange complex, according to the most recent investigations. The magmatic and sedimentary rock blocks of the mélange represent products of different evolutionary stages of the Neotethys; including Permian and Triassic sedimentary rocks of marine rifting related origin, Triassic pillow basalt of advanced rifting related origin and Jurassic pillow basalt originated in back-arc-basin environment. This small unit contains a copper-gold occurrence in the Permian marly-clayey limestone, an iron enrichment in the Triassic sedimentary succession, a copper-silver ore occurrence in Triassic pillow basalts and a copper ore indication, occurring both in the Triassic and Jurassic pillow basalts. The present study deals with the Cu(-Ag occurrence in the Triassic basalt and the Fe occurrence in the Triassic sedimentary succession. The former shows significant similarities with the Michigan-type mineralizations, while the latter has typical characteristics of the Fe-SEDEX deposits. All the above localities fit well into the new geological model of the investigated area. The mineralizations represent the different evolutionary stages of the Neotethyan rifting and an epigenetic, Alpine metamorphism-related process and their recent, spatially close position is the result of the accretionary mélange formation. Thus, the Darnó Unit represents a perfect natural laboratory for studying and understanding the characteristic features of several different rifting related ore forming processes.

  18. Not Just Pretty Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Rebecca R.; Roberts, Kathryn L.

    2013-01-01

    Informational texts are filled with graphics that support and extend the written text. These graphics may provide an alternate way to access important information, and sometimes they are the only entry point to that information. However, just being able to see the graphics does not ensure that readers are paying attention to, let alone…

  19. Pretty Easy Pervasive Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene; Wind, Rico; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing availability of positioning based on GPS, Wi-Fi, and cellular technologies and the proliferation of mobile devices with GPS, Wi-Fi and cellular connectivity, ubiquitous positioning is becoming a reality. While offerings by companies such as Google, Skyhook, and Spotigo render...... positioning possible in outdoor settings, including urban environments with limited GPS coverage, they remain unable to offer accurate indoor positioning. We will demonstrate a software infrastructure that makes it easy for anybody to build support for accurate Wi-Fi based positioning in buildings. All...... that is needed is a building with Wi-Fi coverage, access to the building, a floor plan of the building, and a Wi-Fi enabled device. Specifically, we will explain the software infrastructure and the steps that must be completed to obtain support for positioning. And we will demonstrate the positioning obtained...

  20. A Statistical study of the Doppler spectral width of high-latitude ionospheric F-region echoes recorded with SuperDARN coherent HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Villain

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The HF radars of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN provide measurements of the E × B drift of ionospheric plasma over extended regions of the high-latitude ionosphere. We have conducted a statistical study of the associated Doppler spectral width of ionospheric F-region echoes. The study has been conducted with all available radars from the Northern Hemisphere for 2 specific periods of time. Period 1 corresponds to the winter months of 1994, while period 2 covers October 1996 to March 1997. The distributions of data points and average spectral width are presented as a function of Magnetic Latitude and Magnetic Local Time. The databases are very consistent and exhibit the same features. The most stringent features are: a region of very high spectral width, collocated with the ionospheric LLBL/cusp/mantle region; an oval shaped region of high spectral width, whose equator-ward boundary matches the poleward limit of the Holzworth and Meng auroral oval. A simulation has been conducted to evaluate the geometrical and instrumental effects on the spectral width. It shows that these effects cannot account for the observed spectral features. It is then concluded that these specific spectral width characteristics are the signature of ionospheric/magnetospheric coupling phenomena.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; ionospheric irregularities

  1. A Statistical study of the Doppler spectral width of high-latitude ionospheric F-region echoes recorded with SuperDARN coherent HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Villain

    Full Text Available The HF radars of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN provide measurements of the E × B drift of ionospheric plasma over extended regions of the high-latitude ionosphere. We have conducted a statistical study of the associated Doppler spectral width of ionospheric F-region echoes. The study has been conducted with all available radars from the Northern Hemisphere for 2 specific periods of time. Period 1 corresponds to the winter months of 1994, while period 2 covers October 1996 to March 1997. The distributions of data points and average spectral width are presented as a function of Magnetic Latitude and Magnetic Local Time. The databases are very consistent and exhibit the same features. The most stringent features are: a region of very high spectral width, collocated with the ionospheric LLBL/cusp/mantle region; an oval shaped region of high spectral width, whose equator-ward boundary matches the poleward limit of the Holzworth and Meng auroral oval. A simulation has been conducted to evaluate the geometrical and instrumental effects on the spectral width. It shows that these effects cannot account for the observed spectral features. It is then concluded that these specific spectral width characteristics are the signature of ionospheric/magnetospheric coupling phenomena.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; ionospheric irregularities

  2. MODE-PP TeX: A GRM/GDMO Pretty Printing Library based on MODE-FE for the Generation of TeX Documents : Release 1.0 Reference Manual

    OpenAIRE

    Festor , Olivier

    1996-01-01

    MODE-PP TeX (MODE TeX Pretty-Printer) is a module which allows formatting and pretty printing of GRM (General Relationship Model) and GDMO (Guidelines for the Definition of Managed Objects) specifications. The tool allows the generation of one or more TeX files which contain formatted specifications according to different document style constrains. MODE-PP TeX is part of the MODE (Managed Object Development Environment) prototype which is developed for integrating the use of Formal Descriptio...

  3. More than a Pretty Place: Assessing the Impact of Environmental Education on Children’s Knowledge and Attitudes about Outdoor Play in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M. M.; Heller, Elizabeth F.; Bizub, Jessica M.; Kistner, Amy J.; Szabo, Aniko; Shawgo, Erin E.; Zetts, Corey J.

    2015-01-01

    Our work assessed the influence of an urban environmental education program on children’s attitudes toward outdoor play, as well as knowledge of neighborhood features that can facilitate this type of activity. The project team engaged 6 schools near the newest Urban Ecology Center location in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, through a community-academic partnership entitled More Than a Pretty Place. Intervention classrooms participated in programming over the 2012–2013 academic year and pre and post surveys were implemented in classrooms. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression models. The intervention group reported reduced fears of outdoor play in nature and increased frequency of visits to the Urban Ecology Center. The proportion of students who acknowledged knowing of a place to play outside in nature increased significantly in both groups. Our findings indicate an important role for environmental education in addressing fears that may dissuade children from engaging in outdoor play in natural areas. PMID:25685953

  4. More than a Pretty Place: Assessing the Impact of Environmental Education on Children’s Knowledge and Attitudes about Outdoor Play in Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. M. Beyer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Our work assessed the influence of an urban environmental education program on children’s attitudes toward outdoor play, as well as knowledge of neighborhood features that can facilitate this type of activity. The project team engaged 6 schools near the newest Urban Ecology Center location in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, through a community-academic partnership entitled More Than a Pretty Place. Intervention classrooms participated in programming over the 2012–2013 academic year and pre and post surveys were implemented in classrooms. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression models. The intervention group reported reduced fears of outdoor play in nature and increased frequency of visits to the Urban Ecology Center. The proportion of students who acknowledged knowing of a place to play outside in nature increased significantly in both groups. Our findings indicate an important role for environmental education in addressing fears that may dissuade children from engaging in outdoor play in natural areas.

  5. More than a pretty place: assessing the impact of environmental education on children's knowledge and attitudes about outdoor play in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Heller, Elizabeth F; Bizub, Jessica M; Kistner, Amy J; Szabo, Aniko; Shawgo, Erin E; Zetts, Corey J

    2015-02-12

    Our work assessed the influence of an urban environmental education program on children's attitudes toward outdoor play, as well as knowledge of neighborhood features that can facilitate this type of activity. The project team engaged 6 schools near the newest Urban Ecology Center location in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, through a community-academic partnership entitled More Than a Pretty Place. Intervention classrooms participated in programming over the 2012-2013 academic year and pre and post surveys were implemented in classrooms. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression models. The intervention group reported reduced fears of outdoor play in nature and increased frequency of visits to the Urban Ecology Center. The proportion of students who acknowledged knowing of a place to play outside in nature increased significantly in both groups. Our findings indicate an important role for environmental education in addressing fears that may dissuade children from engaging in outdoor play in natural areas.

  6. LA AUTONOMÍA DE LA PERSONA FRENTE AL DERECHO A LA VIDA NO INCLUYE EL DERECHO A SER MUERTO POR UN TERCERO: LA SOLICITUD DE ASISTENCIA AL SUICIDIO Y EL CASO DE DIANE PRETTY A AUTONOMIA DA PESSOA FRENTE AO DIREITO À VIDA NÃO INCLUI O DIREITO A SER MORTO POR UM TERCEIRO: A SOLICITAÇÃO AO SUICÍDIO ASSISTIDO E O CASO DE DIANE PRETTY A PERSON'S AUTONOMY VIS-À-VIS THE RIGHT TO LIFE DOES NOT INCLUDE THE RIGHT TO BE KILLED BY A THIRD PERSON: ASSISTANCE REQUEST TO COMMIT SUICIDE AND DIANE PRETTY'S CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Vivanco Martínez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora, en la presente monografía, analiza las resoluciones pronunciadas por la House of Lords y por la Corte Europea de Derechos Humanos en el caso de Diane Pretty, ciudadana inglesa fallecida en mayo de 2002 quien, a causa de una enfermedad degenerativa e incurable, pretendió se reconociera inmunidad a su marido en caso de prestarle asistencia para suicidarse. Los fallos examinados rechazaron la solicitud de la recurrenteNa presente monografia a autora analisa as decisões emanadas pela Câmara do Lordes e Corte Européia de Direitos Humanos no caso Diane Pretty, cidadã inglesa falecida em maio de 2002 que em decorrência de enfermidade degenerativa incurável, pretendeu fosse reconhecida imunidade a seu marido para que a auxiliasse a suicidarse. As decisões recusaram a solicitação da recorrenteThe author of this monograph analyses the resolutions pronounced by the House of Lords and by the European Court of Human Rights in the case of Diane Pretty, an English citizen who died in may 2002. Because of a degenerative and incurable disease she pretended her husband be granted immunity if he helped her to commit suicide. The verdicts which were examined rejected her request

  7. Where inside the world is the stuff that makes the wood things we write with and the small pretty rocks that women wear on their fingers? And where does that stuff go over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, L. H.

    2017-12-01

    The middle of the world we live on, between the top and the heart, is made of green rock. When it gets hot, the rock runs slowly like thick water, but it is still rock. The hot rock moves up, and the cold rock moves down. This makes the harder rock on top of our world move around, and it cools the inside of our world. We can not see the green rock place with our own eyes, so we make pretend worlds on a computer. We also use a lot of little tiny bits that are hard to find, to smell where the rock comes from, and where it has been, and how long it takes to move around. One tiny bit that we use is the kind of stuff that makes living things and also makes the wood things we write with and the small pretty rocks that women wear on their fingers. When it is in our air, these little pieces make the air and water warmer. So, how many of the tiny bits that are in wood things we write with and the small pretty rocks are in the green rock place? A lot: much, much more than is now in the air or the water. On another world, the one closer to the sun that is named for a beautiful woman, the air has a lot of the tiny bits that makes the wood things we write with and the small pretty rocks. The air is very heavy and it is very very hot there; no one could live on the beautiful woman world. But we think that maybe our world was like this when our world was very new. On our world, the water, the air, and the rock worked together, using the tiny bits that make wood things we write with and small pretty rocks to make a different kind of rock. Then that kind of rock went down into the green rock place. This made our air very light, and made our world a place where people and other living things can live. Since that early time, when the green rock comes up, it can send some of the tiny bits that make the wood things we write with and small pretty rocks back into the air. What goes down must come up, and what comes up, must go back down.

  8. Pulsed flows at the high-altitude cusp poleward boundary, and associated ionospheric convection and particle signatures, during a Cluster - FAST - SuperDARN- Søndrestrøm conjunction under a southwest IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Farrugia

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Particle and magnetic field observations during a magnetic conjunction Cluster 1-FAST-Søndrestrøm within the field of view of SuperDARN radars on 21 January 2001 allow us to draw a detailed, comprehensive and self-consistent picture at three heights of signatures associated with transient reconnection under a steady south-westerly IMF (clock angle ≈130°. Cluster 1 was outbound through the high altitude (~12RE exterior northern cusp tailward of the bifurcation line (geomagnetic Bx>0 when a solar wind dynamic pressure release shifted the spacecraft into a boundary layer downstream of the cusp. The centerpiece of the investigation is a series of flow bursts observed there by the spacecraft, which were accompanied by strong field perturbations and tailward flow deflections. Analysis shows these to be Alfvén waves. We interpret these flow events as being due to a sequence of reconnected flux tubes, with field-aligned currents in the associated Alfvén waves carrying stresses to the underlying ionosphere, a view strengthened by the other observations. At the magnetic footprint of the region of Cluster flow bursts, FAST observed an ion energy-latitude disperison of the stepped cusp type, with individual cusp ion steps corresponding to individual flow bursts. Simultaneously, the SuperDARN Stokkseyri radar observed very strong poleward-moving radar auroral forms (PMRAFs which were conjugate to the flow bursts at Cluster. FAST was traversing these PMRAFs when it observed the cusp ion steps. The Søndrestrøm radar observed pulsed ionospheric flows (PIFs just poleward of the convection reversal boundary. As at Cluster, the flow was eastward (tailward, implying a coherent eastward (tailward motion of the hypothesized open flux tubes. The joint Søndrestrøm and FAST observations indicate that the open/closed field line boundary was equatorward of the convection reversal boundary by ~2°. The unprecedented accuracy of the conjunction argues strongly

  9. Pulsed flows at the high-altitude cusp poleward boundary, and associated ionospheric convection and particle signatures, during a Cluster - FAST - SuperDARN- Søndrestrøm conjunction under a southwest IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Farrugia

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Particle and magnetic field observations during a magnetic conjunction Cluster 1-FAST-Søndrestrøm within the field of view of SuperDARN radars on 21 January 2001 allow us to draw a detailed, comprehensive and self-consistent picture at three heights of signatures associated with transient reconnection under a steady south-westerly IMF (clock angle ≈130°. Cluster 1 was outbound through the high altitude (~12RE exterior northern cusp tailward of the bifurcation line (geomagnetic Bx>0 when a solar wind dynamic pressure release shifted the spacecraft into a boundary layer downstream of the cusp. The centerpiece of the investigation is a series of flow bursts observed there by the spacecraft, which were accompanied by strong field perturbations and tailward flow deflections. Analysis shows these to be Alfvén waves. We interpret these flow events as being due to a sequence of reconnected flux tubes, with field-aligned currents in the associated Alfvén waves carrying stresses to the underlying ionosphere, a view strengthened by the other observations. At the magnetic footprint of the region of Cluster flow bursts, FAST observed an ion energy-latitude disperison of the stepped cusp type, with individual cusp ion steps corresponding to individual flow bursts. Simultaneously, the SuperDARN Stokkseyri radar observed very strong poleward-moving radar auroral forms (PMRAFs which were conjugate to the flow bursts at Cluster. FAST was traversing these PMRAFs when it observed the cusp ion steps. The Søndrestrøm radar observed pulsed ionospheric flows (PIFs just poleward of the convection reversal boundary. As at Cluster, the flow was eastward (tailward, implying a coherent eastward (tailward motion of the hypothesized open flux tubes. The joint Søndrestrøm and FAST observations indicate that the open/closed field line boundary was equatorward of the convection reversal boundary by ~2°. The unprecedented accuracy

  10. Cardiac Surgeons after Vacation: Refreshed or Rusty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Blayne; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; McClure, Andrew; Dubois, Luc; Nagpal, Dave

    2017-10-01

    Many surgeons describe feeling a bit out of practice when they return from a vacation. There have been no studies assessing the impact of surgeon vacation on patient outcomes. We used administrative data from the province of Ontario to identify patients who underwent a coronary artery bypass grafting. Using a propensity score, we matched patients who underwent their procedure immediately after their surgeon returned from vacation of at least 7 days (n = 1,161) to patients who were not operated immediately before or after a vacation period (n = 2,138). There was no significant difference in patient mortality (odds ratio: 1.23, p = 0.52), length of operation (relative risk [RR]: 1.00 p = 0.58), or intensive care unit/ hospital stay (RR: 0.97 p = 0.66/RR: 0.98 p = 0.54, respectively). There was not a significant change in risk of death, operative length, or hospital stay after a surgeon vacation.

  11. Visual Simulations: Why We Need Pretty Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stredney, Don

    This paper discusses issues of representation in the use of scientific visualizations, specifically those used for biomedical applications, and the implications of those issues to interface design. Topics addressed include the benefits of research into the generation of virtual simulation (virtual reality) and the importance of realism. (Contains…

  12. The "Pretty Redhead" Who Changed Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Randy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the historical marginalization of women with claims that they are neither fit for nor interested in careers in science. Describes two cases of the media depiction of a successful female scientist and a high school biology teacher who was involved in the challenge to Arkansas' antievolution laws. (MM)

  13. RUSTY OLD STARS: A SOURCE OF THE MISSING INTERSTELLAR IRON?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Markwick, A. J.; Sloan, G. C.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Matsunaga, N.; Matsuura, M.; Kraemer, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    Iron, the universe's most abundant refractory element, is highly depleted in both circumstellar and interstellar environments, meaning it exists in solid form. The nature of this solid is unknown. In this Letter, we provide evidence that metallic iron grains are present around oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, where it is observationally manifest as a featureless mid-infrared excess. This identification is made using Spitzer Space Telescope observations of evolved globular cluster stars, where iron dust production appears ubiquitous and in some cases can be modeled as the only observed dust product. In this context, FeO is examined as the likely carrier for the 20 μm feature observed in some of these stars. Metallic iron appears to be an important part of the dust condensation sequence at low metallicity, and subsequently plays an influential role in the interstellar medium. We explore the stellar metallicities and luminosities at which iron formation is observed, and how the presence of iron affects the outflow and its chemistry. The conditions under which iron can provide sufficient opacity to drive a wind remain unclear.

  14. Verslo transformavimo į darnų verslą valdymas

    OpenAIRE

    Grunda, Rokas

    2011-01-01

    Having examined the concepts of sustainable business and advantages and disadvantages of business sustainability management models, the objective of the dissertation is to formulate a management model of business transformation to sustainable business and to verify it in present business conditions in Lithuania. In the dissertation, the essence of the concepts of sustainable development and sustainability is characterized, the criteria of sustainable society are distinguished and the concept ...

  15. 3D digital anatomy modelling - Practical or pretty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgitroyd, Ellen; Madurska, Marta; Gonzalez, Jasmina; Watson, Angus

    2015-06-01

    With an increasing move towards digitalisation of medical records and medical teaching, such as online exams and webinars, one of the questions that persists asks 'is there a place for digital anatomy teaching and can it effectively replace the traditional teaching methods such as cadaveric dissection?' Cadaveric dissection has a number of benefits as a teaching method but it also has its limitations. Although these can be partially addressed by prosections and new more "life-like" fixatives, it does not address the lack of resources and the increasing pressure to be able to study and learn at home. This paper reviews the literature with regards to the suitability of digital models for teaching and the wider uses a 3D digital anatomy model could have, such as postgraduate teaching, patient education and surgical planning. It also looks briefly at the learning model that anatomy as art contributes. The literature has scattered examples of digital models used for teaching at both undergraduate and postgraduate level, which demonstrate a number of positive outcomes, mostly surrounding user satisfaction and convenience. 3D modelling for patient education and operation planning has less exploration, and these papers generate a number of discussion points, mostly surrounding the practicality of digital models, which can be more time consuming and require the technology to be widely available and reliable. 3D digital anatomy is a useful adjunct to teaching and its use in patient education and operation planning have interesting possibilities still to be fully explored. Copyright © 2014 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intelligence and Creativity Are Pretty Similar After All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the history of thought on how intelligence and creativity, two individual differences important to teaching and learning, are connected. For decades, intelligence and creativity have been seen as essentially unrelated abilities. Recently, however, new theories, assessment methods, and statistical tools have caused a shift in…

  17. Not just pretty pictures: Geographical Information Systems in TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is becoming a useful tool in disease control by health planners. However little is known about its potential in tuberculosis (TB) control. In 2000 the National TB Programme (NTP) in Malawi assessed its usefulness. Routinely collected case-finding data from the 3 previous years (1997 ...

  18. Satellite image-based maps: Scientific inference or pretty pictures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts

    2011-01-01

    The scientific method has been characterized as having two distinct components, Discovery and Justification. Discovery emphasizes ideas and creativity, focuses on conceiving hypotheses and constructing models, and is generally regarded as lacking a formal logic. Justification begins with the hypotheses and models and ends with a...

  19. It's pretty smart but also a bit frightening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh

    The increasing use of mobile phones and services introduces the challenging questionof how to take advantage of the services without the service providers taking advantage of us. The notion of location-based services often means a less transparent partner and may constitute a challenge too big......’s perception of location - based services by focusing on different existing and forthcoming services. The paper concludes that users are generally willing to disclose location-based data if they find the services useful and to their advantage. Privacy and trust are essential elements in judging...

  20. Rusty pipe syndrome in a 22-year-old primigravida at 26 weeks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and fibrocystic disease. Ductal papilloma is the most common cause of bloody nipple discharge in women;4,5 the discharge is usually spontaneous and unilateral, comes from a single duct,4,5 is painless and is usually not associated with a palpable lesion. In fibrocystic disease the breast has areas of lumpiness, and the ...

  1. The Rusty Sink: Iron Promotes the Preservation of Organic Matter in Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, K. M.; Mucci, A.; Moritz, A.; Ouellet, A.; Gelinas, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of iron (Fe) and organic carbon (OC) are strongly interlinked. In oceanic waters, organic ligands have been shown to control the concentration of dissolved Fe [1], whereas in soils, solid Fe phases provide a sheltering and preservative effect for organic matter [2]. Until now however, the role of iron in the preservation of OC in sediments has not been clearly established. Here we show that 21.5 ± 8.6% of the OC in sediments is directly bound to reactive iron phases, which promote the preservation of OC in sediments. Iron-bound OC represents a global mass of 19 to 45 × 10^15 g of OC in surface marine sediments. This pool of OC is different from the rest of sedimentary OC, with 13C and nitrogen-enriched organic matter preferentially bound to Fe which suggests that biochemical fractionation occurs with OC-Fe binding. Preferential binding also affects the recovery of high molecular weight lipid biomarkers and acidic lignin oxidation products, changing the environmental message of proxies derived from these biomarkers. [1] Johnson, K. S., Gordon, R. M. & Coale, K. H. What controls dissolved iron in the world ocean? Marine Chemistry 57, 137-161 (1997). [2] Kaiser, K. & Guggenberger, G. The role of DOM sorption to mineral surfaces in the preservation of organic matter in soils. Organic Geochemistry 31, 711-725 (2000).

  2. Cherry Necrotic Rusty Mottle and Cherry Green Ring Mottle Viruses in Czech Cherry Germplasm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špak, Josef; Přibylová, Jaroslava; Šafářová, D.; Lenz, Ondřej; Koloniuk, Igor; Navrátil, M.; Fránová, Jana; Špaková, Vlastimila; Paprštein, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2017), s. 195-200 ISSN 1212-2580 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14004 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : double-stranded-rna * 1st report * detection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016

  3. Comparison between SuperDARN flow vectors and equivalent ionospheric currents from ground magnetometer arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weygand, J. M.; Amm, O.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2012-01-01

    seasons. This comparison is done over a range of spatial separations, magnetic latitudes, magnetic local times, and auroral electrojet activity to investigate under what conditions the vectors are anti-parallel to one another. Our results show that in general the equivalent ionospheric currents are anti...... that may influence the alignment include ionospheric conductivity gradients and quiet time backgrounds. Our results can be used to approximate the macroscopic (similar to 1000 km) ionospheric convection patterns. The SECS maps represent a value-added product from the raw magnetometer database and can...... be used for contextual interpretation; they can help with our understanding of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling mechanisms using ground arrays and the magnetospheric spacecraft data, and they can be used as input for other techniques....

  4. Statistical characteristics of Doppler spectral width as observed by the conjugate SuperDARN radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hosokawa

    Full Text Available We performed a statistical analysis of the occurrence distribution of Doppler spectral width around the day-side high-latitude ionosphere using data from the conjugate radar pair composed of the CUTLASS Iceland-East radar in the Northern Hemisphere and the SENSU Syowa-East radar in the Southern Hemisphere. Three types of spectral width distribution were identified: (1 an exponential-like distribution in the lower magnetic latitudes (below 72°, (2 a Gaussian-like distribution around a few degrees magnetic latitude, centered on 78°, and (3 another type of distribution in the higher magnetic latitudes (above 80°. The first two are considered to represent the geophysical regimes such as the LLBL and the cusp, respectively, because they are similar to the spectral width distributions within the LLBL and the cusp, as classified by Baker et al. (1995. The distribution found above 80° magnetic latitude has been clarified for the first time in this study. This distribution has similarities to the exponential-like distribution in the lower latitude part, although clear differences also exist in their characteristics. These three spectral width distributions are commonly identified in conjugate hemispheres. The latitudinal transition from one distribution to another exhibits basically the same trend between two hemispheres. There is, however, an interhemispheric difference in the form of the distribution around the cusp latitudes, such that spectral width values obtained from Syowa-East are larger than those from Iceland-East. On the basis of the spectral width characteristics, the average locations of the cusp and the open/closed field line boundary are estimated statistically.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere inter-actions; plasma convection – Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers

  5. Simulations de dynamique moléculaires d'ARN – Structures et environnements

    OpenAIRE

    Auffinger , Pascal

    2004-01-01

    RNA's, the only type of biomolecules that are at the same time informative and catalytic, play a role at all levels of cellular life. For some RNA's, the function is inscribed in their sequence. For others like transfer RNA's, the function resides in the formation and maintenance of their compact three-dimensional folds. These last RNA's, called structured RNA's, need Mg2+ cations to maintain their tertiary structure and participate to catalytic functions. In Eric WESTHOF's team, numerous thr...

  6. "I Guess It Was Pretty Fun": Using WebQuests in the Middle School Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, George

    2003-01-01

    Notes that the WebQuest helps students harness the vast amount of on-line resources available. Presents a list of 10 suggestions that may help teachers unfamiliar with WebQuests, especially those in the history classroom, to use them more effectively. Concludes that students learned a great deal about the Civil War by doing the WebQuest, and the…

  7. Fishing for MSY: using “pretty good yield” ranges without impairing recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Shephard, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    to impairing recruitment. An FMSY range was calculated for each stock as the range of fishing mortalities (F) that lead to an average catch of at least 95% of MSY in long-term simulations. Further, a precautionary reference point for each stock (FP.05) was defined as the F resulting in a 5% probability...... of the spawning-stock biomass falling below an agreed biomass limit below which recruitment is impaired (Blim) in long-term simulations. For the majority of the stocks analysed, the upper bound of the FMSY range exceeded the estimated FP.05. However, larger fish species had higher precautionary limits to fishing...... mortality, and species with larger asymptotic length were less likely to have FMSY ranges impairing recruitment. Our study shows that fishing at FMSY generally is precautionary with respect to impairing recruitment for highly exploited teleost species in northern European waters, whereas the upper part...

  8. Hello my dear society,how pretty we are! On protest without demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Petronevic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available I’m not so sure everybody remembers Bob Marley’s song Burnin’ and lootin’. The French film Mathieu Kassovitz used it in his movie La Haine (1995 in an attempt to poeticise the clashes between the police and young rebels in the suburbs of Paris. 13 years after the movie, and 50 years after Burnin’and lootin’, Parisian duo Justice released their album Cross (ED Banger record label. The videoclip of the piece titled Stress again about violence in Parisian suburbs, yet the gap between the discourse employed by Kassovitz and Marley, on the one hand, and Justice’s Stress, on the other hand, is great.

  9. Not just a pretty face: putting the learning into the Learning Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosie Jones

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The newly opened Alan Gilbert Learning Commons (AGLC provides a flexible learning space catering to students from across the University of Manchester With over 1000 study spaces, ranging from informal to formal, enclosed to open, complimented by state of the art innovative technology, the AGLC is an attractive central hub for students to visit anytime of the day and night. However, the Library's vision for the AGLC travels far beyond the physical space and seeks to engage with students at a much deeper level enhancing and developing their learning. To this end, the AGLC was a driver for the library to deliver its own unique training programme and open learning materials in support of the learning and development needs of all students, irrespective of academic discipline. This is achieved through collaboration and partnership between the current providers across campus, with the Learning Commons providing a central focus for a wide range of activity, to exemplify the best of what the University of Manchester can offer to enhance the student learning experience. This paper describes the development of the Learning Commons, from planning to launch, in particular highlighting how ‘the learning' was put into the learning commons. It will illustrate some of the ways in which the Learning Commons joins up existing and newly developed activity from across the campus to proactively encourage and support engagement with learning as well as providing a physical space that students really want to learn in. It will describe the current open training programme and this is now being developed further from a pedagogic perspective and through partnerships with other skills providers across the University to enhance the AGLC offer and to ensure effective integration of student skills provision. The Alan Gilbert Learning Commons (AGLC is the newest library service at the University of Manchester and opened in October 2012. The £24 million investment in the space is part of a wider strategy at the University to invest in the student experience. The facility provides flexible learning space and caters for students from all parts of the university. There are over 1000 study spaces, ranging from informal to formal, enclosed to open, complimented by state of the art innovative technology. Learning has always been in mind when building the AGLC and the design encourages this through materials and technology in the space and flexible and formative furniture and learning opportunities. The infrastructure also supports learning, it is a 24/7 building 244 days of the year with excellent wifi coverage both indoors and in the outside garden space. There are power points wherever possible and room to put in more, 30 group rooms which encourage learning across distance with as well as in a specific PC cluster that encourages students to use that software as a collaboration tool. The furniture is flexible and reconfigurable, with whiteboards and digital screens integrated throughout the building.  No spaces are labelled instead students have the flexibility to make them their own. Even the quiet areas are not labelled, but depend on the students to decide where and exactly how quiet an area might need to be. This allows the building to flexibly support the students with whatever their needs are at the time, serving them best as they shape the space around them.  The building aims to inspire students; there are creative concepts commissioned throughout the building to inspire those studying and working in the space. Student's artwork adorns the walls and glass in the building, and there are distinguished alumni tiles in the entrance area which all show students they don't just learn in this space but stand on the shoulders of giants.  There are quotes from the great and the good of Manchester engraved into the solid oak panels that adorn the stairwells. There are 25 bespoke Nobel Laureate chairs associated with the University of Manchester intended to enthuse and inspire students to aspire to equal greatness. There is also a dedicated flexible training room in the building with laptops, clickers, a touch screen TV, stackable chairs and tables and a coffee machine and biscuits to encourage our students to want to be in this environment. The AGLC is an attractive central hub for students to visit anytime of the day and night. It is at the heart of the campus, opposite the main library, students union and University visitors centre. However the learning part of the building goes beyond the physical. Students and staff from across the University acted as consultants to ensure that the University tapped into the needs of its students and it became clear that a key area was supporting academics and schools to help them with developing student skills. Academic support provision at the University was not consistent. This clear need led to the creation of a learning development team dedicated to developing an open training programme that would support these areas of learning. This team delivers its own unique training programme of open learning materials in support of the learning and development needs of all students, irrespective of academic discipline. In fact the idea of these not being subject aligned is extremely important to the programme, none of the training is school aligned and any student is able to come to any session, interdisciplinarity is encouraged and exploration into the thoughts of someone from a different mindset expected. The training offer is achieved through collaboration and partnership between the current providers across campus, with the AGLC providing a central focus for a wide range of activity, to exemplify the best of what the University of Manchester can offer to enhance the student learning experience. The programme develops and delivers training and workshops that are new ,innovative, and following a facilitative model, covering topics from Academic Writing to Presentation Skills to Interview and Job Searching. It brings together the expertise and best practices already available on campus with the library acting as a bridge between the students' needs and the wider university resources. The goal is not to duplicate already existing resources, or create a parallel programme, but to create training that links students to the resources they need, wherever they happen to be provided. Going forward, what is really exciting is that this is part of a wider context, a Manchester vision. At the University of Manchester there is clearly a skills agenda. The University of Manchester has recently announced its "vision" for 2020, a vision that includes the sort of skills development currently being created by the library. Students at the university will be expected and encouraged to investigate beyond the strict content of their degree programmes and invest time in developing a broader and more varied set of skills than is traditionally expected. To achieve this goal, the partnerships across the university become key, an opportunity to demonstrate both the resources available and the multitude of ways the skills and knowledge acquired at university can impact a student after they have left. The open training programme (My Learning Essentials allows students to self-select workshops and resources they use. There are online learning resources, formal workshops and informal face-to-face components. The workshops are designed to give students the tools they need to be more successful learners, not answers. With this goal in mind, we can invite students from all degree programmes to attend the workshops and learn from each other, as the process is often broadly transferable no matter the specific content. It may be that our students don't suffer from a skills gap, where they don't know "how" to do something, but that they are not sure "what" to do. Given examples and guidance (but not answers, they will be able to use the skills they have to acquired during their time at University to attack problems far beyond their time in their degree programmes. This also changes the conversation around the skills agenda. It is not about identifying what is wrong; instead, it is about students' ability to self-evaluate and improve-whatever their starting point. Feedback is used from students and staff (and data gathered from registers to understand which workshops should be offered and how the resources are being used. This helps develop the most appropriate resources and also works to target groups that appear to be under-served.  One of the key components of student success with feedback (and, in fact, with the student experience is understanding how to move forward and improve. These workshops, because they focus on process, allow students to answer the question of "what next?" that makes feedback (and other support resources most useful. The offer during the Spring of 2013 was deliberately kept minimal in order to assess both student demand and the optimal timing and design of the programme. The workshops that were developed covered areas from academic writing to presentation skills and also included an employability emphasis led by a partnership with the careers division at the university, focusing on CVs, interview skills and job search techniques. In all, twenty one workshops were delivered to nearly 300 students in a twelve week period. This was a soft pilot, so minimal marketing was done, but attendance rates were generally very high, with, on average, over 60% of students signing up then attending a session.  September 2013 saw a fuller launch, there are now 17 different titles delivered and take up has been considerable.  In October 2013 My Learning Essentials saw 429 students, a significant increase and 97% of attendants found the sessions useful.  The programme does not intend to replace skills support in schools (there is not enough resource in the library to help every student that needs this support, but will work to improve it across the University. In this sense, the workshops, online provision, work with faculties and work with other partners will add up to more than the sum of its parts. Expertise of the entire university will be drawn upon to deepen the student experience and create a unique and innovative programme that goes beyond skills support and actively impacts learning. Much of the work has involved seeking partnerships with other service providers across the university and inviting them to create workshops and become an active part of the open training programme. The courses delivered on this programme are open to all students at the university, regardless of year, degree programme or postgraduate or undergraduate designation. These workshops and training sessions allow the students to evaluate and self-select areas where they feel they need support or have an interest in improving or learning. This structure moves the focus from a top-down remedial model to one where students are encouraged to explore the options and resources available to them at university, providing pathways for success that go beyond the traditional content studied during a degree.

  10. "It's Pretty Simple and in Greek …": Global and Local Languages in the Greek Corporate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahili, Ifigenia

    2014-01-01

    Today's corporate world is in a state of flux. The globalisation of business activity and the escalating economic crises force even small/medium enterprises to become international. This impacts on the competitiveness, profitability and survival of organisations, and as a result the companies' recruitment strategies and language policies,…

  11. 'A pretty piece of treachery': the strange case of Dr Stekel and Sigmund Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, P

    1998-12-01

    Freud claimed he broke with Stekel not because of 'scientific differences' but because of 'exclusively ... personal qualities'. The author offers an alternative version of this significant fragment of psychoanalytic history by suggesting that Freud acted out of revenge for the humiliation that he believed Stekel and Adler inflicted upon him at the 1910 Nuremberg Congress. He suggests that casting the story of the break between Stekel and Freud in the narrative shadow of Robert Louis Stevenson's novella 'Jekyll and Hyde' highlights the extent to which Freud involved himself in the murkier aspects of the politics of the International Psychoanalytical Association and the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. Ultimately, however, he argues, Freud was cynically prepared to use and then callously sacrifice Stekel, one of his oldest and most loyal followers, in his increasingly bitter struggles against Adler and Jung. He also touches upon the role of the 'Secret Committee' in the 'Stekel Affair' and the wider ramifications of Jung's unexpected return from America at the height of the 'Freud resignation crisis'. He further suggests that Jung's subsequent meeting with Bergmann may have been a significant factor in precipitating Jung's decision to break his personal relationship with Freud.

  12. More than pretty pictures? How illustrations affect parent-child story reading and children's story recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Beyer, Alisa M.; Curtis, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that story illustrations fail to enhance young preschoolers' memories when they accompany a pre-recorded story (e.g., Greenhoot and Semb, 2008). In this study we tested whether young children might benefit from illustrations in a more interactive story-reading context. For instance, illustrations might influence parent-child reading interactions, and thus children's story comprehension and recall. Twenty-six 3.5- to 4.5-year-olds and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to an Illustrated or Non-Illustrated story-reading condition, and parents were instructed to “read or tell the story” as they normally would read with their child. Children recalled the story after a distracter and again after 1 week. Analyses of the story-reading interactions showed that the illustrations prompted more interactive story reading and more parent and child behaviors known to predict improved literacy outcomes. Furthermore, in the first memory interview, children in the Illustrated condition recalled more story events than those in the Non-Illustrated condition. Story reading measures predicted recall, but did not completely account for picture effects. These results suggest that illustrations enhance young preschoolers' story recall in an interactive story reading context, perhaps because the joint attention established in this context supports children's processing of the illustrations. PMID:25101018

  13. Identity Crisis in Cormac McCarthy's "All the Pretty Horses"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreen, Hayder A. K.

    2016-01-01

    The issue of identity is one of the main issues that encounters man in each culture. Identity is a set of behaviors, emotions, and thought patterns which are unique to every individual that define him as a member of a certain group. Identity is shaped by race, ethnicity, religious beliefs, language, physical features, childhood experiences, sexual…

  14. Randomized Caches Can Be Pretty Useful to Hard Real-Time Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Mezzetti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cache randomization per se, and its viability for probabilistic timing analysis (PTA of critical real-time systems, are receiving increasingly close attention from the scientific community and the industrial practitioners. In fact, the very notion of introducing randomness and probabilities in time-critical systems has caused strenuous debates owing to the apparent clash that this idea has with the strictly deterministic view traditionally held for those systems. A paper recently appeared in LITES (Reineke, J. (2014. Randomized Caches Considered Harmful in Hard Real-Time Systems. LITES, 1(1, 03:1-03:13. provides a critical analysis of the weaknesses and risks entailed in using randomized caches in hard real-time systems. In order to provide the interested reader with a fuller, balanced appreciation of the subject matter, a critical analysis of the benefits brought about by that innovation should be provided also. This short paper addresses that need by revisiting the array of issues addressed in the cited work, in the light of the latest advances to the relevant state of the art. Accordingly, we show that the potential benefits of randomized caches do offset their limitations, causing them to be - when used in conjunction with PTA - a serious competitor to conventional designs.

  15. Pretty in pink: The early development of gender-stereotyped colour preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobue, Vanessa; Deloache, Judy S

    2011-09-01

    Parents commonly dress their baby girls in pink and their baby boys in blue. Although there is research showing that children prefer the colour blue to other colours (regardless of gender), there is no evidence that girls actually have a special preference for the colour pink. This is the focus of the current investigation. In a large cross-sectional study, children aged 7 months to 5 years were offered eight pairs of objects and asked to choose one. In every pair, one of the objects was always pink. By the age of 2, girls chose pink objects more often than boys did, and by the age of 2.5, they had a significant preference for the colour pink over other colours. At the same time, boys showed an increasing avoidance of pink. These results thus reveal that sex differences in young children's preference for the colour pink involves both an increasing attraction to pink by young girls and a growing avoidance of pink by boys. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  16. The Flynn Effect and Its Critics: Rusty Linchpins and "Lookin' for g and Gf in Some of the Wrong Places"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Kevin S.

    2010-01-01

    The consensus of most intelligence scholars is that the Flynn effect (FE) is real, IQ test batteries are now routinely restandardized on a regular basis. A cornerstone in Flynn's explanation of the FE is his analysis of select Wechsler subtest scores across time. The featured articles by Kaufman and Zhou, Zhu, and Weiss question whether Flynn's…

  17. Sexual patterns and protogynous sex reversal in the rusty parrotfish, Scarus ferrugineus (Scaridae): histological and physiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, El-Sayedah H; Bawazeer, Fayzah A; El-Sayed Ali, Tamer; Al-Otaibi, Mashael

    2012-08-01

    Gonadal histology confirmed that Scarus ferrugineus is a diandric protogynous fish. The process of protogynous sex reversal was investigated through histological observations on the gonads of females changing sex to male. This process was divided into three stages on the basis of changes in the structure of the germinal and somatic elements. Ovaries of functional females (stages IV-V) were filled with vitellogenic oocytes during the breeding season but contained no trace of spermatogenic tissue. During post-spawning period, the remaining vitellogenic oocytes began to degenerate and accompanied by a drop in plasma levels of estradiol-17β. At the commencement of sex change, previtellogenic oocytes began to degenerate and stromal cell aggregation was observed in the central region of the lamellae. At mid-reversal stage, steroid-producing cells (Leydig cells) developed at the border of the stromal aggregate and spermatogonial cysts appear at the periphery of lamellae. Finally, sex change to secondary males was considered complete, with the beginning of active spermatogenesis and spermiation. Plasma levels of testosterone remained low throughout the sex change, but II-KT increased rapidly parallel to the increased number of Leydig cells while the level of estradiol-17β decreased. The results indicate also that the sex-changed males had higher level of II-KT than primary males, while primary males had higher level of testosterone. Histological examination revealed that testes of primary and secondary males are almost identical in organization of the spermatogenic cysts, association of sertoli cells, and developing germ cells but differ in clustering and development of Leydig cells.

  18. Control Banding and Nanotechnology Synergist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D; Paik, S

    2009-12-15

    The average Industrial Hygienist (IH) loves a challenge, right? Okay, well here is one with more than a few twists. We start by going through the basics of a risk assessment. You have some chemical agents, a few workers, and the makings of your basic exposure characterization. However, you have no occupational exposure limit (OEL), essentially no toxicological basis, and no epidemiology. Now the real handicap is that you cannot use sampling pumps, cassettes, tubes, or any of the media in your toolbox, and the whole concept of mass-to-dose is out the window, even at high exposure levels. Of course, by the title, you knew we were talking about nanomaterials (NM). However, we wonder how many IHs know that this topic takes everything you know about your profession and turns it upside down. It takes the very foundations that you worked so hard in college and in the field to master and pulls it out from underneath you. It even takes the gold standard of our profession, the quantitative science of exposure assessment, and makes it look pretty darn rusty. Now with NM there is the potential to get some aspect of quantitative measurements, but the instruments are generally very expensive and getting an appropriate workplace personal exposure measurement can be very difficult if not impossible. The potential for workers getting exposures, however, is very real, as evidenced by a recent publication reporting worker exposures to polyacrylate nanoparticles in a Chinese factory (Song et al. 2009). With something this complex and challenging, how does a concept as simple as Control Banding (CB) save the day? Although many IHs have heard of CB, most of their knowledge comes from its application in the COSHH Essentials toolkit. While there is conflicting published research on COSHH Essentials and its value for risk assessments, almost all of the experts agree that it can be useful when no OELs are available (Zalk and Nelson 2008). It is this aspect of CB, its utility with

  19. "Boys Like Smart Girls More than Pretty Girls": Young Korean Immigrant Girls' Understanding of Romantic Love in American Popular Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of understanding children's interpretations of popular culture in the United States, young children's voices have not been sufficiently explored in studies. Moreover, the perspectives of American immigrant children hardly have a presence in studies of popular culture. Thus, this paper explores how young immigrant children…

  20. Swim bladder mycosis in pretty tetra (Hemigrammus pulcher) caused by Exophiala pisciphila and Phaeophleospora hymenocallidicola, and experimental verification of pathogenicity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehulka, J.; Kubátová, A.; Hubka, Vít

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2018), s. 487-500 ISSN 0140-7775 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : black yeasts * blood plasma amino acids * experimental infection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.138, year: 2016

  1. More than pretty pictures? How illustrations affect parent-child story reading and children’s story recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Follmer Greenhoot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that story illustrations fail to enhance young preschoolers’ memories when they accompany a pre-recorded story (e.g., Greenhoot & Semb, 2008. In this study we tested whether young children might benefit from illustrations in a more interactive story-reading context. For instance, illustrations might influence parent-child reading interactions, and thus children’s story comprehension and recall. Twenty-six 3.5- to 4.5-year-olds and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to an Illustrated or Non-Illustrated story-reading condition, and parents were instructed to read or tell the story as they normally would read with their child. Children recalled the story after a distracter and again after one week. Analyses of the story-reading interactions showed that the illustrations prompted more interactive story reading and more parent and child behaviors known to predict improved literacy outcomes. Furthermore,in the first memory interview, children in the Illustrated condition recalled more story events than those in the Non-Illustrated condition. Story reading measures predicted recall, but did not completely account for picture effects. These results suggest that illustrations enhance young preschoolers’ story recall in an interactive story reading context, perhaps because the joint attention established in this context supports children’s processing of the illustrations.

  2. No longer just a pretty face: fashion magazines' depictions of ideal female beauty from 1959 to 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sypeck, Mia Foley; Gray, James J; Ahrens, Anthony H

    2004-11-01

    The print media's depiction of the ideal of feminine beauty as presented to American women was examined for the years 1959-1999. Trends were investigated through an analysis of cover models appearing on the four most popular American fashion magazines. Body size for fashion models decreased significantly during the 1980s and 1990s. There was also a dramatic increase in the frequency with which the media depicted the entire bodies of the models from the 1960s to the 1990s. Both the increasingly thin images and the striking increase in full-body portrayals suggest an increase in the value placed by American society on a thin ideal for women, a change that is concurrent with the increase in disturbed eating patterns among American women.

  3. Practice makes pretty good: assessment of primary literature reading abilities across multiple large-enrollment biology laboratory courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Brian K; Kadandale, Pavan; He, Wenliang; Murata, Paige M N; Latif, Yama; Warschauer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Primary literature is essential for scientific communication and is commonly utilized in undergraduate biology education. Despite this, there is often little time spent training our students how to critically analyze a paper. To address this, we introduced a primary literature module in multiple upper-division laboratory courses. In this module, instructors conduct classroom discussions that dissect a paper as researchers do. While previous work has identified classroom interventions that improve primary literature comprehension within a single course, our goal was to determine whether including a scientific paper module in our classes could produce long-term benefits. On the basis of performance in an assessment exam, we found that our module resulted in longitudinal gains, including increased comprehension and critical-thinking abilities in subsequent lab courses. These learning gains were specific to courses utilizing our module, as no longitudinal gains were seen in students who had taken other upper-division labs that lacked extensive primary literature discussion. In addition, we assessed whether performance on our assessment correlated with a variety of factors, including grade point average, course performance, research background, and self-reported confidence in understanding of the article. Furthermore, all of the study conclusions are independent of biology disciplines, as we observe similar trends within each course. © 2014 B. K. Sato et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  4. More than Just a Pretty (Inter) Face: The Role of the Graphical User Interface in Engaging Elearners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metros, Susan E.; Hedberg, John G.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the graphical user interface (GUI) and the cognitive demands placed on the learner in eLearning (electronic learning) environments. Describes ways educators can design appropriate interfaces to facilitate meaningful interactions with educational content; and examines learner engagement and engagement theory using…

  5. “Send pretty girls to the White House”: the role of gender in journalists – politicians’ interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila VORONOVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interrelations between politics and media are often described as a power-play, a rumba or even a danse macabre, and the key question of political communication is “who leads and who follows” in the “power-play between politicians and journalists” (Ross, 2010, p. 274. As today “[m]eaning, media and politics become blurred, but arguably in highly gendered ways” (Holmes, 2007, p. 12, gender inevitably enters the discussion of the journalists – politicians’ interactions. Based on interviews with 40 Russian and Swedish political reporters working for the “quality” press, this paper discusses the role of gender as a social practice (Löfgren Nilsson, 2010 in journalists – politicians’ communication in different political and cultural contexts, which Russia and Sweden represent. The paper answers the following questions: Do journalists perceive the interrelations with politicians as gendered? Do they use gendered interrelations strategically to acquire information efficiently? How do the gendered political communication practices differ dependent on the political and cultural context?

  6. Study and characterization of noble metal deposits on similar rusty surfaces to those of the reactor U-1 type BWR of nuclear power station of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores S, V. H.

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation work, were determined the parameters to simulate the conditions of internal oxidation reactor circulation pipes of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in Veracruz. We used 304l stainless steel cylinders with two faces prepared with abrasive paper of No. 600, with the finality to obtain similar surface to the internal circulation piping nuclear reactor. Oxides was formed within an autoclave (Autoclave MEX-02 unit B), which is a device that simulates the working conditions of the nuclear reactor, but without radiation generated by the fission reaction within the reactor. The oxidation conditions were a temperature of 280 C and pressure of 8 MPa, similar conditions to the reactor operating in nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in Veracruz, Mexico (BWR conditions), with an average conductivity of 4.58 ms / cm and 2352 ppb oxygen to simulate normal water chemistry NWC. Were obtained deposits of noble metal oxides formed on 304l stainless steel samples, in a 250 ml autoclave at a temperature range of 180 to 200 C. The elements that were used to deposit platinum-rhodium (Pt-Rh) with aqueous Na 2 Pt (OH) 6 and Na 3 Rh (NO 2 ) 6 , Silver (Ag) with an aqueous solution of AgNO 3 , zirconium (Zr) with aqueous Zr O (NO 3 ) and ZrO 2 , and zinc (Zn) in aqueous solution of Zn (NO 3 ) 2 under conditions of normal water chemistry. Also there was the oxidation of 304l stainless steel specimens in normal water chemistry with a solution of Zinc (Zn) (NWC + Zn). Oxidation of the specimens in water chemistry with a solution of zinc (Zn + NWC) was prepared in two ways: within the MEX-02 autoclave unit A in a solution of zinc and a flask at constant temperature in zinc solution. The oxides formed and deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, elemental field analysis and X-ray diffraction. By other hand was evaluated the electrochemical behavior of the oxides formed on the surface of 304l stainless steel in normal water chemistry, zirconium deposits on these oxides and deposits formed in a flask at constant temperature in solution of zinc, with power noise technique and electrochemical tafel extrapolation technique. Finally, were presented the results to the nuclear as an alternative mitigation effort stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and thus give support to the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in the action of existing corrosion phenomenon. (Author)

  7. Cenozoic structural evolution of the southwestern Bükk Mts. and the southern part of the Darnó Deformation Belt (NE Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrik Attila

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extensive structural field observations and seismic interpretation allowed us to delineate 7 deformation phases in the study area for the Cenozoic period. Phase D1 indicates NW–SE compression and perpendicular extension in the Late Oligocene–early Eggenburgian and it was responsible for the development of a wedge-shaped Paleogene sequence in front of north-westward propagating blind reverse faults. D2 is represented by E–W compression and perpendicular extension in the middle Eggenburgian–early Ottnangian. The D1 and D2 phases resulted in the erosion of Paleogene suites on elevated highs. Phase D2 was followed by a counterclockwise rotation, described in earlier publications. When considering the age of sediments deformed by the syn-sedimentary D3 deformation and preliminary geochronological ages of deformed volcanites the time of the first CCW rotation can be shifted slightly younger (~17–16.5 Ma than previously thought (18.5–17.5 Ma. Another consequence of our new timing is that the extrusional tectonics of the ALCAPA unit, the D2 local phase, could also terminate somewhat later by 1 Myr. D4 shows NE–SW extension in the late Karpatian–Early Badenian creating NW–SE trending normal faults which connected the major NNE–SSW trending sinistral faults. The D5 and D6 phases are late syn-rift deformations indicating E–W extension and NW–SE extension, respectively. D5 indicates syn-sedimentary deformation in the Middle Badenian–early Sarmatian and caused the synsedimentary thickening of mid-Miocene suites along NNE–SSW trending transtensional faults. D5 postdates the second CCW rotation which can be bracketed between ~16–15 Ma. This timing is somewhat older than previously considered and is based on new geochronological dates of pyroclastite rocks which were not deformed by this phase. D6 was responsible for further deepening of half-grabens during the Sarmatian. D7 is post-tilt NNW–SSE extension and induced the deposition of the 700 m thick Pannonian wedge between 11.6–8.92 Ma in the southern part of the study area.

  8. Mécanismes et fonctions de la voie d'ARN interférence induite par ARN double brin chez Paramecium tetraurelia

    OpenAIRE

    Carradec , Quentin

    2014-01-01

    The ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia is an interesting model to study the diversity and evolution of RNA interference (RNAi) pathways. One of the vegetative RNAi pathways is induced by feeding cells with bacteria producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) homologous to a given gene, which is then post-transcriptionally silenced through the production of 23-nt siRNAs. A forward genetic screen allowed us to obtain Mendelian mutants deficient in dsRNA-induced RNAi, and mutated genes were identified by ...

  9. "They're Pretty Much Made for Blunts": Product Features That Facilitate Marijuana Use Among Young Adult Cigarillo Users in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovenco, Daniel P; Miller Lo, Erin J; Lewis, M Jane; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2017-11-01

    Cigarillo use is prevalent among young adults in the United States. Many young people use cigarillos as "blunts," a term for a cigar emptied of its tobacco and replaced with marijuana. Because cigars in the United States are not subject to the same regulations as cigarettes, they offer a diverse selection of flavors and packaging styles. It is unclear how these and other product attributes facilitate blunt use. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of 40 young adult cigar or cigarillo users in the United States to assess patterns of use and perceptions about product features. Quotations from interview transcripts were coded for major themes and summarized across participants. Regardless of their preferred brand, participants felt that the brand Black & Mild is primarily smoked for the tobacco. There was a strong perception, however, that other popular cigarillo brands are almost always used to make blunts. Participants believed that cigarillo companies design their products to simplify blunt-making, with features such as perforated lines or wrappings that unroll easily. Resealable foil pouches, a popular packaging style, are often used to hold unused marijuana and mask its smell. Blunt use is pervasive among young adult cigarillo users in the United States, and certain cigar companies have developed products that facilitate blunt-making. Future surveillance measures should capture the extent to which cigarillo users are using these products as blunts. Continued surveillance of cigarillo sales and popular product attributes are needed. Cigarillo use is prevalent among young adults in the United States, many of whom are using the products as blunts. This study found that product features such as brand, flavor, packaging, and price influence the selection of cigarillos used for this purpose. There is also a strong perception among young adult cigarillo users that cigarillo companies design their products and packaging to make the blunt-making process simple and enjoyable. Better surveillance measures are needed to capture the extent to which cigarillos are used as blunts and which product features are driving category growth. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. "I'm pretty sure that we will win!": The influence of score-related nonverbal behavioral changes on the confidence in winning a basketball game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furley, Philip; Schweizer, Geoffrey

    2014-06-01

    The goal of the present research was to test whether score-related changes in opponents' nonverbal behavior influence athletes' confidence in beating their opponents. In an experiment, 40 participants who were experienced basketball players watched brief video clips depicting athletes' nonverbal behavior. Video clips were not artificially created, but showed naturally occurring behavior. Participants indicated how confident they were in beating the presented athletes in a hypothetical scenario. Results indicated that participants' confidence estimations were influenced by opponents' score-related nonverbal behavior. Participants were less confident about beating a leading team and more confident about beating a trailing team, although they were unaware of the actual score during the depicted scenes. The present research is the first to show that in-game variations of naturally occurring nonverbal behavior can influence athletes' confidence. This finding highlights the importance of research into nonverbal behavior in sports, particularly in relation to athletes' confidence.

  11. "I Liked Girls and I Thought They Were Pretty": Initial Memories of Same-Sex Attraction in Young Lesbian and Bisexual Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Sara I; Rubin, Jennifer D; Bauermeister, José A

    2016-08-01

    There is little research on what is meant by the concept of "feeling attracted" and even less about what same-sex attraction looks and feels like for individuals. Without insight into the phenomenon of same-sex attraction, researchers risk misunderstanding the role of sexual attraction in sexual identity development and risk mis-categorizing individuals in research designs that compare LGBTQ and heterosexual samples. The current study draws from semi-structured interviews (n = 30) with young lesbian-, bisexual-, and queer-identified women (ages 18-24) about their initial memories of same-sex attraction. Two questions were pursued using qualitative analytic strategies. We examined the age that participants remembered first experiencing same-sex attraction using content analysis. Two age groups emerged as distinct: those with experiences of same-sex attraction in childhood and those with initial attractions in later adolescence. We also examined key elements in participants' descriptions of early same-sex attraction using thematic analysis. The role of embodied feelings, relationships with other young women, and social environments including media images emerged as central to initial experiences of attraction. Findings highlight how early experiences of same-sex attraction produced different types of interpretations within individuals and, in turn, these interpretations informed how participants did or did not take up LGBTQ identity labels. These findings may help guide the development of more refined measurement tools for researchers hoping to sample sexual minorities and can contribute to developing more effective supports for individuals who experience same-sex attraction but may not adopt LGBTQ identity labels and, as a result, are routinely missed in outreach efforts.

  12. Bronze is beautiful but pale can be pretty: the effects of appearance standards and mortality salience on sun-tanning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Cathy R; Cooper, Douglas P; Vess, Matthew; Arndt, Jamie; Goldenberg, Jamie L; Routledge, Clay

    2009-11-01

    Using the terror management health model (J. L. Goldenberg & J. Arndt, 2008), the authors examined tanning outcomes as a function of priming tanning-relevant standards for attractiveness after reminders of death. Study 1 consisted of 101 female college students recruited from a midwestern university; Study 2 consisted of 53 female participants recruited from a beach in south Florida. In both experiments, participants answered questions about their mortality or a control topic, and were presented with a fashion article that highlighted either the attractiveness of tanned (just in Study 1), pale, or natural-looking skin. Self-reported suntan intentions (Study 1) and sunscreen intentions (Study 2). Study 2 also assessed participants' interest in various sun protection products. Study 1 demonstrated that mortality salience led to higher tanning intentions when the association between tanned skin and physical attractiveness was made salient and reduced intentions when the attractiveness of paler skin was highlighted. In Study 2, beachgoers, after reminders of death, reported greater preference for high sun protection sunscreen after reading an article about the attractiveness of paler skin tones. These findings contribute to an emerging understanding of how mortality concerns can influence health-related judgment and behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Pretty as a Princess: Longitudinal Effects of Engagement With Disney Princesses on Gender Stereotypes, Body Esteem, and Prosocial Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Rasmussen, Eric E; Nelson, David A; Birkbeck, Victoria

    2016-11-01

    This study examined level of engagement with Disney Princess media/products as it relates to gender-stereotypical behavior, body esteem (i.e. body image), and prosocial behavior during early childhood. Participants consisted of 198 children (M age  = 58 months), who were tested at two time points (approximately 1 year apart). Data consisted of parent and teacher reports, and child observations in a toy preference task. Longitudinal results revealed that Disney Princess engagement was associated with more female gender-stereotypical behavior 1 year later, even after controlling for initial levels of gender-stereotypical behavior. Parental mediation strengthened associations between princess engagement and adherence to female gender-stereotypical behavior for both girls and boys, and for body esteem and prosocial behavior for boys only. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Pretty as a Princess: Longitudinal Effects of Engagement with Disney Princesses on Gender Stereotypes, Body Esteem, and Prosocial Behavior in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Nelson, David A.; Birkbeck, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    This study examined level of engagement with Disney Princess media/products as it relates to gender-stereotypical behavior, body esteem (i.e. body image), and prosocial behavior during early childhood. Participants consisted of 198 children (M[subscript age] = 58 months), who were tested at two time points (approximately 1 year apart). Data…

  15. Direct determination of IMF B-Y-related cusp current systems, using SuperDARN radar and multiple ground magnetometer data: A link to theory on cusp current origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amm, O.; Engebretson, M.J.; Greenwald, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    , respectively, with magnitudes of around 0.5 A/km(2). The geometry of the current system resembles a DPY current system [Friis-Christensen and Wilhjelm, 1975]. Using our results, we test alternative theories on cusp current origin that lead to different predictions of the relative location of the cusp current...... are caused by a rotational discontinuity of the magnetic field at the magnetopause. In contrast, the idea of Clauer and Banks [1986] that a mapping of the solar wind E-z component to the ionosphere is responsible for the cusp current system is not supported....... system with respect to the open-closed field line boundary. The location of this boundary is inferred from DMSP F10 satellite data. The center of our resulting current system is located clearly poleward of the open-closed field line boundary, thus favoring the idea of Lee et al. [1985] that the cusp FACs...

  16. First results from the Blackstone HF radar in support of THEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, M.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B.; Barnes, R. J.; Clauer, C. R.; Greenwald, R. A.; Grocott, A.; Milan, S. E.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2008-12-01

    A new HF radar has been constructed and built in Blackstone, VA, as part of the SuperDARN/StormDARN programme specifically with the purpose of providing coverage over the Canadian ground sector in THEMIS. The new radar began operations in February 2008, an optimum time to support the first THEMIS tail campaign. This paper will discuss the importance of having radars at lower latitudes than the auroral zone locations of SuperDARN for substorm studies. Furthermore, the paper will also present the first results from this radar together with other SuperDARN observations during the THEMIS tail period.

  17. Engineering and Design: Characterization and Measurement of Discontinuities in Rock Slopes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    This ETL provides guidance for characterizing and measuring rock discontinuities on natural slopes or slopes constructed in rock above reservoirs, darn abutments, or other types of constructed slopes...

  18. JA ES BŪTU SMUKS, ES GRIBĒTU BŪT MEITENE! (‘If I Were Pretty, I Would Like To Be A Girl!’. Debating Transsexualism In The Latvian Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHOJNICKA JOANNA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates a debate on the issues of legal recognition of gender which took place in the Latvian Parliament in 2009 and which is considered a rich source of material for a two-fold analysis. As an example of gendered discourse, it shows the differences between female and male MPs’ ways of tackling this uncomfortable subject. As a discourse about gender, which allows one to study the speakers’ arguments and attitudes, it reveals prejudice, lack of knowledge and conservative thinking. The analysis thus illustrates the language and arguments employed in the public sphere when discussing face-threatening, taboo topics.

  19. Pretty, but dangerous! Records of non-native Monk Parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus in Mexico ¡Bonita pero peligrosa! Registros de la cotorra argentina (Myiopsitta monachus en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian MacGregor-Fors

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus is native to South America and has been introduced by the pet market to several countries around the world. In this note, we compiled records for this species in Mexico and report the first sight-recording of this species in the state of Michoacán and several nesting localities within the Metropolitan area of México City. Most records are of individuals escaped or released from captivity. Also, we review the negative effects that this species has had in invaded areas from around the world. Our analysis suggests the possible beginning of an invasion in Mexico that could have dramatic negative ecological and economic effects throughout this biodiverse country.La cotorra argentina (Myiopsitta monachus es nativa de Sudamérica y ha sido introducida a través del comercio de mascotas en diversos países del mundo. En esta nota compilamos los registros de esta especie para México, además de reportarla por primera vez para el estado de Michoacán y diversas localidades de anidación en la zona metropolitana de la ciudad de México. La mayoría de los registros son de individuos que han escapado o han sido liberados intencionalmente del cautiverio. Además, discutimos los efectos que ha tenido esta especie en otros lugares del mundo. Los registros compilados en esta nota sugieren el inicio de un proceso masivo de invasión por parte de la cotorra argentina, el cual podría tener efectos económicos y ecológicos dramáticos en un país biodiverso como México.

  20. "I don't need people to tell me I'm pretty on social media:" A qualitative study of social media and body image in early adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, C Blair; Kwitowski, Melissa A; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2017-12-01

    Social media appear to contribute to body dissatisfaction in adolescents, although few empirical studies exist. This study used six focus groups (total N=38) to explore relations between social media use and body image in early adolescent girls (ages 12-14). Thematic analysis identified patterns in the data. In this sample, social media use was high. Girls endorsed some appearance concerns and social comparison, particularly with peers. However, they displayed high media literacy, appreciation of differences, and confidence, strategies that appeared helpful in mitigating the potential negative association between social media exposure and body image. Girls reported these characteristics were nurtured by positive parental influence and a supportive school environment. Results support an ecological approach to the prevention of body dissatisfaction. Although peer influence strengthens throughout adolescence, current findings suggest that parents and the school environment are associated with girls' attitudes and behaviors regarding social media and body image. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. "I've Had a Pretty Tough Life but That's Not Why I Do This": Narratives of Autonomy and Control among Alcohol and Drug Service-Engaged Early Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Sarah J.; Bruun, Andrew; Mallett, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    The provision of alcohol and other drug (AOD) programmes in Australia targeting a broad age range of young people may inadvertently obscure the particular service needs of early teenagers. In this study, we describe four main accounts of substance use identified through interviews with 20 AOD service-engaged participants in Victoria, aged from 13…

  2. Iluaias kõnnib nägus neid, võlub austajate südameid = A pretty girl in a flower garden, seducing her admirers / Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Epner, Eero, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Kaheksakümnendate maalikunsti suhtest ajalooga, selle "lõpetatusest" ja "valmissaamisest" ning viisidest, kuidas kirjutatakse kunstiajalugu. Kunstikriitika põhiprobleemiks oli sisemise progressi puudumine, igavus maalikunstis, vormikesksus, enesekordamine. Samas tunnustati alati olulisemaid autoreid, kaitstes neid kõikvõimalike rünnakute vastu. Tänapäeva seisukohalt olid need uue kunstimõtteta ennastimetlevad aastad, kus tagasi tuli nn. maaliline maal, kolorismi õitseng, intiimne tähelepanu värvile ja selle abil harmoonilise pildiruumi loomine individuaalsete praktikate kogumina. Huvitavamad tulemused sünnivad maalikunsti marginaalias - Tartu kunst, väliseesti kunst ja uue põlvkonna autorid (Lapin, Meel, Rajangu, Ploomipuu jt.)

  3. Scattering and Propagation in Random Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    courts porno C~r) module Au champ darns Is pupille A,Ca)4 amplitude complex* Au chomp danms 1. plan focal OMf fouction As tranefert longue point do...instantenie N nosbre minimum d~imagem A utilimer doen les algorithmasm I noabre As taveluros prisontos darns V image courts porno N) noabre do moum

  4. Study and characterization of noble metal deposits on similar rusty surfaces to those of the reactor U-1 type BWR of nuclear power station of Laguna Verde; Estudio y caracterizacion de depositos de metales nobles sobre superficies oxidadas similares a las del reactor de la Central de Laguna Verde (CNLV) U1 del tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores S, V. H.

    2011-07-01

    In the present investigation work, were determined the parameters to simulate the conditions of internal oxidation reactor circulation pipes of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in Veracruz. We used 304l stainless steel cylinders with two faces prepared with abrasive paper of No. 600, with the finality to obtain similar surface to the internal circulation piping nuclear reactor. Oxides was formed within an autoclave (Autoclave MEX-02 unit B), which is a device that simulates the working conditions of the nuclear reactor, but without radiation generated by the fission reaction within the reactor. The oxidation conditions were a temperature of 280 C and pressure of 8 MPa, similar conditions to the reactor operating in nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in Veracruz, Mexico (BWR conditions), with an average conductivity of 4.58 ms / cm and 2352 ppb oxygen to simulate normal water chemistry NWC. Were obtained deposits of noble metal oxides formed on 304l stainless steel samples, in a 250 ml autoclave at a temperature range of 180 to 200 C. The elements that were used to deposit platinum-rhodium (Pt-Rh) with aqueous Na{sub 2}Pt (OH){sub 6} and Na{sub 3}Rh (NO{sub 2}){sub 6}, Silver (Ag) with an aqueous solution of AgNO{sub 3}, zirconium (Zr) with aqueous Zr O (NO{sub 3}) and ZrO{sub 2}, and zinc (Zn) in aqueous solution of Zn (NO{sub 3}){sub 2} under conditions of normal water chemistry. Also there was the oxidation of 304l stainless steel specimens in normal water chemistry with a solution of Zinc (Zn) (NWC + Zn). Oxidation of the specimens in water chemistry with a solution of zinc (Zn + NWC) was prepared in two ways: within the MEX-02 autoclave unit A in a solution of zinc and a flask at constant temperature in zinc solution. The oxides formed and deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, elemental field analysis and X-ray diffraction. By other hand was evaluated the electrochemical behavior of the oxides formed on the surface of 304l stainless steel in normal water chemistry, zirconium deposits on these oxides and deposits formed in a flask at constant temperature in solution of zinc, with power noise technique and electrochemical tafel extrapolation technique. Finally, were presented the results to the nuclear as an alternative mitigation effort stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and thus give support to the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in the action of existing corrosion phenomenon. (Author)

  5. Growth patterns of deer-browse plants in southern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell K. Halls; R. Alcaniz

    1972-01-01

    Among plants of 16 browse species common in east Texas, the combination that would furnish succulent green forage earliest in spring and latest in fall includes yellow jessamine, Alabama supplejack, yaupon, rusty blackhaw, and flowering dogwood.

  6. THE PRE-HOSPITAL TRAUMA AND EMERGENCY DOCTOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    paramedics) can provide advanced airway management (including intubation, ... the basic and intermediate level personnel, are grateful for the medical assis- tance ... tions, has no equipment and is rusty in advanced life support techniques.

  7. An investigation into the chemical composition of alternative invertebrate prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Dierenfeld, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of eight invertebrate species and evaluate their suitability as alternative prey. The species selected were rusty red cockroaches (Blatta lateralis), six-spotted cockroaches (Eublaberus distanti), Madagascar hissing cockroaches

  8. "It's Pretty Hard to Tell Your Mom and Dad That You're on a Method": Exploring How an App Could Promote Adolescents' Communication with Partners and Parent(s) to Increase Self-Efficacy in Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibnia, Emily B; Timmons, Sarah E; Gold, Melanie A; Garbers, Samantha

    2018-04-01

    Youth-friendly information and support are integral components to promote adolescents' successful use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), and smartphone apps offer a promising medium. To inform content development for an app guided by the Health Belief Model, we conducted interviews with adolescent LARC users to assess self-efficacy and experiences with LARC, their communication with partners and parent(s) about LARC, and how apps could support this communication. We conducted semistructured, in-depth interviews with 30 female adolescent LARC users enrolled in urban school-based health centers. Descriptive analyses were used to assess demographic characteristics, experience and comfort communicating with current and future partners and parent(s) about LARC, self-efficacy around LARC, and how app elements could support LARC use. Participants (mean age, 16 years; range, 14-19 years) were predominately Hispanic (77%; n = 23) and black (20%; n = 6). Almost all (97%; n = 29) had told their current partner about their LARC, but of these, only 15 (50%) would feel comfortable talking with a new sexual partner. Most participants (73%; n = 22) had not told their parent(s) about getting a LARC, but many reported they were likely to share app information with their parent(s). Of the few participants who did tell their parent(s), 38% (n = 3) reported that it was difficult to do so. Adolescents described ways in which app use could help initiate conversations with new partners and parent(s). These findings suggest the potential of a theory-based smartphone app to meet adolescent LARC users' information and support needs. The app should include information on strategies for communicating with future partners and parent(s). Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of temperature on the passivation behavior of steel rebar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shan-meng; Cao, Bei; Wu, Yin-shun; Ma, Ke

    2014-05-01

    Steel rebar normally forms an oxide or rusty skin before it is embedded into concrete and the passivation properties of this skin will be heavily influenced by temperature. To study the effect of temperature on the passivation properties of steel rebar under different surface conditions, we conducted scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and electrochemical measurements, such as measurements of the free corrosion potential and polarization curves of HPB235 steel rebar. These measurements identified three kinds of surfaces: polished, oxide skin, and rusty skin. Our results show that the passivation properties of all the surface types decrease with the increase of temperature. Temperature has the greatest effect on the rusty-skin rebar and least effect on the polished steel rebar, because of cracks and crevices on the mill scale on the steel rebar's surface. The rusty-skin rebar exhibits the highest corrosion rate because crevice corrosion can accelerate the corrosion of the steel rebar, particularly at high temperature. The results also indicate that the threshold temperatures of passivation for the oxide-skin rebar and the rusty-skin rebar are 37°C and 20°C, respectively.

  10. Are rapid transitions between invasive and native species caused by alternative stable states, and does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gretchen J A; Ives, Anthony R; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Carpenter, Stephen R

    2013-10-01

    Rapid transitions in ecosystem structure, or regime shifts, are a hallmark of alternative stable states (ASS). However, regime shifts can occur even when feedbacks are not strong enough to cause ASS. We investigated the potential for ASS to explain transitions between dominance of an invasive species, rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus), and native sunfishes (Lepomis spp.) in northern Wisconsin (USA) lakes. A rapid transition from Lepomis to rusty crayfish dominance occurred as rusty crayfish invaded Trout Lake, and the reverse transition resulted from an eight-year experimental removal of rusty crayfish from Sparkling Lake. We fit a stage-structured population model of species interactions to 31 years of time-series data from each lake. The model identified water level as an important driver, with drought conditions reducing rusty crayfish recruitment and allowing Lepomis dominance. The maximum-likelihood parameter estimates of the negative interaction between rusty crayfish and Lepomis led to ASS in the model, where each species was capable of excluding the other within a narrow range of environmental conditions. However, uncertainty in parameter estimates made it impossible to exclude the potential that rapid transitions were caused by a simpler threshold response lacking alternative equilibria. Simulated forward and backward transitions between species dominance occurred at different environmental conditions (i.e., hysteresis), even when the parameters used for simulation did not predict ASS as a result of slow species responses to environmental drivers. Thus, ASS are possible, but by no means certain, explanations for rapid transitions in this system, and our results highlight the difficulties associated with distinguishing ASS from other types of threshold responses. However, whether regime shifts are caused by ASS may be relatively unimportant in this system, as the range of conditions over which transitions occur is narrow, and under most conditions, the

  11. Synopsis of Commelina L. (Commelinaceae) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, reveals a new white-flowered species endemic to Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Marco Octávio de Oliveira; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A synopsis for the genus Commelina in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is presented here, including a new species, ten new synonyms, five designated lectotypes, two designated epitypes and an excluded name. Commelina huntii, a new species, is remarkable due to the combination of rusty to rusty-brown hairs at the margin of its leaf-sheaths, connate spathes, white flowers with auriculate medial petal, ovaries with sparse black papillae and dehiscent fruits. Additionally, we provide an identification key, illustrations, and conservation status for the species of Commelina recorded in the state of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:28781552

  12. Efficacy of a combination of beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid and beta-cyfluthrin alone for control of stored-product insects on concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insecticidal effect of Temprid®, a formulation that contains beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid, was tested on concrete for control of seven stored-product insect species: the rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens); the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.); the ...

  13. Exobasidium ferrugineae sp. nov., associated with hypertrophied flowers of Lyonia ferruginea in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron H. Kennedy; Nisse A. Goldberg; Anderw M. Minnis

    2012-01-01

    Exobasidium ferrugineae, associated with hypertrophied flowers and less commonly leaves of Lyonia ferruginea (rusty staggerbush), is formally described here as a new species. Morphological and DNA sequence (ITS, nLSU) data are provided. Phylogenetic analyses confirm that it is not conspecific with any species of ...

  14. How to Find Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find and correctly identify an infestation early before it becomes widespread. Look for rusty or reddish stains and pinpoint dark spots on bed sheets or mattresses, and search for bugs near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring.

  15. Seasonal and life-phase related differences in growth in Scarus ferrugineus on a southern Red Sea fringing reef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afeworki, Y.; Videler, J. J.; Berhane, Y. H.; Bruggemann, J. H.

    Temporal trends in growth of the rusty parrotfish Scarus ferrugineus were studied on a southern Red Sea fringing reef that experiences seasonal changes in environmental conditions and benthic algal resources. Length increment data from tagging and recapture were compared among periods and sexes and

  16. 28th Africa Cup of Nations (Gabon/Equatorial Guinea - 2012 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some recommendations were made to include “football eclipse” for a period to enable Nigeria reflect and plan for her football and a restructuring of the Nigerian Professional League to make it more productive and attractive. Keywords: Charlatans; Dogged determination; Landscape; Legion; Match rusty; Minnows; Tourney.

  17. Multi‐instrument observations from Svalbard of a traveling convection vortex, electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave burst, and proton precipitation associated with a bow shock instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Yeoman, T. K.; Oksavik, K.

    2013-01-01

    of the IMAGE magnetometer array. Hankasalmi SuperDARN radar data showed a west-to-east (antisunward) propagating vortical ionospheric flow in a region of high spectral width ~ 1–2° north of Svalbard, confirming that this magnetic impulse was the signature of a traveling convection vortex. Ground...

  18. Experimental inoculation of swine at various stages of gestation with a Danish isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranker, Søren; Nielsen, Jens; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1998-01-01

    phase varied considerably, from one day to four weeks, for both darns and their offspring. Most frequently, PRRSV was isolated from lung and/or tonsil tissues from dead and euthanized piglets younger than 14 days of age. Histopathological investigations of piglets typically revealed focal nonsuppurative...

  19. Low-res d15N and d18O of O2 in the WAIS Divide 06A Deep Core, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a low-resolution set of measurements of d15N of N2 and d18O of O2, along with dO2/N and dAr/N2 supporting data, in the WAIS Divide 3405 m long ice...

  20. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To examine the simultaneous changes in the vertical electric field associated with this magnetic disturbance, the dawn–dusk potential is studied for every UT hours; the potential was obtained from Weimer model and SuperDARN radar. The comparison reveals the plausible situation for the superposition of dawn–dusk ...

  1. Pop / Lauri Tikerpe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tikerpe, Lauri

    2006-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Hot Chip "The Warning", Ronan Keating "Bring You Home", Wizzards "Hidden City of Taurmond", Bubba Sparxxx "The Charm", Herbert "Scale", DJ Olive "Sleep", Scritti Politti "White Bread, Black Beer", Dirty Pretty Things "Waterloo To Anywhere"

  2. Researcher Story: Stuttering

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the most important aspect of humans as a group is their ability to communicate, and if you ... Its pretty simple really. We need a small blood sample from each participant and a recorded speech ...

  3. Emotions and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Emotions & Behavior Is it just a phase or a ... whether it's toddler tantrums or teenage depression. Feelings & Emotions "Am I Pretty?": What Moms, Daughters Really Think ...

  4. Researcher Story: Stuttering

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drayna’s clinical research trial. Participation involves providing a small blood sample and a recorded speech sample. For ... involved? Its pretty simple really. We need a small blood sample from each participant and a recorded ...

  5. Everything You Wanted to Know about Puberty (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it's not a pretty one. That smell is body odor, and everyone gets it. As you enter puberty, ... deodorant with antiperspirant) every day can help keep body odor in check, too. There's More? Guys and girls ...

  6. Tuukka Kaidesoja on Critical Realist Transcendental Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groff Ruth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available I argue that critical realists think pretty much what Tukka Kaidesoja says that he himself thinks, but also that Kaidesoja’s objections to the views that he attributes to critical realists are not persuasive.

  7. Pop / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Muse "H.A.A.R.P.", The Teenagers "Reality Check", Evangelicals "The Evening Descends", Cramp "Tuld!", Kriminaalne Elevant "Kuul", Sulliwan "Sulliwan", Panic At The Disco "Pretty Odd", Kalvik & Leiner "Kuidas me laivi tegime EP", Mia Doi Todd "GEA"

  8. Researcher Story: Stuttering

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in fact has a kind of murky inheritance pattern. And that is what has caused many of ... Its pretty simple really. We need a small blood sample from each participant and a recorded speech ...

  9. Researcher Story: Stuttering

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... clinical research trial. Participation involves providing a small blood sample and a recorded speech sample. For more information ... Its pretty simple really. We need a small blood sample from each participant and a recorded speech sample. ...

  10. Heart disease and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000790.htm Heart disease and depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... a heart attack or heart surgery Signs of Depression It is pretty common to feel down or ...

  11. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Early evidence suggests -pretty well. In fact, the human brain has a track record of successfully adapting ... reading. Dr. Giedd: It’s sobering to realize most humans that have lived and died have never read. ...

  12. MITRA case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    fuel the organizational growth until this point, but it was pretty much dependent upon its ... metropolitan colleges to work on community development projects living in villages for 6 ... MITRA had to structure its general volunteer placement ...

  13. Global unity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran

    1993-02-24

    the headquarters of the International Council of Nurses in Geneva, Switzerland, is part of a new building near the lake. There are 17 staff members and only four of us are nurses, yet we have a pretty productive team.

  14. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... developing brain. Announcer: So how well are our children handing multi-tasking in a digital age that changes, seemingly, by the hour? Early evidence suggests -pretty well. In fact, the human ...

  15. Constipation (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body ... let them know what's going on. Why Do Kids Get Constipated? Constipation is pretty common and different ...

  16. Pop / Mart Kalvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalvet, Mart, 1975-

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Aeon Aethereal "Parasite Halls", The Bug "London Zoo", Dirty Pretty Things "Romance At Short Notice", Guillemots "Red", Four Tet "Ringer", The Fratellis "Here We Stand", Petter & The Pix "Easily Tricked", Ashanti "The Declaration", Joan as Police Woman "To Survive"

  17. Pascal for Ingeniører

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellesen, Bjarne; Johansen, Gunnar

    1998-01-01

    Applications, software and hardware. Introduction to Pascal. Selection. Loop. Subprograms I. Arrays. Realtime programming. Records. Binary files. Text files. Pointers. Pretty program. Big program. The Turbo Pascal system. A FORTRAN program. Methods in programming. A BASIC program. Conversion...

  18. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Separation Anxiety KidsHealth / For Parents / Separation Anxiety What's in this ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  19. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... than at other times. And so for very early in life we have our five senses where ... digital age that changes, seemingly, by the hour? Early evidence suggests -pretty well. In fact, the human ...

  20. IPython/Jupyter Notebooks

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Jupyter notebooks are pretty amazing. They can run code and keep in one place visualizations, equations and pretty-formatted text as well. With notebooks it's extremely easy to produce and share results in a comprehensible format and so they make the perfect tool for data analysis. I'll give a sneak peek on their wide range of uses and what we are doing at Indico to help their adoption at CERN.

  1. Noteworthy bird records at Lagoa Santa, southeastern Brazil Registros notáveis de aves em Lagoa Santa, sudeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Lagoa Santa, a small town in southeastern Brazil where naturalist Peter Lund lived, is regarded nowadays as an important historical site for the biological sciences. From 1847 to 1855, J.T. Reinhardt, hosted by Lund, collected 343 bird species. This material is an outstanding reference for many modern ornithological studies. The present paper reports the occurrence of some rare and threatened birds for the region of Lagoa Santa between 1998 and 2005. In this account I list the Rusty-margined ...

  2. Security Force Assistance Brigades: A Permanent Force for Regional Engagement and Building Operational Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    their shared sacrifice in the production of this monograph as well as for all my professional endeavors. Next, this monograph would not have been...Philipp Leyde, my seminar leader and mentor whose attention to detail made this monograph a much better product . Mr. Rusty Rafferty, as well as all...the ISF had suffered years of chronic absenteeism and many effective commanders were replaced with political appointments favorable to the Shia

  3. North End Runway Material Extraction and Transport Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    raspberry, currant, bunchberry, horsetail, and high bush cranberry as well as willow, elderberry, rusty menzeiseia, devil’s club, and sapling cottonwood...shrubs and young trees to include paper birch, willow, aspen, cottonwood/balsam poplar, high bush cranberry , Sitka alder, and mountain ash. In winter...the southeast corner of the plot. Standing water appears in small depressions around the vegetated area as well. Vegetation: Table 1, below

  4. Wetlands Research Program. Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. Appendix C. Section 1. Region O - California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    status is questioned. An X prior to the species name in the scientific name column denotes a hybrid . For purposes of this manual, all species appearing...S. Wats. Rusty molly kochia FACW K. scc’pari.a (L.) Schrader Sunmmer cypress ...actuca pu~ZchelZa (Pursh) DC. Chicory lettuce -serriola L. Prickly... lettuce FAG :antana cwnara L. Lantana% :asthenia burkei (Greene) Greene Gold-fields chry8Sstoma (Fisch. & C. A. Lasthenia Meyer) Greene Lconjtgen8 Greene

  5. The Corrosion Control of Fastening Systems for Aircraft Carrier Steam Catapults

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-31

    2, External Threaded Dolt or Stud. LML 2. 68 1NAEC-ENG 7868 PAGE 28 rf I MI 6 LL 4140 - PIAt -0, M1V 7 A) AEC-ENG 7868 PAGE 29 -- ---T-T- - -- 1 . ’a...corroded. comontarhare mat 0.6 Oil tmmncerbore black. senste be rest stained. stained. No. 6 Sm plating on hed, lead rusty with sae plating Som

  6. Issues relating to classification of colluvial soils in young morainic areas (Chełmno and Brodnica Lake District, northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świtoniak Marcin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Colluvial soils (in Polish: gleby deluwialne are an important part of the soil cover in young morainic landscapes of northern Poland. They evolved as a result of the accumulation of eroded material at the foot of the slopes and bottoms of closed depressions. The aim of this study was to determine the systematic position of colluvial soils commonly found in the Chełmno and Brodnica Lake District, northern Poland. Ten soil pits located in different types of landscapes were selected for testing soil properties. The colluvial material is characterized by diversified properties: thickness, particle-size distribution, organic carbon content, color, pH, and base saturation. As a result, the investigated soils represent broad spectrum of typological units according to Polish Soil Classification (2011. Some of them contain epipedons mollic and meet the criteria of colluvial chernozemic soils. They were found mainly on buried black earths in areas with small slope inclinations. Many pedons contain pale colored acidic colluvial material with low base saturation and low organic carbon content and must be classified as other types: arenosols (in Polish: arenosole or rusty soils (in Polish: gleby rdzawe. These soils occur mostly in areas with intensive relief and overlay the different soil types, including rusty soil and organic soils. They are formed as a result of soils lessivés and rusty soils truncation. An introduction of the additional units of “proper colluvial soils” which have epipedon ochric, and “rusty-colluvial soils” with endopedon sideric to the next edition of Polish Soil Classification would enable a more precise expression of the genesis of these soils in the type rank. Moreover, the definition of chernozemic colluvial soils could be extended to colluvial soils with umbric horizon. Classifying soils derived from colluvial material as soils of other types leads to the disappearance of this units on maps and underestimation of the

  7. Algal-mediated ecosystem exchanges in the Eel River drainage network: towards photogrammetric mapping of color to function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, M. E.; Welter, J.; Furey, P.; Lowe, R.; Finlay, J. C.; Hondzo, M.; Limm, M.; Bode, C.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2009-12-01

    Seasonal algal proliferations in river networks are typically short-lived (weeks-months) but spatially extensive. They mediate important ecological and biogeochemical exchanges within and between ecosystems. We are investigating correspondence of assemblage color with ecosystem function in the nitrogen-limited Eel River of northern California. During summer base flow following winter floods, Eel algal assemblages are dominated by the green macroalga Cladophora glomerata. New growths are green, but blooms turn yellow as Cladophora filaments are colonized by epiphytic diatoms (Cocconeis spp.). Later, proliferations turn rust colored as epiphytic assemblages became dominated by Epithemia spp., diatoms that contain nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterial endosymbionts. Epithemia-encrusted Cladophora occurs at and downstream of reaches draining > 100 km2 (where summer inundated average channel widths > 25 m), coinciding with a threshold increase in concentration of total dissolved nitrogen. Areal nitrogen fixation rates are 14x higher in rusty algal proliferations than in green, and 3-4x higher than in yellow Cladophora mats. Corresponding increases in insect emergence suggest that nitrogen fixed by cyanobacterial endosymbionts is highly edible. Rates of biomass emergence from rusty Cladophora mats are 12-17 times greater than from green mats, and 8-10 times greater from rusty than from yellow Cladophora mats, because larger taxa emerge from rusty mats (Chironominae versus Ceratopogonidae in yellow mats). Photogrammetric detection of spatial coverage and color changes in algal proliferations may help us track nitrogen fluxes they mediate (riverine loading from the atmosphere via fixation, river to the watershed return via insect emergence) that link riverine to aerial, watershed, and potentially nearshore marine ecosystems at reach to basin scales.

  8. Roughans Point, Revere, Massachusetts Coastal Flood Protection Study. Volume I. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    1982 conducted bT, Rusty Iwanowicz , Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries, concluded that the shoreline area that would be impacted by the... Iwanowicz , DMF, and Charles Freeman of my staff. In this survey, five test holes were dug seaward of the area of project impact in areas which Mr... Iwanowicz felt would indicate the productivity of the clam flat. Two holes revealed no shellfish, and the best hole produced two razor clams, two

  9. Endangered Species Management Plan for Fort Hood, Texas: FY06-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Texas red oak, post oak, Texas ash (Fraxinus texensis), shin oak, blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica), slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), cedar elm ...by Ashe juniper and Texas oak. Other important tree species included live oak, cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), Lacey oak (Quercus laceyi), Arizona...0.83 m (Cimprich 2005). Nest substrates include shin oak, Texas red oak, Texas redbud, Ashe juniper, Texas ash, Plateau live oak, cedar elm , rusty

  10. Sexospécificités | Page 195 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the dim light of a makeshift beer hall in Phillipi township, South Africa, tourist Rob Denhom is introduced to a taste like no other. A man passes him a rusty can full of Umqomboti, a traditional bitter-sour millet beer. It is more than the British teacher has bargained for. His face puckers at the taste and he eagerly passes the ...

  11. Enhanced high-solids anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by the addition of scrap iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Yu, Qilin; Xu, Zibin; Quan, Xie

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge usually requires pretreatment procedure to improve the bioavailability of sludge, which involves considerable energy and high expenditures. This study proposes a cost-effective method for enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge without a pretreatment by directly adding iron into the digester. The results showed that addition of Fe(0) powder could enhance 14.46% methane yield, and Fe scrap (clean scrap) could further enhance methane yield (improving rate 21.28%) because the scrap has better mass transfer efficiency with sludge and liquid than Fe(0) powder. The scrap of Fe with rust (rusty scrap) could induce microbial Fe(III) reduction, which resulted in achieving the highest methane yield (improving rate 29.51%), and the reduction rate of volatile suspended solids (VSS) was also highest (48.27%) among Fe powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap. PCR-DGGE proved that the addition of rusty scrap could enhance diversity of acetobacteria and enrich iron-reducing bacteria to enhance degradation of complex substrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. What can we learn from HF signal scattered from a discrete arc?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Séran

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of a discrete southward propagating arc which appeared in the mid-night sector at latitudes equatorward of main substorm activity. The arc observations were made simultaneously by the ALFA (Auroral Light Fine Analysis optical camera, the SuperDARN-CUTLASS HF radar and the Demeter satellite during a coordinated multi-instrumental campaign conducted at the KEOPS/ESRANGE site in December 2006. The SuperDARN HF signal which is often lost in the regions of strong electron precipitation yields in our case clear backscatter from an isolated arc of weak intensity. Consequently we are able to study arc dynamics, the formation of meso-scale irregularities of the electron density along the arc, compare the arc motion with the convection of surrounding plasma and discuss the contribution of ionospheric ions in the arc erosion and its propagation.

  13. Spreading Speed of Magnetopause Reconnection X-Lines Using Ground-Satellite Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying; Walsh, Brian M.; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Ruohoniemi, J. Michael; McWilliams, Kathryn A.; Nishitani, Nozomu

    2018-01-01

    Conceptual and numerical models predict that magnetic reconnection starts at a localized region and then spreads out of the reconnection plane. At the Earth's magnetopause this spreading would occur primarily in local time along the boundary. Different simulations have found the spreading to occur at different speeds such as the Alfvén speed and speed of the current carriers. We use conjugate Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft and Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar measurements to observationally determine the X-line spreading speed at the magnetopause. THEMIS probes the reconnection parameters locally, and SuperDARN tracks the reconnection development remotely. Spreading speeds under different magnetopause boundary conditions are obtained and compared with model predictions. We find that while spreading under weak guide field could be explained by either the current carriers or the Alfvén waves, spreading under strong guide field is consistent only with the current carriers.

  14. National Dam Safety Program. Lake Como Dam (DE 00028), Delaware River Basin, Mill Creek, Kent County, Delaware. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    STATEMENT (of the abstract antarod in Block 20, It different frm Report) III. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Copies are obtainable from National Technical...should employ a professional engineer experienced in operation and maintanance of darns to develop written operating procedures and a periodic...100 YEAR FLOOD WOULD CAUSE A DAM TO bE OVERTOPPED THEREFORE THE OWNER SHOULD ENGAGE A QUALIFIED PkOFEbSIONAL CONSULTANT USING MORE PERCISE METHODS

  15. The BBN Knowledge Acquisition Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    bmawt’s most ban for it w be comdmed a member of toe darn definted by dta concept. A slot consists of ’@A WMa dm@@Wg as W O*Jin do aw sudL 61 a role ne, a...When staking a new concept. KR&IE will prompt for t name of the new concept sod then a pop-up form will app an dt looks shdo Descriti !n Heme you may

  16. Plasma flow during the brightening of proton aurora in the cusp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taguchi, S.; Hosokawa, K.; Suzuki, S.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of simultaneous observations from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN), the far ultraviolet instrument on the IMAGE spacecraft, and a magnetometer installed on the east coast of Greenland, we present the characteristics of plasma flow during a westward moving proton auror...... to the traveling bulge at the polar cap boundary, which is the footprint of a flux transfer event, and imply that the preexisting vortical flow may be intensified when it becomes inflow to the bulge....

  17. Once a physicist: David Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, David

    2009-03-01

    I did mathematical physics because it was just what I was best at. I enjoyed it at school, so I applied to do it at Nottingham University. I fell into it, to be quite honest. Once at university, I struggled at first, partly because I found it quite difficult to combine studying with competing and training in sport, which is pretty much full time as well. But by the end of my university career, I had learned to be organized, and to manage my time pretty effectively, so I enjoyed it a lot more.

  18. Translations on Narcotics and Dangerous Drug No. 285

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-17

    the odd exception, but in general the police seem to have a pretty sensible attitude towards addictive narcotics at least. I never hear any... Ciudad Universitaria. Guzman Maldonado said that he has been involved in drug traffic since 1967 when he entered Prepara- tory School No. 5 in Coapa

  19. Sanderus Printing Factory, Oudenaarde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieckens, C.G.E.; Bennett, David

    2001-01-01

    Although the historic centre of Flemish Oudenaarde is pretty, the town 's industrial periphery is an ugly and illfitting collection of shed style buildings. The architect has gone a long way to prove that good architecture, given the opportunity, can cure such shortcomings. The clean lines and open,

  20. Know Stroke: Know the Signs, Act in Time Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it's not hopeless. And I think 4 or 5 years ago that was pretty much true, but now it's changed vastly. And the change is that now you can do something." Announcer: In the past, people often struggled to live with serious disabilities after ...

  1. Show Me the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  2. Science 101: What Causes Severe Thunderstorms and Tornadoes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2016-01-01

    What causes severe thunderstorms and tornadoes? Tornadoes, often accompanied by severe thunderstorms and hail, form in pretty much the same way as severe thunderstorms. In the continental United States, tornadoes usually form in spring and summer, when warm, humid air from the Gulf of Mexico moves across the continent from southeast to northwest…

  3. Wild ideas in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münke, Christopher; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Vantomme, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Foraging for all manner of wild plants, animals and fungi and their products makes up part of the traditional diets of approximately 300 million worldwide (Bharucha and Pretty, 2010). Furthermore, their relevance in the global food supply is often underestimated, as policies and statistics...

  4. Computer Aided Design for Soil Classification Relational Database ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper focuses on the problems associated with classification, storage and retrieval of information on soil data, such as the incompatibility of soil data semantics; inadequate documentation, and lack of indexing; hence it is pretty difficult to efficiently access large database. Consequently, information on soil is very difficult ...

  5. Translations on Eastern Europe Political, Sociological, and Military Affairs, Number 1354

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-16

    sheets, embroidery and uncomplicated items for en- terprises. The 8-year schools do not have production plans but they can boast about quite...well they handle the file and the chisel and how, from the skillful fingers of the girls, rich embroidery emerges; I look at the pretty little

  6. Virtualize Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    John Abdelmalak, director of technology for the School District of the Chathams, was pretty sure it was time to jump on the virtualization bandwagon last year when he invited Dell to conduct a readiness assessment of his district's servers. When he saw just how little of their capacity was being used, he lost all doubt. Abdelmalak is one of many…

  7. Public Intellectuals in the New-Media Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Henry

    2008-01-01

    The author has what most people would agree is a pretty cool gig: he studies pop culture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which means he has written scholarly articles about "Star Trek" fans, video games, and pro wrestling, among other topics. He is also one of the directors of the institute's comparative-media-studies program, which…

  8. Chinese water policy for sustainable water resources: Options for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    China has no option but to press on with the implementation of the National Water Initiative as stated by its government in ''Document No. 1". One might observe that it can be a bit heavy in political terms. Most hydrological means are pretty meaningless in reality. Though the nation is not sure if it can handle such a project ...

  9. Courtly Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin; Jøker Bjerre, Henrik; Ugilt, Rasmus

    Pretty Woman” is not just a romantic comedy about the perfect relationship between a cynical businessman and a beautiful prostitute. It is a myth on the level of other great foundational myths of Western culture and should be read as such. The film thematizes the relation between romantic love a...

  10. Libraries and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainie, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The majority of Americans think local libraries serve the educational needs of their communities and families pretty well and library users often outpace others in learning activities. But many do not know about key education services libraries provide. This report provides statistics on library usage and presents key education services provided…

  11. Capacitor Discharge - A Capacitor Tutorial [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Physics

    2014-01-01

    NPS Physics Physics Demonstrations Here's a capacitor discharge demonstrated by physicist Dr. Dernardo. Dr. D gives a nice capacitor lesson along with some fireworks. Charging and Discharging a Capacitor is dangerous. Do not try this at home. Dr. Bruce Denardo uses eleven 9V batteries, connected in series for a total of 99 creating a pretty large spark.

  12. Pre-harvest calcium sulfate application improves postharvest quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of cut rose flowers at the postharvest stage is affected by pre-harvest conditions. The present study was conducted to examine the possible involvement of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) in regulation of rose flower senescence. Roses (Rosa hybrida L.) cultivars 'Cool Water' and 'Pretty Blinda', were treated with either ...

  13. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    improvements in treatment options, albeit pretty expensive. HCV remains the main indication for liver transplantation in the developed countries, and the ... yellow fever, and dengue viruses are the most closely related human viruses. Based on molecular relationship the HCV is categorized into six distinct but related HCV ...

  14. American Academic: A National Survey of Part-time/Adjunct Faculty. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Plainly, part-time/adjunct faculty members now play a vital role in educating the nation's college students. Even so, the data and research on part-time/adjunct faculty members have tended to be pretty spotty. This survey, conducted by Hart Research Associates on behalf of the American Federation of Teachers, is one of the first nationwide…

  15. An experimental stationary quadrotor with variable DOF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for which real time speed control of the motors is required for navigation. Continuous .... rotation which reduces the rotational friction extensively providing near-flight dynamics. While ... their charging time is pretty long. Thus ... memory. Controller inputs of the excitation system are the desired angles of roll, pitch, yaw and the.

  16. You are who you play you are : Modeling Player Traits from Video Game Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekofsky, Shoshannah

    2017-01-01

    You are who you play you are - especially when it comes to your age and your motivations. People say age is only a number, but it's a number we can guess pretty accurately from how someone plays video games. We find that younger people are favored by speed, while older people are favored by wisdom.

  17. Testing properties of generic functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansson, P.; Jeuring, J.T.; Cabenda, L.; Engels, G.; Kleerekoper, J.; Mak, S.; Overeem, M.; Visser, Kees

    2007-01-01

    A datatype-generic function is a family of functions indexed by (the structure of) a type. Examples include equality tests, maps and pretty printers. Property based testing tools like QuickCheck and Gast support the de¯nition of properties and test-data generators, and they check if a

  18. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (77th, Atlanta, Georgia, August 10-13, 1994). Part IX: Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Magazines section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 15 papers: "'National Geographic Magazine' and the Vietnam War: Did We Just Get Pretty Pictures?" (John W. Williams); "Free Speech at All Costs: A Short History of 'The Masses'" (Chris Lamb); "Newspapers Locally Edited Magazines…

  19. Attachments and the Moral Psychology of Value Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    I explain the way in which values, i.e., pretty immaterial things, can come into real conflict and can in fact generate conflicts that are more serious and difficult to resolve than other types of conflicts. In my explanation, I avail myself of the notion of an attachment as a persistent and perv...

  20. A Thai Tale: School Business Management beyond the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The author is fairly familiar with the work dimensions of a business manager and has pretty much attended most of the professional development "how-to" sessions on everything from asset management to school budgets and beyond. When she thinks about what business managers do in schools and how much of what they do actually adds value, she…

  1. Science 101: How Do We Distinguish between Living and Nonliving Things?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Since nearly every science curriculum in the country contains a section on living and non-living things, Bill Robertson believes that pretty much anyone who has taught the subject has run into difficulties. It seems as if no matter what criteria you use to distinguish between the two you can nearly always find exceptions. This article provides a…

  2. Shakespeare's Cosmic World View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Peter D.

    1997-01-01

    As readers of Mercury have surely observed, astronomy admits many an allusion to Shakespeare's plays, replete as they are with descriptions of heavenly events. But Shakespeare's astronomy is more than just pretty words. It is a window into the prevailing Aristotelian and Ptolemaic cosmology of Renaissance Europe.

  3. Educators Take Another Look at Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    The mythology surrounding the substitute teacher is not a pretty one: Paper airplanes, lost learning, bullying. But as schools collect more information about teacher absenteeism and its consequences, districts and schools are exploring ways to professionalize substitute teaching--or experiment with alternative ways of coping with teacher absences.…

  4. Calculations of complete data for n + 89Y in the energy region 0.001∼20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Chonghai

    1998-01-01

    All reaction cross sections, secondary neutron spectra and elastic scattering angular distributions of n + 89 Y in E n = 0.001 ∼20 MeV are calculated. Pretty good results in accordance with experimental data are obtained. And the data results are given in ENDF/B-6 format

  5. Pop / Koit Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsepp, Koit

    2004-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Ghostface "The Pretty Toney Album", Genialistid "Kogutud noorus 1993-2001", Genialistid "Gentel-Dentel", Filmimuusika "The Passion of the Christ", The Vines "Winning Days", Erinevad esitajad "Dancehall Party 2004", Erinevad esitajad "Lilled algebrale", Porn Sword Tobacco "Porn Sword Tobacco"

  6. Society for College Science Teachers: Putting Inquiry Teaching to the Test--Enhancing Learning in College Botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Thomas; Shelly, Chad; Zimmerman, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Can you imagine a class where students cover the content with each other rather than simply listening to the professor's lecture? Can you envision students developing their own laboratory investigations and quizzing each other weekly to check for understanding? Well, that's pretty much how the major science organizations across the nation are…

  7. Wonder girls: Undercurrents of resistance in the representation of teenage girls in 1980s American cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the representation of teenage girls in 1980s American teen films such as Little Darlings (1980), Smooth Talk (1985), Just One of the Guys (1985), Pretty in Pink (1986) and Mermaids (1990). It uses film analysis and feminist film theory to subject a range of case studies to three

  8. Pop / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Massive Attack "Collected: the Best of Massive Attack", Daft Punk "Musique Vol.1 - 1993-2005", Psychoterror "Anarhia ja dekadents", The Bluetones "A Rough Outline: The Singles & B-Sides 95-03", Pretty Girls Make Graves "⁹lan Vital", DFA "The DFA Remixes: Chapter One"

  9. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hour? Early evidence suggests -pretty well. In fact, the human brain has a track record of successfully adapting to ... all kinds of sources. And up until now the human brain has done a great job of changing- adapting ...

  10. "West Side'is" kõlab lõpuks Natalie Woodi hääl

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Ameerika näitlejanna Natalie Wood (1938-1981), kes mängis 1961.a. ekraanile jõudnud muusikalis "West Side Story" Mariat, laulis küll oma partii linti, kuid ekraanil kõlas Mariana laulmas Mansi Nixoni hääl. 2002.a. välja lastud DVD versioonis laulab laulu "I Feel Pretty" Natalie

  11. Exporting Acting Curricula from the Midwest to the Mideast: Seriously?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Ann E.

    2014-01-01

    Qatar can afford to purchase pretty much anything--including top-quality American university education. However, given the vast differences in culture, dress, religion, and social mores, along with youth's global unemployment rates and their hankering for all things technological, does it make sense for Qatar to import a course in acting? Many…

  12. Government intervention in dry regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Reitsma (Henk); T. Dietz (Ton); L.J. de Haan (Leo)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe Third World is too diverse to allow us to make many meaningful generalizations. No matter how we define the Third World, some countries will fit the definition better than others. Pretty much the same can be said with regard to "underdevelopment". No one theory can explain

  13. 5 Ways to Avoid Filling Up on Empty Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    It's easy to get overwhelmed by our busy lives and grab food on the go that doesn’t provide the nourishment our bodies need. Pretty much anything you would call “junk food” is an empty-calorie culprit.

  14. Extra Dimensions of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-01-01

    They say that there is no such thing as a stupid question. In a pedagogically pure sense, that's probably true. But some questions do seem to flirt dangerously close to being really quite ridiculous. One such question might well be, "How many dimensions of space are there?" I mean, it's pretty obvious that there are three:…

  15. Pop / Koit Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsepp, Koit

    2003-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: The Mars Volta "De-Loused In The Comatorium", Yasume "Where We Are From The Birds Sing A Pretty Song", Filmimuusika "Masked and Anonymous", Sack und Blumm "Kind Kind", The Cinematic Orchestra "Man With A Movie Camera", Super Furry Animals "Phantom Power2

  16. Polytypic Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.; Jansson, P.

    1996-01-01

    Many functions have to be written over and over again for different datatypes, either because datatypes change during the development of programs, or because functions with similar functionality are needed on different datatypes. Examples of such functions are pretty printers, debuggers, equality

  17. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a mix of healthy foods comes pretty close! Healthy eating habits help you feel good and have energy in ... Sure, you may have to practice some new habits, but we are here to help! You can read what girls like you say about eating healthy. And click on the links below to learn ...

  18. 76 FR 61153 - Robert Raymond Reppy, D.O.; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... first done and appropriately documents, for the person to whom a prescription is to be issued or drugs... expertise and I wouldn't have to go around consulting three or four of them to get the same thing.'' Tr. 60... ``was being pretty arrogant [and] doing a lot of things on his own,'' Tr. 121, and his awareness of the...

  19. Calculation of a complete data set for n + 83Kr, 84Kr, 85Kr and 86Kr in the energy region 0.001-20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Chonghai

    1999-01-01

    Complete reaction cross sections, secondary neutron spectra and elastic scattering angular distributions of 83 Kr, 84 Kr, 85 Kr and 86 Kr in the energy region 0.001-20 MeV are calculated, theoretical results are in ENDF/B-6 in pretty good accordance with experimental data

  20. Plaadid / Mart Normet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Normet, Mart, 1979-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Paul Simon "Surprise", Dirty Pretty Things "Waterloo To Anywhwere", "Pearl Jam", Honeymunch "Bunch", Red Hot Chili Peppers "Stadium Arcadium", Snow Patrol "Eyes Open", Sugarland "Twice The Speed Of Life", Taak "Koerapööriöö", Kalvik "Kalvikkaanid", "Music For Coctails, Part 5", depoo "Amazing", Tony Touch "Mic Destruction", Kaizers Orchestra "Live At Vega", "Headbangers Ball: The Revenge"

  1. Japan's Monroe Doctrine?: Re-Framing the Story of Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Ever since War Department propaganda films set the mold, historians have pretty much followed: the road to Pearl Harbor began in 1931 with Japanese aggression in Manchuria. Any "revision" regarding the War in the Pacific has its own set of problems--engendering controversy, often running up against patriotic sentiments and the tendency…

  2. Professional Military Education for the 21st Century Warrior

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-16

    particular necessity. If, in order to win the basketball game, hockey game or relay race, we have to be superb team players, we’ll do that. But the deep...just recruit those people, like the NBA does, and focus most of our energy on occupational and domain knowledge? I think that’s a pretty serious

  3. Plaadid / Paavo Käämbre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käämbre, Paavo, 1984-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Cassidy "I'm a Hustla", Tony Iommi and Glenn Hughes "Fused", Peer Günt "No Piercing, No Tattoo", Julio Iglesias "L'Homme Que Je Suis", Raveonettes "Pretty In Black", Roisin Murphy "Ruby Blue", James Blunt "Back To Bedlam"

  4. Body Image: It's Not Just About How You See Your Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Let's be honest. As women, we can be pretty hard on ourselves, and we can be especially hard on how our bodies look. Having a negative body image can affect not only how you feel about yourself, but it can also keep you from living the life you want to have.

  5. Sõber raamat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Raamatukaupluses EURO Publications pakutavate raamatute tutvustus. James Davidson, The Complete Home Lightning Book, 1997 Inglismaa ; Candace Ord Manroe. Uncluttered : Storage Room by Room ; Ruth Pretty. The Ultimate Interior Designer, Inglismaa 1997 ; Judith ja Martin Miller. Period Finishes and Effects, Londoni 1992 ; Suzanne Slesin, Stafford Cliff, Daniel Rozensztroch. Spanish Style, esmatrükk 1990.

  6. Lawyer Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    Putting a CIO and a lawyer together in the same room may give one the start of a pretty decent joke, but it could also save an institution millions of dollars in legal fees. While the IT chief understands the systems that fall under the purview of compliance, the attorney is the go-to pessimist for identifying the "gotcha" elements when it comes…

  7. "Angels & Demons" May Help Physicists Explain What Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basken, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It's not every day that scientific researchers need to defend themselves against charges of destroying humanity. And yet a group of several dozen physicists associated with the Large Hadron Collider may be getting pretty good at it--and, at the same time, actively engaging in public education and debate in ways that university scientists have…

  8. Investigation of the flow, combustion, heat-transfer and emissions from a 609MW utility tangentially fired pulverized-coal boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Caillat, Sébastien; Harion, Jean-Luc.

    2002-01-01

    , some different strategies with the existing researches are used. Good agreement of simulation results with global design parameters and site operation records indicates this simulation is pretty reasonable and thus the conclusions of the gas flow deviation, emissions, combustion and heat transfer...

  9. "Hiding in Plain Sight": An Interview with Cara Hoffman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosey, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Cara Hoffman's work enacts George Orwell's imperative to "pay attention to the obvious" (an idea that several sympathetic characters repeat in her 2011 novel "So Much Pretty"), probing aspects of twenty-first century life in the United States that have become so accepted as to be unremarkable, such as epidemic levels of…

  10. Collisionless magnetic reconnection : the Contour Dynamics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, van der E.V.

    2007-01-01

    A long time ago, mankind was a pretty pathetic species. We were cold, dependent on the sun for light and heat, and our diet was abhorrent. Fortunately, Prometheus felt sorry for us, and presented us the gift of fire. Zeus was not too keen on letting humans set fire to just about everything they

  11. Plaadid / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2002-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Vanessa Carlton "Be Not Nobody", Nine Inch Nails "And All That Could have...", peeter Selis Thomson "Vaba kui tuul", Killer "Sickeningly Pretty", mylene Farmer "Les Mots", Marianne Faithfull "A Stranger On Earth", faultline "Your Love Means Everything" "Mozart in Egyt"

  12. Walking Between Houses, Paul Julien in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsadig Mohamed; Andrea Stultiens

    2015-01-01

    April 2015 Sudanese photographer Elsadig Mohamed and I tried to relate the photographs that Paul Julien made when traveling through the country in 1933 and 1948 to stories and realities alive in present day Sudan. This initial research was pretty successful and we thought a first presentation of the

  13. Building a fisheries research network | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-01

    Feb 1, 2011 ... In the capture fishery, the “common property” nature of the resource meant there ... to put fisheries and coastal resource management high on policy agendas. ... AFSSRN has entrenched the idea that fishing, like pretty much all human activity, ... Entrepreneurship has been a major driver of growth and job ...

  14. Another year, another volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Block

    2012-01-01

    This issue represents the final one in volume 76 of Journal of Wildlife Management. As this one is pretty much in the books, one cannot help but wonder what the future holds for the journal. Lenny Brennan is putting together a piece for Wildlife Society Bulletin to examine how The Wildlife Society publications have changed through time. He solicited input from past and...

  15. "Chaos Rules" Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    About 20 years ago, while lost in the midst of his PhD research, the author mused over proposed titles for his thesis. He was pretty pleased with himself when he came up with "Chaos Rules" (the implied double meaning was deliberate), or more completely, "Chaos Rules: An Exploration of the Work of Instructional Designers in Distance Education." He…

  16. Autonomous composition of fuzzy granules in ambient intelligence scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.; Vasilakos, A.V.; Pedrycz, W.; Bargiela, A.

    2009-01-01

    Pervasive and human-centric computing is beginning to be fact: with cell phones, laptops and handhelds, human beings can work pretty much anywhere. Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a novel human-centric computer discipline based on three emergent technologies: Ubiquitous Computing, Ubiquitous

  17. Popmuusika / Margus Haav

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haav, Margus, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Erasure "Union Street", The Hacker "A.n.d.N.O.W.", Nekta "Water The Flowers", Nickodemus & Mariano "Turntables On The Hudson Sir Remix", Jussi Syren & The Groundbreakers "Heartagrass", Dirty Pretty things "Waterloo To Anywhere", The Kooks "Inside In inside Out"

  18. Prostate Cancer Screening : The effect on prostate cancer mortality and incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Leeuwen (Pim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAt first glance, deciding whether to get the PSA screening test for prostate cancer seems to be pretty straightforward and attractive. It’s a simple blood test that can pick up the prostate cancer long before your symptoms appear. After all, your prostate cancer is earlier treated

  19. The Perfect Girl Syndrome: Perfectionism and Self-Esteem in Gifted Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Cassie

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research has been published on society's expectations and attitudes toward females. Men think the most important qualities in the ideal woman are attractiveness, sexiness, and kindness. The media suggests females should value physical beauty and marriageability. Girls should be obedient, caring, pretty, and polite. These unreasonable…

  20. Web life: ComplexityBlog.com

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    The site's homepage calls it "a repository of ideas and perspectives regarding the science, engineering and philosophy of complexity", and it pretty much does what it says on the tin. Part blog, part links archive, part library of modelling tips and tricks, the site is chock full of information that comes under the general heading of "complexity".

  1. Obaraedo: Conformity to Proppian Morphology | Okodo | AFRREV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various folktales of the Igbo people contain all the thirty-one functions of Propp's Morphology. Although, no one tale is expected to have all the functions, a lot has a pretty number of the functions. One of such tales is Obaraedo. Obaraedo has some motifs which are believably in line with the sequential occurrences of the ...

  2. Google Earth: A Virtual Globe for Elementary Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Judy; LaFontaine, Gus

    2009-01-01

    Originally called Earth Viewer in 2004, Google Earth was the first virtual globe easily available to the ordinary user of the Internet. Google Earth, at earth.google.com, is a free, 3-dimensional computer model of Earth, but that means more than just a large collection of pretty pictures. It allows the viewer to "fly" anywhere on Earth "to view…

  3. Twelve Girls' Band' A Modern Miracle of Traditional Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YaoZhanxiong

    2004-01-01

    Twelve antique traditional instruments. Twelve spirited, pretty girls. "Twelve Girls' Band" is a traditional instrument orchestra playing well-known folk music in the form of pop. Besides age-old traditional instruments peculiar to China, such as zheng (ancient 21 to 25-stringed plucked instrument), qin (seven-stringed plucked instrument) and erhu (two-stringed Chinese fiddle),

  4. Walking between houses, Paul Julien in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stultiens, Andrea; Mohamed, Elsadig

    2015-01-01

    April 2015 Sudanese photographer Elsadig Mohamed and I tried to relate the photographs that Paul Julien made when traveling through the country in 1933 and 1948 to stories and realities alive in present day Sudan. This initial research was pretty successful and we thought a first presentation of the

  5. Hey! A Tarantula Bit Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these spiders are not dangerous. They live in nests in the ground and are pretty timid, avoiding people whenever they can. What a Bite Looks and Feels Like If a person gets bitten by a tarantula, the bite will probably feel a lot like a bee sting , with pain in the area of the ...

  6. Motlanthe warns of dangers of inequality | Motlanthe | New Agenda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Countries around the world provide frightening examples of what happens to societies when they reach the level of inequality toward which we are moving. It is not a pretty picture: countries where the rich live in gated communities, waited upon by hordes of low-income workers; unstable political systems where populists ...

  7. Research improves hospitals' approach to children's pain in Thailand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-03-04

    Mar 4, 2013 ... Research that has enabled hospitals in Thailand to better treat ... a night shift, it's pretty hard for them to spend a significant amount of time with one ... great suffering for family members and debilitating stress for nursing staff.

  8. Evaluation of a business continuity plan using process algebra and modal logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boehmer, W.; Brandt, C.; Groote, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Since (1996) Knight and Pretty published their study about the impact of catastrophes on shareholder value, the need for a business continuity management system (BCMS) became clear. Once a BCMS is in place, the corresponding risks can be insured against. The BS 25999 certificate can serve as proof

  9. Evolution of the International Security Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    I have to start with a confession, distinguished Commandant, Generals, Excellencies, ladies and gentlemen.  This is my first speech for a long time. So I am a little bit rusty. The reason is that I retired from public speaking last year. I was in London, giving a talk next to the Houses of Parliament. When I finished, a man in the audience, who looked like the American detective Colombo, you remember with the hand woven hat and dirty raincoat, came up on to the stage and said ‘—Dr.Shea, Thank...

  10. I can invent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2001-10-15

    This book introduces the inventions which are unique and interesting. The titles of these are pots which boil very quick and safe, a desk with a pencil case, a scale which is not rusty, a book cover with a pocket, a skate with wax and mop, a seat belt airbag, a desk lamp which can control the light, a desk in the future, a recycling bin for cans, a blackboard eraser which erase very well, a useful crutches, swimming goggles attached convex lens, flower pots using waste tires, toilet paper holder with sawtooth, a brush which washes a flask, improved pump for petroleum.

  11. I can invent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2001-10-01

    This book introduces the inventions which are unique and interesting. The titles of these are pots which boil very quick and safe, a desk with a pencil case, a scale which is not rusty, a book cover with a pocket, a skate with wax and mop, a seat belt airbag, a desk lamp which can control the light, a desk in the future, a recycling bin for cans, a blackboard eraser which erase very well, a useful crutches, swimming goggles attached convex lens, flower pots using waste tires, toilet paper holder with sawtooth, a brush which washes a flask, improved pump for petroleum.

  12. Characterization of the electrochemical behavior of coating by steel welding 308l and in presence of noble metals deposits; Caracterizacion del comportamiento electroquimico de recubrimiento por soldadura de acero 308L y en presencia de depositos de metales nobles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piedras, P.; Arganis J, C. R., E-mail: pedro.piedras@hotmail.es [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this work the oxide deposits and noble metals deposit were characterized (Ag and Pt) on a coating of stainless steel 308l that were deposited by the shield metal arc welding (SMAW) on steel A36 by means of scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The extrapolation of Tafel technique was also used to obtain the corrosion potential (Ec) for the pre-rusty steel and for the samples with deposits of Pt and Ag under conditions of hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), demonstrating that this parameter diminishes with the presence of this deposits. (Author)

  13. Acetate availability and its influence on sustainable bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Davis, James A.; Wilkins, Michael J.; N'Guessan, A. Lucie; Steefel, Carl I.; Yang, Li; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Spane, Frank A.; Kerkhof, L.; McGuinness, L.; Dayvault, Richard; Lovley, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Field biostimulation experiments at the U.S. Department of Energy's Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, Colorado, have demonstrated that uranium concentrations in groundwater can be decreased to levels below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) drinking water standard (0.126 (micro)M). During successive summer experiments - referred to as 'Winchester' (2007) and 'Big Rusty' (2008) - acetate was added to the aquifer to stimulate the activity of indigenous dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria capable of reductively immobilizing uranium. The two experiments differed in the length of injection (31 vs. 110 days), the maximum concentration of acetate (5 vs. 30 mM), and the extent to which iron reduction ('Winchester') or sulfate reduction ('Big Rusty') was the predominant metabolic process. In both cases, rapid removal of U(VI) from groundwater occurred at calcium concentrations (6 mM) and carbonate alkalinities (8 meq/L) where Ca-UO2-CO3 ternary complexes constitute >90% of uranyl species in groundwater. Complete consumption of acetate and increased alkalinity (>30 meq/L) accompanying the onset of sulfate reduction corresponded to temporary increases in U(VI); however, by increasing acetate concentrations in excess of available sulfate (10 mM), low U(VI) concentrations (0.1-0.05 (micro)M) were achieved for extended periods of time (>140 days). Uniform delivery of acetate during 'Big Rusty' was impeded due to decreases in injection well permeability, likely resulting from biomass accumulation and carbonate and sulfide mineral precipitation. Such decreases were not observed during the short-duration 'Winchester' experiment. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that Geobacter sp. and Geobacter-like strains dominated the groundwater community profile during iron reduction, with 13C stable isotope probing (SIP) results confirming these strains were actively utilizing acetate to

  14. Morphology and Viscoelastic Properties of Polystyrene Blended with Fully Condensed Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-18

    NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) Madhu Namani ; Hai-Ping Geng; Andre Lee; Rusty Blanski 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4847 5e...TASK NUMBER 0249 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC),AFRL/PRSM,10 E...Saturn Blvd.,Edwards AFB,CA,93524-7680 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR

  15. Characterization of the electrochemical behavior of coating by steel welding 308l and in presence of noble metals deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedras, P.; Arganis J, C. R.

    2014-10-01

    In this work the oxide deposits and noble metals deposit were characterized (Ag and Pt) on a coating of stainless steel 308l that were deposited by the shield metal arc welding (SMAW) on steel A36 by means of scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The extrapolation of Tafel technique was also used to obtain the corrosion potential (Ec) for the pre-rusty steel and for the samples with deposits of Pt and Ag under conditions of hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), demonstrating that this parameter diminishes with the presence of this deposits. (Author)

  16. Acetate availability and its influence on sustainable bioremediation of Uranium-contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; Davis, J.A.; Wilkins, M.J.; N'Guessan, A. L.; Steefel, Carl; Yang, L.; Newcomer, D.; Spane, F.A.; Kerkhof, L.J.; Mcguinness, L.; Dayvault, R.; Lovley, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Field biostimulation experiments at the U.S. Department of Energy's Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, Colorado, have demonstrated that uranium concentrations in groundwater can be decreased to levels below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) drinking water standard (0.126??M).During successive summer experiments - referred to as "Winchester" (2007) and "Big Rusty" (2008) - acetate was added to the aquifer to stimulate the activity of indigenous dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria capable of reductively immobilizing uranium. The two experiments differed in the length of injection (31 vs. 110 days), the maximum concentration of acetate (5 vs. 30 mM),and the extent to which iron reduction ("Winchester") or sulfate reduction("Big Rusty") was the predominant metabolic process. In both cases, rapid removal of U(VI) from groundwater occurred at calcium concentrations (6 mM) and carbonate alkalinities (8 meq/L) where Ca-UO2-CO3 ternary complexes constitute >90% of uranyl species in groundwater. Complete consumption of acetate and increased alkalinity (>30 meq/L) accompanying the onset of sulfate reduction corresponded to temporary increases in U(VI);however, by increasing acetate concentrations in excess of available sulfate (10 mM), low U(VI) concentrations (0.1-0.05 ??M) were achieved for extended periods of time (>140 days). Uniform delivery of acetate during "Big Rusty" was impeded due to decreases in injection well permeability, likely resulting from biomass accumulation and carbonate and sulfide mineral precipitation. Such decreases were not observed during the short-duration "Winchester" experiment. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that Geobacter sp. and Geobacter-like strains dominated the groundwater community profile during iron reduction, with 13C stable isotope probing (SIP) results confirming these strains were actively utilizing acetate to replicate their

  17. Nightside Quiet-Time Mid-Latitude Ionospheric Convection and Its Connection to Penetration Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Maimaiti, M.; Baker, J. B.; Ribeiro, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that during quiet geomagnetic conditions F-region subauroral ionospheric plasma exhibits drifts of a few tens of m/s, predominantly in the westward direction. However, the exact driving mechanisms for this plasma motion are still not well understood. Recent expansion of SuperDARN radars into the mid-latitude region has provided new opportunities to study subauroral ionospheric convection over large areas and with greater spatial resolution and statistical significance than previously possible. Mid-latitude SuperDARN radars tend to observe subauroral ionospheric backscatter with low Doppler velocities on most geomagnetically quiet nights. In this study, we have used two years of data obtained from the six mid-latitude SuperDARN radars in the North American sector to derive a statistical model of quiet-time nightside mid-latitude plasma convection between 52°- 58° magnetic latitude. The model is organized in MLAT-MLT coordinates and has a spatial resolution of 1°x 7 min with each grid cell typically counting thousands of velocity measurements. Our results show that the flow is predominantly westward (20 - 60 m/s) and weakly northward (0 -20 m/s) near midnight but with a strong seasonal dependence such that the flows tend to be strongest and most spatially variable in winter. These statistical results are in good agreement with previously reported observations from ISR measurements but also show some interesting new features, one being a significant latitudinal variation of zonal flow velocity near midnight in winter. In this presentation, we describe the derivation of the nightside quite-time subauroral convection model, analyze its most prominent features, and discuss the results in terms of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere coupling and penetration electric fields.

  18. Comparison of ionospheric convection and the transpolar potential before and after solar wind dynamic pressure fronts: implications for magnetospheric reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudouridis, A.; Zesta, E.; Lyons, L. R.; Kim, H.-J.; Lummerzheim, D.; Wiltberger, M.; Weygand, J. M.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Ridley, A. J.

    2012-04-01

    The solar wind dynamic pressure, both through its steady state value and through its variations, plays an important role in the determination of the state of the terrestrial magnetosphere and ionosphere, its effects being only secondary to those of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). Recent studies have demonstrated the significant effect solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements have on ionospheric convection and the transpolar potential. Further studies have shown a strong response of the polar cap boundary and thus the open flux content of the magnetosphere. These studies clearly illustrate the strong coupling of solar wind dynamic pressure fronts to the terrestrial magnetosphere-ionosphere system. We present statistical studies of the response of Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) flows, and Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) transpolar potentials to sudden enhancements in solar wind dynamic pressure. The SuperDARN results show that the convection is enhanced within both the dayside and nightside ionosphere. The dayside response is more clear and immediate, while the response on the nightside is slower and more evident for low IMF By values. AMIE results show that the overall convection, represented by the transpolar potential, has a strong response immediately after an increase in pressure, with magnitude and duration modulated by the background IMF Bz conditions. We compare the location of the SuperDARN convection enhancements with the location and motion of the polar cap boundary, as determined by POLAR Ultra-Violet Imager (UVI) images and runs of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetohydrodynamic model for specific events. We find that the boundary exhibits a poleward motion after the increase in dynamic pressure. The enhanced ionospheric flows and the poleward motion of the boundary on the nightside are both signatures of enhanced tail reconnection, a conclusion that is reinforced by the observation of the

  19. National Dam Safety Program. Larchwood Lake Dam (Inventory Number NY 727), Susquehanna River Basin, Otsego County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-04

    8217 IELT OR BASE FLOw. USE VALUE i9?OF’ N. Y STATE NAMP - MINI/tM W’ RUNOFF (1ANm~s/DAy) FOR DEE,4-,/w,6 7W P-S/ r’ Pslic 2/6 t US5E 0. (/1IAy D-9...RESOURCES COMMISSION CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT ALBANY, N.Y. 12226 Do Not Write in This Box AppI. No. _____411_____V/ Darn No. __ __ __ __ Permit No. Watershed...extent and in such time and manner also notify him promptly in writing of the completion of the as the Water Resources Commission may require, remove

  20. Monitoring the migrations of wild Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts, 1995. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achord, S.; Eppard, M.B.; Sandford, B.P.; Matthews, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook-salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1994 and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Darns during spring, summer, and fall 1995. This report details our findings. The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the migration timing of different wild stocks of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence migration timing

  1. Effects of Abrupt Variations of Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure on the High-Latitude Ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Coco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We show the results of a statistical study on the effects in the high-latitude ionosphere of abrupt variations of solar wind dynamic pressure, using Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN data in both hemispheres. We find that, during periods of quiet ionospheric conditions, the amount of radar backscatter increases when a variation in the dynamic pressure occurs, both positive (increase of the pressure and negative (decrease of the pressure. We also investigate the behaviour of the Cross-Polar Cap Potential (CPCP during pressure variations and show preliminary results.

  2. Testosterone, plumage colouration and extra-pair paternity in male North-American barn swallows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cas Eikenaar

    Full Text Available In most monogamous bird species, circulating testosterone concentration in males is elevated around the social female's fertile period. Variation in elevated testosterone concentrations among males may have a considerable impact on fitness. For example, testosterone implants enhance behaviours important for social and extra-pair mate choice. However, little is known about the relationship between natural male testosterone concentration and sexual selection. To investigate this relationship we measured testosterone concentration and sexual signals (ventral plumage colour and tail length, and determined within and extra-pair fertilization success in male North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster. Dark rusty coloured males had higher testosterone concentrations than drab males. Extra-pair paternity was common (42% and 31% of young in 2009 and 2010, respectively, but neither within- nor extra-pair fertilization success was related to male testosterone concentration. Dark rusty males were less often cuckolded, but did not have higher extra-pair or total fertilization success than drab males. Tail length did not affect within- or extra-pair fertilization success. Our findings suggest that, in North American barn swallows, male testosterone concentration does not play a significant direct role in female mate choice and sexual selection. Possibly plumage colour co-varies with a male behavioural trait, such as aggressiveness, that reduces the chance of cuckoldry. This could also explain why dark males have higher testosterone concentrations than drab males.

  3. Storm-time Convection Dynamics Viewed from Optical Auroras: from Streamer to Patchy Pulsating Aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Donovan, E.; Liang, J.; Grono, E.

    2016-12-01

    In a series of statistical and event studies we have demonstrated that the motion of patches in regions of Patchy Pulsating Aurora (PPA) is very close to if not exactly convection. Thus, 2D maps of PPA motion provides us the opportunity to remote sense magnetospheric convection with relatively high space and time resolution, subject to uncertainties associated with mapping between the ionosphere and magnetosphere. In this study, we use THEMIS ASI aurora observations (streamers and patchy pulsating aurora) combined with SuperDARN convection measurements, Swarm ion drift velocity measurements, and RBSP electric field measurements to explore the convection dynamics in storm time. From 0500 UT to 0600 UT on March 19 2015, convection observations across 5 magnetic local time (MLT) inferred from the motion of PPA patches and SuperDARN measurements show that a westward SAPS (Subauroral Polarized Streams) enhancement occurs after an auroral streamer. This suggests that plasma sheet fast flows can affect the inner magnetospheric convection, and possibly trigger very fast flows in the inner magnetosphere.

  4. A new open-source Python-based Space Weather data access, visualization, and analysis toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Larquier, S.; Ribeiro, A.; Frissell, N. A.; Spaleta, J.; Kunduri, B.; Thomas, E. G.; Ruohoniemi, J.; Baker, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Space weather research relies heavily on combining and comparing data from multiple observational platforms. Current frameworks exist to aggregate some of the data sources, most based on file downloads via web or ftp interfaces. Empirical models are mostly fortran based and lack interfaces with more useful scripting languages. In an effort to improve data and model access, the SuperDARN community has been developing a Python-based Space Science Data Visualization Toolkit (DaViTpy). At the center of this development was a redesign of how our data (from 30 years of SuperDARN radars) was made available. Several access solutions are now wrapped into one convenient Python interface which probes local directories, a new remote NoSQL database, and an FTP server to retrieve the requested data based on availability. Motivated by the efficiency of this interface and the inherent need for data from multiple instruments, we implemented similar modules for other space science datasets (POES, OMNI, Kp, AE...), and also included fundamental empirical models with Python interfaces to enhance data analysis (IRI, HWM, MSIS...). All these modules and more are gathered in a single convenient toolkit, which is collaboratively developed and distributed using Github and continues to grow. While still in its early stages, we expect this toolkit will facilitate multi-instrument space weather research and improve scientific productivity.

  5. SuperMAG: Present and Future Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, S. W.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Barnes, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    SuperMAG is a global collaboration that provides ground magnetic field perturbations from a long list of stations in the same coordinate system, identical time resolution and with a common baseline removal approach. This unique high quality dataset provides a continuous and nearly global monitoring of the ground magnetic field perturbation. Currently, only archived data are available on the website and hence it targets basic research without any operational capabilities. The existing SuperMAG software can be easily adapted to ingest real-time or near real-time data and provide a now-casting capability. The SuperDARN program has a long history of providing near real-time maps of the northern hemisphere electrostatic potential and as both SuperMAG and SuperDARN share common software it is relatively easy to adapt these maps for global magnetic perturbations. Magnetometer measurements would be assimilated by the SuperMAG server using a variety of techniques, either by downloading data at regular intervals from remote servers or by real-time streaming connections. The existing SuperMAG analysis software would then process these measurements to provide the final calibrated data set using the SuperMAG coordinate system. The existing plotting software would then be used to produce regularly updated global plots. The talk will focus on current SuperMAG capabilities illustrating the potential for now-casting and eventually forecasting.

  6. Observations of significant flux closure by dual lobe reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Imber

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an interval of dual lobe reconnection during which interplanetary magnetic field lines are captured by the magnetosphere by reconnecting at high latitudes in both the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres. This event was identified using measurements of the ionospheric convection flow and observations of the aurora using the SuperDARN radars and the IMAGE spacecraft. A cusp spot, characteristic of northward IMF, is clearly visible for a 30 min period enabling the ionospheric footprint of the Northern Hemisphere merging gap to be accurately determined. During the interval a strong burst of sunward flow across the dayside open/closed field line boundary (OCB is observed, which we interpret as the reconfiguration of the magnetosphere following a burst of reconnection. Noon-midnight and dawn-dusk keograms of the aurora show that the polar cap shrinks during the interval indicating that a large amount of flux was closed by the reconnection. Using the SuperDARN potential maps it is possible to calculate that the amount of flux closed during the interval is 0.13 GWb which represents approximately 10% of the pre-existing polar cap. The number of ions captured by the burst of dual lobe reconnection was calculated to be ~2.2×1031, more than sufficient to populate a cold, dense plasma sheet. That a dense plasma sheet was not subsequently observed is discussed in terms of subsequent changes in the IMF.

  7. Simultaneous observations of noctilucent clouds and polar mesosphere summer echoes at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Hosokawa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports simultaneous observations of visible noctilucent clouds (NLC and polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE at Syowa Station (69°01′S, 38°61′E in Antarctica. During a 1.5 h interval from 2000 to 2130 UT (2300 to 0030 LT on Feb. 11, 2009, visible NLC were observed south of Syowa Station. The oblique sounding HF radar of SuperDARN at Syowa Station simultaneously observed peculiar echoes in the closest two range gates. The echoes had a small Doppler velocity and a narrow spectral width, which are consistent with the characteristics of PMSE in the SuperDARN data. The simultaneous appearance of the visible NLC and peculiar near-range echoes observed by the HF radar suggests that the echoes were actually a signature of PMSE in the HF band. In addition, the data from the simultaneous measurements show that the spatial distributions of NLC and PMSE in the HF band were collocated with each other, which implies that oblique sounding HF radar is a useful tool for estimating the two-dimensional horizontal distribution of PMSE.

  8. Body image v marketingu

    OpenAIRE

    Michelík, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Today's era depicts life of consumer society with the growing battle for customers. Every single person in this world wants to have a solid life and look pretty. Advertisements, which display handsome and slender people are all around us and they influence our consumer behavior. We tend to equilibrate these ideals by buying the most diverse products and even attempt to achieve the alleged feeling of happiness. This thesis is focused on Body image in which explains individual consumer behavior...

  9. Learning heat diffusion graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Thanou, Dorina; Dong, Xiaowen; Kressner, Daniel; Frossard, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Effective information analysis generally boils down to properly identifying the structure or geometry of the data, which is often represented by a graph. In some applications, this structure may be partly determined by design constraints or pre-determined sensing arrangements, like in road transportation networks for example. In general though, the data structure is not readily available and becomes pretty difficult to define. In particular, the global smoothness assumptions, that most of the...

  10. Research on measurement of neutron flux in irradiation channels of research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Zhitao; Lv Zheng; Wang Yulin; Zheng Wuqin

    2014-01-01

    Relative distribution of thermal neutron flux in the irradiation channel is measured by classical activation foil method. After that, on a representative point in the irradiation channel, neutron temperature and absolute neutron flux are also measured. Cadmium ratio correction method is used to check the experiment result in the end. Comparative analysis shows that the results from two different methods are agreed pretty well, which adds the credibility of experiment results. (authors)

  11. Findings and Recommendations Based on Two Reports on Insights into the Role of Women in South Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-04-01

    formerly called for training in fine embroidery , in music, in running a household efficiently yet maintaining a good deal of -6- personal charm. This...institutions ... ... 2 Sewing or embroidery ... ... ...... ... ... 2 Weaving cloth (cottage industry) ... ... ... ... 1 Agriculture (raising fish...8217.-oman, but she should have less education than my son. She should know how to sew, do pretty embroidery ; she should manage the house and know how to

  12. South Korea - oil refining overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    1999-01-01

    Following the economic problems of the 1990s, the petroleum refining industry of South Korea underwent much involuntary restructuring in 1999 with respect to takeovers and mergers and these are discussed. The demand for petroleum has now pretty well recovered. The reasons for fluctuating prices in the 1990s, how the new structure should be cushioned against changes in the future, and the potential for South Korea to export refined petroleum, are all discussed

  13. 7 Key Challenges for Visualization in Cyber Network Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Daniel M.; Endert, Alexander; Kidwell, Dan

    2014-12-02

    In this paper we present seven challenges, informed by two user studies, to be considered when developing a visualization for cyber security purposes. Cyber security visualizations must go beyond isolated solutions and “pretty picture” visualizations in order to make impact to users. We provide an example prototype that addresses the challenges with a description of how they are met. Our aim is to assist in increasing utility and adoption rates for visualization capabilities in cyber security.

  14. Stuart Hall...

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuz, Hatice Şule

    2014-01-01

    An attempt to write an article that focuses on Stuart Hall’s work following his death requires addressing such issues such as the New Left,BirminghamSchool, British Cultural Studies, racism, post-colonialism, resistance, hegemony, sub-cultures, reception studies, popular culture, negotiated reading, identity and ethnicity. As Grossberg (2006) notes it is pretty difficult to identify any single position, interest, tradition or methodology in Hall’s work. The “multi-emphasis” in his works incre...

  15. The magnetic model of the large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Auchmann, B; Buzio, M; Deniau, L; Fiscarelli, L; Giovannozzi, M; Hagen, P; Lamont, M; Montenero, G; Mueller, G; Pereira, M; Redaelli, S; Remondino, V; Schmidt, F; Steinhagen, R; Strzelczyk, M; Tomas Garcia, R; Todesco, E; Delsolaro, W Venturini; Walckiers, L; Wenninger, J; Wolf, R; Zimmermann, F

    2010-01-01

    The beam commissioning carried out in 2009 has proved that we have a pretty good understanding of the behaviour of the relation field-current in the LHC magnets and of its reproducibility. In this paper we summarize the main issues of beam commissioning as far as the magnetic model is concerned. An outline of what can be expected in 2010, when the LHC will be pushed to 3.5 TeV, is also given.

  16. Atleti adolescenti e comunità sportiva: il senso psicologico di comunità applicato allo sport

    OpenAIRE

    Scotto Di Luzio, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Il Senso di Comunità costituisce un fattore importante per il benessere e lo sviluppo sociale positivo degli adolescenti (Pretty, 2002 ; Cicognani et al., 2006; 2012). Tuttavia, pochi studi hanno fornito informazioni significative sui meccanismi che possono condurre alla costruzione di una Comunità nello sport (Warner & Dixon, 2011). Finalità generale di questa tesi è di contribuire alla definizione di una Comunità Sportiva, esaminando i meccanismi alla base della formazione del Senso di Comu...

  17. The establishment, nurturing, and fruition of a national transplutonium production program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The first two slides describe the discovery of 252 Cf and the properties that make it useful as a neutron source. The next two describe the applications. The next two cover the history of the Market Development Program, which is pretty much phased out now, with most residual responsibilities transferred to Oak Ridge. The final slide illustrates the uses of 252 Cf that has been sold and commercially fabricated into neutron sources

  18. Pemanfaatan Kulit Pisang Raja (Musa textilia )Menjadi Selai Sebagai Isian Roti Serta Daya Terima dan Kandungan Zat Gizinya

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, Mustapa

    2015-01-01

    Banana peel plantains (Musa textilia) is a waste material (organic waste) which pretty much amounts. Banana peel generally significantly untapped simply disposed of as organic waste and used as fodder. Banana peel plantains can be processed into jam. Jam is a preferably food by children to the adult. Jam has a teksture (holf solid) and sweet taste. This research aims to determine the acceptability test and nutritional content of jam with the using of banana peel plantains. The type of researc...

  19. Energy Optimization Assessment at U.S. Army Installations: Fort Bliss, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Log dampers, temperatures, actuator signals, and other parameters to identify problems. Adjust chiller and boiler setpoints and control curves...installation. The lowest setpoints were found in the Centennial Club, with 52 °F during unoccupied hours (morn- ing). The chillers ran pretty much fully loaded...ER D C/ CE R L TR -0 8 -1 5 Energy Optimization Assessment at U.S. Army Installations Fort Bliss, TX David M. Underwood, Alexander M

  20. Development in Harbour Construction, Infrastructure and Topography on the Eve of the Early Modern Age in the Baltic (1450-1600)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springmann, Maik Jens O R

    2016-01-01

    Ships are no Flying Dutchmen! They need a harbour. Therefore, the development of ship construction is pretty much connected with that of harbour construction, and beyond this, they influence the topography and infrastructure of a harbour. The transition between the Medieval period and the Early M...... construction, topography and infrastructure follow the development of ship construction. The paper focuses on the deep impact that larger multi-mast sailing ships had on the development of Baltic harbours...

  1. Proceedings of the 79th Meeting of the Coastal Engineering Research Board, 6-10 June 2005 (Anchorage, AK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-29

    integrated Coastal Community Vulnerability and Adaptation Program focused on improving the resilience of coastal communities to natural hazards and...in sharp contrast to the situation of a coastal community facing a serious erosion threat. The nature of the problem may be pretty clear, but the...products to improve the preparedness of communities, businesses, and government entities. As described in Section 8 of S.50, this Coastal

  2. Deployed Flight Test of the Iraqi Air Force Comp Air 7SLX (CA-7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-28

    been built with a castering nose wheel mounted to the engine mount, a simple yet effective design. The team purchased new engine mounts and castering ...nose wheels from Aero Comp Inc. to solve these problems on all the CA-7s they refurbished, which Fred Webster called “a pretty big modification .”22...from a Cessna 310. The UAE had made numerous other modifications .2 The United States Central Command Air Forces (CENTAF) was working with the

  3. Trial by Science: A Forensic Extravaganza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Vanessa

    2004-01-01

    "His handwriting checks out and his prints look pretty good. Move him to the top of the list," orders the 13-year-old captain. His co-detective makes appropriate procedural notes. "Bring the next one up. Get a foot measurement and let Andre print him before we talk." In another corner of the room, two girls administer a solemn oath to one of six…

  4. DefenseLink.mil - Special Report - Cancer Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    . I'd always been pretty healthy -- never a broken bone or day in the hospital. I wasn't sick. I had no raced through my mind. I had to call my family. I had to call the office. I had to make doctor's parts of my body. A Second Blow As if things weren't bad enough, I soon found out how much worse they

  5. Dose optimization in CT examination of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojreh, A.; Prosch, H.

    2012-01-01

    Problems arise due to the increased clinical use of computed tomography (CT) and the high radiosensitivity of children. The ALARA concept (as low as reasonably achievable) prevails in pediatric radiology. Justified indications and full utilization of available dose optimization methods. Medical physicists and the manufacturers should support pediatric radiology in the implementation of the ALARA concept. The referring physicians and radiology staff should be integrated into training programs. Sufficient diagnostic image quality is paramount and not the pretty images. (orig.) [de

  6. Holistic Integrative Analysis of International Change: A Commentary on Teaching Emergent Futures (Proteus Monograph Series. Volume 1, Issue 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    architectures are not pretty, their beautifying public facing having not yet been added by society. One supposes that psychologists do not deal only...other. What is the under-girding values architecture of each society, and what are its institutions? Institutions are both formal and informal...all that is done under heaven… and behold, all is vanity and a striving after wind” ( Ecclesiastes 1-15). Objective rationality is overdone. Our

  7. The New Way of Beauty Experience From Korean Wave as Vocational Guidance in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbayani, Siti; Annuraini, A

    2017-01-01

    Korean Wave called Hallyu is the most phenomenal global culture that spread around the world as well as Indonesia. Along with Hallyu syndrome, plastic surgery began to be known by the Korean fans in Indonesia. Participation of the media, in particular, information technology became an important key by the Korean wave invasion. Korean idol who is so pretty and charming make Korean fans want to emulate his idol. This study aims to discuss how the views of Indonesian young women within decision ...

  8. Analysis of open source GIS software

    OpenAIRE

    Božnis, Andrius

    2006-01-01

    GIS is one of the most perspective information technology sciences sphere. GIS conjuncts the digital image analysis and data base systems. This makes GIS wide applicable and very high skills demanding system. There is a lot of commercial GIS software which is well advertised and which functionality is pretty well known, while open source software is forgotten. In this diploma work is made analysis of available open source GIS software on the Internet, in the scope of different projects interr...

  9. Large-Scale Analysis of Remote Code Injection Attacks in Android Apps

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hyunwoo; Kim, Yongdae

    2018-01-01

    It is pretty well known that insecure code updating procedures for Android allow remote code injection attack. However, other than codes, there are many resources in Android that have to be updated, such as temporary files, images, databases, and configurations (XML and JSON). Security of update procedures for these resources is largely unknown. This paper investigates general conditions for remote code injection attacks on these resources. Using this, we design and implement a static detecti...

  10. 5,000 Years of Booze and the Hangover That Comes With It

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tyler; Roney

    2013-01-01

    with Spring Festival coming up,we at The World of Chinese,like many over the New Year,hit the bottle pretty hard.Ginger dug through history books and will have a look at drinking and prohibition in ancient China,complete with drunken despots,merry ministers and plastered poets.It’s hard to imagine,especially on the subway on a Friday night,that

  11. Qing’e

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    HUO Huan, 13, met the pretty girl Qing’e by chance and liked her very much. But he did not find opportunities to became acquainted with her. One day, a Taoist priest gave him a tiny spade, which could penetrate solid rock. Huo Huan used it and dug through several walls. When he reached Qing’e’s bedroom, she was fast asleep. Huo stayed by her bed to admire her. But shortly afterward, his eyelids

  12. CERN does dotfiles

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Dotfiles are hidden files in your home folder that are used to configure tools like shell, vim or git and they tend to quickly become pretty messy. Even more when you decide to keep your refined ecosystem of dotfiles synchronized across computers. On this talk I will present my been there, done that, how I fixed it and why it can help you too even if you are happy just using Dropbox.

  13. Legislative technique and human rights: the sad case of assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, Richard H S

    2003-01-01

    Ths article reviews the issues raised by the case of Diane Pretty and argues that contrary to the views of the English Courts and the European Court of Human Rights, section 2 of the Suicide Act 1961 is incompatible with the Convention. Failing legislative reform, the DPP should formulate and publicise criteria for the exercise of its consent to prosecution in cases of assisted suicide.

  14. Primary study on synthesis and characterization of the new type EB curable resins. Pt.1: Acrylic resins modified by light-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jinshan; Yi Min; Wang Ruiyu; Li Jun; Ha Hongfei

    1995-01-01

    An acrylic resin modified by vegetable oil with high degree of unsaturation level has been synthesized. The characterization of coating film EB cured by the modified acrylic resin was studied primarily. The new type of EB curable acrylic resin is possessed of many merits such as cheap raw materials, simple synthesis technique and pretty characteristics of coating film. It is especially fit for timber surface coatings cured by EB radiation

  15. Electroweak theory and the Standard Model

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Giudice, Gian Francesco

    2004-01-01

    There is a natural splitting in four sectors of the theory of the ElectroWeak (EW) Interactions, at pretty different levels of development/test. Accordingly, the 5 lectures are organized as follows, with an eye to the future: Lecture 1: The basic structure of the theory; Lecture 2: The gauge sector; Lecture 3: The flavor sector; Lecture 4: The neutrino sector; Lecture 5: The EW symmetry breaking sector.

  16. Technology Corner: Calculating the Number of Android Lock Patterns: An Unfinished Study in Number Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kessler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although one is unlikely to ever want to brute-force an Android lock pattern, many do wonder about the relative strength of the lock pattern versus a multi-digit personal identification number (PIN. It becomes obvious pretty quickly that there are many more lock patterns than the 10,000 possible four-digit PINs.(see PDF for full technology corner

  17. Tandem accelerator operation and improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bingfan; Zhang Canzhe; Qin Jiuchang; Hu Yueming; Zhang Guilian; Jiang Yongliang; Hou Deyi; Yang Weimin; Yang Zhiren; Su Shengyong; Kan Chaoxin; Liu Dezhong; Wang Liyong; Bao Yiwen; You Qubo; Yang Tao; Zhang Yan; Zhou Lipeng; Chai Shiqin; Wang Meiyan

    1998-01-01

    The scheduled operation of HI-13 tandem accelerator for various experiments was performed well in 1996 and 1997. The machine running time was 4600 h and 4182 h while the beam time was 3845 h and 3712 h in 1996 and 1997, respectively. The operation of HI-13 tandem accelerator is pretty well. The beam distribution with terminal voltage and the distribution of beam time with ion species are shown out. The development of accelerating tubes for HI-13 tandem is in progress

  18. Perception of Nonverbal Communication Influenced by Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蒙蒙

    2013-01-01

    The concept of perception influenced by culture is pretty important in the study of intercultural communication. The perceptions of language and nonverbal language formed under various cultures intimate with each other during communication. This paper aims to explore the relationship between perception and culture in nonverbal communication through the study of eye language and body odor, and promote the communication among people of different culture as well.

  19. Security, privacy, and confidentiality issues on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Grant; McKenzie, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the issues around protecting information about patients and related data sent via the Internet. We begin by reviewing three concepts necessary to any discussion about data security in a healthcare environment: privacy, confidentiality, and consent. We are giving some advice on how to protect local data. Authentication and privacy of e-mail via encryption is offered by Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME). The de facto Internet standa...

  20. A selection of problems related to safe working conditions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    Two representative examples were chosen to demonstrate that the problems related to safe working conditions can be solved with work being prepared extensively and in detail taking into consideration radiation protection and conventional job safety measures and with qualified staff. Most of the job safety problems in nuclear power plants are pretty much the same as in conventional plants. Despite successful implementation of employment and radiation protection in nuclear power plants, improvements in detail are possible and make sense. (orig.) [de

  1. Presentation = Speech + Slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derik Badman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Back in October, Aaron Schmidt posted “HOWTO give a good presentation” to his blog walking paper. His second bullet point of “thoughts” on good presentations is: Please don’t fill your slides with words. Find some relevant and pretty pictures to support what you’re saying. You can use the pictures to remind yourself what you’re going [...

  2. Preparing for NA4

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    Here, in one of the EF workshop, Albert Duchêne works on a pretty piece of mechanics. A few others await to be attended on the left. There are indications that the pipes were meant to house the carbon target (subdivided in eight sections) to be installed inside the toroid magnet of the NA4 experiment. The external strips were designed to possibly correct the magnetic field (???).

  3. Lithofacies Architecturing and Hydrocarbon Reservoir Potential of Lumshiwal Formation: Surghar Range, Trans-Indus Ranges, North Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Alam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Western environs of the Indo-Pak Plate are comprised of thick Mesozoic sedimentary sequence and extensively extended toward Trans-Indus Salt ranges of North Pakistan. This sequence consists of detrital clastic sediments in the lower level and shallow to deep marine sediments in the upper level. In the Trans-Indus Salt ranges the Lumshiwal Formation represents the transitional level of the lower Cretaceous sequence. In Surghar Range the lower part of formation is composed of cyclic alteration of clayey, silty, very fine grained greenish gray, glauconitic sandstone to rusty brownish gray sandstone. The middle part of formation is comprised of thick bedded to massive, cliff forming, sugary texture, whitish to light yellowish gray occasionally rusty brownish gray medium to coarse grained, moderate to well cemented sandstone. The upper part is comprised of feldspathic, ferruginous, weathering yellowish brown, rusty brown to light gray with locally calcareous sandstone beds. The sandstone is reddish to brownish gray, coarse to granules texture, moderately cemented thick bedded to massive. Total thickness of the formation is 220m at Baroch Nala section 230m in Karandi section at a dip of 60°. Along trend lithological variations and diversified primary sedimentary structures which classifies fifteen different sub-lithofacie in Lumshiwal. Middle and upper parts of the formation show massive to thick, current bedded deposits. Lithofacies analysis revealed that the Lumshiwal Formation was deposited in shallow marine for the lower cyclic part to transitionally prodeltaic to deltaic for the middle to upper part respectively. High silica contents in the upper part compare to the middle and lower part of the formation. On the basis of high silica and low alumina with other low fractions of rock fragments, the sandstone is categorized into quartzarenite, sub-litharenite and sub-arkose. Cross beds in the middle and upper parts of formation indicate west to east

  4. High Frequency Backscatter from the Polar and Auroral E-Region Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Victoriya V.

    The Earth's ionosphere contains collisional and partially-ionized plasma. The electric field, produced by the interaction between the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind, drives the plasma bulk motion, also known as convection, in the F-region of the ionosphere. It can also destabilize the plasma in the E-region, producing irregularities or waves. Intermediate-scale waves with wavelengths of hundreds of meters can cause scintillation and fading of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals, whereas the small-scale waves (lambda Network (SuperDARN). The theoretical part of this work focuses on symmetry properties of the general dispersion relation that describes wave propagation in the collisional plasma in the two-stream and gradient-drift instability regimes. The instability growth rate and phase velocity are examined under the presence of a background parallel electric field, whose influence is demonstrated to break the spatial symmetry of the wave propagation patterns. In the observational part of this thesis, a novel dual radar setup is used to examine E-region irregularities in the magnetic polar cap by probing the E-region along the same line from opposite directions. The phase velocity analysis together with raytracing simulations demonstrated that, in the polar cap, the radar backscatter is primarily controlled by the plasma density conditions. In particular, when the E-region layer is strong and stratified, the radar backscatter properties are controlled by the convection velocity, whereas for a tilted E-layer, the height and aspect angle conditions are more important. Finally, the fundamental dependence of the E-region irregularity phase velocity on the component of the plasma convection is investigated using two new SuperDARN radars at high southern latitudes where plasma convection estimates are accurately deduced from all SuperDARN radars in the southern hemisphere. Statistical analysis is presented showing that the predominance of the

  5. Morphological and Molecular Phylogenetic Data Reveal a New Species of Primula (Primulaceae from Hunan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xu

    Full Text Available A new species of Primulaceae, Primula undulifolia, is described from the hilly area of Hunan province in south-central China. Its morphology and distributional range suggest that it is allied to P. kwangtungensis, both adapted to subtropical climate, having contiguous distribution and similar habitat, growing on shady and moist cliffs. Petioles, scapes and pedicels of them are densely covered with rusty multicellular hairs, but the new species can be easily distinguished by its smaller flowers and narrowly oblong leaves with undulate margins. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on four DNA markers (ITS, matK, trnL-F and rps16 confirmed the new species as an independent lineage and constitutes a main clade together with P. kwangtungensis, P. kweichouensis, P. wangii and P. hunanensis of Primula sect. Carolinella.

  6. Effect of organic fertilization of soil, differentiated over many years, on the utilization of 15N-labelled urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markgraf, G.; Winterfeld, C.

    1983-01-01

    Topsoil from samples with different organic fertilization of a soil fertility experiment started in 1936 at the Thyrow experimental site of the Berlin Humboldt University Crop Production Department was used for a pot experiment to study the N utilization of equal amounts of mineral fertilizer N (1.380 mg N/pot in the form of 15 N-labelled urea with an N frequency of 50 +- 0.5 atom per cent). The results showed that combined application of mineral NPK fertilization and high amounts of farmyard manure over a period of about 40 years on deep-loam fallow soil-sandy-rusty soil (diluvial sand to loamy-sandy soil) will lead to better utilization of the applied urea N as well as to higher N availability from the N pool of the soil. (author)

  7. Improved vacuum sealing drainage in the treatment of gas gangrene: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaofa; Zhao, Dewei; Wang, Benjie

    2015-01-01

    In this case, improved vacuum sealing drainage was used for gas gangrene treatment, which is different from traditional therapies of gas gangrene and this is the first report of using improved vacuum sealing drainage to treat gas gangrene. The patient was a 12-year-old Asian Male who was presented to the Emergency Department with a one-day history of left femoral progressing swelling, paining and fevering. Four days ago, rusty iron bars were plugged into the muscle of the left femoral when he played. Then he was taken to the local clinic and injected with tetanus antitoxin. A diagnosis of gas gangrene was made and modified vacuum sealing drainage device was used after thorough debridement. After two weeks' treatment, left femoral was kept and gas gangrene was cured successfully.

  8. Aquatic Nuisance Species Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel

  9. Mechanism of Early Stage Corrosion for Boric-sulfuric Acid Anodized 2A97 Al-Cu-Li Alloy Under Tropical Marine Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical microscopy(OM, scanning electron microscopy(SEM, EDX and EIS combined with ultramicrotomy were employed to investigate the micro morphology, chemical composition and electrochemical properties of anodized 2A97 Al-Cu-Li alloy before and after atmospheric corrosion. The results show that when electrolytes containing combinations of tartaric-sulfuric or boric-sulfuric acid are used to grow the films at different temperatures, boric acid addition and higher temperature allow for higher current density that speeds up the film growth. The pore geometry and structure is similar for different electrolytes. Dispersive dark rusty spots composed of O, Al, Cl, Cu are present on the boric-sulfuric acid anodized specimen after exposure in tropical marine atmosphere for 1 month. Deposition of white corrosion product is found on the specimen surface as well. Severe pitting occurs and develops deeply into the alloy substrate after elongated outdoor exposure. Corrosion propagation is associated with θ-phase particles.

  10. Severe Pleuropulmonary Paragonimiasis Caused by Paragonimus mexicanus Treated as Tuberculosis in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopina, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Macias, Rubén; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2017-01-11

    A 30-year-old male, from a subtropical region of Ecuador, was hospitalized with a 5-year history of persistent cough with rusty brown sputum, chest pain, and progressive dyspnea. The patient underwent thoracic surgery 3 years ago for pleural effusion and subsequently received a 9-month regimen treatment of tuberculosis. However, there was no clinical resolution and symptoms became progressively worse. A chest radiograph and computerized tomography scan showed several small nodules in both lungs. Eggs of Paragonimus spp. were observed in sputum smears, but the smears were negative for acid-fast bacilli. Molecular characterization of eggs by the internal transcribed spacer-2 regions identified them as Paragonimus mexicanus The patient was treated with praziquantel and tested negative parasitologically for 12 months. There was clinical resolution of the cough and expectoration, but dyspnea and chest pain persisted. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Discovery of a Novel Stem Rust Resistance Allele in Durum Wheat that Exhibits Differential Reactions to Ug99 Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaveeramuthu Nirmala

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn, can incur yield losses in susceptible cultivars of durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf. Husnot. Although several durum cultivars possess the stem rust resistance gene Sr13, additional genes in durum wheat effective against emerging virulent races have not been described. Durum line 8155-B1 confers resistance against the P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKST, the variant race of the Ug99 race group with additional virulence to wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr24. However, 8155-B1 does not confer resistance to the first-described race in the Ug99 race group: TTKSK. We mapped a single gene conferring resistance in 8155-B1 against race TTKST, Sr8155B1, to chromosome arm 6AS by utilizing Rusty/8155-B1 and Rusty*2/8155-B1 populations and the 90K Infinium iSelect Custom bead chip supplemented by KASP assays. One marker, KASP_6AS_IWB10558, cosegregated with Sr8155B1 in both populations and correctly predicted Sr8155B1 presence or absence in 11 durum cultivars tested. We confirmed the presence of Sr8155B1 in cultivar Mountrail by mapping in the population Choteau/Mountrail. The marker developed in this study could be used to predict the presence of resistance to race TTKST in uncharacterized durum breeding lines, and also to combine Sr8155B1 with resistance genes effective to Ug99 such as Sr13. The map location of Sr8155B1 cannot rule out the possibility that this gene is an allele at the Sr8 locus. However, race specificity indicates that Sr8155B1 is different from the known alleles Sr8a and Sr8b.

  12. Above Bonneville passage and propagation cost effectiveness analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsen, C.M.; Hyman, J.B.; Wernstedt, K.

    1993-05-01

    We have developed several models to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies to mitigate hydrosystem impacts on salmon and steelhead, and applied these models to areas of the Columbia River Basin. Our latest application evaluates the cost-effectiveness of proposed strategies that target mainstem survival (e.g., predator control, increases in water velocity) and subbasin propagation (e.g., habitat improvements, screening, hatchery production increases) for chinook salmon and steelhead stocks, in the portion of the Columbia Basin bounded by Bonneville, Chief Joseph, Dworshak, and Hells Canyon darns. At its core the analysis primarily considers financial cost and biological effectiveness, but we have included other attributes which may be of concern to the region

  13. ExpEdit: a webserver to explore human RNA editing in RNA-Seq experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Ernesto; D'Antonio, Mattia; Carrabino, Danilo; Castrignanò, Tiziana; Pesole, Graziano

    2011-05-01

    ExpEdit is a web application for assessing RNA editing in human at known or user-specified sites supported by transcript data obtained by RNA-Seq experiments. Mapping data (in SAM/BAM format) or directly sequence reads [in FASTQ/short read archive (SRA) format] can be provided as input to carry out a comparative analysis against a large collection of known editing sites collected in DARNED database as well as other user-provided potentially edited positions. Results are shown as dynamic tables containing University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) links for a quick examination of the genomic context. ExpEdit is freely available on the web at http://www.caspur.it/ExpEdit/.

  14. Nonlinear forecasts of ƒoF2: variation of model predictive accuracy over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Cannon

    Full Text Available Space weather effects can strongly influence high-frequency (HF communications by changing the ionospheric environment through which the radio waves propagate. Since many systems utilize HF communications, the ability to make real-time assessments of propagation conditions is an important part of space weather monitoring systems. In this paper, we present new techniques for measuring high-latitude HF communications link parameters using data from SuperDARN radars. These techniques use ground-scatter returns to define the variation in skip distance with frequency. From these data, the maximum usable frequency (MUF as a function of range is determined and ionospheric critical frequencies are estimated. These calculations are made in near-real-time and the results are made available on the World Wide Web. F-region critical frequencies calculated using this method show good agreement with ionosonde data.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; instruments and techniques – Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  15. Nonlinear forecasts of ƒoF2: variation of model predictive accuracy over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Y. Chan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Space weather effects can strongly influence high-frequency (HF communications by changing the ionospheric environment through which the radio waves propagate. Since many systems utilize HF communications, the ability to make real-time assessments of propagation conditions is an important part of space weather monitoring systems. In this paper, we present new techniques for measuring high-latitude HF communications link parameters using data from SuperDARN radars. These techniques use ground-scatter returns to define the variation in skip distance with frequency. From these data, the maximum usable frequency (MUF as a function of range is determined and ionospheric critical frequencies are estimated. These calculations are made in near-real-time and the results are made available on the World Wide Web. F-region critical frequencies calculated using this method show good agreement with ionosonde data.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; instruments and techniques – Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  16. The ionospheric footprint of antiparallel merging regions on the dayside magnetopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. Coleman

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The antiparallel merging hypothesis states that reconnection takes place on the dayside magnetopause where the solar and geomagnetic fields are oppositely directed. With this criterion, we have mapped the predicted merging regions to the ionosphere using the Tsyganenko 96 magnetic field model, distinguishing between regions of sub-Alfvénic and super-Alfvénic magnetosheath flow, and identifying the day-night terminator. We present the resulting shape, width and latitude of the ionospheric dayside merging regions in both hemispheres, showing their dependence on the Earth's dipole tilt. The resulting seasonal variation of the longitudinal width is consistent with the conjugate electric fields in the northern and southern cusps, as measured by the SuperDARN HF radars, for example. We also find a seasonal shift in latitude similar to that observed in satellite cusp data.Key words: Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions · Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause · cusp and boundary layers; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  17. Identification of the propagation mode of a solar wind wave associated with Pc5 pulsations in the magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, A.D.M.; Stephenson, J.A.E. [KwaZulu-Natal Univ., Durban (South Africa). School of Chemistry and Physics

    2014-07-01

    A case study of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave in the solar wind that is strongly correlated with a magnetospheric field line resonance observed by the SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network) radar at Sanae, Antarctica is presented. The data from the ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) satellite at the solar libration point are analysed. The data time series are bandpass filtered at the pulsation frequency and the analytic signal deduced. From these data the partition of energy between the field components is computed. It is shown that energy is equally partitioned between the kinetic energy and transverse magnetic potential energy densities. The energy flux vector is closely aligned with the background magnetic field. The transverse magnetic and velocity components are in antiphase. This is the first identification of the triggering wave as a transverse Alfven wave which originates upstream from the space craft and is propagated to the magnetosphere to trigger the pulsation.

  18. Developmental toxicity of toluene in male rats: effects on semen quality, testis morphology, and apoptotic neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, M.; Hossaini, A.; Hougaard, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    , the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus and cerebellum were counted after visualisation by means of the TUNEL assay. Mean body weight in pups of exposed darns was lower than in pops from control litters. This decrease was still statistically significant at PND 11, but at PND 21 and 90 the body...... in the toluene-exposed group. Thus, the granular cell layer in cerebellum is a highly relevant tissue with which to study toluene-induced apoptosis, because of the continuous migration of neurons and high frequency of neuronal apoptosis during the weaning period. In summary, it is concluded, that neither pre......- and postnatal exposure to 1200 ppm toluene nor prenatal exposure to 1800 ppm induced significant effects on the reproductive parameters investigated. However, prenatal exposure to 1800 ppm toluene did increase neuronal apoptosis in the cerebellum of weaned male rats, possibly by delaying postnatal migration...

  19. The mechanism of mid-latitude Pi2 waves in the upper ionosphere as revealed by combined Doppler and magnetometer observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Pilipenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of simultaneous ionospheric Doppler sounding and ground magnetometer observations of low-latitude Pi2 waves is revised. We compare the theoretical estimates of the ionospheric Doppler velocity for the same amplitude of the ground magnetic disturbances produced by a large-scale compressional mode and an Alfvén mode. The plasma vertical displacement caused by the wave electric field is shown to be the dominating effect. Taking into account the correction of the previous paper, the observations of low-latitude Pi2 in the F layer ionosphere by Doppler sounding and SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radars give consistent results. We suggest that the Doppler response to Pi2 waves is produced by the Alfvén wave component, but not the fast-mode component, whereas the ground magnetic signal is composed from both Alfvén and fast magnetosonic modes.

  20. Above Bonneville Passage and Propagation Cost Effectiveness Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsen, C.M.; Hyman, J.B.; Wernstedt, K.

    1993-05-01

    We have developed several models to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies to mitigate hydrosystem impacts on salmon and steelhead, and applied these models to areas of the Columbia River Basin. Our latest application evaluates the cost-effectiveness of proposed strategies that target mainstem survival (e.g., predator control, increases in water velocity) and subbasin propagation (e.g., habitat improvements, screening, hatchery production increases) for chinook salmon and steelhead stocks, in the portion of the Columbia Basin bounded by Bonneville, Chief Joseph, Dworshak, and Hells Canyon darns. At its core the analysis primarily considers financial cost and biological effectiveness, but we have included other attributes which may be of concern to the region.

  1. Evolution of Storm-time Subauroral Electric Fields: RCM Event Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazykin, S.; Spiro, R. W.; Wolf, R. A.; Toffoletto, F.; Baker, J.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) are regions of strongly-enhanced westward ExB plasma drift (poleward-directed electric fields) located just equatorward of the evening auroral oval. Several recently -installed HF (coherent scatter) radars in the SuperDARN chain at mid-latitudes present a novel opportunity for obtaining two-dimensional maps of ionospheric ExB flows at F-region altitudes that span several hours of the evening and nighttime subauroral ionosphere. These new and exciting observations of SAPS provide an opportunity and a challenge to coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere models. In this paper, we use the Rice Convection Model (RCM) to simulate several events where SAPS were observed by the mid-latitude SuperDARN chain. RCM frequently predicts the occurrence of SAPS in the subauroral evening MLT sector; the mechanism is essentially current closure on the dusk side where downward Birkeland currents (associated with the ion plasma sheet inner edge) map to a region of reduced ionospheric conductance just equatorward of the diffuse auroral precipitation (associated with the electron plasma sheet inner edge). We present detailed comparisons of model-computed ionospheric convection patterns with observations, with two goals in mind: (1) to analyze to what extent the observed appearance and time evolution of SAPS structures are driven by time variations of the cross polar cap potential drop (or, equivalently, the z-component of the interplanetary magnetic field), and (2) to evaluate the ability of the model to reproduce the spatial extent and magnitude of SAPS structures.

  2. The location and rate of dayside reconnection during an interval of southward interplanetary magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pinnock

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Using ionospheric data from the SuperDARN radar network and a DMSP satellite we obtain a comprehensive description of the spatial and temporal pattern of day-side reconnection. During a period of southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, the data are used to determine the location of the ionospheric projection of the dayside magnetopause reconnection X-line. From the flow of plasma across the projected X-line, we derive the reconnection rate across 7 h of longitude and estimate it for the total length of the X-line footprint, which was found to be 10 h of longitude. Using the Tsyganenko 96 magnetic field model, the ionospheric data are mapped to the magnetopause, in order to provide an estimate of the extent of the reconnection X-line. This is found to be ~ 38 RE in extent, spanning the whole dayside magnetopause from dawn to dusk flank. Our results are compared with previously reported encounters by the Equator-S and Geotail spacecraft with a reconnecting magnetopause, near the dawn flank, for the same period. The SuperDARN observations allow the satellite data to be set in the context of the whole magnetopause reconnection X-line. The total potential associated with dayside reconnection was ~ 150 kV. The reconnection signatures detected by the Equator-S satellite mapped to a region in the ionosphere showing continuous flow across the polar cap boundary, but the reconnection rate was variable and showed a clear spatial variation, with a distinct minimum at 14:00 magnetic local time which was present throughout the 30-min study period.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetosphere-ionoshere interactions – Space plasma physics (magnetic reconnection

  3. An investigation of the field-aligned currents associated with a large-scale ULF wave using data from CUTLASS and FAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Scoffield

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available On 14 December 1999, a large-scale ULF wave event was observed by the Hankasalmi radar of the SuperDARN chain. Simultaneously, the FAST satellite passed through the Hankasalmi field-of-view, measuring the magnetic field oscillations of the wave at around 2000km altitude, along with the precipitating ion and electron populations associated with these fields. A simple field line resonance model of the wave has been created and scaled using the wave's spatial and temporal characteristics inferred from SuperDARN and IMAGE magnetometer data. Here the model calculated field-aligned current is compared with field-aligned currents derived from the FAST energetic particle spectra and magnetic field measurements. This comparison reveals the small-scale structuring and energies of the current carriers in a large-scale Alfvén wave, a topic, which at present, is of considerable theoretical interest. When FAST traverses a region of the wave involving low upward field-aligned current densities, the current appears to be carried by unstructured downgoing electrons of energies less than 30eV. A downward current region appears to be carried partially by upgoing electrons below the FAST energy detection threshold, but also consists of a mixture of hotter downgoing magnetospheric electrons and upgoing ionospheric electrons of energies <30eV, with the hotter upgoing electrons presumably representing those upgoing electrons which have been accelerated by the wave field above the low energy detection threshold of FAST. A stronger interval of upward current shows that small-scale structuring of scale ~50km has been imposed on the current carriers, which are downgoing magnetospheric electrons of energy 0-500eV.

  4. Localized electron density enhancements in the high-altitude polar ionosphere and their relationships with storm-enhanced density (SED plumes and polar tongues of ionization (TOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kitanoya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Events of localized electron density increase in the high-altitude (>3000 km polar ionosphere are occasionally identified by the thermal plasma instruments on the Akebono satellite. In this paper, we investigate the vertical density structure in one of such events in detail using simultaneous observations by the Akebono and DMSP F15 satellites, the SuperDARN radars, and a network of ground Global Positioning System (GPS receivers, and the statistical characteristics of a large number (>10 000 of such events using Akebono data over half of an 11-year solar cycle. At Akebono altitude, the parallel drift velocity is remarkably low and the O+ ion composition ratio remarkably high, inside the high plasma-density regions at high altitude. Detailed comparisons between Akebono, DMSP ion velocity and density, and GPS total electron content (TEC data suggest that the localized plasma density increase observed at high altitude on Akebono was likely connected with the polar tongue of ionization (TOI and/or storm enhanced density (SED plume observed in the F-region ionosphere. Together with the SuperDARN plasma convection map these data suggest that the TOI/SED plume penetrated into the polar cap due to anti-sunward convection and the plume existed in the same convection channel as the dense plasma at high altitude; in other words, the two were probably connected to each other by the convecting magnetic field lines. The observed features are consistent with the observed high-density plasma being transported from the mid-latitude ionosphere or plasmasphere and unlikely a part of the polar wind population.

  5. Polar cap flow channel events: spontaneous and driven responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present two case studies of specific flow channel events appearing at the dusk and/or dawn polar cap boundary during passage at Earth of interplanetary (IP coronal mass ejections (ICMEs on 10 January and 25 July 2004. The channels of enhanced (>1 km/s antisunward convection are documented by SuperDARN radars and dawn-dusk crossings of the polar cap by the DMSP F13 satellite. The relationship with Birkeland currents (C1–C2 located poleward of the traditional R1–R2 currents is demonstrated. The convection events are manifest in ground magnetic deflections obtained from the IMAGE (International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects Svalbard chain of ground magnetometer stations located within 71–76° MLAT. By combining the ionospheric convection data and the ground magnetograms we are able to study the temporal behaviour of the convection events. In the two ICME case studies the convection events belong to two different categories, i.e., directly driven and spontaneous events. In the 10 January case two sharp southward turnings of the ICME magnetic field excited corresponding convection events as detected by IMAGE and SuperDARN. We use this case to determine the ground magnetic signature of enhanced flow channel events (the NH-dusk/By<0 variant. In the 25 July case a several-hour-long interval of steady southwest ICME field (Bz<0; By<0 gave rise to a long series of spontaneous convection events as detected by IMAGE when the ground stations swept through the 12:00–18:00 MLT sector. From the ground-satellite conjunction on 25 July we infer the pulsed nature of the polar cap ionospheric flow channel events in this case. The typical duration of these convection enhancements in the polar cap is 10 min.

  6. The art of the cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Nora

    2017-07-01

    Often, it's difficult to match up our cover artwork with the subjects of our lead articles and special reports. Of necessity, we sometimes turn to pure abstraction. How else to illustrate technical policy articles on subjects such as changing research protocols or informed consent, or abstract ideas like congruence, duality, imbalance, causality? At such times, we have to be pretty creative, and my search for cover art can be long and challenging. In the end, we hope that the reader will make the connection between cover and content. However, at other times, the subject of a lead article or special report overflows with artistic possibilities. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  7. About How Did the First Ever Big Economic Crisis Look Like

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu C. ANDREI

    2010-01-01

    The obsession about the current economic crisis is pretty understandable. But being obsessed about the current moment, in the economic crisis matter, might become a scientific mistake. As for instance, the real results of the current period will be available in just a couple of years. Moreover, we used to believe up to recently that the previous big crisis of 1929-1933 might be nearly an accident and would not repeat, due to its lesson applied: the policy makers made functional, vigilant, dil...

  8. MPLS y ATM como tecnologías backbone para la transferencia de videoconferencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo López

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results obtained by modeling the performance of a core IP/ATM network compared to a CRLDP/IP/MPLS network when carrying delay sensitive traffic (videoconferencing with minimum resource reservation guarantees and optimal interaction between user and applications. In order conduct the experiments, OPNET-modeler simulation software (educational version was used, which encouraged alternative implementation features that help decide which of the two technologies represents a suitable solution for current networking problems, where large volumes of information need to be transmitted and the QoS offered to average users is pretty poor.

  9. Stabilization of the solution of a doubly nonlinear parabolic equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriyanova, È R; Mukminov, F Kh

    2013-01-01

    The method of Galerkin approximations is employed to prove the existence of a strong global (in time) solution of a doubly nonlinear parabolic equation in an unbounded domain. The second integral identity is established for Galerkin approximations, and passing to the limit in it an estimate for the decay rate of the norm of the solution from below is obtained. The estimates characterizing the decay rate of the solution as x→∞ obtained here are used to derive an upper bound for the decay rate of the solution with respect to time; the resulting estimate is pretty close to the lower one. Bibliography: 17 titles

  10. Ekonomika vybraného fotbalového klubu

    OpenAIRE

    Valta, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    Title: Economics of the selected football club Objectives: The main goal of this thesis is to work out a strategic analysis of football club FC MAS Táborsko. Methods: The strategic analysis, PEST analysis, SAWOT analysis, Porter's model of 5 strenghts and unformal interview are used in this work. Results: The club runs pretty well in general. Its strategy is defined in correct way. The club should just try to divide its incomes into more smaller partners. The biggest problem is low home game ...

  11. Digital Games in Language Learnıng and Teachıng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buse Pekdemir

    2017-02-01

    Except these criticism, the book is quite useful to get some terms related to digital game- based language learning and teaching. Besides, its language pretty understandable to read even though they have lots of terminological information. So it doesn’t take a lot of time to read it. With all of these contents, the book can be considered as a good resource for investigating digital game-based language learning and teaching and it can be used for teaching some certain materials to the learners who are seeking for a good structured language teaching digital games.

  12. Art review Keith Tyson, South London Gallery, London

    CERN Multimedia

    Jones, J

    2002-01-01

    Keith Tyson's new exhibition is called Supercollider, the nickname of the CERN particle accelerator in Geneva. "Tyson's attempts to evoke the wonders of the universe include a sphere that changes colour (at least this is pretty), a big, tedious revolving machine with pieces of meteor stuck to it, a massive painting of the "infinite cellular blanket" that resembles a jokey version of the last days of 1960s art, and a 12-part drawing that can be arranged in any order called A Night in a Billion. Chance and the infinite unlikeliness of existence is his heavily stated theme."

  13. When science meets capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Greg

    2008-03-01

    When I joined the University of Southampton's microelectronics group in 1987 after spending 10 years in industry, I shared some of my commercial ideas for advancing the group into the 21st century with my academic colleagues. To say that my personal vision of paradise was close to their vision of hell is probably a pretty accurate observation. Two decades on, I now understand why they felt that way. Science for Sale contains a lot of information that explains this vast difference in perception, and the book also does a good job of highlighting how academia and industry differ on practical and ethical levels.

  14. Persistent current through a semiconductor quantum dot with Gaussian confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyacioglu, Bahadir; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    The persistent diamagnetic current in a GaAs quantum dot with Gaussian confinement is calculated. It is shown that except at very low temperature or at high temperature, the persistent current increases with decreasing temperature. It is also shown that as a function of the dot size, the diamagnetic current exhibits a maximum at a certain confinement length. It is furthermore shown that for a shallow potential, the persistent current shows an interesting maximum structure as a function of the depth of the potential. At low temperature, the peak structure is pretty sharp but becomes broader and broader with increasing temperature.

  15. PCs All-in-One For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    One-stop shopping for everything you need to know about PCs!. If you're a PC owner, you have a pretty good idea of just how much there is to discover about your PC, whether you use it for work or play. Comprised of eight minibooks, this All-in-One guide covers essential PC topics from soup through nuts, including the latest updates to PC hardware, Windows 7, the Internet, Office 2010, digital media, upgrading and troubleshooting, social media, and home networking. This new edition features expanded coverage of using popular social media such as Twitter, Facebook, WordPress, and blogging. Plus,

  16. CSS Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    What people are saying about CSS Cookbook "Christopher's fantastic cookbook will give you solutions to pretty much all of the CSS problems you'll come up against in your day-to-day web design work, saving you bags of time and frustration. This guy is one of the industry's brightest minds -- he really knows his stuff." --Chris Mills, Opera Software Learn how to solve the real problems you face with CSS. This cookbook offers hundreds of practical examples for using CSS to format your web pages, and includes code samples you can use right away. You'll find exactly what you need, from the ba

  17. Servidor de claves públicas pgp, cliente administrador y cliente para ciframiento y desciframiento de correo electrónico

    OpenAIRE

    Redrovan Castillo, Fabian; Ruiz Ampuero, Luis M.; Vaca Ruiz, Carmen K.; Yanez Godoy, Ricardo E.; Caicedo Rossi, Guido Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Basándose en el paradigma Cliente-Servidor bajo la arquitectura TCP/IP, se implementaran tres aplicaciones. Cada aplicación tiene un nombre que refleja su propósito: el Cliente Administrador, el Cliente de Correo Electrónico y finalmente el servidor PGP. Este último ofrece varios servicios, sobresaliendo por su importancia, el proporcionar a quien lo necesite, la clave pública de encriptación PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) de una persona determinada. Para que esto sea posible, dicha persona deb...

  18. If I had a robot it should do Everything for me

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents evaluation research studying Danish children's attitudes towards robotic technologies. The purpose of the paper is to focus on children's contextualisation and evaluation of different robotic technologies and discuss an approach combining contextual and technical issues...... in a learning context. It appears from this study that children know pretty much about robots, and they distinguish between different kinds of robots, and their attitudes towards robots is rather complex. It seems that children evaluate robots from four elements of technology, which consist of technical...... children positive attitudes towards science and technology, including robots. The other group of children did not participate in FLL....

  19. JACoW N-doped niobium accelerating cavities: Analyzing model applicability

    CERN Document Server

    Eichhorn, Ralf; Weingarten, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this research was to analyse data from multiple cavities in order to test the viability of a model for surface resistance proposed previously. The model intends to describe the behaviour of the quality factor with respect to the RF field strength, while exploring the physical cause of this phenomenon; the model is pretty general, but will be checked here specifically for N-doped niobium cavities. The data were obtained from two single-cell 1.3 GHz cavities manufactured and tested at Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, USA.

  20. Political Connections of the Boards of Directors and Defense Contractors’ Excessive Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    found that “political firms borrow 45 percent more and have 50 percent higher default rates. Such preferential treatment occurs exclusively in...SOUP CO.  $88,645,010  367 CPB 2030  11 INTERMEC CORPORATION  $83,566,808  388 IN 3577  11 CAE  CORP  $83,563,697  389 CAE 3690  11 DEL MONTE FOODS...pretty much rule out the possibility of anybody simultaneously serving a high - rank public service role and a top executive role in a private-sector firm

  1. [Apocryphal Freud: Sigmund Freud' most famous "quotations" and their actual sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elms, Alan C

    2005-01-01

    The article traces the sources of the three most widespread quotations attributed to Freud "What does Woman want?", "To love and to work" (summarizing what a psychological healthy person should be able to do well), and "Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar". The first could have been spoken by Freud pretty much as we have it. The second was possibly said by Freud, in some form vaguely resembling the currently cited version. The third most probably did not come from him in any form.

  2. The PS Booster's ejection kicker: full house.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    The modules of the Booster's four-storied full-aperture kicker pretty much fill their vacuum tank (front cover removed). In the original 800 MeV version, the delay-type modules were pulsed at 30 kV from a Pulse-Forming-Network (PFN), yielding a field risetime as short as 60 ns. The fieldstrength was 0.1 T at a current of 1200 A. The modules are made from steel plates and ferrite slabs. The ferrite's high initial outgassing rate presented a serious vacuum problem for a long time.

  3. Review of International Geothermal Activities and Assessment of US Industry Opportunites: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1987-08-01

    This report contains detailed summaries, with bibliographies, of past, present, and planned geothermal development in 71 selected countries and areas. The report gives a pretty good description of types of work that had been done in each country by the mid 1980s, but does not tell much about which geothermal-provider country did the work. There are maps for most of the countries. There are numbers for market factors, but not for estimated geothermal potential. The information in this document has been superceded by the country summaries in the World Geothermal Congress Transactions of 1995, 2000, and 2005. This report was prepared by Meridian Corporation, Alexandria, VA. (DJE 2005)

  4. Anisian and Ladinian Beds in the Cross-Section above Srednik Valley at Križna Gora,Central Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Demšar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The Križna Gora and wider surroundings are built of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks. Pretty extended among them are the carbonate Anisian and heterogeneously developed variegated Ladinian rocks wedging out laterally and vertically already at short distances as a result of active volcanism, tectonics and the fact that this region is situated on the margin between the Dinaric Carbonate Platform and the Slovenian Basin. The Ladinian rocks lie discordantly upon the Anisian dolomite. In the Ladinian sediments pelecypods Daonella lommeli (Wissmann are rather extended. The Ladinian beds are overlain by theCordevolian dolomite. The boundary between them in the Srednik Valley is strongly tektonized.

  5. Biomedical research in france and brazil: an analysis of significant differences and ethical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé Moizan

    2016-01-01

    At first sight, Brazil and France seem pretty distant from one another, but on the map, they are not separated by the Atlantic Ocean, but by the Oyapock River, located between the state of Amapa and French Guiana (French overseas department), creating a 730 km long international border. If the distance does exist, it is very different when we finely analyze some similarities in the field of biomedical research. France is the biggest country of Western Europe and covers 1/5 of the European ...

  6. The latest full-scale PWR simulator in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimuru, Y.; Tagi, H.; Nakabayashi, T.

    2004-01-01

    The latest MHI Full-scale Simulator has an excellent system configuration, in both flexibility and extendability, and has highly sophisticated performance in PWR simulation by the adoption of CANAC-II and PRETTY codes. It also has an instructive character to display the plant's internal status, such as RCS condition, through animation. Further, the simulation has been verified to meet a functional examination at model plant, and with a scale model test result in a two-phase flow event, after evaluation for its accuracy. Thus, the Simulator can be devoted to a sophisticated and broad training course on PWR operation. (author)

  7. An Exploratory Examination of Social Website Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    a little ridiculous it was pretty well developed to measure ecommerce and informative sites, and a number of those things do go across the board...go to a ecommerce site I have to give them an mailing address and I have to give them my credit card information otherwise I can’t do the transaction... ecommerce sites.) 24:00 37 (25:25) ... common interests, that’s what I was looking for 24:00 87 (27:35) epsi (a site) - similar to eBay or craigslist

  8. What is Molecular is not invisible to the eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Lizaraso Caparó

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular failure (in principle invisible will determine symptoms, diseases and conditions of Health pretty visible. Molecular studies have been developed mostly in populations in Europe, USA (Descendants of Europeans and African Americans Africa and Asia. The Peruvians are represented in the Latin / Hispanic who is genetically too heterogeneous (eg, Mexican Latino is different from Argentinian or Puerto Rican (11. Peru globally has about 70% of South American native ancestors, which has been scarcely represented In molecular studies there is a pending task to characterize its population, as well as being Watchers of our endemic pathogens and those adapted to our territory.

  9. Navy Lasers, Railgun, and Hypervelocity Projectile: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-17

    adaptation of a new gun. “We’re going to say ‘look, this is the place where [we think ] you want to put your money,’ but we’re going to have enough money in...demonstration we now think that we can do pretty revolutionary things with existing powder guns— think howitzers, Paladins, the Navy’s five-inch guns...great technology that we have to build a new architecture for,” he said. “We’re going to take the bet and let’s see if we can field this and let’s

  10. You are who you play you are: Modeling Player Traits from Video Game Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tekofsky, Shoshannah

    2017-01-01

    You are who you play you are - especially when it comes to your age and your motivations. People say age is only a number, but it's a number we can guess pretty accurately from how someone plays video games. We find that younger people are favored by speed, while older people are favored by wisdom. There is even a sweet spot where it all comes together around 20 years of age. At least, as far as game performance goes among 13,000 players of a shooter game like Battlefield 3. When we look at g...

  11. Using "smart stimulators" to treat Parkinson's disease: re-engineering neurostimulation devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eModolo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Let's imagine the cruise control of your car locked at 120 km/hour on any road in any condition (city, country, highway, sunny or rainy weather, or your car air conditioner set on maximum cold in any temperature condition (even during a snowy winter: would you find it efficient? That would probably not be the most optimal strategy for a proper and comfortable driving experience. As surprising as this may seem, this is a pretty accurate illustration of how deep brain stimulation (DBS, is used today to treat Parkinson's disease motor symptoms, and other neurological disorders such as essential tremor, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or epilepsy.

  12. Pengaruh Jumlah Tenaga Kerja, Bahan Baku, dan Teknologi terhadap Produksi Industri Furniture di Kota Denpasar

    OpenAIRE

    Natha, Ketut Suardikha; Prianata, Rahadian

    2014-01-01

    The development of a regional development is a process to raise the level of welfare of society. Another reason why the economic growth and development is undertaken is to be able to stimulate sectors of the economy that is growing, one of which is the industrial sector. The industrial sector is one of the few other sectors are growing rapidly in the area of ??Denpasar. One industry that is growing and is now pretty much in demand is the furniture industry. This research was conducted in the ...

  13. Literatures of Medieval France

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Dear Mr Administrator,Dear colleagues, Deep forests, enchanted castles, monsters, damsels in distress, stout-hearted heroes and boundless love. The literature of the Middle Ages has everything it takes to appeal to the imagination of children and teenagers. However, can it do more than that? And does it even still have this appeal? Anatole France claims that, to the loves of Abeille des Clarides and Georges de Blanchelande and to the magnanimity of the King of the Dwarves, his pretty little n...

  14. Senior Resident Training on Educational Principles (STEP): A Proposed Innovative Step from a Developing Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satendra

    2010-12-01

    Resident-as-teacher courses are pretty common in Western medical schools however they are a rarity in Asian and developing countries. The current report is a scholarly analysis of a three day orientation program for senior residents in order to improve their functioning by providing new template either for supplementing basic workshops for faculty or to advocate a change in system. The experience gained by Medical Education Unit of University College of Medical Sciences can be used to conduct training breeding grounds at national or regional levels. Resident as teachers educational interventions need to be designed taking into account their impact on education system.

  15. Practical experience with software tools to assess and improve the quality of existing nuclear analysis and safety codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, N.H.; Marwil, E.S.; Matthews, S.D.; Stacey, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    Within the constraints of schedule and budget, software tools and techniques were applied to existing FORTRAN codes determining software quality metrics and improving the code quality. Specifically discussed are INEL experiences in applying pretty printers, cross-reference analyzers, and computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools and techniques. These have provided management with measures of the risk potential for individual program modules so that rational decisions can be made on resource allocation. Selected program modules have been modified to reduce the complexity, achieve higher functional independence, and improve the code vectorization. (orig.)

  16. What about the multilateral banks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planas Alexandra

    1998-02-01

    The role the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank are regarding the climate change problem is, in the same way as the international negotiations, pretty weak compared to the magnitude of the problem. The contradictions within these organizations concerning project financing and policies and strategies to support their clients in a sustainable energy path constitute a clear example of the ambiguities that still surrounds the position of the different countries in respect to the human induced global warming problem. Finally, we can see how the different countries and the new market conditions determine the role these organizations can play regarding the climate change problem

  17. Proceedings from the ETS and ARI Emotional Intelligence Workshop held in Princeton, New Jersey on November 13-15, 2003. Volume 2. Sessions 3 and 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    assessing with psychopathy ? DR. JAMES: Well Bob Hogan tells me it’s pretty high, so I would suspect with the implicit paranoia that goes through a lot...road and the high road in other talks. This slide is from Ledoux’s book on the amygdala . The book is called The Emotional Brain, but it’s mostly...focused on the amygdala . And so what this shows is that this man is in the forest. He encounters what might be a coil of rope or it might be a snake. And

  18. Obraz własnego ciała współczesnej młodzieży a kultura popularna. Badania własne

    OpenAIRE

    Gajtkowska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The author presents the outcome of her own research on the in uence of the pop culture on self-body image. In the research, di erent aspects of self-body image are taken into account: being t, healthy and being goodlooking or pretty. The analysis of the scienti c research persuades the reader that mass media are important but not the most important source of information which they use to judge? their bodies. Moreover, it is claimed that the meaning of cocalled pop culture for teenager...

  19. Program DDCS for nucleon and composite particle DDX of nucleon induced reactions up to tens of MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qingbiao

    1994-01-01

    DDCS is a program for calculating the neutron or proton induced reactions of medium-heavy nuclei in the incident energy range up to 50 MeV including 5 emission processes. This program is written in FORTAN-77 on microscopic computer 486. DDCS is constructed within the framework of optical model, generalized master equation of the exciton model, and the evaporation model. The effect of recoil nucleus is considered in this program. DDCS has been used to calculate reactions of n + 56 Fe, n + 93 Nb, P + 120 Sn, P + 197 Au, and P + 209 Bi. Pretty good results in agreement with the experimental data were obtained

  20. Promotional Strategy Planning for DOCI RAMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Putri, Nissa Pratama; Syarief, Achmad

    2013-01-01

    The culinary world today is growing rapidly along with the progress of time. Doci Ramen is one of the businesses that operate in middle 2012. On the other hand, the promising oppurtunity creates a whole different level of competition in this market. With so many competitors offering similar products, Doci Ramen has to come up with an execellent business plan to survive the harsh rivalry. So far, doci rame has not reached its target and still pretty unheard of the study was conducted on Doci R...

  1. La representación de la homosexualidad en series de televisión del nuevo milenio

    OpenAIRE

    Real Zafra, Laura

    2017-01-01

    La televisión es un medio que influye en la forma de pensar que tiene la sociedad, y que puede modificar los pensamientos que esta tiene sobre un tema concreto. Las series de televisión están viviendo un auge en la actualidad y sus contenidos pueden ayudar a normalizar algunos de los aspectos que más debate ocupan en el mundo actual, en este caso, la homosexualidad. Se estudian así cuatro series estadounidenses del nuevo milenio, Pequeñas mentirosas (Pretty Little Liars, ABC Family, 2010...

  2. Power point 2002 for successful presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Insoo

    2002-01-01

    This book mentions power point 2002 for successful presentation, which deals with power point and presentation, all guide, the latest gear, for presentation, basic of power point 2002 such as slide, text compile, insertion of picture, figure and application of office guide, setting up new year plan using text like insertion text with various methods, compile effective text, and 200% application of tab, and addiction of pretty shape of characters, finishing of conversion of chinese character, and elimination of typographical error with spell checker.

  3. Terrorism: The Challenge to the Private Sector,

    Science.gov (United States)

    private sector , security is a line management responsibility, particularly where goals and objectives, information protection, and protection of key assets are concerned. Each company in the corporate world has a different personality. The goals are pretty much the same, but once you get below that initial goal, then you go to beliefs. Some companies are very macho. Some companies won’t let a security man interview a suspect, some companies will. Companies are very hesitant to go th extremes. Companies are both image conscious and fundamentally ethical. They truly do

  4. IKLAN DAN HIPER-REALITAS PEREMPUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wiryanti B.U.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertisment is a hiperrealistic reality discourse. Imaging in advertisement always related with aesthetic creativity%2C wich is subject to reality but not reality itself. Advertisement always image woman can be look more pretty%2C sexy woman look sexiest. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Iklan merupakan wacana realitas yang hiperrealistik. Pencitraan dalam iklan tidak lepas dari kreativitas estetik%2C mengacu pada realitas tetapi bukan realitas itu sendiri. Dalam hal ini citra perempuan cantik dapat lebih cantik%2C perempuan seksi lebih seksi. reality%2C hipereality%2C image.

  5. Belgrade: Waning houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Milica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In some streets of Belgrade we can still find old houses, which hold an ancient dream of dignity, comfort and beauty. They probably live their last days, staring somewhere in the distance - into foggy spaces of their forgetfulness. They stand in fragile rows, increasingly dilapidated disappearing one by one, pretty and sad in their loneliness. They fade attacked by winds, by sunshine, by rains, sorrowed by coldness of their empty rooms. We have no right to let them disappear without any remembrance, to allow them to vanish from of our lives, because - if that happens - that will make poorer both our legacy and us for the future. Thus, we must find ways to hold these old houses, to read and understand their messages, to keep the prints of their spirit and shapes. How to achieve that? If it is true that the beauty of the landscape is hidden in the eyes, which look at it, then drawing is certainly one of the modes to record the wonderful secret of these pretty old houses, silently disappearing from the urban life.

  6. A Research on Wind Farm Micro-sitting Optimization in Complex Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Yang, Jianchuan; Li, Chenqi

    2013-01-01

    Wind farm layout optimization in complex terrain is a pretty difficult issue for onshore wind farm. In this article, a novel optimization method is proposed to optimize the layout for wind farms in complex terrain. This method utilized Lissaman and Jensen wake models for taking the terrain height...... that the CPSO method has a higher optimal value, and could be used to optimize the actual wind farm micro-sitting engineering projects.......Wind farm layout optimization in complex terrain is a pretty difficult issue for onshore wind farm. In this article, a novel optimization method is proposed to optimize the layout for wind farms in complex terrain. This method utilized Lissaman and Jensen wake models for taking the terrain height...... turbines’ park coordinates which subject to the boundary and minimum distance conditions between two wind turbines. A Cross Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) method is developed and applied to optimize the layout for a certain wind farm case. Compared with the uniform and experience method, results show...

  7. Right to life, right to die and assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetwynd, S B

    2004-01-01

    In 2002 Diane Pretty went to the European Court of Human Rights to gain a ruling about assisted suicide. In the course of this she argued that the right to life implied a right to die. This paper will consider, from an ethical rather than a legal point of view, how the right to life might imply (or not) a right to die, and whether this includes either a right that others shall help us die, or a right against non-interference if others are willing to help us. It does this by comparing the right to life to conceptions of property rights. This is not because I think human life is property, but because some of our ways of talking and thinking about our control over our own lives seem to be similar to our thoughts about our control over our own property. The right to life has traditionally been taken as a negative right, that is a right that others not deprive us of life. Pretty's argument, however, seems to be moving towards a positive right, not just to remain alive, but to be enabled in doing what we want to with our lives, and thus disposing of them if we so choose. The comparison with property rights suggests that the right to die only applies if our lives are ours absolutely, and may itself be modified by the suggestion that suicide harms all of us by devaluing human life in general.

  8. [Influence of paddy rice-upland crop rotation of cold-waterlogged paddy field on crops produc- tion and soil characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Li, Qing-hua; Lin, Cheng; He, Chun-mei; Zhong, Shao-jie; Li, Yu; Lin, Xin-jian; Huang, Jian-cheng

    2015-05-01

    Two consecutive years (4-crop) experiments were conducted to study the influence of different paddy rice-upland crop rotation in cold-waterlogged paddy field on the growth of crops and soil characteristics. The result showed that compared with the rice-winter fallow (CK) pattern, the two-year average yield of paddy rice under four rotation modes, including rape-rice (R-R), spring corn-rice (C-R), Chinese milk vetch-rice (M-R) and bean-rice (B-R), were increased by 5.3%-26.7%, with significant difference observed in C-R and R-R patterns. Except for M-R pattern, the annual average total economic benefits were improved by 79.0%-392.4% in all rotation pattern compared with the CK, and the ration of output/input was enhanced by 0.06-0.72 unit, with the most significant effect found in the C-R pattern. Likewise, compared with the CK, the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid, and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of rice plant were all increased during the full-tillering stage of rice in all rotation patterns. The rusty lines and rusty spots of soils were more obvious compared with the CK during the rice harvest, particularly in R-R, C-R and B-R patterns. The ratio of water-stable soil macro aggregates of plough layer of soil (> 2 mm) decreased at different levels in all rotation patterns while the ratios of middle aggregate (0.25-2 mm, expect for M-R) and micro aggregate of soil (< 0.25 mm) were opposite. There was a decreasing trend for soil active reducing agents in all rotation patterns, whereas the available nutrient increased. The amounts of soil bacteria in C-R and B-R patterns, fungi in B-R rotation pattern, cellulose bacteria in R-R, C-R and B-R patterns and N-fixing bacteria in B-R pattern were improved by 285.7%-403.0%, 221.7%, 64.6-92.2% and 162.2%, respectively. Moreover, the differences in all microorganisms were significant. Thus, based on the experimental results of cold-waterlogged paddy field, it was concluded that changing from single cropping rice system

  9. Comparison of Failure Process of Bended Beams Reinforced with Steel Bars and GFRP Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszyńska, Maria; Błyszko, Jarosław; Olczyk, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    The Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composite rebar has been used in civil engineering structures for several years. It has many characteristics, which not only are equal to those of steel rebar, but significantly surpass them. The composite rebar has high corrosion resistance, electromagnetic neutrality and has much higher tensile strength than steel. Also, because of its low weight and easy processing composite rebar is convenient for shipment and use. Development of architectural concrete technology in past years opens new, interesting perspectives for use of composite rebar. However, implementation of those concretes in structures is often burdened with many issues, especially concerning faulty performance. One of it is rebar’s corrosion, visible on the surface of the element as rusty stains. Even if the structure was properly developed meeting all the requirements for texture, porosity or colour uniformity, and rusty stains can completely destroy the final decorative effect of concrete’s surface. Despite many advantages, the use of composite rebar in reinforced structures creates significant number of new “behaviours” in its different working stages. Structures reinforced with the steel rebar will behave differently than the ones with composite FRP rebar under continuous load, in case of a fire, exposed to aggressive environment or at breaking point. In the latter, significant role plays its linear-elastic behaviour in the whole tensile range till rupture. This means that the FPR rebar does not exhibit plastic deformation and reaches its bearing capacity suddenly without any visible signs. This should be considered during designing stage and included as an additional reduction coefficient. The article presents result of research and analysis of destructive tests performed on concrete beams reinforced with traditional steel rebar and composite rebar made of glass fibre and braided with basaltic (GFRP). Four single-span simply supported beams under static

  10. Plasma Irregularity Production in the Polar Cap F-Region Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Leslie

    Plasma in the Earth's ionosphere is highly irregular on scales ranging between a few centimeters and hundreds of kilometers. Small-scale irregularities or plasma waves can scatter radio waves resulting in a loss of signal for navigation and communication networks. The polar region is particularly susceptible to strong disturbances due to its direct connection with the Sun's magnetic field and energetic particles. In this thesis, factors that contribute to the production of decameter-scale plasma irregularities in the polar F region ionosphere are investigated. Both global and local control of irregularity production are studied, i.e. we consider global solar control through solar illumination and solar wind as well as much more local control by plasma density gradients and convection electric field. In the first experimental study, solar control of irregularity production is investigated using the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar at McMurdo, Antarctica. The occurrence trends for irregularities are analyzed statistically and a model is developed that describes the location of radar echoes within the radar's field-of-view. The trends are explained through variations in background plasma density with solar illumination affecting radar beam propagation. However, it is found that the irregularity occurrence during the night is higher than expected from ray tracing simulations based on a standard ionospheric density model. The high occurrence at night implies an additional source of plasma density and it is proposed that large-scale density enhancements called polar patches may be the source of this density. Additionally, occurrence maximizes around the terminator due to different competing irregularity production processes that favor a more or less sunlit ionosphere. The second study is concerned with modeling irregularity characteristics near a large-scale density gradient reversal, such as those expected near polar patches, with a particular focus on

  11. Coordinated Cluster, ground-based instrumentation and low-altitude satellite observations of transient poleward-moving events in the ionosphere and in the tail lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    Full Text Available During the interval between 8:00–9:30 on 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft were moving from the central magnetospheric lobe, through the dusk sector mantle, on their way towards intersecting the magnetopause near 15:00 MLT and 15:00 UT. Throughout this interval, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR at Longyearbyen observed a series of poleward-moving transient events of enhanced F-region plasma concentration ("polar cap patches", with a repetition period of the order of 10 min. Allowing for the estimated solar wind propagation delay of 75 ( ± 5 min, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF had a southward component during most of the interval. The magnetic footprint of the Cluster spacecraft, mapped to the ionosphere using the Tsyganenko T96 model (with input conditions prevailing during this event, was to the east of the ESR beams. Around 09:05 UT, the DMSP-F12 satellite flew over the ESR and showed a sawtooth cusp ion dispersion signature that also extended into the electrons on the equatorward edge of the cusp, revealing a pulsed magnetopause reconnection. The consequent enhanced ionospheric flow events were imaged by the SuperDARN HF backscatter radars. The average convection patterns (derived using the AMIE technique on data from the magnetometers, the EISCAT and SuperDARN radars, and the DMSP satellites show that the associated poleward-moving events also convected over the predicted footprint of the Cluster spacecraft. Cluster observed enhancements in the fluxes of both electrons and ions. These events were found to be essentially identical at all four spacecraft, indicating that they had a much larger spatial scale than the satellite separation of the order of 600 km. Some of the events show a correspondence between the lowest energy magnetosheath electrons detected by the PEACE instrument on Cluster (10–20 eV and the topside ionospheric enhancements seen by the ESR (at 400–700 km. We suggest that a potential barrier at the

  12. Coordinated Cluster, ground-based instrumentation and low-altitude satellite observations of transient poleward-moving events in the ionosphere and in the tail lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available During the interval between 8:00–9:30 on 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft were moving from the central magnetospheric lobe, through the dusk sector mantle, on their way towards intersecting the magnetopause near 15:00 MLT and 15:00 UT. Throughout this interval, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR at Longyearbyen observed a series of poleward-moving transient events of enhanced F-region plasma concentration ("polar cap patches", with a repetition period of the order of 10 min. Allowing for the estimated solar wind propagation delay of 75 ( ± 5 min, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF had a southward component during most of the interval. The magnetic footprint of the Cluster spacecraft, mapped to the ionosphere using the Tsyganenko T96 model (with input conditions prevailing during this event, was to the east of the ESR beams. Around 09:05 UT, the DMSP-F12 satellite flew over the ESR and showed a sawtooth cusp ion dispersion signature that also extended into the electrons on the equatorward edge of the cusp, revealing a pulsed magnetopause reconnection. The consequent enhanced ionospheric flow events were imaged by the SuperDARN HF backscatter radars. The average convection patterns (derived using the AMIE technique on data from the magnetometers, the EISCAT and SuperDARN radars, and the DMSP satellites show that the associated poleward-moving events also convected over the predicted footprint of the Cluster spacecraft. Cluster observed enhancements in the fluxes of both electrons and ions. These events were found to be essentially identical at all four spacecraft, indicating that they had a much larger spatial scale than the satellite separation of the order of 600 km. Some of the events show a correspondence between the lowest energy magnetosheath electrons detected by the PEACE instrument on Cluster (10–20 eV and the topside ionospheric enhancements seen by the ESR (at 400–700 km. We suggest that a potential barrier at the

  13. Coordinated Cluster/Double Star and ground-based observations of dayside reconnection signatures on 11 February 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q.-H. Zhang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A number of flux transfer events (FTEs were observed between 09:00 and 12:00 UT on 11 February 2004, during southward and dawnward IMF, while the Cluster spacecraft array moved outbound through the northern, high-altitude cusp and dayside high-latitude boundary layer, and the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft was crossing the dayside low-latitude magnetopause into the magnetosheath south of the ecliptic plane. The Cluster array grazed the equatorial cusp boundary, observing reconnection-like mixing of magnetosheath and magnetospheric plasma populations. In an adjacent interval, TC-1 sampled a series of sometimes none standard FTEs, but also with mixed magnetosheath and magnetospheric plasma populations, near the magnetopause crossing and later showed additional (possibly turbulent activity not characteristic of FTEs when it was situated deeper in the magnetosheath. The motion of these FTEs are analyzed in some detail to compare to simultaneous, poleward-moving plasma concentration enhancements recorded by EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR and "poleward-moving radar auroral forms" (PMRAFs on the CUTLASS Finland and Kerguelen Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN radar measurements. Conjugate SuperDARN observations show a predominantly two-cell convection pattern in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The results are consistent with the expected motion of reconnected magnetic flux tubes, arising from a predominantly sub-solar reconnection site. Here, we are able to track north and south in closely adjacent intervals as well as to map to the corresponding ionospheric footprints of the implied flux tubes and demonstrate these are temporally correlated with clear ionospheric velocity enhancements, having northward (southward and eastward (westward convected flow components in the Northern (Southern Hemisphere. The durations of these enhancements might imply that the evolution time of the FTEs is about 18–22 min from their origin on magnetopause (at

  14. Dynamical critical scaling of electric field fluctuations in the greater cusp and magnetotail implied by HF radar observations of F-region Doppler velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Akasofu's solar wind ε parameter describes the coupling of solar wind energy to the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Analysis of fluctuations in ε using model independent scaling techniques including the peaks of probability density functions (PDFs and generalised structure function (GSF analysis show the fluctuations were self-affine (mono-fractal, single exponent scaling over 9 octaves of time scale from ~46 s to ~9.1 h. However, the peak scaling exponent α0 was a function of the fluctuation bin size, so caution is required when comparing the exponents for different data sets sampled in different ways. The same generic scaling techniques revealed the organisation and functional form of concurrent fluctuations in azimuthal magnetospheric electric fields implied by SuperDARN HF radar measurements of line-of-sight Doppler velocity, vLOS, made in the high-latitude austral ionosphere. The PDFs of vLOS fluctuation were calculated for time scales between 1 min and 256 min, and were sorted into noon sector results obtained with the Halley radar, and midnight sector results obtained with the TIGER radar. The PDFs were further sorted according to the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field, as well as ionospheric regions of high and low Doppler spectral width. High spectral widths tend to occur at higher latitude, mostly on open field lines but also on closed field lines just equatorward of the open-closed boundary, whereas low spectral widths are concentrated on closed field lines deeper inside the magnetosphere. The vLOS fluctuations were most self-affine (i.e. like the solar wind ε parameter on the high spectral width field lines in the noon sector ionosphere (i.e. the greater cusp, but suggested multi-fractal behaviour on closed field lines in the midnight sector (i.e. the central plasma sheet. Long tails in the PDFs imply that "microbursts" in ionospheric convection

  15. Dynamical critical scaling of electric field fluctuations in the greater cusp and magnetotail implied by HF radar observations of F-region Doppler velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Akasofu's solar wind ε parameter describes the coupling of solar wind energy to the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Analysis of fluctuations in ε using model independent scaling techniques including the peaks of probability density functions (PDFs and generalised structure function (GSF analysis show the fluctuations were self-affine (mono-fractal, single exponent scaling over 9 octaves of time scale from ~46 s to ~9.1 h. However, the peak scaling exponent α0 was a function of the fluctuation bin size, so caution is required when comparing the exponents for different data sets sampled in different ways. The same generic scaling techniques revealed the organisation and functional form of concurrent fluctuations in azimuthal magnetospheric electric fields implied by SuperDARN HF radar measurements of line-of-sight Doppler velocity, vLOS, made in the high-latitude austral ionosphere. The PDFs of vLOS fluctuation were calculated for time scales between 1 min and 256 min, and were sorted into noon sector results obtained with the Halley radar, and midnight sector results obtained with the TIGER radar. The PDFs were further sorted according to the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field, as well as ionospheric regions of high and low Doppler spectral width. High spectral widths tend to occur at higher latitude, mostly on open field lines but also on closed field lines just equatorward of the open-closed boundary, whereas low spectral widths are concentrated on closed field lines deeper inside the magnetosphere. The vLOS fluctuations were most self-affine (i.e. like the solar wind ε parameter on the high spectral width field lines in the noon sector ionosphere (i.e. the greater cusp, but suggested multi-fractal behaviour on closed field lines in the midnight sector (i.e. the central plasma sheet. Long tails in the PDFs imply that "microbursts" in ionospheric convection occur far more frequently, especially on open field lines, than can be

  16. Global observations of electromagnetic and particle energy flux for an event during northern winter with southward interplanetary magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Korth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of the polar ionosphere–thermosphere (I-T system to electromagnetic (EM energy input is fundamentally different to that from particle precipitation. To understand the I-T response to polar energy input one must know the intensities and spatial distributions of both EM and precipitation energy deposition. Moreover, since individual events typically display behavior different from statistical models, it is important to observe the global system state for specific events. We present an analysis of an event in Northern Hemisphere winter for sustained southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, 10 January 2002, 10:00–12:00 UT, for which excellent observations are available from the constellation of Iridium satellites, the SuperDARN radar network, and the Far-Ultraviolet (FUV instrument on the IMAGE satellite. Using data from these assets we determine the EM and particle precipitation energy fluxes to the Northern Hemisphere poleward of 60° MLAT and examine their spatial distributions and intensities. The accuracy of the global estimates are assessed quantitatively using comparisons with in-situ observations by DMSP along two orbit planes. While the location of EM power input evaluated from Iridium and SuperDARN data is in good agreement with DMSP, the magnitude estimated from DMSP observations is approximately four times larger. Corrected for this underestimate, the total EM power input to the Northern Hemisphere is 188 GW. Comparison of IMAGE FUV-derived distributions of the particle energy flux with DMSP plasma data indicates that the IMAGE FUV results similarly locate the precipitation accurately while underestimating the precipitation input somewhat. The total particle input is estimated to be 20 GW, nearly a factor of ten lower than the EM input. We therefore expect the thermosphere response to be determined primarily by the EM input even under winter conditions, and accurate assessment of the EM energy input is therefore key

  17. DMAIC Application and Fault Analysis of Metal Packaging in the Canning Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Santos de Souza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the food industry, quality assurance is strongly associated with consumer safety and the risk of compromising the purity of products. Specifically, in the canning industries, rusty, dented or bulging cans may contain bacteria and cause foodborne illness. This article discusses the application of DMAIC and failure analysis to reduce the number of crushed cans in a canning industry. The methodology was of an applied nature, with an exploratory objective, a qualitative and quantitative approach and a case study method used. Through statistical analysis, it was found that the amount of dented packaging in the production process, which comprises the steps of filling, seaming and basketing, was high. The step with the highest number of crushed cans between three stages was seaming. This was followed by the application of FMEA failure analysis related to the use of an automated seaming machine. Finally, an action plan was roposed to solve the problem of cans crushed in the seaming step and the results demonstrate the improvements obtained before the target after 4 months (August-November 2015.

  18. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Mammals of the Meghamalai landscape, southern Western Ghats, India - a review

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    S. Babu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reports on the concurrence of mammals in the Meghamalai landscape were collated from published literature and also the data obtained from a recent study spanning over 18 months (June 2011-December 2012. Sixty-three species belonging to 24 families occur in the landscape, which include 24 globally threatened (one Critically Endangered; seven Endangered; 11 Vulnerable and five Near Threatened species. Of the recorded species, four species are endemic to India and nine are endemic to the Western Ghats. The present study added five species, viz., Rusty-spotted Cat Prionailurus rubiginosus, Malabar Spiny Tree Mouse Platacanthomys lasiurus, Grizzled Giant Squirrel Ratufa macroura, Common Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphrodites and the Indian Grey Mongoose Herpestes edwardsii to the six decade old mammal list. But, 13 species reported by Hutton were not recorded during the study. Among them, occurrence of Malabar Civet Viverra civettina and Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus in southern India remains unresolved. During our study, anthropogenic pressures such as conversion of natural habitats, encroachment, hunting, cattle grazing and tourism were observed to affect the distribution of mammals in the landscape.

  19. Are there different requirements for trace elements in eumelanin- and pheomelanin-based color production? A case study of two passerine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zduniak, Piotr; Surmacki, Adrian; Erciyas-Yavuz, Kiraz; Chudzińska, Maria; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2014-09-01

    Melanin is the most common pigment in animal integuments including bird plumage. It has been shown that several trace elements may play roles in the production and signaling function of melanin-colored plumage. We investigated coloration and content of various metal elements in the rectrices of two insectivorous passerines, Common Redstarts (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) and Blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla), which have eumelanin- and pheomelanin-based coloration, respectively. We hypothesized that 1) the two species would differ in concentrations of metals important in melanin synthesis (Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn), 2) differences in metal concentration levels would be related to feather coloration. Our study confirmed the first prediction and provides the first evidence that selected elements may play a greater role in pheomelanin than in eumelanin synthesis. Concentrations of three elements considered as important in melanin synthesis (Ca, Fe, Zn) were 52% to 93% higher in rusty colored Common Redstart feathers compared to the dark gray Blackcap feathers. However, element concentrations were not correlated with feather coloration or sex in either species. Our study suggests that, of the two melanin forms, pheomelanin synthesis may bear higher costs associated with the acquisition of specific elements or limited elements may create trade-offs between ornamentation and other physiological functions. Our findings warrant further investigations designed to better understand the roles of macro- and microelements in the synthesis of both forms of melanin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-destructive analysis of ancient bimetal swords from western Asia by γ-ray radiography and X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Matsugi, Kazuhiro; Arimatsu, Yui; Nojima, Hisashi

    2017-09-01

    Eight ancient bimetal swords held by Hiroshima University, Japan were analyzed non-destructively through γ-ray radiography and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). 137Cs and 60Co γ-ray irradiation sources were used to obtain transmission images of swords. A scanning radiography method using a 60Co γ-ray source was developed. XRF was used for qualitative elemental analysis of the swords. The presence of iron cores in the hilts of some swords had been observed and it was assumed that the cores were a ritual symbol or had a functional purpose. However, our work reveals that these swords were originally bronze-hilted iron swords and that the rusty blades were replaced with bronze blades to maintain the swords' commercial value as an antique. Consequently, the rest of the iron blade was left in the hilt as an iron tang. The junction of the blade and the guard was soldered and painted to match the patina color. XRF analysis clearly showed that the elemental Sn/Cu ratios of the blades and the hilts were different. These findings are useful for clarifying the later modifications of the swords and are important for interpreting Bronze Age and Iron Age history correctly.

  1. Effect of nitrificide in temporally varied /sup 15/N-labelled slurry fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peschke, H. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Pflanzenproduktion)

    1983-01-01

    The fertilizing effect of /sup 15/N-labelled semi-liquid cattle manure (application in August, November and March) with nitrification inhibitor 'N-Serve' added in amounts of 1 and 3 percent of the fertilizer N on perennial ryegrass with feed oats as follow-up seed was tested in an open-air pot experiment using sand of a sandy-rusty soil. A combination of semi-liquid manure and straw and winter rape-seed, respectively, as green manure (August) and ammonium sulfate with and without 1 per cent N-Serve (November and March) were used as comparative variants. Manuring in August had no effect on the yield, the 3 per cent N-Serve application in November and of 1 and 3 percent in March resulted in an increase of the perennial ryegrass yield. By analogy, the N utilization of the fertilizers was increased with later fertilizing dates and the amount of the nitrificide applied. In the case of semi-liquid manure application, N-Serve promoted the mineralization of the nitrogen in the soil.

  2. Identification of Cherry green ring mottle virus on Sweet Cherry Trees in Korea

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    In-Sook Cho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2012 growing season, 154 leaf samples were collected from sweet cherry trees in Hwaseong, Pyeongtaek, Gyeongju, Kimcheon, Daegu, Yeongju and Eumseong and tested for the presence of Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV. PCR products of the expected size (807 bp were obtained from 6 samples. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences of the clones showed over 88% identities to published coat protein sequences of CGRMV isolates in the GenBank database. The sequences of CGRMV isolates, CGR-KO 1−6 shared 98.8 to 99.8% nucleotide and 99.6 to 100% amino acid similarities. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Korean CGRMV isolates belong to the group II of CGRMV coat protein genes. The CGRMV infected sweet cherry trees were also tested for Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, Apple mosaic virus (ApMV, Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV, Cherry mottle leaf virus (CMLV, Cherry rasp leaf virus (CRLV, Cherry leafroll virus (CLRV, Cherry virus A (CVA, Little cherry virus 1 (LChV1, Prune dwarf virus (PDV and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV by RT-PCR. All of the tested trees were also infected with ACLSV.

  3. Photoimages and the release characteristics of lipophilic matrix tablets containing highly water-soluble potassium citrate with high drug loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing-Ri; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2007-07-18

    Two types of the carnauba wax-based lipophilic matrix tablet using spray-dried granules (SDT) or directly compressible powdered mixtures (DCT) were prepared for sustained release. The model drug was a highly water-soluble potassium citrate and loaded about 74% of the total tablet weight. The SDT slowly eroded and disintegrated during the release study without showing sustained release when the hydrophilic excipients were added. In contrast, the DCT was more efficient for sustained release. The release rate decreased with increasing carnauba wax concentration. In particular, the sustained release rate was markedly pronounced when the lipophilic stearyl alcohol and stearic acid were combined with the carnauba wax. The surface of the intact DCT appeared to be smooth and rusty. The DCT rose to the surface from the bottom of the vessel during the release test, and numerous pores and cracks with no signs of disintegration were also observed after the release test. The release profile was dependent on the formulation composition and preparation method of the matrix tablet. Diffusion-controlled leaching through the channels of the pores and cracks of the lipophilic matrix tablet (DCT) is a key to the sustained release.

  4. Comparative Study of the Corrosion Resistance of Air-Plasma-Sprayed Ca2SiO4 and Al2O3 Coatings in Salt Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ca2SiO4 coating was sprayed on stainless steel substrate and the corrosion resistance of the as-sprayed coating was studied in salt water. At the same time, Al2O3 coatings were produced by air-plasma-sprayed technology as comparison. Immersion test was carried out to evaluate the protection performance of coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS plots were also analyzed. The results indicated that Ca2SiO4 coatings showed a better protection performance than Al2O3 coatings. During the immersion, various calcium carbonate crystals appeared on the surface of Ca2SiO4 coatings. Ca(OH2 was released from Ca2SiO4 coatings into NaCl aqueous solution, increasing the alkalinity, which is in favor of the formation of passivation film, and thus improves the corrosion resistance. Ca2SiO4 coatings became denser after immersion due to the fact that the pores and micro cracks were filled with hydration products i.e., hydrated calcium silicate (C–S–H gel. On the contrary, the microstructure of Al2O3 coatings became loose and obvious rusty spots were observed on the surface after the immersion test.

  5. Determining host suitability of pecan for stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufran, A A; Mulder, P G; Payton, M E; Shufran, K A

    2013-04-01

    A no-choice test was performed to determine survival and reproductive capacity of stored-product insect pests on pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenheim) Koch. Insects used were Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae); red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae); lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae); and rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae). Fifty adults of each beetle species or 10 reproductive pairs of P. interpunctella adults were placed in 0.5-liter containers with either whole-shell pecans, cracked-shell pecans, randomly selected in-shell pecans, pecan nutmeats, cracked wheat, or glass beads and held at 28 degrees C, 60-70% relative humidity, and 16:8 (L:D) photoperiod for 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk. Four replications of each insect-diet-interval combination were performed. Larvae of P. interpunctella, O. surinamensis, T. castaneum, C. ferrugineus, and adult P. interpunctella and O. surinamensis developed on cracked and nutmeat pecan diets. R. dominica did not complete reproduction on pecans. Knowledge that these pests can reproduce on stored pecan will assist pecan growers, accumulators, and storage facilities in preventing insect outbreaks on their product.

  6. Reversed sex change by widowed males in polygynous and protogynous fishes: female removal experiments in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwamura, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Shohei; Kadota, Tatsuru

    2011-12-01

    Sex change, either protogyny (female to male) or protandry (male to female), is well known among fishes, but evidence of bidirectional sex change or reversed sex change in natural populations is still very limited. This is the first report on female removal experiments for polygnous and protogynous fish species to induce reversed sex change in the widowed males in the field. We removed all of the females and juveniles from the territories of dominant males in the cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus (Labridae) and the rusty angelfish Centropyge ferrugata (Pomacanthidae) on the coral reefs of Okinawa. In both species, if new females or juveniles did not immigrate into the territories of the widowed males, some of them emigrated to form male-male pairs. When a male-male pair formed, the smaller, subordinate partner began to perform female sexual behaviours ( n = 4 in L. dimidiatus; n = 2 in C. ferrugata) and, finally, released eggs ( n = 1, respectively). Thus, the reversed sex change occurred in the widowed males according to the change of their social status. These results suggest that such female removal experiments will contribute to the discovery of reversed sex change in the field also in other polygnous and protogynous species.

  7. Superficial and electrochemical study of stainless steel 304l with an inhibitory protective coating (TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}); Estudio superficial y electroquimico de acero inoxidable 304L con una capa protectora inhibidora (TiO{sub 2} y ZrO{sub 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila N, M. L.; Contreras R, A.; Arganis J, C. R., E-mail: aida.contreras@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The degradation mechanisms in the boiling water reactors (BWR) have been an alert focus for owners, especially the cracking by stress corrosion cracking (SCC), therefore different techniques have been studied to inhibit this problem inside which is the water injection of hydrogen feeding (HWC, Hydrogen Water Chemistry), together with the noble metals injection (NMCA, Nobel Metal Chemical Addition) and the ceramic materials injection that form an inhibitory protective coating (Ipc). In this work the Ipc was simulated, for which were carried out hydro-thermals deposits starting from suspensions of 1000 ppm of zirconium oxide in its crystalline phase baddeleyite and titanium oxides in its anatase and rutile phases, on test tubes of stainless steel 304l previously rusty under simulated conditions of pressure and temperature of a BWR (288 C and 8 MPa). The superficial characterization was realized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive of X-ray and X-ray diffraction. The capacity to mitigate the corrosion was studied with the electrochemical technique of Tafel polarization (288 C and 8 MPa). The steel presents the formation of two oxide coatings formed by magnetite and hematite. The baddeleyite presents a deposit more thick and homogeneous it also presents the most negative electrochemical potential of corrosion, what indicates that it has the bigger capacity to mitigate the SCC. (Author)

  8. Superficial and electrochemical study of stainless steel 304l with an inhibitory protective coating (TiO2 and ZrO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila N, M. L.; Contreras R, A.; Arganis J, C. R.

    2014-10-01

    The degradation mechanisms in the boiling water reactors (BWR) have been an alert focus for owners, especially the cracking by stress corrosion cracking (SCC), therefore different techniques have been studied to inhibit this problem inside which is the water injection of hydrogen feeding (HWC, Hydrogen Water Chemistry), together with the noble metals injection (NMCA, Nobel Metal Chemical Addition) and the ceramic materials injection that form an inhibitory protective coating (Ipc). In this work the Ipc was simulated, for which were carried out hydro-thermals deposits starting from suspensions of 1000 ppm of zirconium oxide in its crystalline phase baddeleyite and titanium oxides in its anatase and rutile phases, on test tubes of stainless steel 304l previously rusty under simulated conditions of pressure and temperature of a BWR (288 C and 8 MPa). The superficial characterization was realized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive of X-ray and X-ray diffraction. The capacity to mitigate the corrosion was studied with the electrochemical technique of Tafel polarization (288 C and 8 MPa). The steel presents the formation of two oxide coatings formed by magnetite and hematite. The baddeleyite presents a deposit more thick and homogeneous it also presents the most negative electrochemical potential of corrosion, what indicates that it has the bigger capacity to mitigate the SCC. (Author)

  9. Pancreas divisum: Analysis and therapeutic alternatives with a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Radoica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pancreas divisum is a relatively common pancreatic duct anatomic variant, firstly described in the 17th century. Case report. We reported a 2-year-old child admitted to the Pediatric Clinic with breathing difficulties and abdominal pains. Examination and X-ray image, showed a vast right hydrothorax containing rusty coloured solution with a high degree of amylase. Ultrasound and computed tomography examination revealed pancreatic polycyclic pseudocysts; following magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP, the diagnosis of pancreas divisum was confirmed. The general condition of the patient worsened, requiring an urgent operation. External drainage of the perforated pancreatic pseudocyst was performed. Following external fistula maturation, a change from external to internal drainage was performed using Roux-en-Y fistulojejunostomy. A 3-year postoperative period was uneventful. Conclusion. Pancreas divisum cases are unique requiring clinical experience, rational approach, and complex multimodal management. MRCP is a valuable diagnostic method. Amongst therapeutic options, outer and internal drainage can be seen as reliable methods. Further investigations are absolutely required to determine practical and appropriate conclusions.

  10. Hydrophilic Graphene Preparation from Gallic Acid Modified Graphene Oxide in Magnesium Self-Propagating High Temperature Synthesis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Li, Zhenhuan; Su, Kunmei; Cheng, Bowen

    2016-10-01

    Hydrophilic graphene sheets were synthesized from a mixture of magnesium and gallic acid (GA) modified graphene oxide (GO) in a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process, and hydrophilic graphene sheets displayed the higher C/O ratio (16.36), outstanding conductivity (~88900 S/m) and excellent water-solubility. GO sheets were connected together by GA, and GA was captured to darn GO structure defects through the formation of hydrogen bonds and ester bonds. In SHS process, the most oxygen ions of GO reacted with magnesium to prevent the escape of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide to from the structure defects associated with vacancies, and GA could take place the high-temperature carbonization, during which a large-area graphene sheets formed with a part of the structure defects being repaired. When only GO was reduced by magnesium in SHS process, and the reduced GO (rGO) exhibited the smaller sheets, the lower C/O ratio (15.26), the weaker conductivity (4200 S/m) and the poor water-solubility because rGO inevitably left behind carbon vacancies and topological defects. Therefore, the larger sheet, less edge defects and free structure defects associated with vacancies play a key role for graphene sheets good dispersion in water.

  11. The ionospheric signature of transient dayside reconnection and the associated pulsed convection return flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    Full Text Available Three SuperDARN coherent HF radars are employed to investigate the excitation of convection in the dayside high-latitude ionosphere in response to transient reconnection occurring in the cusp region. This study demonstrates the existence of transient antisunward-propagating backscatter features at the expected location of the ionospheric footprint of the cusp region, which have a repetition rate near 10 min. These are interpreted as the ionospheric signature of flux transfer events. Moreover, transient sunward-propagating regions of backscatter are observed in the convection return flow regions of both the pre- and post-noon sectors. These patches are observed to propagate towards the noon sector from at least as far around the auroral zone as 07 MLT in the pre-noon sector and 17 MLT in the post-noon sector, travelling with a velocity of approximately 1.5 to 2 km s-1. These return flow patches have a repetition rate similar to that of the transient features observed at local noon. While providing supporting evidence for the impulsive nature of convection flow, the observation of sunward-propagating features in the return flow region is not consistent with current conceptual models of the excitation of convection.

    Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection · Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause · cusp · and boundary layers; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  12. The auroral and ionospheric flow signatures of dual lobe reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Imber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the first substantial evidence for the occurrence of dual lobe reconnection from ionospheric flows and auroral signatures. The process of dual lobe reconnection refers to an interplanetary magnetic field line reconnecting with lobe field lines in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Two bursts of sunward plasma flow across the noon portion of the open/closed field line boundary (OCB, indicating magnetic flux closure at the dayside, were observed in SuperDARN radar data during a period of strongly northward IMF. The OCB is identified from spacecraft, radar backscatter, and auroral observations. In order for dual lobe reconnection to take place, we estimate that the interplanetary magnetic field clock angle must be within ±10° of zero (North. The total flux crossing the OCB during each burst is small (1.8% and 0.6% of the flux contained within the polar cap for the two flows. A brightening of the noon portion of the northern auroral oval was observed as the clock angle passed through zero, and is thought to be due to enhanced precipitating particle fluxes due to the occurrence of reconnection at two locations along the field line. The number of solar wind protons captured by the flux closure process was estimated to be ~2.5×1030 (4 tonnes by mass, sufficient to populate the cold, dense plasma sheet observed following this interval.

  13. Are dayside long-period pulsations related to the cusp?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pilipenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We compare simultaneous observations of long-period ultra-low-frequency (ULF wave activity from a Svalbard/IMAGE fluxgate magnetometer latitudinal profile covering the expected cusp geomagnetic latitudes. Irregular Pulsations at Cusp Latitudes (IPCL and narrowband Pc5 waves are found to be a ubiquitous element of ULF activity in the dayside high-latitude region. To identify the ionospheric projections of the cusp, we use the width of return signal of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN radar covering the Svalbard archipelago, predictions of empirical cusp models, augmented whenever possible by Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP identification of magnetospheric boundary domains. The meridional spatial structure of broadband dayside Pc5–6 pulsation spectral power has been found to have a localized latitudinal peak, not under the cusp proper as was previously thought, but several degrees southward from the equatorward cusp boundary. The earlier claims of the dayside monochromatic Pc5 wave association with the open–closed boundary also seems doubtful. Transient currents producing broadband Pc5–6 probably originate at the low-latitude boundary layer/central plasma sheet (LLBL/CPS interface, though such identification with available DMSP data is not very precise. The occurrence of broadband Pc5–6 pulsations in the dayside boundary layers is a challenge to modelers because so far their mechanism has not been firmly identified.

  14. Interhemispheric Asymmetry of the Sunward Plasma Flows for Strongly Dominant IMF BZ > 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakymenko, K. N.; Koustov, A. V.; Fiori, R. A. D.

    2018-01-01

    Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) convection maps obtained simultaneously in both hemispheres are averaged to infer polar cap ionospheric flow patterns under strongly dominant positive interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz component. The data set consisted of winter observations in the Northern Hemisphere simultaneously with summer observations in the Southern Hemisphere. Long-lasting high-latitude dayside reverse convection cells are shown to have faster sunward flows at near-magnetic noon hours in the summer/Southern Hemisphere. Sunward flows typically deviate from the midnight-noon meridian toward 10-11 h of magnetic local time in the summer/Southern Hemisphere and are more aligned with the midnight-noon meridian in the winter/Northern Hemisphere. Flow deviations in the winter/Northern Hemisphere can be both toward prenoon and postnoon hours, and there is no clear relationship between flow deviation and the IMF By component. No strong preference for the sunward flow occurrence depending on the IMF Bx polarity was found. In addition, the rate of the sunward flow speed increase in response to an increase in driving conditions was found to be comparable for the IMF Bx > 0 and Bx < 0.

  15. Validation of the CUTLASS HF radar gravity wave observing capability using EISCAT CP-1 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Arnold

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-periodic fluctuations in the returned ground-scatter power from the SuperDARN HF radars have been linked to the passage of medium-scale gravity waves. We have applied a technique that extracts the first radar range returns from the F-region to study the spatial extent and characteristics of these waves in the CUTLASS field-of-view. Some ray tracing was carried out to test the applicability of this method. The EISCAT radar facility at Tromsø is well within the CUTLASS field-of-view for these waves and provides a unique opportunity to assess independently the ability of the HF radars to derive gravity wave information. Results from 1st March, 1995, where the EISCAT UHF radar was operating in its CP-1 mode, demonstrate that the radars were in good agreement, especially if one selects the electron density variations measured by EISCAT at around 235 km. CUTLASS and EISCAT gravity wave observations complement each other; the former extends the spatial field of view considerably, whilst the latter provides detailed vertical information about a range of ionospheric parameters.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere – atmosphere interactions · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics · Radio science (ionospheric propagations

  16. Magnetosphere and ionosphere response to a positive-negative pulse pair of solar wind dynamic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, A.; Degeling, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    Simulations and observations had shown that single positive/negative solar wind dynamic pressure pulse would excite geomagnetic impulsive events along with ionosphere and/or magnetosphere vortices which are connected by field aligned currents(FACs). In this work, a large scale ( 9min) magnetic hole event in solar wind provided us with the opportunity to study the effects of positive-negative pulse pair (△p/p 1) on the magnetosphere and ionosphere. During the magnetic hole event, two traveling convection vortices (TCVs, anti-sunward) first in anticlockwise then in clockwise rotation were detected by geomagnetic stations located along the 10:30MLT meridian. At the same time, another pair of ionospheric vortices azimuthally seen up to 3 MLT first in clockwise then in counter-clockwise rotation were also appeared in the afternoon sector( 14MLT) and centered at 75 MLAT without obvious tailward propagation feature. The duskside vortices were also confirmed in SuperDARN radar data. We simulated the process of magnetosphere struck by a positive-negative pulse pair and it shows that a pair of reversed flow vortices in the magnetosphere equatorial plane appeared which may provide FACs for the vortices observed in ionosphere. Dawn dusk asymmetry of the vortices as well as the global geomagnetism perturbation characteristics were also discussed.

  17. Multi-instrument observations of nightside plasma patches under conditions of IMF Bz positive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. C. Howells

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented from two multi-instrument case studies showing patches of cold, long-lived plasma in the winter nightside ionosphere during times when the z-component of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF Bz was positive. These enhancements were coincident with the antisunward convective plasma drift, flowing from polar to nightside auroral latitudes. In the first case, on 5 December 2005 with IMF By negative, two regions of enhanced electron density were observed extended in MLT in the magnetic midnight sector separated by lower densities near midnight. It is likely that the earlier enhancement originated on the dayside near magnetic noon and was transported to the nightside sector in the convective flow, whilst the later feature originated in the morning magnetic sector. The lower densities separating the two enhancements were a consequence of a pair of lobe cells essentially blocking the direct antisunward cross polar flow from the dayside. A second case study on 4 February 2006 with IMF By positive revealed a single nightside enhancement likely to have originated in the morning magnetic sector. These multi-instrument investigations, incorporating observations by the EISCAT radar facility, the SuperDARN network and radio tomography, reveal that plasma flowing from the dayside can play a significant role in the nightside ionosphere under conditions of IMF Bz positive. The observations are reinforced by simulations of flux-tube transport and plasma decay.

  18. Application of small-size antennas for estimation of angles of arrival of HF signals scattered by ionospheric irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Galushko, Volodymyr G.; Zalizovski, Andriy V.; Kashcheyev, Sergiy B.; Zheng, Yu

    2018-05-01

    A modification of the Doppler Interferometry Technique is suggested to enable estimating angles of arrival of comparatively broadband HF signals scattered by random irregularities of the ionospheric plasma with the use of small-size weakly directional antennas. The technique is based on the measurements of cross-spectra phases of the probe radiation recorded at least in three spatially separated points. The developed algorithm has been used to investigate the angular and frequency-time characteristics of HF signals propagating at frequencies above the maximum usable one (MUF) for the direct radio path Moscow-Kharkiv. The received signal spectra show presence of three families of spatial components attributed, respectively, to scattering by plasma irregularities near the middle point of the radio path, ground backscatter signals and scattering of the sounding signals by the intense plasma turbulence associated with auroral activations. It has been shown that the regions responsible for the formation of the third family components are located well inside the auroral oval. The drift velocity and direction of the auroral ionosphere plasma have been determined. The obtained estimates are consistent with the classical conception of the ionospheric plasma convection at high latitudes and do not contradict the results of investigations of the auroral ionosphere dynamics using the SuperDARN network.

  19. Relationship between interplanetary parameters and the magnetopause reconnection rate quantified from observations of the expanding polar cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, S. E.; Gosling, J. S.; Hubert, B.

    2012-03-01

    Many studies have attempted to quantify the coupling of energy from the solar wind into the magnetosphere. In this paper we parameterize the dependence of the magnetopause reconnection rate on interplanetary parameters from the OMNI data set. The reconnection rate is measured as the rate of expansion of the polar cap during periods when the nightside reconnection rate is thought to be low, determined from observations by the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) Far Ultraviolet (FUV) imager. Our fitting suggests that the reconnection rate is determined by the magnetic flux transport in the solar wind across a channel approximately 4 RE in width, with a small correction dependent on the solar wind speed, and a clock angle dependence. The reconnection rate is not found to be significantly dependent on the solar wind density. Comparison of the modeled reconnection rate with SuperDARN measurements of the cross-polar cap potential provides broad support for the magnitude of the predictions. In the course of the paper we discuss the relationship between the dayside reconnection rate and the cross-polar cap potential.

  20. Detection of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances by Medium Frequency Doppler Sounding Using AM Radio Transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcote, M. A.; Labelle, J. W.; Lind, F. D.; Coster, A. J.; Galkin, I. A.; Miller, E.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    Nighttime traveling ionosphere disturbances (TIDs) propagating in the lower F region of the ionosphere were detected from time variations in the Doppler shifts of commercial AM radio broadcast stations. Three separately deployed receivers, components of the Intercepted Signals for Ionospheric Science (ISIS) Array software radio instrumentation network, recorded signals from two radio stations during eleven nights in March-April, 2012. Combining these measurements established that variations in the frequencies of the received signals, with amplitudes up to a few tenths of a Hertz, resulted from Doppler shifts produced by the ionosphere. At times, TIDs were detected as large amplitude variations in the Doppler shift with approximately 40-minute period correlated across the array. For one study interval, 0000-0400 UT on April 13, 2012, simultaneous GPS-TEC, digisonde, and superDARN coherent backscatter radar measurements confirmed the detection of TIDs with the same period. Detection of the AM signals at widely spaced receivers allowed the phase velocity and wavelength of the TIDs to be inferred, with some limitations due to differing reflection heights for the different frequencies. These measurements will be compared to phase velocities and wavelengths determined from combining an array of GPS receivers; discrepancies due to the altitude sensitivity of the techniques or other effects will be discussed. These results demonstrate that AM radio signals can be used for detection of nighttime TIDs.

  1. SCANDI – an all-sky Doppler imager for studies of thermospheric spatial structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Aruliah

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A new all-sky Fabry-Perot Interferometer called the Scanning Doppler Imager (SCANDI was built and installed at Longyearbyen in December 2006. Observations have been made of the Doppler shifts and Doppler broadening of the 630 nm airglow and aurora, from which upper thermospheric winds and temperatures are calculated. SCANDI allows measurements over a field-of-view (FOV with a horizontal radius of nearly 600 km for observations at an altitude of 250 km using a time resolution of 8 min. The instrument provides the ability to observe thermospheric spatial structure within a FOV which overlaps that of the EISCAT Svalbard radar and CUTLASS SuperDARN radars. Coordinating with these instruments provides an important opportunity for studying ion-neutral coupling. The all-sky image is divided into several sectors to provide a horizontal spatial resolution of between 100–300 km. This is a powerful extension in observational capability but requires careful calibration and data analysis, as described here. Two observation modes were used: a fixed and a scanning etalon gap. SCANDI results are corroborated using the Longyearbyen single look direction FPI, and ESR measurements of the ion temperatures. The data show thermospheric temperature gradients of a few Kelvins per kilometre, and a great deal of meso-scale variability on spatial scales of several tens of kilometres.

  2. Substorms and polar cap convection: the 10 January 2004 interplanetary CME case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Andalsvik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion-contraction model of Dungey cell plasma convection has two different convection sources, i.e. reconnections at the magnetopause and in the magnetotail. The spatial-temporal structure of the nightside source is not yet well understood. In this study we shall identify temporal variations in the winter polar cap convection structure during substorm activity under steady interplanetary conditions. Substorm activity (electrojets and particle precipitations is monitored by excellent ground-satellite DMSP F15 conjunctions in the dusk-premidnight sector. We take advantage of the wide latitudinal coverage of the IMAGE chain of ground magnetometers in Svalbard – Scandinavia – Russia for the purpose of monitoring magnetic deflections associated with polar cap convection and substorm electrojets. These are augmented by direct observations of polar cap convection derived from SuperDARN radars and cross-track ion drift observations during traversals of polar cap along the dusk-dawn meridian by spacecraft DMSP F13. The interval we study is characterized by moderate, stable forcing of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system (EKL = 4.0–4.5 mV m−1; cross polar cap potential (CPCP, Φ (Boyle = 115 kV during Earth passage of an interplanetary CME (ICME, choosing an 4-h interval where the magnetic field pointed continuously south-west (Bz By By polarity of the ICME magnetic field, a clear indication of a nightside source.

  3. The location of the open-closed magnetic field line boundary in the dawn sector auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Wild

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available As a measure of the degree of coupling between the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere systems, the rate at which the size of the polar cap (the region corresponding to ionospheric termini of open magnetic flux tubes varies is of prime importance. However, a reliable technique by which the extent of the polar cap might be routinely monitored has yet to be developed. Current techniques provide particularly ambiguous indications of the polar cap boundary in the dawn sector. We present a case study of space- and ground-based observations of the dawn-sector auroral zone and attempt to determine the location of the polar cap boundary using multi-wavelength observations of the ultraviolet aurora (made by the IMAGE FUV imager, precipitating particle measurements (recorded by the FAST, DMSP, and Cluster 1 and 3 satellites, and SuperDARN HF radar observations of the ionospheric Doppler spectral width boundary. We conclude that in the dawn sector, during the interval presented, neither the poleward edge of the wideband auroral UV emission (140-180nm nor the Doppler spectral width boundary were trustworthy indicators of the polar cap boundary location, while narrow band UV emissions in the range 130-140nm appear to be much more reliable.

  4. Assessment of ionospheric Joule heating by GUMICS-4 MHD simulation, AMIE, and satellite-based statistics: towards a synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palmroth

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the Northern Hemisphere Joule heating from several observational and computational sources with the purpose of calibrating a previously identified functional dependence between solar wind parameters and ionospheric total energy consumption computed from a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD simulation (Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling Simulation, GUMICS-4. In this paper, the calibration focuses on determining the amount and temporal characteristics of Northern Hemisphere Joule heating. Joule heating during a substorm is estimated from global observations, including electric fields provided by Super Dual Auroral Network (SuperDARN and Pedersen conductances given by the ultraviolet (UV and X-ray imagers on board the Polar satellite. Furthermore, Joule heating is assessed from several activity index proxies, large statistical surveys, assimilative data methods (AMIE, and the global MHD simulation GUMICS-4. We show that the temporal and spatial variation of the Joule heating computed from the GUMICS-4 simulation is consistent with observational and statistical methods. However, the different observational methods do not give a consistent estimate for the magnitude of the global Joule heating. We suggest that multiplying the GUMICS-4 total Joule heating by a factor of 10 approximates the observed Joule heating reasonably well. The lesser amount of Joule heating in GUMICS-4 is essentially caused by weaker Region 2 currents and polar cap potentials. We also show by theoretical arguments that multiplying independent measurements of averaged electric fields and Pedersen conductances yields an overestimation of Joule heating.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere; Modeling and forecasting; Electric fields and currents

  5. Super Dual Auroral Radar Network observations of fluctuations in the spectral distribution of near range meteor echoes in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Arnold

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The Doppler shifts of meteor echoes measured by the SuperDARN HF radar network have been used in several studies to observe neutral winds in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere region. In the absence of accurate height information for individual meteors, it has been necessary to assume a statistical mean meteor layer where the variations in altitude were not correlated to changes in the horizontal winds. Observations of spectral width distribution variations made by the radars allow an independent determination of the systematic error in the height. We have investigated the dependence of this distribution on a number of factors including the radar geometry, diurnal and seasonal cycles, variations in solar UV irradiance and geomagnetic activity. Changes in the altitude of the mean meteor layer observed at different radar ranges provide us with some insight into the structure of the upper mesosphere and the lower thermosphere within which the meteors are being ablated. An examination of the spectral widths, as measured by the CUT-LASS Finland radar, in the days preceding and following a Storm Sudden Commencement in April 1997, illustrates how the spectral properties of the observed region can be affected. The variations in the widths were consistent with model calculations of the changes to the temperature profile over this interval. Further refinements in the determination of the spectral width are outlined for future experiments.Key words. Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; thermospheric dynamics; instruments and techniques

  6. Super Dual Auroral Radar Network observations of fluctuations in the spectral distribution of near range meteor echoes in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Arnold

    Full Text Available The Doppler shifts of meteor echoes measured by the SuperDARN HF radar network have been used in several studies to observe neutral winds in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere region. In the absence of accurate height information for individual meteors, it has been necessary to assume a statistical mean meteor layer where the variations in altitude were not correlated to changes in the horizontal winds. Observations of spectral width distribution variations made by the radars allow an independent determination of the systematic error in the height. We have investigated the dependence of this distribution on a number of factors including the radar geometry, diurnal and seasonal cycles, variations in solar UV irradiance and geomagnetic activity. Changes in the altitude of the mean meteor layer observed at different radar ranges provide us with some insight into the structure of the upper mesosphere and the lower thermosphere within which the meteors are being ablated. An examination of the spectral widths, as measured by the CUT-LASS Finland radar, in the days preceding and following a Storm Sudden Commencement in April 1997, illustrates how the spectral properties of the observed region can be affected. The variations in the widths were consistent with model calculations of the changes to the temperature profile over this interval. Further refinements in the determination of the spectral width are outlined for future experiments.

    Key words. Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; thermospheric dynamics; instruments and techniques

  7. Theory, modeling, and integrated studies in the Arase (ERG) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kanako; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Ebihara, Yusuke; Katoh, Yuto; Amano, Takanobu; Saito, Shinji; Shoji, Masafumi; Nakamizo, Aoi; Keika, Kunihiro; Hori, Tomoaki; Nakano, Shin'ya; Watanabe, Shigeto; Kamiya, Kei; Takahashi, Naoko; Omura, Yoshiharu; Nose, Masahito; Fok, Mei-Ching; Tanaka, Takashi; Ieda, Akimasa; Yoshikawa, Akimasa

    2018-02-01

    Understanding of underlying mechanisms of drastic variations of the near-Earth space (geospace) is one of the current focuses of the magnetospheric physics. The science target of the geospace research project Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (ERG) is to understand the geospace variations with a focus on the relativistic electron acceleration and loss processes. In order to achieve the goal, the ERG project consists of the three parts: the Arase (ERG) satellite, ground-based observations, and theory/modeling/integrated studies. The role of theory/modeling/integrated studies part is to promote relevant theoretical and simulation studies as well as integrated data analysis to combine different kinds of observations and modeling. Here we provide technical reports on simulation and empirical models related to the ERG project together with their roles in the integrated studies of dynamic geospace variations. The simulation and empirical models covered include the radial diffusion model of the radiation belt electrons, GEMSIS-RB and RBW models, CIMI model with global MHD simulation REPPU, GEMSIS-RC model, plasmasphere thermosphere model, self-consistent wave-particle interaction simulations (electron hybrid code and ion hybrid code), the ionospheric electric potential (GEMSIS-POT) model, and SuperDARN electric field models with data assimilation. ERG (Arase) science center tools to support integrated studies with various kinds of data are also briefly introduced.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Recent successes and emerging challenges for coordinated satellite/ground-based magnetospheric exploration and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis

    With the availability of a distributed constellation of spacecraft (THEMIS, Geotail, Cluster) and increased capability ground based arrays (SuperDARN, THEMIS/GBOs), it is now pos-sible to infer simply from timing significant information regarding mapping of magnetospheric phenomena. Optical, magnetometer and radar data can pinpoint the location and nature of onset signatures. On the other hand, magnetic field modeling constrained by physical bound-aries (such as the isotropy boundary) the measured magnetic field and total pressure values at a distibuted network of satellites has proven to do a much better job at correlating ionospheric precipitation and diffuse auroral boundaries to magnetospheric phenomena, such as the inward boundary of the dipolarization fronts. It is now possible to routinely compare in-situ measured phase space densities of ion and electron distributions during ionosphere -magnetosphere con-junctions, in the absense of potential drops. It is also possible to not only infer equivalent current systems from the ground, but use reconstruction of the ionospheric current system from space to determine the full electrodynamics evolution of the ionosphere and compare with radars. Assimilation of this emerging ground based and global magnetospheric panoply into a self consistent magnetospheric model will likely be one of the most fruitful endeavors in magnetospheric exploration during the next few years.

  9. Ionosphere-thermosphere energy budgets for the ICME storms of March 2013 and 2015 estimated with GITM and observational proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Meng, X.; Mannucci, A. J.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Lu, G.

    2017-09-01

    The ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) energy partitioning for the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) storms of 16-19 March 2013 and 2015 is estimated with the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM), empirical models and proxies derived from in situ measurements. We focus on auroral heating, Joule heating, and thermospheric cooling. Solar wind data, F10.7, OVATION Prime model and the Weimer 2005 model are used to drive GITM from above. Thermospheric nitric oxide and carbon dioxide cooling emission powers and fluxes are estimated from TIMED/SABER measurements. Assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) estimations of hemispheric power and Joule heating are presented, based on data from global magnetometers, the AMPERE magnetic field data, SSUSI auroral images, and the SuperDARN radar network. Modeled Joule heating and auroral heating of the IT system are mostly controlled by external driving in the March 2013 and 2015 storms, while NO cooling persists into the storm recovery phase. The total heating in the model is about 1000 GW to 3000 GW. Additionally, we intercompare contributions in selected energy channels for five coronal mass ejection-type storms modeled with GITM. Modeled auroral heating shows reasonable agreement with AMIE hemispheric power and is higher than other observational proxies. Joule heating and infrared cooling are likely underestimated in GITM. We discuss challenges and discrepancies in estimating and global modeling of the IT energy partitioning, especially Joule heating, during geomagnetic storms.

  10. X-mode artificial optical emissions and attendant phenomena at EISCAT/Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, Nataly; Sergienko, Tima; Rietveld, Michael; Brandstrom, Urban; Senior, Andrew; Haggstrom, Ingemar; Kosch, Michael; Borisova, Tatiana; Yeoman, Tim

    We present the experimental evidence for the formation of the artificial optical emissions induced by the X-mode powerful HF radio waves injected towards the magnetic zenith (MZ) into the high latitude F region of the ionosphere. The experiments were conducted in the course of Russian EISCAT heating campaigns in October 2012 and October 2013 at the Heating facility at Tromsø, Norway. The HF pump wave with the X-mode polarization was radiated at 7.1 or 6.2 MHz. The phased array 1, resulting in an ERP = 430 - 600 MW was used. Optical emissions at red (630 nm) and green (557 nm) lines were imaged from Tromsø site by the digital All-Sky Imager mark 2 (DASI - 2) and from a remote site at Abisco by the Auroral Large Imaging System (ALIS) in Scandinavia. The intensities of X-mode emissions at red and green lines varied between about of 150 - 1000 R and 50 - 300 R above the background respectively in different experiments. The artificial optical emissions were accompanied by very strong HF-enhanced ion lines and HF induced plasma lines from the EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar measurements and artificial small-scale field-aligned irregularities from CUTLASS (SuperDARN) HF coherent radar in Finland. The results obtained are discussed.

  11. On the scaling features of high-latitude geomagnetic field fluctuations during a large geomagnetic storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Michelis, Paola; Federica Marcucci, Maria; Consolini, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Recently we have investigated the spatial distribution of the scaling features of short-time scale magnetic field fluctuations using measurements from several ground-based geomagnetic observatories distributed in the northern hemisphere. We have found that the scaling features of fluctuations of the horizontal magnetic field component at time scales below 100 minutes are correlated with the geomagnetic activity level and with changes in the currents flowing in the ionosphere. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the dynamical changes of the magnetic field scaling features as a function of the geomagnetic activity level during the well-known large geomagnetic storm occurred on July, 15, 2000 (the Bastille event). The observed dynamical changes are discussed in relationship with the changes of the overall ionospheric polar convection and potential structure as reconstructed using SuperDARN data. This work is supported by the Italian National Program for Antarctic Research (PNRA) - Research Project 2013/AC3.08 and by the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme ([FP7/2007-2013]) under Grant no. 313038/STORM and

  12. Validation of the CUTLASS HF radar gravity wave observing capability using EISCAT CP-1 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Arnold

    Full Text Available Quasi-periodic fluctuations in the returned ground-scatter power from the SuperDARN HF radars have been linked to the passage of medium-scale gravity waves. We have applied a technique that extracts the first radar range returns from the F-region to study the spatial extent and characteristics of these waves in the CUTLASS field-of-view. Some ray tracing was carried out to test the applicability of this method. The EISCAT radar facility at Tromsø is well within the CUTLASS field-of-view for these waves and provides a unique opportunity to assess independently the ability of the HF radars to derive gravity wave information. Results from 1st March, 1995, where the EISCAT UHF radar was operating in its CP-1 mode, demonstrate that the radars were in good agreement, especially if one selects the electron density variations measured by EISCAT at around 235 km. CUTLASS and EISCAT gravity wave observations complement each other; the former extends the spatial field of view considerably, whilst the latter provides detailed vertical information about a range of ionospheric parameters.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere – atmosphere interactions · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics · Radio science (ionospheric propagations

  13. The Amazing Molecule Race: A WebQuest for 8th Grade Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehl, Diana; Moats, S. J.; Langston, G. I.

    2009-01-01

    Did you ever wonder if life exists beyond Earth? The molecules that helped make up you and your friends are the same floating in outer space! The Race is ON to discover as many molecules in space as possible and to find the most important molecules for life: amino acids, DNA and RNA! As aspiring astronomers and astrobiologists, you will explore how these molecules are detected on Earth and in space. The `Search for Life’ is a pretty big task considering the size of the Universe. By learning how to find evidence of life forming molecules you will be able to provide conclusions that will shape policy regarding space missions, funding and technology development during your lifetime.

  14. The Hispanic Immigrant Voter and the Classic American Voter: Presidential Support in the 2012 Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Lewis-Beck

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In their classic 1960 work, Angus Campbell and his colleagues offer a model to explain political behavior. They posit a funnel of causality, whereby the causal flow moved from remote long-term forces, such as socio-demographics and party identification, to more immediate short-term forces, such as issues and candidates, finally arriving at the vote choice itself. This explanation has withstood the test of time in studies of the United States and other democracies. The question at hand in this article is how Latin American immigrants comport themselves in the national political environment of the United States. Can the political preferences of Hispanic immigrants be explained pretty much the way the political preferences of native-born Americans can be explained? In other words, does the funnel of causality apply to them? Our findings, based on analysis of 2012 American National Election Study and Latino Immigrant National Election Study survey data, indicate that it does.

  15. Climate variability and change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manton, M.

    2006-01-01

    When Australia's climate should not be definite barrier to the population reaching 30 million by 2050, it is recognised that our climate has limited the development of the nation over the past 200 years. Indeed in 1911, based on a comparison of the climate and development between the US and Australia. Griffith Taylor predicted that Australia's population would be 19 million at the end of the 20th century, which is a pretty good 90-year forecast. The climate constraint is not only due to much of the country being semi-arid with an annual rainfall below 400 millimetres, but also due to the large year-to-year variability of rainfall across the country

  16. Nuclear spent fuel dry storage in the EWA reactor shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieleszczenko, W.; Moldysz, A.; Hryczuk, A.; Matysiak, T.

    2001-01-01

    The EWA reactor was in operation from 1958 until February 1995. Then it was subjected to the decommissioning procedure. Resulting from a prolonged operation of Polish research reactors a substantial amount of nuclear spent fuel of various types, enrichment and degree of burnup have been accumulated. The technology of storage of spent nuclear fuel foresees the two stages of wet storing in a water pool (deferral period from tens to several dozens years) and dry storing (deferral period from 50 to 80 years). In our case the deferral time in the water environment is pretty significant (the oldest fuel elements have been stored in water for more than 40 years). Though the state of stored fuel elements is satisfactory, there is a real need for changing the storage conditions of spent fuel. The paper is covering the description of philosophy and conceptual design for construction of the spent fuel dry storage in the decommissioned EWA reactor shaft. (author)

  17. The use of nuclear heat in the steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coche, L.

    1976-01-01

    It is possible, but not easy, to use nuclear energy for steelmaking: low temperature level, and difficulty to get a continuous energy supply, are the main limiting factors. Practically, the nuclear reactor and the steel making units will not be coupled. Among the various possible systems, the most practical one for the near future consists in using nuclear heat to produce hydrogen (using natural gas or oil products as a feedstock) and electric power. Hydrogen is used to reduce iron ore in units such as Midrex, Hyl, Armco or Purofer. Steel is produced from this reduced material in electric arc furnaces. Industrial development will be slow, since economical conditions are presently pretty far from making such a process economically competitive [fr

  18. Analysis of Social and Emotional Development of Orphaned Youth in terms of Self Concept and Resilience: Study at Child Care Children's Home (PSAA Tunas Bangsa Pati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoso Santoso

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the development of the Young Social da Emotional Self-concept and in terms of resilience in the PSAA Tunas Bangsa Pati. The method used is descriptive research with this type of development studies dab data obtained will be analyzed by cross sectional method. The results showed that the concept of self-possessed teenager PSAA is not good, it can be seen from the description of several indicators show that the concept of self-assessment of her teenage less well because many feel insecure and inferiority. Judging from the resilience, the general adolescent PSAA good enough. It can be seen from the emotion management capabilities of any events that are considered less menyengakan life. So overall it can be concluded that the social development of adolescents PSAA poorly and emotional development PSAA pretty good when viewed from the concept of self and resilience.

  19. Building a Bohemian Boom Town: The Construction of a 'Creative Class' in Asheville, North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary LaRue Scherer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Asheville North Carolina is currently on the radar for developers, tourists, young couples and retirees looking for the perfect place to relocate. As a result of the development, sleek new buildings are popping up downtown and sidewalks are expanding to accommodate outdoor cafes and more and more visitors. This is occurring in a non-industrial city dependent on hype to attract newcomers with significant money. An examination of how this is happening is presented along with interviews of significant players in Asheville's development patterns to show how people pretty much tend to buy into the marketing of their hometown by the development community using the concept of the economy of the mind. The case-study approach is used.

  20. X-ray ‘ghost images’ could cut radiation doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sophia

    2018-03-01

    On its own, a single-pixel camera captures pictures that are pretty dull: squares that are completely black, completely white, or some shade of gray in between. All it does, after all, is detect brightness. Yet by connecting a single-pixel camera to a patterned light source, a team of physicists in China has made detailed x-ray images using a statistical technique called ghost imaging, first pioneered 20 years ago in infrared and visible light. Researchers in the field say future versions of this system could take clear x-ray photographs with cheap cameras—no need for lenses and multipixel detectors—and less cancer-causing radiation than conventional techniques.

  1. In-situ hydrodeoxygenation of phenol by supported Ni catalyst-explanation for catalyst performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ze; Zeng, Ying; Lin, Weigang

    2017-01-01

    In-situ hydrodeoxygenation of phenol with aqueous hydrogen donor over supported Ni catalyst was investigated. The supported Ni catalysts exerted very poor performance, if formic acid was used as the hydrogen donor. Catalyst modification by loading K, Na, Mg or La salt could not make the catalyst...... performance improved. If gaseous hydrogen was used as the hydrogen source the activity of Ni/Al2O3 was pretty high. CO2 was found poisonous to the catalysis, due to the competitive adoption of phenol with CO2. If formic acid was replaced by methanol, the catalyst performance improved remarkably, with major...... products of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. The better effect of methanol enlightened the application of the supported Ni catalyst in in-situ hydrodeoxygenation of phenol....

  2. A neural network-based approach to noise identification of interferometric GW antennas: the case of the 40 m Caltech laser interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acernese, F [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S Angelo, via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Barone, F [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sez. Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S Angelo, via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Rosa, M de [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S Angelo, via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Rosa, R De [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S Angelo, via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Eleuteri, A [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sez. Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S Angelo, via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Milano, L [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S Angelo, via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Tagliaferri, R [Dipartimento di Matematica ed Informatica, Universita di Salerno, via S Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (Salerno) (Italy)

    2002-06-21

    In this paper, a neural network-based approach is presented for the real time noise identification of a GW laser interferometric antenna. The 40 m Caltech laser interferometer output data provide a realistic test bed for noise identification algorithms because of the presence of many relevant effects: violin resonances in the suspensions, main power harmonics, ring-down noise from servo control systems, electronic noises, glitches and so on. These effects can be assumed to be present in all the first interferometric long baseline GW antennas such as VIRGO, LIGO, GEO and TAMA. For noise identification, we used the Caltech-40 m laser interferometer data. The results we obtained are pretty good notwithstanding the high initial computational cost. The algorithm we propose is general and robust, taking into account that it does not require a priori information on the data, nor a precise model, and it constitutes a powerful tool for time series data analysis.

  3. A neural network-based approach to noise identification of interferometric GW antennas: the case of the 40 m Caltech laser interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acernese, F; Barone, F; Rosa, M de; Rosa, R De; Eleuteri, A; Milano, L; Tagliaferri, R

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a neural network-based approach is presented for the real time noise identification of a GW laser interferometric antenna. The 40 m Caltech laser interferometer output data provide a realistic test bed for noise identification algorithms because of the presence of many relevant effects: violin resonances in the suspensions, main power harmonics, ring-down noise from servo control systems, electronic noises, glitches and so on. These effects can be assumed to be present in all the first interferometric long baseline GW antennas such as VIRGO, LIGO, GEO and TAMA. For noise identification, we used the Caltech-40 m laser interferometer data. The results we obtained are pretty good notwithstanding the high initial computational cost. The algorithm we propose is general and robust, taking into account that it does not require a priori information on the data, nor a precise model, and it constitutes a powerful tool for time series data analysis

  4. Doing Systems Engineering Without Thinking About It at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn-Meyer, Marta; Kilp, Stephen; Chun, Peggy; Mizukami, Masashi

    2004-01-01

    When asked about his processes in designing a new airplane, Burt Rutan responded: ...there is always a performance requirement. So I start with the basic physics of an airplane that can get those requirements, and that pretty much sizes an airplane... Then I look at the functionality... And then I try a lot of different configurations to meet that, and then justify one at a time, throwing them out... Typically I'll have several different configurations... But I like to experiment, certainly. I like to see if there are other ways to provide the utility. This kind of thinking engineering as a total systems engineering approach is what is being instilled in all engineers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center.

  5. Core-shell structured ceramic nonwoven separators by atomic layer deposition for safe lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiu; Li, Chao; Shi, Chuan; Yang, Chaochao; Deng, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Longqing; Dai, Jianhui; Wu, Dezhi; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Jinbao

    2018-05-01

    Safety is one of the most factors for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, a novel kind of ceramic separator with high safety insurance is proposed. We fabricated the core-shell nanofiber separators for LIBs by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of 30 nm Al2O3 on the electrospinning nonwoven fiber of polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP). The separators show a pretty high heat resistance up to 200 °C without any shrinkage, an excellent fire-resistant property and a wide electrochemical window. Besides, with higher uptake and ionic conductivity, cells assembled with the novel separator shows better electrochemical performance. The ALD produced separators exhibit great potential in elaborate products like 3C communications and in energy field with harsh requirements for safety such as electric vehicles. The application of ALD on polymer fiber membranes brings a new strategy and opportunity for improving the safety of the advanced LIBs.

  6. Cracking Bank PINs by Playing Mastermind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focardi, Riccardo; Luccio, Flaminia L.

    The bank director was pretty upset noticing Joe, the system administrator, spending his spare time playing Mastermind, an old useless game of the 70ies. He had fought the instinct of telling him how to better spend his life, just limiting to look at him in disgust long enough to be certain to be noticed. No wonder when the next day the director fell on his chair astonished while reading, on the newspaper, about a huge digital fraud on the ATMs of his bank, with millions of Euros stolen by a team of hackers all around the world. The article mentioned how the hackers had 'played with the bank computers just like playing Mastermind', being able to disclose thousands of user PINs during the one-hour lunch break. That precise moment, a second before falling senseless, he understood the subtle smile on Joe's face the day before, while training at his preferred game, Mastermind.

  7. Gradient retention prediction of acid-base analytes in reversed phase liquid chromatography: a simplified approach for acetonitrile-water mobile phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Axel; Rosés, Martí; Bosch, Elisabeth

    2014-11-28

    In previous work, a two-parameter model to predict chromatographic retention of ionizable analytes in gradient mode was proposed. However, the procedure required some previous experimental work to get a suitable description of the pKa change with the mobile phase composition. In the present study this previous experimental work has been simplified. The analyte pKa values have been calculated through equations whose coefficients vary depending on their functional group. Forced by this new approach, other simplifications regarding the retention of the totally neutral and totally ionized species also had to be performed. After the simplifications were applied, new prediction values were obtained and compared with the previously acquired experimental data. The simplified model gave pretty good predictions while saving a significant amount of time and resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Monitoring a restless volcano: The 2004 eruption of Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, C.

    2005-01-01

    Although the precise course of volcanic activity is difficult to predict, volcanologists are pretty adept at interpreting volcanic signals from well-monitored volcanoes in order to make short-term forecasts. Various monitoring tools record effects to give us warning before eruptions, changes in eruptive behavior during eruptions, or signals that an eruption is ending. Foremost among these tools is seismic monitoring. The character, size, depth and rate of earthquakes are all important to the interpretation of what is happening belowground. The first inkling of renewed activity at Mount St. Helens began in the early hours of Sept. 23, when a seismic swarm - tens to hundreds of earthquakes over days to a week - began beneath the volcano. This article details the obervations made during the eruptive sequence.

  9. "We only eat what we like" or do we still?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halpern Georges M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We humans only eat what we like, and we died when we could not find or were not given such food. The industry knows that well in affluent societies, and that is why (in part we do have an epidemic of obesity. Ignoring the basic foundations of physiology (and survival in the name of "science" perverted into "faith" is the perfect recipe for (criminal failure! Eating/drinking is one of our basic needs; the others being sex, shelter, family/social support and skills. This did work pretty well in the pre- and early industrial age, but with industrialization of the food supply (agriculture, etc., based on only limitless profit, we witnessed a tectonic perversion in politics, policies, physiopathology, epigenetics, and ultimately public health. The current quasi-unanimous attitude is to blame the victim (for example, the obese and/or the messenger (for example, maybe this author.

  10. A Search Engine That's Aware of Your Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Internet research can be compared to trying to drink from a firehose. Such a wealth of information is available that even the simplest inquiry can sometimes generate tens of thousands of leads, more information than most people can handle, and more burdensome than most can endure. Like everyone else, NASA scientists rely on the Internet as a primary search tool. Unlike the average user, though, NASA scientists perform some pretty sophisticated, involved research. To help manage the Internet and to allow researchers at NASA to gain better, more efficient access to the wealth of information, the Agency needed a search tool that was more refined and intelligent than the typical search engine. Partnership NASA funded Stottler Henke, Inc., of San Mateo, California, a cutting-edge software company, with a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to develop the Aware software for searching through the vast stores of knowledge quickly and efficiently. The partnership was through NASA s Ames Research Center.

  11. Active condensation of the atmospheric moisture as a self-irrigation mechanism for the ground-covering plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpun Yuriy Nikolaevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies conducted at the Subtropical Botanical Garden of Kuban (Utch-Dere, Sochi pretty much allow to explain the abnormally high drought resistance of Liriope graminifolia Lour. and Ophiopogon japonicus Ker.-Gawl., plants that naturally grow mostly in sufficient humidity. Quite low temperatures of the leaves’ surface allow to effectively condense the atmospheric moisture and to direct it along the leaf blade to the ground. The accumulation of condensation water leads to self-irrigation, a mechanism that ensures survival of plants in case of insufficient natural precipitation in the form of rain or fog. Combined with xeromorphic leaves with a thick cuticle and thick branch roots with fusiform bulb-shaped swellings, allowing to store water, makes the named plants extremely resistant to stress factors such as prolonged summer droughts accompanied by high daytime temperatures.

  12. Why women see differently from the way men see? A review of sex differences in cognition and sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rena

    2014-09-01

    The differences of learning and memory between males and females have been well documented and confirmed by both human and animal studies. The sex differences in cognition started from early stage of neuronal development and last through entire life span. The major biological basis of the gender-dependent cognitive activity includes two major components: sex hormone and sex-related characteristics, such as sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) protein. However, the knowledge of how much biology of sex contributes to normal cognitive function and elite athletes in various sports are still pretty limited. In this review, we will be focusing on sex differences in spatial learning and memory - especially the role of male- and female-type cognitive behaviors in sports.

  13. Computer Security: The dilemma of fractal defence

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Aren’t mathematical fractals just beautiful? The Mandelbrot set and the Julia set, the Sierpinski gasket, the Menger sponge, the Koch curve (see here)… Based on very simple mathematical rules, they quickly develop into a mosaic of facets slightly different from each other. More and more features appear the closer you zoom into a fractal and expose similar but not identical features of the overall picture.   Computer security is like these fractals, only much less pretty: simple at first glance, but increasingly complex and complicated when you look more closely at the details. The deeper you dig, the more and more possibilities open up for malicious people as the attack surface grows, just like that of “Koch’s snowflakes”, where the border length grows exponentially. Consequently, the defensive perimeter also increases when we follow the bits and bytes layer by layer from their processing in the CPU, trickling up the software stack thro...

  14. On a covariant formulation of the Barbero-Immirzi connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatibene, L; Francaviglia, M; Rovelli, C

    2007-01-01

    The Barbero-Immirzi (BI) connection, as usually introduced out of a spin connection, is a global object though it does not transform properly as a genuine connection with respect to generic spin transformations, unless quite specific and suitable gauges are imposed. Here we shall investigate whether, and under which global conditions, a (properly transforming and hence global) SU(2)-connection can be canonically defined in a gauge covariant way. Such an SU(2)-connection locally agrees with the usual BI connection and it can be defined on pretty general bundles; in particular, triviality is not assumed. As a by-product we shall also introduce a global covariant SU(2)-connection over the whole spacetime (while for technical reasons the BI connection in the standard formulation is just introduced on a space slice) which restricts to the usual BI connection on a space slice

  15. Introduction to Trans Australia Airlines CRM training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jim

    1987-01-01

    Trans Australia believes that its excellent accident rate record is due to a number of factors. It has a good group of standard operating procedures, and its crews are pretty well self-disciplined and adhere to those procedures. But the other thing that it believes is a factor in its safety record is that perhaps it is also due to its preparedness to be innovative, to keep up with what is going on in the rest of the world and, if it looks to have value, then to be amongst the first to try it out. Trans Australia commenced a program similar to Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) fairly early in 1979--that being its first windshear program-- which leads to why they are doing a course of resource management training, which we have chosen to call Aircrew Team Management (ATM). This course is detailed in another presentation.

  16. Large-Scale Analysis of Remote Code Injection Attacks in Android Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunwoo Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is pretty well known that insecure code updating procedures for Android allow remote code injection attack. However, other than codes, there are many resources in Android that have to be updated, such as temporary files, images, databases, and configurations (XML and JSON. Security of update procedures for these resources is largely unknown. This paper investigates general conditions for remote code injection attacks on these resources. Using this, we design and implement a static detection tool that automatically identifies apps that meet these conditions. We apply the detection tool to a large dataset comprising 9,054 apps, from three different types of datasets: official market, third-party market, and preinstalled apps. As a result, 97 apps were found to be potentially vulnerable, with 53 confirmed as vulnerable to remote code injection attacks.

  17. Jugoslovensko-danski odnosi 1920-1941.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Latinović

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Kingdom of Serbia opened its Legation in Copenhagen after the October Revolution in Russia and later, diplomatic relations between the two countries were intensified. However, the Legation was closed already in 1920. The lack of more intensive diplomatic relations was not an obstacle for businessmen from both countries to develop economic relations, although the participation of Denmark in the Yugoslav trade exchange was pretty low. The Agreement on Trade between Yugoslavia and Denmark was signed in 1937, giving an additional impetus to their economic relations. When Denmark recognized the Independent State of Croatia, proclaimed under the Nazi order in Europe, Yugoslav Government in exile interupted diplomatic relations with Denmark in May 1941. Relations between the two countries were reestablished after the Second World War under new international circumstances.

  18. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  19. Recent Progress in the Theory of Nuclear Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machleidt, R.; MacPherson, Q.; Winzer, R.; Marji, E.; Zeoli, Ch.; Entem, D. R.

    2013-01-01

    During the past two decades, it has been demonstrated that chiral effective field theory represents a powerful tool to deal with nuclear forces in a systematic and model-independent way. Two-, three-, and four-nucleon forces have been derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N 3 LO) and (partially) applied in nuclear few- and many-body systems—with, in general, a good deal of success. This may suggest that we are finally done with the nuclear force problem; but that would be too optimistic. There are still some pretty basic open issues that have been swept under rug and, finally, need our full attention, like the proper renormalization of the two-nucleon potential. Moreover, the order-by-order convergence of the many-body force contributions is at best obscure at this time. (author)

  20. Analysis on Overcoming Level of Stress of Athletes Joined in Adults Taekwondo National Team Eliminations in Terms of Gender Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ACET

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to determine level of coping with stress of athletes joined in Adults Taekwondo National Team eliminations. Sample group of the research was consisted of elite 56 female, and 118 male athletes joined in the eliminations in Alanya, Antalya. Average age of females was 20, 48, males 'was 21.00. A - five - point coping with Stress S cale of Likert type developed by A.Sibel Türküm (1999 was used to identify the level of the athletes’ stress. No outstanding differences were found between the genders (p=0,987. However, in terms of the factor to cope with stress, meaningful difference w as found between groups (p=0,031. Taking into consideration this fact, mean of females was found pretty higher than the males

  1. Evaluation of polymeric materials packed in fixed bed column for oil water remediation; Avaliacao de materiais polimericos empacotados em colunas de leito fixo para a remediacao de aguas oleosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiros, Yure G.C.; Barros, Cintia Chagas; Oliveira, Roberta S.; Marques, Luiz R.S.; Cunha, Luciana; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Eloisa Mano], e-mail: yuregomes@ima.ufrj.br, e-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    Polymeric resins are being tried as an alternative material for treating oily waters from the petroleum industry, which have already been treated by conventional methods. The objective of this work has been to evaluate the purification degree of synthetic oily waters when treated in fixed bed columns packed with polymeric resins made up of hydrophilic and lipophilic moieties. The analysis used for characterizing the total grease and oil content (TOG) was fluorimetry. Starting oily waters of average TOG 50 ppm were prepared. Data obtained from eluted waters did not outweigh 10% of the TOG values of starting solutions in some blends of resins with a pretty good mechanical stability under the increase of pressure. Organoclay material showed a good retention performance, but has presented a mechanical instability too, compromising its use for larger amounts of wastewater. (author)

  2. RE-USING OF THE HISTORICAL BUILDINGS IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLITY: AN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN STUDIO STUDY ON OLD GIRLS TEACHER TRAINING SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ulusoy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Refunctioning is a widely used method for protecting historical structures. However, throughout architectural education, functioning historical structures and producing new designs in terms of historical pattern do not attract great attention within the framework of design studios. It is a fact that in such schools that abovementioned items are more popular, the connection between protection oriented studio and design studio is pretty weak. In this study refunctioning was discussed as a design studio topic in relation to the old girls' teacher training school and its immediate surroundings. The primary objective of this design studio is to increase architecture students' awareness in terms of visual and perceptual levels of project designs in historical patterns. Within the context of this manuscript, the experiences gained during design studio process were transferred and discussed.

  3. CREATIVE MEASURES IN TIMES OF CRISIS: PROMOTING YOUR BUSINESS, CUTTING DOWN COSTS AND CREATING MORE INCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina DIMA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two years (2008 and 2009, the travel industry got hit pretty badly by the international economic crisis. Even luxury hotels - which seemed immune so far- are reporting low rates of occupancy and high rates of cancellations. For the New Year (2010, just like in 2009, the word of the day is "sustainability". No one is looking for big profits, but they are looking to keep their business afloat. The article details some of the most innovative ways to promote a travel business and attract customers.Tools such as using the website, the social media networks and creating their own brands help businesses involved in tourism to better promote their image and survive the crisis. Being able to sell more diverse services will make an entity earn more money and hence overcome the difficulties.

  4. DI/LC-MS/MS-Based Metabolic Profiling for Identification of Early Predictive Serum Biomarkers of Metritis in Transition Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanshi; Deng, Qilan; Mandal, Rupasri; Wishart, David S; Ametaj, Burim N

    2017-09-27

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate alterations of metabolites in the blood of dairy cows before, during, and after diagnosis of metritis and identify predictive serum metabolite biomarkers for metritis. DI/LC-MS/MS was used to analyze serum samples collected from both healthy and metritic cows during -8, -4, disease diagnosis, +4, and +8 wks relative to parturition. Results indicated that cows with metritis experienced altered concentrations of serum amino acids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, acylcarnitines, and biogenic amines during the entire experimental period. Moreover, two sets of predictive biomarker models and one set of diagnostic biomarker models for metritis were developed, and all of them showed high sensitivity and specificity (e.g., high AUC values by the ROC curve evaluation), which indicate that serum metabolites identified have pretty accurate predictive, diagnostic, and prognostic abilities for metritis in transition dairy cows.

  5. [Is there any deontology of accompanying people at the end of life?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorion, B

    1999-01-01

    The thought on ethics, enhances by accompanying patients or human-beings reaching end of life, belong to major themes which have for years been dealt with by philosophers and monks. The physicians, who by nature accompany and live with their patient this life period a sometimes close relationship, have conceived within deontology a wonderful expression of what ethics inspired them. Reading articles 37 and 38 of the Code of Ethics brings a clear, precise and qualified answer to the question raised by the title. We easily find out the main principles which would be the guideline to the doctor's behaviour coping with this situation: providing suitable and continue cares to maintain the quality of a life which comes to end, respecting dignity. Relieving suffers, morally assisting, comforting the family, knowing to limit the cares reasonably. The sensitive and human expression sums up pretty well the particularities essential to all (physicians, health professionals or volunteers) who have accepted this heavy task.

  6. Directions for the choice of the transport modalities for the transport of radioactive materials on public roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.U.

    1987-07-01

    This report shall be a help for scientific and technical personal of the nuclear research center in the choice of the modalities of the transport of radioactive materials on public roads in accordance to regulations and authorizations. Not only the Atomic Law, the Radiation Protection Ordinance and the Ordinance on Dangerous Goods on Roads, which are binding in any case, are regarded in this report but also as the scope and the impositions of the transport authorizations of the nuclear research center as the internal instructions of the nuclear research center. The reader is guided by dialogue (pretty much as a book for 'programmed learning') to the solution of his special problem of transport. In order to narrow down the size of this report, all technical or administrative details are treated in eleven brochures, which are published as technical supplements of this report. (orig.) [de

  7. Language -- the barrier and the bridge between science and public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, T

    2001-08-01

    What does modern science tell people? That life is ultimately DNA, and DNA is genes, and genes are just so many bits of Lego, little building blocks manipulated by Nature for 3.8 thousand billion years, rather economically, so that much the same genes pop up in a nematode worm, a fruit fly, a lettuce, and a thriller writer. And that genes can be transferred from one species, or genus, or phylum, or even one kingdom to another. That is why there is unease, and newspapers reflect that unease, they do not create it. By helping people confront that unease, they probably help people come to terms with it. In the course of history, people have felt pretty uneasy about blood transfusion, heart transplants, test tube babies, and AIDS, and over the years, have calmed down considerably about each, to the advantage of both society and science. It will be the same for the human genome project, in a while.

  8. Distributed Project Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Kirkegaard, B.; Knudsen, Morten

    1998-01-01

    for information exchange in the traditional project environment is performed. A group of teachers and a student group using small project examples test the method. The first test group used a prototype for testing and found the new activity synchronization difficult to adapt, so the method was finally adjusted...... to be very precises and with success used on the second test group. Distributed project work is coming pretty soon and with little improvement in server tools, projects in different topics with a large and inhomogeneous profile of users are realistic.......Project work has been used for many years at Aalborg University to improve learning of theory and methods given in courses. In a closed environment where the students are forming a group in a single room, the interaction behaviour is more or less given from the natural life. Group work...

  9. Happiness and longevity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Elizabeth M; Rogers, Richard G; Wadsworth, Tim

    2015-11-01

    This is the first study to our knowledge to examine the relationship between happiness and longevity among a nationally representative sample of adults. We use the recently-released General Social Survey-National Death Index dataset and Cox proportional hazards models to reveal that overall happiness is related to longer lives among U.S. adults. Indeed, compared to very happy people, the risk of death over the follow-up period is 6% (95% CI 1.01-1.11) higher among individuals who are pretty happy and 14% (95% CI 1.06-1.22) higher among those who are not happy, net of marital status, socioeconomic status, census division, and religious attendance. This study provides support for happiness as a stand-alone indicator of well-being that should be used more widely in social science and health research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Achieving maximum sustainable yield in mixed fisheries: a management approach for the North Sea demersal fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Vermard, Youen; Dolder, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    . An objective method is suggested that provides an optimal set of fishing mortality within the range, minimizing the risk of total allowable catch mismatches among stocks captured within mixed fisheries, and addressing explicitly the trade-offs between the most and least productive stocks........ Recent paths towards operationalizing MSY at the regional scale have suggested the expansion of the concept into a desirable area of “pretty good yield”, implemented through a range around FMSY that would allow for more flexibility in management targets. This article investigates the potential of FMSY...... ranges to combine long-term single-stock targets with flexible, short-term, mixed-fisheries management requirements applied to the main North Sea demersal stocks. It is shown that sustained fishing at the upper bound of the range may lead to unacceptable risks when technical interactions occur...

  11. Security in the internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibel, R.M.M.; Kocher, K.; Landsberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    Aim of the study: Is it possible to use the Internet as a secure media for transport of telemedicine? Which risks exist for routine use? In this article state of the art methods of security were analysed. Telemedicine in the Internet has severe risks, because patient data and hospital data of a secure Intranet can be manipulated by connecting it to the Web. Conclusions: Establishing of a firewall and the introduction of HPC (Health Professional Card) are minimizing the risk of un-authorized access to the hospital server. HPC allows good safety with digital signature and authentication of host and client of medical data. For secure e-mail PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is easy to use as a standard protocol. Planning all activities exactly as well as following legal regulations are important requisites for reduction of safety risks in Internet. (orig.) [de

  12. Synthesis and characterization of supramolecule self-assembly polyami-doamine (PAMAM G1-G1 NH2, CO2H end group Megamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Louie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Supramolecule self-assembly polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendrimer refers to the chemical sys-tems made up of a discrete number of assembled molecular subunits or components. These strat-egies involve the covalent assembly of hierarchical components reactive monomers, branch cells or dendrons around atomic or molecular cores according to divergent/convergent dendritic branching principles, systematic filling of space around a core with shells (layers of branch cells. The polydispersity index (PDI for the supramolecule megamer are pretty closed to one, are in agreement with the Poisson probability distribution. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM den-drimer G1-G1 that it was PAMAM Megamer NH2, COOH end groupsynthesized and character-ized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMRspectra and GelPermeation Chromatography (GPC.

  13. Raman and terahertz spectroscopical investigation of cocrystal formation process of piracetam and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong; Zhang, Huili; Xue, Jiadan; Fang, Hongxia; Zhang, Qi; Xia, Yi; Li, Yafang; Hong, Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Cocrystallization can improve physical and chemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredient, and this feature has great potential in pharmaceutical development. In this study, the cocrystal of piracetam and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid under grinding condition has been characterized by Raman and terahertz spectroscopical techniques. The major vibrational modes of individual starting components and cocrystal are obtained and assigned. Spectral results show that the vibrational modes of the cocrystal are different from those of the corresponding parent materials. The dynamic process of such pharmaceutical cocrystal formation has also been monitored directly with Raman and THz spectra. The formation rate is pretty fast in first several 20 min grinding time, and then it becomes slow. After ∼35 min, such process has been almost completed. These results offer us the unique means and benchmark for characterizing the cocrystal conformation from molecule-level and also provide us rich information about the reaction dynamic during cocrystal formation process in pharmaceutical fields.

  14. An instructive comparison of Denmark and Sweden CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffer, E.; Nifenecker, H.

    2007-02-01

    Denmark and Sweden are close neighbors, they have pretty much the same Climate, so that it is interesting to try to understand what makes them so different in their per capita GHG (Green House Gas) emissions from fuel combustion. Indeed, the CO 2 emissions of Denmark and Sweden are practically equal while the population of Sweden is much larger. Thus, the per capita CO 2 emissions of Denmark are 63 % larger than those of Sweden. Denmark resorts heavily to fossil fuels for its production of both its electric power and its industrial heat whereas Sweden resorts to other primary energy sources which are either renewable or do not emit CO 2 . True, Sweden is in a privileged situation for its access to hydro power and to biomass but Denmark could considerably reduce its CO 2 emissions if it were to call on nuclear power as Sweden has been doing. (A.L.B.)

  15. ASSESSMENT METHODS OF INTERNAL AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena RUSE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Internal audit services are more and more needed within economic entities, because on one hand they are directly subordinated to the general manager, on the other hand there is an increase in credit to its recommendations, estimating that internal audit is more than just a simple compliance check based on an established referral system. Our research focuses on evaluating the impact of theory and practice in the application of internal audit process. The added value brought by internal audit function to the economic entity it is pretty difficult to establish and requires effective ways and criteria of measured. In this regard, we will try to present ways to analyze internal audit’s activity by reference to some performance indicators or other specific methods. We used as research techniques: literature review, applied research and constructive research.

  16. About How Did the First Ever Big Economic Crisis Look Like

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. ANDREI

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The obsession about the current economic crisis is pretty understandable. But being obsessed about the current moment, in the economic crisis matter, might become a scientific mistake. As for instance, the real results of the current period will be available in just a couple of years. Moreover, we used to believe up to recently that the previous big crisis of 1929-1933 might be nearly an accident and would not repeat, due to its lesson applied: the policy makers made functional, vigilant, diligent and acting. May be such a lesson was not enough. But equally, every crisis would claim a specific lesson of this kind, and the present one would do the same, whereas the 1929-1933 and current crises lessons would not be enough, partly because the economic history has more in such a topic area. In other words, let us more deeply search for crisis elements in the world economic history.

  17. Velocity and Magnetic Compressions in FEL Drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Serafini, L

    2005-01-01

    We will compare merits and issues of these two techniques suitable for increasing the peak current of high brightness electron beams. The typical range of applicability is low energy for the velocity bunching and middle to high energy for magnetic compression. Velocity bunching is free from CSR effects but requires very high RF stability (time jitters), as well as a dedicated additional focusing and great cure in the beam transport: it is very well understood theoretically and numerical simulations are pretty straightforward. Several experiments of velocity bunching have been performed in the past few years: none of them, nevertheless, used a photoinjector designed and optimized for that purpose. Magnetic compression is a much more consolidated technique: CSR effects and micro-bunch instabilities are its main drawbacks. There is a large operational experience with chicanes used as magnetic compressors and their theoretical understanding is quite deep, though numerical simulations of real devices are still cha...

  18. Design of pulse waveform for waveform division multiple access UWB wireless communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhendong; Wang, Zhirui; Liu, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhilu

    2014-01-01

    A new multiple access scheme, Waveform Division Multiple Access (WDMA) based on the orthogonal wavelet function, is presented. After studying the correlation properties of different categories of single wavelet functions, the one with the best correlation property will be chosen as the foundation for combined waveform. In the communication system, each user is assigned to different combined orthogonal waveform. Demonstrated by simulation, combined waveform is more suitable than single wavelet function to be a communication medium in WDMA system. Due to the excellent orthogonality, the bit error rate (BER) of multiuser with combined waveforms is so close to that of single user in a synchronous system. That is to say, the multiple access interference (MAI) is almost eliminated. Furthermore, even in an asynchronous system without multiuser detection after matched filters, the result is still pretty ideal and satisfactory by using the third combination mode that will be mentioned in the study.

  19. Estimation of pressure drop in gasket plate heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neagu Anisoara Arleziana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present comparatively different methods of pressure drop calculation in the gasket plate heat exchangers (PHEs, using correlations recommended in literature on industrial data collected from a vegetable oil refinery. The goal of this study was to compare the results obtained with these correlations, in order to choose one or two for practical purpose of pumping power calculations. We concluded that pressure drop values calculated with Mulley relationship and Buonopane & Troupe correlation were close and also Bond’s equation gave results pretty close to these but the pressure drop is slightly underestimated. Kumar correlation gave results far from all the others and its application will lead to oversize. In conclusion, for further calculations we will chose either the Mulley relationship or the Buonopane & Troupe correlation.

  20. A deep convolutional neural network with new training methods for bearing fault diagnosis under noisy environment and different working load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Chuanhao; Peng, Gaoliang; Chen, Yuanhang; Zhang, Zhujun

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, intelligent fault diagnosis algorithms using machine learning technique have achieved much success. However, due to the fact that in real world industrial applications, the working load is changing all the time and noise from the working environment is inevitable, degradation of the performance of intelligent fault diagnosis methods is very serious. In this paper, a new model based on deep learning is proposed to address the problem. Our contributions of include: First, we proposed an end-to-end method that takes raw temporal signals as inputs and thus doesn't need any time consuming denoising preprocessing. The model can achieve pretty high accuracy under noisy environment. Second, the model does not rely on any domain adaptation algorithm or require information of the target domain. It can achieve high accuracy when working load is changed. To understand the proposed model, we will visualize the learned features, and try to analyze the reasons behind the high performance of the model.

  1. Antihydrogen spectroscopy and fundamental symmetry tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ximenez Rodrigues Alves, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    The baryon asymmetry remains an important unanswered question in physics nowadays. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that matter and antimatter should have been created in equal amounts in early stages of the universe. However, our universe seems to be pretty much empty of antimat......- ter. This discrepancy between theory and observation triggers scientists to investigate the properties of antimatter. A comparison between matter and antimatter properties constitutes a test of the charge conjugation-parity-time reversal (CPT) symmetry and any violation of this symmetry can open...... the doors for new physics and a possible explanation for the baryon asymmetry. Antihydrogen, the bound state of a positron and an antiproton, is the simplest anti-atom one can make. This thesis reports on the measurement of the resonance frequency of the 1S–2S transition in magnetically trapped antihydrogen...

  2. The compression algorithm for the data acquisition system in HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lin; Luo Jiarong; Li Guiming; Yue Dongli

    2003-01-01

    HT-7 superconducting tokamak in the Institute of Plasma Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences is an experimental device for fusion research in China. The main task of the data acquisition system of HT-7 is to acquire, store, analyze and index the data. The volume of the data is nearly up to hundreds of million bytes. Besides the hardware and software support, a great capacity of data storage, process and transfer is a more important problem. To deal with this problem, the key technology is data compression algorithm. In the paper, the data format in HT-7 is introduced first, then the data compression algorithm, LZO, being a kind of portable lossless data compression algorithm with ANSIC, is analyzed. This compression algorithm, which fits well with the data acquisition and distribution in the nuclear fusion experiment, offers a pretty fast compression and extremely fast decompression. At last the performance evaluation of LZO application in HT-7 is given

  3. Correlation Functions and Power Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The present lecture note is a supplement to the textbook Digital Signal Processing by J. Proakis and D.G. Manolakis used in the IMM/DTU course 02451 Digital Signal Processing and provides an extended discussion of correlation functions and power spectra. The definitions of correlation functions...... and spectra for discrete-time and continuous-time (analog) signals are pretty similar. Consequently, we confine the discussion mainly to real discrete-time signals. The Appendix contains detailed definitions and properties of correlation functions and spectra for analog as well as discrete-time signals....... It is possible to define correlation functions and associated spectra for aperiodic, periodic and random signals although the interpretation is different. Moreover, we will discuss correlation functions when mixing these basic signal types. In addition, the note include several examples for the purpose...

  4. ZLIB++: Object Oriented Numerical Library for Differential Algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Yiton T

    2003-01-01

    New software engineering tools and object-oriented design have a great impact on the software development process. but in high energy physics all major packages were implemented in FORTRAN and porting of these codes to another language is rather complicated, primarily because of their huge size and heavy use of FORTRAN mathematical libraries. But some intrinsic accelerator concepts, such as nested structure of modern accelerators, look very pretty when implemented with the object-oriented approach. In this paper the authors present the object-oriented version of ZLIB, numerical library for differential algebra, and show how the modern approaches can simplify the development and support of accelerator codes, decrease code size, and allow description of complex mathematical transformations by simple language

  5. ZLIB++: Object-oriented numerical library for differential algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malitsky, N.; Reshetov, A.; Yan, Y.

    1994-01-01

    New software engineering tools and object-oriented design have a great impact on the software development process. But in high energy physics all major packages were implemented in FORTRAN and porting of these codes to another language is rather complicated, primarily because of their huge size and heavy use of FORTRAN mathematical libraries. But some intrinsic accelerator concepts, such as nested structure of modern accelerators, look very pretty when implemented with the object-oriented approach. In this paper we present the object-oriented version of ZLIB, numerical library for differential algebra and show how the modern approaches can simplify the development and support of accelerator codes, decrease code size, and allow description of complex mathematical transformations by simple language

  6. Muon Simulation at the Daya Bay SIte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengyun, Guan; Jun, Cao; Changgen, Yang; Yaxuan, Sun; Luk, Kam-Biu

    2006-01-01

    With a pretty good-resolution mountain profile, we simulated the underground muon background at the Daya Bay site. To get the sea-level muon flux parameterization, a modification to the standard Gaisser's formula was introduced according to the world muon data. MUSIC code was used to transport muon through the mountain rock. To deploy the simulation, first we generate a statistic sample of sea-level muon events according to the sea-level muon flux distribution formula; then calculate the slant depth of muon passing through the mountain using an interpolation method based on the digitized data of the mountain; finally transport muons through rock to get underground muon sample, from which we can get results of muon flux, mean energy, energy distribution and angular distribution.

  7. A humming retrieval system based on music fingerprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xingkai; Cao, Baiyu

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we proposed an improved music information retrieval method utilizing the music fingerprint. The goal of this method is to represent the music with compressed musical information. Based on the selected MIDI files, which are generated automatically as our music target database, we evaluate the accuracy, effectiveness, and efficiency of this method. In this research we not only extract the feature sequence, which can represent the file effectively, from the query and melody database, but also make it possible for retrieving the results in an innovative way. We investigate on the influence of noise to the performance of our system. As experimental result shows, the retrieval accuracy arriving at up to91% without noise is pretty well

  8. Radioactive Waste Generation in Pyro-SFR Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Fanxing; Park, Byung Heung; Ko, Won Il

    2011-01-01

    Which nuclear fuel cycle option to deploy is of great importance in the sustainability of nuclear power. SFR fuel cycle employing pyroprocessing (named as Pyro- SFR Cycle) is one promising fuel cycle option in the near future. Radioactive waste generation is a key criterion in nuclear fuel cycle system analysis, which considerably affects the future development of nuclear power. High population with small territory is one special characteristic of ROK, which makes the waste management pretty important. In this study, particularly the amount of waste generation with regard to the promising advanced fuel cycle option was evaluated, because the difficulty of deploying an underground repository for HLW disposal requires a longer time especially in ROK

  9. Monte Carlo Library Least Square (MCLLS) Method for Multiple Radioactive Particle Tracking in BPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijian; Lee, Kyoung; Gardner, Robin

    2010-03-01

    In This work, a new method of radioactive particles tracking is proposed. An accurate Detector Response Functions (DRF's) was developed from MCNP5 to generate library for NaI detectors with a significant speed-up factor of 200. This just make possible for the idea of MCLLS method which is used for locating and tracking the radioactive particle in a modular Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) by searching minimum Chi-square values. The method was tested to work pretty good in our lab condition with a six 2" X 2" NaI detectors array only. This method was introduced in both forward and inverse ways. A single radioactive particle tracking system with three collimated 2" X 2" NaI detectors is used for benchmark purpose.

  10. Preparation of 177Lu-DTPA-BIS-BIOTIN and biodistribution evaluation in normal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xinrong; Luo Zhifu; Du Jin

    2010-01-01

    The labeling method for 177 Lu-DTPA-BIS-BIOTIN was established, and the biodistribution of 177 Lu-DTPA-BIS-BIOTIN in normal mice was carried out as well. Under the optimal experimental condition (DTPA-BIS-BIOTIN 25 μg, pH=4.5 reacting at 80 degree C for 20 min), the labeling yield of 177 Lu-DTPA-BIS-BIOTIN is more than 99.0%. 177 Lu-DTPA-BIS-BIOTIN shows pretty good in vitro stability. The biodistribution of 177 Lu-DTPA-BIS-BIOTIN in normal mice shows a rapid blood clearance. The uptake of 177 Lu-DTPA-BIS-BIOTIN is mainly accumulated in liver, spleen and kidney. 177 Lu-DTPA-BIS-BIOTIN is excreted by kidney. The results provide the basis for further study on 177 Lu-DTPA-BIS-BIOTIN used in pretargeted radioimage and radiotherapy of cancer. (authors)

  11. Design properties of coal liquids: edited workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Reilly, M.J. (eds.)

    1981-08-01

    The advent of synfuels will require a large measurement and modeling effort of new thermodynamic and physical properties. These data are required for the economic design and operation of proposed synfuel plants. The areas of data need are well defined. The pace of measurement will be restricted by laboratory availability. The cost for the required data and for their correlation and modeling will be substantial. And finally, the cost of doing all this work will be substantial. The plants we are talking about are energy plants and synfuel plants. They are energy intensive plants, and as such, they offer the prospects for a great deal of energy saving. To do so requires good data. In those critical areas where we start hunting the energy hogs, we will find that with +-20% data those hogs are pretty well hidden.

  12. Low-momentum ghost dressing function and the gluon mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J. P.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Micheli, J.; Pene, O.; Gomez, M. E.; Rodriguez-Quintero, J.

    2010-01-01

    We study the low-momentum ghost propagator Dyson-Schwinger equation in the Landau gauge, assuming for the truncation a constant ghost-gluon vertex, as it is extensively done, and a simple model for a massive gluon propagator. Then, regular Dyson-Schwinger equation solutions (the zero-momentum ghost dressing function not diverging) appear to emerge, and we show the ghost propagator to be described by an asymptotic expression reliable up to the order O(q 2 ). That expression, depending on the gluon mass and the zero-momentum Taylor-scheme effective charge, is proven to fit pretty well some low-momentum ghost propagator data [I. L. Bogolubsky, E. M. Ilgenfritz, M. Muller-Preussker, and A. Sternbeck, Phys. Lett. B 676, 69 (2009); Proc. Sci., LAT2007 (2007) 290] from big-volume lattice simulations where the so-called ''simulated annealing algorithm'' is applied to fix the Landau gauge.

  13. The Public-Key-Infrastructure of the Radiological Society of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetze, B.; Kaemmerer, M.; Klos, G.; Mildenberger, P.

    2006-01-01

    Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encoding is based on the Public-Key-Procedure and permits the safe transmission of medical data. Furthermore it allows the use of an electronic signature provided that keys used belong to the key owner and that the key owner's identity is guaranteed by a trusted third party. Under the auspices of the Radiological Society of Germany (Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft, DRG) its IT-Working Group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Informationstechnik, GIT) built up an appropriate Certification Authority including the required Public-Key-Infrastructure. These GIT certified PGP keys allow the legal use of telemedicine in Germany. Digital signatures based to those certified keys correspond to the advanced signature according to the German Signature Law

  14. The Public-Key-Infrastructure of the Radiological Society of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetze, B. [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Radiology, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany)]. E-mail: schuetze@medizin-informatik.org; Kaemmerer, M. [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Radiology, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Klos, G. [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Radiology, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Mildenberger, P. [Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Department of Radiology, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encoding is based on the Public-Key-Procedure and permits the safe transmission of medical data. Furthermore it allows the use of an electronic signature provided that keys used belong to the key owner and that the key owner's identity is guaranteed by a trusted third party. Under the auspices of the Radiological Society of Germany (Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft, DRG) its IT-Working Group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Informationstechnik, GIT) built up an appropriate Certification Authority including the required Public-Key-Infrastructure. These GIT certified PGP keys allow the legal use of telemedicine in Germany. Digital signatures based to those certified keys correspond to the advanced signature according to the German Signature Law.

  15. [Security aspects on the Internet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, R M; Kocher, K; Landsberg, P

    2000-04-01

    Is it possible to use the Internet as a secure media for transport of telemedicine? Which risks exist for routine use? In this article state of the art methods of security were analysed. Telemedicine in the Internet has severe risks, because patient data and hospital data of a secure Intranet can be manipulated by connecting it to the Web. Establishing of a firewall and the introduction of HPC (Health Professional Card) are minimizing the risk of un-authorized access to the hospital server. HPC allows good safety with digital signature and authentication of host and client of medical data. For secure e-mail PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is easy to use as a standard protocol. Planning all activities exactly as well as following legal regulations are important requisites for reduction of safety risks in Internet.

  16. LHC Report: No beams but still busy

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    The LHC finished with beams for 2011 on Wednesday 7 December after a pretty good year of operation. The cryogenics team has emptied the magnets of helium for the winter technical stop and a full maintenance programme has started. The LHC is running long operational years at present with only a few short technical stops during operation with beam. This leaves very little time for much-needed maintenance and upgrades. Thus, the hardware teams involved have to take full advantage of the time available during the winter stop.   The Engineering Department is planning and coordinating the maintenance and repair activities for the whole accelerator complex. The list of planned interventions is truly impressive! There is a lot of work that involves the essential technical infrastructure systems (electricity, cooling, ventilation). Cryogenics have established a full programme aimed at maintaining and improving their already good level of availability. Other systems undergoing maintenance include: vacu...

  17. LHC Report: No beams but still busy

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    The LHC finished with beams for 2011 on Wednesday 7 December after a pretty good year of operation. The cryogenics team has emptied the magnets of helium for the winter technical stop and a full maintenance programme has started. The LHC is running long operational years at present with only a few short technical stops during operation with beam. This leaves very little time for much-needed maintenance and upgrades. Thus, the hardware teams involved have to take full advantage of the time available during the winter stop.   The Engineering Department is planning and coordinating the maintenance and repair activities for the whole accelerator complex. The list of planned interventions is truly impressive! There is a lot of work that involves the essential technical infrastructure systems (electricity, cooling, ventilation). Cryogenics have established a full programme aimed at maintaining and improving their already good level of availability. Other systems undergoing maintenance include: vacu...

  18. (Emerging Discourses: Architecture and Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah McGaughey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Three recent works, Rosalind Galt’s Pretty, Anne Cheng’s Second Skin, and Daniel Purdy’s On the Ruins of Babel incorporate architectural history and architectural discourse into their analyses in ways that are new to their respective fields ranging from studies of film, gender, and race to intellectual history. Placing these three works in one essay allows for a detailed review of the ways in which each author employs architecture, at the same time as it reveals the benefits and challenges of incorporating architecture into cultural studies. The essay discusses the contributions of each work to their fields and also takes advantage of the different approaches to culture and architecture to explore the ways in which this relationship might continue to inform and generate productive studies.

  19. A neural network-based approach to noise identification of interferometric GW antennas: the case of the 40 m Caltech laser interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Acernese, F; Rosa, M D; Rosa, R D; Eleuteri, A; Milano, L; Tagliaferri, R

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a neural network-based approach is presented for the real time noise identification of a GW laser interferometric antenna. The 40 m Caltech laser interferometer output data provide a realistic test bed for noise identification algorithms because of the presence of many relevant effects: violin resonances in the suspensions, main power harmonics, ring-down noise from servo control systems, electronic noises, glitches and so on. These effects can be assumed to be present in all the first interferometric long baseline GW antennas such as VIRGO, LIGO, GEO and TAMA. For noise identification, we used the Caltech-40 m laser interferometer data. The results we obtained are pretty good notwithstanding the high initial computational cost. The algorithm we propose is general and robust, taking into account that it does not require a priori information on the data, nor a precise model, and it constitutes a powerful tool for time series data analysis.

  20. Faddeev-Yakubovsky technique for weakly bound systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadizadeh, M.R.; Yamashita, M.T.; Tomio, Lauro; Delfino, A.

    2011-01-01

    Nature shows the existence of weakly bound systems in different sectors, ranging from atomic to nuclear physics. Few-body systems with large scattering length exhibit universal features, which are independent of the details of the interaction, and thus are common to nuclear and atomic systems. Very different methods are used to study the properties of few-body systems, from Faddeev methods to diagonalization methods that rely on an expansion of the wave functions in a complete basis set, like e.g. hyper-spherical harmonics and no core shell model. In this talk we present Faddeev-Yakubovsky method to study the three- and four-body bound states in momentum space. To show the efficiency and accuracy of the method we investigate the three- and four-boson weakly bound states in unitary limit (for zero two-body binding) and we present a pretty complete picture of universality. (author)