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Sample records for pretreatment tc levels

  1. Pretreatment of Tc-Containing Waste and Its Effect on Tc-99 Leaching From Grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloy, Albert; Kovarskaya, Elena N.; Harbour, John R.; Langton, Christine A.; Holtzscheiter, E. William

    2007-01-01

    A salt solution (doped with Tc-99), that simulates the salt waste stream to be processed at the Saltstone Production Facility, was immobilized in grout waste forms with and without (1) ground granulated blast furnace slag and (2) pretreatment with iron salts. The degree of immobilization of Tc-99 was measured through monolithic and crushed grout leaching tests. Although Fe (+2) was shown to be effective in reducing Tc-99 to the +4 state, the strong reducing nature of the blast furnace slag present in the grout formulation dominated the reduction of Tc-99 in the cured grouts. An effective diffusion coefficient of 4.75 x 10 -12 (Leach Index of 11.4) was measured using the ANSI/ANS-16.1 protocol. The leaching results show that, even in the presence of a concentrated salt solution, blast furnace slag can effectively reduce pertechnetate to the immobile +4 oxidation state. The measured diffusivity was introduced into a flow and transport model (PORFLOW) to calculate the release of Tc-99 from a Saltstone Vault as a function of hydraulic conductivity of the matrix. (authors)

  2. Accurate technetium-99 determination using the combination of TEVA resin pretreatment and ICP-MS measurement and its influence on the Tc-99/Cs-137 scaling factor calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian-Song Chen; Tsing-Hai Wang; Yi-Kong Hsieh; Li-Wei Jian; Wie-Han Chen; Chu-Fang Wang; Tsuey-Lin Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Accurate determination of technetium-99 (Tc-99) is very important because any overestimation will cause the examined radioactive wastes to be categorized into super C class, which dramatically increases the cost of waste management. Herein, we demonstrated that by adopting the analytical method comprising TEVA resin pretreatment and ICP-MS measurement, the determined Tc-99 concentrations in representative waste stream samples from the Lan-Yu low-level radioactive waste temporary storage site in Taiwan were approximately two orders of magnitude lower than those determined from the beta radiation measurement using a low background liquid scintillation counter. Two important concerns emerged from our results. First, severe interferences from other nuclides residing in the matrix considerably affect the determination of Tc-99, even when a low background liquid scintillation counter was used. Second, the currently used Tc-99/Cs-137 scaling factor should be carefully revised, or it might lead to a considerable overestimation of the Tc-99 concentration. (author)

  3. Use of 99mTc from a commercial 99Mo/9mTc generator as yield tracer for the determination of 99Tc at low levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Jensen, Mikael; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of Tc-99 and impurity radionuclides in the Tc-99m tracer solution obtained from a commercial Mo-99/Tc-99m generator were measured by gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting. Mo-99 and Ru-103 were found in the Tc-99m eluate. A simple separation using two extra alumina...... cartridges was investigated to purify the eluate to obtain a suitable Tc-99m tracer with low Tc-99 concentration. The activity ratio of Tc-99/Tc-99m in the prepared Tc-99m solution is lower than 15 x 10(-9), which is higher than the theoretical ratio of less than 10 x 10(-9). The possible reason is discussed....... The Tc-99 in the 20 kBq spiked Tc-99m tracer was found to be less than 0.3mBq, which is lower than the detection limit of the radiometric method used for environmental samples. The purified Tc-99m eluate is used as yield tracer for the determination of low levels of Tc-99 in environmental samples. (c...

  4. Effects of hydrogen peroxide pretreatment of clay minerals on the adsorption of Sr-85 and Tc-95m under anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relyea, J.F.; Washburne, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    Treatment of three clay minerals with hydrogen peroxide affects the observed adsorption behavior of technetium relative to untreated clay under anoxic conditions. A possible adsorption mechanism of Tc is the reduction of TcO - 4 to a more positively charged or better adsorbed species. Oxidation of the clay by H 2 O 2 would hinder the reduction of TcO - 4 by buffering the clay-water system at a higher Eh value, although a difference in measured Eh value may go undetected. Sorption of strontium by the clays under the same conditions is not affected by a pretreatment with H 2 O 2 . The behavior of strontium follows that expected from ion exchange theory. 13 tables

  5. Level structure of 99Tc by inelastic scattering and proton stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.J.; Emigh, R.A.; Anderson, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    The 98 Mo( 3 He,d) 99 Tc and 99 Tc(d,d') reactions have been used to study the levels of 99 Tc. Spin-parity assignments are made for nearly all states below 1.5 MeV excitation. Strong j-dependence is noted for l=1 transitions in the proton stripping reaction, making possible several new spin assignments. The inelastic scattering data on 99 Tc are compared to similar data on 98 Mo, and are found to be in agreement with a coupling scheme based on a shell model with good seniority. (Auth.)

  6. Department of Energy pretreatment of high-level and low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The remediation of the 1 x 10 8 gal of highly radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks (USTs) at five US Department of Energy (DOE) sites is one of DOE's greatest challenges. Therefore, the DOE Office of Environmental Management has created the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage an integrated technology development program that results in the safe and efficient remediation of UST waste. The TFA has divided its efforts into five areas, which are safety, characterization, retrieval/closure, pretreatment, and immobilization. All DOE pretreatment activities are integrated by the Pretreatment Technical Integration Manager of the TFA. For FY 1996, the 14 pretreatment tasks are divided into 3 systems: supernate separations, sludge treatment, and solid/liquid separation. The plans and recent results of these TFA tasks, which include two 25,000-gal demonstrations and two former TFA tasks on Cs removal, are presented. The pretreatment goals are to minimize the volume of high-level waste and the radioactivity in low-level waste

  7. Separation of 99Tc from low level radioactive liquid waste using anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonar, N.L.; Mittal, V.K.; Dhara, Amrita; Thakur, D.A.; Valsala, T.P.; Vishwaraj, I.

    2016-01-01

    Technetium-99 is one of the fission products with very high yield (∼6%) in thermal neutron induced fission of 235 U. 99 Tc exists as pertechnate ( 99 TcO 4 ) ion in reprocessing streams. The high solubility in water and high mobility of pertechnate ions, coupled with very high half life of 99 Tc (t1/2 = 2 × 105 y, âmax = 290 KeV) makes it a potential candidate for long term hazard to the environment. Major radionuclides present in the intermediate level waste (ILW) generated at reprocessing plant is conventionally treated by ion exchange method for removal of 137 Cs. The Low level effluent waste (LLW) from the IX column contains 99 Tc as a major isotope. Though the concentration of 99 Tc in the waste is in ppm level, the presence of molar level of competing nitrates makes its separation very difficult. Many efforts have been reported on selective separation of 99 Tc from various waste streams. In this paper, separation of 99 Tc from ion exchange column effluent waste stream using selected commercially available anion exchange resins has been detailed

  8. Reference levels at diagnosis (NRD) for explorations in TC of the university Hospital Donostia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriondo Igerabide, U.; Puertolas Hernandez, J. R.; Masso Odriozola, A.; Alonso Espinaco, M. t.; Pino Leon, C.; Lozano Flores, F. J.; Larretxea Etxarri, R.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is the establishment of diagnostic reference levels in TC, for the anatomical regions, in the University Hospital Donostia, in order to reduce the dose to patients and without prejudice to the required diagnosis. (Author)

  9. The use of 99Mo/99mTc generators in the analysis of low levels of 99Tc in environmental samples by radiochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdall, M.; Selnaes, Oe.G.; Lind, B.; Gwynn, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of low levels of 99 Tc in environmental samples presents special challenges, particularly with respect to the selection of an appropriate and practicable chemical yield tracer. Of all the tracers available, 99m Tc eluted from 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators appears to be the most practicable in terms of availability, ease of use and cost. These factors have led to an increase in the use of such generators for the provision of 99m Tc as yield tracer for 99 Tc. For the analysis of low levels ( 3 or kg) of 99 Tc in environmental samples, consideration must be given to the radiochemical purity of the tracer solution with respect to contamination with both 99 Tc and other radionuclides. Due to the variable nature of the extent of the interference from tracer solution to tracer solution, it is unwise to try and establish a correction factor for any single generator. The only practical solution to the problem therefore is to run a 'blank' sample with each batch of samples drawn from a single tracer solution. (LN)

  10. New level schemes with high-spin states of 105,107,109Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y.X.; Rasmussen, J.O.; Lee, I.Y.; Fallon, P.; Hamilton, J.H.; Ramayya, A.V.; Hwang, J.K.; Gore, P.M.; Zhu, S.J.; Wu, S.C.; Ginter, T.N.; Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Daniel, A.V.; Stoyer, M.A.; Donangelo, R.; Gelberg, A.

    2004-01-01

    New level schemes of odd-Z 105,107,109 Tc are proposed based on the 252 Cf spontaneous-fission-gamma data taken with Gammasphere in 2000. Bands of levels are considerably extended and expanded to show rich spectroscopic information. Spin/parity and configuration assignments are made based on determinations of multipolarities of low-lying transitions and the level analogies to the previously reported levels, and to those of the neighboring Rh isotopes. A non-yrast negative-parity band built on the 3/2 - [301] orbital is observed for the first time in 105 Tc. A positive-parity band built on the 1/2 + [431] intruder orbital originating from the π(g 7/2 /d 5/2 ) subshells and having a strong deformation-driving effect is observed for the first time in 105 Tc, and assigned in 107 Tc. A positive-parity band built on the excited 11/2 + level, which has rather low excitation energy and predominantly decays into the 9/2 + level of the ground state band, provides evidence of triaxiality in 107,109 Tc, and probably also in 105 Tc. Rotational constants are calculated and discussed for the K=1/2 intruder bands using the Bohr-Mottelson formula. Level systematics are discussed in terms of the locations of proton Fermi levels and deformations. The band crossings of yrast positive-parity bands are observed, most likely related to h 11/2 neutron alignment. Triaxial-rotor-plus-particle model calculations performed with ε=0.32 and γ=-22.5 deg. on the prolate side of maximum triaxiality yielded the best reproduction of the excitation energies, signature splittings, and branching ratios of the positive-parity bands (except for the intruder bands) of these Tc isotopes. The significant discrepancies between the triaxial-rotor-plus-particle model calculations and experiment for the K=1/2 intruder bands in 105,107 Tc need further theoretical studies

  11. A high Tc superconducting liquid nitrogen level sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, J. X.; Liu, H. K.; Dou, S. X.; Grantham, C.; Beer, J.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The dramatic resistance change in the superconducting-normal transition temperature range enables a high T c superconductor to be considered for designing a liquid nitrogen level sensor. A (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+x Ag clad superconducting wire is selected and tested as a continuous liquid nitrogen level sensor to investigate the possibility for this application. The (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+x Ag clad superconducting wire has approximately 110 K critical temperature, with more flexible and stable properties compared with bulk shape ceramic high T c superconductors. The voltage drops across the sensor are tested with different immersion lengths in liquid nitrogen. The accuracy of the HTS sensor is analysed with its dR/dT in the superconducting-normal transition range. The voltage signal is sensitive to liquid nitrogen level change, and this signal can be optimized by controlling the transport current. The problems of the Ag clad superconductor are that the Ag sheath thermal conductivity is very high, and the sensor normal resistance is low. These are the main disadvantages for using such a wire as a continuous level sensor. However, a satisfactory accuracy can be achieved by control of the transport current. A different configuration of the wire sensor is also designed to avoid this thermal influence

  12. Observation of changes of serum leptin and lipid (TG and TC) levels in patients with graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaobao; Cheng Guanghua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum leptin (with RIA) and lipid (TG and TC) (with biochemistry) levels in patients with Graves' disease. Methods: Serum Leptin, TG and TC levels were determined in 29 patients with Graves' disease both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum Leptin, TG and TC levels in the patients were significantly lower than those in the controls. After treatment, serum Leptin, TG and TC levels increased and were significantly higher than those before treatment and were not much different from those in controls. Conclusion: The changes of serum Leptin, TG and TC levels may be of value for outcome prediction in patients with Graves' disease. (authors)

  13. Evaluation of high-level waste pretreatment processes with an approximate reasoning model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Agnew, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    The development of an approximate-reasoning (AR)-based model to analyze pretreatment options for high-level waste is presented. AR methods are used to emulate the processes used by experts in arriving at a judgment. In this paper, the authors first consider two specific issues in applying AR to the analysis of pretreatment options. They examine how to combine quantitative and qualitative evidence to infer the acceptability of a process result using the example of cesium content in low-level waste. They then demonstrate the use of simple physical models to structure expert elicitation and to produce inferences consistent with a problem involving waste particle size effects

  14. Lignocellulose pretreatment technologies affect the level of enzymatic cellulose oxidation by LPMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Cannella, David; de Campos Giordano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    of the cellulose oxidizing enzyme lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO). The highest activity of LPMO was observed for the hydrothermally pretreated biomasses, which also contained the highest level of lignin. All hydrolysis were done at high dry matter levels, using a commercial enzyme preparation containing......Sugarcane bagasse, corn stover, and wheat straw are among the most available resources for production of cellulosic ethanol. For these biomasses we study the influence of pre-treatment methods on the chemical composition, as well as on the subsequent reactions of enzymatic hydrolysis and oxidation...

  15. Comparison of the pre-treatment testosterone levels in benign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D.E. Orakwe

    2017-01-26

    Jan 26, 2017 ... Abstract. Objectives: To compare serum testosterone and prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels of patients diagnosed of prostate cancer to those with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Subjects and methods: One hundred and thirteen male patients with or without LUTS who had indica- tion(s) for prostate ...

  16. [Contamination levels to room air arising from the use of 99mTc-gas and prevention from the contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatani, A; Akutsu, T; Yamaguchi, K; Onodera, Y; Manaka, Y; Takahashi, K

    1996-04-01

    99mTc-gas (TECHNEGAS) is a 99mTc-labeled micro-aerosol which is considered to have different behavior from 133Xe or 81mKr gas. In order to estimate contamination levels to room air arising from the use of 99mTc-gas, filtered expired air during administration and 1, 2, 3, 5, 10 min after the administration were collected in each polyethylene bag. Radioactivities of the polyethylene bags, used filter and the lung were measured with 3-head scintillation camera. The activity of the expired air diminished within 6-10 min and about 5% of whole discharged 99mTc-gas was released to room air. The activity of the used filter was two times of the lung. According to these results, it is recommended that the 99mTc-gas may be administrated in a exclusive room. The administrated patient and used filter must be remain in the exclusive room.

  17. Does pretreatment hemoglobin level affect outcome in patients with T1 glottic cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canaday, Daniel J.; Regine, William F.; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Zollinger, William; Machtay, Mitchell; Lee, Jason; Schultz, Delray; Rosenthal, David I.; Rudoltz, Marc S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Recent reports have suggested that pretreatment hemoglobin (Hgb) is significantly associated with local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) in patients with T1 and T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx. This study evaluates the association of pretreatment Hgb level and other factors with outcome in patients limited to T1 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx treated with external beam radiation. Methods: One hundred fifty-eight patients with T1 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx were analyzed. Median follow-up was 5 years (range 2-22). Median pretreatment Hgb was 14.4 gm/dl (range 8.2-17.2). The following parameters were analyzed for their impact on LC, OS, and disease specific survival (DSS): age, gender, pretreatment Hgb, tumor grade, anterior commissure involvement, field size, total dose, dose per fraction, and overall treatment time. Results: Five year actuarial LC was 84%. Pretreatment Hgb was not a significant predictor for LC when assessed as a continuous variable (p=0.38). LC was 82% for patients with Hgb >13 vs 92% for Hgb ≤ 13 (p=0.13). No other factor was significant for LC. Five year actuarial OS was 74%. On univariate analysis, pretreatment Hgb ≤ 13 gm/dl was a significant factor for poorer OS (78% vs 68%, p=0.004), as were total dose 61 years (p=0.017). On multivariate analysis, only age >61 (p=0.014) and Hgb ≤ 13 (p=0.001) retained significance for OS. Five year actuarial DSS was 92%. Pretreatment Hgb was not a prognostic factor for DSS, nor were any other analyzed factors. Conclusion: Pretreatment Hgb is not a significant prognostic factor for LC in patients with T1 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx, but it does predict for a poorer OS without affecting DSS. This suggests that patients with lower pretreatment Hgb may have confounding medical problems which detract from their overall survival

  18. Tc Chemistry in HLW: Role of Organic Complexants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Nancy S.; Conradsen, Steven D.

    2003-01-01

    Tc complexation with organic compounds in tank waste plays a significant role in the redox chemistry of Tc and the partitioning of Tc between the supernatant and sludge components in waste tanks. These processes need to be understood so that strategies to effectively remove Tc from high-level nuclear waste prior to waste immobilization can be developed and so that long-term consequences of Tc remaining in residual waste after sludge removal can be evaluated. Only limited data on the stability of Tc-organic complexes exists and even less thermodynamic data on which to develop predictive models of Tc chemical behavior is available. To meet these challenges we are conducting a research program to study to develop thermodynamic data on Tc-organic complexation over a wide range of chemical conditions. We will attempt to characterize Tc-speciation in actual tank waste using state-of-the-art analytical organic chemistry, separations, and speciation techniques to validate our model. On the basis of such studies we will develop credible model of Tc chemistry in HLW that will allow prediction of Tc speciation in tank waste and Tc behavior during waste pretreatment processing and in waste tank residuals

  19. A suggestion of reference data for flow distribution at ankle and foot level using quantitative 99Tc-HDP three-phase bone scintigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøndevold, Niklas; Reving, Sofie; Møller, Nette

    2012-01-01

    To determine reference intervals for quantitative 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (99mTc-HDP) three-phase bone scintigraphy regarding flow distribution at ankle and mid-foot level.......To determine reference intervals for quantitative 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (99mTc-HDP) three-phase bone scintigraphy regarding flow distribution at ankle and mid-foot level....

  20. Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hong-Won; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Im, Hyun-Ju; Hong, Jae-Seung

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 µg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a Gi inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism.

  1. 99mTc-HMDP Bone Uptake Quantification and Plasma Osteocalcin, PTH Levels in Hemodialysis Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Euy Neyng; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Bang, Chan Young; Chung, Soo Kyo; Kim, Choon Yul; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Park, Chul Whee; Chang, Yoon Sik

    1996-01-01

    In this preliminary study, plasma osteocalcin, PTH level and Tc-99m-HMDP (hydro-xymetylene diphosphonate) bone uptake(BU) were measured in 14 patients with chronic end-stage renal failure who were on maintenance hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to determine the difference of bone uptake between renal failure patients and normal volunteers, and to determine the correlation between bone uptake and osteocalcin a sensitive and specific marker of osteoblastic activity and PTH-a important hormone of bone metabolism. There was a statistically significant increase in 180 minute uptake in the patient group when compared to the normal volunteers while there was no statistically significant difference in 20 minute uptake. Plasma osteocalcin and PTH levels were also significantly elevated compared to normal values. But the correlation between osteocalcin, PTH and 20 and 180 minute bone uptake was not significant. In conclusion, our preliminary study suggests that, in chronic renal failure patients, 180 minute Tc-99m-HMDP bone uptake is increased significantly without direct correlation with serum osteocalcin or PTH levels. It seems that further study is needed to evaluate other unknown factors that may influence the direct correlation between bone uptake and plasma osteocalcin and PTH in patients with chronic renal failure.

  2. Adsorption and desorption of Cu2+ on paddy soil aggregates pretreated with different levels of phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jun; Wang, Wenqin; Wu, Wenchen; Gao, Jianbo; Dong, Changxun

    2017-05-01

    Interactions between anions and cations are important for understanding the behaviors of chemical pollutants and their potential risks in the environment. Here we prepared soil aggregates of a yellow paddy soil from the Taihu Lake region, and investigated the effects of phosphate (P) pretreatment on adsorption-desorption of Cu 2+ of soil aggregates, free iron oxyhydrates-removed soil aggregates, goethite, and kaolinite with batch adsorption method. The results showed that Cu 2+ adsorption was reduced on the aggregates pretreated with low concentrations of P, and promoted with high concentrations of P, showing a V-shaped change. Compared with the untreated aggregates, the adsorption capacity of Cu 2+ was reduced when P application rates were lower than 260, 220, 130 and 110mg/kg for coarse, clay, silt and fine sand fractions, respectively. On the contrary, the adsorption capacity of Cu 2+ was higher on P-pretreated soil aggregates than on the control ones when P application rates were greater than those values. However, the desorption of Cu 2+ was enhanced at low levels of P, but suppressed at high levels of P, displaying an inverted V-shaped change over P adsorption. The Cu 2+ adsorption by the aggregate particles with and without P pretreatments was well described by the Freundlich equation. Similar results were obtained on P-pretreated goethite. However, such P effects on Cu 2+ adsorption-desorption were not observed on kaolinite and free iron oxyhydrates-removed soil aggregates. The present results indicate that goethite is one of the main soil substances responsible for the P-induced promotion and inhibition of Cu 2+ adsorption. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Alternatives generation and analysis for the phase 1 high-level waste pretreatment process selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuel, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    This report evaluates the effects of enhanced sludge washing and sludge washing without caustic leaching during the preparation of the Phase 1 high-level waste feeds. The pretreatment processing alternatives are evaluated against their ability to satisfy contractual, cost minimization, and other criteria. The information contained in this report is consistent with, and supplemental to, the Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (Kirkbride et al. 1997)

  4. Alternatives generation and analysis for the phase 1 high-level waste pretreatment process selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, A.F.

    1997-10-02

    This report evaluates the effects of enhanced sludge washing and sludge washing without caustic leaching during the preparation of the Phase 1 high-level waste feeds. The pretreatment processing alternatives are evaluated against their ability to satisfy contractual, cost minimization, and other criteria. The information contained in this report is consistent with, and supplemental to, the Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (Kirkbride et al. 1997).

  5. Techniques and practices for pretreatment of low and intermediate level solid and liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    An overall waste management strategy generally includes several components: pretreatment, treatment, conditioning, transport and disposal. Benefits of pretreatment are improved safety, lower radiation exposures and significantly lower costs in subsequent waste management operations. This publication reviews current practices in the pretreatment of wastes in different countries and may assist the specialist in selection of appropriate pretreatment techniques

  6. 129I- and 99TcO4-scavengers for low level radioactive waste backfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balsley, S.D.; Brady, P.V.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Anderson, H.L.

    1997-03-01

    Minimization of 129 I - and 99 TcO 4 - transport to the biosphere is critical to the success of low level radioactive waste (LLRW) storage facilities. Here we experimentally identify and classify optimal sorbent materials for inclusion in LLRW backfills. For low pH conditions (pH 4-5), Cu-sulfides and possibly imogolite-rich soils provide K d 's (surface-solution partition coefficients) of roughly 10 3 ml g -1 for iodide, and 10 2 ml g -1 for technetium. At near neutral pH, hydrotalcites, Cu-oxides, Cu-sulfides and lignite coal possess K d 's on the order of 10 2 ml g -1 for both iodine and technetium. At high pH (pH > 10), such as might occur in a cementitious LLRW facility, calcium monosulfate aluminate K d 's are calculated to be roughly 10 2 ml g -1 for both iodine and technetium

  7. Analysis of 99Tc and Its Activity Level in the Korean Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Chung, Kun Ho; Cho, Young Hyun; Kang, Mun Ja; Lee, Wanno; Kim, Hee Reyoung; Choi, Geun Sik

    2009-01-01

    An analytical method of 99 Tc concentration in soil was set up and discussed considering the 99 Tc concentration in Korean soil measured with its analytical method. A selective TEVA resin was used to separate and purify 99 Tc the in the soil sample. 99 Tc from a commercial 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator was used as a yield tracer for the chemical separation of 99 Tc and its problem when using as a tracer was discussed. The chemical recovery yield of was above 70%. The optimum conditions of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry system (ICP-MS) were set up to determine the 99 Tc after the separation process. The minimum detectable activity (MDA) was 15 mBq/kg-dry in this analytical procedure. The 99 Tc concentration in soils of Jeju and Kori were measured in the rage of 33.73-89.16 mBq/kg-dry. Those values were less than those reported in other countries and seemed to be originated from atmospheric fallout.

  8. Influence of surface pre-treatment on the electronic levels in silicon MaWCE nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Giulia; Castaldini, Antonio; Schleusener, Alexander; Sivakov, Vladimir; Cavallini, Anna

    2015-05-15

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) was performed on n-doped silicon nanowires grown by metal-assisted wet chemical etching (MaWCE) with gold as the catalyst in order to investigate the energetic scheme inside the bandgap. To observe the possible dependence of the level scheme on the processing temperature, DLTS measurements were performed on the nanowires grown on a non-treated Au/Si surface and on a thermally pre-treated Au/Si surface. A noticeable modification of the configuration of the energy levels was observed, induced by the annealing process. Based on our results on these MaWCE nanowires and on literature data about deep levels in bulk silicon, some hypotheses were advanced regarding the identification of the defects responsible of the energy levels revealed.

  9. Increased levels of unscheduled DNA synthesis in UV-irradiated human fibroblasts pretreated with sodium butyrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.I.; Friedberg, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    Pretreatment of growing normal and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) human fibroblasts with sodium butyrate at concentrations of 5-20 mM results in increased levels of DNA repair synthesis measured by autoradiography after exposure of the cells to 254 nm UV radiation in the fluence range 0-25 J/m 2 . The phenomenon manifests as an increased extent and an increased initial rate of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). This experimental result is not due to an artifact of autoradiography related to cell size. Xeroderma pigmentosum cells from complementation groups A, C, D and E and XP variant cells all exhibit increases in the levels of UV-induced UDS in response to sodium butyrate proportional to those observed with normal cells. These UDS increases associated with butyrate pretreatment correlate with demonstrable changes in intracellular thymidine pool size and suggest that sodium butyrate enhances uptake of exogenous radiolabeled thymidine during UV-induced repair synthesis by reducing endogenous levels of thymidine. (author)

  10. Effect of different levels of continuous positive airway pressure on the 99mTc-DTPA lung clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulciane Nunes Paiva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Positive airway pressure continues (CPAP produces significant hemodynamic changes that may influence the variability of breathing pattern and heart rate, acting as an additional therapy to prevent atelectasis and to combat hypoxia. The rate of inhaled 99 m Technetiumdiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA, along with changes in the lung epithelium cause an increase in the rate of clearance of this compound. The aim of this study was evaluate the pulmonary clearance rate of 99mTechnetium Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA through the use of different levels of CPAP. Methods: It was a quasi-experimental study involving 17 healthy individuals with normal lung functional. 99mTc-DTPA, as aerosol, was nebulized for 3 minutes with the individual in a sitting position. The pulmonary clearance rate was assessed through pulmonary scintigraphy under spontaneous breathing and under 20 and 10 cmH2 O CPAP in the sitting position. The clearance rate was expressed as the half-time (T½ that is the time for the activity to decrease to 50% of the peak value. Results: 20 cmH2 O CPAP produced significant reduction of the T½ of 99mTc-DTPA in the sitting position (p=0.005. However, 10 cmH2 O CPAP did not alter the T½ of DTPA in the same positions. Conclusion: High levels of continuos positive pressure in normal lungs resulted in faster 99mTc-DTPA clearance moreover, 10 cmH2 O did not alter its clearance rate. KEYWORDS: Noninvasive ventilation. Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate. Radionuclide Imaging.

  11. Collection, pre-treatment and analyses of Cs-137 and Tc-99 in marine samples at the Institute of Marine Research (IMR), Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heldal, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The Institute of Marine Research (IMR) is an important contributor to the Norwegian marine monitoring programme RAME (Radioactivity in the Marine Environment). RAME is funded by the Ministry of the Environment and coordinated by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). Sample collection is performed from IMRs research vessels in the open sea areas of the North-, Norwegian- and Barents Seas and in Norwegian fjords. The samples consist of biota (fish and other marine organisms), sediments and seawater. Biota samples are frozen onboard the ship and transported to IMR where the samples are subsequently ground up, freeze dried, homogenized and aliquoted into polyethylene counting boxes of appropriate size prior to analysis. Attempts are made to collect filets from 25 fish for each sample of large fish such as cod, haddock, saithe, red-fish and Greenland halibut. For smaller fish (e.g. blue whiting, polar cod, capelin and Atlantic herring) and other organisms such as amphipods, krill, and deep-sea shrimps, a sample of 2-3 kg of each species is taken. These samples are ground up whole. Sediment samples are collected using a Smoegen boxcorer, from where both surface samples and cores are taken. The samples are frozen onboard the ship. While half-frozen, the cores are cut into slices of 1 or 2 cm thickness on board the ship, then frozen again and transported to IMR where they are treated as described above for the biota samples. Large volumes (typically 50-200 L) of seawater are needed in order to get enough material for analysis. Pre-treatment of the samples in the field is therefore an advantage. Surface samples (5 m) of seawater are collected from a shipboard pump, while a CTD-rosette multi-bottle sampler with 12 10 L samplers is used to collect seawater from depths below 5 meters. For the analysis of Cs-137, Cu 2 [Fe(CN) 6 ]-impregnated cotton filters are used for the pre-concentration. One pre-filter without impregnation, two Cu 2 [Fe(CN) 6

  12. Chemoradiation of unresectable pancreatic carcinoma: impact of pretreatment hemoglobin level on patterns of failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganti, A.G.; Macchia, G. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Forni, F. [Dept. of Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Univ. Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy); Valentini, V.; Smaniotto, D.; Trodella, L.; Balducci, M.; Cellini, N. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Univ. Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy)

    2003-02-01

    between pretreatment Hb levels and metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival. (orig.)

  13. Absorbed dose at subcellular level by Monte Carlo simulation for a {sup 99m}Tc-peptide with nuclear internalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E. L.; Ferro F, G. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Santos C, C. L., E-mail: leticia.rojas@inin.gob.m [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Tollocan esquina Paseo Colon s/n, Toluca 50120, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    The utility of radiolabeled peptides for the early and specific diagnosis of cancer is being investigated around the world. Recent investigations have demonstrated the specificity of {sup 99m}Tc-bombesin conjugates to target breast and prostate cancer cells. The novel idea of adding the Tat (49-57) peptide to the radiopharmaceutical in order to penetrate the cell nucleus is a new proposal for therapy at cellular level. {sup 99m}Tc radionuclide produces Auger energy of 0.9 keV/decay and internal conversion electron energy of 15.4 keV/decay, which represent 11.4% of the total {sup 99m}Tc energy released per decay. It is expected that the dose delivered at specific microscopic levels in cancer cells induce a therapeutic effect. The aim of this research was to assess in vitro internalization kinetics in breast and prostate cancer cells of {sup 99m}Tc-Tat(49-57)-bombesin and to evaluate the radiation absorbed dose at subcellular level simulating the electron transport. The pen main program from the 2006 version of the Penelope code was used to simulate and calculate the absorbed dose by Auger and internal conversion electron contribution in the membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus of Pc-3 prostate cancer and MCF7 and MDA human breast cancer cell lines. Nuclear data were obtained from the 2002 BNM-LNHB {sup 99m}Tc decay scheme. The spatial distribution of the absorbed doses to the membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus were calculated using a geometric model built from real images of cancer cells. The elemental cell composition was taken from the literature. The biokinetic data were obtained evaluating total disintegrations in each subcellular compartment by integration of the time-activity curves acquired from experimental data. Results showed that 61, 63 and 46% of total disintegrations per cell-bound {sup 99m}Tc-Tat-Bn activity unit occurred in the nucleus of Pc-3, MCF7 and MDA-MB231 respectively. {sup 99m}Tc--Tat-Bn absorbed doses were 1.78, 5.76 and 2.59 Gy/Bq in the nucleus of

  14. Eldecalcitol normalizes bone turnover markers regardless of their pre-treatment levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Masataka; Saito, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    Three-year treatment with eldecalcitol has been shown to improve lumbar and total hip bone mineral density (BMD), decrease bone turnover markers, and lower the incidences of vertebral and wrist fractures in patients with osteoporosis more than with treatment with alfacalcidol under vitamin D repletion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a risk of eldecalcitol causing severely suppressed bone turnover in osteoporosis patients with low pre-treatment levels of bone turnover markers. Post-hoc analysis was conducted on the data from a 3-year, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator, clinical trial of eldecalcitol versus alfacalcidol under vitamin D repletion conducted in Japan. Enrolled patients with baseline measurements of bone turnover markers were stratified into tertiles according to their pre-treatment levels of serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide, or urinary collagen-N-telopeptide. Eldecalcitol treatment rapidly reduced bone turnover markers, and kept them within the normal range. However, in the patients whose baseline values for bone turnover were low, eldecalcitol treatment did not further reduce bone turnover markers during the 3-year treatment period. Further long-term observation may be required to reach the conclusion. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV NUMBER: NCT00144456. Eldecalcitol normalizes, but does not overly suppress, bone turnover regardless of baseline levels of bone turnover markers. Thus, it is unlikely that eldecalcitol treatment will increase the risk of severely suppressed bone turnover and therefore deterioration of bone quality, at least for a treatment duration of 3 years.

  15. Prognostic Significance of Pre-treatment Serum C-Reactive Protein Level in Patients with Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner-Adler, Barbara; Kimberger, Oliver; Schneidinger, Cora; Kölbl, Heinz; Bodner, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate pre-treatment serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level as a prognostic parameter in patients with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Pre-treatment CRP levels were analyzed to determine potential associations with clinicopathological parameters and to assess prognostic value in 46 patients with sole adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. The mean (±SD) pre-treatment serum CRP level was 5.82 (7.21) mg/l. Serum CRP concentration significantly correlated positively with age at diagnosis (p=0.001), lymphovascular space invasion (p=0.0026), recurrent disease (p=0.0001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (p=0.0002). In multivariate Cox regression models with age, FIGO stage, histological grade and lymph node status, elevated CRP and cancer antigen 125 levels were associated with shortened survival (pcervix. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. MRI of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: factors determining pretreatment hormone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, N.; Iuchi, T.; Eda, M.; Yamaura, A. [Dept. of Neurological Surgery, Chiba University School of Medicine (Japan); Isono, S. [Dept. of Neurological Surgery, Anesthesiology, Chiba University School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Preoperative serum growth hormone (GH) level is one of the most important determinants of outcome. Our aim was to assess MRI findings which may correlate with pretreatment GH levels in GH-secreting adenomas. We retrospectively studied 29 patients with acromegaly caused by a pituitary adenoma. Tumor size (height, width, thickness and volume), suprasellar extension, sphenoid or cavernous sinus invasion, signal intensity and contrast enhancement were studied. Linear regression analysis or Fisher's exact probability test was used for statistical analysis. Factors related to high GH levels were the maximum dimension of the tumour (r = 0.496, P < 0.01), its volume (r = 0.439, P < 0.05), spenoid sinus invasion (P < 0.01) and intracavernous carotid artery encasement (P < 0.01). The other items were not related to serum GH levels. Since we believe surgery is the first choice of treatment and the cavernous sinus is difficult of access with a conventional surgical approach, preoperative assessment of invasion into the cavernous sinus is critical for predicting the surgical outcome. Low GH levels (5-50 ng/ml) were found with tumours medial to the intercarotid line and high levels (more than 101 ng/ml) with invasive tumours with carotid artery encasement. Variable GH levels were noted with tumours extending beyond the intercarotid line. Because functioning adenomas invading the cavernous sinus tend to have markedly high hormone levels, and only patients with carotid artery encasement showed markedly elevated GH levels, we believe carotid artery encasement a reliable MRI indicator of cavernous sinus invasion. (orig.)

  17. The Prognostic Significance of Pretreatment Serum CEA Levels in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis Including 14651 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kai; Yang, Li; Hu, Bing; Wu, Hao; Zhu, Hong; Tang, Chengwei

    2015-01-01

    Background Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is commonly used as a serum tumor marker in clinical practice; however, its prognostic value for gastric cancer patients remains uncertain. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of CEA and investigate CEA as a tumor marker. Methods PubMed, EMBASE and other databases were searched for potentially eligible studies. Forty-one studies reporting the prognostic effect of pretreatment serum CEA expression in gastric cancer patients were selected. Data on 14651 eligible patients were retrieved for the meta-analysis. Based on the data extracted from the available literature, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for an adverse prognosis were estimated for gastric cancer patients with elevated pretreatment serum levels of CEA (CEA+) relative to patients with normal pretreatment CEA levels (CEA-). Results The CEA+ patients had a significantly poorer prognosis than the CEA- patients in terms of overall survival (OS: HR 1.716, 95% CI 1.594 - 1.848, P 0.05). In the pooled analyses of multivariate-adjusted HRs, the results suggested that pretreatment serum CEA may be an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer (OS: HR 1.681, 95% CI 1.425 - 1.982; DSS: HR 1.900, 95% CI 1.441 - 2.505; DFS: HR 2.579, 95% CI 1.935 - 3.436). Conclusion/Significance The meta-analysis based on the available literature supported the association of elevated pretreatment serum CEA levels with a poor prognosis for gastric cancer and a nearly doubled risk of mortality in gastric cancer patients. CEA may be an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients and may aid in determining appropriate treatment which may preferentially benefit the CEA+ patients. PMID:25879931

  18. Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-06-24

    The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps.

  19. Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-01-01

    The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps

  20. Cuban typical doses for 99mTc-DMSA renal gammagraphy studies: a methodology for the establishment of reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Varela Corona, C.; Lopez Bejerano, G.M.; Perea Diaz, M.; Paz Viera, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Since a handful of years ago, international rules on Radiological Protection include the principle of optimization of given dose to patients, if this procedure doesn't lessen diagnosis quality, and the establishment of reference levels of activity. For these reasons, the Radiological Protection staff of Cuban Institute of Nephrology's Nuclear Medicine Service, where morpho functional renal studies are carried out, 70% on infants and young children, started a research on that way. Thus, because their biggest incidence, 99m Tc -DMSA renal gammagraphy studies were chosen, using a General Electric 400 AT Planar Gamma Camera. Studied sample was randomly selected, including adults (12 peoples) and children (23); divided into 4 groups, lessen given dose step by step. Other items were kept in mind in the research, such age, weight, time delayed between administrations and image getting, getting time of each view and total time of the study, as well as radiopharmaceuticals quality and Gamma Camera performance. Image quality was evaluated for each case, using both, objective and subjective criteria. Objective evaluation was done by using contrast/noise ratios and variance of the random noise. They were used to develop clustering and discriminant analysis over the independent variables to detect groups with differentiated image quality from the physical and mathematical point of view. Subjective evaluation was performed using the criteria of two expert observers who had no information about the activity levels used. They evaluated image quality separately, giving a good, regular or bad evaluation for each image. As a conclusion, we found that it is possible to reduce the given activities in 50% and thus, indirectly, to reduce doses for workers and for the public. Additionally, we propose a methodology for the establishment of reference levels for 99m Tc -DMSA renal gammagraphy studies in Cuba, both, for adults and paediatric patients. (author)

  1. Prediction of Radiation Esophagitis in Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Using Clinical Factors, Dosimetric Parameters, and Pretreatment Cytokine Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Hawkins

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Radiation esophagitis (RE is a common adverse event associated with radiotherapy for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. While plasma cytokine levels have been correlated with other forms of radiation-induced toxicity, their association with RE has been less well studied. We analyzed data from 126 patients treated on 4 prospective clinical trials. Logistic regression models based on combinations of dosimetric factors [maximum dose to 2 cubic cm (D2cc and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD], clinical variables, and pretreatment plasma levels of 30 cytokines were developed. Cross-validated estimates of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC and log likelihood were used to assess prediction accuracy. Dose-only models predicted grade 3 RE with AUC values of 0.750 (D2cc and 0.727 (gEUD. Combining clinical factors with D2cc increased the AUC to 0.779. Incorporating pretreatment cytokine measurements, modeled as direct associations with RE and as potential interactions with the dose-esophagitis association, produced AUC values of 0.758 and 0.773, respectively. D2cc and gEUD correlated with grade 3 RE with odds ratios (ORs of 1.094/Gy and 1.096/Gy, respectively. Female gender was associated with a higher risk of RE, with ORs of 1.09 and 1.112 in the D2cc and gEUD models, respectively. Older age was associated with decreased risk of RE, with ORs of 0.992/year and 0.991/year in the D2cc and gEUD models, respectively. Combining clinical with dosimetric factors but not pretreatment cytokine levels yielded improved prediction of grade 3 RE compared to prediction by dose alone. Such multifactorial modeling may prove useful in directing radiation treatment planning.

  2. Fasting and exercise increase plasma cannabinoid levels in THC pre-treated rats: an examination of behavioural consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexander; Keats, Kirily; Rooney, Kieron; Hicks, Callum; Allsop, David J; Arnold, Jonathon C; McGregor, Iain S

    2014-10-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, accumulates in fat tissue where it can remain for prolonged periods. Under conditions of increased fat utilisation, blood cannabinoid concentrations can increase. However, it is unclear whether this has behavioural consequences. Here, we examined whether rats pre-treated with multiple or single doses of THC followed by a washout would show elevated plasma cannabinoids and altered behaviour following fasting or exercise manipulations designed to increase fat utilisation. Behavioural impairment was measured as an inhibition of spontaneous locomotor activity or a failure to successfully complete a treadmill exercise session. Fat utilisation was indexed by plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels with plasma concentrations of THC and its terminal metabolite (-)-11-nor-9-carboxy-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) also measured. Rats given daily THC (10 mg/kg) for 5 days followed by a 4-day washout showed elevated plasma THC-COOH when fasted for 24 h relative to non-fasted controls. Fasted rats showed lower locomotor activity than controls suggesting a behavioural effect of fat-released THC. However, rats fasted for 20 h after a single 5-mg/kg THC injection did not show locomotor suppression, despite modestly elevated plasma THC-COOH. Rats pre-treated with THC (5 mg/kg) and exercised 20 h later also showed elevated plasma THC-COOH but did not differ from controls in their likelihood of completing 30 min of treadmill exercise. These results confirm that fasting and exercise can increase plasma cannabinoid levels. Behavioural consequences are more clearly observed with pre-treatment regimes involving repeated rather than single THC dosing.

  3. Prognostic significance of pretreatment plasma fibrinogen level in patients with digestive system tumors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui; Ren, Qian; Bai, Suyang; Wang, Yuping; Zhou, Yongning

    2018-06-01

    High pretreatment levels of plasma fibrinogen have been widely reported to be a potential predictor of prognosis in digestive system tumors; however, the conclusions are not consistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to comprehensively assess the prognostic roles of high pretreatment plasma fibrinogen levels in digestive system tumors. We searched for eligible studies in the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science electronic databases for publications from the database inception to 1 September 2017. The endpoints of interest included overall survival, disease-free survival, and recurrence-free survival. We investigated the relationship between fibrinogenemia and overall survival in colorectal cancer (10 studies), gastric cancer (6), pancreatic cancer (6), hepatocellular carcinoma (7), and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (10); the pooled results indicated that fibrinogenemia was significantly related to a worse overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52, 1.97; P digestive system tumors, indicating that it could be a useful prognostic marker in these types of tumors.

  4. Effect of administered radioactive dose level on image quality of brain perfusion imaging with 99mTc-HMPAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Armeniakos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain perfusion imaging by means of 99mTc-labeled hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (HMPAO is a well-established Nuclear Medicine diagnostic procedure. The administered dose range recommended by the supplying company and reported in bibliography is rather wide (approximately 9.5-27 mCi. This fact necessitates further quantitative analysis of the technique, so as to minimise patient absorbed dose without compromising the examination diagnostic value. In this study, a quantitative evaluation of the radiopharmaceutical performance for different values of administered dose (10, 15, 20 mCi was carried out. Subsequently, a generic image quality index was correlated with the administered dose, to produce an overall performance indicator. Through this cost-to-benefit type analysis, the necessity of administration of higher radioactive dose levels in order to perform the specific diagnostic procedure was examined.Materials & methods: The study was based on a sample of 78 patients (56 administered with 10 mCi, 10 with 15 mCi and 12 with 20 mCi. Some patients were classified as normal, while others presented various forms of pathology. Evaluation of image quality was based on contrast, noise and contrast-to-noise ratio indicators, denoted CI, NI and CNR respectively. Calculation of all indicators was based on wavelet transform. An overall performance indicator (denoted PI, produced by the ratio of CNR by administered dose, was also calculated.Results: Calculation of skewness parameter revealed the normality of CI, NI and non-normality of CNR, PI populations. Application of appropriate statistical tests (analysis of variance for normal and Kruskal-Wallis test for non-normal populations showed that there is a statistically significant difference in CI (p0.05 values. Application of Tukey test for normal populations CI, NI led to the conclusion that CI(10 mCi = CI(20 mCiNI(20 mCi, while NI(15 mCi can not be characterised. Finally, application of non

  5. Separation processes for the pretreatment of high-level nuclear wastes at the Savannah River site - 59291

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, David; Peters, Thomas; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn; Fondeur, Fernando; Nash, Charles; Fink, Samuel; Herman, David; Marra, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Separation methods for the pretreatment of the high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) include the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for cesium and adsorption/ion exchange for the removal of cesium, strontium and alpha-emitting actinides. The CSSX process uses a calixarene extractant in combination with phase modifiers in a hydrocarbon diluent. Monosodium titanate (MST), a hydrous metal oxide, is the baseline material for the removal of strontium and alpha-emitting radionuclides (principally Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240 and Np-237). Two pretreatment facilities, the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) facility began radioactive operations at SRS in 2008. Together these facilities can treat approximately 4 million liters of waste per year. The same separation processes are also planned for the much larger Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The SWPF, which has a design throughput of about 27 million liters per year, is under construction and scheduled to begin radioactive operations in 2014. Current R and D activities for the CSSX process are focused on implementing a new solvent system and stripping flowsheet that offers enhanced extraction and stripping of cesium. This next generation solvent system features a different calixarene extractant, uses caustic instead of nitric acid

  6. Investigation of Surface Pre-Treatment Methods for Wafer-Level Cu-Cu Thermo-Compression Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki Tanaka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To increase the yield of the wafer-level Cu-Cu thermo-compression bonding method, certain surface pre-treatment methods for Cu are studied which can be exposed to the atmosphere before bonding. To inhibit re-oxidation under atmospheric conditions, the reduced pure Cu surface is treated by H2/Ar plasma, NH3 plasma and thiol solution, respectively, and is covered by Cu hydride, Cu nitride and a self-assembled monolayer (SAM accordingly. A pair of the treated wafers is then bonded by the thermo-compression bonding method, and evaluated by the tensile test. Results show that the bond strengths of the wafers treated by NH3 plasma and SAM are not sufficient due to the remaining surface protection layers such as Cu nitride and SAMs resulting from the pre-treatment. In contrast, the H2/Ar plasma–treated wafer showed the same strength as the one with formic acid vapor treatment, even when exposed to the atmosphere for 30 min. In the thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS measurement of the H2/Ar plasma–treated Cu sample, the total number of the detected H2 was 3.1 times more than the citric acid–treated one. Results of the TDS measurement indicate that the modified Cu surface is terminated by chemisorbed hydrogen atoms, which leads to high bonding strength.

  7. Pretreatment Serum Cystatin C Levels Predict Renal Function, but Not Tumor Characteristics, in Patients with Prostate Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of Cystatin C (Cys-C in tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer (PCa, we retrospectively collected the clinical information from the records of 492 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, 48 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, and 173 PCa patients, whose disease was newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed. Pretreatment serum Cys-C levels were compared across the various groups and then analyzed to identify relationships, if any, with clinical and pathological characteristics of the PCa patient group. There were no significant differences in serum Cys-C levels among the three groups (P > 0.05. In PCa patients with normal SCr levels, patient age was correlated with serum Cys-C level (P ≤ 0.001 but did not correlate with alkaline phosphatase (AKP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, prostate specific antigen (PSA, Gleason score, or bone metastasis status (P > 0.05. Age and SCr contributed in part to the variations in serum Cys-C levels of PCa patients (r = 0.356, P ≤ 0.001; r = 0.520, P ≤ 0.001. In conclusion, serum Cys-C levels predict renal function in patients with prostate neoplasia, but were not a biomarker for the development of prostate neoplasia, and were not correlated with the clinicopathological characteristics of PCa.

  8. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  9. 93Tc and sup(93m)Tc gamma spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podkopaev, Yu.N.; Zarubin, P.P.; Kobelev, V.F.; Padalko, V.Yu.; Khrisanfov, Yu.V.

    1977-01-01

    The sup(93,93m)Tc decay was studied. The spectra of γ-rays accompanying the decay of this nuclide were studied. 93 Tc and sup(93m)Tc were obtained in the (dn)-reaction on 92 Mo. To ensure a more reliable identification of γ-rays, the isotopic composition of the targets, the bombardment time, the energy of the bombarding deuterons (5-12 MeV) and the spectrum processing program were varied. The energies and relative intensities of the γ-rays of the 93 Tc and sup(93m)Tc decay are listed in tables together with data of other investigatxons. The results obtained largely confirm the known data. Four new transitions were added in the sup(93m)Tc spectrum namely 1046.8, 2011.8, 2182.0, and 2861.5 keV. The 2739.0 keV transition was eliminated from the 93 Tc spectrum. The appropriate changes and additions were made in the 93 Tc decay scheme, and three new levels were introduced: 2479.0, 2821.7, and 3025.8 keV. The values of log ft of some levels of 93 Tc were estimated

  10. Studies on treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste for removal of anionic species of 125Sb, 99Tc and 106Ru. Contributed Paper RD-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivakamy, K.; Chitra, S.; Rao, S.V.S.; Paul, Biplob

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of intermediate level waste at Waste Immobilization Plant generates low level radioactive waste which would require further management before discharge to sea. This waste is expected to contain polymeric oxo anions of 125 Sb, 99 Tc, 106 Ru in addition to cationic species like 137 Cs, 90 Sr etc. Chemical treatment takes care of the major contributors to radioactivity viz 137 Cs, 90 Sr etc but traces of activity due to anionic species remain in the treated waste effluent. Novel composite anionic exchanger namely Polyurethane foam coated with Hydrous Zirconium Oxide was developed for removal of these anionic species. This material was successfully employed for removal of anionic 1 25S b from radioactive waste effluent at Waste Management Division, Trombay. Based on our experience with Sb removal using the above material it was decided to assess the ability of the exchanger in removal of other anionic species bearing Ru and Tc. It was observed that in addition to complete removal of Sb, 50% Ru removal and 40% Tc could also be removed using this material from radioactive waste effluents. In lab experiments, similar results were obtained with simulated low level waste bearing inactive Ru. Among several hydrous oxides tried in a batch study, Hydrous Zirconium Oxide showed a maximum removal of 40% for Tc in actual waste generated from reprocessing plant. Based on the above it has been planned to set up an anion exchange column with Hydrous Zirconium Oxide coated Polyurethane foam for final treatment of chemically treated waste effluent prior to discharge as a prime step towards achieving our goal of minimum discharge to Sea. (author)

  11. Effects of TC regimen combined chemotherapy on serum levels of TSGF, PRL, HE4 and inflammatory factors in patients with endometrial carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Huan Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effects of TC chemotherapy on the basis of surgical treatment on Endometrial carcinoma patients’ serum TSGF, PRL, HE4 and TNF-α, CRP, VEGF, IL-8 levels. Methods: 106 cases of endometrial carcinoma in our hospital from September 2014 to September 2016 were retrospectively analyzed and divided into control group and observation group, with 49 patients in the control group,57 patients in the observation group. All patients were given laparoscopic surgery, the patients in the observation group were given on the basis of laparoscopic surgery TC regimen (paclitaxel + carboplatin chemotherapy for 2 courses, fasting venous blood before and after treatment in the morning was taken and centrifuged, and then used ELISA method to detect and compare the serum levels of TSGF, PRL, HE4 and TNF-α, CRP, VEGF, IL-8. Results: (1 Before treatment, there was no statistically significant difference in the serum TSGF, PRL, HE4 levels between the two groups. After treatment, compared with the same group before treatment, the serum TSGF, PRL, HE4 levels of the two groups were significantly lower, and those levels of observation group were significantly better than the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups; (2 Before treatment, there was no statistically significant difference in the serum TNF-α, CRP, VEGF, IL-8 levels between the two groups. After treatment, compared with the same group before treatment, the serum TNF-α, CRP, VEGF, IL-8 levels of the two groups were significantly lower, and those levels of observation group were significantly better than the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: The treatment of TC chemotherapy on the basis of surgical treatment can significantly improve the patient's serum TSGF, PRL, HE4 and TNF-α, CRP, VEGF, IL-8 levels, it indicated that adjuvant chemotherapy with TC could not only improve the curative effect, control local

  12. Development of a pyro-partitioning process for long-lived radioactive nuclides. Process test for pretreatment of simulated high-level waste containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Masateru; Hijikata, Takatoshi; Kinoshita, Kensuke; Inoue, Tadashi

    2000-01-01

    A pyro-partitioning process developed at CRIEPI requires a pre-treatment process to convert high-level liquid waste to chloride. A combination process of denitration and chlorination has been developed for this purpose. Continuous process tests using simulated high-level waste were performed to certify the applicability of the process. Test results indicated a successful material balance sufficient for satisfying pyro-partitioning process criteria. In the present study, process tests using simulated high-level waste containing uranium were also carried out to prove that the pre-treatment process is feasible for uranium. The results indicated that uranium can be converted to chloride appropriate for the pyro-partitioning process. The material balance obtained from the tests is to be used to revise the process flow diagram. (author)

  13. Utility of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinto, Ajit S.; Kamaleshwaran, K. K.; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, 99mTc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. 18F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. 18F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. PMID:26097420

  14. Utility of (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinto, Ajit S; Kamaleshwaran, K K; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. (18)F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. (18)F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease.

  15. Utility of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinto, Ajit S.; Kamaleshwaran, K. K.; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, 99m Tc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of 99m Tc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. 18 F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. 18 F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with 99m Tc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease

  16. Pretreatment evaluation of carcinomas of the hypopharynx and larynx with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose, {sup 123}I-{alpha}-methyl-L-tyrosine and {sup 99m}Tc-hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henze, Marcus; Eisenhut, Michael; Haberkorn, Uwe [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Mohammed, Ashour; Mier, Walter [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Rudat, Volker [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Dietz, Andreas; Nollert, Joerg [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2002-03-01

    While fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is helpful in the pretherapeutic evaluation of head and neck cancer, it is only available in selected centres. Therefore, single-photon emission tomography (SPET) tracers would be desirable if they were to demonstrate tumour uptake reliably. This multitracer study was performed to evaluate the pretherapeutic uptake of the SPET tracers iodine-123 {alpha}-methyl-L-tyrosine (IMT) and technetium-99m hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ({sup 99m}Tc-MIBI) in primary carcinomas of the hypopharynx and larynx and to compare the results with those of FDG PET. We examined 22 fasted patients (20 male, 2 female, mean age 60.5{+-}10.2 years) with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the hypopharynx (n=9) or larynx (n=13), within 1 week before therapy. In 20 patients a cervical PET scan was acquired after intravenous injection of 232{+-}43 MBq {sup 18}F-FDG. Data analysis was semiquantitative, being based on standardised uptake values (SUVs) obtained at 60-90 min after injection. After injection of 570{+-}44 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, cervical SPET scans (high-resolution collimator, 64 x 64 matrix, 64 steps, 40 s each) were obtained in 19 patients, 15 and 60 min after tracer injection. Finally, 15 min after injection of 327{+-}93 MBq {sup 123}I-IMT (medium-energy collimator, 64 x 64 matrix, 64 steps, 40 s each) SPET scans were acquired in 15 patients. All images were analysed visually and by calculating the tumour to nuchal muscle ratio. Eighteen of 20 (90%) carcinomas showed an increased glucose metabolism, with a mean SUV of 8.7 and a mean carcinoma to muscle ratio of 7.3. The IMT uptake was increased in 13 of 15 (87%) patients, who had a mean carcinoma to muscle ratio of 2.9. Only 13 of 19 (68%) carcinomas revealed pathological MIBI uptake, with a mean tumour to muscle ratio of 2.2 and no significant difference between early and late MIBI SPET images (P=0.23). In conclusion, in the diagnosis of

  17. Pretreatment evaluation of carcinomas of the hypopharynx and larynx with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, 123I-α-methyl-L-tyrosine and 99mTc-hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henze, Marcus; Eisenhut, Michael; Haberkorn, Uwe; Mohammed, Ashour; Mier, Walter; Rudat, Volker; Dietz, Andreas; Nollert, Joerg

    2002-01-01

    While fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is helpful in the pretherapeutic evaluation of head and neck cancer, it is only available in selected centres. Therefore, single-photon emission tomography (SPET) tracers would be desirable if they were to demonstrate tumour uptake reliably. This multitracer study was performed to evaluate the pretherapeutic uptake of the SPET tracers iodine-123 α-methyl-L-tyrosine (IMT) and technetium-99m hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI) in primary carcinomas of the hypopharynx and larynx and to compare the results with those of FDG PET. We examined 22 fasted patients (20 male, 2 female, mean age 60.5±10.2 years) with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the hypopharynx (n=9) or larynx (n=13), within 1 week before therapy. In 20 patients a cervical PET scan was acquired after intravenous injection of 232±43 MBq 18 F-FDG. Data analysis was semiquantitative, being based on standardised uptake values (SUVs) obtained at 60-90 min after injection. After injection of 570±44 MBq 99m Tc-MIBI, cervical SPET scans (high-resolution collimator, 64 x 64 matrix, 64 steps, 40 s each) were obtained in 19 patients, 15 and 60 min after tracer injection. Finally, 15 min after injection of 327±93 MBq 123 I-IMT (medium-energy collimator, 64 x 64 matrix, 64 steps, 40 s each) SPET scans were acquired in 15 patients. All images were analysed visually and by calculating the tumour to nuchal muscle ratio. Eighteen of 20 (90%) carcinomas showed an increased glucose metabolism, with a mean SUV of 8.7 and a mean carcinoma to muscle ratio of 7.3. The IMT uptake was increased in 13 of 15 (87%) patients, who had a mean carcinoma to muscle ratio of 2.9. Only 13 of 19 (68%) carcinomas revealed pathological MIBI uptake, with a mean tumour to muscle ratio of 2.2 and no significant difference between early and late MIBI SPET images (P=0.23). In conclusion, in the diagnosis of primary carcinomas of the

  18. Pretreatment evaluation of carcinomas of the hypopharynx and larynx with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, 123I-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine and 99mTc-hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Marcus; Mohammed, Ashour; Mier, Walter; Rudat, Volker; Dietz, Andreas; Nollert, Jörg; Eisenhut, Michael; Haberkorn, Uwe

    2002-03-01

    While fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is helpful in the pretherapeutic evaluation of head and neck cancer, it is only available in selected centres. Therefore, single-photon emission tomography (SPET) tracers would be desirable if they were to demonstrate tumour uptake reliably. This multitracer study was performed to evaluate the pretherapeutic uptake of the SPET tracers iodine-123 alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine (IMT) and technetium-99m hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) in primary carcinomas of the hypopharynx and larynx and to compare the results with those of FDG PET. We examined 22 fasted patients (20 male, 2 female, mean age 60.5+/-10.2 years) with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the hypopharynx (n=9) or larynx (n=13), within 1 week before therapy. In 20 patients a cervical PET scan was acquired after intravenous injection of 232+/-43 MBq 18F-FDG. Data analysis was semiquantitative, being based on standardised uptake values (SUVs) obtained at 60-90 min after injection. After injection of 570+/-44 MBq 99mTc-MIBI, cervical SPET scans (high-resolution collimator, 64x64 matrix, 64 steps, 40 s each) were obtained in 19 patients, 15 and 60 min after tracer injection. Finally, 15 min after injection of 327+/-93 MBq 123I-IMT (medium-energy collimator, 64x64 matrix, 64 steps, 40 s each) SPET scans were acquired in 15 patients. All images were analysed visually and by calculating the tumour to nuchal muscle ratio. Eighteen of 20 (90%) carcinomas showed an increased glucose metabolism, with a mean SUV of 8.7 and a mean carcinoma to muscle ratio of 7.3. The IMT uptake was increased in 13 of 15 (87%) patients, who had a mean carcinoma to muscle ratio of 2.9. Only 13 of 19 (68%) carcinomas revealed pathological MIBI uptake, with a mean tumour to muscle ratio of 2.2 and no significant difference between early and late MIBI SPET images (P=0.23). In conclusion, in the diagnosis of primary carcinomas of the

  19. Radiotherapy options for localized prostate cancer based upon pretreatment serum prostate-specific antigen levels and biochemical control: A comprehensive review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicini, Frank A.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Kini, Vijay R.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To review all the available radiotherapy (RT) literature on localized prostate cancer treatment where serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were used to both stratify patients and evaluate outcome and determine if any conclusions can be reached regarding an optimal radiotherapeutic management for this disease. Methods and Materials: A MEDLINE search was conducted to obtain all articles in English on prostate cancer treatment employing RT from 1986-1997. Studies were considered eligible for review only if they met all the following criteria: 1) pretreatment PSA values were recorded and grouped for subsequent evaluation, 2) posttreatment PSA values were continuously monitored, 3) definitions of biochemical control were stated, and 4) the median follow-up was given. Results: Of the 246 articles identified, only 20 met the inclusion criteria; 4 using conformal external beam RT, 8 using conventional external beam RT, and 8 using interstitial brachytherapy (4 using a permanent implant alone, 3 combining external beam RT with a permanent implant, and 1 combining a conformal temporary interstitial implant boost with external beam RT). No studies using neutrons (with or without external beam RT) or androgen deprivation (combined with external beam RT) were identified where patients were stratified by pretreatment PSA levels. Results for all therapies were extremely variable with the 3-5-year rates of biochemical control for patients with pretreatment PSA levels ≤4 ng/ml ranging from 48 to 100%, for PSA levels >4 and ≤10 ng/ml ranging from 44 to 90%, for PSA levels >10 and ≤20 ng/ml ranging from 27 to 89%, and for PSA levels >20 ranging from 14 to 89%. The median Gleason score, T-stage, definition of biochemical control, and follow-up were substantially different from series to series. No RT option consistently produced superior results. Conclusions: When data are reviewed from studies using serum PSA levels to stratify patients and to evaluate

  20. Variation in pre-treatment count lead time and its effect on baseline estimates of cage-level sea lice abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, R; Boerlage, A S; Vanderstichel, R; Revie, C W; Hammell, K L

    2016-11-01

    Treatment efficacy studies typically use pre-treatment sea lice abundance as the baseline. However, the pre-treatment counting window often varies from the day of treatment to several days before treatment. We assessed the effect of lead time on baseline estimates, using historical data (2010-14) from a sea lice data management programme (Fish-iTrends). Data were aggregated at the cage level for three life stages: (i) chalimus, (ii) pre-adult and adult male and (iii) adult female. Sea lice counts were log-transformed, and mean counts by lead time relative to treatment day were computed and compared separately for each life stage, using linear mixed models. There were 1,658 observations (treatment events) from 56 sites in 5 Bay Management Areas. Our study showed that lead time had a significant effect on the estimated sea lice abundance, which was moderated by season. During the late summer and autumn periods, counting on the day of treatment gave significantly higher values than other days and would be a more appropriate baseline estimate, while during spring and early summer abundance estimates were comparable among counts within 5 days of treatment. A season-based lead time window may be most appropriate when estimating baseline sea lice levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Development of the Mo loading apparatus for adsorbing high level 99Mo to PZC and packing in 99mTc generator column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishinuma, Yukio; Ohmori, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Tuneyuki; Tatenuma, Katsuyoshi; Genka, Tsuguo; Machi, Sueo

    2006-01-01

    For developing the automatic system to produce the PZC- 99m Tc generator column based on (n, gamma) method, we developed and fabricated the proto-type apparatus for semi hot test to prepare and pack PZC adsorbed 99 Mo produced by (n, gamma) method into the generator column; PZC is Mo adsorbent with practical performance for (n, gamma) 99m Tc generator with high 99 Mo adsorption and high 99m Tc elution. For conducting the constant supply and delivery of 99m Tc generator, it is necessary to establish the technology of (n, gamma) method 99m Tc generator using PZC and to develop the fabrication system for 99 Mo loading to PZC and packing the 99m Tc generator column. By the reason, we are developing the Mo loading apparatus. In order to automatically conduct the process of 99 Mo adsorption to PZC and PZC- 99 Mo packing into the generator column, based on one channel system developed by JAERI-KAKEN at 3 years ago, an advanced automatic loading system functioned with 8 channels was developed as FNCA project proceeded by the core with Kaken Co. and JAIF for realizing a mass production of 99m Tc generators, and moreover the Japanese patent regarding the PZC- 99m Tc generator including the automatic loading system of 99 Mo to PZC and making 99m Tc generator columns has already been applied with joint applicants of BATAN and Kaken Co. Regarding the multi-type Mo loading apparatus mentioned above, we set it up in a hot of BATAN at December 2003 year. In this report, we will introduce mainly about the multi-channel automatic loading system of 99 Mo. (author)

  2. Relationship between pretreatment level of plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA, tumor burden, and metabolic activity in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Brigette; King, Ann; Lo, Y.M. Dennis; Yau, Y.Y.; Zee, Benny; Hui, Edwin P.; Leung, Sing F.; Mo, Frankie; Kam, Michael K.; Ahuja, Anil; Kwan, Wing H.; Chan, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA (pEBV DNA) is an important prognostic marker in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study tested the hypotheses that pEBV DNA reflects tumor burden and metabolic activity by evaluating its relationship with tumor volume and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) uptake in NPC. Methods and Materials: Pre-treatment pEBV DNA analysis, 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan (PET-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head and neck were performed in 57 patients. Net volume (cm 3 ) of the primary tumor (T vol ) and regional nodes (N vol ) were quantified on MRI. 18 F-FDG uptake was expressed as the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) at the primary tumor (T suv ) and regional nodes (N suv ). Lesions with SUV max ≥ 2.5 were considered malignant. Relationship between SUV max , natural logarithm (log) of pEBV DNA, and square root (sq) of MRI volumes was analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. A linear regression model was constructed to test for any interaction between variables and disease stage. Results: Log-pEBV DNA showed significant correlation with sq-T vol (r = 0.393), sq-N vol (r = 0.452), total tumor volume (sq-Total vol = T vol + N vol , r = 0.554), T suv (r = 0.276), N suv (r = 0.434), and total SUV max (Total suv = T suv + N suv , r = 0.457). Likewise, sq-T vol was correlated to T suv (r 0.426), and sq-N vol with N suv (r = 0.651). Regression analysis showed that only log-pEBV DNA was significantly associated with sq-Total vol (p vol was significantly associated with T suv (p = 0.002; parameter estimate = 3.923; 95% confidence interval = 1.498-6.348). Conclusion: This study supports the hypothesis that cell-free plasma EBV DNA is a marker of tumor burden in EBV-related NPC

  3. Correlation of glomerular filtration rate measurement using Tc-99m DTPA with cystatin-C levels and creatinine clearance for staging of chronic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliyanti, A.; Iskandar, Azmi S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The presence of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) was established based on kidney damage presence and the level of kidney function through Glomerular filtration rate (GFR). It was also recognized that renal scintigraphy (renogram) using TC-99m DTPA (diethylenetriamine pentacetic acid) has advantages in the measurement of GFR. Recently, serum Cystatin-C is proposed as the new marker of GFR. The aim of this study is to find out the correlation of GFR, derived from renogram, with Cystatin- C levels and Creatinine Clearance (CC) in CKD. Material and Methods: A total of 30 subjects (age mean is 60.8 years, 21 males and 9 females) were enrolled in this study with diagnosis stage 2 of CKD. CKD staging was determined by Cockroft-Gault (CG) equation, taking into account the serum creatinine. Renogram was performed using a single head camera with IV administration of 5 mCi DTPA. Cystatin-C and creatinine clearance (24-hours urine samples) were include in this study. Results: The mean GFR of renogram, Cystatin-C, CC and CG are 64.96 ml/min/1.73m2 (SD 28.047), 53.37 ml/min/1.73m2 (SD 21.29), 58.09 ml/min/1.73m2 (SD 35.45), 46.00 ml/min/1.73m2 (SD 12.06) respectively. There is better correlation between renogram and Cystatin-C (r=0.585, p0.0007) compared renogram and CC (r=0.388, p=0.03) or renogram and CG (r=-0.029, p=0.87). Conclusion: Cystatin-C shows better indicator of GFR than CC and CG. Serum creatinine concentration alone should not be used to assess the level of kidney function in the staging of CKD. (author)

  4. Elevated pre-treatment levels of plasma C-reactive protein are associated with poor prognosis after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer are associated with overall survival, disease-free survival, death from breast cancer, and recurrence of breast cancer.......We examined whether plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer are associated with overall survival, disease-free survival, death from breast cancer, and recurrence of breast cancer....

  5. Solubility study of Tc(IV) oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Fan, X.H.

    2005-01-01

    The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safer disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under oxidizing conditions technetium exists as the anionic species TcO 4 - whereas under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. Hence, the mobility of Tc(IV) in reducing groundwater may be limited by the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O under these conditions. Due to this fact it is important to investigate the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. The solubility determines the release of radionuclides from waste form and is used as a source term in radionuclide migration analysis in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium oxide was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2 + . The solubility of Tc(IV) oxide has been determined in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(IV) oxide were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(IV) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is about (1.49-1.86) x 10 -9 mol/(L·d) under aerobic conditions, but Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is not oxidized under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(IV) oxide in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The

  6. Oral delivery of bioencapsulated exendin-4 expressed in chloroplasts lowers blood glucose level in mice and stimulates insulin secretion in beta-TC6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Nityanandam, Ramya; New, James S; Daniell, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) increases insulin secretion but is rapidly degraded (half-life: 2 min in circulation). GLP-1 analogue, exenatide (Byetta) has a longer half-life (3.3-4 h) with potent insulinotropic effects but requires cold storage, daily abdominal injections with short shelf life. Because patients with diabetes take >60 000 injections in their life time, alternative delivery methods are highly desired. Exenatide is ideal for oral delivery because insulinotropism is glucose dependent, with reduced risk of hypoglycaemia even at higher doses. Therefore, exendin-4 (EX4) was expressed as a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-fusion protein in tobacco chloroplasts to facilitate bioencapsulation within plant cells and transmucosal delivery in the gut via GM1 receptors present in the intestinal epithelium. The transgene integration was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Expression level of CTB-EX4 reached up to 14.3% of total leaf protein (TLP). Lyophilization of leaf material increased therapeutic protein concentration by 12- to 24-fold, extended their shelf life up to 15 months when stored at room temperature and eliminated microbes present in fresh leaves. The pentameric structure, disulphide bonds and functionality of CTB-EX4 were well preserved in lyophilized materials. Chloroplast-derived CTB-EX4 showed increased insulin secretion similar to the commercial EX4 in beta-TC6, a mouse pancreatic cell line. Even when 5000-fold excess dose of CTB-EX4 was orally delivered, it stimulated insulin secretion similar to the intraperitoneal injection of commercial EX4 but did not cause hypoglycaemia in mice. Oral delivery of the bioencapsulated EX4 should eliminate injections, increase patient compliance/convenience and significantly lower their cost. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Clinical evaluation of Tc-99m-mebrofenin and comparison with Tc-disofenin for radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingensmith, W. III; Fritzberg, A.; Spitzer, V.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical comparison reported indicates that Tc-mebrofenin has a significantly lower level of renal excretion that Tc-disofenin at all bilirubin levels. At a total bilirubin level of 25 mg/dl the renal excretion of Tc-mebrofenin is still less than the renal excretion of Tc-disofenin in subjects with normal bilirubin levels. In addition, renal radioactivity in images was never seen in subjects with normal bilirubins while visualization of renal radioactivity is routine in normal subjects with Tc-disofenin. No significant differences were found in any other parameter including hepatocyte extraction efficiency, time of maximum hepatic radioactivity, and hepatic parenchymal washout. This study indicates that Tc-mebrofenin is equal to Tc-disofenin in its hepatobiliary characteristics and superior in its renal characteristics

  8. Technetium Chemistry in High-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Nancy J.

    2006-01-01

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry

  9. On the dose calculation at the cellular level and its implications for the RBE of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberg, R., E-mail: robert.freudenberg@uniklinikum-dresden.de; Runge, R.; Maucksch, U.; Berger, V.; Kotzerke, J. [University Hospital/Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden, Saxony 01307 (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Based on the authors’ previous findings concerning the radiotoxicity of{sup 99m}Tc, the authors compared the cellular survival under the influence of this nuclide with that following exposure to the Auger electron emitter {sup 123}I. To evaluate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of both radionuclides, knowledge of the absorbed dose is essential. Thus, the authors present the dose calculations and discuss the results based on different models of the radionuclide distribution. Both different target volumes and the influence of the uptake kinetics were considered. Methods: Rat thyroid PC Cl3 cells in culture were incubated with either{sup 99m}Tc or {sup 123}I or were irradiated using 200 kV x-rays in the presence or absence of perchlorate. The clonogenic cell survival was measured via colony formation. In addition, the intracellular radionuclide uptake was quantified. Single-cell dose calculations were based on Monte Carlo simulations performed using Geant4. Results: Compared with external radiation using x-rays (D{sub 37} = 2.6 Gy), the radionuclides {sup 99m}Tc (D{sub 37} = 3.5 Gy), and {sup 123}I (D{sub 37} = 3.8 Gy) were less toxic in the presence of perchlorate. In the absence of perchlorate, the amount of activity a{sub 37} that was necessary to reduce the surviving fraction (SF) to 0.37 was 22.8 times lower for {sup 99m}Tc and 12.4 times lower for {sup 123}I because of the dose increase caused by intracellular radionuclide accumulation. When the cell nucleus was considered as the target for the dose calculation, the authors found a RBE of 2.18 for {sup 99m}Tc and RBE = 3.43 for {sup 123}I. Meanwhile, regarding the dose to the entire cell, RBE = 0.75 for {sup 99m}Tc and RBE = 1.87 for {sup 123}I. The dose to the entire cell was chosen as the dose criterion because of the intracellular radionuclide accumulation, which was found to occur solely in the cytoplasm. The calculated number of intracellular decays per cell was (975 ± 109) decays

  10. Pretreatment long interspersed element (LINE-1 methylation levels, not early hypomethylation under treatment, predict hematological response to azacitidine in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cross M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Cross,1 Enrica Bach,1 Thao Tran,1 Rainer Krahl,1 Nadja Jaekel,1 Dietger Niederwieser,1 Christian Junghanss,2 Georg Maschmeyer,3 Haifa Kathrin Al-Ali11Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; 2Clinic for Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Medicine, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany; 3Clinic for Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Ernst-von-Bergmann Clinic, Potsdam, GermanyBackground: Epigenetic modulations, including changes in DNA cytosine methylation, are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Azacitidine is a hypomethylating agent that is incorporated into RNA as well as DNA. Thus, there is a rationale to its use in patients with AML. We determined whether baseline and/or early changes in the methylation of long interspersed element (LINE-1 or CDH13 correlate with bone marrow blast clearance, hematological response, or survival in patients with AML treated with azacitidine.Methods: An open label, phase I/II trial was performed in 40 AML patients (median bone marrow blast count was 42% unfit for intensive chemotherapy treated with azacitidine 75 mg/m2/day subcutaneously for 5 days every 4 weeks. Bone marrow mononuclear cell samples were taken on day 0 (pretreatment and day 15 during the first treatment cycle; LINE-1 and CDH13 methylation levels were quantified by methylation-specific, semiquantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: Treatment with azacitidine significantly reduced LINE-1 but not CDH13 methylation levels over the first cycle (P < 0.0001. Absolute LINE-1 methylation levels tended to be lower on day 0 (P = 0.06 and day 15 of cycle 1 (P = 0.03 in patients who went on to achieve subsequent complete remission, partial remission or hematological improvement versus patients with stable disease. However, the decrease in LINE-1 methylation over the first treatment cycle did not correlate with subsequent response (P = 0

  11. NCCN-IPI score-independent prognostic potential of pretreatment uric acid levels for clinical outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Katharina T; Melchardt, Thomas; Posch, Florian; Schlick, Konstantin; Deutsch, Alexander; Beham-Schmid, Christine; Weiss, Lukas; Gary, Thomas; Neureiter, Daniel; Klieser, Eckhard; Greil, Richard; Neumeister, Peter; Egle, Alexander; Pichler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Blood-based parameters are gaining increasing interest as potential prognostic biomarkers in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the prognostic significance of pretreatment plasma uric acid levels in patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL. Methods: The clinical course of 539 DLBCL patients, diagnosed and treated between 2004 and 2013 at two Austrian high-volume centres with rituximab-based immunochemotherapy was evaluated retrospectively. The prognostic influence of uric acid on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were studied including multi-state modelling, and analysis of conditional survival. Results: Five-year OS and PFS were 50.4% (95% CI: 39.2–60.6) and 44.0% (33.4–54.0) in patients with uric acid levels above the 75th percentile of the uric acid distribution (Q3, cut-off: 6.8 mg dl−1), and 66.2% (60.4–71.5) and 59.6% (53.7–65.0%) in patients with lower levels (log-rank P=0.002 and P=0.0045, respectively). In univariable time-to-event analysis, elevated uric acid levels were associated with a worse PFS (hazard ratio (HR) per 1 log increase in uric acid 1.47, 95% CI: 1.10–1.97, P=0.009) and a worse OS (HR=1.60, 95% CI: 1.16–2.19, P=0.004). These associations prevailed upon multivariable adjustment for the NCCN-IPI score. Uric acid levels significantly improved the predictive performance of the R-IPI and NCCN-IPI scores, and in multi-state analysis, it emerged as a highly significant predictor of an increased risk of death without developing recurrence (transition-HR=4.47, 95% CI: 2.17–9.23, Puric acid levels predict poor long-term outcomes in DLBCL patients beyond the NCCN-IPI risk index. PMID:27764838

  12. Solubility of Tc(IV) oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Fan, X.H.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safer disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 .nH 2 O. The solubility of Tc(IV) is used as a source term in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium oxide was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2+ . The solubility of Tc(IV) oxide has been determined in simulated groundwater and re-distilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(IV) oxide were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(IV) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and re-distilled water is about (1.49∼1.86) x 10 -9 mol/(L.d) under aerobic conditions, but Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and re-distilled water is not oxidized under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(IV) oxide in simulated groundwater and re-distilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The solubility of Tc(IV) oxide decreases with the increase of pH at pH 10 and is pH independent in the range 2 -8 to 10 -9 mol/L at 2 3 2- concentration. These data could be used to estimate the Tc(IV) solubility for cases where solubility limits transport of technetium in reducing environments of high-level waste repositories. (authors)

  13. Pretreatment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    It is frequently in the patient's best interest that radiation treatments are initiated soon after the decision to treat is made. However, it is essential to good radiation therapy that the patient's treatment course be planned and beam-modifying devices be fabricated with utmost care prior to treatment. The objectives of the treatment, along with the treatment parameters and techniques necessary to achieve these objectives, must be discussed prior to initiating planning procedures. Determination of the target volume is made by the radiation oncologist; this is based on knowledge of the history of the tumor, the patterns of spread of the disease, and on diagnostic findings during the work-up of each patient. It is then necessary to obtain several measurements of the patient and also to identify the position of the target volume and of adjacent normal organs with respect to known external skin marks before the actual treatment planning is begun. Such localization can be done through several methods. The two most commonly used methods are radiographic and computed tomography (CT), both of which are discussed in this chapter. The measurements often include contours of the patient's external surface, usually in the axial plane of the central axis of the beam, and often in multiple levels within the region to be treated. Three dimensional localization and treatment planning requires thorough understanding of geometry as well as of patient positioning and immobilization. This chapter attempts to clarify some of these complicated but essential preparations for treatment

  14. Speciation, Dissolution, and Redox Reactions of Chromium Relevant to Pretreatment and Separation of High-Level Tank Wastes (First Year of Funding: FY 1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Rao, Linfeng; Clark, Sue B.; Hess, Nancy J.

    2000-01-01

    Chromium, one of the problematic elements in tank sludges, is presently considered to be the most important constituent in defining the total volume of HLW glass to be produced from the Hanford tank wastes. This is because (1) it greatly complicates the vitrification process by forming separate phases in the molten glass and, (2) more importantly, current sludge washing processes are not effective in removing Cr. Inadequate removal of chromium from sludges could result in production of an unacceptably large volume of HLW glass. The removal of Cr from tank sludges is complicated by factors including the complex chemistry of Cr, lack of fundamental data applicable to the HLW chemical systems (high heterogeneity, high ionic strength, high alkalinity and the presence of inorganic and organic ligands, etc.), and the need to avoid processes that may adversely enhance the solubility of Pu and other actinides. Significant gaps exist in the fundamental understanding of Cr chemistry in tank-like environments. Without such data/understanding, these strategies cannot be appropriately evaluated or optimized. The primary objective of the research being carried out under this project is to develop such data/understanding for HLW tank processing. Pacific Northwest and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories in collaboration with Washington State University are developing fundamental data on the precipitation/dissolution reactions of Cr(III) compounds and the kinetics of oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) at room and elevated temperatures and under conditions relevant to high-level waste processing. This integrated approach involving measurement of solubility and oxidation rate constants and spectroscopic characterization of aqueous and solid species as a function of ionic strength, alkalinity, redox conditions and temperature will provide thermodynamic and kinetic data. These data are necessary to predict changes in Cr solubility and speciation in response to changes in pretreatment

  15. Sex steroid hormones and sex hormone binding globulin levels, CYP17 MSP AI (-34T:C) and CYP19 codon 39 (Trp:Arg) variants in children with developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hiwa; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Rahimi, Zohreh; Faghihi, Faezeh; Khazaie, Habibolah; Farhangdoost, Hashem; Mehrpour, Masoud

    2017-12-01

    Developmental stuttering is known to be a sexually dimorphic and male-biased speech motor control disorder. In the present case-control study, we investigated the relationship between developmental stuttering and steroid hormones. Serum levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), oestradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), as well as the 2nd/4th digit ratio (2D:4D), an indicator of prenatal testosterone level, were compared between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS). Moreover, two SNPs (CYP17 -34 T:C (MSP AI) and CYP19 T:C (Trp:Arg)) of cytochrome P450, which is involved in steroid metabolism pathways, were analysed between the groups. Our results showed significantly higher levels of testosterone, DHT, and oestradiol in CWS in comparison with CWNS. The severity of stuttering was positively correlated with the serum levels of testosterone, DHEA, and cortisol, whereas no association was seen between the stuttering and digit ratio, progesterone, or SHBG. The CYP17CC genotype was significantly associated with the disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT in patients with Moyamoya disease: a reflection of cerebral perfusion status at tissue level in the disease process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Raghava; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Sunil, Hejjaji Venkataramarao; Bhattacharya, Anish; Singh, Baljinder; Mukherjee, Kanchan Kumar; Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder caused by intracranial stenosis of the circle of Willis, resulting in successive ischemic events. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play a major role in diagnosis. The aim of the study was to describe the spectrum of findings on brain SPECT in patients with Moyamoya disease and to compare the findings with other investigations. 99m Tc-ECD SPECT scans of seventeen patients (7 children and 10 adults) were analysed to study the brain perfusion. Features of Moyamoya disease were detected on DSA in 11 patients, CTA in one, MR angiography in one patient. Brain perfusion SPECT analysis showed unilateral perfusion defects in 11 patients, normal perfusion in 2 and bilateral defects in 4 patients. No perfusion defects despite bilateral vascular changes were noted in one patient. Cerebral infarcts were detected on MRI unilaterally in three subjects while multiple infarcts were identified in one. 99m Tc-ECD Brain SPECT showed perfusion defects that were more extensive compared to those detected on MRI. Post acetazolamide studies for assessment of cerebrovascular reserve were done in three patients. Two of them showed good cerebrovascular reserve (>1). Follow-up studies post-surgical procedures (Myo-dura synangiosis) done in two patients showed partial resolution of perfusion defects in the involved areas. Brain perfusion scintigraphy is an important adjunct in evaluation of patients with Moyamoya disease yielding information about the direct end results of the pathology in the vessels and also prognostic information. (author)

  17. Information on the certification of DGZfP-qualified personnel in compliance with the U.S. American publication SNT-TC-1A: 'Level certificates'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The NDT personnel qualification in compliance with the code of practice of the DGZfP has long been accepted and appreciated in West Germany and in some neighbour countries, and increasingly is recommended in national regulatory publications. In international business, however, it is the U.S. American code of practice SNT-TC-1A that frequently is applied. Although the DGZfP qualification code in formal terms and in principle fulfills the requirements of the SNT-TC-1A, there have been problems on the part of foreign customers who hesitated to accept the DGZfP qualification. The reason most frequently was that the very extensive in-house documentation material required according to the U.S. American code could not or only insufficiently be shown. The code of practice presented here is intended to serve as an aid in laying down the Written Practice, taking into account the DGZfP qualification. The model version presented certainly will not meet all the various requirements of customers, and has to be modified so as to fit individual conditions. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment

  19. Simple determination of 99Tc in radioactive waste using Tc extraction disk and imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameo, Y.; Katayama, A.; Hoshi, A.; Haraga, T.; Nakashima, M.

    2010-01-01

    A simple method was developed for determination of 99 Tc in low-level radioactive waste: Technetium-99 retained by a solid phase extraction disk was directly measured with imaging plates system. It was found that more than 97% of Tc were retained by the disk from a solution of pH 2 to 12, whereas depth profile of Tc in the disk, which greatly influences the counting efficiency, depended on solution pH. The present method was successfully applied to actual radioactive liquid waste samples arising from nuclear research facilities.

  20. Methods for pretreating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2017-05-09

    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  1. Post treatment PSA nadirs support continuing dose escalation study in patients with pretreatment PSA levels >10 ng/ml, but not in those with PSA <10 NG/ML

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, D.H.; Hanlon, A.L.; Movsas, B.; Hanks, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: We have recently shown that ICRU reporting point radiation doses above 71 Gy are not associated with improved bNED survival in prostate cancer patients with pretreatment PSA level 20 ng/ml we found a strong correlation between dose and nadir values < 1.0 ng/ml (p=.003) as well as for nadir's < 0.5 ng/ml (p=.04). This dose/nadir effect held at several dose levels, but 74 Gy for nadir values < 1.0 ng/ml and 72 Gy for nadir's < 0.5 ng/ml remained the most significant. 32% of these patients achieved a nadir < 1.0ng/ml and 15% < 0.5ng/ml. Conclusions: This analysis provides strong additional support that patients with pretreatment PSA values of < 10 ng/ml do not benefit from dose escalation beyond an ICRU reporting point dose of 71 Gy. For patients with pretreatment PSA's of 10-19.9 ng/ml there is no dose/nadir response evaluated at a nadir of 1.0 ng/ml; however, there is a borderline effect observed at a nadir of 0.5 ng/ml. Patients with pretreatment PSA's of 20 ng/ml or greater clearly benefit from higher doses as evaluated by PSA nadirs of 1.0 ng/ml, and 0.5 ng/ml. These studies support the continued investigation of dose escalation in treating patients with PSA levels over 10 ng/ml, they do not support continued investigation of dose escalation beyond 71 Gy in patients with pretreatment PSA levels < 10 ng/ml. The failure to demonstrate any dose response for the low PSA group and the finding of only a borderline effect for the intermediate PSA group may be influenced by the relatively small number of patients in our series treated to doses < 70 Gy and the fact that none of our patients were treated to doses below 65.98 Gy. The lower limit of acceptible dose has yet to be defined

  2. Prognostic value of pretreatment serum carcinoembryonic antigen and squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels for patients with stage I-III non-small cell lung cancer treated with radiation therapy alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yoshihiro; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    1998-01-01

    Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC Ag) levels have been reported to be useful as prognostic factors, indicators of clinical response, and predictors for recurrence in patients with lung cancer treated by surgery or chemotherapy. We investigated whether pretreatment serum CEA and SCC Ag levels were useful as independent prognostic factors in patients with stage I to III non-small cell lung cancer who were treated with radiation therapy alone. The serum CEA and SCC Ag levels were measured in 158 and 47 patients, respectively, before radiation therapy. Serum CEA and SCC Ag levels were measured by sandwich radioimmunoassay using the CEA-RIA (radioimmunoassay) kit and the SCC-RIA kit. Serum CEA and SCC Ag levels were above reference values in 19% and 30% of the patients, respectively. The 5-year survival rates were significantly better for patients with a negative SCC Ag result than for those with positive SCC Ag levels (p=0.0001), though no significant difference in survival rates was seen by CEA positivity (p=0.25). SCC Ag positivity (p=0.0006) and stage (p=0.04) were the important prognostic factors, as determined by multivariate analyses. Pretreatment serum SCC Ag level may be useful as an independent prognostic factor in patients with stage I to III non-small cell lung cancer who are treated with radiation therapy alone. (author)

  3. Accumulation of 99Tc in duckweed Lemna minor L. as a function of growth rate and 99Tc concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattink, J.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.

    2001-01-01

    This study focuses on the question of whether short-term studies can be used to forecast the accumulation of the long-lived fission product 99 Tc in duckweed, Lemna minor L., grown in the field; in other words, are the accumulation parameters independent of changing growth rates typical of natural populations of duckweed. Two processes determine the 99 Tc accumulation: (i) uptake and release of 99 TcO 4 - , characterised by a concentration factor, K d , and (ii) first-order reduction and complexation of Tc VII , characterised by k red . At various 99 Tc concentrations, the growth, total Tc and TcO 4 - accumulation were monitored over 10 days; parameters were fitted and compared with earlier results. Both K d and k red turn out to be independent of time, concentration and growth rate up to a concentration of 10 -6 mol l -1 99 TcO 4 - . Concentrations above this level result in toxic effects. The Tc accumulation in field populations of duckweed at Tc concentrations which generally occur in the environment can be forecasted by using the results from short-term experiments

  4. Cytological effects of Tc on young soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, J.W.; Onasch, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Soybean seedlings (Glycine max cv. Williams) were exposed for 24 to 67 h to 99 TcO 4 - (Tc) at various concentrations in dilute culture solution. Reduced primary leaf midrib length was observed with 67-h exposures to greater than or equal to 6.0 mu M Tc. Cellular effects were consistently observed by a light microscope after 43-h or longer exposure to 6.6 microM Tc and higher concentrations. At lower Tc levels, abnormal cells were interspersed among cells of normal appearance. Abnormal cells displayed blockshaped nuclei which were more densely stained by Harris' hematoxylineosin Y than controls; such cells frequently demonstrated incipient plasmolysis. The number of affected cells increased with dose; both nuclei and cytoplasm demonstrated greater staining intensity and more severe plasmolysis at higher levels. At levels of greater than or equal to 13.2 Tc, cellular damage was extensive. Cells were reduced in size and were highly plasmolysed; cell walls were distorted, and intercellular spaces were reduced or became nonexistent. Mitotic activity was observed at Tc levels less than or equal to 9.9 microM. Observed Tc cellular effects are attributed principally to the alteration of membrane permeability characteristics

  5. Effect of milking efficiency on Tc-99 content of Tc-99m derived from Tc-99m generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnyman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Tc-99m obtained by separation from its parent Mo-99 always contains Tc-99 produced by decay of Tc-99m and Mo-99. Factors effecting the Tc-99/Tc-99m ratios are discussed. An HPLC method has been developed to measure the 99 TcO 4- content of sodium pertechnetate from generators with a detection limit of 0.9 ng Tc-99 for a 500 μl/ aliquot of TcO 4- -99m. First eluates of 10 chromatograph-ic generators gave Tc-99/Tc-99m ratios ranging from 3.5-46 ng Tc/mCi Tc-99m measured at the time of milking. The measurements indicate that Tc-99/Tc-99m ratios high enough to cause adverse labelling effects could be found in 'instant pertechnetate' and in the first eluate from Tc-99m generators for the activities normally used in radiopharmaceutical production

  6. Solubility study of Tc(IV) in a granitic water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Yao, J.; Wang, B.; Bruggeman, C.; Maes, N.

    2007-01-01

    The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safe disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under oxidizing conditions technetium exists as the anionic species TcO 4 - whereas under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 .nH 2 O. Hence, the mobility of Tc(IV) in reducing groundwater may be limited by the solubility of TcO 2 .nH 2 O under these conditions. Due to this fact it is important to investigate the solubility of TcO 2 .nH 2 O. The solubility determines the release of radionuclides from waste form and is used as a source term in radionuclide migration analysis in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium(IV) was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2+ . The solubility of Tc(IV) has been determined in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(IV) were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(IV) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is about (1.49 ∝ 1.86) x 10 -9 mol L -1 d -1 under aerobic conditions, while no Tc(IV) oxidation was detected in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The

  7. Cardioprotective Effects of Tualang Honey: Amelioration of Cholesterol and Cardiac Enzymes Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Md. Ibrahim; Tanvir, E. M.; Afroz, Rizwana; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40) were pretreated orally with Tualang honey...

  8. Emission of Tc-99 from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxenburger, H.J.; Schuettelkopf, H.; Bohn, B.

    1984-11-01

    No noticeable Tc-activities are emitted from nuclear power stations. The emissions with the gaseous effluents exceed but rarely the detection limit of 25 nCi/h. Likewise, the emission with the liquid effluents remains below the detection limit of about 0.5 nCi/m 3 . Neither can a remarkable emission be recorded from the facilities of the Central Decontamination Services Department (HDB) of KfK. The emissions from the evaporation system for low level solutions and from the evaporation system for low level solutions and from the incineration facility for solid wastes do not exceed or rarely exceed to a minor extent the detection limit of 0.3 pCi/m 3 waste air. Also with the liquid effluents only minor Tc-amounts are discharged of 0.3 nCi/m 3 at the maximum. In the distillate of the medium level solutions discharged from the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK) to HDB as so-called tritiated water 2 nCi/m 3 Tc-99 at the maximum are contained. Only in the gaseous effluents from the evaporation system for medium level solutions emissions of up to 14 pCi/m 3 can be detected. The detection limits are almost permanently exceeded by the gaseous effluents from WAK. Small amounts of Tc-99 of 7 pCi/m 3 exhaust air at the maximum are released to the environment. However, the amount of Tc accumulated over the sampling period is insignificant from the radioecological point of view. (orig./HP) [de

  9. 99Tc in the Irish Sea. Recent trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCartney, M.; Rajendran, K.

    1997-01-01

    The increase in discharges of 99 Tc from Sellafield has resulted in an ideal opportunity to study the behaviour of this radionuclide in the aquatic environment. Results, thus far, have demonstrated that 99 Tc uptake by seaweeds collected from around the Irish Sea has followed the anticipated trend, with brown seaweeds accumulating 100-1000 times more 99 Tc than red or green algae. The large increase in discharges of 99 Tc from Sellafield in 1994 had been matched by a similar increase in the levels present in brown seaweeds, mussels and winkles for which concentration factors of 24000, 5000 and 100, respectively, have been derived. This confirms the observation that 99 Tc uptake by marine organisms in the field far exceeds that which would be expected from laboratory studies. Thus, it is concluded that, given the radiological importance of this nuclide, the provision of more accurate information on its environmental behaviour is required. (author)

  10. Tc99m-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy in newborns with neonatal TSH levels > 20uUI/ml, detected in the national program of newborn screening of congenital hypothyroidism (CH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, G.; Ladron de Guevara, D.; Perez, A.; Donoso, G.; Jimenez, C.; Arnello, F.; Vivanco, X.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the thyroid scintigraphy (TS) findings in 279 newborn with neonatal TSH (TSHnn) levels above 20 uUI/ml, detected in the national program of newborn screening of CH and phenylketonuria, and to compare them with: 1) final diagnosis, estimating its positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) and 2) TSHnn levels. Materials and Method: Thyroid scintigraphy of 279 newborn (57.3% girls) who presented TSHnn levels > 20 uUI/ml were revised, classifying them in eutopic gland (EuG), ectopic gland (EcG) and absence of contrast (AC). EuG was classified by visual and quantitative criteria in: normal contrast and size, goiter, and decreased contrast (DC). Tc99m-pertechnetate TS was performed average at 19th life's day (SD:11 days) with a gammacamera- computer system. The patients were separated according to hormonal confirmatory levels in: CH, hyperthyrotropinaemia (HT) and euthyroid. We compared TS results with final diagnosis and also with TSHnn levels (>= or 50 uUI/ml group (p<0.001). Moreover, the former group presented bigger proportion of CH newborns and of EcG scans than < 50uUI/ml patients (p<0.001). EcG and goiter condition had a PPV for CH of 100% and 79.6%, respectively. The NPV of normal TS was 86.7%. Conclusion: 1) Newborns with TSHnn levels larger than 20 uUI/ml show a high frequency of abnormal TS. 2) The EcG is highly predictive of CH. 3) Goiter and AC associated to TSHnn levels above 50 uUI/ml support strongly CH diagnosis. 4) Normal TS correspond very likely to euthyroid newborn, specially when TSHnn is lower than 50 uUI/ml

  11. Exposure Based Health Issues Project Report: Phase I of High Level Tank Operations, Retrieval, Pretreatment, and Vitrification Exposure Based Health Issues Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Bowers, Harold N.; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Brady, William H.; Ladue, Buffi; Samuels, Joseph K.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility to understand the ''big picture'' of worker health and safety which includes fully recognizing the vulnerabilities and associated programs necessary to protect workers at the various DOE sites across the complex. Exposure analysis and medical surveillance are key aspects for understanding this big picture, as is understanding current health and safety practices and how they may need to change to relate to future health and safety management needs. The exposure-based health issues project was initiated to assemble the components necessary to understand potential exposure situations and their medical surveillance and clinical aspects. Phase I focused only on current Hanford tank farm operations and serves as a starting point for the overall project. It is also anticipated that once the pilot is fully developed for Hanford HLW (i.e., current operations, retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal), the process and analysis methods developed will be available and applicable for other DOE operations and sites. The purpose of this Phase I project report is to present the health impact information collected regarding ongoing tank waste maintenance operations, show the various aspects of health and safety involved in protecting workers, introduce the reader to the kinds of information that will need to be analyzed in order to effectively manage worker safety

  12. Correlation of serum prostate specific antigen levels and Tc-99m mdp bone scintigraphy in newly diagnosed patients with prostrate cancer (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, M.; Khan, S.M.; Khan, A.A.; Ahmad, S.; Knob, G.; Shah, S.; Khan, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and bone scintigraphy in newly diagnosed untreated prostate cancer patients. The probability of a positive bone scan for metastases was analyzed for different threshold values of prostate specific antigen (PSA), acid phosphastase and alkaline phosphates. Fifty four newly diagnosed untreated prostate cancer patients (mean age, 67 years range, 41 to 94) were included in this study. In each case serum PSA, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase measurements were performed followed by whole body Technetium-99m MDP bone scan. The positive predictive value of serum PSA level for bone metastases at the threshold of 10 ng/ml was 70% whereas the same threshold level of PSA gave a negative predictive value of 100%. We used receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis to examine the power of predictive value of each serum test, in predicting the results of the bone scan. We also applied regression analysis for the assessment of correlation between the levels of tumor markers and the extent of bone pathology. It was concluded that bone scintigraphy seems to be unnecessary in evaluation of newly diagnosed untreated prostate cancer in patients with no clinical signs of bone pathology and serum PSA levels of equal to or less than 10 ng/ml. (author)

  13. CD3+CD8+CD161high Tc17 cells are depleted in HIV-infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Hartling, Hans Jakob; Thorsteinsson, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    CD8+ Tc17 cells with pro-inflammatory properties have only recently been acknowledged, and Tc17 cells in HIV-infection are undescribed. CD3+CD8+CD161 Tc17 cells and the production of Interleukin-17 were examined in untreated and treated HIV-infected patients, HIV-HCV co-infected patients...... and healthy controls. Depletion of CD3+CD8+CD161 Tc17 cells and diminished production of Interleukin-17 in HIV-infected patients was found. The level of Tc17 cells was associated with the level of the CD4+ count in treated patients....

  14. The impacts of pretreatment on the fermentability of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass: a comparative evaluation between ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Bruce E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment chemistry is of central importance due to its impacts on cellulosic biomass processing and biofuels conversion. Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX and dilute acid are two promising pretreatments using alkaline and acidic pH that have distinctive differences in pretreatment chemistries. Results Comparative evaluation on these two pretreatments reveal that (i AFEX-pretreated corn stover is significantly more fermentable with respect to cell growth and sugar consumption, (ii both pretreatments can achieve more than 80% of total sugar yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis of washed pretreated solids, and (iii while AFEX completely preserves plant carbohydrates, dilute acid pretreatment at 5% solids loading degrades 13% of xylose to byproducts. Conclusion The selection of pretreatment will determine the biomass-processing configuration, requirements for hydrolysate conditioning (if any and fermentation strategy. Through dilute acid pretreatment, the need for hemicellulase in biomass processing is negligible. AFEX-centered cellulosic technology can alleviate fermentation costs through reducing inoculum size and practically eliminating nutrient costs during bioconversion. However, AFEX requires supplemental xylanases as well as cellulase activity. As for long-term sustainability, AFEX has greater potential to diversify products from a cellulosic biorefinery due to lower levels of inhibitor generation and lignin loss.

  15. Vitrification and Testing of Hanford Pretreated Low Activity Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Gary Lynn L.; Smith, Harry D.; Schweiger, Michael; Piepel, Gregory F.; Smith, Gary L.; Sundaram, S.K.; Spearing, Dane R.

    2002-01-01

    Actual pretreated LAW samples were vitrified to demonstrate the RPP-WTP projects ability to satisfy the LAW product ORP Phase B-1 contract requirements concerning, chemical and radionuclide reporting, waste loading, identification and quantification of crystalline and non-crystalline phases, and waste form leachability. Chemical compositions of two LAW glasses (i.e. elements (excluding oxygen) present in concentrations greater than 0.5 percent by weight) were measured using KOH and Na2O2 fusion preparation procedures. The measured wt% sodium oxide content for the AW-101 and AN-107 glasses are 17.7 and 18.3 respectively; however, it is argued herein that process knowledge, i.e. the target sodium oxide content, is better than the analytical measurement. Therefore for both LAW glasses the target oxide loading for sodium of 20 wt% is accepted. At these levels the glass meets or exceeds both the RPP-WTP glass specification and the DOE ORG contract requirement for waste sodium loading. The concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, 99Tc and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides for AW-101 and AN-107 are: (1) 0.231 and 0.292 Ci/m3, 0.435 and 0.005 Ci/m3, 0.019 and 0.129 Ci/m3, andlt; 0.16 andlt; 2.6 nCi/g, respectively. The ORP contract criteria for 137Cs, 90Sr and TRU (shall be less than 3 Ci/m3, 20 Ci/m3, and 100 nCi/g, respectively) are met in both glasses. The ORP contract criteria for 99Tc (shall be less than 0.1 Ci/m3) is met explicitly by AW-101 and will be met for the AN-107 glass by averaging its 99Tc content over the previous LAW glasses produced to meet the contract. After canister centerline cooling, no crystals were observed in the AW-101 and AN-107 glasses by XRD, optical examination and SEM analysis. The normalized PCT release rates of sodium, silicon, and boron at both 40 and 90 C from the AW-101 and AN-107 glasses are less than 2.0 g/m2 the ORP contract criteria

  16. Evaluation of leucocytes labelling technique with 99m Tc - HMPAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, D.W.; Marinho, N.S.; Rezende, M.E.X.; Buchpiguel, C.A.; Rockmann, T.M.B.

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of the leukocytes labelling technique with HMPAO- 99m Tc, using low volume of blood and keeping the labelling efficiency and cellular viability in compatible levels with those preconized by the literature is presented. (C.G.C.)

  17. Vertical distributions of (99)Tc and the (99)Tc/(137)Cs activity ratio in the coastal water off Aomori, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takahiro; Zheng, Jian; Aono, Tatsuo; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kusakabe, Masashi

    2011-08-01

    Using a sector-field ICP-MS the vertical distributions of the (99)Tc concentration and (99)Tc/(137)Cs activity ratio were measured in the coastal waters off Aomori Prefecture, Japan, where a spent-nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant has begun test operation. The (99)Tc concentrations in surface water ranged from 1.8 to 2.4 mBq/m(3), no greater than the estimated background level. Relatively high (99)Tc/(137)Cs activity ratios (10-12 × 10(-4)) would be caused by the inflow of the high-(99)Tc/(137)Cs water mass from the Japan Sea. There is no observable contamination from the reprocessing plant in the investigated area. The (99)Tc concentration and the (99)Tc/(137)Cs activity ratio in water column showed gradual decreases with depth. Our results implied that (99)Tc behaves in a more conservative manner than (137)Cs in marine environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Are P.T.H. plasma levels useful for the selection of patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism for preoperative MIBI (99mTc)/123I dual-isotope scintigraphy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogova, S.; Sauer, A.M.; Dudczak, J.; Pascal, O.; Kerrou, K.; Huchet, V.; Montravers, F.; Talbot, J.N.; Perie, S.; Lacau St-Guily, J.; Nataf, V.; Balogova, S.

    2010-01-01

    The utility of preoperative scintigraphy in case of secondary hyperparathyroidism is questioned by some authors. Obviously, an imaging modality that will detect all hyperplastic glands, including the ectopic ones, would be of interest in those patients at high risk for surgery. However, scintigraphy has a limited detection rate in some patients. We investigated whether one of the following parameters would identify a subgroup of patients in whom the detection rate would be optimal: age, gender, hemodialysis and duration since its onset, and plasma levels of parathyrin (P.T.H.). Methods: Retrospective series of 38 patients referred for preoperative parathyroid scintigraphy due to secondary hyperparathyroidism who then underwent para thyroidectomy. Scintigraphy was performed 20 min and then 3 h after injection of 8 MBq/kg of sestamibi ( 99m Tc) with a previous ingestion of 0.1 MBq/kg iodine-123, 3 h before. Result: No significant correlation was observed between the number of glands detected on scintigraphy (and confirmed by postoperative histology) and plasma P.T.H. levels (r = -0.17). A weak positive correlation (r = +0.34) was noted in the group of six non-hemo dialysed patients. No significant relationship between this number of detected glands and a clinical parameter was observed. Conclusion: In our experience, these parameters do not permit to select, among patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism and scheduled for para thyroidectomy, those who will better benefit from parathyroid scintigraphy. (authors)

  19. Characteristics and behaviour of C-14, Cl-36, Pu-239 and Tc-99 in the Biosphere in the context of performance assessments of geological repositories for high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguero, A.; Perez-Sanchez, D.; Trueba, C.; Moraleda, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of the safety of high-level radioactive wastes repositories is a requisite of the radioactive waste management policy. Criteria for the safety of those facilities [IAEA, 1995] require protection of the population and the environment over a time scale appropriate to the characteristics of the disposed wastes. In order to demonstrate compliance with the relevant principles and regulations, there is the requirement for an analysis and quantification of system behavior including the transport of radionuclides from the facility to the biosphere, their transport in the biosphere and the resulting exposure of humans, including the evaluation of radiation doses from both external and internal exposure. Realistic models to simulate the transport of radionuclides in the environment are essential. The biosphere model needs to represent the transport and accumulation of radionuclides in the different media, including characterization of the pathways through which the contaminants give rise to exposure of humans. Such modeling needs to take account of the specific characteristics of the radionuclides involved, which have different physical, chemical and biological characteristics and behaviors and could require conceptually different models to predict their transport through, and distribution in, the relevant environmental media. Key radionuclides that have been shown to contribute most to the doses estimated in high-level radioactive waste disposal performance assessments were identified in [Watkins and Smith, 1999]. The important factors that determine whether a radionuclide will be a key contributor to dose are: its total inventory, half-life, solubility and adsorption potential, and biosphere flux-to-dose conversion factor. Only a limited number of radionuclides are likely to be important for the groundwater release and transport pathway from the point of view of their contribution to annual individual dose to humans: ''237Np (and its progeny), ''129I, ''99Tc

  20. GREET Pretreatment Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from cellulosic biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. Process simulations of dilute acid and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment processes and subsequent hydrolysis were developed in Aspen Plus for four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar). This processing yields sugars that can be subsequently converted to biofuels or biochemical. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in a new Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREETTM) pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  1. PRETREATING THORIUM FOR ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, J.G.; Schaer, G.R.

    1959-07-28

    A method is presented for pretreating a thorium surface prior to electroplating the surface. The pretreatment steps of the invention comprise cleaning by vapor blasting the surface, anodically pickling in a 5 to 15% by volume aqueous hydrochloric acid bath with a current of 125 to 250 amp/sq ft for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, chemically pickling the surface in a 5 to 15% by volume of aqueous sulfuric acid for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, and rinsing the surface with water.

  2. Biodistribution of immunoliposome labeled with Tc-99m in tumor xenografted mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Naoto; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Nakahara, Tadaki; Kanoh, Momoe; Hashimoto, Jun; Kunieda, Etsuo; Kubo, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    Immunoliposome (PEG, GAH, liposome; PGL), consisting of F(ab') 2 fragment of monoclonal antibody, GAH and polyethyleneglycol-coated (PEGylated) liposome was provided. Immunoliposome, PGL was labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) by two methods: labeling F(ab') 2 fragment with Tc-99m; Tc-99m-PGL, and entrapping Tc-99m into liposome; PGL[Tc-99m]. The objective of this study was to compare the biodistribution of Tc-99m-PGL and PGL[Tc-99m] in human gastric cancer xenografted mice. Tc-99m-PGL, PGL[Tc-99m], and Tc-99m-entrapped liposome; Lipo[Tc-99m] were prepared. They were injected into human gastric cancer, MKN45, xenografted mice via the tail vein, and their biodistribution was studied. No marked accumulation of either PGL[Tc-99m] or Lipo[Tc-99m] was observed in the stomach. The uptake of Tc-99m-PGL by the liver, spleen, and lung was higher than that by the tumor. On the other hand, the uptake of PGL[Tc-99m] by the lung and spleen was markedly lower as compared with that of Tc-99m-PGL; the accumulation of PGL[Tc-99m] was lower in the lung and higher in the spleen as compared with that of the tumor. Although the liver uptake of PGL[Tc-99m] was markedly decreased as compared with that of Tc-99m-PGL, it was higher than the uptake of the tumor. The Tc-99m-PGL was strongly taken up by the tumor, with a high level of incorporation also seen in the stomach. These findings suggest the need for further study of the labeling stability. PGL[Tc-99m] appears to show promise for high tumor uptake and retention. This is an important implication for the potential application of immunoliposomes entrapped with Re-186, instead of Tc-99m, in internal radiotherapy. (author)

  3. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION TESTING WITH INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM FEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING DL

    2008-01-01

    The fractional crystallization process was developed as a pretreatment method for saltcake waste retrieved from Hanford single-shell tanks (SST). The process separates the retrieved SST waste into a high-level waste stream containing the bulk of the radionuclides and a low-activity waste stream containing the bulk of the nonradioactive sodium salts. The Interim Pretreatment System project shifted the focus on pretreatment planning from SST waste to double-shell tank waste

  4. Impurities in Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical solution obtained from Mo-100 in cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymiński, Zbigniew; Saganowski, Paweł; Kołakowska, Ewa; Listkowska, Anna; Ziemek, Tomasz; Cacko, Daniel; Dziel, Tomasz

    2018-04-01

    The gamma emitting impurities in 99m Tc solution obtained from enriched molybdenum 100 Mo metallic target after its irradiation in a cyclotron were measured using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The radioactivity range of tested samples of 99m Tc was rather low, in the range from 0.34 to 2.39 MBq, thus creating a challenge to investigate the standard measurement HPGe system for impurity detection and quantification. In the process of 99m Tc separation from irradiated target the AnaLig® Tc-02 resin, Dionex H + and Alumina A columns were used. Fractions of eluates from various steps of separation process were taken and measured for radionuclidic purity. The overall measurement sensitivity of gamma emitters in terms of minimum detectable activity (MDA) was found at the level of 14-70Bq with emission lines in range of 36 - 1836keV resulting in impurity content range of 6.7 × 10 -4 to 3.4 × 10 -3 % for 93 Tc, 93m Tc, 94 Tc, 94m Tc, 95 Tc, 95m Tc, 96 Tc 96 Nb, 97 Nb, 99 Mo contaminants and 9.4 × 10 -3 % for 97m Tc. The usefulness of the chosen measurement conditions and the method applied to testing the potential contaminators was proved by reaching satisfactory results of MDAs less than the criteria of impurity concentration of all nuclides specified in the European Pharmacopoeia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Tribolium castaneum cell line TcA: a new tool kit for cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Kristopher; Jiang, Hongbo; Fu, Jinping; Phillips, Thomas W; Beeman, Richard W; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-10-30

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is an agriculturally important insect pest that has been widely used as a model organism. Recently, an adherent cell line (BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 or TcA) was developed from late pupae of the red flour beetle. Next generation transcriptome sequencing of TcA cells demonstrated expression of a wide variety of genes associated with specialized functions in chitin metabolism, immune responses and cellular and systemic RNAi pathways. Accordingly, we evaluated the sensitivity of TcA cells to dsRNA to initiate an RNAi response. TcA cells were highly sensitive to minute amounts of dsRNA, with a minimum effective dose of 100 pg/mL resulting in significant suppression of gene expression. We have also developed a plasmid containing two TcA-specific promoters, the promoter from the 40S ribosomal protein subunit (TC006550) and a bi-directional heat shock promoter (TcHS70) from the intergenic space between heat shock proteins 68a and b. These promoters have been employed to provide high levels of either constitutive (TC006550) or inducible (TcHS70) gene expression of the reporter proteins. Our results show that the TcA cell line, with its sensitivity to RNAi and functional TcA-specific promoters, is an invaluable resource for studying basic molecular and physiological questions.

  6. The determination of 99Tc by ICP-MS in samples collected near nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihsanullah; East, B.W.

    1991-01-01

    99 Tc occurs naturally in the earth's crust primarily from spontaneous fission of 238 U and slow neutron-induced fission of 235 U. 99 Tc is also produced from nuclear detonation tests, nuclear fuel processing plants and nuclear power stations. By comparison to other sources, the contribution to 99 Tc from natural sources and use of 99m Tc in medicine is considered to be negligible. Releases of 99 Tc from the nuclear fuel cycle include reactor operation, nuclear fuel reprocessing, UF 6 conversion, uranium enrichment, U fuel fabrication, high-level waste solidification, low and high-level waste disposal; however the main contribution to the release of 99 Tc is the process of uranium enrichment. Various environmental samples from the Irish Sea and from Chernobyl have been analysed for 99 Tc by newly developed procedures using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique. (author)

  7. Evolution of 99Tc Species in Cementitious Nuclear Waste Form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, Woo Yong; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Technetium (Tc) is produced in large quantities as a fission product during the irradiation of 235 U-enriched fuel for commercial power production and plutonium genesis for nuclear weapons. The most abundant isotope of Tc present in the wastes is 99 Tc because of its high fission yield (∼6%) and long half-life (2.13x10 5 years). During the Cold War era, generation of fissile 239 Pu for use in America's atomic weapons arsenal yielded nearly 1900 kg of 99 Tc at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Most of this 99 Tc is present in fuel reprocessing wastes temporarily stored in underground tanks awaiting retrieval and permanent disposal. After the wastes are retrieved from the storage tanks, the bulk of the high-level waste (HLW) and lowactivity waste (LAW) stream is scheduled to be converted into a borosilicate glass waste form that will be disposed of in a shallow burial facility called the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site. Even with careful engineering controls, volatilization of a fraction of Tc during the vitrification of both radioactive waste streams is expected. Although this volatilized Tc can be captured in melter off-gas scrubbers and returned to the melter, some of the Tc is expected to become part of the secondary waste stream from the vitrification process. The off-gas scrubbers downstream from the melters will generate a high pH, sodium-ammonium carbonate solution containing the volatilized Tc and other fugitive species. Effective and cost-efficient disposal of Tc found in the off-gas scrubber solution remains difficult. A cementitious waste form (Cast Stone) is one of the nuclear waste form candidates being considered to solidify the secondary radioactive liquid waste that will be generated by the operation of the waste treatment plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site. Because Tc leachability from the waste form is closely related with Tc speciation or oxidation state in both the simulant

  8. 99mTc-Alafosfalin: an antibiotic peptide infection imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsopelas, C.; Penglis, S.; Ruszkiewicz, A.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The radiolabeled antibiotic peptide 99m Tc-alafosfalin was assessed as an infection imaging agent in a rat model by comparison with 99m Tc-DTPA and 99m Tc-leukocytes. 99m Tc-alafosfalin was prepared via an instant cold kit and 99m Tc-leukocytes were prepared using 99m Tc-stannous fluoride colloid in an ex vivo labeling procedure of whole blood. In separate experiments, the three radiotracers were administered to rats infected with staphylococcus aureus. Quantitative biodistribution studies were performed as well as scintigraphic images and histopathology. 99m Tc-alafosfalin is a stable product, obtained in high radiochemical purity (>95%). This agent was mainly renally excreted, with low liver, spleen and bone uptake, and resulted in a mean ratio of infected/non-infected thighs of 4.3/1.0 at 4 hr post radiotracer injection. 99m Tc-DTPA gave a corresponding ratio of 1.9/1.0 and 99m Tc-leukocytes gave 20.0/1.0 at the same time point. An in vitro assay found the level of 99m Tc-alafosfalin binding to staphylococcus aureas higher than 99m Tc-DTPA (10% versus 1% respectively). 99m Tc-alafosfalin accumulates at sites of infection in a rat model better than the perfusion molecule 99m Tc-DTPA, yet less than 99m Tc-leukocytes. The distribution characteristics of this 99m Tc-antibiotic peptide would be an advantage in imaging abdominal and soft tissue infection

  9. Comparisons of five Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from SPORL pretreated lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performances of 5 yeast strains under three levels of toxicity were evaluated using hydrolysates from lodgepole pine pretreated by Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL). The highest level of toxicity was represented by the whole pretreated biomass slurry, ...

  10. Comparisons of five Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from SPORL pretreated lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haifeng Zhou; Tianqing Lan; Bruce S. Dien; Ronald E. Hector; J.Y. Zhu

    2014-01-01

    The performances of five yeast strains under three levels of toxicity were evaluated using hydrolysates from lodgepole pine pretreated by Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL). The highest level of toxicity was represented by the whole pretreated biomass slurry, while intermediate toxicity was represented by the...

  11. Accumulation of {sup 99}Tc in duckweed Lemna minor L. as a function of growth rate and {sup 99}Tc concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattink, J. E-mail: jhattink@hotmail.com; Wolterbeek, H.Th

    2001-07-01

    This study focuses on the question of whether short-term studies can be used to forecast the accumulation of the long-lived fission product {sup 99}Tc in duckweed, Lemna minor L., grown in the field; in other words, are the accumulation parameters independent of changing growth rates typical of natural populations of duckweed. Two processes determine the {sup 99}Tc accumulation: (i) uptake and release of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, characterised by a concentration factor, K{sub d}, and (ii) first-order reduction and complexation of Tc{sup VII}, characterised by k{sub red}. At various {sup 99}Tc concentrations, the growth, total Tc and TcO{sub 4}{sup -} accumulation were monitored over 10 days; parameters were fitted and compared with earlier results. Both K{sub d} and k{sub red} turn out to be independent of time, concentration and growth rate up to a concentration of 10{sup -6} mol l{sup -1} {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}. Concentrations above this level result in toxic effects. The Tc accumulation in field populations of duckweed at Tc concentrations which generally occur in the environment can be forecasted by using the results from short-term experiments.

  12. Pretreatment Pokemon Level as a Predictor of Response to Cisplatin and Paclitaxel in Patients with Unresectable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan-Le; Xing, Xi-Zhi; Li, Feng-Yan; Xing, Ya-Juan; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    We firstly investigated the expression of Pokemon in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), then characterized the role of Pokemon in evaluating the response to combined cisplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy and prognosis. In this study, 61 patients with previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC were treated with a combination chemotherapy comprising cisplatin and paclitaxel. The correlation between serum expression of Pokemon and effectiveness of chemotherapy was assessed. The expression level of Pokemon in NSCLC patients was higher than that in healthy controls (p = 0.000), and was correlated with tumor size and TNM stage (p Pokemon levels in excess of 135.09 ng/ml compared to those with Pokemon levels below 135.09 ng/ml (p = 0.013). Pokemon ≥ 135.09 ng/ml was an independent risk factor for survival time in NSCLC patients undergoing combination chemotherapy (p = 0.018). The serum level of Pokemon correlated with efficacy of cisplatin and paclitaxel combination chemotherapy and survival time, which indicated that Pokemon may be a potentially useful biomarker for predicting treatment effectiveness of first-line chemotherapy and prognosis in NSCLC. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  13. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  14. Presentation of test cases TC-2A, TC-2B, TC-2C, TC-2D - Twodimensional, incompressible, wall flows with separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel Larsen, Poul

    1988-01-01

    The four test cases comprise the backfacing step at high Re-number (TC-2A) and low Re-number (TC-2B), a low Re-number boundary layer flow past a thin obstacle, fence-on-wall (TC-2C), and a high Re-number developed channel flow past a squareobstacle (TC-2D). Geometry, test conditions and available...

  15. Substantially Modified Ratios of Effector to Regulatory T Cells During Chemotherapy in Ovarian Cancer Patients Return to Pre-Treatment Levels at Completion: Implications for Immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Anthony; Govindaraj, Chindu; Xiang, Sue D.; Halo, Julene; Quinn, Michael; Scalzo-Inguanti, Karen; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. Despite improved detection and treatment options, relapse rates remain high. Combining immunotherapy with the current standard treatments may provide an improved prognosis, however, little is known about how standard chemotherapy affects immune potential (particularly T cells) over time, and hence, when to optimally combine it with immunotherapy (e.g., vaccines). Herein, we assess the frequency and ratio of CD8+ central memory and effector T cells as well as CD4+ effector and regulatory T cells (Tregs) during the first 18 weeks of standard chemotherapy for ovarian cancer patients. In this pilot study, we observed increased levels of recently activated Tregs with tumor migrating ability (CD4+CD25 hi Foxp3+CD127−CCR4+CD38+ cells) in patients when compared to controls. Although frequency changes of Tregs as well as the ratio of effector T cells to Tregs were observed during treatment, the Tregs consistently returned to pre-chemotherapy levels at the end of treatment. These results indicate T cell subset distributions associated with recurrence may be largely resistant to being “re-set” to healthy control homeostatic levels following standard treatments. However, it may be possible to enhance T effector to Treg ratios transiently during chemotherapy. These results suggest personalized immune monitoring maybe beneficial when combining novel immuno-therapeutics with standard treatment for ovarian cancer patients

  16. Substantially Modified Ratios of Effector to Regulatory T Cells During Chemotherapy in Ovarian Cancer Patients Return to Pre-Treatment Levels at Completion: Implications for Immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Anthony; Govindaraj, Chindu; Xiang, Sue D., E-mail: Sue.Xiang@monash.edu [Department of Immunology, Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3004 (Australia); Halo, Julene; Quinn, Michael [Department of Oncology, Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Scalzo-Inguanti, Karen; Plebanski, Magdalena, E-mail: Sue.Xiang@monash.edu [Department of Immunology, Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3004 (Australia)

    2012-06-18

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. Despite improved detection and treatment options, relapse rates remain high. Combining immunotherapy with the current standard treatments may provide an improved prognosis, however, little is known about how standard chemotherapy affects immune potential (particularly T cells) over time, and hence, when to optimally combine it with immunotherapy (e.g., vaccines). Herein, we assess the frequency and ratio of CD8+ central memory and effector T cells as well as CD4+ effector and regulatory T cells (Tregs) during the first 18 weeks of standard chemotherapy for ovarian cancer patients. In this pilot study, we observed increased levels of recently activated Tregs with tumor migrating ability (CD4+CD25{sup hi}Foxp3+CD127−CCR4+CD38+ cells) in patients when compared to controls. Although frequency changes of Tregs as well as the ratio of effector T cells to Tregs were observed during treatment, the Tregs consistently returned to pre-chemotherapy levels at the end of treatment. These results indicate T cell subset distributions associated with recurrence may be largely resistant to being “re-set” to healthy control homeostatic levels following standard treatments. However, it may be possible to enhance T effector to Treg ratios transiently during chemotherapy. These results suggest personalized immune monitoring maybe beneficial when combining novel immuno-therapeutics with standard treatment for ovarian cancer patients.

  17. Solubility study of Tc(Ⅳ) in a granitic water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dejun; Yao Jun; Wang Bo

    2008-01-01

    The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safe disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under oxidizing conditions technetium exists as the anionic species TcO 4 - whereas under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 -nH 2 O. Hence, the mobility of Tc(Ⅳ) in reducing groundwater may be limited by the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O under these conditions. Due to this fact it is important to investigate the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. The solubility determines the release of radionuclides from waste form and is used as a source term in radionuclide migration analysis in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium (Ⅳ) was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2+ . The solubility of Tc(Ⅳ) has been determined in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(Ⅳ) were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(Ⅳ) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(Ⅳ) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is about (1.49-1.86)x10 -9 mol·L -1 d -1 under aerobic conditions, while no Tc(Ⅳ) oxidation was detected in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(Ⅳ) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The

  18. In vivo pretreatment of Eudrilus eugeniae powder attenuates β-adrenoceptor toxicity mediated by isoproterenol in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaganathan Anitha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to discover the potential cardioprotective function of earthworm powder (EWP extracted from Eudrilus eugeniae on isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into four groups, with six rats in each group. Certain rats were pretreated with EWP (200 mg/kg bwt (Group III, and a myocardial infarction was then induced by subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg bwt (Group II. Oral pretreatment of 200 mg/kg bwt of EWP for 28 days significantly (p > 0.05 improved the blood profile levels, including (a the lipid profile of total cholesterol (TC, free fatty acids (FFA, and triglycerides (TG; (b low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and protein; and (c A/G ratio, glucose and uric acid levels. The electrophoretic pattern of elevated lactose dehydrogenase (LDH levels was recovered by EWP treatment as evidenced by comparison with ISO-induced rats with cardiac damage. The above results indicate that EWP (200 mg/kg bwt provides a cardioprotective effect by attenuating the blood profile, lipid profile, biochemical levels, and LDH patterns in rats that experienced an ISO-induced myocardial infarction.

  19. Tc: chemistry and radiopharmaceuticals: a prospectus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulip, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    The recent explosion in technetium chemistry evident in this symposium promises to continue unabated. As in the past, radiopharmaceutical applications will lead to new Tc chemistry. In this lecture the author will discuss those areas which appear most fertile based on chemical and radiopharmaceutical criteria. Among these will be new organometallic Tc chemistry (e.g., Tc(CNR) 6 cations), Tc complexes as metabolic tracers (e.g., Tc-analogs to FDG), and peptide-based Tc chelators (e.g., Tc-metallothionein)

  20. Results of regular study on radionuclidic purity of sup(99m)Tc obtained from 99Mo-sup(99m)Tc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlcek, J.; Rohacek, J.; Husak, V.

    1979-01-01

    A total of 39 sup(99m)Tc eluates obtained from 9 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generators delivered by The Radiochemical Centre Amersham during one year was studied with regard to their radionuclide purity. Using a Ge(Li) spectrometer the contaminants 60 Co, 103 Ru, 131 I, 134 Cs, 140 La and 188 Re were found in sup(99m)Tc-eluates with average levels ranging from 2.9 x 10 -3 to 2.8 x 10 -1 per cent of sup(99m)Tc activity. The additional total body absorbed dose caused by these contaminants, as calculated from their average content in sup(99m)Tc eluates, was less than 1% of the dose due to sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 CS [de

  1. Influence of bilirubin on the distribution of 99mTc-HIDA and 99mTc-IODIDA in rats and their interaction with HSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, M.S.; Zmbova, B.; Zivanov-Stakic, D.; Vladimirov, S.

    1993-01-01

    The interaction of bilirubin and 99m Tc-HIDA and 99m Tc-IODIDA has been studied in rats. The mechanism of this interaction has been examined at the level of binding with human serum albumin (HSA) by the in vitro method. Percentage of binding with HSA, and affinity constants for 99m Tc-IODIDA were determined with and without bilirubin. Bilirubin was labeled with 99m Tc and its interaction with HSA was also examined. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  2. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    conditions, 82% glucose and 63% xylose yields were achieved for switchgrass, and 87% glucose and 59% xylose yields were achieved for coastal bermudagrass following enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass. The optimum enzyme loadings were 15 FPU/g and 20 CBU/g for switchgrass and 10 FPU/g and 20 CBU/g for coastal bermudagrass. Dielectric properties for dilute sodium hydroxide solutions were measured and compared to solid loss, lignin reduction and reducing sugar levels in hydrolyzates. Results indicate that the dielectric loss tangent of alkali solutions is a potential indicator of the severity of microwave-based pretreatments. Modeling of pretreatment processes can be a valuable tool in process simulations of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Chapter 4 discusses three different approaches that were used to model delignification and carbohydrate loss during microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass: statistical linear regression modeling, kinetic modeling using a time-dependent rate coefficient, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system. The dielectric loss tangent of the alkali reagent and pretreatment time were used as predictors in all models. The statistical linear regression model for delignification gave comparable root mean square error (RMSE) values for training and testing data and predictions were approximately within 1% of experimental values. The kinetic model for delignification and xylan loss gave comparable RMSE values for training and testing data sets and predictions were approximately within 2% of experimental values. The kinetic model for cellulose loss was not as effective and predictions were only within 5-7% of experimental values. The time-dependent rate coefficients of the kinetic models calculated from experimental data were consistent with the heterogeneity (or lack thereof) of individual biomass components. The Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system was shown to be an effective means to model pretreatment processes and gave

  3. Effects of the hypoglycaemic drugs repaglinide and glibenclamide on ATP-sensitive potassium-channels and cytosolic calcium levels in beta TC3 cells and rat pancreatic beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromada, J; Dissing, S; Kofod, Hans

    1995-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the action of the hypoglycaemic drugs repaglinide and glibenclamide in cultured newborn rat islet cells and mouse beta TC3 cells. In cell-attached membrane patches of newborn rat islet cells repaglinide (10 nmol/l) and glibenclamide (20 nmol/l) decrease the open pro...

  4. Enhanced 99 Tc retention in glass waste form using Tc(IV)-incorporated Fe minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Luksic, Steven A.; Wang, Guohui; Saslow, Sarah; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Bowden, Mark E.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2017-11-01

    Technetium (99Tc) immobilization by doping into iron oxide mineral phases may alleviate the problems with Tc volatility during vitrification of nuclear waste. Reduced Tc, Tc(IV), substitutes for Fe(III) in the crystal structure by a process of Tc reduction from Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) followed by co-precipitation of Fe oxide minerals. Two Tc-incorporated Fe minerals (Tc-goethite and Tc-magnetite/maghemite) were prepared and tested for Tc retention in glass melt samples at temperatures between 600 – 1,000 oC. After being cooled, the solid glass specimens prepared at different temperatures were analyzed for Tc oxidation state using Tc K-edge XANES. In most samples, Tc was partially oxidized from Tc(IV) to Tc(VII) as the melt temperature increased. However, Tc retention in glass melt samples prepared using Tc-incorporated Fe minerals were moderately higher than in glass prepared using KTcO4 because of limited and delayed Tc volatilization.

  5. Organ distribution of sup(99m)Tc-Sn tetracycline antibiotics in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalincak, M.; Machan, V.; Barna, K.

    1976-01-01

    The organ distribution of [sup(99m)Tc-Sn]tetracycline hydrochloride, [sup(99m)Tc-Sn]oxytetracycline hydrochloride and [sup(99m)Tc-Sn]rolitetracycline nitrate was studied in rats. It was shown that these preparations have a very similar organ distribution and are predominantly deposited in the kidneys. The maximum renal radioactivity level was found 2 to 4 hours after intravenous administration of the preparation, this, for [sup(99m)Tc-Sn]tetracycline hydrochloride 18.60%; for [sup(99m)Tc-Sn]oxytetracycline hydrochloride 17.09.=.; for [sup(99m)Tc-Sn]rolitetracycline nitrate 20.12%. The activity levels in the muscle, liver, heart, brain, lungs, stomach and spleen are minimal. (author)

  6. Organ distribution of /sup 99m/Tc--Sn tetracycline antibiotics in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalincak, M; Machan, V; Barna, K [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta

    1976-06-01

    The organ distribution of (sup(99m)Tc-Sn)tetracycline hydrochloride, (sup(99m)Tc-Sn)oxytetracycline hydrochloride and (sup(99m)Tc-Sn)rolitetracycline nitrate was studied in rats. It was shown that these preparations have a very similar organ distribution and are predominantly deposited in the kidneys. The maximum renal radioactivity level was found 2 to 4 hours after intravenous administration of the preparation, this, for (sup(99m)Tc-Sn)tetracycline hydrochloride 18.60%; for (sup(99m)Tc-Sn)oxytetracycline hydrochloride 17.09.=.; for (sup(99m)Tc-Sn)rolitetracycline nitrate 20.12%. The activity levels in the muscle, liver, heart, brain, lungs, stomach and spleen are minimal.

  7. High-Tc superconductor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    There has been much speculation about new products and business opportunities which high-Tc superconductors might make possible. However, with the exception of one Japanese survey, there have not been any recognized forecasts suggesting a timeframe and relative economic impact for proposed high-Tc products. The purpose of this survey is to provide definitive projections of the timetable for high-Tc product development, based on the combined forecasts of the leading U.S. superconductivity experts. The FTS panel of experts on high-Tc superconductor applications, representing both business and research, forecast the commercialization and economic impact for 28 classes of electronic, magnetic, communications, instrumentation, transportation, industrial, and power generation products. In most cases, forecasts predict the occurrence of developments within a 90% statistical confidence limit of 2-to-3 years. The report provides background information on the 28 application areas, as well as other information useful for strategic planners. The panel also forecast high-Tc research spending, markets, and international competitiveness, and provide insight into how the industry will evolve

  8. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  9. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  10. Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment Using AFEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E.

    Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

  11. Targeted functional imaging of estrogen receptors with 99mTc-GAP-EDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobukazu; Yang, David J.; Kohanim, Saady; Oh, Chang-Sok; Yu, Dong-Fang; Azhdarinia, Ali; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Kim, E.E.; Zhang, Xiaochun; Chang, Joe Y.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using 99m Tc-glutamate peptide-estradiol in functional imaging of estrogen receptor-positive [ER(+)] diseases. 3-Aminoethyl estradiol (EDL) was conjugated to glutamate peptide (GAP) to yield GAP-EDL. Cellular uptake studies of 99m Tc-GAP-EDL were conducted in ER(+) cell lines (MCF-7, 13762 and T47D). To demonstrate whether GAP-EDL increases MAP kinase activation, Western blot analysis of GAP-EDL was performed in 13762 cells. Biodistribution was conducted in nine rats with 13762 breast tumors at 0.5-4 h. Each rat was administered 99m Tc-GAP-EDL. Two animal models (rats and rabbits) were created to ascertain whether tumor uptake of 99m Tc-GAP-EDL was via an ER-mediated process. In the tumor model, breast tumor-bearing rats were pretreated with diethylstilbestrol (DES) 1 h prior to receiving 99m Tc-GAP-EDL. In the endometriosis model, part of the rabbit uterine tissue was dissected and grafted to the peritoneal wall. The rabbit was administered with 99m Tc-GAP-EDL. There was a 10-40% reduction in uptake of 99m Tc-GAP-EDL in cells treated with DES or tamoxifen compared with untreated cells. Western blot analysis showed an ERK1/2 phosphorylation process with GAP-EDL. Biodistribution studies showed that tumor uptake and tumor-to-muscle count density ratio in 99m Tc-GAP-EDL groups were significantly higher than those in 99m Tc-GAP groups at 4 h. Among 99m Tc-GAP-EDL groups, region of interest analysis of images showed that tumor-to muscle ratios were decreased in blocking groups. In the endometriosis model, the grafted uterine tissue could be visualized by 99m Tc-GAP-EDL. Cellular or tumor uptake of 99m Tc-GAP-EDL occurs via an ER-mediated process. 99m Tc-GAP-EDL is a useful agent for imaging functional ER(+) disease. (orig.)

  12. Targeted functional imaging of estrogen receptors with {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Nobukazu; Yang, David J.; Kohanim, Saady; Oh, Chang-Sok; Yu, Dong-Fang; Azhdarinia, Ali; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Kim, E.E. [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Zhang, Xiaochun; Chang, Joe Y. [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Radiation Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-03-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of using {sup 99m}Tc-glutamate peptide-estradiol in functional imaging of estrogen receptor-positive [ER(+)] diseases. 3-Aminoethyl estradiol (EDL) was conjugated to glutamate peptide (GAP) to yield GAP-EDL. Cellular uptake studies of {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL were conducted in ER(+) cell lines (MCF-7, 13762 and T47D). To demonstrate whether GAP-EDL increases MAP kinase activation, Western blot analysis of GAP-EDL was performed in 13762 cells. Biodistribution was conducted in nine rats with 13762 breast tumors at 0.5-4 h. Each rat was administered {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL. Two animal models (rats and rabbits) were created to ascertain whether tumor uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL was via an ER-mediated process. In the tumor model, breast tumor-bearing rats were pretreated with diethylstilbestrol (DES) 1 h prior to receiving {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL. In the endometriosis model, part of the rabbit uterine tissue was dissected and grafted to the peritoneal wall. The rabbit was administered with {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL. There was a 10-40% reduction in uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL in cells treated with DES or tamoxifen compared with untreated cells. Western blot analysis showed an ERK1/2 phosphorylation process with GAP-EDL. Biodistribution studies showed that tumor uptake and tumor-to-muscle count density ratio in {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL groups were significantly higher than those in {sup 99m}Tc-GAP groups at 4 h. Among {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL groups, region of interest analysis of images showed that tumor-to muscle ratios were decreased in blocking groups. In the endometriosis model, the grafted uterine tissue could be visualized by {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL. Cellular or tumor uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL occurs via an ER-mediated process. {sup 99m}Tc-GAP-EDL is a useful agent for imaging functional ER(+) disease. (orig.)

  13. Is the renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA decreased in microalbuminuric diabetic patient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki

    1999-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end stage renal disease and the incidence is progressively increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of 99m Tc-DMSA renal uptake among diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and overt proteinuria, and then to determine the clinical usefulness of 99m Tc-DMSA in predicting early diabetic nephropathy. 99m Tc-DMSA scan was performed and a total renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA was measured in 145 diabetic patients. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the amount of 24 hour urinary albumin excretion as Group I (normoalbuminuria, 74 cases ), Group II (microalbuminuria, 39 cases), and Group III (overt proteinuria, 32 cases). The differences of 99m Tc-DMSA renal uptake among the 3 groups and the correlation between the renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA and other clinical parameters were analyzed. The total renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA of Group II (40.8±11.0%) was significantly lower than that of Group I (54.4±6.3%, p 99m Tc-DMSA total renal uptakes correlated negatively with serum creatinine level (r=0.629, p 99m Tc-DMSA total renal uptake of diabetic patients with microalbuminuria was significantly decreased compared with that of patients of normoalbuminuria. Therefore, 99m Tc-DMSA scan can be used as a diagnostic study for early detection of the diabetic nephropathy

  14. Inhibitory effect of trans-caryophyllene (TC) on leukocyte-endothelial attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Chunfeng; Dai, Xinlun; Ao, Yu; Li, Yumei

    2017-08-15

    trans-Caryophyllene (TC) is a major component found in the essential oils of many spices and foods/medicinal plants. It is a natural sesquiterpene and has been the subject of numerous studies. However, the effects of TC on vascular inflammation remain unknown. In this study, we reported that TC treatment in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) prevented attachment of monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 cells to endothelial cells. In addition, in vivo results indicate that TC inhibited macrophage infiltration to the aortic surface and reduced total serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Importantly, administration of TC could inhibit the induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, our data indicate that the inhibitory effects of TC on the expression of VCAM-1 are mediated by the JAK2/STAT1/IRF-1 pathway. TC is a specific agonist of the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R). Importantly, we further verified that the inhibitory effects of TC on the expression of IRF-1 and VCAM-1 are dependent on activation of CB2R. Inhibition of CB2R by either specific inhibitors or RNA interference abolished the inhibitory effects of TC on the expression of IRF-1 and VCAM-1. Our results suggest that TC might have a capacity to suppress the development of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Basic and clinical studies on hepatobiliary function test with sup(99m)Tc-PI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Isamu; Shigemoto, Hirosada; Ito, Yasuhiko; Muranaka, Akira; Ohtsuka, Nobuaki

    1979-01-01

    In these basic and clinical studies, the usefulness of sup(99m)Tc-pyridoxilideneisoleucine, a new hepatobiliary agent, was evaluated for a hepatobiliary function test in comparison with sup(99m)Tc-N-[N-(2,6 dimethylphenyl)carbamoylmethyl] iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) and 131 I-rose bengal (RB). The experiments were performed with 2.5 - 5 kg rabbits. Hepatic uptake and the excretion of sup(99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene isoleucine (PI) were earlier than those of 131 I-RB. However, biliary excretions of sup(99m)Tc-PI and sup(99m)Tc-HIDA were less than that of 131 I-RB, because urinary excretions of sup(99m)Tc-labeled compounds were greater. During the first 2.5 - 5 min, sup(99m)Tc-labeled agents had lower blood levels than 131 I-RB. At 6 days after the choledochal ligation, no hepatic uptake of sup(99m)Tc-PI was noted, although 131 I-RB concentrated to the liver. Blood retention of sup(99m)Tc-PI might not always reflect hepatobiliary function, especially in the hyperbilirubinemia. On the other hand, hepatograms from a region of interest corresponding to the liver varied with changes in the serum bilirubin level, although no hepatic uptake was detected in the complete obstructive jaundice and severe parenchymal liver disease being over 7 mg/dl in the serum bilirubin level. (author)

  16. Study on the metabolic peculiarities of renal radiotracer 99mTc-PAHIDA and diagnostic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Wang Liuyi; Lun Mingyue

    1994-11-01

    The metabolic peculiarities of renal radiotracer 99m Tc-PAHIDA and diagnostic use were studied. The results of the radioactive tracing study showed that 99m Tc-PAHIDA was distributed predominantly in kidney, and then in heart, gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, musculus quadriceps femoris, adipose tissue, testes and brain. It should be noted that when smaller dose of this agent was given, more 99m Tc-PAHIDA was concentrated in kidney and, at the same time, the level of its binding to plasma protein was lower. The experimental results indicated that 99m Tc-PAHIDA was rapidly excreted in urine. Autoradiochromatographic examination of the urine showed a single radioactive peak corresponding to the authentic 99m Tc-PAHIDA, indicating that 99m Tc-PAHIDA was excreted in the unchanged form. (3 tabs.)

  17. The effects of plant traits and phylogeny on soil-to-plant transfer of 99Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willey, N.J.; Tang, S.; McEwen, A.; Hicks, S.

    2010-01-01

    Assessments of the behaviour of 99 Tc in terrestrial environments necessitate predicting soil-to-plant transfer. An experiment with 116 plant taxa showed that 99 Tc transfer to plants was positively related to plant dry weight but negatively related to % dry matter and age at exposure. Activities of 99 Tc analysed by hierarchical ANOVA coded with an angiosperm phylogeny revealed significant effects, with 55% of the variance between species explained at the Ordinal level and above. Monocots had significantly lower transfer of 99 Tc than Eudicots, within which Caryophyllales > Solanales > Malvales > Brassicales > Asterales > Fabales. There was a significant phylogenetic signal in soil-to-plant transfer of 99 Tc. This phylogenetic signal is used to suggest that, for example, a nominal Tc Transfer Factor of 5 could be adjusted to 2.3 for Monocots and 5.3 for Eudicots.

  18. Clinical comparison of diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m and diethyl-IDA Tc 99m for evaluation of the hepatobiliary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingensmith, W.C.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Spitzer, V.M.; Kuni, C.C.; Shanahan, W.S.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with a wide range of hepatobiliary function and clinical diagnoses were studied with both diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m and diethyl-IDA Tc 99m. Images were similar except for an increased liver-to-kidney ratio with diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m (p less than 0.01) and a tendency toward an increased liver-to-background ratio at five minutes with diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m (p greater than 0.05). Quantification of the relative hepatocyte extraction efficiency indicated a 16% higher extraction efficiency for diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m (p greater than 0.05). Cumulative three-hour urine collections following injection demonstrated no significant difference in renal excretion in patients with normal total serum bilirubin levels. Both radiopharmaceuticals demonstrated increasing renal excretion with increasing total serum bilirubin levels; however, renal excretion of diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m increased more slowly than excretion of diethyl-IDA Tc 99m (p less than 0.01). We conclude that, while the overall differences between these two radiopharmaceuticals are small, diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m is superior because of a lower renal excretion rate in patients with decreased hepatocyte function

  19. Tc-99m imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weininger, J.; Trumper, J.

    1984-01-01

    A wide range of pharmaceuticals for labeling with Tc-99m, developed by the Soreq Radiopharmaceuticals Department, is described. Details of the production and quality control of 13 kits are given, as well as the range of results required for consistently high quality imaging agents

  20. Biorefining of wheat straw: accounting for the distribution of mineral elements in pretreated biomass by an extended pretreatment-severity equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne R; Knudsen, Niels Ole; Schjoerring, Jan K; Meyer, Anne S

    2014-01-01

    Mineral elements present in lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks may accumulate in biorefinery process streams and cause technological problems, or alternatively can be reaped for value addition. A better understanding of the distribution of minerals in biomass in response to pretreatment factors is therefore important in relation to development of new biorefinery processes. The objective of the present study was to examine the levels of mineral elements in pretreated wheat straw in response to systematic variations in the hydrothermal pretreatment parameters (pH, temperature, and treatment time), and to assess whether it is possible to model mineral levels in the pretreated fiber fraction. Principal component analysis of the wheat straw biomass constituents, including mineral elements, showed that the recovered levels of wheat straw constituents after different hydrothermal pretreatments could be divided into two groups: 1) Phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, manganese, zinc, and calcium correlated with xylose and arabinose (that is, hemicellulose), and levels of these constituents present in the fiber fraction after pretreatment varied depending on the pretreatment-severity; and 2) Silicon, iron, copper, aluminum correlated with lignin and cellulose levels, but the levels of these constituents showed no severity-dependent trends. For the first group, an expanded pretreatment-severity equation, containing a specific factor for each constituent, accounting for variability due to pretreatment pH, was developed. Using this equation, the mineral levels could be predicted with R(2) > 0.75; for some with R(2) up to 0.96. Pretreatment conditions, especially pH, significantly influenced the levels of phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, manganese, zinc, and calcium in the resulting fiber fractions. A new expanded pretreatment-severity equation is proposed to model and predict mineral composition in pretreated wheat straw biomass.

  1. Tc7, a Tc1-hitch hiking transposon in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    OpenAIRE

    Rezsohazy, R; van Luenen, H G; Durbin, R M; Plasterk, R H

    1997-01-01

    We have found a novel transposon in the genome of Caenorhabditis elegans. Tc7 is a 921 bp element, made up of two 345 bp inverted repeats separated by a unique, internal sequence. Tc7 does not contain an open reading frame. The outer 38 bp of the inverted repeat show 36 matches with the outer 38 bp of Tc1. This region of Tc1 contains the Tc1-transposase binding site. Furthermore, Tc7 is flanked by TA dinucleotides, just like Tc1, which presumably correspond to the target duplication generated...

  2. /sup 99m/Tc-aminohexylidendiphosphonate and /sup 99/mTc-Pyrophosphate in the scintigraphic diagnosis of experimental cardiomyopathy in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duska, F; Kafka, P; Mazurova, Y; Hadas, L; Vizda, J; Palicka, V; Grossman, V

    1987-10-01

    Experimental cardiomyopathy was provoked in 24 dogs with high intravenous doses of adrenaline and theophylline. These lesions were studied by means of the new agent /sup 99m/Tc-AHDP and /sup 99m/Tc-PYP in comparison. Cardiomyopathy could be imaged as early as 4 h after the onset of involvement but not later than 7 days. A maximum accumulation occurred in lesions 24 h old, /sup 99m/Tc uptake in the myocardium was graded scintigraphically, /sup 99m/Tc-AHDP was accumulated in the altered myocardium to a greater extent than /sup 99m/Tc-PYP. Scintigraphic findings were in good agreement with plasma levels of creatine-kinase. A comparison with histology demonstrated that the maximum accumulation of radiopharmaceuticals occurred at the time when the development of myocardium involvement reached the stage of myocytolysis.

  3. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PRECONCEPTUAL CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH

    2008-08-12

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

  4. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcI in free-ranging population of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp: an 11-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Varella Lisboa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a review of the dataset resulting from the 11-years follow-up of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in free-ranging populations of Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin and Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin from distinct forest fragments in Atlantic Coastal Rainforest. Additionally, we present new data regarding T. cruzi infection of small mammals (rodents and marsupials that live in the same areas as golden lion tamarins and characterisation at discrete typing unit (DTU level of 77 of these isolates. DTU TcII was found to exclusively infect primates, while TcI infected Didelphis aurita and lion tamarins. The majority of T. cruzi isolates derived from L. rosalia were shown to be TcII (33 out 42 Nine T. cruzi isolates displayed a TcI profile. Golden-headed lion tamarins demonstrated to be excellent reservoirs of TcII, as 24 of 26 T. cruzi isolates exhibited the TcII profile. We concluded the following: (i the transmission cycle of T. cruzi in a same host species and forest fragment is modified over time, (ii the infectivity competence of the golden lion tamarin population fluctuates in waves that peak every other year and (iii both golden and golden-headed lion tamarins are able to maintain long-lasting infections by TcII and TcI.

  5. Enhanced99Tc retention in glass waste form using Tc(IV)-incorporated Fe minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Um, W; Luksic, SA; Wang, G; Saslow, S; Kim, DS; Schweiger, MJ; Soderquist, CZ; Bowden, ME; Lukens, WW; Kruger, AA

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 Elsevier B.V. Technetium ( 99 Tc) immobilization by doping into iron oxide mineral phases may alleviate the problems with Tc volatility during vitrification of nuclear waste. Because reduced Tc, Tc(IV), substitutes for Fe(III) in the crystal structure by a process of Tc reduction from Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) followed by co-precipitation of Fe oxide minerals, two Tc-incorporated Fe minerals (Tc-goethite and Tc-magnetite/maghemite) were prepared and tested for Tc retention in glass melt sample...

  6. Development of 99mTc labelled somatostatin analogues and evaluation of their radiochemical and biological behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gano, L.; Patricio, L.

    2001-01-01

    Conjugates of two somatostatin analogues, octreotide and RC-160, with HYNIC were synthesized, characterized and purified by reverse phase HPLC. Radiolabelling of the conjugates with 99m Tc was achieved using tricine as co-ligand. High labelling efficiencies were obtained and 99m Tc peptides with high radiochemical purity were found when analysed both by ITLC and HPLC. In vitro stability of 99m Tc-peptides in human serum and towards cysteine challenge was determined by Cellogel electrophoresis and HPLC after ultrafiltration of serum solution through a 20 kDa cut off membrane. Biodistribution studies were performed in healthy mice at 5 and 30 minutes and 1, 2, 4 and 24 h post-injection. Urine and blood samples were collected at sacrifice time. Samples of urine and ultrafiltrate murine serum were analysed by electrophoresis and reverse phase HPLC in order to get some information about radiocompounds metabolism. Biological distribution of 99m Tc octreotide was also assayed in mice pre-treated with an excess of unlabelled peptide. From our results we conclude that this labelling method led to stable 99m Tc complexes both in vitro and in vivo when high specific activities (37-72 GBq/μmole) were used. Biodistribution studies of both 99m Tc-peptides indicated a radioactivity distribution profile with significant differences especially in the liver uptake that is higher for 99m Tc RC-160. However, a rapid blood clearance was obtained for both radiolabelled peptides, and the urine analysis indicated that 99m Tc peptide is mostly excreted as the initial complex. Pre-treatment with unlabelled peptide did not affect renal excretion of 99m TOC but pancreas and intestine radioactive uptake was significantly lower, indicating saturation of somatostatin receptors and selective uptake. (author)

  7. A highly sensitive and specific method for the screening detection of genetically modified organisms based on digital PCR without pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Zhu, Pengyu; Wang, Chenguang; Huang, Kunlun; Du, Zhixin; Tian, Wenying; Wang, Qin; Wang, Huiyu; Xu, Wentao; Zhu, Shuifang

    2015-08-04

    Digital PCR has developed rapidly since it was first reported in the 1990 s. It was recently reported that an improved method facilitated the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, to use this improved method, the samples must be pretreated, which could introduce inaccuracy into the results. In our study, we explored a pretreatment-free digital PCR detection method for the screening for GMOs. We chose the CaMV35s promoter and the NOS terminator as the templates in our assay. To determine the specificity of our method, 9 events of GMOs were collected, including MON810, MON863, TC1507, MIR604, MIR162, GA21, T25, NK603 and Bt176. Moreover, the sensitivity, intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory reproducibility of our detection method were assessed. The results showed that the limit of detection of our method was 0.1%, which was lower than the labeling threshold level of the EU. The specificity and stability among the 9 events were consistent, respectively. The intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory reproducibility were both good. Finally, the perfect fitness for the detection of eight double-blind samples indicated the good practicability of our method. In conclusion, the method in our study would allow more sensitive, specific and stable screening detection of the GMO content of international trading products.

  8. Cardioprotective Effects of Tualang Honey: Amelioration of Cholesterol and Cardiac Enzymes Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Tanvir, E M; Afroz, Rizwana; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40) were pretreated orally with Tualang honey (3 g/kg/day) for 45 days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline) for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aspartate transaminase (AST)), cTnI, serum TC, and TG levels. In addition, ISO-induced myocardial injury was confirmed by a significant increase in heart lipid peroxidation (LPO) products (TBARS) and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, GRx, and GST). Pretreatment of ischemic rats with Tualang honey conferred significant protective effects on all of the investigated biochemical parameters. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examination in both Tualang-honey-pretreated and ISO-treated hearts. The present study demonstrates that Tualang honey confers cardioprotective effects on ISO-induced oxidative stress by contributing to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  9. Cardioprotective Effects of Tualang Honey: Amelioration of Cholesterol and Cardiac Enzymes Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO- induced myocardial infarction (MI in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI, triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, lipid peroxidation (LPO products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40 were pretreated orally with Tualang honey (3 g/kg/day for 45 days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and aspartate transaminase (AST, cTnI, serum TC, and TG levels. In addition, ISO-induced myocardial injury was confirmed by a significant increase in heart lipid peroxidation (LPO products (TBARS and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, GRx, and GST. Pretreatment of ischemic rats with Tualang honey conferred significant protective effects on all of the investigated biochemical parameters. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examination in both Tualang-honey-pretreated and ISO-treated hearts. The present study demonstrates that Tualang honey confers cardioprotective effects on ISO-induced oxidative stress by contributing to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  10. Distribution and migration of 99Tc in surface soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uezu, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Takeishi, Minoru; Shinohara, Kunihiko

    2001-01-01

    99 Tc is produced in a high yield of 6% upon nuclear fission of 235 U, 239 Pu and so on. It is one of the important nuclides in existence around nuclear facilities because it has an extremely long half-life of 214,000 years and various chemical forms in soils. Based on the results of tracer experiments that have been conducted by research organizations in various laboratories, it was thought that the transfer velocity of 99 Tc in soils would be high. However, it was found from the results of analysis of actual soil samples that the transfer factor of 99 Tc from soil to plants was about 100 times smaller than that of the reported value. The vertical transfer of TcO 4 - (7 valences) is faster than that of TcO 2 (4 valences). These results suggest that an environmental assessment on a long-term scale in connection with the environmental assessment of low-level waste from nuclear facilities and an environmental assessment of contaminated areas should be based on parameters from field data. (author)

  11. Critical temperatures Tc estimated by Josephson-junction array model of layered high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, C.; Shenoy, S.R.; Bishop, A.R.

    1994-11-01

    We model high T c superconductors (HTS) by quantum capacitive Josephson junction arrays (JJA), with Angstrom-scale parameters, to obtain an estimate of Tc trends. The basic idea is as follows. Number (or change) and phase are conjugate variables, with the uncertainty products obeying ΔN · Δ Θ > 1. Thus, in HTS, global phase coherence is opposed by charging-energy induced quantum phase fluctuations, especially across Josephson-coupled CuO 2 planes. These have separation d 1 and effective interplanar dielectric constant ε, e.g. from Y atoms in YBaCuO. Decreasing the interplane charging energy E 0 perpendicular to ∼ d 1 /ε, raises Tc. In Section 1, we motivate a modelling of HTS phase excitations by a quantum capacitive 3D JJA model, with XY planar phases. Section 2 gives a physical picture of the HTS transition, relating the complex layered HTS structure to a simpler ''intermediate level'' quantum 3D JJA/XY model. Section 3 sets up a path integral (3+1)D model that reduces to a previously studied anisotropic 3D XY/JJA model, with constants renormalized in some way, by the capacitance. Postponing a detailed analysis to elsewhere, we make a heuristic estimate for the reduction of the previous Tc, by the charging energy. (author). 30 refs, 8 figs

  12. Tank waste pretreatment issues, alternatives and strategies for resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.C.; Appel, J.; Barton, W.B.; Orme, R.M.; Holton, L.K. Jr.

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of the Hanford Site tank waste. The overall strategy for disposing of tank waste is evolving and initial recommendations on a course of action are expected in March, 1993. Pretreatment of these wastes may be required for one or both of the following reasons: (1) resolution of tank safety issues, and (2) preparation of low level and high level waste fractions for disposal. Pretreatment is faced with several issues that must be addressed by the deployment strategies that are being formulated. These issues are identified. There is also a discussion of several pretreatment deployment strategies and how these strategies address the issues. Finally, the technology alternatives that are being considered for the pretreatment function are briefly discussed

  13. Clinical use of 99mTc mebrofenin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoliang; Zhao Huiyang

    1989-01-01

    A study of 124 subjects was undertaken to evaluate the image patterns of 99m Tc trimethylbromo iminodiacetic acid ( 99m Tc mebrofenin) in hepatobiliary disorders. It exhibits: (a) high specificity for the hepatobiliary system with low urinary excretion rate; (b) high competition to bilirubin; and (c) clearing more rapidly from the blood and rapid transit through the hepatobiliary system. Therefore 99m Tc mebrofenin result in the best visualization of the biliary system either in nonjaundiced or joundiced patient, and the hepatobiliary system can be clearly visualized even in patients with serum bilirubin level up to 30 mg%. The major drawback of this agent is that the urinary excretion rate increased in case of high serum bilirubin

  14. Common extraction of Tc, Pd and Eu by phosphorylated calixarenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babain, V.; Smirnov, I.; Kvasnitskiy, I.; Karavan, M.; Boiko, V.; Miroshnichenko, V.; Klimchuk, O.; Kalchenko, V.

    2003-01-01

    The present work is aimed at studying the extraction systems based on neutral organophosphorus extractants - phosphorylated calixarenes for recovery of Pd and Tc together with Am and Cm from high-level radioactive wastes. Extraction of Pd, Tc and Eu (Am) was studied for phosphorylated calixarenes in meta-nitrobenzotrifluoride (NBTF). Main results are presented in Table. On the basis of available data one can suggest that type and position of phosphor-organic substituents are not so important for extraction of Tc and Pd, as for Eu and Am extraction. The phosphorylated at upper rim calix[4]arenas with small alkyl substituents at phosphorus atom are of prime interest for joint recovery of europium, americium, technetium and palladium. (authors)

  15. Cost comparison for REDC pretreatment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Homan, F.J.

    1997-06-01

    This analysis has been prepared to support the planned expenditure to provide the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) with the capability to pretreat their liquid low-level waste (LLLW) before discharging it to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) LLLW system. Pretreatment will remove most of the radioactivity, particularly the transuranic isotopes and Cs-137 from the waste to be discharged. This will render the supernates that accumulate in the storage tanks low-activity Class B low-level wastes rather than high-activity Class B or Class C wastes. The sludges will be Class C rather than remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes. When REDC wastes are commingled with other ORNL LLLW, the present-worth treatment and transport costs are higher by a factor of 1.3 for the no-pretreatment cases. This result is consistent with data from similar studies conducted at other sites. Based on the information presented in this analysis, the recommendation is to proceed with REDC treatment projects

  16. Distribution of orally administered and chronically fed /sup 95m/Tc in Japanese quail tissues and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Cadwell, L.L.; Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1984-10-01

    Previous coefficients for transfer of technetium from feed to poultry have utilized default values. These investigations examined the uptake and distribution of /sup 95m/Tc in male and female Japanese quail following their ingestion of Tc incorporated into alfalfa during growth. Approximately 8% of the daily ingested Tc was transferred to eggs. Biological half-time was one to two days. After 10 days of feeding, 80% of the Tc was in yolk, 20% in albumin, and less than 1% in shell and associated membranes. The Tc levels in albumin reached a maximum between three and five days, compared to six to seven days for yolk. Laying female quail contained 27% of the daily-ingested Tc compared to 5% for males. However, approximately 23% of the daily female Tc intake was contained in the developing ova and reproductive organs. The highest Tc concentrations were in oocytes of laying hens, followed by the fully formed unlaid egg and the ovaries. The uterine shelled egg contained five times the amount of Tc present in other edible tissues combined. For males, the gizzard contained about 53% of the Tc in other edible tissues, followed by muscle (25%), liver (19%), and heart (3%). The transfer coefficient (pCi/kg edible tissue per pCi/day) for plant-incorporated /sup 95m/Tc was about 0.35 day/kg for both sexes. 17 references, 4 tables

  17. Combined (alkaline+ultrasonic) pretreatment effect on sewage sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Jeong, Emma; Oh, Sae-Eun; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2010-05-01

    The individual effects of alkaline (pH 8-13) and ultrasonic (3750-45,000kJ/kg TS) pretreatments on the disintegration of sewage sludge were separately tested, and then the effect of combining these two methods at different intensity levels was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). In the combined pretreatment, ultrasonic treatment was applied to the alkali-pretreated sludge. While the solubilization (SCOD/TCOD) increase was limited to 50% in individual pretreatments, it reached 70% in combined pretreatment, and the results clearly showed that preconditioning of sludge at high pH levels played a crucial role in enhancing the disintegration efficiency of the subsequent ultrasonic pretreatment. By applying regression analysis, the disintegration degree (DD) was fitted based on the actual value to a second order polynomial equation: Y=-172.44+29.82X(1)+5.30x10(-3)X(2)-7.53x10(-5)X(1)X(2)-1.10X(1)(2)-1.043x10(-7)X(2)(2), where X(1), X(2), and Y are pH, specific energy input (kJ/kg TS), and DD, respectively. In a 2D contour plot describing the tendency of DD with respect to pH and specific energy input, it was clear that DD increased as pH increased, but it seemed that DD decreased when the specific energy input exceeded about 20,000kJ/kg TS. This phenomenon tells us that there exists a certain point where additional energy input is ineffective in achieving further disintegration. A synergetic disintegration effect was also found in the combined pretreatment, with lower specific energy input in ultrasonic pretreatment yielding higher synergetic effect. Finally, in order to see the combined pretreatment effect in continuous operation, the sludge pretreated with low intensity alkaline (pH 9)/ultrasonic (7500kJ/kg TS) treatment was fed to a 3 L of anaerobic sequencing batch reactor after 70 days of control operation. CH(4) production yield significantly increased from 81.9+/-4.5mL CH(4)/g COD(added) to 127.3+/-5.0mL CH(4)/g COD(added) by pretreatment, and

  18. Altered [99mTc]Tc-MDP biodistribution from neutron activation sourced 99Mo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Sandor; Szweda, Roman; Patterson, Judy; Grigoryan, Marine

    2018-01-01

    Given potential worldwide shortages of fission sourced 99 Mo/ 99m Tc medical isotopes there is increasing interest in alternate production strategies. A neutron activated 99 Mo source was utilized in a single center phase III open label study comparing 99m Tc, as 99m Tc Methylene Diphosphonate ([ 99m Tc]Tc-MDP), obtained from solvent generator separation of neutron activation produced 99 Mo, versus nuclear reactor produced 99 Mo (e.g., fission sourced) in oncology patients for which an [ 99m Tc]Tc-MDP bone scan would normally have been indicated. Despite the investigational [ 99m Tc]Tc-MDP passing all standard, and above standard of care, quality assurance tests, which would normally be sufficient to allow human administration, there was altered biodistribution which could lead to erroneous clinical interpretation. The cause of the altered biodistribution remains unknown and requires further research.

  19. Clinical evaluation of sup(99m)Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan hepatobiliary scintigraphy in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, Toru; Azuma, Masayoshi; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Hiroaki; Ishizu, Hiroshi; Mitsutani, Natsuki; Koizumi, Takeo; Kobayashi, Yasushi

    1985-09-01

    We have assessed the diagnostic value of sup(99m)Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (sup(99m)Tc-PMT) hepatobiliary scintigraphy in 28 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had obvious filling defects on sup(99m)Tc-phytate liver scintigram. Uptake of sup(99m)Tc-PMT in obvious defects on sup(99m)Tc-phytate liver scintigram was observed in 16 out of 28 patients (57.1 %). Most of HCC with sup(99m)Tc-PMT uptake were histologically well-differenciated. However, well-differenciated HCC did not always take up sup(99m)Tc-PMT. No correlation was observed between sup(99m)Tc-PMT uptake in the tumor and levels of serum alpha-fetoprotein. Patients with high alpha-fetoprotein level (>3000 ng/ml) were only 9 patients (32.1 %) in our study. By the combined results of sup(99m)Tc-PMT hepatobiliary scintigraphy and alpha-fetoprotein level (>3000 ng/ml), diagnostic rate for HCC was markedly elevated up to 75 %. Therefore, it is considered that sup(99m)Tc-PMT hepatobiliary scintigraphy is clinically useful for specific diagnosis of HCC. Furthermore, it provides the information for invasion of HCC into the bile duct.

  20. Clinical evaluation of sup(99m)Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan hepatobiliary scintigraphy in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Toru; Azuma, Masayoshi; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Hiroaki; Ishizu, Hiroshi; Mitsutani, Natsuki; Koizumi, Takeo; Kobayashi, Yasushi

    1985-01-01

    We have assessed the diagnostic value of sup(99m)Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (sup(99m)Tc-PMT) hepatobiliary scintigraphy in 28 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had obvious filling defects on sup(99m)Tc-phytate liver scintigram. Uptake of sup(99m)Tc-PMT in obvious defects on sup(99m)Tc-phytate liver scintigram was observed in 16 out of 28 patients (57.1 %). Most of HCC with sup(99m)Tc-PMT uptake were histologically well-differenciated. However, well-differenciated HCC did not always take up sup(99m)Tc-PMT. No correlation was observed between sup(99m)Tc-PMT uptake in the tumor and levels of serum alpha-fetoprotein. Patients with high alpha-fetoprotein level (>3000 ng/ml) were only 9 patients (32.1 %) in our study. By the combined results of sup(99m)Tc-PMT hepatobiliary scintigraphy and alpha-fetoprotein level (>3000 ng/ml), diagnostic rate for HCC was markedly elevated up to 75 %. Therefore, it is considered that sup(99m)Tc-PMT hepatobiliary scintigraphy is clinically useful for specific diagnosis of HCC. Furthermore, it provides the information for invasion of HCC into the bile duct. (author)

  1. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  2. Hydrogen storage in graphite nanofibers: effect of synthesis catalyst and pretreatment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueking, Angela D; Yang, Ralph T; Rodriguez, Nelly M; Baker, R Terry K

    2004-02-03

    A series of graphite nanofibers (GNFs) that were subjected to various pretreatments were used to determine how modifications in the carbon structure formed during either synthesis or pretreatment steps results in active or inactive materials for hydrogen storage. The nanofibers possessing a herringbone structure and a high degree of defects were found to exhibit the best performance for hydrogen storage. These materials were exposed to several pretreatment procedures, including oxidative, reductive, and inert environments. Significant hydrogen storage levels were found for several in situ pretreatments. Examination of the nanofibers by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after pretreatment and subsequent hydrogen storage revealed the existence of edge attack and an enhancement in the generation of structural defects. These findings suggest that pretreatment in certain environments results in the creation of catalytic sites that are favorable toward hydrogen storage. The best pretreatment resulted in a 3.8% hydrogen release after exposure at 69 bar and room temperature.

  3. Optimization of microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Hongzhang; Kádár, Zsófia

    2011-01-01

    An orthogonal design (L9(34)) was used to optimize the microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production. The orthogonal analysis was done based on the results obtained from the nine pretreatments. The effect of four factors including the ratio of biomass to NaOH solution, pretreatment...... time, microwave power, and the concentration of NaOH solution with three different levels on the chemical composition, cellulose/hemicellulose recoveries and ethanol concentration was investigated. According to the orthogonal analysis, pretreatment with the ratio of biomass to liquid at 80 g kg−1......, the NaOH concentration of 10 kg m−3, the microwave power of 1000 W for 15 min was confirmed to be the optimal condition. The ethanol yield was 148.93 g kg−1 wheat straw at this condition, much higher than that from the untreated material which was only 26.78 g kg−1....

  4. TcNPR3 from Theobroma cacao functions as a repressor of the pathogen defense response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2013-12-06

    Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) NON-EXPRESSOR OF PR1 (NPR1) is a transcription coactivator that plays a central role in regulating the transcriptional response to plant pathogens. Developing flowers of homozygous npr3 mutants are dramatically more resistant to infection by the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, suggesting a role of NPR3 as a repressor of NPR1-mediated defense response with a novel role in flower development. We report here the characterization of a putative NPR3 gene from the tropical tree species Theobroma cacao (TcNPR3). Like in Arabidopsis, TcNPR3 was constitutively expressed across a wide range of tissue types and developmental stages but with some differences in relative levels compared to Arabidopsis. To test the function of TcNPR3, we performed transgenic complementation analysis by introducing a constitutively expressing putative TcNPR3 transgene into an Arabidopsis npr3 mutant. TcNPR3 expressing Arabidopsis plants were partially restored to the WT pathogen phenotype (immature flowers susceptible to bacterial infection). To test TcNPR3 function directly in cacao tissues, a synthetic microRNA targeting TcNPR3 mRNA was transiently expressed in cacao leaves using an Agrobacterium-infiltration method. TcNPR3 knock down leaf tissues were dramatically more resistance to infection with Phytophthora capsici in a leaf bioassay, showing smaller lesion sizes and reduced pathogen replication. We conclude that TcNPR3 functions similar to the Arabidopsis NPR3 gene in the regulation of the cacao defense response. Since TcNPR3 did not show a perfect complementation of the Arabidopsis NPR3 mutation, the possibility remains that other functions of TcNPR3 remain to be found. This novel knowledge can contribute to the breeding of resistant cacao varieties against pathogens through molecular markers based approaches or biotechnological strategies.

  5. Radiation-dosimetry and chemical-toxicity considerations for 99Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, J.L.; Hayes, R.L.; Rafter, J.J.; Watson, E.E.; Carlton, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Technetium-99 (T/sub 1/2/ = 2.13 x 10 5 y) is produced in the fission of 235 U and 239 Pu. Technitium-99 has been found to contaminate some areas of the uranium re-enrichment process. ICRP-30 Part 2 gives the Annual Limit on Intake (ALI) for 99 Tc as 2 x 10 8 Bq (5.4 mCi) for class D inhaled material (IC80). The ICRP states clearly that ALIs are based on radiation risk only and that chemical toxicity is not considered (IC79). No data were found on the chemical toxicity of 99 Tc, possibly because there are no stable isotopes of technetium with which to study the toxicity, although, because of its long T/sub 1/2/, 99 Tc can, for all practical purposes, be considered stable. The ALI values for 99 Tc are based on data obtained using high specific activity /sup 99m/Tc (T/sub 1/2/ = 6 h) and /sup 95m/Tc (T/sub 1/2/ = 61 days). Since the specific activities of 99 Tc and Na 99 TcO 4 are quite low (17 mCi/g and 9 mCi/g, respectively) and 99 Tc is available in abundant supply, we have attempted to assess the relative radiation and chemical hazards that are associated with this radionuclide. The approach in this study was (1) to study the effect of chemical dose on the whole body retention of 99 Tc sodium pertechnetate in rats and to relate these effects to the radiation dose and the ALI and (2) to compare the chemical toxicity of 99 Tc sodium pertechnetate with the ALI at different chemical dose levels

  6. Phyto extraction of 99Tc on soil cores with aged contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoura, S.T.; Echevarria, G.; Morel, J.L.; Massoura, S.T.; Leclerc-Cessac, E.; Denys, D.

    2004-01-01

    99 Tc is an artificial radionuclide which is found in high-activity and long-lived nuclear waste. This work was designed to study the phyto-extraction of 99 Tc in soils that had received aged contamination and to monitor the resulting 99 Tc concentrations in the soil solution of undisturbed soil cores in a greenhouse. Undisturbed soil cores had been sampled previously from a Rendzic Leptosol (R), a Fluvic cambisol (F) and a Dystric cambisol (D), using 0.5-m diameter PVC tubing (3 samples/soil type) without disturbing soil structure (1). Each core was equipped with two nylon porous cups (respectively 20 and 35 cm deep) and a final leachate collector. A 99 TcNO 3 solution had been supplied at the soil surface of each core during the two previous years (4200 kBq in total) in which maize and wheat had been successively cropped. These two crops had already removed 30-65% of total contamination before the present study. After the second year no more 99 Tc was added to the cores. Thereafter, Lolium perenne was cultivated for 20 successive months. 99 Tc was determined in both plant aerial parts and water samples (from both cups and collectors), and the balance of 99 Tc in the system was established after phyto-extraction. Results showed that transfer of 99 Tc to plants vary among soils: 7% on soil R to 11% on soil D. Concentration of 99 Tc in the porous cups dramatically decreased in all soils. The plants maintained low and stable concentration levels of 99 Tc in the soil solution which decreased the potential migration of the radionuclide through the cores: The leaching of 99 Tc in the final collectors of the R soil cores decreased from 18 to 1.7 Bq mL -1 . (author)

  7. The function of Sn(II)-apatite as a Tc immobilizing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmussen, R. Matthew, E-mail: matthew.asmussen@pnnl.gov [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States); Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States); Lukens, Wayne W. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla P. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    At the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, Tc-99 is a component of low-activity waste (LAW) fractions of the nuclear tank waste and removal of Tc from LAW streams would greatly benefit the site remediation process. In this study, we investigated the removal of Tc(VII), as pertechnetate, from deionized water (DIW) and a LAW simulant through batch sorption testing and solid phase characterization using tin (II) apatite (Sn-A) and SnCl{sub 2}. Sn-A showed higher levels of Tc removal from both DIW and LAW simulant. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/XEDS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of reacted Sn-A in DIW showed that TcO4- is reduced to Tc(IV) on the Sn-A surface. The performance of Sn-A in the LAW simulant was lowered due to a combined effect of the high alkalinity, which lead to an increased dissolution of Sn from the Sn-A, and a preference for the reduction of Cr(VI). - Highlights: • Sn(II)-Apatite shows high proficiency in removing Tc(VII) from neutral solutions. • The removal of the Tc(VII) by Sn(II)-apatite is done via reduction to Tc(IV)O{sub 2} × H{sub 2}O. • In LAW Sn(II)-apatite is less efficient in removing Tc(VII). • Interference in LAW due to a preference for the reduction of Cr(VI) and the high pH. • Sn(II)-apatite can remove Tc(VII) from LAW effectively through increasing material added.

  8. Skeletal affinity of Tc(V)-DMS is bone cell mediated and pH dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi-Suzuki, Kazuko; Konno, Aya; Ueda, Mayumi; Fukuda, Yoko; Nishio, Saori; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Saji, Hideo

    2004-03-01

    In spite of recent advances in bone cellular and molecular biology, there is still a poor correlation between these parameters and data obtained from bone scintigraphy. Diphosphonate derivatives radiolabelled with technetium-99m (Tc-BPs) have long been recognised as bone-seeking agents with an affinity for areas of active mineralisation. However, during clinical trials with a pH-sensitive tumour agent, the pentavalent technetium complex of dimercaptosuccinic acid [Tc(V)-DMS] showed a noticeable osteotropic character only in bone pathologies (bone metastases, Paget's diseases) and lacked accumulation in normal mature bone. To decipher the osteotropic character of Tc(V)-DMS, a study at the cellular level was considered necessary. Moreover, to learn more about the role of Tc bone agents, acid-base regulation by bone tissue or cells was studied. First, biological parameters in body fluid were measured under systemic acidosis, induced by glucose administration, in normal and Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT)-bearing mice. Then, in vivo biodistribution studies using Tc(V)-DMS or a conventional Tc-BP agent were carried out. The effect of glucose-mediated acidification on the skeletal distribution of the Tc agents in the mice provided valuable hints regarding the differential mediation of bone cells in skeletal tissue affinity for the agents. Thereafter, in vitro studies on osteoblast and osteoclast cells were performed and the comparative affinity of Tc(V)-DMS and Tc-BP was screened under diverse acidification conditions. Moreover, studies were also carried out on acid-base parameters related to the cellular uptake mechanism. Very specific pH-sensitive Tc(V)-DMS accumulation only in the osteoclastic system was detected, and use of Tc(V)-DMS in the differential detection of osteoblastic and osteoclastic metastases is discussed.

  9. [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1: a novel technetium-99m complex as a dopamine transporter imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiping, Kung [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Stevenson, D A [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Ploessl, K [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Meegalla, S K [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Beckwith, A [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Essman, W D [Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Mu, M [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Lucki, I [Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Kung, H F [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Technetium-99m is the most commonly used radionuclide in routine nuclear medicine imaging procedures. Development of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled receptor-specific imaging agents for studying the central nervous system is potentially useful for evaluation of brain function in normal and disease states. A novel {sup 99m}Tc-labeled tropane derivative, [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1, which is useful as a potential CNS dopamine transporter imaging agent, was evaluated and characterized. After i.v. injection into rats, [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 displayed specific brain uptake in the rat striatal region (striatum-cerebellum/cerebellum ratio 1.8 at 60 min), where dopamine neurons are concentrated. The specific striatal uptake could be blocked by pretreating rats with a dose of competing dopamine transporter ligand, {beta}-CIT (or RTI-55, i.v., 1 mg/kg). However, the specific striatal uptake of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 was not affected by co-injection of excess free ligand (TRODAT-1, up to 200 {mu}g per rat) or by pretreating the rats with haloperidol (i.v., 1 mg/kg). The specific uptake in striatal regions of rats that had prior 6-hydroxydopamine lesion in the substantia nigra area showed a dramatic reduction. The radioactive material recovered from the rat striatal homogenates at 60 min after i.v. injection of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 showed primarily the original compound (>95%), a good indication of in vivo stability in brain tissue. Similar and comparable organ distribution patterns and brain regional uptakes of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 were obtained for male and female rats. (orig./AJ). With 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. [99mTc[TRODAT-1: a novel technetium-99m complex as a dopamine transporter imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung Meiping; Stevenson, D.A.; Ploessl, K.; Meegalla, S.K.; Beckwith, A.; Essman, W.D.; Mu, M.; Lucki, I.; Kung, H.F.

    1997-01-01

    Technetium-99m is the most commonly used radionuclide in routine nuclear medicine imaging procedures. Development of 99m Tc-labeled receptor-specific imaging agents for studying the central nervous system is potentially useful for evaluation of brain function in normal and disease states. A novel 99m Tc-labeled tropane derivative, [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1, which is useful as a potential CNS dopamine transporter imaging agent, was evaluated and characterized. After i.v. injection into rats, [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 displayed specific brain uptake in the rat striatal region (striatum-cerebellum/cerebellum ratio 1.8 at 60 min), where dopamine neurons are concentrated. The specific striatal uptake could be blocked by pretreating rats with a dose of competing dopamine transporter ligand, β-CIT (or RTI-55, i.v., 1 mg/kg). However, the specific striatal uptake of [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 was not affected by co-injection of excess free ligand (TRODAT-1, up to 200 μg per rat) or by pretreating the rats with haloperidol (i.v., 1 mg/kg). The specific uptake in striatal regions of rats that had prior 6-hydroxydopamine lesion in the substantia nigra area showed a dramatic reduction. The radioactive material recovered from the rat striatal homogenates at 60 min after i.v. injection of [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 showed primarily the original compound (>95%), a good indication of in vivo stability in brain tissue. Similar and comparable organ distribution patterns and brain regional uptakes of [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 were obtained for male and female rats. (orig./AJ). With 4 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Development of 99mTc labelled somatostatin analogues with high affinity for somatostatin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maina, T.; Nock, B.; Nicolopoulou, A.; Tsipra, C.; Poppe, M.; Chiotellis, E.

    2001-01-01

    A recent development in oncology involves the use of metabolically stabilized peptide hormone analogues labelled with metallic radionuclides for the diagnosis or therapy of malignant disease. This approach was successfully applied for the first time in the visualization of somatostatin positive tumours and their metastases with 111 In DTPA-octreotide. In an effort to obtain a 99m Tc somatostatin receptor affine radioligand we describe herein the synthesis, radiochemistry and preliminary biological evaluation of two novel 99m Tc labelled somatostatin analogues, N 4 -TOC and N 4 -RC-160. In these compounds a tetraamine bifunctional unit was covalently attached to the N-terminal (D)Phe 1 of the peptide chain using Boc-protection strategies. The peptide conjugates were purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and characterized by UV/Vis and ES-MS spectroscopies. As revealed by HPLC, 99m Tc labelling was quantitative under mild conditions, leading to a single 99m Tc species in high specific activities. Affinity of 99m Tc N 4 -TOC for the somatostatin receptor, as determined by in vitro binding assays in rat brain cortex membranes, was found unaffected by the presence of the bulky metal chelate. The binding properties of 99m Tc N 4 -RC-160 could not be determined by this assay due to an extremely high non-specific binding of this radioligand, and will be shortly investigated by other methods. Tissue distribution in healthy mice revealed that 99m Tc N 4 -TOC is clearing mainly through the kidneys and the urinary tract whereas 99m Tc N 4 -RC-160 shows a high accumulation in the liver as a result of its lipophilicity. Analysis of urine samples by HPLC showed that 99m Tc N 4 -TOC is excreted integer from the body of mice, while 99m Tc N 4 -RC-160 is totally transformed to an unidentified hydrophilic metabolite in vivo. The location of this metabolism is currently investigated. In vivo blocking experiments using animals pre-treated with 50 μg octreotide

  12. Experimental study of {sup 99m}Tc-aluminum oxide use for sentinel lymph nodes detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernov, V. I., E-mail: Chernov@oncology.tomsk.ru; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Medvedeva, A. A. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Lyapunov, A. Yu., E-mail: Lyapunov1720.90@mail.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research in the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes. The measurement of the sizes of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. The pharmacokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. The average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52–77 nm for {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 16.7–24.5 nm for {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node in 1 hour after administration; the average uptake of {sup 99}mTc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was 8.6% in it, and the accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis was significantly lower—1.8% (p < 0.05). In all study points the average uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the lymph node was significantly higher than {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis accumulation. The results of dynamic scintigraphic studies in rats showed that {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis actively accumulated into the lymphatic system. By using {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} inguinal lymph node was determined in 5 minutes after injection and clearly visualized in all the animals in the 15th minute, when the accumulation became more than 1% of the administered dose. Further observation indicated that the {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} accumulation reached a plateau in a lymph node (average 10.5%) during 2-hour study and then its accumulation remained practically at the same level, slightly increasing to 12% in 24 hours. In case of {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis inguinal lymph node was visualized in all animals for 15 min when it was accumulated on the average 1.03% of the administered dose

  13. Analysis of accumulation of 99mTc-octreotide and 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide in the rat kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecky, Martin; Semecky, Vladimir; Trejtnar, Frantisek; Laznicek, Milan; Laznickova, Alice; Nachtigal, Petr; Decristoforo, Clemens; Mather, Stephen J; Mäcke, Helmut R

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare renal handling and distribution of (99m)Tc-octreotide and (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr(3)-octreotide (HYNIC-TOC) in rats. In kidney perfusion experiments, the renal clearance value of (99m)Tc-octreotide was three times lower than that of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC. The predominant renal excretion of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC was associated with a high and long-term renal accumulation up to 48 hrs. Microautoradiographic results indicated that (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC was retained mainly in the renal medulla within the cells of the collecting ducts and in the surrounding tissue. Lower positivity was found in the proximal and distal tubular cells. We conclude that the mechanism of renal accumulation of somatostatin analogues renal accumulation is complex and that proximal tubular reabsorption is probably not the main mechanism for uptake of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC in the kidneys. The presence of the somatostatin receptors, differences in the tonicity level within kidneys and other possible mechanisms could participate in their renal accumulation.

  14. Analysis of accumulation of 99mTc-octreotide and 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide in the rat kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, Martin; Semecky, Vladimir; Trejtnar, Frantisek; Laznicek, Milan; Laznickova, Alice; Nachtigal, Petr; Decristoforo, Clemens; Mather, Stephen J.; Maecke, Helmut R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare renal handling and distribution of 99m Tc-octreotide and 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr 3 -octreotide (HYNIC-TOC) in rats. In kidney perfusion experiments, the renal clearance value of 99m Tc-octreotide was three times lower than that of 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC. The predominant renal excretion of 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC was associated with a high and long-term renal accumulation up to 48 hrs. Microautoradiographic results indicated that 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC was retained mainly in the renal medulla within the cells of the collecting ducts and in the surrounding tissue. Lower positivity was found in the proximal and distal tubular cells. We conclude that the mechanism of renal accumulation of somatostatin analogues renal accumulation is complex and that proximal tubular reabsorption is probably not the main mechanism for uptake of 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC in the kidneys. The presence of the somatostatin receptors, differences in the tonicity level within kidneys and other possible mechanisms could participate in their renal accumulation

  15. A modified Tc-99m-phytate colloid for liver-spleen imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.A.; Kaplan, M.L.; Ahnberg, D.S.; Cole, C.N.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a comparison of the in vivo biologic properties of sup(99m)Tc-stannous phytate and sup(99m)Tc-stannous phytate precipitated in vitro by the addition of calcium ion, undertaken because of an interest in increasing the splenic uptake of sup(99m)Tc-phytate to a level similar to that obtained with sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid, are reported. It was found that: (1) The similarity in the organ distribution values of sup(99m)Tc-phytate and sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid is species related (rodents) and decreased splenic uptake of the phytate colloid is found in other primates and man. (2) The gamma scintillation camera with computer region of interest capability is an extremely useful technique for studying the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of radiodiagnostic agents in primates, where the cost of the animals prohibits the use of the sequential sacrifice technique. (3) The addition of calcium ion to the sup(99m)Tc-phytate complex produces an in vitro colloid with a particle size and biologic distribution very similar to that obtained with sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid. (U.K.)

  16. Hydrogen-induced room-temperature plasticity in TC4 and TC21 alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Baoguo; Jin, Yongyue; Hong, Chuanshi

    2017-01-01

    In order to reveal the effect of hydrogen on the room-temperature plasticity of the titanium alloys TC4 and TC21, compression tests have been carried out at room temperature. Results show that an appropriate amount of hydrogen can improve the room-temperature plasticity of both the TC4 and TC21...... alloys. The ultimate compression strain of the TC4 alloy containing a hydrogen concentration of 0.5 wt.% increases by 39% compared to the untreated material. For the TC21 alloy the ultimate compression strain is increased by 33% at a hydrogen concentration of 0.6 wt.%. The main reason for the improvement...... of hydrogen-induced room-temperature plasticity of the TC4 and TC21 alloys is discussed....

  17. Microbial reduction of 99Tc (as TcO4-) in anaerobic alkaline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khizhnyak, T.; Simonoff, M.; Sergeant, C.; Simonoff, G.; Medvedeva-Lyalikova, N.N.

    2003-01-01

    The ability of bacteria to reduce pertechnetate in alkaline conditions was investigated using halophilic bacteria isolated from soda-lakes environments. Anaerobic halophilic bacteria were able to reduce as much as 0.25 mM pertechnetate, whereas no reduction took place without bacteria or in the presence of heat-killed bacteria. The results obtained showed reduction of Tc(VII)O 4 - to the Tc(V) and Tc(IV) at pH 10 in the carbonate-bicarbonate medium. About 57% of the total technetium was determined to be Tc(IV), 1-3% as a Tc(V) and 17-20% as a Tc(VII) after 1-3 days of incubation with bacteria. The microbial reduction of Tc(VII) in alkaline conditions has been suggested as a potential mechanism for the removal of Tc from contaminated environments or waste streams. (author)

  18. Experimental and clinical studies on hepatobiliary scintigraphy and function test with sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Isamu; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Terashima, Hideaki; Yokobayashi, Tsuneo; Kaji, Tatsumi

    1980-01-01

    In experimental and clinical studies, the usefulness of sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA has been evaluated for dynamic imaging and function test. Biological distribution of sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA in rabbits at 1 hour after the intravenous administration indicated that activity was 62% of the injected dose in the gallbladder and intestine, 2% in the liver, and 9% in the kidneys and urine. Hepatic uptake and excretion of sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA were discussed in comparison with those of sup(99m)Tc-p-butyl-IDA, sup(99m)Tc-HIDA, sup(99m)Tc-PI and 123 I-RB. Radiochemical purity was ascertained by thin layer chromatography in saline. Labelling was nearly 100%, namely no unreacted pertechnetate was detected. In clinical study, the imaging of liver, bile ducts, gallbladder and intestine was satisfactory with sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA. There was no or faint renal visualization in cases with hepatic uptake on the hepatogram. Quantitative analysis of blood retention, blood clearance and hepatogram with sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA reflected excretory liver function in various hepatobiliary disorders. We concluded that sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA has a lower urinary excretion and seems more effective than the other sup(99m)Tc-labels, such as sup(99m)Tc-HIDA and sup(99m)Tc-PI, at higher bilirubin levels. However, when the level of the bilirubin in blood rises above 7.4 mg/dl, no hepatic uptake of sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA was obtained with greater renal excretion. (author)

  19. Tc(V)-DMS tumour imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, K.; Yomoda, I.; Yokoyama, A.; Endo, K.; Torizuka, K.

    1986-01-01

    The data obtained by the authors provide good evidence of Tc(V)-DMS as a stable, large-molecular-size Tc-complex or polynuclear Tc-complex, comparable to Tc-cit and Ga-cit. A role for this polynuclear configuration in the generation of Tc-species with affinity for neoplastic cells was demonstrated using the dilution method as a promoter of Tc(V)-DMS dissociation. The concurrent Ehrlich ascites tumour cell uptake studies with TLC analysis revealed the chromatographically detected changes well traced by the biological cell utilization. The biological implications of dilution as one of the factors regulating radiopharmaceutical delivery to the tumour cell tissue were better demonstrated in the biodistribution studies carried out with Erhlich ascites-bearing mice. If, on the basis of the present data, the authors may take their postulate one step further, a more dissociated Tc-species, defined speculatively as TcO/sub 4//sup 3-/, might constitute an active Tc- species within the cell interacting with some tumour-specific substance or site. Research to find evidence of its presence is currently in progress

  20. ''In vitro'' and ''in vivo'' studies 2,6 - diisopropyl-fenil-carboilmethyl iminodiacetic acid labeled with99mTc (Disida -99mTc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, D.Y.F.; Barbosa, M.R.F.F. de; Muramoto, E.; Achando, S.S.; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1988-07-01

    The ''in vivo'' and ''in vitro'' studies on DISIDA - 99m Tc at the hepatobiliary level were made. The binding of DISIDA - 99m Tc to plasmatic proteins and the fraction at which this binding occurs were determined. The distribution coefficient in n-octanol/saline solution was 0.41 showing the lipophilicity of the compound. The images in rats show the biological distribution as well as the hepatobiliary clearance of the radiopharmaceutical under its unmetabolized form. (author) [pt

  1. Using Tc-Re chemical analogy to synthesize and identify new 99mTc complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambino, D.; Kremer, C.; Cartesio, S.; Leon, A.; Kremer, E.

    1989-01-01

    The strong chemical resemblance between Tc and Re is applied to design and evaluate experiments with 99m Tc complexes. A combination of spectrophotometric and electrophoretic techniques allows to propose the formula [TcO 2 (amine) 2 ] + for compounds prepared by reduction of 99m TcO 4 - with Zn (solid phase) in presence of several (bidentate) amines. (author) 10 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  2. Superconductivity in the W-Tc and W2C-Tc systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    A series of compositions in the W-Tc, W 2 C-Re and W 2 C-Tc systems were prepared and examined for superconductivity. The crystal structure, lattice parameters and superconducting transition temperatures of the W 2 C-Tc are reported for the first time. Similar measurements were made on the W-Tc and W 2 C-Re systems and the results compared with previous published results for these systems. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  3. NOAA JPSS Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS)-based Tropical Cyclone (TC) Products from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The JPSS Microwave Sounder-based Tropical Cyclone (TC) Products provide estimates of tropical cyclone maximum wind speed, minimum sea level pressure, radii of 34,...

  4. Evaluation of sup(99m)Tc-albumin dilution curve with simultaneous injection of sup(99m)Tc- and 131I-albumins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Masahiko; Kato, Shotaro; Motomura, Masakazu; Kawakita, Seiichi

    1979-01-01

    A critical comparison of radiocardiograms with sup(99m)Tc- and 131 I-albumins was made to determine whether or not sup(99m)Te-albumin can be used as a tracer for measuring blood volume (BV) and cardiac output (CO). Simultaneous injection of both isotopes was given to twenty-two patients to obtain radiocardiograms for each by means of a single scintillation counter with two pulse height analyzers. Such method allows for the determination of the energy levels for both sup(99m)Tc and 131 I. The radiocardiographic pattern was somewhat different between sup(99m)Tc- and 131 I-radiocardiograms: The ratio of left to right peak height was 16% on the average lower in the sup(99m)Tc-radiocardiogram than in the 131 I-one. The reason for the lower ratio is explained by greater absorption of sup(99m)Tc-radioactivity within the soft tissue interposing between the scintillation probe and heart. The values for sup(99m)Tc-derived blood volume were 7.4% on the average larger than those for 131 I-derived blood volume (p less than 0.01), although the correlation was excellent (r = 0.98 p less than 0.01). There was no systemic difference between cardiac output determined by sup(99m)Tc- and 131 I-albumins since the overestimation of blood volume can compensate for the underestimation of CO/BV by sup(99m)Tc-study. In view of its rapid extravasation, sup(99m)Tc-albumin is not so appropriate tracer for accurate measurements of BV and CO/BV, although it may be used for measurement of cardiac output. (author)

  5. Scavenging of Tc(V) formed by I.T. in 95mTcO4- solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianoz, E.; Colin, M.; Kosinski, M.

    1988-01-01

    The chemical effects of the I.T. of 95m Tc in 95m TcO 4 - have been studied in chelating ligand solutions. At high pH and at high concentration of 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane and 1,4-dithia-8, 11-diazacyclotetradecane, the retention of 95g Tc is about 20% and the unretained 95g Tc appears preponderantly (ca. 73%) as [TcO 2 L] + complexes. In glucoheptonate solution, the 95g Tc retention remains practically the same (22%) but the unretained 95g Tc is found in high proportion (73%) as [TcObis(glucoheptonate)] - . The added ligands are very good scavengers for 95g Tc(V). A comparison is made between 95g Tc species formed by the I.T. in 95m TcO 4 - and 99m Tc species resulting from the chemical reduction of 99m TcO 4 - . (orig.)

  6. Determination of Tc-99 in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera S, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Tc-99 is a fission product and one of the most important radionuclides from the view point of safety assessment for the disposal of radioactive waste because of its long half-life (2.1 x 10 5 years) and high mobility in soil-water systems, if this is released into the environment in significant quantities can concentrate on plants and animals. Tc-99 is a pure beta emitter with a maximum energy of 292 KeV, so their quantification imposes destructive methods to be analyzed by liquid scintillation. Therefore the quantification of Tc-99 in ion exchange resins requires of the mineralization of these and separation of Tc-99 of other radioisotopes present in the resin. Therefore the object of this thesis is to develop a quantification method of Tc-99 content in spent exchange resins. So in order to track the behavior of technetium during digestion exchange resins and radiochemical separation, given its high volatility, in this work the 99m Tc is used. To determine the degree of mineralization of the resins, an analysis was performed by chromatography. Subsequently the method used to determine the percentage of 99m Tc aerosolized during mineralization of resin is described. After the method for the radiochemical separation of 99m Tc is presented by liquid-liquid extraction using crown ether as extractant; for this testing was performed by varying the molarity of the extractant, the ratio of solvent extractant, type of digestion of the resin and the presence of Sr-85, in order to study the behavior of 99m Tc in the presence of this radioisotope. Finally, a track beta spectra of a sample of 99m Tc eluted from a generator 99 Mo/ 99m Tc function of time was performed. (Author)

  7. Feasibility of dual radionuclide brain imaging with I-123 and Tc-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovic, M.; Weber, D.A.; Loncaric, S.; Franceschi, D.

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of simultaneous dual radionuclide brain imaging with 123 I and 99m Tc using photopeak image subtraction techniques or offset photopeak image acquisition. The contribution of the photons from one radionuclide to a second radionuclide's photopeak energy window (crosstalk) was evaluated for SPECT and planar imaging of a brain phantom containing 123 I and 99m Tc for a range of activity levels and distribution properties approximating those in rCBF images of the adult human brain. Crosstalk was evaluated for 10% symmetrical energy windows centered on the 123 I and 99m Tc photopeaks and for 10% energy windows asymmetrically placed to the left and right of the center of the respective photopeaks. It was observed that the centered photopeak windows, 99m Tc crosstalk in the 123 I window is 8.9% of the 99m Tc seen in the 99m Tc window and ranges from 37.5% to 75.0% of the 123 I in the 123 I window. 123 I crosstalk is 37.8% of the 123 I seen in the 123 I window and ranges from 4.4% to 8.9% of the 99m Tc seen in the 99m Tc window. The spatial distribution of a radionuclide's crosstalk photons differs from that observed in the radionuclide's photopeak window. A 99m Tc photopeak window offset to the left does not decrease 123 I crosstalk, and the percentage of 99m Tc scattered photons is significantly increased in the window. Offsetting the 123 I window to the right decreases 99m Tc crosstalk to 9.0% to 17.9% of the 123 I counts, but decreases 123 I sensitivity by 39.9%. Offsetting both photopeak windows to the right decreases the 99m Tc scattered photons in the 99m Tc window, but increases 123 I crosstalk to 17.0% to 33.8% of the 99m Tc counts

  8. Study on the metabolic peculiarities of renal radiotracer {sup 99m}Tc-PAHIDA and diagnostic use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoupeng, Zhu; Liuyi, Wang; Mingyue, Lun [Suzhou Medical Coll., JS (China)

    1994-11-01

    The metabolic peculiarities of renal radiotracer {sup 99m}Tc-PAHIDA and diagnostic use were studied. The results of the radioactive tracing study showed that {sup 99m}Tc-PAHIDA was distributed predominantly in kidney, and then in heart, gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, musculus quadriceps femoris, adipose tissue, testes and brain. It should be noted that when smaller dose of this agent was given, more {sup 99m}Tc-PAHIDA was concentrated in kidney and, at the same time, the level of its binding to plasma protein was lower. The experimental results indicated that {sup 99m}Tc-PAHIDA was rapidly excreted in urine. Autoradiochromatographic examination of the urine showed a single radioactive peak corresponding to the authentic {sup 99m}Tc-PAHIDA, indicating that {sup 99m}Tc-PAHIDA was excreted in the unchanged form. (3 tabs.).

  9. Permitting plan for project W-236B, initial pretreatment module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollefson, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System pretreatment process mission is to separate high-level and low-level waste fractions. A comprehensive review of environmental regulations has indicated that several environmental reviews, permits, and approvals are required before construction and operation of the facility. This revised document provides a summary of permit application data requirements, alternative strategies for permit completion and approval, as well as the probability of success for each alternative for the Initial Pretreatment Module resulting from recent revisions to the Tri-Party Agreement

  10. Direct ethanol conversion of pretreated straw by Fusarium oxysporum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christakopoulos, P.; Koullas, D.P.; Kekos, D.; Koukios, E.G.; Macris, B.J. (National Technical Univ., Athens (GR). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Factors affecting the direct conversion of alkali pretreated straw to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum F3 were investigated and the alkali level used for pretreatment and the degree of delignification of straw were found to be the most important. A linear correlation between ethanol yield and both the degree of straw delignification and the alkali level was observed. At optimum delignified straw concentration (4% w/v), a maximum ethanol yield of 0.275 g ethanol g{sup -1} of straw was obtained corresponding to 67.8% of the theoretical yield. (author).

  11. Milking technique of sup(99m)Tc generators and labeling efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, N.; Guignard, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Increased levels of 99 Tc in generator produced sup(99m)Tc have an adverse effect on the labelling efficiency of red blood cells and human serum albumin. A two-step milking technique in which the first 1-2 ml of eluate is discarded has been found to produce higher and more constant labelling efficiency of lymphocytes and platelets than a one-step procedure. Binding efficiency of platelet-rich plasma and lymphocytes with sup(99m)Tc is greater in the two-step technique. High activity concentration in the eluate for critical labelling is between 1.5-3 ml. (U.K.)

  12. Use of 99mTc mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) for detection of renal lesions after ESWL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaub, T.; Witsch, U.; El-Damanhoury, H.; Naegele-Woehrle, B.; Hahn, K.

    1992-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has become the treatment of choice for urinary calculi. 117 patients were studied prospectively with 99m Tc Mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) before and after ESWL. 79 (66%) of the 119 kidneys treated had abnormal findings. Of these 63/119 (53%) had abnormal scans. 41 (65%) had focal lesions with a delayed intrarenal transport. The remaining 22 had a diffuse delay of intrarenal transport. A loss of relative renal function of 3% and more compared to the pretreatment values was observed in 50/119 (42%) patients. 99m Tc MAG3 should be done routinely together with radiologic tests (CT or MRI) before and after ESWL to select the patients at risk for post ESWL hypertension. (orig.) [de

  13. Accumulation, elimination and retention of 99Tc by duckweed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattink, J.; Weltje, L.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.; Goeij, J.J.M. de

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation dynamics of the long-lived fission product technetium ( 99 Tc) in duckweed is studied. Duckweed serves as model for aquatic plants, because of its representative foliar uptake for 99 Tc. 99 Tc is irreversibly accumulated and distributed over cytoplasm, chloroplasts and mitochondria. Autoradiography showed that 99 Tc was not transported to new biomass. Irreversible storage of 99 Tc in plant biomass means that steady-state situations cannot be interpreted as a balance between uptake and elimination of 99 Tc, but that 99 Tc continuously builds up in each single duckweed plant and overall Tc concentrations are averaged over new biomass. (author)

  14. Biomass pretreatment affects Ustilago maydis in producing itaconic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klement Tobias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last years, the biotechnological production of platform chemicals for fuel components has become a major focus of interest. Although ligno-cellulosic material is considered as suitable feedstock, the almost inevitable pretreatment of this recalcitrant material may interfere with the subsequent fermentation steps. In this study, the fungus Ustilago maydis was used to produce itaconic acid as platform chemical for the synthesis of potential biofuels such as 3-methyltetrahydrofuran. No studies, however, have investigated how pretreatment of ligno-cellulosic biomass precisely influences the subsequent fermentation by U. maydis. Thus, this current study aims to first characterize U. maydis in shake flasks and then to evaluate the influence of three exemplary pretreatment methods on the cultivation and itaconic acid production of this fungus. Cellulose enzymatically hydrolysed in seawater and salt-assisted organic-acid catalysed cellulose were investigated as substrates. Lastly, hydrolysed hemicellulose from fractionated beech wood was applied as substrate. Results U. maydis was characterized on shake flask level regarding its itaconic acid production on glucose. Nitrogen limitation was shown to be a crucial condition for the production of itaconic acid. For itaconic acid concentrations above 25 g/L, a significant product inhibition was observed. Performing experiments that simulated influences of possible pretreatment methods, U. maydis was only slightly affected by high osmolarities up to 3.5 osmol/L as well as of 0.1 M oxalic acid. The production of itaconic acid was achieved on pretreated cellulose in seawater and on the hydrolysed hemicellulosic fraction of pretreated beech wood. Conclusion The fungus U. maydis is a promising producer of itaconic acid, since it grows as single cells (yeast-like in submerged cultivations and it is extremely robust in high osmotic media and real seawater. Moreover, U. maydis can grow on

  15. Comparative data on effects of leading pretreatments and enzyme loadings and formulations on sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyman, Charles [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Balan, Venkatech [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Dale, Bruce E. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Elander, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Falls, Matthew [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Hames, Bonnie [Ceres Corporation, Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Holtzapple, Mark [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ladisch, Michael R. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Lee, Y. Y. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Mosier, Nathan [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Pallapolu, Venkata R. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Shi, Jian [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Warner, Ryan E. [Genencor, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2011-06-16

    Dilute sulfuric acid (DA), sulfur dioxide (SO2), liquid hot water (LHW), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), and lime pretreatments were applied to Alamo, Dacotah, and Shawnee switchgrass. Application of the same analytical methods and material balance approaches facil-itated meaningful comparisons of glucose and xylose yields from combined pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Use of a common supply of cellulase, beta-glucosidase, and xylanase also eased comparisons. All pretreatments enhanced sugar recovery from pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis substantially compared to untreated switchgrass. Adding beta-glucosidase was effective early in enzy-matic hydrolysis while cellobiose levels were high but had limited effect on longer term yields at the enzyme loadings applied. Adding xylanase improved yields most for higher pH pretreatments where more xylan was left in the solids. Harvest time had more impact on performance than switchgrass variety, and microscopy showed changes in different features could impact performance by different pretreatments.

  16. Evolution of {sup 99}Tc Species in Cementitious Nuclear Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Woo Yong; Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Technetium (Tc) is produced in large quantities as a fission product during the irradiation of {sup 235}U-enriched fuel for commercial power production and plutonium genesis for nuclear weapons. The most abundant isotope of Tc present in the wastes is {sup 99}Tc because of its high fission yield ({approx}6%) and long half-life (2.13x10{sup 5} years). During the Cold War era, generation of fissile {sup 239}Pu for use in America's atomic weapons arsenal yielded nearly 1900 kg of {sup 99}Tc at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Most of this {sup 99}Tc is present in fuel reprocessing wastes temporarily stored in underground tanks awaiting retrieval and permanent disposal. After the wastes are retrieved from the storage tanks, the bulk of the high-level waste (HLW) and lowactivity waste (LAW) stream is scheduled to be converted into a borosilicate glass waste form that will be disposed of in a shallow burial facility called the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site. Even with careful engineering controls, volatilization of a fraction of Tc during the vitrification of both radioactive waste streams is expected. Although this volatilized Tc can be captured in melter off-gas scrubbers and returned to the melter, some of the Tc is expected to become part of the secondary waste stream from the vitrification process. The off-gas scrubbers downstream from the melters will generate a high pH, sodium-ammonium carbonate solution containing the volatilized Tc and other fugitive species. Effective and cost-efficient disposal of Tc found in the off-gas scrubber solution remains difficult. A cementitious waste form (Cast Stone) is one of the nuclear waste form candidates being considered to solidify the secondary radioactive liquid waste that will be generated by the operation of the waste treatment plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site. Because Tc leachability from the waste form is closely related with Tc

  17. Deconvolution analysis of sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate kinetics in metabolic bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knop, J.; Kroeger, E.; Stritzke, P.; Schneider, C.; Kruse, H.P.

    1981-02-01

    The kinetics of sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and /sup 47/Ca were studied in three patients with osteoporosis, three patients with hyperparathyroidism, and two patients with osteomalacia. The activities of sup(99m)Tc-MDP were recorded in the lumbar spine, paravertebral soft tissues, and in venous blood samples for 1 h after injection. The results were submitted to deconvolution analysis to determine regional bone accumulation rates. /sup 47/Ca kinetics were analysed by a linear two-compartment model quantitating short-term mineral exchange, exchangeable bone calcium, and calcium accretion. The sup(99m)Tc-MDP accumulation rates were small in osteoporosis, greater in hyperparathyroidism, and greatest in osteomalacia. No correlations were obtained between sup(99m)Tc-MDP bone accumulation rates and the results of /sup 47/Ca kinetics. However, there was a significant relationship between the level of serum alkaline phosphatase and bone accumulation rates (R = 0.71, P < 0.025). As a result deconvolution analysis of regional sup(99m)Tc-MDP kinetics in dynamic bone scans might be useful to quantitate osseous tracer accumulation in metabolic bone disease. The lack of correlation between the results of sup(99m)Tc-MDP kinetics and /sup 47/Ca kinetics might suggest a preferential binding of sup(99m)Tc-MDP to the organic matrix of the bone, as has been suggested by other authors on the basis of experimental and clinical investigations.

  18. Pretreatment levels of peripheral neutrophils and leukocytes as independent predictors of overall survival in patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage IV Melanoma: results of the EORTC 18951 Biochemotherapy Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik; Suciu, Stefan; Punt, Cornelis J A

    2007-01-01

    : A total of 363 patients were randomly assigned and baseline blood neutrophil and leukocyte counts were available from 316 and 350 patients, respectively. A high neutrophil count (> 7.5 x 10(9)/L) was an independent prognostic factor for short overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.1; P...... = 0.02), and a high leukocyte count (> 10 x 10(9)/L) was an independent prognostic factor of both short overall survival (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.4; P = 0.0005) and short progression-free survival (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.1; P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: A high pretreatment count of neutrophils in blood...

  19. On the interaction of granite with Tc(IV) and Tc(VII) in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.; Cui, Daquing

    1991-10-01

    The behaviour of technetium in granite-groundwater systems under reducing conditions was investigated. The anion TcO 4 - was reduced to Tc(IV) and simultaneously precipitated as TcO 2 xnH 2 O on the granite surfaces. The electron sources are assumed to be iron oxides and/or iron containing minerals in the granite. The technetium concentration in ground water under repository conditions may be predicted assuming TcO 2 xnH 2 O as the solid phase and TcO(OH) 2 0 and TcO 4 - as the predominant aqueous complexes using a formation constant for TcO(OH) 2 0 of log K = -8.16 and a standard reduction potential E 0 for the reaction TcO 4 - + 3e - + 4H + = TcO 2 xnH 2 O of 0.738 V. The surface related distribution ratio K a for TcO(OH) 2 0 between Stripa granite and ground water is approximately 1 cm based on geometrical surface area. (au)

  20. Preparation and biological evaluation of cyclopentadienyl-based 99mTc-complexes [(Cp-R)99mTc(CO)3] mimicking benzamides for malignant melanoma targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peindy N'Dongo, Harmel W.; Raposinho, Paula D.; Fernandes, Celia; Santos, Isabel; Can, Daniel; Schmutz, Paul; Spingler, Bernhard; Alberto, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The biological evaluation of half-sandwich 99m Tc-complexes that surrogate iodobenzamide with a high affinity for melanin tumor tissue is described. We have synthesized via retro Diels-Alder reaction two models of 99m Tc complexes which possess the piano stool [Cp 99m Tc(CO) 3 ] motif instead of a phenyl ring as in the original iodobenzamide 123 I-N-(N-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)-2-iodobenzamide (2-IBP) and N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-4-iodobenzamide (BZA). Diels-Alder products - (HCp-CONHR) 2 (, R=2-diethylaminoethyl; , R=benzylpiperidin-4-yl) were prepared and reacted with fac-[ 99m Tc(H 2 O) 3 (CO) 3 )] + 1 in water to produce the corresponding 99m Tc complexes [() 99m Tc(CO) 3 )] and [() 99m Tc(CO) 3 )] . The structures of the 99m Tc complexes on the no-carrier-added level have been confirmed by chromatographic comparison with the corresponding rhenium complexes and , macroscopically characterized by IR, NMR, ESI-MS and X-ray crystallography for [triclinic, P-1, a=7.3518(1) A, b=8.0309(2) A, c=17.5536(3) A, α=99.1260(5) o , β=90.4215(14) o , γ=117.0187(11) o ]. The radioconjugate showed good in vitro stability. In murine melanoma B16F1 cells, significant cellular uptake (43.9% of the total applied activity) was attained after 4 h at 37 deg. C with about 50% of the cell-associated radioactivity being internalized in the cells (22% of the applied activity). Furthermore, in melanoma-bearing C57BL6 mice, tumor uptake values of 3.39±0.50 %ID g -1 and 3.21±0.26 %ID g -1 at 1 and 4 h postinjection, respectively, were observed indicating a good retention of in the tumor.

  1. Olanzapine induced Q-Tc shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja Shafti, Saeed; Fallah Jahromi, Parisa

    2014-12-01

    Prolongation of Q-Tc interval is commonly accepted as a surrogate marker for the ability of a drug to cause torsade de pointes. In the present study, safety of olanzapine versus risperidone was compared among a group of patients with schizophrenia to see the frequency of the electrocardiographic alterations induced by those atypical antipsychotics. Two hundred and sixty-eight female inpatients with schizophrenia entered in one of the two parallel groups to participate in an open study for random assignment to olanzapine (n = 148) or risperidone (n = 120). Standard 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) was taken from each patient at baseline, before initiation of treatment, and then at the end of management, just before discharge. The parameters that were assessed included heart rate (HR), P-R interval, QRS interval, Q-T interval (corrected = Q-Tc), ventricular activation time (VAT), ST segment, T wave, axis of QRS, and finally, interventricular conduction process. A total of 37.83% of cases in the olanzapine group and 30% in the risperidone group showed some Q-Tc changes; 13.51% and 24.32% of the patients in the olanzapine group showed prolongation and shortening of the Q-Tc, respectively, while changes in the risperidone group were restricted to only prolongation of Q-Tc. Comparison of means showed a significant increment in Q-Tc by risperidone (p = 0.02). Also, comparison of proportions in the olanzapine group showed significantly more cases with shortening of Q-Tc versus its prolongation (p = 0.01). No significant alterations with respect to other variables were evident. Olanzapine and risperidone had comparable potentiality for induction of Q-Tc changes, while production of further miscellaneous alterations in ECG was more observable in the olanzapine group compared with the risperidone group. Also shortening of Q-Tc was specific to olanzapine.

  2. sup(99m)Tc-2-mercaptopropionylglycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saji, Hideo; Odori, Teruo; Morita, Rikushi; Yokoyama, Akira; Tanaka, Hisashi.

    1979-01-01

    Labeling of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (2-MPG) with sup(99m)Tc, was studied and its chemical characteristics were examined. Further, biliary excretion behavior of this complex was comparatively estimated in mice, rats and rabbits. sup(99m)Tc-2-MPG was rapidly excreted in large quantities into the bile in mice and rats: within 1 hr after injection, 51% of the injected dose was recovered from the bile in rats. On the other hand, the ligand exchange reaction between this complex and penicillamine indicates that a low hydrolyzed sup(99m)Tc species is coordinated with 2-MPG. These results suggest that a low hydrolyzed sup(99m)Tc state is an effective feature in biliary excretion behavior of sup(99m)Tc compounds. Another interesting in vivo behavior of sup(99m)Tc-2-MPG is the difference observed in mice and rabbits: in mice, very high sup(99m)Tc activity is concentrated in the gallbladder and the clearance from tissues other than the gallbladder is rapid, whereas in rabbits, although a rapid and high excretion into the gallbladder is observed, a considerable high sup(99m)Tc activity is retained in the liver and the kidney. One reason for this different in vivo behavior is the low stability of this complex at high dilution: a big animal has the large dilution volume which lead to higher decomposition estimated by the higher liver and kidney retention or the lower bile excretion. In conclusion, studies carried on sup(99m)Tc-2-MPG showed a good biliary excretion behavior but an in vivo unstableness in big animals. (author)

  3. Lipid profile and levels of homocysteine, leptin, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein in hyperthyroid patients before and after treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Sütken

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was carried out to determine whether thyroid hormones affect lipid profile and levels of erithrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, serum total homocysteine (t-hcy, leptin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP in patients with hyperthyroidism.Materials and methods: This study was carried out on 23 hyperthroid subjects (3 men / 20 women, mean age 41.8 ± 2.4 years. Serum levels of homocysteine, leptin, fibrinogen, CRP, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and ESR were measured and body mass index (BMI were calculated before and after treatment of hyperthyroidism.Results: Pretreatment t-hcy, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C levels and BMI of patients were significantly lower than those of the post-treatment (p<0.001, for each variable. However, fibrinogen and ESR decreased after the treatment (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively. There were no differences in leptin and CRP levels between pre- and post-treatment periods. Pre and post treatment TC and LDL-C levels were negatively correlated with free triiodothyronine (fT3 levels (r=-0.588, p<0.01; r=-0.534, p<0.01; r=-0.543, p<0.01 and r =-0.653, p<0.01, respectively. Pre-treatment HDL-C was inversely correlated with TSH (r=-0.423, p<0.05. Pre-post- treatment LDL-C was negatively correlated with free thyroxine (fT4 levels (r=-0.536, p<0.001 and r=- 0.422, p<0.05 respectively. Pre-treatment TC was inversely correlated with fT4 (r=-0.590, p<0.01.Conclusion: Hyperthyroidism is associated with high plasma fibrinogen and ESR levels. Elevated plasma fibrinogen and ESR levels may be a possible explanation for the high cardiovascular morbidity among hyperthyroidic subjects. These changes may reflect low-grade inflammation or disturbances in coagulation in hyperthyroidism.

  4. Synthesis, Structure Elucidation, and Redox Properties of (superscript 99)Tc Complexes of Lacunary Wells-Dawson Polyoxometalates: Insights into Molecular (superscript 99)Tc-Metal Oxide Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, Donna; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Howell, Robertha C.; Mbomekalle, Israel M.; Lukens, Wayne W. Jr.; Bian, Fang; Mausolf, Edward; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.; Francesconi, Lynn C.

    2011-01-01

    The isotope 99 Tc (β max , 293.7; half-life, 2.1 x 10 5 years) is an abundant product of uranium-235 fission in nuclear reactors and is present throughout the radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Understanding and controlling the extensive redox chemistry of 99 Tc is important in identifying tunable strategies to separate 99 Tc from spent fuel and from waste tanks and, once separated, to identify and develop an appropriately stable waste form for 99 Tc. Polyoxometalates (POMs), nanometer-sized models for metal oxide solid-state materials, are used in this study to provide a molecular level understanding of the speciation and redox chemistry of incorporated 99 Tc. In this study, 99 Tc complexes of the (α 2 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 10- and (α 1 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 10- isomers were prepared. Ethylene glycol was used as a 'transfer ligand' to minimize the formation of TcO 2 · xH 2 O. The solution structures, formulations, and purity of TcVO(α 1 /α 2 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 7- were determined by multinuclear NMR. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the complexes is in agreement with the formulation and structures determined from 31 P and 183 W NMR. Preliminary electrochemistry results are consistent with the EXAFS results, showing a facile reduction of the TcVO(α 1 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 7- species compared to the TcVO(α 2 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 7- analog. The α 1 defect is unique in that a basic oxygen atom is positioned toward the α 1 site, and the Tc V O center appears to form a dative metal-metal bond with a framework W site. These attributes may lead to the assistance of protonation events that facilitate reduction. Electrochemistry comparison shows that the ReV analogs are about 200 mV more difficult to reduce in accordance with periodic trends.

  5. Synthesis, structure elucidation and redox properties of 99Tc complexes of lacunary Wells Dawson polyoxometalates: insights into molecular 99Tc - metal oxide interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, Donna; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Howell, Robertha C.; Mbomekalle, Israel M.; Lukens, Wayne W. Jr; Bian, Fang; Mausolf, Edward; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R; Francesconi, Lynn C.

    2011-01-01

    The isotope 99 Tc (β max : 250 keV, half-life: 2 x 10 5 year) is an abundant product of uranium-235 fission in nuclear reactors and is present throughout the radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford and Savannah River. Understanding and controlling the extensive redox chemistry of 99 Tc is important to identify tunable strategies to separate 99 Tc from spent fuel and from waste tanks and once separated, to identify and develop an appropriately stable waste-form for 99 Tc. Polyoxometalates (POMs), nanometer sized models for metal oxide solid-state materials, are used in this study to provide a molecular level understanding of the speciation and redox chemistry of incorporated 99 Tc. In this study, 99 Tc complexes of the (α 2 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 10- and (α 1 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 10- isomers were prepared. Ethylene glycol was used as a 'transfer ligand' to minimize the formation of TcO 2 · xH 2 O. The solution structures, formulations, and purity of Tc V O(α 1 /α 2 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 7- were determined by multinuclear NMR. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of the complexes are in agreement with the formulation and structures determined from 31 P and 183 W NMR. Preliminary electrochemistry results are consistent with the EXAFS results, showing a facile reduction of the Tc V O(α 1 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 7- species compared to the Tc V O(α 2 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 7- analog. The α 1 -defect is unique in that a basic oxygen atom is positioned toward the α 1 -site and the Tc V O center appears to form a dative metal-metal bond with a framework W site. These attributes may lead to the assistance of protonation events that facilitate reduction. Electrochemistry comparison shows that the Re V analogs are about 200 mV more difficult to reduce in accordance with periodic trends.

  6. Enzymatic hydrolsis of pretreated rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasenko, E.Y.; Shoemaker, S.P. [California Inst. of Food and Agricultural Research, Davis, CA (United States); Ding, H. [California Univ., Davis (Canada). Dept. of Food Science and Technology; Labavitch, J.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Pomology

    1997-02-01

    California rice straw is being evaluated as a feedstock for production of power and fuel. This paper examines the initial steps in the process: pretreatment of rice straw and enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides in the pretreated material to soluble sugars. Rice straw was subjected to three distinct pretreatment procedures: acid-catalyzed steam explosion (Swan Biomass Company), acid hydrolysis (U.S. DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory), and ammonia fiber explosion or AFEX (Texas A and M University). Standard conditions for each pretreatment were used, but none was optimized for rice straw specifically. Six commercial cellulases, products of Genencor International (USA), Novo (Denmark), Iogen (Canada) and Fermtech (Russia) were used for hydrolysis. The Swan- and the acid-pretreatments effectively removed hemicellulose from rice straw, providing high yields of fermentable sugars. The AFEX-pretreatment was distinctly different from other pretreatments in that it did not significantly solubilize hemicellulose. All three pretreatment procedures substantially increased enzymatic digestibility of rice straw. Three commercial Trichoderma-reesei-derived enzyme preparations: Cellulase 100L (Iogen), Spezyme CP (Genencor), and Al (Fermtech), were more active on pretreated rice straw compared than others tested. Conditions for hydrolysis of rice straw using Cellulase 100L were evaluated. The supplementation of this enzyme preparation with cellobiase (Novozyme 188) significantly improved the parameters of hydrolysis for the Swan- and the acid-pretreated materials, but did not affect the hydrolysis of the AFEX-pretreated rice straw. (Author)

  7. Effect of pretreating of host oil on coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajdu, P.E.; Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The principal objective of this research was to determine if coprocessing performance (i.e., coal conversion and oil yield) could be significantly improved by pretreating the heavy resid prior to reacting it with coal. For this purpose, two petroleum vacuum resids (1000{degrees}F+), one from the Amoco Co. and another from the Citgo Co., were used as such and after they had been pretreated by catalytic hydrogenation and hydrocracking reactions. The pretreatments were aimed at improving the host oil by; (1) converting any aromatic structures in the petroleum to hydroaromatic compounds capable of donating hydrogen, (2) cracking the heavy oil to lower molecular weight material that might serve as a better solvent, (3) reducing the coking propensity of the heavy oil through the hydrogenation of polynuclear aromatic compounds, and (4) removing metals and heteroatoms that might poison a coprocessing catalyst. Highly dispersed catalysts, including fine particle Fe- and Mo-based, and dicobalt octacarbonyl, Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}, were used in this study. The untreated and pretreated resids were extensively characterized in order to determine chemical changes brought about by the pretreatments. The modified heavy oils were then coprocessed with an Illinois No. 6 coal as well as with a Wyodak coal, and compared to coprocessing with untreated resids under the same hydroliquefaction conditions. The amount of oil derived from coal was estimated by measuring the level of phenolic oxygen (derived mainly from coal) present in the oil products. Results are presented and discussed.

  8. Pretreatment Solution for Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Chemical pretreatments are used to produce usable water by treating a water source with a chemical pretreatment that contains a hexavalent chromium and an acid to generate a treated water source, wherein the concentration of sulfate compounds in the acid is negligible, and wherein the treated water source remains substantially free of precipitates after the addition of the chemical pretreatment. Other methods include reducing the pH in urine to be distilled for potable water extraction by pretreating the urine before distillation with a pretreatment solution comprising one or more acid sources selected from a group consisting of phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, and nitric acid, wherein the urine remains substantially precipitate free after the addition of the pretreatment solution. Another method described comprises a process for reducing precipitation in urine to be processed for water extraction by mixing the urine with a pretreatment solution comprising hexavalent chromium compound and phosphoric acid.

  9. 99mTc-EDTA and 99mTc-DTPA complexes as hydrological tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, J.; Borroto, J.; Nazco, J.; Perez, E.; Gamboa, R.; Cruz, J.

    2002-01-01

    The [ 99m Tc-DTPA] 2- and [ 99m Tc-EDTA] 1- were evaluated as radiotracers for short time hydrological studies. Their complex stability after labelling with 9.25 GBq of 99m Tc, the behaviour against pH variations, from 5 to 9, in simulated solutions and in natural river waters and the sorption of these compounds on the river sediments, were tested in laboratory experiments. Finally field double tracing experiments were carried out for each of labelling complexes and Rhodamine WT. From recovery calculations not losses of the 99m Tc activity were observed. The shape of the RTD curves of the [ 99m Tc-DTPA] 2- and [ 99m Tc-EDTA] 1 were quite similar to the Rhodamine Wt ones. May be concluded that both complexes behaved conservatively on the studied environmental conditions. (author)

  10. Effect of Kaempferol Pretreatment on Myocardial Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Anamika; Singh, Thakur Uttam; Rungsung, Soya; Kumar, Tarun; Kandasamy, Arunvikram; Parida, Subhashree; Lingaraju, Madhu Cholenahalli; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Asok; Kumar, Dinesh

    2018-01-20

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of kaempferol in isoprenaline (ISP)-induced myocardial injury in rats. ISP was administered subcutaneously for two subsequent days to induce myocardial injury. Assessment of myocardial injury was done by estimation of hemodynamic functions, myocardial infarcted area, cardiac injury markers, lipid profile, oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and histopathology of heart and liver. Rats pretreated with kaempferol showed reduction in the myocardial infarcted area and heart rate. However, no improvement was observed in change in body weight, mean arterial, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Kaempferol showed significant decrease in serum LDH, CK-MB, troponin-I and lipid profile. However, highest dose of kaempferol did not reduce the serum triglyceride level. Further, antioxidant enzymes, SOD and catalase, were also higher. However, reduced glutathione, serum SGOT and creatinine did not show any improvement. Kaempferol showed reduction in MDA level. Kaempferol at highest dose showed reduction in pro-MMP-2 expression and MMP-9 level. mRNA expression level of TNF-α was not different in kaempferol-pretreated myocardial injured rats with ISP-alone group. Pretreatment with kaempferol at highest dose showed mild mononuclear infiltration and degenerative changes in heart tissue section of myocardial injured rats. Rats pretreated with kaempferol at higher concentration showed normal cordlike arrangement of hepatocytes with moderate swelling of hepatocytes (vacuolar degeneration) around the central vein. Study suggests that kaempferol attenuated lipid profile, infarcted area and oxidative stress in ISP-induced myocardial injury in rats.

  11. Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

  12. Comparative binding characteristics of Tc-CPI, Tc-TBI, and Tc-MIBI in cultured heart cells: Correlation with biochemical analysis and animal images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piwnica-Worms, D.; Kronauge, J.F.; Holman, B.L.; Davison, A.; Jones, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    Hexakis (isonitrile)technetium (I) complexes are a new class of cationic, lipophilic myocaridal perfusion imaging agents. To better understand their cellular mechanisms of uptake and washout, chick heart cells grown in culture were used as a model myocardial system. Tc-MIBI showed uptake to a plateau at a rate similar to Tc-CPI (t1/2 = 4.1 +- 0.7 minutes); however, the plateau was 63% greater. Tc-TBI uptake approached a plateau 900% greater than Tc-CPI binding. Heart cell studies showed washout of Tc-CPI>Tc-TBI>Tc-MIBI, which correlated with kinetic analysis of rabbit myocardial images. Biochemical in vitro analysis in human plasma demonstrated 75% enzymatic ester hydrolysis of Tc-CPI by 3 minutes, but no hydrolysis of Tc-TBI and Tc-MIBI. The results suggest that metabolism of the ester function of Tc-CPI following myocardial uptake may in part account for the more rapid cellular washout rates of Tc-CPI compared with Tc-TBI and Tc-MIBI

  13. Dose selection for radioiodine therapy of borderline hyperthyroid patients with multifocal and disseminated autonomy on the basis of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Michael J.; Mallek, Dirk von; Manka-Waluch, Agnieszka; Palmedo, Holger [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Bonn (Germany); Joe, Alexius; Zimmerlin, Martina [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Krause, Thomas M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Inselspital Bern (Switzerland)

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to optimise radioiodine therapy of diffuse and nodular toxic goitre by calculation of the radiation dose delivered to the thyroid on the basis of the pretreatment technetium-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake under thyrotropin suppression (TcTU{sub s}). The TcTU{sub s} value serves as a substitute for the non-suppressible iodine turnover and the functional autonomous mass. Marinelli's formula was used to calculate tissue absorbed doses of 150 Gy, 200 Gy, 250 Gy and 300 Gy to the thyroids of 438 patients with multifocal and disseminated autonomy. The mean age of patients was 70{+-}9 years, and the mean thyroid volume was 54{+-}26 ml. Two hundred and sixty-one of the patients had at least one documented previous episode of overt hyperthyroidism. Tissue absorbed doses were adapted to the pretreatment TcTU{sub s}: 150 Gy for a TcTU{sub s} of 1.5%-2.49%, 200 Gy for a TcTU{sub s} of 2.5%-3.49%, 250 Gy for a TcTU{sub s} of 3.5%-4.49% and 300 Gy for a TcTU{sub s} of {>=}4.5%. Normalisation of TcTU{sub s} and thyrotropin (TSH), thyroid volume reduction and frequency of hypothyroidism and recurrent hyperthyroidism were evaluated 1 year after a single radioiodine therapy. The presented dose strategy resulted in normalisation of TcTU{sub s} in 96% and an increase in TSH to the normal range in 92%. Recurrent hyperthyroidism was observed in only five patients. Thyroid volume decreased from 54{+-}26 before treatment to 34{+-}20 ml, a mean reduction of 37%. The frequency of hypothyroidism, at 0.9%, was encouragingly low. Dose selection in accordance with pretreatment TcTU{sub s} can be recommended for elimination of functional autonomous tissue with a single radioiodine therapy in patients of advanced age with enlarged thyroid glands and relevant autonomous masses who are at risk of developing iodine-induced hyperthyroidism. (orig.)

  14. Dose selection for radioiodine therapy of borderline hyperthyroid patients with multifocal and disseminated autonomy on the basis of 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, Michael J.; Mallek, Dirk von; Manka-Waluch, Agnieszka; Palmedo, Holger; Joe, Alexius; Zimmerlin, Martina; Krause, Thomas M.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimise radioiodine therapy of diffuse and nodular toxic goitre by calculation of the radiation dose delivered to the thyroid on the basis of the pretreatment technetium-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake under thyrotropin suppression (TcTU s ). The TcTU s value serves as a substitute for the non-suppressible iodine turnover and the functional autonomous mass. Marinelli's formula was used to calculate tissue absorbed doses of 150 Gy, 200 Gy, 250 Gy and 300 Gy to the thyroids of 438 patients with multifocal and disseminated autonomy. The mean age of patients was 70±9 years, and the mean thyroid volume was 54±26 ml. Two hundred and sixty-one of the patients had at least one documented previous episode of overt hyperthyroidism. Tissue absorbed doses were adapted to the pretreatment TcTU s : 150 Gy for a TcTU s of 1.5%-2.49%, 200 Gy for a TcTU s of 2.5%-3.49%, 250 Gy for a TcTU s of 3.5%-4.49% and 300 Gy for a TcTU s of ≥4.5%. Normalisation of TcTU s and thyrotropin (TSH), thyroid volume reduction and frequency of hypothyroidism and recurrent hyperthyroidism were evaluated 1 year after a single radioiodine therapy. The presented dose strategy resulted in normalisation of TcTU s in 96% and an increase in TSH to the normal range in 92%. Recurrent hyperthyroidism was observed in only five patients. Thyroid volume decreased from 54±26 before treatment to 34±20 ml, a mean reduction of 37%. The frequency of hypothyroidism, at 0.9%, was encouragingly low. Dose selection in accordance with pretreatment TcTU s can be recommended for elimination of functional autonomous tissue with a single radioiodine therapy in patients of advanced age with enlarged thyroid glands and relevant autonomous masses who are at risk of developing iodine-induced hyperthyroidism. (orig.)

  15. 99M-TC MIBI-an indicator of active disease in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raluca Mititelu; Serban Ghita; Catalin Mazilu; George Marinescu

    2004-01-01

    uptake of the radiotracer in spine, sternum and long bones. For these 2 patients we recommended a careful survey of clinical and biological criteria of active disease. For the patients with active disease, we correlated the findings on 99mTc-MIBI scan with X-ray exam, bone scan and MRI. X-ray was positive in 11 patients (74%); bone scan showed bone involvement in 13(64%). In 4 patients that demonstrated pathologic uptake in spine on 99mTc-MIBI scan, we found bony lesions with a slight reduced level of 99mTc-MDP uptake; these lesions were missed at the first interpretation of bone scan, and reported only after comparative evaluation of bone scan and 99mTc-MIBI scan. MRI was superior to 99mTc-MIBI scan in 3 patients, in which MRI detected lesions in 19 vertebrae, while 99mTc-MIBI scan detected mielomatous lesions in 14. Conclusion: 99mTc-MIBI uptake reflects the extent of bone marrow involvement and the activity of the disease. 99mTc-MIBI scan has the advantage of whole-body imaging in one single examination. It is less time consuming than other imaging modalities, more comfortable for patients and more cost-effective. For this reasons 99mTc-MIBI scan can be an useful tool in the management of patients with MM. (authors)

  16. 99mTc bone scanning agents preparation and chemical analysis of Tc(Sn)pyrophosphate, Tc(Sn)MDP and Tc(Sn)HMDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroesbergen, J.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis describes a comparison of the preparation, composition and properties of three bone scanning agents: 99m Tc(Sn)pyrophosphate, 99m Tc(Sn)MDP and 99m Tc(Sn)HMDP. This study has been performed for two reasons: First to investigate the preparation and composition of the radiopharmaceuticals as a function of experimental conditions. Together with previously reported results for 99m Tc(Sn)EHDP, obtained in a similar way, this enables to use well-defined preparations of the bone scanning agents. Secondly to gain an insight in the mechanism in which the agents behave 'in vivo'. Because the 'in vivo' process is too complicated to study directly, it seemed more appropriate to perform 'in vitro' investigations as simplifications of the 'in vivo' situation. 304 refs.; 26 figs.; 31 tabs

  17. Transmutation of Tc-99 in fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.; Li, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    Transmutation of Tc-99 in three different types of fission reactors is considered: A heavy water reactor, a fast reactor and a light water reactor. For the first type a CANDU reactor was chosen, for the second one the Superphenix reactor, and for the third one a PWR. The three most promising Tc-99 transmuters are the fast reactor with a moderated subassembly in the inner core, a fast reactor with a non-moderated subassembly in the inner core, and a heavy water reactor with Tc-99 target pins in the moderator between the fuel bundles. Transmutation half lives of 15 to 25 years can be achieved, with yearly transmuted Tc-99 masses of about 100 kg at a thermal reactor power of about 3000 MW. (orig.)

  18. Steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment refining technology of plant biomass to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Pretreatment is a key unit operation affecting the refinery efficiency of plant biomass. However, the poor efficiency of pretreatment and the lack of basic theory are the main challenges to the industrial implementation of the plant biomass refinery. The purpose of this work is to review steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment as a means of overcoming the intrinsic characteristics of plant biomass, including recalcitrance, heterogeneity, multi-composition, and diversity. The main advantages of the selective use of steam explosion and other combinatorial pretreatments across the diversity of raw materials are introduced. Combinatorial pretreatment integrated with other unit operations is proposed as a means to exploit the high-efficiency production of bio-based products from plant biomass. Finally, several pilot- and demonstration-scale operations of the plant biomass refinery are described. Based on the principle of selective function and structure fractionation, and multi-level and directional composition conversion, an integrated process with the combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments as the core should be feasible and conform to the plant biomass refinery concept. Combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments should be further exploited based on the type and intrinsic characteristics of the plant biomass used, the bio-based products to be made, and the complementarity of the processes. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. On the separation of 99mTcO4-, 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-citrate as marker species for the determination of Tc chemical forms in plant material using capillary zone electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijger, G.C.; Claessens, H.A.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper addresses the potential use of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) as an anal. tool in 99Tc speciation studies. To optimize sampling, storage and anal. procedures, the three marker compds. 99mTcO4-, 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-citrate were synthesized and used in test-measurements with

  20. Tc-99m-hexakis(t-butylisonitrile)-technetium(I) (Tc-99m-TBI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelberger, P.; Dudczak, R.; Jones, A.G.; Lister-James, J.; Wagner-Loffler, M.; Buchheit, O.; Fally, F.

    1986-01-01

    The potassium analog (Tl-201)/sup +/ is widely used in nuclear cardiology but has inferior scintigraphic (80 keV photons), dosimetric and economic properties as compared to Tc-99m. Therefore considerable efforts have been made to develop a Tc-compound that would accumulate in the myocardium in relation to regional blood flow. This study was aimed at optimizing the preparation of Tc-TBI with n.c.a. Tc-99m, analyze and purify the product with HPLC, verify biodistribution in mice and undertake a clinical evaluation

  1. Radiopharmaceuticals to 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Cabana, Alba

    1994-01-01

    Studies about 99m Tc had demonstrated that have favorable properties for support diagnostic proceedings in nuclear medicine. This physical and chemical properties used for obtain another radiopharmaceuticals have been employed through re actives kits labelled with Tc 99m . A brief description was given about 99m utilities in diagnostic techniques such as endothelium reticular system,renal and hepatic studies,bone scintillators,cardiac diagnostic and cerebral perfusion

  2. Identification of the non-pertechnetate species in Hanford waste tanks, Tc(I) carbonyl complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, Wayne W.; Shuh, David K.; Schroeder, Norman C.; Ashley, Kenneth R.

    2003-10-16

    Immobilization of the high-level nuclear waste stored at the Hanford Reservation has been complicated by the presence of soluble, lower-valent technetium species. Previous work by Schroeder and Blanchard has shown that these species cannot be removed by ion-exchange and are difficult to oxidize. The Tc-K edge XANES spectra of the species in Tanks SY-101 and SY-103 were reported by Blanchard, but they could not be assigned to any known technetium complex. We report that the XANES spectra are most likely those of Tc(I) carbonyl species, especially fac-Tc(CO){sub 3}(gluconate){sup 2-}. This is further supported by EXAFS and {sup 99}Tc-NMR studies in nonradioactive simulants of these tank wastes.

  3. ACS labelled with sup(99m)Tc and cartilage scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, J.C.; Harmand, M.F.; Blanquet, P.

    1976-01-01

    ACS, chondroitine-sulphate acid, is the principal mucopolysaccharide of cartilagineous substance. We therefore thought it of interest to label this molecule with sup(99m)Tc so as to obtain a scintigraphic image of cartilagineous formations. sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate and the sup(99m)Tc-polyphosphates permit simultaneous imaging of hyperactive zones in bone and cartilage. The ACS-labelling technique is based on the reduction of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate by the tin-II-ion. Sephadex-gel chromatography at different pH-levels was used to study labelling gain, under optimum conditions it can attain 85%. The labelled product was administered intravenously and studied in rat and rabbit. An identical biological half-life of 15 minutes was found for both species. Scintigraphes from rabbits permitted clear visualization of the epiphyses of tubular bones, intervertebral cartilage, and auricular cartilage. These encouraging results point to interesting clinical applications

  4. Uptake and release of 99mTc-CPI in cultured myocardial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shengting; Xiao Yanling; Yu Qifu; Zhang Hongyuan; Tang Jingrong

    1991-01-01

    The uptake and release of 99m Tc-CPI were studied in cultured monolayer neonatal rat myocardial cells incubated under normal condition (37 deg C, pH 7.4). The plateau level of uptake (4291.6 cpm/mg cell protein) was reached at 41.4 min when incubated with 37 kBq 99m Tc-CPI. The 99m Tc-CPI release was composed of at least two components. The fast component had a half-time (t 1/2 ) of 3.3 min and the slow one 198.0 min. It was suggested by the authors that the uptake of 99m Tc-CPI by cultured myocardial cells might be related to passive diffusion

  5. Electrolytic 99TcO4- reduction at inert electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, C.; Gambino, D.; Leon, A.; Kremer, E.

    1990-01-01

    Electrolytic pertechnetate reduction at inert electrodes was studied as an alternative procedure for synthesizing Tc complexes. Pertechnetate reduction was carried out in aqueous media using different aminated ligands (en, dien, trien and 1,3-dap) forming [TcO 2 (amine) 2 ] + type complexes. Simultaneously with synthesis of the desired Tc complex, TcO 2 was electrodeposited onto the cathode. Conversion of TcO 4 - to Tc complex and TcO 2 was studied as a function of several variables (kind and concentration of supporting electrolyte, ligand concentration, pH, current and electrolysis time). (author) 9 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  6. Synopsis of TC4 Missions and Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, D.; Pfister, L.; Selkirk, H.; Nguyen, L.

    2007-12-01

    The TC4 (Tropical Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling) Experiment conducted 26 aircraft sorties on 13 flight days from July 17 to August 8, 2007 (23 days). Quality science observations were also obtained during the transit flights to/from from San Jose, Costa Rica, where the mission was based. On 9 days, coordinated aircraft missions were flown with the NASA ER-2 and DC-8, and with the NASA WB-57 on 3 occasions (and transit flights). The ER-2 served as an A-Train simulator (MODIS, CloudSat, CALIPSO, AIRS/TES, partial AMSR-E) while the WB-57 provided in-situ measurements of upper tropospheric cloud particles, aerosols and trace gases. The DC-8 provided both in-situ and remote sensing measurements, where the latter were focused on Aura validation, and also including a down-looking scanning precipitation radar (TRMM PR simulator). This paper will provide a synopsis of the science observations that were obtained, as regards the clouds and cloud systems sampled, from a meteorological perspective. A diversity of clouds were sampled and the meteorology proved more interesting than expected, at least to this author. Upper tropospheric cirrus outflows were sampled from a number of convective cloud systems including ITCZ-type systems as well as systems close to and affected by land. The low level inflows to these systems were also sampled in some cases (DC-8) and missions were flown to sample stratocumulus clouds over the Pacific Ocean exploiting the unique instrumentation on the DC-8 to add to the knowledge of these clouds which are so important to the Earth radiation budget. Measurements were made in the tropical Tropopause Transition Layer (TTL) by the WB-57. Upper tropospheric clouds and TTL properties and processes were central TC4 objectives. Excellent data were also obtained on the fate of the Saharan Air Layer and its aerosols over the Caribbean and Central America, as well as samples of plumes from volcanoes in Ecuador and Columbia and biogenic emissions over

  7. Biorefining of wheat straw: accounting for the distribution of mineral elements in pretreated biomass by an extended pretreatment – severity equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Knudsen, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mineral elements present in lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks may accumulate in biorefinery process streams and cause technological problems, or alternatively can be reaped for value addition. A better understanding of the distribution of minerals in biomass in response to pretreatment...... factors is therefore important in relation to development of new biorefinery processes. The objective of the present study was to examine the levels of mineral elements in pretreated wheat straw in response to systematic variations in the hydrothermal pretreatment parameters (pH, temperature......) Silicon, iron, copper, aluminum correlated with lignin and cellulose levels, but the levels of these constituents showed no severity-dependent trends. For the first group, an expanded pretreatment-severity equation, containing a specific factor for each constituent, accounting for variability due...

  8. Determination of Tc-99 in radioactive wastes; Determinacion de Tc-99 en desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera S, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Tc-99 is a fission product and one of the most important radionuclides from the view point of safety assessment for the disposal of radioactive waste because of its long half-life (2.1 x 10{sup 5} years) and high mobility in soil-water systems, if this is released into the environment in significant quantities can concentrate on plants and animals. Tc-99 is a pure beta emitter with a maximum energy of 292 KeV, so their quantification imposes destructive methods to be analyzed by liquid scintillation. Therefore the quantification of Tc-99 in ion exchange resins requires of the mineralization of these and separation of Tc-99 of other radioisotopes present in the resin. Therefore the object of this thesis is to develop a quantification method of Tc-99 content in spent exchange resins. So in order to track the behavior of technetium during digestion exchange resins and radiochemical separation, given its high volatility, in this work the {sup 99m}Tc is used. To determine the degree of mineralization of the resins, an analysis was performed by chromatography. Subsequently the method used to determine the percentage of {sup 99m}Tc aerosolized during mineralization of resin is described. After the method for the radiochemical separation of {sup 99m}Tc is presented by liquid-liquid extraction using crown ether as extractant; for this testing was performed by varying the molarity of the extractant, the ratio of solvent extractant, type of digestion of the resin and the presence of Sr-85, in order to study the behavior of {sup 99m}Tc in the presence of this radioisotope. Finally, a track beta spectra of a sample of {sup 99m}Tc eluted from a generator {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc function of time was performed. (Author)

  9. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee

    2015-08-18

    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  10. Clinical application of 99mTc-DTPA-HSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yasuaki; Yamazaki, Junichi; Okuzumi, Ichio

    1989-01-01

    A newly developed blood pool imaging agent, Tc-99m DTPA-HSA (Tc-99m HSA-D), was clinically assessed in blood pool studies of patients with heart disease. Twenty mCi of Tc-99m HSA-D was iv injected to the patients. Similarly, conventional Tc-99m HSA was injected one week later for comparison. Blood counts of Tc-99m HSA-D were significantly higher than those of Tc-99m HSA at 30 minutes after iv injection (p<0.01) and at one, 3, and 6 hours (p<0.001). For the heart, liver, and lungs, sequential counts of Tc-99m HSA-D were also significantly higher than those of Tc-99m HSA. Free Tc-99m uptake in the stomach, thyroid gland, and kidneys was higher on Tc-99m HSA images than Tc-99m HSA-D images. Hepatic and pulmonary uptake of free Tc-99m that were visualized on Tc-99m HSA-D did not influence the diagnostic ability. None of the patients had clinical toxicity of Tc-99m HSA-D. The results indicate that Tc-99m HSA-D is a stable blood pool imaging agent. (Namekawa, K)

  11. 99Tc in the environment. Sources, distribution and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Leon, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    99 Tc is a β-emitter, E max =294 keV, with a very long half-life (T 1/2 =2.11 x 10 5 y). It is mainly produced in the fission of 235 U and 239 Pu at a rate of about 6%. This rate together with its long half-life makes it a significant nuclide in the whole nuclear fuel cycle, from which it can be introduced into the environment at different rates depending on the cycle step. A gross estimation shows that adding all the possible sources, at least 2000 TBq had been released into the environment up to 2000 and that up to the middle of the nineties of the last century some 64000 TBq had been produced worldwide. Nuclear explosions have liberated some 160 TBq into the environment. In this work, environmental distribution of 99 Tc as well as the methods for its determination will be discussed. Emphasis is put on the environmental relevance of 99 Tc, mainly with regard to the future committed radiation dose received by the population and to the problem of nuclear waste management. Its determination at environmental levels is a challenging task. For that, special mention is made about the mass spectrometric methods for its measurement. (author)

  12. Expression of Aspergillus niger CAZymes is determined by compositional changes in wheat straw generated by hydrothermal or ionic liquid pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Paul; van Munster, Jolanda M; Blythe, Martin J; Ibbett, Roger; Kokolski, Matt; Gaddipati, Sanyasi; Lindquist, Erika; Singan, Vasanth R; Barry, Kerrie W; Lipzen, Anna; Ngan, Chew Yee; Petzold, Christopher J; Chan, Leanne Jade G; Pullan, Steven T; Delmas, Stéphane; Waldron, Paul R; Grigoriev, Igor V; Tucker, Gregory A; Simmons, Blake A; Archer, David B

    2017-01-01

    The capacity of fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, to degrade lignocellulose is harnessed in biotechnology to generate biofuels and high-value compounds from renewable feedstocks. Most feedstocks are currently pretreated to increase enzymatic digestibility: improving our understanding of the transcriptomic responses of fungi to pretreated lignocellulosic substrates could help to improve the mix of activities and reduce the production costs of commercial lignocellulose saccharifying cocktails. We investigated the responses of A. niger to untreated, ionic liquid and hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw over a 5-day time course using RNA-seq and targeted proteomics. The ionic liquid pretreatment altered the cellulose crystallinity while retaining more of the hemicellulosic sugars than the hydrothermal pretreatment. Ionic liquid pretreatment of straw led to a dynamic induction and repression of genes, which was correlated with the higher levels of pentose sugars saccharified from the ionic liquid-pretreated straw. Hydrothermal pretreatment of straw led to reduced levels of transcripts of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes as well as the derived proteins and enzyme activities. Both pretreatments abolished the expression of a large set of genes encoding pectinolytic enzymes. These reduced levels could be explained by the removal of parts of the lignocellulose by the hydrothermal pretreatment. The time course also facilitated identification of temporally limited gene induction patterns. The presented transcriptomic and biochemical datasets demonstrate that pretreatments caused modifications of the lignocellulose, to both specific structural features as well as the organisation of the overall lignocellulosic structure, that determined A. niger transcript levels. The experimental setup allowed reliable detection of substrate-specific gene expression patterns as well as hitherto non-expressed genes. Our data suggest beneficial effects of using untreated and IL-pretreated

  13. 99Tc and Re incorporated into metal oxide polyoxometalates: oxidation state stability elucidated by electrochemistry and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Donna; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P; Mbomekalle, Israel M; Aparicio, Pablo A; Romo, Susanna; López, Xavier; Poblet, Josep M; Francesconi, Lynn C

    2012-08-20

    The radioactive element technetium-99 ((99)Tc, half-life = 2.1 × 10(5) years, β(-) of 253 keV), is a major byproduct of (235)U fission in the nuclear fuel cycle. (99)Tc is also found in radioactive waste tanks and in the environment at National Lab sites and fuel reprocessing centers. Separation and storage of the long-lived (99)Tc in an appropriate and stable waste-form is an important issue that needs to be addressed. Considering metal oxide solid-state materials as potential storage matrixes for Tc, we are examining the redox speciation of Tc on the molecular level using polyoxometalates (POMs) as models. In this study we investigate the electrochemistry of Tc complexes of the monovacant Wells-Dawson isomers, α(1)-P(2)W(17)O(61)(10-) (α1) and α(2)-P(2)W(17)O(61)(10-) (α2) to identify features of metal oxide materials that can stabilize the immobile Tc(IV) oxidation state accessed from the synthesized Tc(V)O species and to interrogate other possible oxidation states available to Tc within these materials. The experimental results are consistent with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Electrochemistry of K(7-n)H(n)[Tc(V)O(α(1)-P(2)W(17)O(61))] (Tc(V)O-α1), K(7-n)H(n)[Tc(V)O(α(2)-P(2)W(17)O(61))] (Tc(V)O-α2) and their rhenium analogues as a function of pH show that the Tc-containing derivatives are always more readily reduced than their Re analogues. Both Tc and Re are reduced more readily in the lacunary α1 site as compared to the α2 site. The DFT calculations elucidate that the highest oxidation state attainable for Re is VII while, under the same electrochemistry conditions, the highest oxidation state for Tc is VI. The M(V)→ M(IV) reduction processes for Tc(V)O-α1 are not pH dependent or only slightly pH dependent suggesting that protonation does not accompany reduction of this species unlike the M(V)O-α2 (M = (99)Tc, Re) and Re(V)O-α1 where M(V/IV) reduction process must occur hand in hand with protonation of the terminal M═O to

  14. Biodistribution patterns of native and mutant 99mTc-labelled annexin V in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, G.; Erba, P.; Pellegrino, D.; Volterrani, D.; Lazzeri, E.; Freer, G.; Bevilacqua, G.; Blankenberg, F.G.; Tait, J.F.; Strauss, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Annexin is a 36 kD protein with high binding affinity to phosphatidylserine (PS), a phospholipid exposed on the membrane surface of cells upon activation of the enzyme caspase, the first step of apoptosis. Radiolabeled annexin V could thus be used for imaging apoptosis in-vivo. When the 319 amino acid protein is made by recombinant techniques and expressed as the human material, it can be radiolabeled with 99mTc after derivatization with a bifunctional agent such as HYNIC. Alternatively, the amino acid structure of the protein can be modified by producing annexin V mutants with an endogenous chelation site for 99mTc, the NH2 residue Ala-Gly-Gly-Cys-Gly-His-Met. Mutant annexin has similar affinity for membrane-bound PS as unmodified annexin. This study was performed to compare the biodistribution of 99mTc-labeled HYNIC annexin (HyA) to mutant annexin (MuA). 99mTc-labeling efficiency of the two annexin preparations was >99% by gel chromatography on Sephadex G10 columns. Groups of adult male mice (n 10, body weight 18-25 grams) were injected iv with either HyA or MuA (1-3 MBq, 3-9 μg/animal). Animals were sacrificed one hour later and dissected for organ biodistribution. Similar biodistribution was performed after pretreatment with cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg ip 6-15 hr prior to the study). The results of the biodistribution study showed significantly reduced (p<0.05 to p<0.01) uptake of MuA versus HyA in the kidneys (Δ- 81.4%), spleen (Δ- 58.2%), liver (Δ- 56.2%), and bone marrow (Δ- 33.7%), while it was increased in lymph nodes (Δ+ 131%, p<0.001). Pretreatment with the pro-apoptotic agent cyclophosphamide induced significantly increased uptake of MuA (p<0.05) versus baseline in the heart (Δ+ 34.7%), spleen (Δ+ 30.1%) and bowel (Δ+ 44.5%), while uptake of HyA was increased only in the spleen (Δ+ 44.1%). The marked reduction in the renal, splenic, liver, and bone marrow localization of MuA compared to HyA in control animals outlines a pattern of

  15. A model for the bioaccumulation of {sup 99}Tc in lobsters (Homarus gammarus) from the West Cumbrian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Y.S.; Vives i Batlle, J. E-mail: jordi.vives@westlakes.ac.uk

    2003-07-01

    A biokinetic model is presented that simulates the uptake and release of {sup 99}Tc by the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). This organism is of significant radioecological interest since lobsters, in contrast to most other organisms, have a high affinity for {sup 99}Tc. The model is designed to represent annually averaged {sup 99}Tc concentrations in lobsters from the Cumbrian coast, where significant levels of {sup 99}Tc have been released under authorisation by the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL Sellafield. This paper describes the construction of the model, how it was calibrated using data from published literature, and preliminary results indicating that model output agrees well with the available monitoring data. Given that this model successfully combines laboratory and field data, this research could potentially make a significant contribution to the field, as, to date, it has been difficult to predict and explain concentrations of {sup 99}Tc in lobsters.

  16. A model for the bioaccumulation of 99Tc in lobsters (Homarus gammarus) from the West Cumbrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Y.S.; Vives i Batlle, J.

    2003-01-01

    A biokinetic model is presented that simulates the uptake and release of 99 Tc by the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). This organism is of significant radioecological interest since lobsters, in contrast to most other organisms, have a high affinity for 99 Tc. The model is designed to represent annually averaged 99 Tc concentrations in lobsters from the Cumbrian coast, where significant levels of 99 Tc have been released under authorisation by the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL Sellafield. This paper describes the construction of the model, how it was calibrated using data from published literature, and preliminary results indicating that model output agrees well with the available monitoring data. Given that this model successfully combines laboratory and field data, this research could potentially make a significant contribution to the field, as, to date, it has been difficult to predict and explain concentrations of 99 Tc in lobsters

  17. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC in the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisella, Maria; D'Alessandria, Calogero; van de Bossche, Bieke; Chianelli, Marco; Ronga, Giuseppe; Papini, Enrico; Mikolajczak, Renata; Letizia, Claudio; De Toma, Giorgio; Veneziani, Augusto; Scopinaro, Francesco; Signore, Alberto

    2004-04-01

    An early diagnosis of distant metastases or local recurrences of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) can be achieved by several conventional radiological modalities (e.g., ultrasonography, computed tomography [CT], and magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] as well as by radioisotopic procedures, such as positron emission tomography (PET), scintigraphy with different types of radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled receptor-ligands in particular. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC, a new octreotide derivative, to detect recurrences of disease or distant metastases in MTC. Images obtained of 5 patients with high levels of serum calcitonin were compared to findings obtained with other diagnostic procedures: 111In-octreotide, 99mTc-DMSA-V, 18F-flouro-D-deoxyglucose-PET, and CT/MRI. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC was positive in all patients and showed 15 areas of pathological uptake in the cervical and mediastinal regions. 111In-octreotide was positive in 3 of 3 patients and showed 4 areas, compared to 8 of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC. 99mTc-V-DMSA was positive in 3 of 4 patients but showed 6 pathological areas, compared to 13 of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC. 18F-FDG-PET was positive in 5 of 5 patients but showed only 11 areas, compared to 15 of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC. The CT scan was positive in only 2 patients. In conclusion, 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC detected more sites of pathological uptake than other modalities, showed better imaging properties than 111In-octreotide, and might be the radiopharmaceutical of choice for providing a rationale for radioisotopic therapy.

  18. 99mTc-ECD dynamic SPECT in 'luxury perfusion' of subacute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Fujiwara, Satoru; Yoshimoto, Takashi.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the cerebral pharmacokinetics of 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) at blood flow levels beyond the normal range, we investigated 'luxury perfusion' in subacute stroke, ictal hyperperfusion in epilepsy and post-decompressive hyperemia in head trauma. All 7 patients showed a hyperactive area on SPECT studies using 99m Tc-HM-PAO. 99m Tc-ECD static image demonstrated a hyperactive area in both epilepsy and head trauma, and a hypoactive area in 'luxury perfusion.' On the dynamic SPECT of 99m Tc-ECD in both epilepsy and head trauma, brain distribution of the tracer was determined within 2 min postinjection and remained stable for up to 1 hour; however, 'luxury perfusion' area showed a change from initial hyperactivity to late hypoactivity with the passage of time. The time activity curve in 'luxury perfusion' area demonstrated a steep decrease of counts/pixel for up to 4-5 minutes postinjection, and a moderate decrease in the following phase. The early wash-out mechanism of 99m Tc-ECD from 'luxury perfusion' area can be described by a biexponential function including an initial steep decrease representing the rapid loss of the lipophilic complexes which were not metabolized in injured brain tissue. (author)

  19. Effect of α-naphthylisothiocyanate on blood clearance of 99mTc-phytate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Hiroshi; Kohno, Masahiro; Katoh, Hirotake

    1989-01-01

    The effect of α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) on blood clearance of 99m Tc-phytate ( 99m Tc-P) in dogs was examined, and blood clearance test of 99m Tc-P was compared with the cases of serum transaminase test or serum bilirubin test. Serum transaminase and bilirubin levels in dogs increased after ANIT administration, however, the degree of increase in these parameters was much lower than the cases in rats. The disappearance rate of 99m Tc-P from blood in dogs decreased with the increase in dose of ANIT and with the passage of time after the ANIT administration. Changes of the blood clearance of 99m Tc-P after ANIT treatment in dogs may be influenced by the disorder in the hepatocytes rather than in the bile ductule cells. The blood clearance test of 99m Tc-P in dogs showed a sensitive reaction for the acute hepatic dysfunction induced by ANIT equally to the serum transaminase test or the serum bilirubin test. (author)

  20. Evaluation of fibrinogen-DTPA-99mTc. Biodistribution and imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungu, V.; Mihailescu, G.; Fugaru, V.; Preda, A.

    1998-01-01

    Labelling with 99m Tc of fibrinogen, using DTPA anhydride as the bifunctional chelating agent, was studied in animals with venous thrombi. The parameters studied were: i) coupled reaction of 99m Tc with the fibrinogen-DTPA-Sn(II) in lyophilised form; ii) biodistribution studies of fibrinogen- 99m Tc in animals with venous thrombi, and iii) imaging studies by scintigraphic methods. The present study showed that the radiochemical purity of fibrinogen-DTPA- 99m Tc is > 95% for a maximum of 5 mCi (185 MBq) radioactivity of 99m Tc in the 1.5-2 ml volume. Above this level of radioactivity we found a drastic decrease in the radiochemical purity. The radioactivity ratio of the venous thrombi to the blood was 2.32+-0.45. The scintigraphic images showed a significant accumulation of fibrinogen-DTPA- 99m Tc in 1-hour-old thrombi, 1 hour after injection. From this results the diagnostic potential of fibrinogen-DTPA-Sn(II) in kit form was evaluated. (author)

  1. Delayed brain ischemia tolerance induced by electroacupuncture pretreatment is mediated via MCP-induced protein 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging studies have demonstrated that pretreatment with electroacupuncture (EA) induces significant tolerance to focal cerebral ischemia. The present study seeks to determine the involvement of monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1), a recently identified novel modulator of inflammatory reactions, in the cerebral neuroprotection conferred by EA pretreatment in the animal model of focal cerebral ischemia and to elucidate the mechanisms of EA pretreatment-induced ischemic brain tolerance. Methods Twenty-four hours after the end of the last EA pretreatment, focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 minutes in male C57BL/6 mice and MCPIP1 knockout mice. Transcription and expression of MCPIP1 gene was monitored by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The neurobehavioral scores, infarction volumes, proinflammatory cytokines and leukocyte infiltration in brain and NF-κB signaling were evaluated after ischemia/reperfusion. Results MCPIP1 protein and mRNA levels significantly increased specifically in mouse brain undergoing EA pretreatment. EA pretreatment significantly attenuated the infarct volume, neurological deficits, upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and leukocyte infiltration in the brain of wild-type mice after MCAO compared with that of the non-EA group. MCPIP1-deficient mice failed to evoke EA pretreatment-induced tolerance compared with that of the control MCPIP1 knockout group without EA treatment. Furthermore, the activation of NF-κB signaling was significantly reduced in EA-pretreated wild-type mice after MCAO compared to that of the non-EA control group and MCPIP1-deficient mice failed to confer the EA pretreatment-induced inhibition of NF-κB signaling after MCAO. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that MCPIP1 deficiency caused significant lack of EA pretreatment-induced cerebral protective effects after MCAO compared with the control group and that MCPIP1 is

  2. A new detection method of 99Tc by nuclear excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, T.; Yoshihara, Kenji; Nemeth, Zs.; Lakosi, L.; Veres, A.

    1989-01-01

    A new nuclear excitation process, 99 Tc(γ,γ') 99m Tc reaction, was applied for the first time to radioactivation analysis of technetium. Bremsstrahlung irradiation of 99 Tc samples gave the reaction product 99m Tc which emits γ-ray easily measurable by a semiconductor detector. The production rate of 99m Tc per μg 99 Tc was linearly correlated with the flux of bremsstrahlung. The detection limit of 99 Tc was estimated to be nanogram order (0.63 Bq 99 Tc) under the optimum irradiation condition. Possible interference by 100 Ru(γ, p) 99m Tc reaction was also studied, which could be discriminated from the (γ,γ') reaction by simultaneously occurring 98 Ru(γ,p) 97 Ru reaction. (author) 17 refs.; 7 figs

  3. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  4. Can tumor uptake Tc-99m MDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.S.F.; Zeng, Z.J.; Yao, Y.M.; Shi, S.M.P.; Shi, S.Z.Y.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To study a distribution of Tc-99m MDP in mice bearing tumor cell lines. Methods: The uptake of Tc-99m MDP was analyzed in seven human tumor cell lines (SPC-A1 adenocarcinoma of lung cancer, P37 Breast cancer, T24 Bladder cancer, SKOV2 Ovary carcinoma, Hela-229 Cervical carcinoma, Osteosarcoma, A375 Melanoma) and one mouse lung cancer cell line (Lewis). They were transplanted into 13, 4, 5, 5, 4, 5 athymic mice, 6 SCID nude mice and 4 C57 black mice, respectively. Approximately 10(7) cells of each cell line were injected subcutaneously into a right chest of mouse. After 5∼6 weeks, the Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy were determined 5-6 hours after i.v. injection of 74MBq in 0.05ml every mouse. Result: Biodistribution and tumor uptake MDP was different in the various cell types investigated. Region of interests (RIOs) placed on a small part of the tumor and horizontal copied to left chest or spine of mice in Tc-99m MDP imaging and the average count ratio (tumor to background ratio: T/B, tumor to spine ratio: T/NT) in each ROI was calculated. 13 nude mice bearing the adenocarcinoma (SPC-A1) were sacrificed and biodistribution was determined after Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy. Results were expressed as % injected dose/gram (%ID/g), mean±SD. T-ulcer=ulcer of tumor, T-round=surrounding of tumor, T-center=the center of tumor, Thor-sp=thoracic spine, Lum-ver=lumbar vertebra, LN=lymph node. Conclusions: Tumor can uptake Tc-99m MDP including adenocarcinoma. Higher uptake rate in the center tissue of tumor is than other part of tumor. It maybe connected with necrosis or fibrosis of tumor

  5. Gamma-gamma angular correlation for transitions in 101Tc and 76Se nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    The technique of directional γ-γ angular correlation has been used the β - decay of 101 Mo (T 1/2 = 14,6 min) to levels in 101 Tc and 76 Hs (T 1/2 = 26,3 h) to levels in 76 Se. The angular correlation of coincident γ-transitions, in both nuclei, have been measured using HPGe-HPGe and HPGe-NaI(Tl) spectrometers. Measurements have been carried out for fifteen gamma-cascades in 101 Tc and twenty four cascades in 76 Se resulting in the determination of multipole mixing ratios δ(E2/M1), for fourteen γ-transitions in 101 Tc and sexteen γ-transitions in 76 Se. In the case of 101 Tc these measurements were realized for the first time and in the case of 76 Se the present results confirmed some of the mixing ratios determined In the earlier studies od nuclear orientation and angular correlation. Present results together with the results of earlier studies also permitted definite assigments of spins to the majority of levels in 101 Tc and 76 Se involved in the present study. The experimental results are discussed in terms of nuclear models and a comparasion of some of the properties of the Technetium odd mass nuclei with A = 95-103 and Selenium even mass nuclei with A = 76-82 has been made in order to ilustrate the systematic variation of these properties with mass number. (author) [pt

  6. Biomass Deconstruction and Pretreatment | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconstruction and Pretreatment Biomass Deconstruction and Pretreatment Our mission is to transform -cyclohexane hydrocarbons were produced by noble metal and acid zeoloite catalytic upgrading of biomass-derived by mechanical refining process. The left side shows biomass feedstock (represented by brown spheres

  7. Consequences of daily corticosteroid dosing with or without pre-treatment with quinidine on the in vivo cytochrome P450 2D (CYP2D) enzyme in rats: effect on O-demethylation activity of dextromethorphan and expression levels of CYP2D1 mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Poonam; Delvadia, Prashant; Gupta, Laxmikant; Patel, Nirmal; Trivedi, Priyal; Lad, Krishna; Patel, Hiren M; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2018-01-01

    1. Present investigation was carried out in rats to study influence of corticosteroids after repeated dosing with/without pre-treatment with CYP2D inhibitor quinidine on the CYP2D1 mRNA levels and CYP2D enzyme activity using dextromethorphan as probe substrate. 2. CYP2D1 mRNA was measured in liver homogenate using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction [qRT-PCR] and enzymatic reaction was studied ex vivo in liver S-9 fractions of rats treated with oral 10 mg/kg dexamethasone or prednisolone for five days or pre-treated with quinidine and followed by treatment with oral 10 mg/kg corticosteroids for five days. 3. Five days repeat dosing of dexamethasone or prednisolone decreased the activity of the rat liver CYP2D by 37% and 34%, at 30 min incubation and decreased CYP2D1 mRNA levels by 62% and 61%, respectively. 4. Pre-treatment of quinidine decreased the enzymatic activity of rat CYP2D by 58% and did not potentiate CYP2D inhibition by corticosteroids. This observation was further complemented by qRT-PCR data. 5. Corticosteroids caused CYP2D inhibition in rats vs. literature evidence of CYP2D induction in human hepatocytes/pregnant humans demonstrating lack of concordance. In vivo inhibition should be factored for interpretation of pharmacokinetic data of CYP2D substrates when treated with corticosteroids in rats.

  8. Innovative pretreatment strategies for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patinvoh, Regina J; Osadolor, Osagie A; Chandolias, Konstantinos; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2017-01-01

    Biogas or biomethane is traditionally produced via anaerobic digestion, or recently by thermochemical or a combination of thermochemical and biological processes via syngas (CO and H 2 ) fermentation. However, many of the feedstocks have recalcitrant structure and are difficult to digest (e.g., lignocelluloses or keratins), or they have toxic compounds (such as fruit flavors or high ammonia content), or not digestible at all (e.g., plastics). To overcome these challenges, innovative strategies for enhanced and economically favorable biogas production were proposed in this review. The strategies considered are commonly known physical pretreatment, rapid decompression, autohydrolysis, acid- or alkali pretreatments, solvents (e.g. for lignin or cellulose) pretreatments or leaching, supercritical, oxidative or biological pretreatments, as well as combined gasification and fermentation, integrated biogas production and pretreatment, innovative biogas digester design, co-digestion, and bio-augmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding the in vivo uptake kinetics of a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding agent 99mTc-Duramycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audi, Said; Li Zhixin; Capacete, Joseph; Liu Yu; Fang, Wei; Shu, Laura G.; Zhao Ming

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: 99m Tc-Duramycin is a peptide-based molecular probe that binds specifically to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The goal was to characterize the kinetics of molecular interactions between 99m Tc-Duramycin and the target tissue. Methods: High level of accessible PE is induced in cardiac tissues by myocardial ischemia (30 min) and reperfusion (120 min) in Sprague–Dawley rats. Target binding and biodistribution of 99m Tc-duramycin were captured using SPECT/CT. To quantify the binding kinetics, the presence of radioactivity in ischemic versus normal cardiac tissues was measured by gamma counting at 3, 10, 20, 60 and 180 min after injection. A partially inactivated form of 99m Tc-Duramycin was analyzed in the same fashion. A compartment model was developed to quantify the uptake kinetics of 99m Tc-Duramycin in normal and ischemic myocardial tissue. Results: 99m Tc-duramycin binds avidly to the damaged tissue with a high target-to-background radio. Compartment modeling shows that accessibility of binding sites in myocardial tissue to 99m Tc-Duramycin is not a limiting factor and the rate constant of target binding in the target tissue is at 2.2 ml/nmol/min/g. The number of available binding sites for 99m Tc-Duramycin in ischemic myocardium was estimated at 0.14 nmol/g. Covalent modification of D15 resulted in a 9-fold reduction in binding affinity. Conclusion: 99m Tc-Duramycin accumulates avidly in target tissues in a PE-dependent fashion. Model results reflect an efficient uptake mechanism, consistent with the low molecular weight of the radiopharmaceutical and the relatively high density of available binding sites. These data help better define the imaging utilities of 99m Tc-Duramycin as a novel PE-binding agent.

  10. Follow-up of a case of subacute thyroiditis with uncommon thyroid {sup 99m}Tc uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhe; Li, Chengjiang, E-mail: 10518093zz@163.com [Medical College of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Hospital of Medical College. Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    2013-07-01

    Thyroidal 99mTc uptake in the acute thyrotoxic phase of subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is always inhibited. However, a patient with SAT had signs in the right-side thyroid gland with transient thyrotoxicosis and slightly high 99mTc uptake levels in the right lobe, low 99mTc uptake in the left lobe, and normal overall uptake. Histological examination showed cellular destruction and granulomatous inflammatory changes in the right lobe, with marked interstitial fibrosis in the left lobe. The patient was thyrotrophin-receptor antibody (TRAb) positive. After a short course of prednisolone, SAT-like symptoms and signs improved. TRAb-positivity resolved spontaneously after 22 months, and TSH levels were slightly low for 22 months. Levels then kept normal in the following four years. In conclusion, high 99mTc uptake by the right lobe was due to the combined effects of TRAb and left thyroid gland fibrosis. (author)

  11. Pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the production of bioethanol - Comparison of five pretreatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    -assisted pretreatment (PAP) and ball milling (BM), to determine effects of the pretreatment methods on the conversion of C. linum into ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). WO and BM showed the highest ethanol yield of 44. g ethanol/100. g glucan, which was close to the theoretical ethanol......A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma...... yield of 57. g ethanol/100. g glucan. A 64% higher ethanol yield, based on raw material, was reached after pretreatment with WO and BM compared with unpretreated C. linum, however 50% of the biomass was lost during WO. Results indicated that the right combination of pretreatment and marine macroalgae...

  12. Description of waste pretreatment and interfacing systems dynamic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbrick, D.J.; Zimmerman, B.D.

    1995-05-01

    The Waste Pretreatment and Interfacing Systems Dynamic Simulation Model was created to investigate the required pretreatment facility processing rates for both high level and low level waste so that the vitrification of tank waste can be completed according to the milestones defined in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). In order to achieve this objective, the processes upstream and downstream of the pretreatment facilities must also be included. The simulation model starts with retrieval of tank waste and ends with vitrification for both low level and high level wastes. This report describes the results of three simulation cases: one based on suggested average facility processing rates, one with facility rates determined so that approximately 6 new DSTs are required, and one with facility rates determined so that approximately no new DSTs are required. It appears, based on the simulation results, that reasonable facility processing rates can be selected so that no new DSTs are required by the TWRS program. However, this conclusion must be viewed with respect to the modeling assumptions, described in detail in the report. Also included in the report, in an appendix, are results of two sensitivity cases: one with glass plant water recycle steams recycled versus not recycled, and one employing the TPA SST retrieval schedule versus a more uniform SST retrieval schedule. Both recycling and retrieval schedule appear to have a significant impact on overall tank usage

  13. 99Tc in seawater in the West Spitsbergen Current and adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerland, Sebastian; Lind, Bjoern; Dowdall, Mark; Karcher, M.; Kolstad, Anne Kathrine

    2003-01-01

    99 Tc levels were measured in seawater samples collected between 2000 and 2002 in the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) and along the western coast of Svalbard or Spitzbergen and compared with available oceanographic 3-D modelling results for the late 1990s. Additional data from related regions are also presented in order to support the data interpretation. The seawater in the Arctic fjord Kongsfjorden on the western coast of Svalbard is influenced by the WSC, as shown by the 99 Tc levels in surface water. By means of the WSC, 99 Tc reaches the Eastern Fram Strait, where one branch of the WSC turns west into the East Greenland Current (EGC), and another branch continues northwards into the Arctic Ocean. Surface seawater collected in the central part of the WSC during a cruise on board the R/V 'Polarstern' in the summer of 2000, showed higher levels of 99 Tc than samples measured in Kongsfjorden in the spring of 2000. However, all levels measured in surface water are of the same order of magnitude. Data from sampling of deeper water in the WSC and EGC provide information pertaining to the lateral distribution of 99 Tc. In all vertical profiling surveys (conducted in spring and summer), the highest levels of 99 Tc were found in surface water. Comparison with oceanographic 3-D modelling indicates both significant seasonal variations in the lateral stratification of the WSC and variations with depth over shorter vertical distances. This information can be applied in sampling strategies, environmental monitoring, long-range transport of pollutants and physical oceanography

  14. Enzymatic protein hydrolysates from high pressure-pretreated isolated pea proteins have better antioxidant properties than similar hydrolysates produced from heat pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Chao, Dongfang; Lin, Lin; He, Rong; Jung, Stephanie; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2015-12-01

    Isolated pea protein (IPP) dispersions (1%, w/v) were pretreated with high pressure (HP) of 200, 400, or 600 MPa for 5 min at 24 °C or high temperature (HT) for 30 min at 100 °C prior to hydrolysis with 1% (w/w) Alcalase. HP pretreatment of IPP at 400 and 600 MPa levels led to significantly (P40%) oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) of hydrolysates. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of pea protein hydrolysates were also significantly (PProtein hydrolysates from HT IPP showed no ORAC, superoxide or hydroxyl scavenging activity but had significantly (Pprotein hydrolysates had weaker antioxidant properties than glutathione but overall, the HP pretreatment was superior to HT pretreatment in facilitating enzymatic release of antioxidant peptides from IPP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dispositional study of opioids in mice pretreated with sympathomimetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambisya, Y M; Chan, K; Wong, C L

    1992-08-01

    Brain and plasma levels of morphine and codeine were determined by an assay method involving solid-phase extraction and ion-pair reversed phase HPLC. Detection was by a variable wavelength UV-detector (for codeine) and an amperometric electro-chemical detector (for morphine) coupled in series. Ephedrine or phenylpropanolamine pretreatment did not interfere with the plasma disposition of morphine, evidenced by overlapping plasma concentration-time profiles. Brain opioid levels were equally unaffected by sympathomimetic pretreatment. The relative ratios of brain to plasma concentrations at the time corresponding to the respective peak anti-nociceptive activity for morphine and codeine revealed no significant differences. It is concluded that single doses of ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine do not affect the disposition of morphine and codeine in mice.

  16. Process modifications of obtaining Tc-99m by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, A.; Verdera, S.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a modification in the process to obtaining Tc-99m by the extraction method of solvent from Mo-99 produced by irradiation. Tc-99m is considered an ideal radionuclide for medical and biological applications

  17. The association between pre-treatment occupational skill level and mood and symptom burden in early-stage, postmenopausal breast cancer survivors during the first year of anastrozole therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Bethany D; Sereika, Susan M; Rosenzweig, Margaret; McCue, Michael; Merriman, John D; Bender, Catherine M

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has explored occupational activity of breast cancer survivors but has not examined the influence of occupational level on symptoms prospectively. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between occupational classification and changes in mood and symptom burden for postmenopausal breast cancer survivors during the first year of anastrozole therapy. This was an exploratory secondary analysis in 49 postmenopausal women receiving anastrozole therapy for early-stage breast cancer. Participants reported their occupation at baseline and completed self-report questionnaires measuring mood and symptom burden at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Occupation was classified according to four major skill levels delineated by the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). Breast cancer survivors employed at occupational skill levels 1 through 3 reported significantly higher depressive symptoms, fatigue, and total symptoms on average than those employed at ISCO skill level 4. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, this pattern remained for the musculoskeletal, vasomotor, and gastrointestinal symptom subscales. Breast cancer survivors employed at lower skill levels (i.e., ISCO 1-3) reported poorer mood and greater symptom burden than breast cancer survivors employed at a higher skill level (i.e., ISCO 4). Assessing baseline occupation of occupationally active breast cancer survivors may improve understanding of the association between types of occupations and mood and symptom trajectories and may inform development of interventions to mitigate symptom severity in order to help breast cancer survivors maintain optimal occupational function and adherence to therapy.

  18. Optimizing on-farm pretreatment of perennial grasses for fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digman, Matthew F; Shinners, Kevin J; Casler, Michael D; Dien, Bruce S; Hatfield, Ronald D; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Muck, Richard E; Weimer, Paul J

    2010-07-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) were pretreated under ambient temperature and pressure with sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide in separate experiments. Chemical loadings from 0 to 100g (kg DM)(-1) and durations of anaerobic storage from 0 to 180days were investigated by way of a central composite design at two moisture contents (40% or 60% w.b.). Pretreated and untreated samples were fermented to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A in the presence of a commercially available cellulase (Celluclast 1.5L) and beta-glucosidase (Novozyme 188). Xylose levels were also measured following fermentation because xylose is not metabolized by S. cerevisiae. After sulfuric acid pretreatment and anaerobic storage, conversion of cell wall glucose to ethanol for reed canarygrass ranged from 22% to 83% whereas switchgrass conversions ranged from 16% to 46%. Pretreatment duration had a positive effect on conversion but was mitigated with increased chemical loadings. Conversions after calcium hydroxide pretreatment and anaerobic storage ranged from 21% to 55% and 18% to 54% for reed canarygrass and switchgrass, respectively. The efficacy of lime pretreatment was found to be highly dependent on moisture content. Moreover, pretreatment duration was only found to be significant for reed canarygrass. Although significant levels of acetate and lactate were observed in the biomass after storage, S. cerevisiae was not found to be inhibited at a 10% solids loading. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sidestream smoke inhalation decreases respiratory clearance of 99mTc-DTPA acutely

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, D.H.; Havill, K.; Thompson, M.M.; Rittano, A.B.; Chu, J.; Glanville, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    The permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier to an inhaled aerosol of technetium 99m labelled diethylenetriamine penta-acetate ( 99m Tc-DTPA is used as an index of alveolar epithelial injury. Permeability is greatly increased in active smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sidestream smoke inhalation on permeability as this has not been described previously. Lung clearance of inhaled 99m Tc-DTPA aerosol was measured in 20 normal non-smoking subjects before and after exposure to one hours sidestream smoke inhalation. Measured carbon monoxide (CO) levels rose to a maximum of 23.5 ±6.2 ppm from baseline values of 0.6±1.3 (p 99m Tc-DTPA clearance rose from baseline 69.1± 15.6 (mean ± to 77.4 ±17.8) after smoke exposure. No effect of 99m Tc-DTPA scanning of sidestream smoke was demonstrated on lung function. It was concluded that low level sidestream smoke inhalation decreases 99m Tc-DTPA clearance acutely in humans. The mechanism of this unexpected result is not established but may include differences in constituents between sidestream and mainstream smoke, alterations in pulmonary microvascular blood flow, or changes in surfactant due to an acute phase irritant response. 34 refs., 2 figs

  20. MIBI-99mTc mammary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayosky, Maria C.; Parma, Elvira P.; Armesto, Amparo M.; Zarlenga, Ana C.; Cresta, Carlos; Azar, Maria E.; Noblia, Cristina

    1999-01-01

    121 patients suspected of breast cancer were studied with MIBI- 99m Tc to evaluate the suitability of the mammary scintigraphy in patients with doubtful cancer diagnosis.The results show 93 % sensitivity and 95 % specificity and indicate the usefulness of this procedure to increase the accuracy of the diagnosis

  1. Participation in CEN TC 335 TC343 Chemical Test Methods. Final report; Deelname CEN TC 335 TC343 Chemical Testmethods. Eindrapportage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, F.P. [ECN Engineering en Services, Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-12-15

    An overview is given of the work that has been done on the standardization of methods for the characterization of biofuels and solid recovered fuels (SRF). For biofuels a complete set of prestandards is available, conversion of pre-standards to standards is in good progress. The development of a standard biocarbon content method based on the {sup 14}C isotope measurement is in good progress. This standard could be an important tool for carbon dioxide trading purposes. CEN is the European Commission for Standardization, TC 335 is the Technical Committee 335 on Solid Biofuels, and TC 343 is the Technical Committee on Solid Recovered Fuels. [Dutch] In de periode september 2005 tot december 2006 zijn Europese standaarden voor de karakterisering van biobrandstoffen beschikbaar gekomen. Voor een aantal parameters is nader onderzoek vereist en deels gaande. Dankzij de ervaring die in Nederland is opgedaan met Nationale Technische Afspraken (NTA's) voor vaste biobrandstoffen heeft onze bijdrage aan de Europese normering de invoering daarvan zeker bespoedigd. De 14C groendeel bepaling begint terrein te winnen en zal in de nabije toekomst ook bij verdere implementatie van het Kyoto protocol een rol gaan spelen. CEN is de European Commission for Standardization, TC 335 is de Technical Committee 335 over Solid Biofuels, en TC 343 is de Technical Committee over Solid Recovered Fuels.

  2. Tc Generator Development: Up-to-Date Tc Recovery Technologies for Increasing the Effectiveness of Mo Utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van So Le

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review on the Mo sources available today and on the Tc generators developed up to date for increasing the effectiveness of Mo utilisation is performed in the format of detailed description of the features and technical performance of the technological groups of the Mo production and Tc recovery. The latest results of the endeavour in this field are also surveyed in regard of the technical solution for overcoming the shortage of Mo supply. The technological topics are grouped and discussed in a way to reflect the similarity in the technological process of each group. The following groups are included in this review which are high specific activity Mo: the current issues of production, the efforts of more effective utilisation, and the high specific activity Mo-based Tc generator and Tc concentration units; low specific activity Mo: the Mo production based on neutron capture and accelerators and the direct production of Tc and the methods of increasing the specific activity of Mo using Szilard-Chalmers reaction and high electric power isotopic separator; up-to-date technologies of Tc recovery from low specific activity Mo: the solvent extraction-based Tc generator, the sublimation methods for Mo/Tc separation, the electrochemical method for Tc recovery, and the column chromatographic methods for Tc recovery. Besides the traditional Tc-generator systems, the integrated Tc generator systems (Tc generator column combined with postelution purification/concentration unit are discussed with the format of process diagram and picture of real generator systems. These systems are the technetium selective sorbent column-based generators, the high Mo-loading capacity column-based integrated Tc generator systems which include the saline-eluted generator systems, and the nonsaline aqueous and organic solvent eluent-eluted generator systems using high Mo-loading capacity molybdategel and recently developed sorbent columns. Tc concentration methods used in the

  3. The preclinical pharmacological study of dopamine transporter imaging agnet (99mTc)trodat-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, P.; Wan, W.; Wu, C.; Liu, Z.; Wang, T.; Chen, S.; Chen, Z.; Zhou, X.

    2000-01-01

    To develop 99m Tc labeled dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging agent 99m Tc-TRODAT-1 (TRODAT-1:2 β-[[N,N'-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)ethylenediamino]methl], 3 β-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane], used in SPECT, for evaluating changes of DAT in patients with Parkinson's disease(PD). Using Stannous as reducing agent, and the present of Na-glucoheptonate, 99m Tc-TRODAT-1 was successfully prepared. Preclinical pharmacological studies have been performed in rats. C57BL mice, normal and PD model monkeys and volunteers. Radiochemical purity of 99m Tc-TRODAT-1 was over 90%, and stable for 6 hours. The specific uptake in striatum was significantly diminished from 3.45 to 0.12 at 3 h by pretreated rats with a dose of competing DAT ligand β-CIT (1 mg/kg). Autoradiographic images in C57BL mice shows that the specific uptake has a good linear relationship with the quantity of neural-toxin (MPTP) which was given to the animals (r=0.9792). Images of normal monkey's brain exhibited excellent localization in basal ganglia region, where dopamine neurons were concentrated, and the ratios of ST/CB were 1.56-2.0. In hemiparkinsonian model monkeys, the ratio of normal ST/CB and lesioned ST/CB were 1.56 and 0.94, respectively. Brain image studies in volunteers indicated that uptake and retention in the basal ganglia, the ratio of normal striatal to lesioned one was 1.15 measured by SPECT imaging at 2 h. The result of images was consistent with the clinical symptoms. Above-mentioned results showed that 99m Tc-TRODAT-1 can be accumulated in the striatal area, where DAT are concentrated, high quality images were obtained. It is suggested that 99m Tc-TRODAT-1 might turn to be a safe and effective tracer for monitoring the change in DAT associated with various neurodegenerative diseases

  4. Relation between blood clearance and hepatic uptake of sup 99m Tc-phytate in rats with hepatic injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Hiroshi; Hisano, Tomoyuki; Kohno, Masahiro (Yamaguchi University, Ube (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1989-10-01

    The relation among the blood clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-phytake ({sup 99m}Tc-P), the hepatic uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-P and the severity of hepatic injury was investigated by using the rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCL{sub 4}), D-galactosamine (Gal N), alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) or DL-ethionine (EthN) induced hepatic injury. After the administration of CCL{sub 4}, GalN or ANIT, serum GPT activity increased significantly with the increase of dose level, and the degree of this increase was in the order: GalN>CCl{sub 4}>ANIT. However, the mild increase in serum GPT activity was observed after EthN administration. The blood clearance rate of {sup 99m}Tc-P and the hepatic uptake ratio of {sup 99m}Tc-P decreased with the increase of dose level after CCl{sub 4}, GalN or ANIT administration, but significant changes were not found after EthN administration. The degree of decrease in the blood clearance rate of {sup 99m}Tc-P was in the order: GalNapproxCCl{sub 4}>ANIT, and the degree of decrease in the hepatic uptake ratio of {sup 99m}Tc-P was in the order: GalNapproxCCl{sub 4}>ANIT. These results suggest that the disorder in the hepatocytes may be one of causes for inducing the decrease in the hepatic uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-P, and the consequence of this decrease may induce the decrease in the blood clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-P. (author).

  5. Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol production. ... Keywords: Lignocellulosic biomass, alkaline pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentable sugars, fermentation. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(31), pp.

  6. Occurrence and behaviour of Tc in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxenburger, H.J.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1984-08-01

    A literature research was performed about the occurence and the behaviour of Tc in the environment. About 3600 publications, published between 1925 und 1983, were evaluated. The actual knowledge about Tc in the environment within extended regions is fragmentary. A lot of necessary informations about the behaviour of Tc in the environment are lacking completely. (orig.) [de

  7. Role of /sup 99/mTc pertechnetate uptake in the evaluation of thyroid function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sucupira, M.S.; Camargo, E.E.; Nickoloff, E.L.; Alderson, P.O.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of the 20 min /sup 99/mTc-pertechnetate uptake test, the records of 246 consecutive patients were reviewed. Of these, 192 patients (151 females, 41 males; 10 weeks to 78 years) had at least one year clinical follow-up or a confirmed diagnosis by biopsy or surgery and were included in our study. In these patients, the /sup 99/mTc pertechnetate uptake and hormonal values (T3 resin uptake, T4 RIA, T-index) were obtained. These results were then compared to the clinical diagnosis at the time of the uptake and one year later. All patients received an i.v. injection of 5 mCi of /sup 99/mTc pertechnetate. Imaging was performed using a pinhole collimator and a scintillation camera interfaced to a computer. Regions of interest for the thyroid and the background were used to calculate the 20 min /sup 99/mTc pertechnetate uptake as a percentage of the injected dose. /sup 99/mTc uptake and hormonal values were confirmatory in 158 patients (82.3%): 138 were euthyroid, 18 were hyperthyroid and 2 were hypothyroid. In 29 other patients (15.1%) the pertechnetate uptake provided useful additional information and helped to identify Hashimoto's thyroiditis (8 patients); thyroid suppression by exogenous iodide, steroids or T4 (7 patients); overtreated hyperthyroidism (1 patient); persistent hyperthyroidism (5 patients); different stages of Grave's disease (4 patients); and toxic nodular goiter (4 patients). The /sup 99/mTc uptake was misleading in 5 euthyroid patients (2.6%). We have found the /sup 99/mTc pertechnetate uptake a useful adjunct to measurement of hormonal levels in patients with suspected thyroid disease.

  8. A study on 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin as lung imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Rongzhu; Fan Guangyu; Liu Yinmei; Bai Suzhen

    1990-01-01

    A method for the preparation of macroaggregated albumin (MAA) kits labelled with 99m Tc for lung scanning is described. The tween-80 is used as both dispersing agent and stable agent in order to raise uniformity and concentration of MAA particle size, which is between 10 to 100 μm. More than 80% particles are in the range of 10-60 μm. A millilitre MAA solution contains 5.3 x 10 6 particles. The lyophilized MAA kits are stable within eight months. The unlyophilized MAA kits are stable within 51 days. The radiochemical yield is >95% and the radiochemical purity is determined by paper chromatography. In addition, centrifuge method is used in combination with micro paper chromatography, in order to obtain the percentage of 99m Tc(IV) bound to the MAA, the percentage of unreduced 'free' 99m Tc(VII) and the percentage of reduced-hydrolyzed form of 99n Tc(IV). Blank centrifuge test of the 99m Tc(IV)-Sn colloid shows that about 85% 99m Tc(IV) is found in the supernatant solution. This method is simple and rapid. After eight hours the radiochemical purity of the labelled 99m Tc-MAA sample placed at 16 deg C and 22 deg C remains >95%. The organ distribution of LACA 18-26g mice meets the standard of the same product in the US pharmacopeia. The results of the study with rabbits by scanning with γ-camera indicate that the activity in the lung of the rabbit reaches a high level between 2-3 hours after injection. The toxic test and nonsterile and nonpyrogen test are very satisfactory and meet the standard of the Chinese pharmacopeia

  9. Non-visualized Thyroid Gland by Tc-{sup 99m} MIBI Scan with Normal Thyroid Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koca, Gokhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Baskin, Aylin; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha [Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2013-09-15

    We present the case of a 21-year-old man who was referred to us for parathyroid scintigraphy with high blood levels of intact parathormone and osteoporosis. Several methods and radiopharmaceuticals, e.g., Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201 chloride/Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tl-201/TcPO{sup -4}) subtraction, are commonly used for this purpose. We present the case of a thyroid gland that demonstrates quite normal Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake, no accumulation of Tc-99m MIBI, and very low grade Tl-201 uptake. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported previously. A 21-year-old male with osteoporosis and growth-development retardation was referred for MIBI parathyroid scan because of high blood levels of intact parathormone and bone-specific alkaline-phosphatase, which were 219.4 (15-88 pg/ml) and 355 (21-58 U/L), respectively. In his Tc-99m pertechnetate (TcPO{sup -4}) pinhole scintigraphy, bilateral clearly visualized radioactivity accumulation in the thyroid gland was seen. In both early or late images of the Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, the thyroid gland was not visualized. Therefore, a Tl-201/TcPO{sub -4} subtraction scan method was used. However, the Tl-201 accumulation level in the thyroid gland was not sufficient for the subtraction method. In his thyroid ultrasonography, the thyroid gland echo was homogenous, and there was neither any solid nor cystic lesion. The physical examination of his neck was normal. Other laboratory findings were all normal as follows. TSH: 3.03 (0.35-5.6 IU/mL), free T3: 3.66 (2.5-3.9 pg/mL), free T4: 0.90 (0.59-1.3 ng/dL), Anti-TPO:0.3 (0.40 IU/mL), Anti-TG-Ab: <2.2 (0-+u/L), TSH receptor Ab: 1.0 (0.14 U/L), osteocalcine: 9.13 (1.5-15 ng/dL), growth hormone: 1.3 (0.014-5.21), calcitonin:17 (0.150 ng/mL), sedimentation:6 (0.15 mm/h). There were no significant symptoms of acute or chronic thyroiditis. The cause for discordant uptake in the thyroid gland with T1-201 and Tc-99m MIBI scan could not be provided through clinical or

  10. Mismatched uptake of Tc-99m-ECD and Tc-99m-HMPAO in subacute cerebral infarction: Tc-99m-ECD for viability and Tc-99m-HMPAO for flow restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. S.; Hyun, I. Y.; Kim, S. K. [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    Tc-99m-HMPAO reflects tissue perfusion but Tc-99m-ECD uptake is affected by tissue viability in addition to tissue perfusion which the varied state of cellular retention of Tc-99m-ECD reflects. Luxuriously perfused area on Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT implies that this cortex was already reperfused either spontaneously or after thrombolysis and that accompanied paralysis of vascular reactivity in those zones warms progressive deterioration. We tried to find out if we can use sequential Tc-99m-ECD/Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT to reveal cortical perfusion and severity and range of risky areas of cerbral cortex despite reperfusion in sub-acute infarction. In 13 patients (M ; F =7 : 6, mean age 57 (range: 26-84)) with cortical (n=12) and basal ganglia infarction (1), we performed sequential Tc-99m-ECD/Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT at the same position. At first, 555 MBq of Tc-99m-ECD was injected and imaged and then 1110 MBq of Tc-99m-HMPAO was injected again and imaged with the patients in situ, and the first image (Tc-99m-ECD) and the subtracted image (2nd- 1st : Tc-99m-HMPAO) were compared slice by slice. Study was done from 3 days to 31 days (16{+-}9) after ictus. Tc-99m-ECD uptake was always less than or equal to Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake at the lesion in all cases. Luxury perfusion was prominent in four patients. Mismatched uptake was found in 10 patients. Severity of mismatch showed diverse spectrum and was ranged from total middle cerebral artery territory (1 case) to peripheral thin zones around infarction (2 cases). The other 7 showed intermediate amount of tissues with mismatch , i.e., Tc-99m-ECD defects where Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake is in part increased, normal or decreased. Upon discharge, patients having more uptake with Tc-99m-ECD predicted improvement. Patients having mismatched uptake went dichotomous way. In conclusion, Tc-99m-ECD/Tc-99m-HMPAO sequential SPECT is feasible and reveal both tissue perfusion (Tc-99m-HMPAO ) and discrepant Tc-99m-ECD uptake probably reflecting viability in acute

  11. Pretreatment tables predicting pathologic stage of locally advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joniau, Steven; Spahn, Martin; Briganti, Alberto; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Tombal, Bertrand; Tosco, Lorenzo; Marchioro, Giansilvio; Hsu, Chao-Yu; Walz, Jochen; Kneitz, Burkhard; Bader, Pia; Frohneberg, Detlef; Tizzani, Alessandro; Graefen, Markus; van Cangh, Paul; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Montorsi, Francesco; van Poppel, Hein; Gontero, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    Pretreatment tables for the prediction of pathologic stage have been published and validated for localized prostate cancer (PCa). No such tables are available for locally advanced (cT3a) PCa. To construct tables predicting pathologic outcome after radical prostatectomy (RP) for patients with cT3a PCa with the aim to help guide treatment decisions in clinical practice. This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study including 759 consecutive patients with cT3a PCa treated with RP between 1987 and 2010. Retropubic RP and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Patients were divided into pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and biopsy Gleason score (GS) subgroups. These parameters were used to construct tables predicting pathologic outcome and the presence of positive lymph nodes (LNs) after RP for cT3a PCa using ordinal logistic regression. In the model predicting pathologic outcome, the main effects of biopsy GS and pretreatment PSA were significant. A higher GS and/or higher PSA level was associated with a more unfavorable pathologic outcome. The validation procedure, using a repeated split-sample method, showed good predictive ability. Regression analysis also showed an increasing probability of positive LNs with increasing PSA levels and/or higher GS. Limitations of the study are the retrospective design and the long study period. These novel tables predict pathologic stage after RP for patients with cT3a PCa based on pretreatment PSA level and biopsy GS. They can be used to guide decision making in men with locally advanced PCa. Our study might provide physicians with a useful tool to predict pathologic stage in locally advanced prostate cancer that might help select patients who may need multimodal treatment. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Simultaneous determination of radioactive halogen isotopes and 99Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabai, E.; Vajda, N.; Gaca, P.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simplified method for simultaneous determination of radiologically important halogen isotopes and 99 Tc from different types of samples like environmental, biological and waste samples. Due to their long half-lives (longer than 10 5 years) they play important role in the nuclear cycle, especially in environmental monitoring and protection. For a rapid response in the evaluation of 129 I, 36 Cl and 99 Tc contamination levels of these samples it is advantageous to combine the existing individual methods. According to the present procedure, iodine, chlorine and technetium are separated selectively from the same sample aliquot followed by the β spectrometry of the purified fractions. Increased sensitivities can be achieved by neutron activation (NA) especially in the case of 129 I. Our work intends to solve the problem by combining the well-known hot acidic distillation method for iodine separation with the organic extraction process characteristic for technetium separation. The major objective of the work was to separate the disturbing halides from iodine. For this purpose a selective oxidant was applied. For the sample destruction and fractionated distillation an air flow-through installation was used with hot concentrated sulphuric and nitric acids. The trap for iodine contained 3 M NaOH solution. After iodine separation the trap was exchanged for a new one containing the same solution for trapping chlorine or bromine with an addition of 0.01 M KMnO 4 solution as an oxidative agent. As expected, the main part of technetium was contained in the acidic residue after distillation. Tc purification was performed by organic extraction with TBP and TEVA column. (author)

  13. A monoallelic deletion of the TcCRT gene increases the attenuation of a cultured Trypanosoma cruzi strain, protecting against an in vivo virulent challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J Sánchez-Valdéz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT is a virulence factor that binds complement C1, thus inhibiting the activation of the classical complement pathway and generating pro-phagocytic signals that increase parasite infectivity. In a previous work, we characterized a clonal cell line lacking one TcCRT allele (TcCRT+/- and another overexpressing it (TcCRT+, both derived from the attenuated TCC T. cruzi strain. The TcCRT+/- mutant was highly susceptible to killing by the complement machinery and presented a remarkable reduced propagation and differentiation rate both in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we have extended these studies to assess, in a mouse model of disease, the virulence, immunogenicity and safety of the mutant as an experimental vaccine. Balb/c mice were inoculated with TcCRT+/- parasites and followed-up during a 6-month period. Mutant parasites were not detected by sensitive techniques, even after mice immune suppression. Total anti-T. cruzi IgG levels were undetectable in TcCRT+/- inoculated mice and the genetic alteration was stable after long-term infection and it did not revert back to wild type form. Most importantly, immunization with TcCRT+/- parasites induces a highly protective response after challenge with a virulent T. cruzi strain, as evidenced by lower parasite density, mortality, spleen index and tissue inflammatory response. TcCRT+/- clones are restricted in two important properties conferred by TcCRT and indirectly by C1q: their ability to evade the host immune response and their virulence. Therefore, deletion of one copy of the TcCRT gene in the attenuated TCC strain generated a safe and irreversibly gene-deleted live attenuated parasite with high immunoprotective properties. Our results also contribute to endorse the important role of TcCRT as a T. cruzi virulence factor.

  14. Targeting osteomyelitis with complete [99mTc]besilesomab and fragmented [99mTc]sulesomab antibodies: kinetic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRATZ, Stefan; KEMKE, Bendix; KEIZE, Patrik; KAMPEN, Wim U.; LUSTER, Markus; HÖFFKEN, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the targeting of “pure” osteomyelitis (i.e., without surrounding soft tissue infection) by directly 99mTc-labelled complete immunoglobulin G (IgG) monoclonal antibody (MAb) ([99mTc]besilesomab) and by directly 99mTc-labelled fragment antigen-binding (FAb) MAb ([99mTc]sulesomab) in relation to their kinetic fate. A total of 73 patients with “pure” osteomyelitis were examined with [99mTc]besilesomab, (Scintimun®, IBA/CIS bio international, Saclay, France; N.=38) and [99mTc]sulesomab (LeukoScan®, Immunomedics Inc., Morris Plains, NJ, USA; N.=35). Kinetic data were deduced from whole-body and single-photon emission computed tomographic scans, performed 10 minutes to 24 hour p.i. (region-of-interest technique [ROI]). In targeting “pure” osteomyelitis, sensitivities at 1-4 hours were found to be higher for [99mTc]sulesomab (44% and 80% for [99mTc]besilesomab and [99mTc]sulesomab, respectively) but at significantly lower target/background (T/B) ratios than with [99mTc]besilesomab (1.8±0.3 versus 1.4±0.5 for [99mTc]besilesomab and [99mTc]sulesomab respectively; P<0.01). With [99mTc]besilesomab, there was a continuous osteomyelitis uptake over 24 hours, whereas with [99mTc]sulesomab, the maximal uptake occurred mostly within 1-4 hours, with subsequent clearance being slower for antigen-bound activity than for nonspecific background. Hence, diagnosis was possible mostly after 4h with [99mTc]sulesomab but often not before 24 hours with [99mTc]besilesomab, the later increasing significantly (P<0.01) in sensitivity (87% and 84% for [99mTc]besilesomab and [99mTc]sulesomab, respectively). These results show that the higher sensitivity of [99mTc]sulesomab in osteomyelitis targeting at earlier p.i. times does not rely on an increased antibody uptake but on a more rapid clearance of nonspecific background activity due to faster metabolism and excretion. Intact [99mTc]besilesomab show a slow, continuous uptake

  15. Bcl-2 overexpression prevents 99mTc-MIBI uptake in breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloj, Luigi; Zannetti, Antonella; Caraco, Corradina; Del Vecchio, Silvana; Salvatore, Marco

    2004-01-01

    We have previously shown a correlation between the absence of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI) uptake and overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in human breast carcinoma. To establish a direct cause-effect relationship between Bcl-2 overexpression and reduced 99m Tc-MIBI uptake, MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines were stably transfected with the human Bcl-2 gene to increase intracellular protein levels and tested for 99m Tc-MIBI uptake. All clones overexpressing Bcl-2 showed a dramatic reduction of 99m Tc-MIBI uptake as compared with mock transfected control cells. Tracer uptake was promptly and partially restored by induction of apoptosis with staurosporine treatment. After 4.5 h of staurosporine treatment, a tenfold increase in 99m Tc-MIBI uptake was observed in treated as compared with untreated Bcl-2 overexpressing cells. Our findings provide a rational basis for the development of an in vivo test to detect Bcl-2 overexpression in human tumours. (orig.)

  16. Solvation effects on brain uptakes of isomers of 99mTc brain imaging agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of electrostatic hydration free energies of the isomers of the 99mTc-BAT and 99mTc-DADT complexes is carried out using the computer simulation technique. The results show that not only a correlation exists between the logarithm of the brain uptake and the electrostatic hydration free energy for the isomers of 99mTc-brain radiopharmaceuticals, but also a linear relationship exists between the logarithm of the ratio of the brain uptake of the syn isomer to that of the anti one and the difference between the electrostatic hydration free energy of the syn-isomer and that of the anti one. Furthermore, the investigation on the important factors influencing the brain uptakes of 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals and the reasons of the different biodistribution of the isomers of the 99mTc-complexes is explored at the molecular level. The results may provide a reference for the rational drug design of brain imaging agents.

  17. Dynamic radionuclide imaging with 99mTc-sucralfate in the detection of oesophageal ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearns, A J; Hart, G C; Cox, J A

    1989-01-01

    Standard oesophageal scintigraphic techniques using 99mTc-colloids rarely identify oesophageal mucosal damage. Sucralfate can be labelled with 99mTc for the detection of oesophageal mucosal ulceration. This method uses two separate supine swallows of 10 MBq 99mTc-colloid in 10 ml, followed by a single supine swallow of 30 MBq 99mTc-sucralfate. The data are processed to give time-activity curves, mean transit times and condensed dynamic images. When oesophageal ulceration is detected, the time-activity curves using sucralfate show residual activity in the oesophagus after the transit time indicated by the colloid swallow. The condensed dynamic image shows a persistence of activity at the level of the ulceration. Erect sucralfate images taken immediately after the dynamic sequence show no oesophageal localisation. The results from a study of 62 patients have shown excellent correlation between the dynamic 99mTc-sucralfate images and endoscopy findings. Sequential sucralfate studies for healing also correlate well. The use of labelled sucralfate to detect oesophageal ulceration could modify the indications for endoscopy in gastrooesophageal reflux disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2806994

  18. Evaluation of Tc-99M dextran as a useful agent for peripheral lymphoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzana Kousar; Muhammad Numair Younis; Shabana Saeed; Mustanser Jehangir; Saeeda Asghar

    2004-01-01

    Peripheral lymphoscintigraphy is known for its great academic value and more importantly, may contribute to supporting the accuracy of clinical diagnosis and assessment of lymphedema treatment. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the 99m Tc dextran as peripheral lymphoscintigraphic agent and its validation in recognizing different lymphatic patterns in normal and edematous limbs. Methods: Peripheral lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 24 patients (mean age 43.9 ± 11 years) using 99m Tc dextran (molecular weight 150,000 and 250,000) as radiotracer. 37 MBq (1 mCi) 99m Tc dextran (PINSCANTM) was injected intradermally in the first web space of the hand or foot of both limbs. 30 minutes sequential dynamic and static imaging was done. Delayed static images were taken at one hour and then three hours post injection. Results: Only qualitative interpretation was done. Different lymphatic patterns were observed in normal population as well as in control and edematous limbs. Results were further analysed using chi square test, paired and unpaired student t test at the confidence level 0.05. All mean values were given with one standard deviation. Visual and statistical analysis showed good clinical correlation. These results were also compared favourably with 99m Tc HSA lymphoscintigraphic findings available in literature. Conclusion: 99m Tc dextran is a promising agent for peripheral lymphoscintigraphy. (authors)

  19. Is Ureter Visualization Possible on Tc-99m DMSA Scintigraphy with Vesicoureteral Reflux Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Atilgan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Ureter or pelvicalyceal system is not be vizualized with 99mTechnetium- dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA which is accumulated by renal cortex normally. In this study the cases whose ureters are visible were reviewed with 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy. Material and Method: 18 patients (5 females, 13 males with median age 3.5 years (min 2 months-max 18 years were included in this study. Twenty ureters and/or pelvis of 18 patients were visible in 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy. In two patients%u2019s both ureters were visible. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR grade, 99mTc-DMSA uptake, renal size, status of pelvicalyceal system, urea, creatinine levels were evaluated in all patients. Results: Three of the visible ureters were actually due to pelvicaliectasis. These pelvicaliectasic patients were excluded from the study. In the evaluation of the remaining 17 ureters of patients, congenital megaureter was present in three patients. Grade 3 VUR was detected in three patients, grade 4 was in three patients. VUR is seen as grade five in eight kidneys of seven patients because one of these patients has bilateral vizualized ureter. Discussion: In patients with congenital megaureter and VUR, ureters can be visible with 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy and further imaging modalities are recommended for these patients.

  20. Determination of 99Tc in fresh water using TRU resin by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Nicolas; Riopel, Remi; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila; de Silva, Nimal; Cornett, Jack; Dai, Xiongxin

    2017-10-02

    Technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) determination at trace level by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is challenging because there is no readily available appropriate Tc isotopic tracer. A new method using Re as a recovery tracer to determine 99 Tc in fresh water samples, which does not require any evaporation step, was developed. Tc(VII) and Re(VII) were pre-concentrated on a small anion exchange resin (AER) cartridge from one litre of water sample. They were then efficiently eluted from the AER using a potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ) solution. After the reduction of KMnO 4 in 2 M sulfuric acid solution, the sample was passed through a small TRU resin cartridge. Tc(VII) and Re(VII) retained on the TRU resin were eluted using near boiling water, which can be directly used for the ICP-MS measurement. The results for method optimisation, validation and application were reported. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Deconvolution analysis of sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate kinetics in metabolic bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knop, J.; Kroeger, E.; Stritzke, P.; Schneider, C.; Kruse, H.P.; Hamburg Univ.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and 47 Ca were studied in three patients with osteoporosis, three patients with hyperparathyroidism, and two patients with osteomalacia. The activities of sup(99m)Tc-MDP were recorded in the lumbar spine, paravertebral soft tissues, and in venous blood samples for 1 h after injection. The results were submitted to deconvolution analysis to determine regional bone accumulation rates. 47 Ca kinetics were analysed by a linear two-compartment model quantitating short-term mineral exchange, exchangeable bone calcium, and calcium accretion. The sup(99m)Tc-MDP accumulation rates were small in osteoporosis, greater in hyperparathyroidism, and greatest in osteomalacia. No correlations were obtained between sup(99m)Tc-MDP bone accumulation rates and the results of 47 Ca kinetics. However, there was a significant relationship between the level of serum alkaline phosphatase and bone accumulation rates (R = 0.71, P 47 Ca kinetics might suggest a preferential binding of sup(99m)Tc-MDP to the organic matrix of the bone, as has been suggested by other authors on the basis of experimental and clinical investigations. (orig.)

  2. New superconductors from granular to high T$_{c}$

    CERN Document Server

    Deutscher, Guy

    2018-01-01

    How new are the high Tc superconductors, as compared to the conventional low Tc ones? In what sense are these oxides different from regular metals in their normal state? How different is the mechanism for high Tc superconductivity from the well-known electron-phonon interaction that explains so well superconductivity in metals and alloys? What are the implications of the new features of the high Tc oxides for their practical applications? This interesting book aims to provide some answers to those questions, drawing particularly on similarities between the high Tc oxides and granular superconductors, which also present a short coherence length, a small superfluid density and an inhomogeneous structure.

  3. New superconductors from granular to high T$_{c}$

    CERN Document Server

    Deutscher, Guy

    2006-01-01

    How new are the high Tc superconductors, as compared to the conventional low Tc ones? In what sense are these oxides different from regular metals in their normal state? How different is the mechanism for high Tc superconductivity from the well-known electron-phonon interaction that explains so well superconductivity in metals and alloys? What are the implications of the new features of the high Tc oxides for their practical applications? This book aims to give some answers to those questions, drawing particularly on similarities between the high Tc oxides and granular superconductors, which also present a maximum of their critical temperature near the metal-insulator transition.

  4. Extrusion Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol has shown environmental, economic and energetic advantages in comparison to bioethanol produced from sugar or starch. However, the pretreatment process for increasing the enzymatic accessibility and improving the digestibility of cellulose is hindered by many physical-chemical, structural and compositional factors, which make these materials difficult to be used as feedstocks for ethanol production. A wide range of pretreatment methods has been developed to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to (enzymatic hydrolysis over the last few decades; however, only a few of them can be used at commercial scale due to economic feasibility. This paper will give an overview of extrusion pretreatment for bioethanol production with a special focus on twin-screw extruders. An economic assessment of this pretreatment is also discussed to determine its feasibility for future industrial cellulosic ethanol plant designs.

  5. Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretreatment of biomass is essential for breaking apart highly ordered and crystalline plant cell walls and loosening the lignin and hemicellulose conjugation to cellulose microfibrills, thereby facilitating enzyme accessibility and adsorption and reducing costs of downstream saccharification proces...

  6. Hydrothermal pretreatments of macroalgal biomass for biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Héctor A.; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M.; Aguedo, Mario

    2015-01-01

    in accordance with the integrated biorefineries. Furthermore, biorefinery concept requires processes that allow efficient utilization of all components of the biomass. The pretreatment step in a biorefinery is often based on hydrothermal principles of high temperatures in aqueous solution. Therefore...

  7. Hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, A.; Gunawan, K. Y.; Hadiwijaya, F. A.

    2017-11-01

    Banana peel is one of food wastes that are rich in carbohydrate. This shows its potential as fermentation substrate including bio-ethanol. This paper presented banana peel alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was intended to prepare banana peel in order to increase hydrolysis performance. The alkaline pretreatment used 10, 20, and 30% w/v NaOH solution and was done at 60, 70 and 80°C for 1 hour. The hydrolysis reaction was conducted using two commercial cellulose enzymes. The reaction time was varied for 3, 5, and 7 days. The best condition for pretreatment process was one conducted using 30% NaOH solution and at 80°C. This condition resulted in cellulose content of 90.27% and acid insoluble lignin content of 2.88%. Seven-day hydrolysis time had exhibited the highest reducing sugar concentration, which was7.2869 g/L.

  8. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Differential expression of DTSsa4 Tc1-like transposons in closely related populations of Baikal ciscoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychenko, O S; Sukhanova, L V; Azhikina, T L; Sverdlov, E D

    2009-01-01

    Two representatives of Baikal ciscoes - lake cisco and omul - diverged from a common ancestor as recently as 10-20 thousand years ago. We have found an increasing expression level of DTSsa4 Tc1-like DNA transposons in cisco and omul brains. The mapping of the sequences of these transposons from Salmo salar and Danio rerio genomes has shown that in some cases, these transposons are located in the 5' and 3' regions, as well as in the promoter regions of various genes. Probably, Tc1-like transposons affect the activity of neighboring genes, providing the adaptive divergence of the cisco population.

  10. Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhen (ed.) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, YN (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botonical Garden

    2013-02-01

    The first book focused on pretreatment techniques for biofuels contributed by the world's leading experts. Extensively covers the different types of biomass, various pretreatment approaches and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals. In addition to traditional pretreatment methods, novel techniques are also introduced and discussed. An accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries. This book includes 19 chapters contributed by the world's leading experts on pretreatment methods for biomass. It extensively covers the different types of biomass (e.g. molasses, sugar beet pulp, cheese whey, sugarcane residues, palm waste, vegetable oil, straws, stalks and wood), various pretreatment approaches (e.g. physical, thermal, chemical, physicochemical and biological) and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals such as sugars, ethanol, extracellular polysaccharides, biodiesel, gas and oil. In addition to traditional methods such as steam, hot-water, hydrothermal, diluted-acid, organosolv, ozonolysis, sulfite, milling, fungal and bacterial, microwave, ultrasonic, plasma, torrefaction, pelletization, gasification (including biogas) and liquefaction pretreatments, it also introduces and discusses novel techniques such as nano and solid catalysts, organic electrolyte solutions and ionic liquids. This book offers a review of state-of-the-art research and provides guidance for the future paths of developing pretreatment techniques of biomass for biofuels, especially in the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It intends to provide a systematic introduction of pretreatment techniques. It is an accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries.

  11. Knockdown of TC-1 enhances radiosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dapeng; Li, Lei; Yan, Wei

    2016-04-15

    Thyroid cancer 1 (TC-1, C8ofr4) is widely expressed in vertebrates and associated with many kinds of tumors. Previous studies indicated that TC-1 functions as a positive regulator in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, its exact role and regulation mechanism in radiosensitivity of NSCLC are still unclear. The expression level of TC-1 was measured by qRT-PCR and western blot in NSCLC cell lines. Proliferation and apoptosis of NSCLC cells in response to TC-1 knockdown or/and radiation were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was further examined by western blotin vitroandin vivo Compared to TC-1 siRNA or radiotherapy alone, TC-1 silencing combined with radiation inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in NSCLC cell lines by inactivating of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by XAV939, a Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitor, contributed to proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in NSCLC A549 cells. Combinative treatment of A549 xenografts with TC-1 siRNA and radiation caused significant tumor regression and inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway relative to TC-1 siRNA or radiotherapy alone. The results fromin vitroandin vivostudies indicated that TC-1 silencing sensitized NSCLC cell lines to radiotherapy through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Concentrations of 99Tc and 137Cs in edible kelps and sea urchin ovaries from the northern part of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Y.; Iyogi, T.; Takaku, Y.; Hisamatsu, S.; Sekine, T.

    2006-01-01

    The first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is located in Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture, and is now under the active test using actual spent nuclear fuels. Since the plant will release small amount of 99 Tc to the ocean, the concentration of 99 Tc in seawater nearby the plant will possibly increase in future. Since it is important to get background concentration levels of 99 Tc and 137 Cs in marine products from the ocean nearby the plant for assessing the effect to the concentration levels by the plant, the nuclides in edible kelps and sea urchin ovaries from the northern part of Japan (Aomori, Hokkaido and Iwate) were observed. Concentrations of 99 Tc in the kelps were lower than those reported for other non-edible seaweeds (Sargassum thunbergii) in Aomori, and the same level to the reported value of Hizikia fusiformis in Kyushu. 99 Tc concentrations in the urchin ovaries were lower than the detection limit of our method, and concentrations of 137 Cs in them were similar to these in the kelps. It suggested that 99 Tc is not concentrated in sea urchin ovaries. This work was supported by a grant from Aomori prefecture, Japan. (author)

  13. Bioaccumulation and chemical modification of Tc by soil bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrot, J.

    1989-01-01

    Bioaccumulation and chemical modification of pertechnetate (TcO 4 -) by aerobically and anaerobically grown soil bacteria and by pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio sp.) were studied to gain insight on the possible mechanisms by which bacteria can affect the solubility of Tc in soil. Aerobically grown bacteria had no apparent effect on TcO 4 -; they did not accumulate Tc nor modify its chemical form. Anaerobically grown bacteria exhibited high bioaccumulation and reduced TcO 4 -, enabling its association with organics of the growth medium. Reduction was a metabolic process and not merely the result of reducing conditions in the growth medium. Association of Tc with bacterial polysaccharides was observed only in cultures of anaerobic bacteria. Sulfate-reducing bacteria efficiently removed Tc from solution and promoted its association with organics. Up to 70% of the total Tc in the growth medium was bioaccumulated and/or precipitated. The remaining Tc in soluble form was entirely associated with organics. Pertechnetate was not reduced by the same mechanism as dissimilatory sulfate reduction, but rather by some reducing agent released in the growth medium. A calculation of the amount of Tc that could be associated with the bacterial biomass present in soil demonstrates that high concentration ratios in cultures do not necessarily imply that bioaccumulation is an important mechanism for long-term retention of Tc in soil

  14. Evaluation of the absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc99m (DTPA) / Tc99m (Mag3) and Tc99m (Dmsa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez A, M.; Murillo C, F.; Castillo D, C.; Rocha J, J.; Sifuentes D, Y.; Sanchez S, P.; Idrogo C, J.; Marquez P, F.

    2015-10-01

    The absorbed dose in the kidneys of adult patients has been assessed using the biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing Tc 99m (DTPA) / Tc 99m (Mag3) or Tc 99m (Dmsa).The absorbed dose was calculated using the formalism MIRD and the Cristy-Eckerman representation for the kidneys. The absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc 99m (DTPA) / Tc 99m (Mag3), are given by 0.00466 mGy.MBq -1 / 0.00339 mGy.MBq -1 . Approximately 21.2% of the absorbed dose is due to the bladder (content) and the remaining tissue, included in biokinetics of Tc 99m (DTPA) / Tc 99m (Mag3). The absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc 99m (Dmsa) is 0.17881 mGy.MBq -1 . Here, 1.7% of the absorbed dose is due to the bladder, spleen, liver and the remaining tissue, included in biokinetics of Tc 99m (Dmsa). (Author)

  15. Low pretreatment levels of myeloid-related protein-8/14 and C-reactive protein predict poor adherence to treatment with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberdi-Saugstrup, Mikel; Nielsen, Susan; Mathiessen, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    inhibitor treatment in JIA patients naive to biologics and investigated if baseline myeloid-related protein (MRP)-8/14 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were predictive of treatment response. One hundred fifty-two patients were included in a unicenter observational, prospective study from 2002 to 2015, excluding......, and 90 were achieved by 61, 55, 38, and 10 % of the patients, and 23 % achieved a status of ID. Treatment adherence: 51 % withdrew from treatment due to lack of clinical effect, while 32 % continued treatment or withdrew due to disease remission. Increased MRP-8/14 concentrations at treatment initiation...... was associated with ID after 1 year (OR 1.55, CI 1.06–2.25, p = 0.02). Treatment withdrawal due to lack of effect was associated with low baseline levels of both MRP-8/14 (685 vs. 1235 ng/ml, p 

  16. Understanding the Impacts of AFEX™ Pretreatment and Densification on the Fast Pyrolysis of Corn Stover, Prairie Cord Grass, and Switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Vijay; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gent, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    Lignocellulosic feedstocks corn stover, prairie cord grass, and switchgrass were subjected to ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™) pretreatment and densified using extrusion pelleting and ComPAKco densification technique. The effects of AFEX™ pretreatment and densification were studied on the fast pyrolysis product yields. Feedstocks were milled in a hammer mill using three different screen sizes (2, 4, and 8 mm) and were subjected to AFEX™ pretreatment. The untreated and AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks were moisture adjusted at three levels (5, 10, and 15 % wb) and were extruded using a lab-scale single screw extruder. The barrel temperature of the extruder was maintained at 75, 100, and 125 °C. Durability of the extruded pellets made from AFEX™-pretreated corn stover, prairie cord grass, and switchgrass varied from 94.5 to 99.2, 94.3 to 98.7, and 90.1 to 97.5 %, respectively. Results of the thermogravimetric analysis showed the decrease in the decomposition temperature of the all the feedstocks after AFEX™ pretreatment indicating the increase in thermal stability. Loose and densified feedstocks were subjected to fast pyrolysis in a lab-scale reactor, and the yields (bio-oil and bio-char) were measured. Bio-char obtained from the AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks exhibited increased bulk and particle density compared to the untreated feedstocks. The properties of the bio-oil were statistically similar for the untreated, AFEX™-pretreated, and AFEX™-pretreated densified feedstocks. Based on the bio-char and bio-oil yields, the AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks and the densified AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks (pellets and PAKs) exhibited similar behavior. Hence, it can be concluded that densifying the AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks could be a viable option in the biomass-processing depots to reduce the transportation costs and the logistical impediments without affecting the product yields.

  17. Accumulation of Tc-99m-MIBI and Tc-99m-tetrofosmin in tumor cells. Uptake and washout studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Aghajanian, A.A.; Sinzinger, H.; Kalinowska, W.; Zielinski, C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To investigate in-vitro the uptake and washout of Tc-99m-MIBI and Tc-99m-tetrofosmin in human breast adenocarcinoma and soft tissue sarcoma cell lines. Methods: The uptake of Tc-99m-MIBI and Tc-99m-tetrofosmin (at 37 0 C, 10, 30 and 60 minutes after incubation with 7.4x10E5 Bq each tracer) was investigated in breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 cells, synovial sarcoma SW 982 cells and chondrosarcoma SW 1353 cells (concentration of 1x10E6 cells/ml incubation medium). Tracer uptake in cells incubated with ouabain (Na/K-ATPase pump inhibitor; 100 μM and 1mM; 15 and 30 minutes), nigericin (increases mitochondrial potential and disrupts cell membrane potential; 5 and 50 μg/ml; 15 minutes) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) (depolarizes mitochondrial membrane; 10 and 100 μM; 30 minutes) was compared to that in cells without incubation with chemical agents (control cells). The washout (at 37 0 C, 10-60 minutes, 30 and 60 minutes after tracer incubation) of Tc-99m-MIBI and Tc-99m-tetrofosmin was studied in MCF-7 cells, SK-BR-3 cells , SW 1353 cells and fibrosarcoma SW 684 cells. Results: Cellular tracer uptake decreased with ouabain (decrease of Tc-99m-tetrofosmin > Tc-99m-MIBI in SK-BR-3 cells and SW 982 cells) and increased with nigericin (increase of Tc-99m-MIBI > Tc-99m-tetrofosmin in all cells) as compared to the uptake in control cells. With CCCP, decrease of Tc-99m-MIBI uptake in cells preincubated with nigericin was higher than that in cells under basal conditions, whereas a similar decrease of Tc-99m-tetrofosmin uptake in these two group of cells was found. Washout of Tc-99m-MIBI from all cells was lower than that of Tc-99m-tetrofosmin. No significant difference in cell-associated activity of both tracers was found between washout after 30 minutes and that after 60 minutes of incubation, in all cells. Washout of Tc-99m-MIBI from SK-BR-3 cells Tc-99m-tetrofosmin) and Na/K-ATPase pump (Tc-99m-tetrofosmin > Tc-99m-MIBI). Tc-99m-MIBI and

  18. Adsorption behavior of 99Tc in Ca-bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dejun; Fan Xianhua; Zhang Yingjie; Yao Jun; Zhou Duo; Wang Yong

    2004-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of 99 Tc in bentonite were studied with batch methods under aerobic and anoxic conditions. The adsorption ratios is about 1.47 mL/g under aerobic conditions. The adsorption ratio of 99 Tc in bentonite is not affected by pH in the range of 5-12 and the CO 3 2- , Fe 3+ concentrations in the range of 10 -8 -10 -2 mol/L in the solution. The adsorption ratio of Tc in bentonite increases with the increase of the mass percent of Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 and the Fe 2+ concentration in the range of 10 -8 -10 -2 mol/L. Tc exists ainly in the form of Tc(VII) after the adsorption equilibriums. The adsorption ratio of Tc in bentonite increase with the increase of the mass percent of Fe and Tc exists mainly in the form of Tc(VII) after the adsorption equilibriums. The adsorption ratio of Tc in bentonite is about 84.84 mL/g under anoxic conditions. The adsorption ratios of 99 Tc in bentonite decreases with the increase of pH in the range of 5-12 and the CO 3 2- concentration in the range of 10 -8 -10 -2 mol/L in the solution. The adsorption ratio of Tc in bentonite increases with the increase of the Fe 3+ , Fe 2+ concentration in the range of 10 -8 -10 -2 mol/L and the mass percent of Fe, Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 . Tc exists mainly in the form of Tc(IV) after the adsorption equilibriums. The adsorption isotherms of TcO 4 - in bentonite are all in fairly agree with the Freundlich's equation under aerobic and anoxic conditions. (authors)

  19. Response of mouse foetus to radiation from Na sup(99m)TcO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.A.; Gloria, I.V.; Harper, P.V.

    1976-01-01

    Technetium has assumed ecological importance as a source of law-level radiation, with the use of sup(99m)Tc in nuclear medicine and production of sup(99m)Tc in power generation reactions. Technetium introduced as pertechnetate into the bloodstream of pregnant females is transported across the placental barrier to the foetus, where a portion appears to be incorporated into biomolecules. When combined as biomolecules, radionuclides that decay by electron capture or isomeric transition show a lethality greater than that predicted in cell cultures and radiation therapy. The decay of sup(99m)Tc by isomeric transition, together with the above considerations, places a high priority on the investigation of its radiation effects due to clinical doses of up to 25 mCi. Female mice were given daily intravenous injections of 0, 5, 50 and 500 μCi of sup(99m)Tc as pertechnetate in isotonic saline throughout gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation. At two months of age, the progeny were mated with randomly selected litter mates to produce a second generation; the process was repeated for production of the third generation. Only the first generation was irradiated. An injection of 5 μCi/mouse and 10 mCi/human both approximately equal 0.2 μCi/g of body weight; however, the mouse foetus receives an estimated radiation dose of 0.05 rad, and the human 1 rad. Throughout the gestation period, a mouse at the 5 μCi level receives about 100 μCi of sup(99m)Tc, resulting in approximately 1 rad to the foetus. Significant reduction of body weight was noted in all experimental groups. The greatest effects were seen in the progeny of mothers treated during gestation only. These preliminary results reinforce the existing concern about use of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate in pregnant or potentially pregnant subjects

  20. Superplastic Deformation of TC6 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Ling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The superplastic tensile tests of TC6 alloy were conducted in the temperature range of 800-900℃ by using the maximum m value superplasticity deformation (Max m SPD method and the constant strain rate deformation method at the strain rate range of 0.0001-0.1 s-1. The stress-strain curve of the tensile tests was obtained and the microstructure near the fracture were analyzed by metallographic microscope. The result shows that the superplasticity of TC6 alloy is excellent, and the elongation increases first and then decreases with the increase of strain rate or temperature. When the temperature is 850℃ and strain rate is 0.001 s-1 at constant stain rate tensile tests, the elongation reaches up to 993%. However, the elongation using Max m SPD method at 850℃ is 1353%. It is shown that the material can achieve better superplasticity by using Max m SPD tensile compared to constant stain rate tensile under the same temperature. The superplastic deformation of TC6 alloy can enhance the dynamic recrystallization behavior significantly, the dynamic recrystallization behavior is promoted when strain rate and temperature are increased.

  1. 99mTc-diethyl-IDA chloescintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. W.; Oh, K. C.; Bae, B. H.; Kim, Y. S.; Park, B. H.

    1981-01-01

    For many years, 131 I-rose bengal has been used as the main hepatobiliary radiopharmaceutical. The undesirable physical characteristics of the radioiodine, however, finally prevented its widespread use in clinical medicine. In recent years, a number of hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals employing 99m Tc and 123 I as indicator have been introduced. 99m Tc-diethyl-IDA is a most promising one in these agents. Cholescintigraphy, using 99m Tc-diethyl-IDA was performed in 10 normal subjects and 32 patients suffering from various hepatobiliary disturbances, from Sep. -'79 to Aug-' 80, at the department of radiology, Maryknoll Hospital. The following results are obtained: 1. In normal fasting subjects, the liver, GB, CBD, and the proximal portion of small bowel are clearly delineated within 30 min after the injection. After a fatty meal, the radioactivity of the liver and CBD is notably disappeared with increase of the activity in GB and small bowel. 2. A dilatation of the main biliary ducts is a pathognomomic sign of partial mechanical obstructive disorders and a key point of D.Dx from hepatocellular disorders. 3. In cases of complete biliary obstruction, the radioactivity of the liver, CBD, and small bowel is not separated and the background activity is markedly increased. The kidneys are well visualized. 4. In severe hyperbilirubinaemia of above 10mg%, this method is not valuable

  2. Mechanisms of conventional and high Tc superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresin, V.L.; Morawitz, H.; Wolf, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book gives a careful and objective review of theories of superconductivity in traditional superconductors, organics, and high Tc cuprates. Of course, the authors do still present their own theories of cuprate superconductivity, but only in the final chapter after other possibilities have been discussed. The book should be especially useful for researchers entering the field of high Tc superconductivity. The reviews of photon mediated pairing and strong coupling theory are very welcome, since much of this material has not been reviewed since the classic 1969 volume edited by Parks. In particular the authors dispel the various myths that phonon mediated pairing leads to upper bounds on Tc. In addition to phonon mediated pairing the book discussed in detail pairing due to exchange of acoustic (demon) plasmons, excitons, or magnetic fluctuations. There have been so many diverse mechanisms based on strong correlation and large U Hubbard models that a book like this can only discuss a limited selection of the main contenders. In particular here the emphasis on Fermi liquid based models no doubt reflects the authors' own point of view. A whole chapter discusses the concepts of induced superconductivity, in the proximity effect, and its application to materials with several different electronic subsystems

  3. Tumor affinity of technetium-99m labeled radiopharmaceuticals. II. Sup(99m)Tc-Sn-diphosphonate (sup(99m)Tc-EHDP), sup(99m)Tc-Sn-dimercaptosuccinic acid (sup(99m)Tc-DMSA), sup(99m)Tc-Sn-diethyl stilbestrol diphosphate (sup(99m)Tc-DSDP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, K; Kobayashi, S; Hisada, K; Tonami, N [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ando, A

    1976-10-01

    The authors have examined the tumor affinity of various sup(99m)Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals to Ehrlich's tumor for the purpose of delineating human malignant neoplasm positively. The biologic distributions of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-diphosphonate (sup(99m)Tc-EHDP), sup(99m)Tc-Sn-dimercaptosuccinic acid (sup(99m)Tc-DMSA) and sup(99m)Tc-Sn-diethyl stilbestrol diphosphate (sup(99m)Tc-DSDP, sup(99m)Tc-Honvan) are included as the second report on the tumor affinity of Ehrlich-bearing mice. Tumor concentration of sup(99m)Tc-EHDP was lowest and the positive delineation of implanted tumor with sup(99m)Tc-EHDP was poorest in sequential images, though active accumulation in some soft tissues malignant neoplasms, breast cancer, and thyroid cancer, has been reported. Tumor concentration and the tumor-to-blood ratio of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA were not so high, contrary to our expectation that /sup 197/Hg-DMSA might show high tumor concentration and high tumor-to-blood ratio the same as /sup 197/Hg chlormerodrin of the renal scanning radiopharmaceuticals. Tumor concentration of sup(99m)Tc-DSDP was highest. The tumor-to-blood concentration ratio was lower than that of the above mentioned radiopharmaceuticals but the tumor-to-liver ratio and/or tumor-to-lung ratio was over 1.0 at the earlier time. Biologic distribution of sup(99m)Tc-DSDP was similar to that of /sup 32/P labeled DSDP. It is presumed that sup(99m)Tc is labeled at the phosphate ester of DSDP which is dephospholytated immediately by phospholylase in vivo following intravenous injection. Although it is not known precisely it may be assumed that the mechanism of accumulating sup(99m)Tc-DSDP in Ehrlich's tumor is related to the phospholylase activity in neoplasms.

  4. Technical artifacts in chromatographic analysis of Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalsky, R.J.; Creekmore, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Technical artifacts produced during chromatographic analysis of technetium radiopharmaceuticals were investigated. Such artifacts are, we found, caused by improper spotting and drying techniques; these in turn produce spuriously high impurities in Tc-99m complexes of DTPA, MDP, PPi, and GH. The ITLC-SG/acetone system produces considerable streaking of Tc-complex if the applied spot is large and not dried before development. This results in activity in the solvent front portion of the chromatographic strip indicating falsely high levels of pertechnetate impurity. Proper drying of the applied spot eliminates the artifact. The ITLC-SG/saline system yields falsely high, hydrolyzed-reduced technetium impurities if the spot is allowed to enter the solvent during development. Correct spot placement and size eliminate this problem. Strips that are allowed to dry in room air for several minutes may indicate considerable pertechnetate impurity on the chromatogram; yet this may not actually be present in the radiopharmaceutical vial. Drying spots rapidly with hot air or in a nitrogen atmosphere before development eliminates this problem

  5. Biogeochemical Coupling of Fe and Tc Speciation in Subsurface Sediments: Implications to Long-Term Tc Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim K. Fredrickson; C. I. Steefel; R. K. Kukkadapu; S. M. Heald

    2006-01-01

    The project has been focused on biochemical processes in subsurface sediments involving Fe that control the valence state, solubility, and effective mobility of 99Tc. Our goal has been to understand the Tc biogeochemistry as it may occur in suboxic and biostimulated subsurface environments. Two objectives have been pursued: (1) To determine the relative reaction rates of 99Tc(VII)O2(aq) with metal reducing bacteria and biogenic Fe(II); and to characterize the identity, structure, and molecular speciation of Tc(IV) products formed through reaction with both biotic and abiotic reductants. (2) To quantify the biogeochemical factors controlling the reaction rate of O2 with Tc(IV)O2?nH2O in sediment resulting from the direct enzymatic reduction of Tc(VII) by DIRB and/or the reaction of Tc(VII) with the various types of biogenic Fe(II) produced by DIRB

  6. Comparison of sup(99m)Tc-MDP to sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate by computerized quantitative joint scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekonen, A.; Moettoenen, T.; Oka, M.

    1982-01-01

    99mTc-pertechnetate was compared to 99mTc-MDP in joint pairs with asymmetric arthritis. Markedly elevated joint activity ratios (inflamed/uninflamed joint) were measured in all the joint pairs studied. In the joints affected by reactive arthritis and without roentgenologic changes the mean joint activity was the same with both tracers. A very high activity ratio with 99mTc-MDP was found in septic arthritis. In rheumatoid arthritis the sensitivity of 99mTc-MDP as an indicator of active arthritis seemed to be better than that of 99mTc-pertechnetate. Even in joints without erosions in roentgenograms the joint activity ratios were markedly elevated with 99mTc-MDP. This suggests, that high activity in 99mTc-MDP scanning might be prognostic of erosive joint changes. In this work a profile curve was used for quantitation differences between joints

  7. Differential effect of glucocorticoids on tumour necrosis factor production in mice: up-regulation by early pretreatment with dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantuzzi, G; Demitri, M T; Ghezzi, P

    1994-04-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are well known inhibitors of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) production. We investigated the role of endogenous GC in the regulation of TNF production in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using a pretreatment with dexamethasone (DEX) to down-regulate the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). Short-term DEX pretreatment (up to 12 h before LPS) inhibited TNF production, but earlier (24-48 h) pretreatments potentiated it. This up-regulating effect was not observed in adrenalectomized mice or when GC synthesis was inhibited with cyanoketone (CK). This effect could not be explained only by the suppression of LPS-induced corticosterone (CS) levels induced by DEX, since a 48-h pretreatment potentiated TNF production without affecting LPS-induced CS levels. On the other hand, mice chronically pretreated with DEX were still responsive to its inhibitory effect on TNF production, thus ruling out the possibility of a decreased responsiveness to GC.

  8. Epitaxial effects in thin films of high-Tc cuprates with the K2NiF4 structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Michio; Sato, Hisashi; Tsukada, Akio; Yamamoto, Hideki

    2018-03-01

    La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) and La2-xBaxCuO4 (LBCO) have been recognized as the archetype materials of "hole-doped" high-Tc superconductors. Their crystal structures are relatively simple with a small number of constituent cation elements. In addition, the doping level can be varied by the chemical substitution over a wide range enough to obtain the full spectrum of doping-dependent electronic and magnetic properties. These attractive features have dedicated many researchers to thin-film growth of LSCO and LBCO. The critical temperature (Tc) of LSCO and LBCO is sensitive to strain as manifested by a positive pressure coefficient of Tc in bulk samples. In general, films are strained if they are grown on lattice-mismatched substrates (epitaxial strain). Early attempts (before 1997) at the growth of LSCO and LBCO films resulted in depressed Tc below 30 K as they were grown on a commonly used SrTiO3 substrate (in-plane lattice parameter asub = 3.905 Å): the in-plane lattice parameters of LSCO and LBCO are ≤3.80 Å, and hence tensile epitaxial strain is introduced. The situation was changed by the use of LaSrAlO4 substrates with a slightly shorter in-plane lattice constant (asub = 3.756 Å). On LaSrAlO4 substrates, the Tc reaches 45 K in La1.85Sr0.15CuO4, 47 K in La1.85Ba0.15CuO4, and 56 K in ozone-oxidized La2CuO4+δ films, substantially higher than the Tc's of the bulk compounds. The Tc increase in La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 films on LaSrAlO4 and decrease on SrTiO3 are semi-quantitatively in accord with the phenomenological estimations based on the anisotropic strain coefficients of Tc (dTc/dεi). In this review article, we describe the growth and properties of films of cuprates having the K2NiF4 structure, mainly focusing on the increase/decrease of Tc by epitaxial strain and quasi-stable phase formation by epitaxial stabilization. We further extract the structural and/or physical parameters controlling Tc toward microscopic understanding of the variation of Tc by epitaxial strain.

  9. Evaluation of 99mTc-Mercaptoacetyltriglycine-Biocytin as a new hepatobiliary imaging agent in mice coinjected with bilirubin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Meyoung-kon; Seidel, Juergen; Le Nhat; Kim, In-Sook; Yoo, Tae-Moo; Barker, Craig; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Green, Michael V.; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Paik, Chang H.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated 99m Tc-labeled mercaptoacetyltriglycine ( 99m Tc-MAG3)-biocytin as a hepatobiliary imaging agent in the absence and presence of bilirubin in mice. We then compared its pharmacokinetic parameters; peak liver/heart activity ratio (r max ) and half clearance time (HCT) with those of 99m Tc-labeled diisopropyl-iminodiacetic acid ( 99m Tc-disofenin). Balb/c mice were injected intravenously with hepatobiliary agent ( 99m Tc-MAG3-biocytin or 99m Tc-disofenin) alone or in combination with bilirubin at two doses (7 and 14 mg/kg) dissolved in 5% human serum albumin. Images were acquired every 15 s for 30 min with a gamma-camera equipped with a pinhole collimator. Dynamic images showed rapid hepatic uptake of 99m Tc-MAG3-biocytin, with rapid clearance from the blood and rapid excretion via the biliary system. Its hepatic uptake was not affected by bilirubin coinjection, whereas 99m Tc-disofenin coinjected with bilirubin showed a higher blood background than 99m Tc-disofenin alone. These qualitative findings were reflected in pharmacokinetic parameters, r max and HCT. The r max was obtained from plots of time versus liver/heart activity ratios obtained in equal-area regions of interest over the heart and liver. The HCT was calculated from the hepatic clearance curve from plots of time versus liver activity. 99m Tc-MAG3-biocytin without bilirubin coinjection showed an r max of 8.9±1.3 and an HCT of 399±36 s. These values did not change even when 14 mg/kg of bilirubin were coinjected. By contrast, the parameters for 99m Tc-disofenin with bilirubin were significantly (p max was decreased from 7.9±2.5 to 1.4±0.2 and HCT was increased from 292±32 s to 782±133 s. 99m Tc-MAG3-biocytin hepatobiliary scintigraphy in mice is not affected by bilirubin coinjection, and this hepatobiliary agent appears to offer promise for estimating hepatic function in patients with high bilirubin levels

  10. Orbitals, correlation, valencies in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomskii, D.I.

    1990-09-01

    The survey is given of certain properties of high-Tc superconductors connected with the details of their electronic structure such as the kind of orbitals involved and the degree of correlation. Special attention is paid to the properties of cuprates at high doping level. The problem whether there exists a ''Mott transition'' at high electron or a hole concentration is discussed. We also discuss physical factors (d-p Coulomb interaction, orbital mixing) leading to the partial occupation of copper d x 2 -orbital. In particular we show that in localized picture (x 2 -y 2 ) and z 2 -levels in La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 may cross at x approx. 0.4 which may be responsible for a marked change of many properties at this doping. The possible role of x 2 -electrons in pairing is discussed in connection with some recent experiments. (author). 28 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  11. Decreased sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures as a consequence of nicotine pretreatment in long-sleep and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, C M; Collins, A C

    1988-01-01

    Male and female long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice were pretreated with a subseizure-producing dose of nicotine (2.0 mg/kg) 7.5, 15 and 30 minutes prior to challenge with seizure-producing doses of this drug. Nicotine pretreated animals were less susceptible to nicotine-induced seizures than were saline pretreated animals. The latency to seizure following nicotine challenge was greater in nicotine pretreated animals than in saline controls. Nicotine pretreated LS mice show a greater decrease in nicotine-induced seizure susceptibility than do nicotine pretreated SS mice. This decrease in seizure susceptibility is consistent with induction of nicotinic receptor desensitization via nicotine pretreatment. It is hypothesized that LS and SS mice might differ in sensitivity to nicotine in part because they differ in baseline levels of desensitized versus functional nicotinic receptors.

  12. Pretreatment of Hanford purex plant first-cycle waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, M.W.; Gerboth, D.M.; Peters, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    A process has been developed to pretreat neutralized, first-cycle high-level waste from the fuels reprocessing facility (PUREX Plant) at the Hanford Site. The process separates solids from the supernate liquid, which contains soluble salts. The solids, including most of the fission products and transuranic elements, may then be vitrified for disposal, while the low-level supernate stream may be processed into a less expensive grout waste form. The process also includes ion exchange treatment of the separated supernate stream to remove radiocesium. A flow sheet based on these operations was completed to support a planned demonstration of the process in the Hanford site B Plant canyon facility

  13. Rapid near infrared spectroscopy for prediction of enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran after various pretreatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Wittrup Agger, Jane; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient generation of a fermentable hydrolysate is a primary requirement in the utilization of fibrous plant biomass as feedstocks in bioethanol processes. The first biomass conversion step usually involves a hydrothermal pretreatment before enzymatic hydrolysis. The purpose of the pretreatment...... step is to increase the responsivity of the substrate to enzymatic attack and the type of pretreatment affects the enzymatic conversion efficiency. Destarched corn bran is a fibrous, heteroxylan-rich side-stream from the starch industry which may be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production...... release of different levels of arabinose, xylose and glucose from all the differently pretreated destarched corn bran samples. The present study also demonstrates a generic, non-destructive solution to determine the enzymatic monosaccharide release from polymers in biomass side-streams, thereby...

  14. The new 99mTc myocardial perfusion imaging agents: 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-teboroxime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, D.S.; Kiat, H.; Maddahi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The two new 99m (99mTc) labeled myocardial perfusion agents, 99mTc-Sestamibi and 99mTc-Teboroxime, are now available for routine clinical application. Both agents allow assessment of ejection fraction by the first-pass technique at rest or during exercise, thus providing additional information not available with thallium-201. 99mTc-Sestamibi has long myocardial residence time, as well as adequate myocardial extraction, providing images of higher count density and superior quality compared with thallium-201. 99mTc-Teboroxime has excellent myocardial uptake characteristics but is cleared very rapidly from the myocardium. Both tracers have shown results similar to those obtained with thallium-201 for detection of coronary artery disease and the assessment of defect reversibility. 99mTc-Sestamibi studies using the rest/stress imaging sequence can be accomplished in approximately 5 hours; studies using dual-isotope imaging (rest thallium-201 and stress 99mTc-Sestamibi injection) can be completed in 1 to 2 hours. Gated stress images can be performed with 99mTc-Sestamibi, providing simultaneous information of myocardial perfusion at stress and resting wall motion or thickening and allowing rapid differentiation of ischemic from infarcted tissue. Because of its slow myocardial clearance and absence of redistribution, 99mTc-Sestamibi allows uncoupling of the time of injection from the time of imaging and thus can be valuable in the evaluation of acute myocardial infarction and outcome of thrombolytic therapy. With 99mTc-Teboroxime, rapid serial studies are feasible. Pharmacologic stress and rest studies with 99mTc-Teboroxime single photon emission computed tomography potentially can be completed in under 30 minutes. 73 references

  15. Analysis of Th17 and Tc17 Frequencies and Antiviral Defenses in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue of Chronic HIV-1 Positive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Andreotti, Mauro; Selvaggi, Carla; Giustini, Noemi; Serafino, Sara; Schietroma, Ivan; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Antonelli, Guido; Vullo, Vincenzo; Scagnolari, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The complex relationship between both the Th1/Th17 and Tc1/Tc17 axis and innate defences in the intestinal mucosa during HIV-1 infection has not been well characterized. This study examined the frequency, phenotype, and functional status of T cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood of virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients on therapy, focusing on the Th1, Th17, Tc1, and Tc17 cell subsets. We found a persistent immune cell activation (CD38 and HLADR expression) into the GALT despite the higher levels of Th17 and Tc17 in respect to peripheral blood. An upregulation of type I IFN response in GALT compared to the peripheral blood compartment was also recorded. Furthermore, IFN-α/β levels were negatively related to the frequencies of Th1 naïve cells and Tc1 cell subsets (naïve, central memory, and effector memory) in the GALT. In contrast, no relationships between type I IFN response and Th1 or Tc1 cell subsets in peripheral blood compartment and between IFN-α/β and Th17/Tc17 in both GALT and peripheral blood district were recorded. These data indicate that prolonged antiretroviral treatment improves GALT immune function despite the persistence of immune activation and type I IFN response in chronic HIV-1 positive patients.

  16. Analysis of Th17 and Tc17 Frequencies and Antiviral Defenses in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue of Chronic HIV-1 Positive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella d’Ettorre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex relationship between both the Th1/Th17 and Tc1/Tc17 axis and innate defences in the intestinal mucosa during HIV-1 infection has not been well characterized. This study examined the frequency, phenotype, and functional status of T cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood of virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients on therapy, focusing on the Th1, Th17, Tc1, and Tc17 cell subsets. We found a persistent immune cell activation (CD38 and HLADR expression into the GALT despite the higher levels of Th17 and Tc17 in respect to peripheral blood. An upregulation of type I IFN response in GALT compared to the peripheral blood compartment was also recorded. Furthermore, IFN-α/β levels were negatively related to the frequencies of Th1 naïve cells and Tc1 cell subsets (naïve, central memory, and effector memory in the GALT. In contrast, no relationships between type I IFN response and Th1 or Tc1 cell subsets in peripheral blood compartment and between IFN-α/β and Th17/Tc17 in both GALT and peripheral blood district were recorded. These data indicate that prolonged antiretroviral treatment improves GALT immune function despite the persistence of immune activation and type I IFN response in chronic HIV-1 positive patients.

  17. Electroacupuncture pretreatment induces tolerance against focal cerebral ischemia through activation of canonical Notch pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electroacupuncture (EA pretreatment can induce the tolerance against focal cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully understood. Emerging evidences suggest that canonical Notch signaling may be involved in ischemic brain injury. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that EA pretreatment-induced tolerance against focal cerebral ischemia is mediated by Notch signaling. Results EA pretreatment significantly enhanced Notch1, Notch4 and Jag1 gene transcriptions in the striatum, except Notch1 intracellular domain level, which could be increased evidently by ischemia. After ischemia and reperfusion, Hes1 mRNA and Notch1 intracellular domain level in ischemic striatum in EA pretreatment group were increased and reached the peak at 2 h and 24 h, respectively, which were both earlier than the peak achieved in control group. Intraventricular injection with the γ-secretase inhibitor MW167 attenuated the neuroprotective effect of EA pretreatment. Conclusions EA pretreatment induces the tolerance against focal cerebral ischemia through activation of canonical Notch pathway.

  18. Properties of Enzyme Pretreated Wikstroemia sikokiana and Broussonetia papyrifera Bast Fiber Pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang-Dong Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Xylanase, pectinase complex, and BL11 pectinase were employed for the pretreatment of gampi and paper mulberry bast fiber pulps prior to chlorine dioxide bleaching. The bleaching efficiencies of the pulps with different enzymatic pretreatments were investigated. Accelerated aging by heat-humidity treatment was also conducted to evaluate yellowing phenomena and to estimate the prevention of brightness reversion (brightness retention by enzymatic pretreatment. The order of active chlorine required with respect to pretreatment was pectinase complex > xylanase > BL11 pectinase for soda and soda/oxalate gampi pulps and pectinase complex > BL11 pectinase > xylanase for soda and soda/oxalate paper mulberry pulps. Higher brightness retention values were observed for soda/oxalate pulps compared to soda pulps. The brightness retention levels for gampi pulps and mulberry pulps after ClO2 bleaching with enzymatic pretreatment were higher than the levels of ClO2 and NaClO bleaching pulps. Enzymatic treatments were thus able to reduce the usage of ClO2 and to assist in producing photo-stable paper materials for art and artifact-repairing applications. Thus, enzymatic pretreatment of the pulp has the potential to meet world trends and environmental sustainability for pulp and paper industries.

  19. The pretreatment cost of a pyroprocess facility in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. K.; Youn, S. R.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. J.; Ko, W. I.

    2015-01-01

    Shale gas still has many disadvantages such as significant technological difficulties and high costs even when the fracking technology is used to extract shale gas since shale gas is dispersed widely. Moreover, it is estimated that the shale gas can be used for about 60 years, which is comparable to the period estimated for oil deposits. Another concern is that the climate may change due to the discharge of harmful gas produced during the gas extraction process. PRIDE facility producing 10 ton/year uranium ingot was set as the cost object for the cost estimation, and it was possible to increase cost calculation's accuracy level since labor cost and expenses incurred in this facility were the costs incurred in actuality. In the end, First-In, First Out process costing method was used to calculate the pretreatment cost of pyroprocess. According to the cost calculation results, the pretreatment cost was estimated as $195/kgHM and the cost share of the pretreatment of pyroprocess was calculated as 20%. Accordingly, electrochemical reduction process is the process requires most cost, followed by the cost of electro-winning process

  20. The pretreatment cost of a pyroprocess facility in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. K.; Youn, S. R.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. J.; Ko, W. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Shale gas still has many disadvantages such as significant technological difficulties and high costs even when the fracking technology is used to extract shale gas since shale gas is dispersed widely. Moreover, it is estimated that the shale gas can be used for about 60 years, which is comparable to the period estimated for oil deposits. Another concern is that the climate may change due to the discharge of harmful gas produced during the gas extraction process. PRIDE facility producing 10 ton/year uranium ingot was set as the cost object for the cost estimation, and it was possible to increase cost calculation's accuracy level since labor cost and expenses incurred in this facility were the costs incurred in actuality. In the end, First-In, First Out process costing method was used to calculate the pretreatment cost of pyroprocess. According to the cost calculation results, the pretreatment cost was estimated as $195/kgHM and the cost share of the pretreatment of pyroprocess was calculated as 20%. Accordingly, electrochemical reduction process is the process requires most cost, followed by the cost of electro-winning process.

  1. [Advances in research on mechanisms of seed pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Liu, Juan; Liu, Qian; Gao, Ya Ni; Wang, Quan Zhen

    2016-11-18

    Seeds play a vital role in nature and agro-ecosystems. The success of seed germination and the establishment of a normal seedling determine the propagation and survival of a plant species, but seed vigor is often seriously damaged because of seed aging, dormancy and the deterioration of natural habitat. Thus, exploring methods for improving germination quality is of great significance to ecology and the economy. Based on the latest international reports, seed pre-treatments are the most practical and effective methods for improving plant performance, increasing yields and enhancing stress resistance. This review provided a summary of the current pre-sowing treatment technologies and the physiological and biochemical responses of plants to these methods by addressing gene expression, cytological effects, enzyme system activities, material and energy metabolism, antioxidation mechanisms and signal transduction pathways. We also interpreted the mechanisms of the seed pre-treatment methods from aspects of seed germination acceleration and stress resistance enhancement. The bottleneck in seed pre-treatments at the cytological and molecular levels and the problems involved in their application were also discussed. Thus far, most studies had largely focused on the partial reaction alterations of plant biochemistry and enzyme activities, and they had generally been characterized by a lack of systematic and holistic study for applications to crop production. Finally, we proposed an outlook for further study in an attempt to provide a prospective and scientific reference for plant germplasm conservation, high-efficiency organic agriculture development and ecological environment re-construction.

  2. Mechanism of melphalan crosslink enhancement by misonidazole pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Y.C.; Sawyer, J.M.; Hsu, B.; Brown, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Sensitization of Chinese hamster ovary cells to melphalan (L-PAM) toxicity by prior treatment with misonidazole is associated with increased levels of DNA crosslinks believed to be the critical lesion for bifunctional alkylating agent toxicity. Enhanced L-PAM crosslinking of DNA could occur by a variety of mechanisms in MISO-pretreated cells including: (1) increased transport or binding of L-PAM, (2) decreased repair of L-PAM monoadducts which would allow more time for their conversion to crosslinks, (3) decreased crosslink repair (unhooking of one arm), or (4) chemical modification of the DNA structure, presumably by bound MISO derivatives, such that crosslink formation is facilitated. Previous studies have eliminated mechanisms (1) and (3). Mechanism (4) was investigated by following MISO-pretreatments of whole cells with L-PAM treatments of the isolated DNA from these cells. Treatment of bare DNA with L-PAM modeled very well the crosslinking behavior in whole cells although it was somewhat more efficient. In the presence of double stranded DNA and absence of repair systems during and after the L-PAM exposure, it was determined that MISO-pretreatments did not increase the crosslinking efficiency of L-PAM

  3. Dual-phase 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with delayed neck and thorax SPECT/CT and bone scintigraphy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Correlation with clinical or pathological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Zhongling; Shen, Chentian; Zhu, Ruisen; Luo, Quanyong; Wu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between 99m Tc-MIBI and 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy and clinical or pathological variables, including preoperative serum PTH levels and tumor diameter, in patients with newly diagnosed PHPT. Dual phase 99m Tc-MIBI planar scintigraphy was performed in 244 patients with PHPT. Of these patients, 155 underwent 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy to detect bone changes before parathyroidectomy. Factors influencing 99m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy and 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy detection rate were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis; optimal cutoff values for predicting positive 99m Tc-MIBI and 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy were evaluated using ROC analysis. Among 244 patients, 174 (71.31%) patients with 181 foci had a positive 99m Tc-MIBI planar scintigraphy; delayed neck and thorax SPECT/CT could identify and locate the 99m Tc-MIBI lesions but could not find more lesions than planar scintigraphy. 70 (28.69%) patients had a negative 99m Tc-MIBI planar scintigraphy. Tumor diameter, serum PTH level and symptoms were statistically significant predictive factors in predicting positive 9m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The optimal thresholds for tumor diameter and serum PTH by ROC analysis were 1.03 cm and 127.60 ng/L, respectively. Among 155 patients with bone scintigraphy, 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy showed positive finding in 80 (51.61%) patients and negative finding in 75 patients. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that patient age, sex, tumor diameter and PTH level (≥150 ng/L) were statistically significant in predicting positive 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed both tumor diameter and PTH ≥150 ng/L were statistically significant in predicting positive 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. The optimal thresholds for tumor diameter and serum PTH by ROC analysis were 1.96 cm and 163

  4. Internal friction around Tc connected with superconductivity in high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yening

    1993-01-01

    Internal friction and ultrasonic measurements show that there always exists a phase-like transition (PLT) characterized by the jump of lattice parameters at tens degrees above Tc in superconducting YBaCuO, BiSrCaCuO and TlBaCaCuO. Ferroelastic loops and shape memory effect associated with elastic softening invariably occur at the PLT temperature, showing the characteristics of thermoelastic martensitic transition. Internal frictions in KHz of Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO reveal a static hysteretic plateau (Qp -1 ) above Tc that drops linearly with temperature below Tc. The Qp -1 of YBaCuO decreases with decreasing oxygen content. The origin of the hysteretic Qp -1 is attributed to the lattice distortions around the carriers. (orig.)

  5. Bioavailability of {sup 99m}Tc-paclitaxel-glucuronide ({sup 99m}Tc-PAC-G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biber Muftuler, F.Z.; Demir, I.; Uenack, P.; Ichedef, C.; Yurt Kilcar, A. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications

    2011-07-01

    An antitumor agent paclitaxel (PAC) has been proved to be efficient in the treatment of breast and ovarian cancer. Glucuronic acid-derived paclitaxel compound (paclitaxel-glucuronide (PAC-G)) was enzymatically synthesized using microsome preparate separated from rat livers. The biodistribution mechanism of PAC-G in healthy female Albino Wistar rats has been investigated. The expected structure is confirmed according to LC/MS results, and the possible attachment is to C2-hydroxyl group. PAC-G was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc and the radiochemical yield of radiolabeled compound ({sup 99m}Tc-PAC-G) was 98.0 {+-} 02.74% (n=9). The range of the breast/blood and breast/muscle ratios is approximately between 3 and 35 in 240 min. All these experimental studies indicate that {sup 99m}Tc-PAC-G may potentially be used in breast tissue as an imaging agent. (orig.)

  6. Tc-knirps plays different roles in the specification of antennal and mandibular parasegment boundaries and is regulated by a pair-rule gene in the beetle Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Drosophila larval head is evolutionarily derived at the genetic and morphological level. In the beetle Tribolium castaneum, development of the larval head more closely resembles the ancestral arthropod condition. Unlike in Drosophila, a knirps homologue (Tc-kni) is required for development of the antennae and mandibles. However, published Tc-kni data are restricted to cuticle phenotypes and Tc-even-skipped and Tc-wingless stainings in knockdown embryos. Hence, it has remained unclear whether the entire antennal and mandibular segments depend on Tc-kni function, and whether the intervening intercalary segment is formed completely. We address these questions with a detailed examination of Tc-kni function. Results By examining the expression of marker genes in RNAi embryos, we show that Tc-kni is required only for the formation of the posterior parts of the antennal and mandibular segments (i.e. the parasegmental boundaries). Moreover, we find that the role of Tc-kni is distinct in these segments: Tc-kni is required for the initiation of the antennal parasegment boundary, but only for the maintenance of the mandibular parasegmental boundary. Surprisingly, Tc-kni controls the timing of expression of the Hox gene Tc-labial in the intercalary segment, although this segment does form in the absence of Tc-kni function. Unexpectedly, we find that the pair-rule gene Tc-even-skipped helps set the posterior boundary of Tc-kni expression in the mandible. Using the mutant antennaless, a likely regulatory Null mutation at the Tc-kni locus, we provide evidence that our RNAi studies represent a Null situation. Conclusions Tc-kni is required for the initiation of the antennal and the maintenance of the mandibular parasegmental boundaries. Tc-kni is not required for specification of the anterior regions of these segments, nor the intervening intercalary segment, confirming that Tc-kni is not a canonical ‘gap-gene’. Our finding that a gap gene orthologue is

  7. The formation of insoluble Tc depends on bacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Uchida, Shigeo; Koiso, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    The formation of insoluble Tc (>0.2 μm in size) in ponding water of paddy soil was investigated. The ponding water prepared by flooding with deionized water was collected at a one-week intervals during the 120 days of the experimental period. The collected sample was incubated with 3 kBq mL -1 TcO 4 - at 25degC for 14 days. The mean value of relative amounts of insolubilized Tc was less than 0.6% of total Tc. This result suggested that flooding with deionized water was not effective for the formation of insoluble Tc. When the ponding water sample was incubated with TcO 4 - under anaerobic conditions, Tc was scarcely insolubilized. On the other hand, a significant fraction of the Tc was insolubilized in the ponding water sample supplemented with nutrients that promote bacterial activity. Also, the amount of insoluble Tc increased with time. From these results, it was concluded that the formation of insoluble Tc in the ponding water depends on enhanced bacterial activity rather than just anaerobic conditions. (author)

  8. Exafs studies of coprecipitation and adsorption reactions of Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunker, D.J.; Jones, M.J.; Livens, F.R.; Collison, D. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Pattrick, R.A.D. [Manchester Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences (United Kingdom); Charnock, J.M. [CLRC Daresbury Laboratoire, Warrington Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Adsorption and coprecipitation reactions may be a simple way of removing [TcO{sub 4}]{sup -} from aqueous solution. The effectiveness of a range of potential adsorbents and precipitants has been evaluated and some are capable of near quantitative (>98%) removal of [TcO{sub 4}){sup -} from solution. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) has been used to determine Tc oxidation states and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) has been used to identify the local environment of Tc. The absorption edge position has been determined, using [PPh{sub 4}][TcO{sub 4}], TcS{sub 2} and Tc{sub 2}S{sub 7} as model compounds, and is diagnostic of Tc oxidation state. In a series of experiments investigating FeS coprecipitation, Tc was reduced to oxidation state (IV) and its local environment resembled that in TcO{sub 2} (6 O atoms at approximately 2.0 Angstrom). (authors)

  9. Studies of the Tc oxidation states in humic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Liu Dejun; Yao Jun

    2010-01-01

    The oxidation state is an important aspect of the speciation of Tc in groundwater that contained organic substances due to it control the precipitation, complexation, sorption and colloid formation behavior of the Tc under HWL geological disposal conditions. In present work, the oxidation states of Tc were investigated using the LaCl 3 coagulation method and solution extraction method in aqueous solutions in which the humic acid concentration range is from 0 to 20 mg L -1 and the Tc (Ⅶ) concentration range is about 10 -8 mol l -1 . The radiocounting of 99 Tc was determined using liquid scintillation spectrometry. The humic acid will influence the radiocounting ratio of 99 Tc apparently, however, the quenching effect can be restrained once keep the volume of the cocktail to about twenty times of the sample volume. The LaCl 3 coagulation methods were carried out for the investigation of Tc oxidation states in humic acid aqueous systems at about pH 8. The tetraphenylarsonium chloride (IPA)-chloroform extraction method was used also simultaneously to investigation the concentrations of Tc (Ⅳ) and Tc (Ⅶ) for the availability of the LaCl 3 precipitation method, and the experimental results demonstrate that tetravalent technetium and pertechnetate concentrations are well agreement with the LaCl 3 precipitation method. These two experimental results demonstrated that Tc (Ⅶ) is very stable in the Tc (Ⅶ)-humic acid system during a 350 days experimental period, and the Tc (Ⅳ) concentrations are very lower, that is indicate that there didn't oxidizing reactions between the Fluka humic acid and Tc (Ⅶ) in aqueous solutions under anaerobic conditions. That is means the presence of humic acids even in anaerobic groundwater is disadvantage for the retardance of radionuclides. (authors)

  10. Studies of Tc oxidation states in humic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Liu Dejun; Yao Jun

    2011-01-01

    The oxidation state of Tc is an important aspect of the speciation in groundwater which contained organic substances due to it control the precipitation, complexation, sorption and colloid formation behavior of the Tc under HWL geological disposal conditions. In present work, the oxidation states of Tc were investigated using the LaCl 3 coagulation method and solution extraction method in aqueous solutions in which the humic acid concentration range is from 0 to 20 mg/L and the Tc (VII) concentration is about 10 -8 mol/L. The radiocounting of 99 Tc was determined using liquid scintillation spectrometry. The humic acid will influence the radiocounting ratio of 99 Tc apparently, however, the quenching effect can be restrained once keep the volume of the cocktail to about twenty times of the sample volume. The LaCl 3 coagulation method was carried out for the investigation of Tc oxidation states in humic acid aqueous systems at about pH 8. The tetraphenylarsonium chloride (TPA)-chloroform extraction method was used also simultaneously to investigation the concentrations of Tc (IV) and Tc (VII) for the availability of the LaCl 3 precipitation method, and the experimental results demonstrate that tetravalent technetium and pertechnetate concentration are well agreement with the LaCl 3 precipitation method. These two experimental results demonstrated that Tc (VII) is very stable in the Tc (VII)-humic acid system during a 350 days experimental period, and the Tc (IV) concentrations are very lower, that is indicate that there didn't oxidizing reactions between the Fluka humic acid and Tc (VII) in aqueous solutions under anaerobic conditions. That means the presence of humic acids even in anaerobic groundwater is disadvantage for the retardance of radionuclides. (authors)

  11. Union of 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC at the somatostatin receptors in cells of pancreas cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez C, J.; Ramirez I, M.T.; Ferro F, G.; Pedraza L, M.

    2005-01-01

    The radiation toxic effects have been used in therapy however much 50 years. The absorbed radiation dose can be determined at cellular level using cancerous cell cultures. If the deposited In vitro radiation dose coming from similar activities of several therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals it can compare it will be possible to choose the therapeutic radiopharmaceutical that it offers better dosimetric characteristics for the patient. The objective of this original investigation was to determine the union percentage of the octreotide 99m Tc-HYNlC-TOC to the somatostatin receivers in cells of cancer pancreas as well as the internalization, externalization and cellular viability. It was used the octapeptide, (octreotide, TOC) labelled with 99m Tc by means of the HYNIC chelating agent (6-hydrazine pyridine-3-carboxylic acid) and 3 cellular lines of murine pancreas cancer (AR42J), of cancer of human pancreas (CAPAN) and of one negative cellular line for somatostatin receivers (WRL-68). The 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC was compared against two negative proofs for somatostatin receivers: the peptide 99m Tc-UBI and the 99m TcO 4 . The cellular lines were conserved in the synthetic media Dulbecco-Eagle. After 2, 4 and 24 h of exhibition to the radiation, the cells are picked up and its are determined the viability by count in a Neubauer camera using tripan blue. In the same times it was calculated the union percentage of the radiopharmaceutical to the cells and the internalization (union to the cytoplasm) and the externalization (union to membrane receivers). With those figures it was calculated the absorbed radiation dose at cellular level. Results: At 4 hours the union percentage of the 99m Tc-HYNlC-TOC to the AR42-J cells was 6.83 times greater than for the WRL-68 control cells of human papilloma, (without receivers of the somatostatin) and for the CAPAN them 4 times greater than for the same cells used as negative control, for the case of the 99m Tc-UBI and the 99m TcO 4 one doesn

  12. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhong; Wang Qunhui; Jiang Zhaohua; Yang Xuexin; Ji Yongzhen

    2007-01-01

    In order to produce lactic acid, from agricultural residues such as soybean straw, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastic production, it is necessary to decompose the soybean straw into soluble sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the methods in common use, while pretreatment is the effective way to increase the hydrolysis rate. The optimal conditions of pretreatment using ammonia and enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean straw were determined. Compared with the untreated straw, cellulose in straw pretreated by ammonia liquor (10%) soaking for 24 h at room temperature increased 70.27%, whereas hemicellulose and lignin in pretreated straw decreased to 41.45% and 30.16%, respectively. The results of infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also showed that the structure and the surface of the straw were changed through pretreatment that is in favor of the following enzymatic hydrolysis. maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 51.22% was achieved at a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v) at 50 deg. C and pH 4.8 using cellulase (50 fpu/g of substrate) for 36 h

  13. Identification of novel mammalian hosts and Brazilian biome geographic distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi TcIII and TcIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Juliana Helena S; Xavier, Samanta Cristina C; Bilac, Daniele; Lima, Valdirene Santos; Dario, Maria Augusta; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2017-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a parasitic protozoan responsible for Chagas disease. Seven different Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) of T. cruzi are currently identified in nature: TcI-TcVI, and TcBat whose distribution patterns in nature, hosts/reservoirs and eco-epidemiological importance are still little known. Here, we present novel data on the geographic distribution and diversity of mammalian hosts and vectors of T. cruzi DTUs TcIII and TcIV. In this study, we analyzed 61 T. cruzi isolates obtained from 18 species of mammals (five orders) and two Hemiptera genera. Samples were collected from five Brazilian biomes (Pantanal, Caatinga, Cerrado, Atlantic Rainforest, and Amazon) previously characterized as Z3 or mixed infection (TcI-Z3) by mini-exon gene PCR. To identify TcIII and TcIV genotypes, we applied restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to the PCR-amplified histone 3 gene. DTUs TcIII and TcIV were identified in single and mixed infections from wide dispersion throughout five Brazilian biomes studied, with TcIV being the most common. Pantanal was the biome that displayed the largest number of samples characterized as TcIII and TcIV in single and mixed infections, followed by Atlantic Rainforest and Amazon. Species from the Didelphimorphia order displayed the highest frequency of infection and were found in all five biomes. We report, for the first time, the infection of a species of the Artiodactyla order by DTU TcIII. In addition, we describe new host species: five mammals (marsupials and rodents) and two genera of Hemiptera. Our data indicate that DTUs TcIII and TcIV are more widespread and infect a larger number of mammalian species than previously thought. In addition, they are transmitted in restricted foci and cycles, but in different microhabitats and areas with distinct ecological profiles. Finally, we show that DTUs TcIII and TcIV do not present any specific association with biomes or host species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Analysis of the factors associated with Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake in thyrotoxicosis and Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidokoro-kunii, Yo; Emoto, Naoya; Cho, Keiichi; Oikawa, Shinichi

    2006-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with 20 minute Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake, we examined all patients in whom thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed at Chiba-Hokusoh Hospital, Nippon Medical School from 2001 April through 2003 March. Patients with thyrotoxicosis diagnosed during this period were 57 with Graves' disease (76%), 11 with transient hyperthyroxinemia (TH) (14.7%), and 7 with subacute thyroiditis (SAT) (9.3%). The uptake of Tc-99m ranged from 0.97% to 40.1% in Graves' disease and from 0.15% to 0.8% in TH. Although TH may include spontaneous resolution of Graves' disease as well as painless thyroiditis, no treatment was necessary for these patients. Uptake in all patients with SAT was less than 0.5%. There were significant correlations between the level of Tc-99m uptake and the levels of free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII), and thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) in patients with Graves' disease. Older patients with Graves' disease showed lower uptake than did younger patients. Both Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake and TBII levels, but not fT3, fT4 or TSAb levels, at the beginning of antithyroid drug treatment correlated significantly with the duration of treatment until the daily dose of methimazole reached 5 mg. These data suggest that Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake reflects the severity of Graves' disease and its response to the medical treatment and that antithyroid drug therapy is not necessary when the uptake is less than 0.9%. (author)

  15. 99mTc-Tetrofosmin scintimammography in suspected breast cancer patients: comparison with 99mTc-MIBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki; Bae, Young Tae

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic role of 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin in detection of breast cancer and compared with that of 99m Tc-MIBI. Forty-eight patients with a clinically palpable mass or abnormal mammographic or ultrasonographic findings had 99m Tc-MIBI and 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin scintimammographies after intravenous injection of 925 MBq of radiopharmaceuticals. The scintimammographs were correlated with histopathologic findings. Thirty-three patients were diagnosed with breast cancer and 15 patients with benign breast diseases. The numbers of true positive, true negative, false positive, and false negative cases of 99m Tc-MIBI scintimammography were 29, 10, 5, and 4 respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 99m Tc-MIBI scintimammographies were 87.8%, 66.7%, 85.3%, and 71.4% respectively. The numbers of true positive, true negative, false positive, and false negative cases of 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin were 31, 10, 5, and 2 respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin were 93.9%, 66.7%, 86.1%, and 73.3% respectively. One patient was false negative in both 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin scintimammographies and its size was 0.5cm. 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin and 99m Tc-MIBI were non-invasive and useful in detection of breast cancer and 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin was comparable to the 99m Tc-MIBI in detection of primary breast cancer.=20

  16. Formation of a Tc(III)-adenosine diphosphate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.; Kremer, C.; Kremer, E.

    1995-01-01

    A 99 Tc-ADP complex was prepared when KTcO 4 was reduced in aqueous medium by SnCl 2 , Na 2 S 2 O 4 , NaBH 4 or Zn in the presence of ADP in excess. The resulting solution was studied by chromatography and spectrophotometry. Electrochemical reduction and substitution on [Tc III (tu) 6 ] 3+ were investigated as alternative synthetic routes. The anionic Tc-ADP complex was isolated as a solid. Cerimetric titrations confirmed the oxidation state +3 for the central atom. IR and 1 H-NMR data showed that the purine base is bonded to the Tc central atom but not the ribose moiety. No oxo groups seemed to be directly bonded to the Tc atom. The complex is rather stable in neutral solutions. However, it decomposes to pertechnetate and TcO 2 at extreme pH values. (author). 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  17. A review of sup(99m)Tc generator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinski, V.J.

    1982-01-01

    The sup(99m)Tc generator has found widespread use because it is ideally suited for scintigraphy. The preparation of sup(99m)Tc generators using alumina and other ion exchange systems is described. Other methods of separating 99 Mo and sup(99m)Tc, such as solvent extraction and sublimation, are also discussed. Some of the problems associated with the alumina column type sup(99m)Tc generator are listed with possible causes and solutions to their problems. The current biomedical applications of the sup(99m)Tc radioisotope are the basis of a $100 million nuclear medicine business. The importance of the sup(99m)Tc generator makes it imperative that we understand and solve the problems associated with its manufacture. (author)

  18. Can tumor uptake Tc-99m MDP ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yand Shun, Fang; Yao, Ming; Zeng, Jun; Shi Zhen, Yu; Zhao Lan, Xiang; Dong Qiang, Gang

    2003-01-01

    To explore the mechanism of technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) uptake within tumor through analyze a distribution of Tc-99m MDP in mice bearing tumor cell lines. Methods: The uptake of Tc-99m MDP was analyzed in seven human tumor cell lines ( SPC-A1 adenocarcinoma of lung cancer, Bcap-37 Breast cancer, T-24 Bladder cancer, SKOV3 Ovary carcinoma, Hela-229 Cervical carcinoma, SCI-OS Osteosarcoma, SCI-375 Melanoma) and mouse Lewis lung cancer cell line. They were transplanted into athymic mice, SCID nude mice and C57BL/6 mice, respectively. Approximately 10(6) cells of each cell line were injected subcutaneously into a right chest of mouse. After 4 and 5 weeks, the Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy were determined 6 hours after tail vein injection of 74MBq in 0.05ml every mouse. Result: Biodistribution and tumor uptake MDP was different in the various cell types investigated. According to the Region Ratio program of Siemens Power Macintosh 9500 Computer System, region of interests (RIOs) placed on a small part of the tumor and horizontal copied to left background (T/B) and thoracic spine (T/N) of mice in Tc-99m MDP imaging. The average cpm/pixel ratios were calculated by standardized uptake measure (SUM) and determined the tumor-positive value (T/B) greater than or equal to 1.2. T/B of cell lines were sorted from higher to lower as follows: SCI-OS, Lewis, SKOV3, SCI-375, T-24, SPC-A1, Bcap-37, Hela-229. T/N: SCI-OS, SKOV3, T-24, SCI-375, Lewis, SPC-A1, Bcap-37, Hela-229. The biodistribution data of 99Tcm-MDP in SPC-A1 tumor-bearing BALB/c nude mice were given as ID/g and represent the means D (n=13) in 30 hours after injection of Tc-99m MDP. ID/g of major tissue were sorted from higher to lower as follows: thoracic spine, lumbar, ribs, kidneys, the center of tumor, the ulcer of tumor, the surrounding of tumor, lymph node, blood, lungs, heart, liver. Conclusions: Most of tumor can uptake Tc-99m MDP including human adenocarcinoma. The uptake rate in the center tissue of

  19. Does 99mTc MAA study accurately predict the Hepatopulmonary shunt fraction of 90Y theraspheres?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Ashish; Zade, A.; Monteiro, P.; Shah, S.; Purandare, N.C.; Rangarajan, V.; Kulkarni, S.; Kulkarni, A.; Shetty, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Transarterial-radioembolisation (TARE) is FDA approved therapeutic option for primary and metastatic liver malignancy when patient is inoperable; which in addition to the embolic effect (as seen with Transarterial- chemoembolisation-TACE) also gives the benefit of selectively irradiation to the target lesions with minimal toxicity to adjacent normal hepatocytes. However there is a risk of shunting of radioactive spheres to pulmonary circulation and subsequent pulmonary toxicity if the hepatopulmonary shunt fraction is high. The estimated lung dose becomes the limiting factor for the dose that can be delivered trans-arterially for radioembolisation of hepatic neoplasms.This is achieved by a pretreatment 99m Tc MAA study. Aim: The accuracy of 99m Tc-MAA Scintigraphy to predict the hepatopulmonary shunt fraction of 90 Y Theraspheres was evaluated by comparing it with that obtained by post therapeutic Bremsstrahlung imaging. Materials and Methods: Patients: 13 patients who underwent 90 Y Theraspheres radioembolisation of hepatic malignancies (both primary and secondary) underwent pre therapeutic 99m Tc- MAA Scintigraphy and post therapeutic 90 Y Bremsstrahlung Scintigraphy. 10-12 mCi of freshly prepared 99m Tc MAA was administered by selective hepatic artery cauterization. Planar and tomographic images were acquired within 1hr of radiopharmaceutical administration. IMAGE ACQUISITION 99m Tc MAA static images were acquired in 256 x 256 matrix (1000 KCnts) and SPECT were a 128 x 128 matrix with 64 frames (20 s/frame). The scan parameters for CT were 140 kV, 2.5 mAs, and 1-cm slices. SPECT images were corrected for attenuation and scatter. Post therapeutic 90 Y Bremsstrahlung imaging was done with HEGP collimator with photo peak centered at 140 KeV - 64.29% and +56% window width. SPECT/CT images were obtained using a dual-detector gamma-camera with a mounted 1-row CT scanner (Infinia Hawkeye; GE medical systems) to evaluate hepatic and extra hepatic tracer

  20. 99mTc renal tubular function agents: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshima, D.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Taylor, A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Orthoiodohippuric (OIH) acid labeled with 131I is a widely used renal radiopharmaceutical agent and has been the standard radiopharmaceutical agent for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow (EPRF). Limitations to the routine clinical use of 131I OIH are related to the suboptimal imaging properties of the 131I radionuclide and its relatively high radiation dose. 123I has been substituted for 131I; however, its high cost and short shelf-life have limited its widespread use. Recent work has centered on the development of a new 99mTc renal tubular function agent, which would use the optimal radionuclidic properties and availability of 99mTc and combine the clinical information provided by OIH. The search for a suitable 99mTc renal tubular function agent has focused on the diamide dithiolate (N2S2), the paraaminohippuric iminodiacetic acid (PAHIDA), and the triamide mercaptide (N3S) donor ligand systems. To date, the most promising 99mTc tubular function agent is the N3S complex: 99mTc mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc MAG3). Studies in animal models in diuresis, dehydration, acid or base imbalance, ischemia, and renal artery stenosis demonstrate that 99mTc MAG3 behaves similarly to 131I OIH. A simple kit formulation is available that yields the 99mTc MAG3 complex in high radiochemical purity. Studies in normal subjects and patients indicate that 99mTc MAG3 is an excellent 99mTc renal tubular agent, but its plasma clearance is only 50% to 60% that of OIH. In an effort to develop an improved 99mTc renal tubular function agent, changes have been made in the core N3S donor ligand system, but to date no agent has been synthesized that is clinically superior to 99mTc MAG3. 61 references

  1. Quality assurance of Mo-99/Tc-99m radionuclide generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunov, Nikolay; Yordanova, Galina; Salim, Seniha; Stancheva, Natalya; Mineva, Vanya; Meléndez-Alafort, Laura; Rosato, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry analyses of the radionuclide content of eluate from two Mo-99/Tc-99m radionuclide generators POLTECHNET have been performed. The relative activities of 99Mo 103Ru and 131I radioisotopes with respect to the activity of 99mTc at different time intervals after the primary pertechnetate elution of the generators have been analyzed. The relative activities of the isotopes were determined and compared to the radionuclidic purity requirements for 99mTc.

  2. To the radiotoxicity of {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ftacnikova, S [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, 83301 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the radiotoxicity and RBE values of Auger electrons for {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals were discussed. Expression for the expected RBE for {sup 99m}Tc compounds is given. For the Auger electrons emitted in the decay of {sup 99m}Tc the RBE(Auger) = 10 and a value of 20 for the radiation weighing factor were recommended. (J.K.) 4 refs.

  3. Preoperative localization of parathyroid carcinoma using Tc-99m MIBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitapçi, M T; Tastekin, G; Turgut, M; Caner, B; Kars, A; Barista, I; Bekdik, C

    1993-03-01

    A patient with parathyroid cancer is presented who underwent Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy. The Tc-99m MIBI image demonstrated increased accumulation of activity at the lower pole of the left thyroid lobe which was later confirmed as a parathyroid cancer. Uptake by parathyroid cancer must be kept in mind as a cause of increased Tc-99m MIBI accumulation when a disease is in question in the thyroid or parathyroid gland.

  4. Preparation of i.v. 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals from spent moly 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha, O.P.D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Expiry dating is an important quality assurance precept in (radio) pharmacy. There are occasions when for the sake of patient service one may be forced to continue using an over aged source of 99 Mo to generate 99m Tc beyond 7d, especially when there is short/no supply of 99 Mo, (In the early days the expiry date was 3 d or 3 extractions, whichever one was earlier). With the passage of time a few physico-chemical changes (apart from decay) do occur in the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc milieu. The cocktail also begins to contain traces of carried over MEK which is subjected to strong β-, γ irradiation. These impurity (in trace amounts) is soluble in MEK and even, to an extent, in aqueous media. Furthermore, the concentrated impurity tends to seemingly increase in the bulk 99m TcO 4 - since one is compelled to leach TcO 4 - in lower volume of saline. On many occasions we have been constrained to extend the use of 99 Mo beyond 7 - 14 d. Adequate activities were obtained by pooling the previous week's lot of 99 Mo with the current over aged lot. On a few occasions over the past 26 years we have used 99 Mo much beyond 14 d and 2 - 3 occasions for 26 - 28 d (i.e. >10 t 1 /2 of 99 Mo). On each of these occasions the purity of 99m TcO- 4 was ascertained by pharmacopoeial procedures. It was found that despite depleting activities, the purity was not compromised and the trace impurities, even if present, did not cause any interference. We have profitably utilised the bulk TcO- 4 to formulate a variety of i.v. dosage forms of 99m Tc radiodiagnostics. The following strategy was adopted for the patient services - the agents requiring larger activity levels/patients dose were made available in the earlier period, the other during the latter half. It is concluded that pure 99m TcO- 4 can be obtained over the entire useful life-period of 99 Mo, even > 10t l/2

  5. Concentration of 99Tc in edible seaweed (Konbu) in the northern part of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Iyogi, Takashi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2006-01-01

    ). Assuming that mean water contents of these dry samples is 80%, mean radioactivity was evaluated as approximately 5.3 mBq kg -1 -fresh, a similar level to Hiziki (Hizikia fusiformis, edible) in Kyushu, and lower than the reported values for non-edible seaweeds (Sargassum thunbergii, Ishige sinicola, Ishige okamurai) in Japan. The mean 99 Tc/ 137 Cs activity ratio in the samples was 0.07±0.04, which is greater than that (0.0003) reported for seawater around Kyushu, Japan, suggesting that Tc is accumulated selectively by Konbu in comparison to 137 Cs. (author)

  6. Preparation of 99mTc-HYNIC-PEG-liposomes for imaging of the focal sites infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jun Pyo; Awh, Ok Doo; Kim, Hyun Suk; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Tae Sup; Choi, Tae Hyun; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo

    2002-01-01

    A new linker, hydrazino nicotinamide (HYNIC), was recently introduced for labelling of liposome with 99m Tc. In this study we synthesized HYNIC derivatized PEG (polyethylene glycol)-liposomes radiolabeled with 99m Tc. In order to synthesize HYNIC-DSPE (distearoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine) which is a crucial component for 99m Tc chelation, first of all succinimidyl 6-BOC-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid was synthesized from 6-chloronicotinic acid by three sequential reactions. A DSPE derivative of succinimidyl 6-BOC-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid was transformed into HYNIC-DSPE by HCI/dioxane. HYNIC-PEG-liposomes were prepared by hydration of the dried lipid mixture of EPC (egg phosphatidyl choline): PEG-DSPE : HYNIC-DSPE: cholesterol (1.85:0.15:0.07:1, molar ratio). The HYNIC-PEG-liposomes were labeled with 99m Tc in the presence of SnCl 2 ·2H 2 O (a reducing agent) and tricine (a colignad). To investigate the level of in vivo transchelation of 99m Tc in the liposomes, the 99m Tc-HYNIC-PEG-liposomes were incubated with a molar excess of DTPA, cysteine or glutathione solutions at 37 .deg. C for 24 hours. 6-BOC-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid was synthesized with 77.3% overall yield. The HYNIC concentration in the PEG-coated liposome dispersion was 1.08 mM. In condition of considering the measured liposome size of 106 nm, the phospholipid concentration of 77.5 μmol/ ml and the liposomal particle number of 5.2x10 14 liposomes/ml, it is corresponded to approximate 1,250 nicotinyl hydrazine group per liposome in HYNIC-PEG-liposome. The removal of free 99m Tc was not necessary because the labeling efficiency were above 99%. The radiolabeled liposomes maintained 98%, 96% and 99%, respectively, of radioactivity after incubation with transchelators. The radiolabeled liposomes possessed above 90% of the radioactivity in serum. These results suggest that the HYNIC can be synthesized easily and applied in labelling of PEG-liposomes with 99m Tc

  7. Jointscintigraphy with 99m Tc-pyrophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirtl, B.; Leb, G.; Klein, G.; Goebel, R.; Eber, O.

    1975-01-01

    Joint scintigraphy was performed in 85 patients suffering from a variety of rheumatic diseases, using a gamma camera and line scanner. Tc-pyrophosphate was the radio nuclide employed; it accumulates selectively in the juxta-articular parts of the bone. The method provides an objective demonstration of inflammatory and degenerative rheumatic joint changes. More over scintigraphic changes can be demonstrated in joint disease which is too early to be clinically apparent or before there are any corresponding changes in serological parameters. The method is useful both in the localisation and staging of disease, in the evaluation of treatment and as an objective control of clinical skills. (orig.) [de

  8. ICP-MS as advantageous analytical technique for the determination of long-lived /sup 99/Tc in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihsanullah

    1992-05-01

    Technetium (Tc) was the first artificially created by man and has no stable isotope. The most crucial technetium isotope environmentally /sup 99/Tc is a pure beta emitter with a half-life of 2.1 X 105 years. The main source of /sup 99/Tc to the environment is the disposal of liquid wastes from nuclear installations or during separation and recovery of spent nuclear fuels. Because of its long half life, high fission yield, mobility and current interest in the collective long term doses, it is necessary to establish a knowledge of the behavior of /sup 99/Tc in the environment for complete assessment of the impact of nuclear industry. Due to various analytical difficulties however, data on the behavior of Tc in the environment are limited. In the literature, many techniques are reported for the analysis of Tc. A very sensitive, precise and powerful technique is required which can be applied to environmental samples in order to gain information by obtaining more precise data to assess the impact of Tc releases on man. Attention has been focussed for this purpose on a new powerful technique i.e. inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This report has been directed towards the development of ICP-MS. The technique gives a very high sensitivity enabling long lived radionuclides including /sup 99/Tc to be measured directly down to pg ml-1 levels in solution. Because of its versatility ICP-MS is finding applications for trace multielement analysis and low detection limits in almost all fields. (author)

  9. Microbial pretreatment of corn stovers by solid-state cultivation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Wu, Shubiao; Pang, Changle; Li, Wei; Dong, Renjie

    2014-02-01

    The microbial pretreatment of corn stover and corn stover silage was achieved via the solid-state cultivation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium; pretreatment effects on the biodegradability and subsequent anaerobic production of biogas were investigated. The peak levels of daily biogas production and CH₄ yield from corn stover silage were approximately twice that of corn stover. Results suggested that ensiling was a potential pretreatment method to stimulate biogas production from corn stover. Surface morphology and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses demonstrated that the microbial pretreatment of corn stover silage improved biogas production by 10.5 to 19.7% and CH4 yield by 11.7 to 21.2% because pretreatment could decrease dry mass loss (14.2%) and increase substrate biodegradability (19.9% cellulose, 32.4% hemicellulose, and 22.6% lignin). By contrast, the higher dry mass loss in corn stover (55.3%) after microbial pretreatment was accompanied by 54.7% cellulose, 64.0% hemicellulose, and 61.1% lignin degradation but did not significantly influence biogas production.

  10. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of peracetic acid pretreated sugar cane bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, L.C. [Fundacao Centro Tecnologico de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Linden, J.C.; Schroeder, H.A. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has demonstrated that peracetic acid improves the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic materials. From the same studies, use of dilute alkali solutions as a pre-pretreatment prior to peracetic acid lignin oxidation increases sugar conversion yields in a synergistic, not additive, manner. Deacetylation of xylan is conducted easily by use of dilute alkali solutions at mild conditions. In this paper, the effectiveness of peracetic acid pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse combined with an alkaline pre-pretreatment, is evaluated through simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) procedures. A practical 92% of theoretical ethanol yield using recombinant Zymomonas mobilis CP4/pZB5 is achieved using 6% NaOH/I5% peracetic acid pretreated substrate. No sugar accumulation is observed during SSCF; the recombinant microorganism exhibits greater glucose utilization rates than those of xylose. Acetate levels at the end of the co-fermentations are less than 0.2% (w/v). Based on demonstrated reduction of acetyl groups of the biomass, alkaline pre-pretreatments help to reduce peracetic acid requirements. The influence of deacetylation is more pronounced in combined pretreatments using lower peracetic acid loadings. Stereochemical impediments of the acetyl groups in hemicellulase on the activity of specific enzymes may be involved. (author)

  11. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity moderates the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction and aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or aerobic exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and aerobic exercise (AE) are effective in reducing symptoms of social anxiety. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity can be used to inform treatment recommendations. Both MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly levels of social anxiety symptoms. MBSR appears to be most effective for patients with lower pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. AE appears to be most effective for patients with higher pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  12. The Origin of Tc Enhancement in Heterostructure Cuprate Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doron L. Bergman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiments on heterostructures composed of two or more films of cuprate superconductors of different oxygen doping levels have shown a remarkable Tc enhancement (up to 50% relative to single compound films. We provide a simple explanation of the enhancement which arises naturally from a collection of experimental works. We show that the enhancement could be caused by a structural change in the lattice, namely an increase in the distance of the apical oxygen from the copper-oxygen plane. This increase modifies the effective off-site interaction in the plane which in turn enhances the d-wave superconductivity order parameter. To illustrate this point we study the extended Hubbard model using the fluctuation exchange approximation.

  13. Effect of pretreatments and processing conditions on anti-nutritional factors in climbing bean flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Mugabo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult for many Rwandans to utilize climbing bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris. L mainly because of longer cooking time (2 hours and the high consumption of basic fuel. Climbing beans also contain anti-nutritional factors such tannins, phytates, trypsin inhibitors and phytohemagglutinins that limit nutrient absorption. One way to solve this problem is to utilize the flour of climbing beans made from different treatments and processing methods. In this study, climbing beans were pre-treated by soaking them in water for 24 hours, soaking in 2% sodium bicarbonate solution and steam blanching for 10 minutes. After that, pre-treated climbing beans were processed into flours by processing methods such as roasting, cooking and germination where anti-nutritional factors were reduced. The pretreatments did not significantly (p>0.05 affect phytates in climbing bean flours but processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 reduced it. Pretreatments and processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 reduced tannin content. The pretreatments followed by different processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 decreased trypsin inhibitors content. The great significant decrease in phytohemagglutinins content was observed in pretreatment followed by different processing methods. All pretreatments and processing conditions effectively decreased anti-nutritional factors at low level. However, pretreatments or untreated followed by germination and roasting were found to be the most and the least effective respectively.  Making flour from germinated climbing bean seeds is a good option for sustainable food processing as it reduces anti-nutritional factors. It is an inexpensive method in terms of time, energy and fuel for Rwandan households, restaurants and industries where climbing bean seeds are integral part of daily meal.

  14. Temperature Modelling of the Biomass Pretreatment Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Jensen, Jakob M.

    2012-01-01

    In a second generation biorefinery, the biomass pretreatment stage has an important contribution to the efficiency of the downstream processing units involved in biofuel production. Most of the pretreatment process occurs in a large pressurized thermal reactor that presents an irregular temperature...... that captures the environmental temperature differences inside the reactor using distributed parameters. A Kalman filter is then added to account for any missing dynamics and the overall model is embedded into a temperature soft sensor. The operator of the plant will be able to observe the temperature in any...

  15. Pressure and high-Tc superconductivity in sulfur hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor'kov, Lev P; Kresin, Vladimir Z

    2016-05-11

    The paper discusses fundamentals of record-TC superconductivity discovered under high pressure in sulfur hydride. The rapid increase of TC with pressure in the vicinity of Pcr ≈ 123GPa is interpreted as the fingerprint of a first-order structural transition. Based on the cubic symmetry of the high-TC phase, it is argued that the lower-TC phase has a different periodicity, possibly related to an instability with a commensurate structural vector. In addition to the acoustic branches, the phonon spectrum of H3S contains hydrogen modes with much higher frequencies. Because of the complex spectrum, usual methods of calculating TC are here inapplicable. A modified approach is formulated and shown to provide realistic values for TC and to determine the relative contributions of optical and acoustic branches. The isotope effect (change of TC upon Deuterium for Hydrogen substitution) originates from high frequency phonons and differs in the two phases. The decrease of TC following its maximum in the high-TC phase is a sign of intermixing with pairing at hole-like pockets which arise in the energy spectrum of the cubic phase at the structural transition. On-pockets pairing leads to the appearance of a second gap and is remarkable for its non-adiabatic regime: hydrogen mode frequencies are comparable to the Fermi energy.

  16. Achalasia diagnosed by 99mTc pertechnetate scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikosch, P.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Kresnik, E.; Lind, P.

    1997-01-01

    A 73-year-old patient presented a 99m Tc scintiscan with a focal tracer accumulation left and caudal of the thyroid gland. Further investigations with sonography, CT, esophagoscopy and barium swallow provided the diagnosis of achalasia as the reason for focal 99m Tc retention caudal of the thyroid gland. Explanation for 99m Tc accumulation within the esophagus may be the nonspecific accumulation of 99m Tc not only in the thyroid gland but also in the salivary glands. Excretion of the tracer follows with the saliva. Structural and motor disorders of the esophagus can thus lead to focal tracer retention within the esophagus simulating thyroid tissue. (orig.) [de

  17. Analytical techniques for measurement of 99Tc in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Three new methods have been developed for measuring 99 Tc in environmental samples. The most sensitive method is isotope dilution mass spectrometry, which allows measurement of about 1 x 10 -12 grams of 99 Tc. Results on analysis of five samples by this method compare very well with values obtained by a second independent method, which involves counting of beta particles from 99 Tc and internal conversion electrons from /sup 97m/Tc. A third method involving electrothermal atomic absorption has also been developed. Although this method is not as sensitive as the first two techniques, the cost per analysis is expected to be considerably less for certain types of samples

  18. Chemistry of /sup 99m/Tc labeling kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.; Richards, P.

    1976-01-01

    Problems have been reported with the use of kit-produced /sup 99m/Tc radiopharmaceuticals. This study was undertaken to understand the chemistry involved in various stannous kit systems. The relation between Tc, tin, and the ligands used to complex the reduced Tc was investigated. It is concluded that for reliable performance, stannous kits should be prepared so that most of the tin is kept in the usable (reducing) form; a solution would be to use minimum tin and a large excess of complexing agent. Oxidation of the Tc complex to free pertechnetate is not a major problem in most kit systems. 5 figures

  19. Synthesis and comparison of 99mTc-enrofloxacin and 99mTc-ciprofloxacin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siaens, R.H.; Rennen, H.J.J.M.; Boerman, O.C.; Dierckx, R.A.; Slegers, G.

    2004-01-01

    The use of (99m)Tc-ciprofloxacin as a tracer for infection and inflammation has been examined and discussed in the literature extensively. Its alleged ability to discriminate between sterile inflammation and bacterial versus nonbacterial infections has led to an intense debate. Other labeled

  20. In vivo99mTc-HYNIC-annexin V imaging of early tumor apoptosis in mice after single dose irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yong-bo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptosis is a major mode of hematological tumor death after radiation. Early detection of apoptosis may be beneficial for cancer adaptive treatment. 99mTc-HYNIC-annexinV has been reported as a promising agent for in vivo apoptosis imaging. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of in vivo99mTc-HYNIC-annexinV imaging of radiation- induced apoptosis, and to investigate its correlation with radiosensitivity. Methods Ten days after inoculation of tumor cells in the right upper limbs, the mice were randomly divided into two groups. The imaging group (4 mice each level, 4 dose levels was injected with 4-8 MBq 99mTc-HYNIC-annexinV 24 hours after irradiation and imaged 1 hr post-injection, and the mice were sacrificed immediately after imaging for biodistribution analysis of annexin V. The observation group (4 mice each level, 2 dose levels was only observed for tumor regression post-radiation. The number of apoptotic cells in a tumor was estimated with TUNEL assay. Results The 99mTc-HYNIC-annexin V uptake in E14 lymphoma significantly increased as the radiation dose escalated from 0 to 8 Gy, and significantly correlated with the number of TUNEL-positive cells (r = 0.892, P Conclusion 99mTc-HYNIC-annexinV in vivo imaging is a feasible method to detect early radiation-induced apoptosis in different tumors, and might be predictive for radiation sensitivity.

  1. The Theobroma cacao B3 domain transcription factor TcLEC2 plays a duel role in control of embryo development and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Clemens, Adam; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2014-04-24

    The Arabidopsis thaliana LEC2 gene encodes a B3 domain transcription factor, which plays critical roles during both zygotic and somatic embryogenesis. LEC2 exerts significant impacts on determining embryogenic potential and various metabolic processes through a complicated genetic regulatory network. An ortholog of the Arabidopsis Leafy Cotyledon 2 gene (AtLEC2) was characterized in Theobroma cacao (TcLEC2). TcLEC2 encodes a B3 domain transcription factor preferentially expressed during early and late zygotic embryo development. The expression of TcLEC2 was higher in dedifferentiated cells competent for somatic embryogenesis (embryogenic calli), compared to non-embryogenic calli. Transient overexpression of TcLEC2 in immature zygotic embryos resulted in changes in gene expression profiles and fatty acid composition. Ectopic expression of TcLEC2 in cacao leaves changed the expression levels of several seed related genes. The overexpression of TcLEC2 in cacao explants greatly increased the frequency of regeneration of stably transformed somatic embryos. TcLEC2 overexpressing cotyledon explants exhibited a very high level of embryogenic competency and when cultured on hormone free medium, exhibited an iterative embryogenic chain-reaction. Our study revealed essential roles of TcLEC2 during both zygotic and somatic embryo development. Collectively, our evidence supports the conclusion that TcLEC2 is a functional ortholog of AtLEC2 and that it is involved in similar genetic regulatory networks during cacao somatic embryogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of the functional analysis of a LEC2 ortholog in a species other then Arabidopsis. TcLEC2 could potentially be used as a biomarker for the improvement of the SE process and screen for elite varieties in cacao germplasm.

  2. Comparison of Tc-99m maraciclatide and Tc-99m sestamibi molecular breast imaging in patients with suspected breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Michael K; Morrow, Melissa M B; Hunt, Katie N; Boughey, Judy C; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Conners, Amy Lynn; Rhodes, Deborah J; Hruska, Carrie B

    2017-12-01

    Molecular breast imaging (MBI) performed with 99m Tc sestamibi has been shown to be a valuable technique for the detection of breast cancer. Alternative radiotracers such as 99m Tc maraciclatide may offer improved uptake in breast lesions. The purpose of this study was to compare relative performance of 99m Tc sestamibi and 99m Tc maraciclatide in patients with suspected breast cancer, using a high-resolution dedicated gamma camera for MBI. Women with breast lesions suspicious for malignancy were recruited to undergo two MBI examinations-one with 99m Tc sestamibi and one with 99m Tc maraciclatide. A radiologist interpreted MBI studies in a randomized, blinded fashion to assign an assessment score (1-5) and measured lesion size. Lesion-to-background (L/B) ratio was measured with region-of-interest analysis. Among 39 analyzable patients, 21 malignant tumors were identified in 21 patients. Eighteen of 21 tumors (86%) were seen on 99m Tc sestamibi MBI and 19 of 21 (90%) were seen on 99m Tc maraciclatide MBI (p = 1). Tumor extent measured with both radiopharmaceuticals correlated strongly with pathologic size ( 99m Tc sestamibi, r = 0.84; 99m Tc maraciclatide, r = 0.81). The L/B ratio in detected breast cancers was similar for the two radiopharmaceuticals: 1.55 ± 0.36 (mean ± S.D.) for 99m Tc sestamibi and 1.62 ± 0.37 (mean ± S.D.) for 99m Tc maraciclatide (p = 0.53). No correlation was found between the L/B ratio and molecular subtype for 99m Tc sestamibi (r s  = 0.12, p = 0.63) or 99m Tc maraciclatide (r s  = -0.12, p = 0.64). Of 20 benign lesions, 10 (50%) were seen on 99m Tc sestamibi and 9 of 20 (45%) were seen on 99m Tc maraciclatide images (p = 0.1). The average L/B ratio for benign lesions was 1.34 ±0.40 (mean ±S.D.) for 99m Tc sestamibi and 1.41 ±0.52 (mean ±S.D.) for 99m Tc maraciclatide (p = 0.75). Overall diagnostic performance was similar for both radiopharmaceuticals. AUC from ROC

  3. Direct {sup 99m}Tc labeling of Herceptin (trastuzumab) by {sup 99m}Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.-J.; Yen, C.-L.; Lo, S.-T.; Chen, K.-T. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lo, J.-M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jmlo@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-03-15

    By simply incubating Herceptin (trastuzumab) with [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(OH{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sup +} ion in saline, a significant yield of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled trastuzumab was found to be achievable. The effective labeling may be based on that trastuzumab is inherent with endogenous histidine group to which {sup 99m}Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion can be strongly bound. For practical {sup 99m}Tc labeling processing, trastuzumab was purified beforehand from the commercial product, Herceptin (Genentech) via size exclusion chromatography to remove the excipient, {alpha}-histidine and a high-labeled yield could be obtained by incubating the purified trastuzumab with [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(OH{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sup +}. Retention of bioactivity of the {sup 99m}Tc(I)-labeled trastuzumab was validated using a cell binding test.

  4. Our experience with B.A.R.C. sup(99m)Tc generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, V.; Pandurengan, N.; Lakshmanan, A.V.

    1980-01-01

    sup(99m)Tc has been eluted from its parent 99 Mo by solvent extraction method. It is pointed out that there is considerable variation in the eluted activity in day to day practice and any administration of the isotope to the patient must be measured in an isotope calibrator. Operator dose levels have been recorded which are quite within the permissible levels. (auth.)

  5. A Meteorological Overview of the TC4 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, L.; Selkirk, H. B.; Starr, D. O.; Rosenlof, K.; Newman, P. F.

    2010-01-01

    The TC4 mission in Central America during summer 2007 examined convective transport into the tropical Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) and the evolution of cirrus clouds. The tropical tropopause layer (TTL) circulation is dominated by the Asian monsoon anticyclone and westward winds that stretch from the western Pacific into the Atlantic. During TC4, TTL westward flow over Central America was stronger than normal. Incidence of cold clouds over the Central American region was the third lowest out of 34 years sampled. The major factor was an incipient La Nina, specifically anomalously cold temperatures off the Pacific Coast of South America. Weakness in the low level Caribbean jet caused a shift in the coldest clouds from the Caribbean to the Pacific side of Central America. The character of tropopause temperature variability was that of upward propagating waves generated by local and nonlocal convection. These waves produced tropopause temperature variations of 3 K, with peak-to-peak variations of 8 K. At low levels in Central America, flow from the Sahara desert predominated; further south, the air came from the Amazon region. Convectively influenced air in the upper troposphere came from Central America, the northern Amazon region, the Atlantic ITCZ, and the North American monsoon. In the TTL, Asian and African convection affected the observed air masses. North of 10N in the Central American TTL, African and Asian convection may have contributed as much to the air masses as Central and South American convection. South of 8N, Asian and African convection had far less impact.

  6. Specificity of pH sensitive Tc(V)-DMS for acidophilic osteoclastic bone cells: biological and cellular studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, K.; Konno, A.; Nishio, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Saji, H.; Hashimoto, K.

    2002-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive imaging method for detecting skeletal metastases but the low specificity has decreased its oncological use. Bone scintigraphy has relied on Tc-bisphosphonate (Tc-BP) agents with affinity for the mineral phase. However, bio-functional Tc(V)-DMS agent, sensitive to acid pH of tumoral tissue has shown osteotrophic properties, in adult bone pathologies. Objectives: Basis for understanding the osteotropic character of the pH sensitive Tc(V)-DMS in bone metastasis. Methods: Studies on differential Tc(V)-DMS and Tc-BP accumulation response were carried out by acidophilic osteoclast (OC) and basophilic osteoblast (OB) cells subjected to variable pH incubation media (HEPES, 37 0 C) and by bone tissue of Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAT) bearing mice, exposed to systemic NH4Cl or glucose mediated acidification (GmAc). Agents injected into tail vein and bone radioactivity analyzed. Bone metabolism markers measured in blood and urine (pH, Pi, Ca , Alp, Dpd). Acid-base regulation effect at cellular level, analyzed by using bafilomycin, amiloride, DIDS and acetazolamide inhibitors. Results: Lack of any OB response to acidification or alkalinization detected with either Tc(V)-DMS or Tc-BP agent. However, OC cells were highly sensitivity to acidification only in the presence of Tc(V)-DMS showing great radioactivity increase as the pH was lowered. This specificity also detected, in EAT bearing mice; increased bone tissue accumulation in response to systemic acidification was clearly detected upon administration of Tc(V)-DMS only under GmAc, an experimental model showing high urine excretion of deoxypyridinoline, a bone resorption marker. Conclusion: Peculiarity of multi nucleated OC cells sensitive to the environment pH and their activation in acid pH has been well known. Tc-BP agent showed lack of affinity for OC or OB cells. Specific affinity of OC cells for Tc(V)-DMS and its increased bone accumulation with the systemic pH lowering reflect the p

  7. Imaging of irradiated liver with Tc-99m-sulfur colloid and Tc-99m-IDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfand, M.J.; Saha, S.; Aron, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    In three cases, irradiated regions of liver failed to concentrate Tc-99m-sulfur colloid. In two of these three, imaging with Tc-99m-acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (IDA) agents within five days showed near normal hepatic uptake of this hepatobiliary imaging agent. The hepatic parenchymal cells may be imaged with Tc-99m-IDA in some irradiated regions of liver, despite loss of reticuloendothelial cell function

  8. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose modifies dietary weight loss maintenance success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) were studied as diet-specific prognostic markers for successful weight loss maintenance in participants with overweight. METHODS: After losing ≥ 8% of body weight, participants received one of three ad libitum diets for 6.......12 to -0.43]; P = 0.020). The addition of FI strengthened these associations. CONCLUSIONS: Slightly elevated pretreatment FPG determined success in dietary weight loss maintenance among overweight patients on ad libitum diets differing in macronutrient and fiber content....

  9. Sup(99m)Tc-thioglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckart, H.; Weiland, J.; Blottner, A.; Weiss, M.L.

    1978-01-01

    A procedure for labelling thioglucose with sup(99m)Tc with an efficiency of more than 95% yielding a compound with good in vitro and in vivo stability is presented. Pharmakokinetic studies in rats show slow blood-clearance and significant binding to plasma proteins and erythrocytes. Uptake in the kidneys was high and persistent. The whole body retention curve showed components with effective half-lives of 5 h (44,7%), 1,24 h (19,3%) and 7 min (36%). Autoradiography of kidney tissue reveal concentration of the compound in the epithelial cells of the tubulus of the cortex. No excretion via the liver was observed. The new compound was compared with other kidney scanning agents. Normal controls show in agreement with the animal experiments slow blood clearance and high as well as strong binding to plasma proteins. Whole-body retention combined with organ uptake studies show fast and persistent uptake in the kidneys so that the compound can be used for kidney imaging up to 24 h after application. Cumulative renal excretion is 18% of the dose during the first six hours. Finally, comparative studies of the differences in kidney imaging in normal patients and in patients with diseased kidneys using the new compound as well as conventional scanning agents ( 197 Hg neohydrine) and other sup(99m)Tc labelled compounds are presented. (author)

  10. Expanding the knowledge of the geographic distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcV/TcVI genotypes in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdirene Dos Santos Lima

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi infection is a complex sylvatic enzooty involving a wide range of animal species. Six discrete typing units (DTUs of T. cruzi, named TcI to TcVI, are currently recognized. One unanswered question concerning the epidemiology of T. cruzi is the distribution pattern of TcII and hybrid DTUs in nature, including their virtual absence in the Brazilian Amazon, the current endemic area of Chagas disease in Brazil. Herein, we characterized biological samples that were collected in previous epizootiological studies carried out in the Amazon Basin in Brazil. We performed T. cruzi genotyping using four polymorphic genes to identify T. cruzi DTUs: mini-exon, 1f8, histone 3 and gp72. This analysis was conducted in the following biological samples: (i two T. cruzi isolates obtained by culturing of stools from the triatomine species Rhodnius picttipes and (ii five serum samples from dogs in which trypomastigotes were observed during fresh blood examination. We report for the first time the presence of TcII and hybrid DTUs (TcV/TcVI in the Amazon region in mixed infections with TcI. Furthermore, sequencing of the constitutive gene, gp72, demonstrated diversity in TcII even within the same forest fragment. These data show that TcII is distributed in the five main Brazilian biomes and is likely more prevalent than currently described. It is very probable that there is no biological or ecological barrier to the transmission and establishment of any DTU in any biome in Brazil.

  11. Electrolytic 99mTcO4- reduction: a different pathway to obtain 99mTc-labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savio, E.; Kremer, C.; Gambino, D.; Kremer, E.; Leon, A.

    1991-01-01

    Electrolytic reduction of 99m TcO 4 - at inert electrodes to obtain 99m Tc cationic complexes and in vitro stability of labelled compounds were studied. Amines were used as neutral N-donor ligands and a systematic analysis of various parameters involved in the reduction process was performed. Usefulness of electrolytic reduction was proved as an alternative 99m Tc-labelling method. Its most important advantages are: production of complexes with a high radiochemical purity, negligible presence of red-hyd- 99m Tc, lack of foreign materials, simplicity of development and possibility of further applications. (author)

  12. The role of Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging in primary biliary cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Shuke, N.; Kinuya, S.; Takayama, T.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K.

    1991-01-01

    To assess the presence of primary biliary cirrhosis, 15 patients at various histopathologic stages were studied by Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and/or Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging. In the earlier stages (I and II), seven of eight patients (88%) showed uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA. Of seven patients in the same stage, however, four (57%) showed no abnormality on Tc-99m colliod imaging. In three of these four negative patients (75%), uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA was noted. In the later stages (III and IV), all seven patients showed decreased clearance with or without delayed tracer appearance in the intestine and prominent hepatic retention on Tc-99m IDA imaging; with Tc-99m colloid imaging there was enlargement of the spleen and increased activity in the spleen and bone marrow. Thus, Tc-99m IDA imaging is considered to be more useful in revealing this functional disorder at the earlier stage of primary biliary cirrhosis and in evaluating progression from an earlier to a later stage of disease. Tc-99m colloid imaging also effectively evaluated progression

  13. Preoperative radiological diagnosis by 99mTc·MIBI-99mTc subtraction scintigraphy for primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inouye, Takahiro; Tomita, Toshiki; Shinden, Seiichi; Takagi, Hitoshi; Kano, Shigeru.

    1996-01-01

    Preoperative radiological diagnosis constitutes the most important factor for the surgical treatment of hyperparathyroidism. In this regard, MRI is useful for detecting the abnormal parathyroid, but it is often difficult to localize it using MRI only. It is thus necessary to combine this procedure with excellent subtraction scintigraphy. We performed both 201 Tl- 99m Tc and 99m Tc·MIBI- 99m Tc subtraction scintigraphy in seven patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and compared them the radiological results. Five patients presented parathyroid adenomas and the rest hypertrophy of the parathyroid. We could detect the abnormal parathyroid in four patients (57.1%) by 201 Tl- 99m Tc subtraction scintigraphy and in six patients (85.7%) by 99m Tc·MIBI- 99m Tc subtraction scintigraphy. We therefore believe that 99m Tc·MIBI- 99m Tc subtraction scintigraphy will become an essential examination for primary hyperparathyroidism rather than the presently employed 201 Tl- 99m Tc subtraction scintigraphy. (author)

  14. In-house cyclotron production of high-purity Tc-99m and Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Petra; Boschi, Alessandra; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Zagni, Federico; Corazza, Andrea; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micòl; Pupillo, Gaia; Marengo, Mario; Loriggiola, Massimo; Skliarova, Hanna; Mou, Liliana; Cisternino, Sara; Carturan, Sara; Melendez-Alafort, Laura; Uzunov, Nikolay M; Bello, Michele; Alvarez, Carlos Rossi; Esposito, Juan; Duatti, Adriano

    2018-05-30

    In the last years, the technology for producing the important medical radionuclide technetium-99m by cyclotrons has become sufficiently mature to justify its introduction as an alternative source of the starting precursor [ 99m Tc][TcO 4 ] - ubiquitously employed for the production of 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals in hospitals. These technologies make use almost exclusively of the nuclear reaction 100 Mo(p,2n) 99m Tc that allows direct production of Tc-99m. In this study, it is conjectured that this alternative production route will not replace the current supply chain based on the distribution of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators, but could become a convenient emergency source of Tc-99m only for in-house hospitals equipped with a conventional, low-energy, medical cyclotron. On this ground, an outline of the essential steps that should be implemented for setting up a hospital radiopharmacy aimed at the occasional production of Tc-99m by a small cyclotron is discussed. These include (1) target production, (2) irradiation conditions, (3) separation/purification procedures, (4) terminal sterilization, (5) quality control, and (6) Mo-100 recovery. To address these issues, a comprehensive technology for cyclotron-production of Tc-99m, developed at the Legnaro National Laboratories of the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (LNL-INFN), will be used as a reference example. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microbiological test results using three urine pretreatment regimes with 316L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    1993-01-01

    Three urine pretreatments, (1) Oxone (Dupont) and sulfuric acid, (2) sodium hypochlorite and sulfuric acid, (3) and ozone, were studied for their ability to reduce microbial levels in urine and minimize surface attachment to 316L stainless steel coupons. Urine samples inoculated with Bacillus insolitus and a filamentous mold, organisms previously recovered from the vapor compression distillation subsystem of NASA Space Station Freedom water recovery test were tested in glass corrosion cells containing base or weld metal coupons. Microbial levels, changes in pH, color, turbidity, and odor of the fluid were monitored over the course of the 21-day test. Specimen surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy at completion of the test for microbial attachment. Ozonated urine samples were less turbid and had lower microbial levels than controls or samples receiving other pretreatments. Base metal coupons receiving pretreatment were relatively free of attached bacteria. However, well-developed biofilms were found in the heat-affected regions of welded coupons receiving Oxone and hypochlorite pretreatments. Few bacteria were observed in the same regions of the ozone pretreatment sample.

  16. Predictors of pretreatment CA125 at ovarian cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babic, Ana; Cramer, Daniel W; Kelemen, Linda E

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is a glycoprotein expressed by epithelial cells of several normal tissue types and overexpressed by several epithelial cancers. Serum CA125 levels are mostly used as an aid in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer patients, to monitor response to treatment and detect...... in CA125 between studies and linear regression to estimate the association between epidemiologic factors and tumor characteristics and pretreatment CA125 levels. RESULTS: In age-adjusted models, older age, history of pregnancy, history of tubal ligation, family history of breast cancer, and family...... cancer recurrence. Besides tumor characteristics, CA125 levels are also influenced by several epidemiologic factors, such as age, parity, and oral contraceptive use. Identifying factors that influence CA125 levels in ovarian cancer patients could aid in the interpretation of CA125 values for individuals...

  17. Biodegradation of carbofuran in pretreated and non-pretreated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camper, N.D.; Fleming, M.M.; Skipper, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,2-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranylmethyl-carbamate) is a broad spectrum insecticide which is effective against soil insects in corn, rice, sugar cane, peanuts, cotton and pests on potatoes. Decreased effectiveness of insect control in soils treated with carbofuran was observed after soils had been treated for a number of years. Loss of efficacy was not related to insect resistance or soil leaching. Irreversible adsorption was not involved; however, the carbofuran levels in the soil were lower than expected. Repeated applications of carbofuran increased the rate of degradation. The objective of these experiments was to study the potential of enhanced 14 C-carbofuran degradation in two South Carolina soils which had been treated for several successive years. The degree of degradation and type of degradation products were also determined

  18. 99mTc-MIBI, 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 99mTc-Q12 in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Bert F.; Krenning, Eric P.; Breeman, Wout A. P.; Ensing, Geert; Benjamins, Harry; Bakker, Willem H.; Visser, Theo J.; Jong, Marion de

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare uptake of 99m Tc-MIBI, 99m Tc-tetrofosmin and 99m Tc-Q12 in vitro and biodistribution in vivo in rats. In vitro, uptake decreased in the order MIBI→tetrofosmin→Q12. Uptake of MIBI and tetrofosmin, but not of Q12, in cultured tumor cells was dependent on the plasma membrane and mitochondrial potential. In vivo, heart uptake of all three compounds was high and stable. Tumor uptake decreased in the order MIBI→Q12→tetrofosmin and the tumor/blood ratio in the order MIBI→tetrofosmin→Q12

  19. Antibacterial effect of surface pretreatment techniques against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial surface pretreatment methods against Streptococcus mutans within the infected dentin surface using a tooth cavity model. Material and Methods: Seventy-two cavities were prepared on caries-free third molars (n = 8). After sterilization, teeth were inoculated ...

  20. Bromine pretreated chitosan for adsorption of lead

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pollution by heavy metals like lead (II) is responsible for health hazards and environmental degradation. Adsorption is a prevalent method applied for removal of heavy metal pollutants from water. This study explored adsorption performances of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan for lead (II) abatement from water. Bromine ...

  1. Effective pretreatment of coal for briquetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunami, Y; Nishioka, K; Sugimoto, Y

    1980-01-01

    The pretreatment of coal for briquetting is considered in an attempt to improve the quality of the briquets produced. Crushing of coal to obtain a size distribution suitable for close packing was found to be effective in improving coking properties while drying of coal was found to be effective in increasing briquet density. (In Japanese)

  2. Biomass Deconstruction and Pretreatment Publications | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis, ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering Eight black-and-white micrograph images of corn Hydrocarbons via Aqueous Phase Hydrodeoxygenation, Green Chemistry Image of a diagram with a curved line Chemistry & Engineering Image of a diagram corn stover pretreatment showing arrows pointing from "

  3. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using Fenton chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretreatment is a necessary step in “biomass to biofuel conversion” due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass. White-rot fungi utilize peroxidases and hydrogen peroxide (in vivo Fenton chemistry) to degrade lignin. In an attempt to mimic this process, solution phase Fenton chemistry ...

  4. Comparison of relative renal function measured with either 99m Tc-DTPA or 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, F.C.; Fujikawa, G.Y.; Decker, H.; Alonso, G.; Pereira, J.C.; Duarte, P.S. [Centro de Diagnostico Fleury, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Medicina Nuclear; Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Saude Publica. Dept. de Epidemiologia]. E-mail: paulo.duarte@fleury.com.br

    2006-07-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the renal function measured with either {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA or {sup 99m}Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. Methods: the values of relative renal function measured in 111 renal dynamic scintigraphies performed either with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA (55 studies) or with {sup 99m}Tc-EC (56 studies) were compared with the relative function measured using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy performed within a 1-month period. The comparisons were performed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The number of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and {sup 99m}Tc-EC studies that presented relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA, using chi square test were also compared. Results: the relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-EC is not statistically different from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA (p = 0.97). The relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA was statistically different from that measured using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA, but with a borderline statistical significance (p = 0.05). The number of studies with relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA is higher for the {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA scintigraphy (p 0.04) than for {sup 99m}Tc-EC. Conclusion: the relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphy is comparable with that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy, while the relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA dynamic scintigraphy presents a significant statistical difference from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. (author)

  5. Comparison of relative renal function measured with either 99m Tc-DTPA or 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, F.C.; Fujikawa, G.Y.; Decker, H.; Alonso, G.; Pereira, J.C.; Duarte, P.S.; Sao Paulo Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the renal function measured with either 99m Tc-DTPA or 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured using 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. Methods: the values of relative renal function measured in 111 renal dynamic scintigraphies performed either with 99m Tc-DTPA (55 studies) or with 99m Tc-EC (56 studies) were compared with the relative function measured using 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy performed within a 1-month period. The comparisons were performed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The number of 99m Tc-DTPA and 99m Tc-EC studies that presented relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA, using chi square test were also compared. Results: the relative renal function measured with 99m Tc-EC is not statistically different from that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA (p = 0.97). The relative renal function measured with 99m Tc-DTPA was statistically different from that measured using 99m Tc-DMSA, but with a borderline statistical significance (p = 0.05). The number of studies with relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA is higher for the 99m Tc-DTPA scintigraphy (p 0.04) than for 99m Tc-EC. Conclusion: the relative renal function measured with 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphy is comparable with that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy, while the relative renal function measured with 99m Tc-DTPA dynamic scintigraphy presents a significant statistical difference from that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. (author)

  6. Assessment of renal function with the Tc-99m-MAG3 clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keske, U.; Corcles, M.; Andreessen, R.; Wilfling, M.; Roll, D.; Gahl, G.; Felix, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the applicability of the 99m-Tc-mercaptoacetyle-triglycine (MAG3) clearance for the documentation of renal function. Renal clearance was measured with the method of Tauxe in 699 patients during routine renal scintigraphy with 80 MBq of 99mTc-MAG3. Serum creatinine level and MAG3 clearance show an inverse correlation. Patients with an elevated serum creatinine level constantly have a lowered MAG3 clearance and vice versa. For creatinine values lower than 1.8 mg/dL, minor changes in creatinine level are accompanied by large changes in MAG3 clearance. Age (in years) dependence of MAG3 clearance was evaluated in 487 patients who showed no evidence of impaired renal function

  7. Reconstitution of Th17, Tc17 and Treg cells after paediatric haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsen, Katrine; Ryder, Lars P; Lennox-Hvenekilde, David

    2018-01-01

    behind these associations have not been investigated previously. We hypothesized that increased levels of IL-7 post-transplant alters the balance between immune-regulatory T cell subsets during the post-transplant lymphocyte recovery towards a more pro-inflammatory profile. We quantified Th17 cells, Tc17.......025). The plasma level of IL-7 at day +90 correlated inversely with Th17 cell counts (rs=-0.65, P=0.0002) and the proportion of Tc17 cells (rs=0.64, P=0.0005) at day +90, but not with Tregs. Furthermore, high IL-7 levels at day +7 were predictive of a less naïve T-cell phenotype at day +90. These findings add...

  8. Csintigraphic imaging of experimental cardiomyopathy in dogs using /sup 99m/Tc-hexylidene aminodiphosphonate (/sup 99m/Tc-AHDP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duska, F; Vizda, J; Kafka, P; Kubicek, J; Mazurova, Y; Palicka, V; Grossmann, V

    1987-11-01

    Scintiscanning of the myocardium using /sup 99m/Tc-AHDP (hexylidene aminodiphosphonate) was performed in 12 dogs with experimental cardiomyopathy, induced by a large intravenous dose of theophylline and adrenaline. A marked positivity of the scan was determined in animals with 4 and 24 hours-old lesions. The scans proved to be negative after 7 days. The scintigraphic examinations yielded results which were in agreement with the plasma level of creatine kinase, a comparison with histological examination revealed that the maximum accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical occurred at the time the myocardium damage reached the stage of myocytolysis. /sup 99m/Tc-AHDP is therefore suitable for the detection of mild myocardium damage at its early stages. (author). 1 fig., 1 tab., 20 refs.

  9. Impact of missing attenuation and scatter corrections on 99m Tc-MAA SPECT 3D dosimetry for liver radioembolization using the patient relative calibration methodology: A retrospective investigation on clinical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Francesca; Ferrari, Mahila; Chiesa, Carlo; Vitali, Sara; Guerriero, Francesco; Nile, Maria Chiara De; Mira, Marta; Lorenzon, Leda; Pacilio, Massimiliano; Cremonesi, Marta

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the clinical implication of performing pre-treatment dosimetry for 90 Y-microspheres liver radioembolization on 99m Tc-MAA SPECT images reconstructed without attenuation or scatter correction and quantified with the patient relative calibration methodology. Twenty-five patients treated with SIR-Spheres ® at Istituto Europeo di Oncologia and 31 patients treated with TheraSphere ® at Istituto Nazionale Tumori were considered. For each acquired 99m Tc-MAA SPECT, four reconstructions were performed: with attenuation and scatter correction (AC_SC), only attenuation (AC_NoSC), only scatter (NoAC_SC) and without corrections (NoAC_NoSC). Absorbed dose maps were calculated from the activity maps, quantified applying the patient relative calibration to the SPECT images. Whole Liver (WL) and Tumor (T) regions were drawn on CT images. Injected Liver (IL) region was defined including the voxels receiving absorbed dose >3.8 Gy/GBq. Whole Healthy Liver (WHL) and Healthy Injected Liver (HIL) regions were obtained as WHL = WL - T and HIL = IL - T. Average absorbed dose to WHL and HIL were calculated, and the injection activity was derived following each Institute's procedure. The values obtained from AC_NoSC, NoAC_SC and NoAC_NoSC images were compared to the reference value suggested by AC_SC images using Bland-Altman analysis and Wilcoxon paired test (5% significance threshold). Absorbed-dose maps were compared to the reference map (AC_SC) in global terms using the Voxel Normalized Mean Square Error (%VNMSE), and at voxel level by calculating for each voxel the normalized difference with the reference value. The uncertainty affecting absorbed dose at voxel level was accounted for in the comparison; to this purpose, the voxel counts fluctuation due to Poisson and reconstruction noise was estimated from SPECT images of a water phantom acquired and reconstructed as patient images. NoAC_SC images lead to activity prescriptions not significantly different from the

  10. Labelling of insulin with 99mTc and its evaluation in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhelose, A.; Raju, A.; Ramamoorthy, N.; George, R.; Soni, P.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In order to assess the feasibility of administering insulin into the respiratory tract as aerosol and determining its efficacy for drug treatment, as an alternative to intramuscular injection, we have studied the labelling of insulin with 99m Tc. 99m Tc insulin was evaluated in rabbits by i.v. injection. Reduction of insulin was carried out with 2 mercaptoethanol (2-ME) at different molar ratios of 3250:1 to 100:1 of insulin 2-ME. The reduced insulin was purified over Sephadex G-75 (7 x 1 cm) column. The fractions were identified and estimated for insulin content by spectrophotometry (280 nm). The labelling of this reduced, purified insulin was carried out using the standard Sn-GHA kit of BRIT. The R.C. purity was determined using ITLC/ normal saline which was found to be 68% at molar ratio 3250:1 of insulin:2-ME and increased to >85% at 100:1 insulin:2-ME. Bioactivity of insulin, after labelling was confirmed by injecting i.v. 99m Tc-insulin in rabbits. The blood sugar level dropped from 96 mg % to 88 % within 30 min which indicated that no significant alteration to the biomolecule structure took place during labelling. This approach thus seems to be promising and further studies with 99m Tc-insulin aerosols are warranted to establish the efficacy

  11. Assessment of bacterial translocation in obstructive jaundice using Tc-99m Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Nelson, David Lee; Barbosa, Alfredo Jose Afonso; Araujo, Ivana Durval; Machado, Leonardo Augusto da Silva; Bernardo Filho, Mario

    2005-01-01

    In obstructive jaundice, the passage of bacteria and endotoxins through the intestine wall to reach the systemic circulation is associated with septicemia, renal failure and pulmonary dysfunction. The aim of this work was to investigate bacterial translocation utilizing 99m Tc-E.coli in an experimental model of obstructive jaundice. The levels of bilirubin in rats that were subjected to ligature of the bile duct were significantly increased when compared to control animals (p 99m Tc-E.coli to the mesenteric lymphatic nodules, liver, spleen or lungs of the rats that suffered ligature of the bile duct (p > 0.05). The evaluation of the intestinal permeability using 'per os' administration of 99m Tc-DTPA showed 1.61 ± 0.57% and 1.39 ± 0.72% of radioactivity in the urine of the control and jaundice animals, respectively. The histological analysis of the distal wall of the ileum showed that the covering epithelium and the crypt were morphologically preserved in both groups. The seven-day period after the ligature of the bile duct may not have been long enough to promote modifications in intestinal wall to occur so as to permit the passage of Tc-99m E.coli. (author)

  12. 99Tc atom counting by quadrupole ICP-MS. Optimisation of the instrumental response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas, Jose L.; Garcia-Leon, Manuel; Bolivar, Juan P.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, an extensive work is done on the specific tune of a conventional ICP-MS for 99 Tc atom counting. For this, two methods have been used and compared: the partial variable control method and the 5D Simplex method. Instrumental limits of detection of 0.2 and 0.8 ppt, respectively, were obtained. They are noticeably lower than that found with the automatic tune method of the spectrometer, 47 ppt, which shows the need of a specific tune when very low levels of 99 Tc have to be determined. A study is presented on the mass interferences for 99 Tc. Our experiments show that the formation of polyatomic atoms or refractory oxides as well as 98 Mo hydrides seem to be irrelevant for 99 Tc atom counting. The opposite occurs with the presence of isobaric interferences, i.e. 99 Ru, and the effect of abundance sensitivity, or low-mass resolution, which can modify the response at m/z=99 to a non-negligible extent

  13. Assessment of bacterial translocation in obstructive jaundice using Tc-99m Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Nelson, David Lee [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia]. E-mail: simone@farmacia.ufmg.br; Barbosa, Alfredo Jose Afonso; Araujo, Ivana Durval; Machado, Leonardo Augusto da Silva [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2005-10-15

    In obstructive jaundice, the passage of bacteria and endotoxins through the intestine wall to reach the systemic circulation is associated with septicemia, renal failure and pulmonary dysfunction. The aim of this work was to investigate bacterial translocation utilizing {sup 99m} Tc-E.coli in an experimental model of obstructive jaundice. The levels of bilirubin in rats that were subjected to ligature of the bile duct were significantly increased when compared to control animals (p < 0.001). The biodistribution results did not show any translocation of {sup 99m} Tc-E.coli to the mesenteric lymphatic nodules, liver, spleen or lungs of the rats that suffered ligature of the bile duct (p > 0.05). The evaluation of the intestinal permeability using 'per os' administration of {sup 99m} Tc-DTPA showed 1.61 {+-} 0.57% and 1.39 {+-} 0.72% of radioactivity in the urine of the control and jaundice animals, respectively. The histological analysis of the distal wall of the ileum showed that the covering epithelium and the crypt were morphologically preserved in both groups. The seven-day period after the ligature of the bile duct may not have been long enough to promote modifications in intestinal wall to occur so as to permit the passage of Tc-99m E.coli. (author)

  14. Radiolabeling of human platelets using four radiopharmaceuticals with Tc-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portillo L, M.C.; Godoy, C.

    1991-01-01

    The present investigation work has been done in an evaluation of four different radiopharmaceuticals with Tin II (Glucoheptonate, Pyrophosphate, Citrate and DTPA), with the purpose of determining which one of the four would be obtained a higher rate of radiolabeling of platelets with Tc-99m. In order to evaluate the four radiopharmaceuticals it was procede to the separation and labeling of the human platelets. It was worked with samples of blood from five pacients, and the platelets from each one of them were labeled with the radiopharmaceuticals-Tc-99m. Then was observed a significant difference among the four radiopharmaceuticals studied, with a reliable level of 0.05 being the Glucoheptonate-Tc-99m the best to label platelets, obtaining with the same 50.23% of labeling efficiency, while for DTPA, Pyrophosphate and Citrate, It was obtained 33.42%, 29.82% and |2.62% respectively. Also, it was studied the biodistribution of the labeled platelets, using Glucoheptonate-Tc-99m as a radiopharamceutical. The biodistribution was studied in white mice at different times and it was founded that the place of biodistribution of the labeled platelets is given in greater percentage in the liver, spleen, lungs and kydneis. (Author)

  15. Electrolytic preparation of sup(99m)Tc human serum albumin using tin electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, D.V.S.; Mani, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    A method for labelling human serum albumin [HSA] with sup(99m)Tc using electrolytically generated Sn/II/ ions has been developed. The procedure uses Sn electrodes for electrolysis and gives high labelling yields. The amount of Sn released into the final product was found to be much less than the reported toxic levels. A ready-to-use kit for obtaining sterile sup(99m)Tc HSA is described. Tin metal wires sealed in aluminium were irradiated in a CIRUS reactor at a neutron flux of 7.5x10 12 n cm -2 sec -1 for one month. The 113 Sn produced in the wire was used for tracer studies with the electrolitically labelled HSA. sup(99m)Tc in the form sodium pertechnetate in 0.9% NaCl was obtained by methyl ethyl ketone extraction from alkaline solutions of neutron irradiated 99 Mo [specific activity 50-200 mCi/g] in the solvent extraction generator developed at Isotope Division, BARC. Radiochemical purity analysis of sup(99m)Tc labelled HSA prepared by the above procedure was carried out by ascending paper chromatography on Whatman No.1 paper, and 85% methanol and 0.9% sodium chloride as solvents. (F.Gy.)

  16. Residual kidney function after donor nephrectomy. Assessment by 99mTc-MAG3-Clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamscho, N.; Doebert, N.; Menzel, C.; Berner, U.; Zaplatnikov, K.; Gruenwald, F.; Wilhelm, A.; Gossmann, J.; Scheuermann, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: We evaluated the long-term residual renal function after donor nephrectomy using 99m Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycin (MAG3)-clearance. Donors, methods: Altogether 49 kidney donors were examined using 99m Tc-MAG3-clearance after nephrectomy for donation to a relative (m:f=11.38; age 55±27 years). The donors were examined 16±8 years postoperatively (1.5-26 years). 42 donors (86%) showed normal creatinine values, whereas the other seven (14%) exhibited slightly elevated levels. 20 donors were examined pre- and postoperatively and compared intraindividually. The kidney function was compared to the age adapted normal values of healthy persons with two kidneys (67-133% of age related mean). Results: After nephrectomy all donors showed a normal perfusion, good secretion, merely physiological intrarenal transit and a normal elimination from the kidneys. The 99m Tc-MAG3-clearance was 69±15% of the normal mean value of healthy carriers of two kidneys regardless of the gender. 20 donors with a preoperative examination showed a significantly reduced total renal function from 84±15% of the mean normal value preoperatively to 60±15% postoperatively (p 99m Tc-MAG3-clearance measured prior to nephrectomy and the clearance levels after nephrectomy. Also, no correlation between the preoperative 99m Tc-MAG3-clearance and the postoperative serum creatinine values could be observed. Althogether, 22% of the donors (11/49) developed arterial hypertension 10±8 years after donation (1-23 years). This corresponds to the normal age prevalence of hypertension in the carriers of two kidneys. Three donors suffered from arterial hypertension prior to the operation. Conclusion: Kidney donors with normal or slightly elevated creatinine values postoperatively show a 99m Tc-MAG3 clearance value of 69% of the mean value of healthy carriers of two kidneys. This may serve as a reference value for healthy carriers of one kidney. In our study we demonstrated a good compensation of the contralateral

  17. Functions and requirements for Project W-236B, Initial Pretreatment Module: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Hanford Site tank waste supernatants will be pretreated to separate the low-level and high-level fractions. The low-level waste fraction, containing the bulk of the chemical constituents, must be processed into a vitrified waste product which will be disposed of onsite, in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost effective manner. The high-level waste fraction separated during supernatant pretreatment (primarily cesium) will be recombined with an additional high-level waste fraction generated from pretreatment of the tank waste sludges and solids. This combined high-level waste fraction will be immobilized as glass and disposed in a geological repository. The purpose of this document is to establish the functional requirements baseline for Project W-236B, Initial Pretreatment Module, by defining the level 5 and 6 functions and requirements for the project. A functional analysis approach has been used to break down the program functions and associated physical requirements that each function must meet. As the systems engineering process evolves, the design requirements document will replace this preliminary functions and requirements document. The design requirements document (DRD) will identify key decisions and associated uncertainties that impact the project. A revision of this document to a DRD is not expected to change the performance requirements or open issues. However, additional requirements and issues may be identified

  18. {sup 201}Tl, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin: relative retention and clearance kinetics in retrogradely perfused guinea pig hearts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Wolfgang M.; Moka, Detlef E-mail: detlef.moka@uni-koeln.de; Brockmann, Holger A.; Schomaecker, Klaus; Schicha, Harald

    2002-02-01

    Myocellular kinetics of {sup 201}Tl, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin were investigated using retrogradely-perfused guinea-pig hearts. Relative retention decreased in the order {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI {yields}{yields} implies {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin {yields}{yields} implies {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin. {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI exhibited bi- (t1,t2), {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin triexponential (t1,t2,t3) time-activity-curves. Latest-phase elimination-half-life increased from {sup 201}Tl (t2) {yields}{yields} implies {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI (t2) {yields}{yields} implies {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin (t3) {yields}{yields} implies {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin (t3), showing a significant increase in deteriorating myocardium for all tracers but {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin. Delayed elimination in deteriorating myocardium explains at least partly the redistribution phenomenon of {sup 201}Tl, and suggests a similar phenomenon for {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin.

  19. Variability in the supply, distribution and transport of the transient tracer 99Tc in the NE Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Peter John; Heldal, Hilde Elise; Mork, Kjell Arne; Rudjord, Anne Liv

    2004-01-01

    In April 1994, a new waste treatment plant, the Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant (EARP), began operation at the nuclear reprocessing facilities at Sellafield in Cumbria, UK. EARP was introduced primarily to reduce the discharges of plutonium and americium, and does not remove technetium-99 ( 99Tc) from the effluents. An increased waste throughput from Sellafield since 1994 has resulted in increased discharges of 99Tc into the Irish Sea. Studies of the propagation of 99Tc from the Irish Sea into the North Sea post-EARP showed much more rapid transport than reported for other radionuclides prior to EARP. The purpose of the present study was fourfold: to extend the geographical range of sampling to allow the continuing spread of EARP-related 99Tc to be followed; to place the results in an appropriate oceanographic setting; to test whether the apparent initial rapid transport had been maintained; and to provide a dataset which could be used for model development and validation. Our results confirm that the EARP-related 99Tc contamination had reached Arctic waters by 2000. The 99Tc concentration was an order of magnitude higher than background levels in the Norwegian Coastal Current (NwCC) outside Tromsø in June/July 1999, and ˜6 times higher than background levels in the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) in May/June 2000. Our results suggest that, following the initial rapid transport of 99Tc from the Irish Sea into the North Sea in 1994-1995, the transport rate from the North Sea and northwards with the NwCC and WSC slowed markedly, in apparent correspondence with variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) winter index.

  20. TC-1 (c8orf4) enhances aggressive biologic behavior in lung cancer through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kai; Huang, Lijun; Li, Wenhai; Yan, Xiaolong; Li, Xiaofei; Zhang, Zhipei; Jin, Faguang; Lei, Jie; Ba, Guangzhen; Liu, Boya; Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Yunjie

    2013-11-01

    The thyroid cancer-1 (TC-1) or c8orf4 gene encodes a 106-residue naturally disordered protein that has been found to be associated with thyroid, gastric, and breast cancer. A recent study has indicated that the protein functions as a positive regulator in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in human breast cancer. However, no research has been done in the area of lung cancer. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to confirm the relationship among TC-1, lung cancer, and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The expression of TC-1 was immunohistochemically examined in 147 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. TC-1-overexpressed and silenced A549 cells were infected using lentivirus and MTT cell proliferation analysis, and Matrigel invasion assays and scratch-wound assays were performed to confirm the biologic behavioral changes in different A549 cell subsets. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, key gene β-catenin, target genes of vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase-7, c-myc, and survivin were tested at the mRNA and protein level. TC-1 was detected in 97 of the 147 non-small-cell lung cancer primary tumor specimens, and its expression correlated with the TNM stage and regional lymph node metastasis (P cell line. Furthermore, expression of TC-1 protein affected the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway's downstream genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-7, at the mRNA and protein level. TC-1 expression is associated with aggressive biologic behavior in lung cancer and might coordinate with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a positive upstream regulator that induces these behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. NON-POLLUTING METAL SURFACE FINISHING PRETREATMENT AND PRETREATMENT/CONVERSION COATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklex, a proprietary formulation, is an alterantive to conventional metal surface pretreatments and is claimed not to produce waste or lower production or lower performance. A laboratory program was designed to evaluate Picklex in common, large scale, polluting surface finishin...

  2. Evaluation of the absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (Mag3) and Tc{sup 99m} (Dmsa); Evaluacion de la dosis absorbida en los rinones debido al Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (MAG3) y Tc{sup 99m} (DMSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez A, M.; Murillo C, F.; Castillo D, C.; Rocha J, J.; Sifuentes D, Y.; Sanchez S, P. [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Av. Juan Pablo II s/n, Trujillo (Peru); Idrogo C, J.; Marquez P, F., E-mail: marvva@hotmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Av. Angamos 2520, Lima (Peru)

    2015-10-15

    The absorbed dose in the kidneys of adult patients has been assessed using the biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (Mag3) or Tc{sup 99m} (Dmsa).The absorbed dose was calculated using the formalism MIRD and the Cristy-Eckerman representation for the kidneys. The absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (Mag3), are given by 0.00466 mGy.MBq{sup -1} / 0.00339 mGy.MBq{sup -1}. Approximately 21.2% of the absorbed dose is due to the bladder (content) and the remaining tissue, included in biokinetics of Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (Mag3). The absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc{sup 99m} (Dmsa) is 0.17881 mGy.MBq{sup -1}. Here, 1.7% of the absorbed dose is due to the bladder, spleen, liver and the remaining tissue, included in biokinetics of Tc{sup 99m} (Dmsa). (Author)

  3. Pretreatment of Reed by Wet Oxidation and Subsequent Utilization of the Pretreated Fibers for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szijarto, Nora; Kádár, Zsófia; Varga, Eniko

    2009-01-01

    lignocelluloses usually do. In the present study, wet oxidation was investigated as the pretreatment method to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of reed cellulose to soluble sugars and thus improve the convertibility of reed to ethanol. The most effective treatment increased the digestibility of reed cellulose...... of cellulose to glucose was 82.4%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated solids resulted in a final ethanol concentration as high as 8.7 g/L, yielding 73% of the theoretical....

  4. Combined bone scintigraphy with 99mTc-MDP and 99mTc-ciprofloxacin in differentiation of hip and knee prosthesis aseptic loosening and infection: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucar Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Although the number of new primary implantation of hip and knee prostheses every year increases, the rate of failed arthroplasty is nearly the same. The main question is whether it is an aseptic instability or instability caused by infection. The aim of this preliminary study was an attempt with combined 99mTc-ciprofloxacin and 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP bone scintigraphy to improve diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation of hip and knee prosthesis aseptic loosening and periprosthetic joint infection. Methods. Inclusion criteria of patients for this study were based on suspected periprosthetic joint infection: painful prosthetic joint, restricted joint movements and increased value of erythrocyte sedimentation rate or levels of C-reactive protein. We examined 20 patients with implanted 14 hip and 6 knee prosthesis. All patients also underwent plain radiography of suspected joint. In all patients, three-phase 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy was performed. Three to five days after the bone scan, we performed scintigraphy using 99mTc-ciprofloxacin with the calculation of accumulation index. Periprosthetic joint infection was confirmed on the basis of microbiological findings. Results. Periprosthetic joint infection was confirmed in fourteen of twenty observed joints, in five of them the aseptic loosening was present and in one patient’s symptoms were not related to the prosthesis (poor biomechanics of prosthetic joints caused by weaknesses of muscle. Estimated sensitivity/specificity for 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy alone were 100/17%; for 99mTc-ciprofloxacin scintigraphy were 85,7/100%. Sensitivity and specificity were 92,3% and 83,3%, respectively for results obtained with combined assessment by both methods. Our study confirmed the high negative predictive value of 99mTc-MDP bone scan. The negative result of bone scan virtually excludes the possibility of periprosthetic infection. On the other hand, positive findings of

  5. Statement of work for architect-engineer services, initial pretreatment module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, K.B.

    1994-01-01

    This Statement of Work describes the Architect-Engineer services to be provided by Raytheon/BNFL in providing a conceptual design (Contract TGW-SVV-063869) for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM), Project W-236B, at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington. The IPM Project, a radiochemical process facility, will be designed and constructed for an initial phase of waste pretreatment, which will be for the removal of cesium from supernatant wastes to produce a Low-level waste (LLW) stream to a vitrification facility. The design shall also accommodate side streams of High-Level Waste (HLW) fractions that will be directed to suitable, existing storage tanks where they will be recombined with an additional high-activity waste fraction generated from pretreatment of the tank waste sludges and solids. This combined high-activity waste fraction will be immobilized as glass and disposed in a geological repository

  6. Microwave-Assisted Alkali Pre-Treatment, Densification and Enzymatic Saccharification of Canola Straw and Oat Hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, Obiora S; Tabil, Lope G; Dumonceaux, Tim

    2017-03-26

    The effects of microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment on pellets' characteristics and enzymatic saccharification for bioethanol production using lignocellulosic biomass of canola straw and oat hull were investigated. The ground canola straw and oat hull were immersed in distilled water, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide solutions at two concentrations (0.75% and 1.5% w/v) and exposed to microwave radiation at power level 713 W and three residence times (6, 12 and 18 min). Bulk and particle densities of ground biomass samples were determined. Alkaline-microwave pre-treated and untreated samples were subjected to single pelleting test in an Instron universal machine, pre-set to a load of 4000 N. The measured parameters, pellet density, tensile strength and dimensional stability were evaluated and the results showed that the microwave-assisted alkali pre-treated pellets had a significantly higher density and tensile strength compared to samples that were untreated or pre-treated by microwave alone. The chemical composition analysis showed that microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment was able to disrupt and break down the lignocellulosic structure of the samples, creating an area of cellulose accessible to cellulase reactivity. The best enzymatic saccharification results gave a high glucose yield of 110.05 mg/g dry sample for canola straw ground in a 1.6 mm screen hammer mill and pre-treated with 1.5% NaOH for 18 min, and a 99.10 mg/g dry sample for oat hull ground in a 1.6 mm screen hammer mill and pre-treated with 0.75% NaOH for 18 min microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatments. The effects of pre-treatment results were supported by SEM analysis. Overall, it was found that microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment of canola straw and oat hull at a short residence time enhanced glucose yield.

  7. Performance of TcI/TcVI/TcII Chagas-Flow ATE-IgG2a for universal and genotype-specific serodiagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Diniz Alessio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Distinct Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes have been considered relevant for patient management and therapeutic response of Chagas disease. However, typing strategies for genotype-specific serodiagnosis of Chagas disease are still unavailable and requires standardization for practical application. In this study, an innovative TcI/TcVI/TcII Chagas Flow ATE-IgG2a technique was developed with applicability for universal and genotype-specific diagnosis of T. cruzi infection. For this purpose, the reactivity of serum samples (percentage of positive fluorescent parasites-PPFP obtained from mice chronically infected with TcI/Colombiana, TcVI/CL or TcII/Y strain as well as non-infected controls were determined using amastigote-AMA, trypomastigote-TRYPO and epimastigote-EPI in parallel batches of TcI, TcVI and TcII target antigens. Data demonstrated that "α-TcII-TRYPO/1:500, cut-off/PPFP = 20%" presented an excellent performance for universal diagnosis of T. cruzi infection (AUC = 1.0, Se and Sp = 100%. The combined set of attributes "α-TcI-TRYPO/1:4,000, cut-off/PPFP = 50%", "α-TcII-AMA/1:1,000, cut-off/PPFP = 40%" and "α-TcVI-EPI/1:1,000, cut-off/PPFP = 45%" showed good performance to segregate infections with TcI/Colombiana, TcVI/CL or TcII/Y strain. Overall, hosts infected with TcI/Colombiana and TcII/Y strains displayed opposite patterns of reactivity with "α-TcI TRYPO" and "α-TcII AMA". Hosts infected with TcVI/CL strain showed a typical interweaved distribution pattern. The method presented a good performance for genotype-specific diagnosis, with global accuracy of 69% when the population/prototype scenario include TcI, TcVI and TcII infections and 94% when comprise only TcI and TcII infections. This study also proposes a receiver operating reactivity panel, providing a feasible tool to classify serum samples from hosts infected with distinct T. cruzi genotypes, supporting the potential of this method for universal and genotype-specific diagnosis

  8. Nuclear quadrupole moment of the 99Tc ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errico, Leonardo; Darriba, German; Renteria, Mario; Tang Zhengning; Emmerich, Heike; Cottenier, Stefaan

    2008-01-01

    By combining first-principles calculations and existing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, we determine the quadrupole moment of the 9/2 + ground state of 99 Tc to be (-)0.14(3)b. This confirms the value of -0.129(20)b, which is currently believed to be the most reliable experimental determination, and disagrees with two earlier experimental values. We supply ab initio calculated electric-field gradients for Tc in YTc 2 and ZrTc 2 . If this calculated information would be combined with yet to be performed Tc-NMR experiments in these compounds, the error bar on the 99 Tc ground state quadrupole moment could be further reduced

  9. /sup 99m/Tc labelled ulcer avid agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scopinaro, F.; Linari, G.; Baldieri, M.; Liberatore, M.; Corti, E.; Signori, C.

    1986-01-01

    Sulfated oligosaccharides have some interesting pharmacological properties: they are anticoagulants and protect the ulcerative areas of epithelia by precipitating over ulcers together with exudative proteins. Some sucralfate labelling methods using /sup 75/Se, /sup 111/In, /sup 99m/Tc-albumin and /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA have been reported. Only the /sup 99m/Tc-sucralfate has, at present, the requisites to be used as an ulcer-seeking agent. The aim of this study were: (a) to introduce a simple and easy-to-repeat method for the labelling of sucralfate with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA; (b) to demonstrate that it is possible to label the sucrose octasulfate directly with /sup 99m/Tc without the aid of other ligands (e.g. DTPA)

  10. Clinical application of SPECT-CT with 99mTc-Tektrotyd in bronchial and thymic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergieva, Sonya; Robev, Bozhil; Dimcheva, Milena; Fakirova, Albena; Hristoskova, Radka

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the thorax including bronchial and thymic tumors belong to foregut NETs. Limited loco-regional thoracic NETs can be resected with surgery, but in extensive metastatic disease the treatment is mainly palliative. A high incidence and density of somatostatin receptors (SSTR2, SSTR3, and SSTR5) are found in thoracic NETs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of SPECT-CT somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with 99mTc-Tektrotyd for imaging, staging and follow up of patients with bronchial and thymic neuroendocrine tumors. Forty-one patients with thoracic tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation were studied. Sixty-eight examinations including SPECT-CT studies of the neck and chest and/or abdomen and pelvis were carried out 2-4 hrs. post i.v. administration of aver-age 740 MBq activity dose of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC (Tektrotyd, Polatom). In all 41 investigated patients we obtained 81.25% (13/16), 88% (22/25) and 85.36% (35/41) of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of this diagnostic approach, respectively. Somatostatin-receptor scintigraphy correctly identified all primary NETs located in the lungs and thymus. SPECT-CT studies with 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC resulted in exact pre-surgical and pre-treatment N/M staging of bronchial and thymic NETs, except 2 cases with multiple hepatic metastases and 1 with massive suprarenal metastasis. It can be concluded that SPECT-CT with 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC is a valuable tool for staging and follow-up of patients with thoracic NETs.

  11. Comparisons of five Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haifeng; Lan, Tianqing; Dien, Bruce S; Hector, Ronald E; Zhu, J Y

    2014-01-01

    The performances of five yeast strains under three levels of toxicity were evaluated using hydrolysates from lodgepole pine pretreated by Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL). The highest level of toxicity was represented by the whole pretreated biomass slurry, while intermediate toxicity was represented by the hydrolysate with partial loading of pretreatment spent liquor. The zero toxicity was represented using the enzymatic hydrolysate produced from thoroughly washed SPORL lodgepole pine solids. The results indicate that strains D5A and YRH400 can tolerate the whole pretreated biomass slurry to produce 90.1 and 73.5% theoretical ethanol yield. Strains Y1528, YRH403, and FPL450 did not grow in whole hydrolysate cultures and were observed to have lower ethanol productivities than D5A and YRH400 on the hydrolysate with intermediate toxicity. Both YRH400 and YRH403 were genetically engineered for xylose fermentation but were not able to consume xylose efficiently in hydrolysate. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  12. AC losses in high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Although in principle the AC losses in high Tc superconductors can be calculated from the critical current density, a number of complications make this difficult. The Jc is very field dependent, there are intergranular and intragranular critical currents, the material is anisotropic and there is usually a large demagnetising factor. Care must be taken in interpreting electrical measurements since the voltage depends on the position of the contacts. In spite of these complications the simple theory of Norris has proved surprisingly successful and arguments will be presented as to why this is the case. Results on a range of tapes will be compared with theory and numerical methods for predicting losses discussed. Finally a theory for coupling losses will be given for a composite conductor with high resistance barriers round the filaments

  13. RILEM TC ISR Summer 2015 Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pape, Yann [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    With aging infrastructures, instances of Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) and Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF), broadly covered under the term Internal Swelling Reaction (ISR), are increasingly being detected. They have been observed in bridges, dams, and most recently in nuclear power plants. Concrete swelling may result in bridge partial failure, dams with structural cracks and misaligned turbine shafts, and locked slice gates. For nuclear reactors micro-cracks may cause increased gas permeability which will jeopardize the containment integrity and may decrease the residual structural resistance under accidental loading. This TC, which limits its activity to structures with known expansive concrete, seeks to address two complementary but fundamental questions: a) What is the kinetics of the reaction and b) How would it affect the integrity of the structure (serviceability and strength) and thus establish a science based prognostic to the structure owner.

  14. 99mTc-RBC subtraction scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Syoichi; Tonami, Syuichi; Yasui, Masakazu; Kuranishi, Makoto; Sugishita, Kouki; Nakamura, Mamoru

    1994-01-01

    Sequential abdominal scintigrams with 99m Tc-labelled red blood cells (RBC) were subtracted for observing a site of gastrointestinal bleeding and calculating the bleeding rate. This method is technically very easy and can detect the site of bleeding with the minimum rate, as low as 0.2 ml/min., in a phantom experiment. In 23 cases with final diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding, conventional non-subtraction scintigraphy detected only 30% (7/23), but subtraction scintigraphy detected 61% (14/23). It was concluded that subtraction scintigraphy had higher sensitivity than conventional scintigraphy for early diagnosing bleeding. A combination of non-subtraction and subtraction scintigraphy is recommended to detect a site of gastrointestinal bleeding in a clinical setting. (author)

  15. Pre-treating water with non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Rabinovich, Alexander; Cho, Daniel J.

    2017-07-04

    The present invention consists of a method of pre-treatment of adulterated water for distillation, including adulterated water produced during hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") of shale rock during natural gas drilling. In particular, the invention is directed to a method of treating adulterated water, said adulterated water having an initial level of bicarbonate ion in a range of about 250 ppm to about 5000 ppm and an initial level of calcium ion in a range of about 500 ppm to about 50,000 ppm, said method comprising contacting the adulterated water with a non-thermal arc discharge plasma to produce plasma treated water having a level of bicarbonate ion of less than about 100 ppm. Optionally, the plasma treated water may be further distilled.

  16. Pretreatment with polyamines alleviate the deleterious effects of diuron in maize leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmuş, Nuran; Bekircan, Tuba

    2015-03-01

    The effects of diuron, a photosystem II inhibiting herbicide, on lipid peroxidation, photosynthetic pigments, soluble protein, proline contents and some antioxidant enzymes in maize leaves were studied and protective effects of polyamines against diuron toxicity were investigated. Diuron significantly increased lipid peroxidation, suggesting oxidative damage in the plants and proline content, while it decreased total chlorophyll, carotenoid and soluble protein levels in the leaves during the experiments. Pretreatment with polyamines statistically decreased lipid peroxidation induced by diuron and spermine (SPM) proved to be the most effective polyamine. Also, pretreatment with polyamines significantly prevented the losses of total chlorophyll, carotenoid and soluble protein induced by diuron. On the other hand, pretreatment with polyamines significantly increased proline contents of the leaves in comparison with the leaves treated with diuron. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities increased in the leaves treated with diuron while catalase (CAT ) activity decreased. Pretreatment with spermidine (SPD) did not change significantly SOD activity at 24 and 72 hrs of diuron treatment but prevented the increase in SOD activity induced by diuron at 48 h. However, pretreatment with SPD increased GPX activity at 24 h and GR activity at 48 and 72 hrs. CAT activity in the leaves pretreated with SPD was similar to that of the leaves treated with diuron. Pretreatment with SPM prevented the increase in SOD activity induced by diuron at 48 h but significantly increased it at 72 h of diuron treatment. However, pretreatment with SPM did not significantly change GPX and GR activities during the experiments but reversed the decrease in CAT activity induced by diuron at 72 h. Pretreatment with putrescine (PUT) prevented the increase in SOD activity induced by diuron at 48 and 72 hrs while it increased GPX and GR activities at 48

  17. Status of Tc-99m and 99Mo/99mTc generator production in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedin, Md. Zainul; Haque, Md. Azizul; Ali, Md. Ramjan; Hossain, Md. Anwar; Razzaque, Md. Abdur; Yasmin, Lyzu; Waheed, M. Fatima; Akhter, Rabeya; Mondal, Rafiuddin

    2007-01-01

    Radioisotope Production Division (RIPD) produced instant technetium-99m by solvent extraction method for several years. On R and D basis, the division produced portable sterile Tc-99m sublimation generator by irradiating titanium molybdate in the reactor. The division produced (4/batch) from imported fission Mo-99 till June 2005. Since August 2005, as per demand of the government hospitals, the division have been producing 12-14 pieces of 15 GBq chromatographic 99m Tc-generators weekly by using the new generator production plant installed last year having online Mo-99 loading system with the of producing 50 generator per batch. Development of PZC and (n,γ) 99 Mo based generator holds potential in Bangladesh. (author)

  18. Soil-to-plant transfer of 99mTc: how to determine Tc-species in uptake and transport processes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krijger, G. C.; Van Elswijk, D. A.; Wolterbeek, H. Th.

    1995-01-01

    Selective extraction, filtration and capillary electrophoresis were used to recognize problems dealing with complexation, oxidation and ligand-exchange processes during collection and analysis of Tc-species in xylem exudates, while 99m Tc-citrate was used as a marker complex. Relatively unstable Tc-species were synthesized in xylem exudates. Oxidation of relative unstable Tc-species during the collection of xylem exudates was suggested, requiring new, better procedures to recognize Tc-species representative for the plant interior. (author)

  19. Influence of ursodeoxycholic acid on hepatobiliary scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan in chronic liver diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Tomihiro; Katagiri, Kenji; Shiraki, Shigehiro and others

    1988-11-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy using /sup 99m/Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (PMT) was used to elucidate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment on chronic liver diseases. After UDCA administration, the peak of the hepatic uptake-excretion curve of /sup 99m/Tc-PMT (peak time) was significantly shortened. Serum ..gamma..-GTP level also improved during UDCA therapy. These results suggest that UDCA enhances uptake especially of anions like /sup 99m/Tc-PMT, and increases their secretion into bile. Consequently, UDCA may be pharmachologically useful for chronic liver diseases.

  20. The influence of ursodeoxycholic acid on hepatobiliary scintigraphy with 99mTc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan in chronic liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Tomihiro; Katagiri, Kenji; Shiraki, Shigehiro

    1988-01-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy using 99m Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (PMT) was used to elucidate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment on chronic liver diseases. After UDCA administration, the peak of the hepatic uptake-excretion curve of 99m Tc-PMT (peak time) was significantly shortened. Serum γ-GTP level also improved during UDCA therapy. These results suggest that UDCA enhances uptake especially of anions like 99m Tc-PMT, and increases their secretion into bile. Consequently, UDCA may be pharmachologically useful for chronic liver diseases. (author)

  1. The biological characterization of {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO-NI as a SPECT probe for imaging hypoxia in a sarcoma-bearing mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsia, Chien-Chung [Institute of Biomedical imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China); Huang, Fu-Lei [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China); Hung, Guang-Uei [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang-Bing Show Chwan Hospital, Taiwan (China); Shen, Lie-Hang [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chuan-Lin, E-mail: clchen2@ym.edu.t [Institute of Biomedical imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Wang, Hsin-Ell, E-mail: hewang@ym.edu.t [Institute of Biomedical imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China)

    2011-04-15

    tumor blood perfusion was obvious. The tumor-to-muscle ratios at 2 h post-injection of {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO-NI with and without pentoxifylline pretreatment were 1.67{+-}0.38 and 2.59{+-}0.25, respectively (p=0.025, n=3). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO-NI is a hypoxia-sensitive radio probe for monitoring hypoxic regions in a malignant neoplasm. However, {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO-NI, though with higher lipophilicity than {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO, did not achieve better specific accumulation in hypoxic tissues. {sup 99m}Tc-BnAO-NI/SPECT could be applied in clinics to noninvasively evaluate the feasibility of using pentoxifylline as a radiosensitizer by reducing tumor hypoxia in vivo.

  2. The biological characterization of 99mTc-BnAO-NI as a SPECT probe for imaging hypoxia in a sarcoma-bearing mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsia, Chien-Chung; Huang, Fu-Lei; Hung, Guang-Uei; Shen, Lie-Hang; Chen, Chuan-Lin; Wang, Hsin-Ell

    2011-01-01

    -to-muscle ratios at 2 h post-injection of 99m Tc-BnAO-NI with and without pentoxifylline pretreatment were 1.67±0.38 and 2.59±0.25, respectively (p=0.025, n=3). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that 99m Tc-BnAO-NI is a hypoxia-sensitive radio probe for monitoring hypoxic regions in a malignant neoplasm. However, 99m Tc-BnAO-NI, though with higher lipophilicity than 99m Tc-BnAO, did not achieve better specific accumulation in hypoxic tissues. 99m Tc-BnAO-NI/SPECT could be applied in clinics to noninvasively evaluate the feasibility of using pentoxifylline as a radiosensitizer by reducing tumor hypoxia in vivo.

  3. Solubility of Plutonium (IV) Oxalate During Americium/Curium Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 15,000 L of solution containing isotopes of americium and curium (Am/Cm) will undergo stabilization by vitrification at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Prior to vitrification, an in-tank pretreatment will be used to remove metal impurities from the solution using an oxalate precipitation process. Material balance calculations for this process, based on solubility data in pure nitric acid, predict approximately 80 percent of the plutonium in the solution will be lost to waste. Due to the uncertainty associated with the plutonium losses during processing, solubility experiments were performed to measure the recovery of plutonium during pretreatment and a subsequent precipitation process to prepare a slurry feed for a batch melter. A good estimate of the plutonium content of the glass is required for planning the shipment of the vitrified Am/Cm product to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The plutonium solubility in the oxalate precipitation supernate during pretreatment was 10 mg/mL at 35 degrees C. In two subsequent washes with a 0.25M oxalic acid/0.5M nitric acid solution, the solubility dropped to less than 5 mg/mL. During the precipitation and washing steps, lanthanide fission products in the solution were mostly insoluble. Uranium, and alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal impurities were soluble as expected. An elemental material balance for plutonium showed that greater than 94 percent of the plutonium was recovered in the dissolved precipitate. The recovery of the lanthanide elements was generally 94 percent or higher except for the more soluble lanthanum. The recovery of soluble metal impurities from the precipitate slurry ranged from 15 to 22 percent. Theoretically, 16 percent of the soluble oxalates should have been present in the dissolved slurry based on the dilution effects and volumes of supernate and wash solutions removed. A trace level material balance showed greater than 97 percent recovery of americium-241 (from the beta dec

  4. Scintimammography with Tc-99m sestamibi in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkovaca, Z.; Mijatovica, J.; Mikac, G.; Matavulj, A.; Kovacevic, P.; Ponorac, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: It is already known that breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Physical breast examination and mammography are currently the most recognized screening tools for detection of breast cancer. However, breast mammography has some limitations, especially in women with dense breast or in patients who have had surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Tc-99m Sestamibi scintimammography in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Forty-two women (median age= 46 years, range 21-78 years) were investigated. All had a thorough clinical examination, ultrasonography, mammography, determination of the level of tumor markers - CA15.3 and CEA, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA) and scintimammography before surgery. The final diagnosis was determined by histopathological examination. For scintimammography, a dose of 740 MBq of Tc-99m sestamibi was injected into a foot vein followed by 10ml saline flush. Imaging was performed 10 minutes later in prone position; lateral views of the breasts and axilla were taken (10 minutes per view, matrix size 128x128, high resolution collimator). Anterior views of the breast and axillary areas were also acquired with patients in supine position. Delayed scintigraphy in prone position (lateral view) was done 60 minutes after injection. Focal accumulation of sestamibi in tumor on early and delayed scintigraphy was considered positive. The results of scintimammography were compared with histopathology. The histopathological results revealed malignancy in 33 (78.6%) and benign tumors in 9 (21.4%) cases. Scintimammography showed true positive findings in 31 (73.8%) patients having breast cancer. It was false negative in 2 cases (1 of invasive ductal carcinoma and 1 of invasive lobular carcinoma). All 5 cases with nonpalpable invasive ductal carcinoma and two cases with ductal carcinoma in-situ were positive on scintimammography. True negative findings with no focally increased

  5. 99mTc-MAG3: can it be a viable alternative to 99mTc-DTPA ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, C.S.; Padhy, A.K.; Nair, R.; Gopinath, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potentials of 99m Tc MAG 3 to replace universally used 99m Tc-DTPA as a routine renal agent. Five patients with different nephrological problems were first studied with 99m Tc MAG 3 and then reinvestigated with 99m Tc-DTPA two to seven days later. Renal MAG 3 gamma camera images were found to be almost identical with those of 99m Tc-DTPA images except high hepatic and splenic uptake of the former compound in four out of five patients (80%) irrespective of kidney function. MAG 3 and DTPA renograms showed identical differential renal uptake function (r=0.87) with slightly higher uptake in right kidneys. Time to reach the peak correlated well (r=0.91). Time to reach half maximum renal activity was also found to be almost identical (r=0.97) for MAG 3 and DTPA. It was felt that the age old 99m Tc-DTPA is as good a compound as 99m Tc MAG 3 with regard to imaging and assessment of renal uptake, drainage and differential renal functions. 99m Tc-DTPA is much cheaper, readily available in India and stable to suit the logistics in a busy nuclear medicine department for routine renography. (author). 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Concentration of sup(99m)Tc from the eluate of 99Mo-sup(99m)Tc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucedo, T.; Mora, M.; Fraga de Suarez, A.H.; Mitta, A.E.A.

    1976-04-01

    A method is described to concentrate sup(99m)Tc solutions, originated in 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generators, independent of its age. The techniques of preparation of the different radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are also described. (author) [es

  7. Effect of Dietary Intake of Stable Iodine on Dose-per-unit-intake Factors for 99Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    It is well-known that the human thyroid concentrates iodine more than 100 times the concentration in plasma. Also well-known is the fact that large amounts of stable iodine in the diet can limit thyroid uptake of total iodine; this is the basis for administering potassium iodide following a release of radioiodine from a nuclear reactor accident or nuclear weapon detonation. Many researchers have shown enhanced concentrations of both organic and inorganic iodine in saliva and breast milk. Technetium-99 is a long-lived (231,000 year half-life) radionuclide of concern in the management of high-level radioactive waste. There is no doubt that 99Tc, if it is in groundwater, will be found in the chemical form of pertechnetate, 99TcO4?. Pertechnetate is a large anion, almost identical in size to iodide, I?. The nuclear medicine literature shows that pertechnetate concentrates in the thyroid, salivary glands, and lactating breast in addition to the stomach, liver, and alimentary tract as currently recognized by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The fact that large intakes of stable iodine (127I) in the diet limit uptake of iodine by the thyroid leads one to generalize that stable iodine in the diet may also limit thyroid uptake of pertechnetate. While there is at least one report that iodine in the diet blocks uptake of 99mTcO4? by the thyroid and salivary glands (which have the same Na/I symporter, the biochemical concentration mechanism), the level of protective effect seen for blocking radioactive iodine is not expected for 99TcO4? because pertechnetate does not become organically bound in the thyroid and thus is not retained for months the way iodide is. While it does account for Tc concentration in the thyroid, the existing ICRP biokinetic model for technetium does not take enhanced concentrations in salivary gland and breast tissue into account. From the survey of the nuclear medicine literature, it is not possible to compute the effect

  8. Effect of Dietary Intake of Stable Iodine on Dose-per-unit-intake Factors for 99Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-01-01

    It is well-known that the human thyroid concentrates iodine more than 100 times the concentration in plasma. Also well-known is the fact that large amounts of stable iodine in the diet can limit thyroid uptake of total iodine; this is the basis for administering potassium iodide following a release of radioiodine from a nuclear reactor accident or nuclear weapon detonation. Many researchers have shown enhanced concentrations of both organic and inorganic iodine in saliva and breast milk. Technetium-99 is a long-lived (231,000 year half-life) radionuclide of concern in the management of high-level radioactive waste. There is no doubt that 99Tc, if it is in groundwater, will be found in the chemical form of pertechnetate, 99TcO4?. Pertechnetate is a large anion, almost identical in size to iodide, I?. The nuclear medicine literature shows that pertechnetate concentrates in the thyroid, salivary glands, and lactating breast in addition to the stomach, liver, and alimentary tract as currently recognized by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The fact that large intakes of stable iodine (127I) in the diet limit uptake of iodine by the thyroid leads one to generalize that stable iodine in the diet may also limit thyroid uptake of pertechnetate. While there is at least one report that iodine in the diet blocks uptake of 99mTcO4? by the thyroid and salivary glands (which have the same Na/I symporter, the biochemical concentration mechanism), the level of protective effect seen for blocking radioactive iodine is not expected for 99TcO4? because pertechnetate does not become organically bound in the thyroid and thus is not retained for months the way iodide is. While it does account for Tc concentration in the thyroid, the existing ICRP biokinetic model for technetium does not take enhanced concentrations in salivary gland and breast tissue into account. From the survey of the nuclear medicine literature, it is not possible to compute the effect

  9. {sup 99}Tc bioassay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, L.A.

    1998-05-01

    A means of analyzing {sup 99}Tc in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been developed. Historically, {sup 99}Tc analysis was based on the radiometric detection of the 293 keV E{sub Max} beta decay product by liquid scintillation or gas flow proportional counting. In a urine matrix, the analysis of{sup 99}Tc is plagued with many difficulties using conventional radiometric methods. Difficulties originate during chemical separation due to the volatile nature of Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} or during radiation detection due to color or chemical quenching. A separation scheme for {sup 99}Tc detection by ICP-MS is given and is proven to be a sensitive and robust analytical alternative. A comparison of methods using radiometric and mass quantitation of {sup 99}Tc has been conducted in water, artificial urine, and real urine matrices at activity levels between 700 and 2,200 dpm/L. Liquid scintillation results based on an external standard quench correction and a quench curve correction method are compared to results obtained by ICP-MS. Each method produced accurate results, however the precision of the ICP-MS results is superior to that of liquid scintillation results. Limits of detection (LOD) for ICP-MS and liquid scintillation detection are 14.67 and 203.4 dpm/L, respectively, in a real urine matrix. In order to determine the basis for the increased precision of the ICP-MS results, the detection sensitivity for each method is derived and measured. The detection sensitivity for the {sup 99}Tc isotope by ICP-MS is 2.175 x 10{sup {minus}7} {+-} 8.990 x 10{sup {minus}9} and by liquid scintillation is 7.434 x 10{sup {minus}14} {+-} 7.461 x 10{sup {minus}15}. A difference by seven orders of magnitude between the two detection systems allows ICP-MS samples to be analyzed for a period of 15 s compared to 3,600 s by liquid scintillation counting with a lower LOD.

  10. Results of a TcTUs-optimized radioiodine therapy of multifocal and disseminated functional thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelmann, S.; Endlicher, D.; Prillwitz, A.; Rudolph, F.; Groth, P.; Schuemichen, C.

    1999-01-01

    Aim: The presented study prospectively evaluates the efficacy of optimized radioiodine therapy in patients (pts) with multifocal (MFA) and disseminated (DISA) autonomy. The target dose was related to the total thyroid volume and was increased in moderate and nonlinear increments for 150 to 300 Gy dependent on the pretherapeutic Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression (TcTUs). Patients with focal autonomy were treated with a target dose independent of TcTUs and were used as control group. Methods: The data of 641 pts (518 women, 123 men) were evaluated, 466 pts with MFA or DISA and 175 pts with focal autonomy. In pts with MFA and DISA the target dose was increased in four steps: TcTUs 3-6%: 200 Gy, >6-12%: 250 Gy and >12%: 300 Gy. In pts with focal autonomy a fixed target dose of 300 or 400 Gy was applied. The radioactivity to be administered was calculated using a modified Marinelli formula. The follow-up examination was performed at the earliest after four, on average after eight months. Normalization of TSH was the only criterion for successful therapy. Results: The success rate in pts with latent or manifest hyperthyroidism in focal autonomy was 91.5%, thereby was not successful in 5.1% and hypothyroidism occurred in 3.4%. The average success rate in pts with MFA and DISA was 91.5%, therapy failed in 7.5% and a very low rate of 1% with hypothyroidism was seen. Conclusion: The presented optimized therapy concept with calculated, nonlinear increase of the target dose according to the TcTUs-level guaranteed even in MFA and DISA a high success rate comparable to that in focal autonomy along with a very low rate of hypothyroidism. (orig.) [de

  11. Evaluation of radionuclide calibrator performance with Tc-99m and I-123 in nuclear medicine centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Ji Young; Kim, Gwe Ya; Yang, Hyun Kyu; Lim, Chun Il; Lee, Hyun Koo; Kim, Byung Tae; Jeong, Hee Kyo

    2004-01-01

    To minimize unnecessary radiation dose to patients, it is important to ensure that the radiopharmaceutical administered is accurately measured. Tc-99m is one of the popular radionuclide used in nuclear medicine and I-123 is also used widely in nuclear medicine. To investigate the level of measurement performance and to provide the participants with a traceable standard to check and review their calibration factors for these particular radionuclides, Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) as a national secondary standard dosimetry laboratory conducted comparison program for Tc-99m and I-123 in nuclear medicine centers. 72 nuclear medicine centers (78 calibrators) participated in the comparison program for Tc-99m in 2003 and 37 centers (41 calibrators) for I-123 in 2004. For a comparison, Tc-99m and I-123 were accurately sub-divided into a series of 4 ml aliquots in 10 ml P6 vial and delivered to participants. Participants were invited to assay their P6 vial in each of their radionuclide calibrators and to report their results directly to KFDA. For the evaluation of raionuclide, KFDA used NPL-CRC radionuclide calibrator that is traceable to NPL (National Physical Laboratory) primany standard. The difference between the value reported by the hospital (A h ospital) and of the KFDA (A k fda) is expressed as a percent deviation (DEV (%) = 100 (A h ospital - A k fda)/A k fda). If there were calibrators over 10 % deviations, those were checked again with the same procedure. In Tc-99m, 65% of the calibrators showed deviations within 5 % and 18 % were in the range of 5 % < | DEV | ≤10 %, and 17 % were over 10 % deviations. In I-123, 41 % of the calibrators were within ±5 % and 29 % were in the range of 5 % < | DEV | ≤10 % and 30 % were over 10 %. The results have shown that such comparisons are necessary to improve the accuracy of the measurement and to identify radionuclide calibrators that are malfunctioning

  12. [99mTc]O2-AMD3100 as a SPECT tracer for CXCR4 receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartimath, Siddesh V.; Domanska, Urszula M.; Walenkamp, Annemiek M.E.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Vries, Erik F.J. de

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: CXCR4 plays an important role in HIV infection, tumor progression, neurogenesis, and inflammation. In-vivo imaging of CXCR4 could provide more insight in the role of this receptor in health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate [ 99m Tc]O 2 -AMD3100 as a potential SPECT tracer for imaging of CXCR4. Method: AMD3100 was labelled with [ 99m Tc]pertechnetate. A cysteine challenge assay was performed to test the tracer stability. Heterologous and homologous receptor binding assay and internalization assay were performed in CXCR4 expressing Jurkat-T cells. Ex vivo biodistribution was studied in healthy mice at 30, 60, and 120 min after tracer injection. Tumor uptake of the tracer was determined by microSPECT imaging in nude mice xenografted with human PC-3 prostate tumor. Specificity of tracer uptake was determined by blocking studies using an excess of unlabelled AMD3100. Results: AMD3100 was labelled with technetium-99 m with a radiochemical yield of > 98%. The tracer was stable in PBS and mouse plasma for at least 6 h at 37 °C. Heterologous and homologous binding assays with AMD3100 showed IC 50 values of 240 ± 10 μM, and 92 ± 5 μM for [ 125 I]SDF-1α and [ 99m Tc]O 2 -AMD3100 respectively, with negligible receptor internalisation. The tracer showed high uptake in liver, lungs, spleen, thymus, intestine and bone. Blocking dose of AMD3100.8HCl (20 mg/kg) decreased the uptake in these organs (p 99m Tc]O 2 -AMD3100 showed specific tumor accumulation in mice bearing PC-3 xenografts model. Time activity curves (TAC) in AMD3100 pre-treated animals tracer showed 1.7 times less tumor uptake as compared to control animals (p 99m Tc]O 2 -AMD3100 is readily labelled, is stable in plasma and displays a favourable binding affinity for the CXCR4 receptors. [ 99m Tc O 2 -AMD3100 shows specific binding in organs with high CXCR4 expression and in CXCR4 positive tumors. These results justify further evaluation of this radiopharmaceutical as a potential

  13. Preliminary survey of separations technology applicable to the pretreatment of Hanford tank waste (1992--1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, W.E.; Kurath, D.E.

    1994-04-01

    The US Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to manage and dispose of radioactive wastes stored at the Hanford Site. Within this program are evaluations of pretreatment system alternatives through literature reviews. The information in this report was collected as part of this project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A preliminary survey of literature on separations recently entered into the Hanford electronic databases (1992--1993) that have the potential for pretreatment of Hanford tank waste was conducted. Separation processes that can assist in the removal of actinides (uranium, plutonium, americium), lanthanides, barium, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 129 I, 63 Ni, and 99 Tc were evaluated. Separation processes of interest were identified through literature searches, journal reviews, and participation in separation technology conferences. This report contains brief descriptions of the potential separation processes, the extent and/or selectivity of the separation, the experimental conditions, and observations. Information was collected on both national and international separation studies to provide a global perspective on recent research efforts

  14. Cerebral perfusion study using 99mTc-HMPAO-ECT: Particular aspects regarding uptake and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, J.; Clemenz, N.

    1988-01-01

    From the performance of about 250 99m Tc-HMPAO-SPECT studies for clarification of cerebro-vascular diseases, five essential problem groups have emerged: 1. Positioning of the patient's head and hence resulting rotation radius of the camera head. 2. Choice of the slice level for documentation and demonstration of the ECT study. 3. Standardization and colour codation of the single slice images. 4. Localization and identification of single slices in different slice levels. 5. Quantification of the distribution pattern. Whether nuclear medical cerebral perfusion study for diagnosis of cerebro-vascular diseases using 99m Tc-HMPAO may be an equivalent to DSA und TCT in future, should at least partially depend upon an adequate answer to the presented problems. (orig.) [de

  15. Preparation of 99mTc-thiourea complex as a precursor for Tc(III) labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, A.; Teran, M.; Molina, S.; Leon, A.; Kremer, C.; Gambino, D.; Kremer, E.

    1996-01-01

    Ligand exchange is one of the possible synthetic routes to obtain 99m Tc coordination compounds. However, the success of this route depends on the availability of good precursors. The objective of this work is the preparation of the complex [ 99m Tc (tu) 6 ] 3+ (tu = thiourea), as a potential precursor for 99m Tc(III) coordination compounds. The preparation was successfully performed in acidic conditions, the excess of tu serving as reducing agent. At pH values higher than 3, the compound becomes unstable and on addition of polydentate ligands new Tc(III) complexes are formed. With edta, the complex 99m Tc(III)-edta was obtained in high yield. (author). 13 refs., 3 tabs

  16. Breast-milk radioactivity after a Tc-99m DTPA aerosol/Tc-99m MAA lung study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, P.J.; Hall, F.M.; Wells, C.P.; Coakley, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements were made of the concentration of Tc-99m activity in samples of breast milk following an administration of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol for a lung ventilation image and one of Tc-99m MAA for lung perfusion. The activity was 222 nCi/ml of milk (8.2 kBq/ml) at 2 hr after the MAA injection, and it was found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 4.6 hr. There was a small incorporation of Tc-99m into breast-milk protein. The authors conclude that the combined use of these two Tc-99m agents did not indicate the interruption of breast feeding beyond 24 hr after administration of the MAA, and that for an aerosol ventiliation study alone, breast feeding need not be interrupted for more than 4 hr after the test

  17. Triamide mercaptide (N/sub 3/S) ligands for Tc-99m as potential Tc-99m renal function agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzberg, A.R.; Kasina, S.; Johnson, D.L.; Eshima, D.

    1985-01-01

    A number of diamide dimercaptide (N/sub 2/S/sub 2/) complexes of Tc-99m have shown potential as renal tubular function radiopharmaceuticals that could replace radioiodinated hippurate (OIH). Evaluation of such ligands suggested that maximum efficiency for tubular secretion and specificity resulted from addition of a carboxylate group. However, such derivatives resulted in chelate ring stereoisomers that were differently transported by the renal tubular system. The problem of stereoisomers was obviated by replacing one sulfur with an effectively planar amido nitrogen. Groups on the nitrogen then result in diastereomers only when an additional asymetric center is present. A series of triamide mercaptide compounds have been synthesized to evaluate this class as ligands for Tc-99m. One of the simplest of the series, mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (MAG/sub 3/), formed a single Tc-99m product in high yield as determined by HPLC. Preliminary results with pmr and ms of the Tc-99 complex indicate a structure consistent with a 1:1 metal to ligand ratio and monooxo technetium group. Biological evaluation of Tc-99m MAG/sub 3/ showed high renal specificity and rate of excretion exceeding OIH in several species including humans. Members of the N/sub 3/S series studied include mercaptoacetylglycylglycyl-amino acids. In some cases with second asymmetric centers, two components were seen on HPLC. In mice several dianionic Tc-99m complexes were excreted faster than OIH, Tc-99m MAG/sub 2/-ala, -asn, and -gln. Trianionic Tc-99m MAG/sub 2/-asp and -glu were excreted more slowly, and Tc-99m MAG/sub 2/-phe showed hepatobiliary excretion. Triamide mercaptides represent a new ligand class for Tc-99m

  18. Pretreatment with ethanol as an alternative to improve steviol glycosides extraction and purification from a new variety of stevia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formigoni, Maysa; Milani, Paula Gimenez; da Silva Avíncola, Alexandre; Dos Santos, Vanessa Jorge; Benossi, Livia; Dacome, Antônio Sergio; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; da Costa, Silvio Claudio

    2018-02-15

    Leaves of a new variety of Stevia rebaudiana with a high content of rebaudioside A were pretreated with ethanol. The ethanolic extract showed high antioxidant potential and 39 compounds were identified, by UPLC/HRMS, among them one not yet mentioned in the literature for stevia leaves. From the in natura leaves and pretreated leaves, the conditions of aqueous extraction of steviol glycosides were investigated using response surface methodology. The aqueous extracts obtained were purified by ion exchange chromatography techniques and membrane separation methods. The recuperation of steviol glycosides was 4.02g for pretreated leaves and 2.20g for in natura leaves. The level of purity was, respectively, 87% and 84.8%. The results obtained demonstrate that pretreatment increases the yield and purity level of stevia sweeteners by the use of environmentally friendly methodologies and the final product presented acceptable sensory characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance prediction of high Tc superconducting small antennas using a two-fluid-moment method model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, G. G.; Khamas, S. K.; Kingsley, S. P.; Woods, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    The radar cross section and Q factors of electrically small dipole and loop antennas made with a YBCO high Tc superconductor are predicted using a two-fluid-moment method model, in order to determine the effects of finite conductivity on the performances of such antennas. The results compare the useful operating bandwidths of YBCO antennas exhibiting varying degrees of impurity with their copper counterparts at 77 K, showing a linear relationship between bandwidth and impurity level.

  20. Radiation pretreatment of cellulose for energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rosa, A. M.; Dela Mines, A. S.; Banzon, R. B.; Simbul-Nuguid, Z. F.

    The effect of radiation pretreatment of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated through hydrolytic reactions of cellulose. Gamma irradiation significantly increased the acid hydrolysis of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The yields of reducing sugar were higher with increasing radiation dose in these materials. The observed radiation effect varied with the cellulosic material but it correlated with neither the cellulose content nor the lignin content. Likewise, the radiation pretreatment accelerated the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and rice hull by cellulase. The irradiated rice straw appeared to be a better growth medium for the cellulolytic microorganism, Myrothecium verrucaria, than the non-irradiated material. This was attributed to increased digestibility of the cellulose by the microorganism.

  1. Radiation pretreatment of cellulose for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.M.; Dela Mines, A.S.; Banzon, R.B.; Simbul-Nuguid, Z.F.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of radiation pretreatment of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated through hydrolytic reactions of cellulose. Gamma irradiation significantly increased the acid hydrolysis of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The yields of reducing sugar were higher with increasing radiation dose in these materials. The observed radiation effect varied with the cellulose material but it correlated with neither the cellulose content nor the lignin content. Likewise, the radiation pretreatment accelerated the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and rice hull by cellulase. The irradiated rice straw appeared to be a better growth medium for the cellulolytic microorganism, Myrothecium verrucaria, than the non-irradiated material. This was attributed to increased digestibility of the cellulose by the microorganism. (author)

  2. PRETREATMENT OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doan Thai Hoa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The cost of raw materials continues to be a limiting factor in the production of bio-ethanol from traditional raw materials, such as sugar and starch. At the same time, there are large amount of agricultural residues as well as industrial wastes that are of low or negative value (due to costs of current effluent disposal methods. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of elephant grass and wood residues for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose has been investigated in this study.    Elephant grass (agricultural residue and sawdust (Pulp and Paper Industry waste with a small particulate size were treated using different dilute sulfuric acid concentrations at a temperature  of 140-170°C within 0.5-3 hours. The appropriate pretreatment conditions give the highest yield of soluble saccharides and total reducing sugars.

  3. Apple's dehydration by the irradiation pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie; Chao Yan; Shen Weiqiao; Wang Jun

    2001-01-01

    "6"0 Co γ-ray irradiation was used as a pre-treatment method to dry the apple. The aim of this study was to discover the effect factor concerning the change of the apple cell structure which would affect the speed of drhydration and the relation between the speed of hot air dehydration and the irradiation dose. The results demonstrated that with the increasing of irradiation dose. The damage of apple's vacuole membrane increased. The positive correlation was shown in slice thickness and dehydration rate, the relation of the irradiation dose and the temperature of hot air was negatively correlated. The optimum of pre-treatment was gained for slice thickness, the irradiation dose and dry temperature of hot air. (authors)

  4. Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruse, J.M.; Harrington, R.A.; Quadrel, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the minutes from the Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop sponsored by the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration in Salt Lake City, Utah, February 3--5, 1993. The Efficient Separations and Processing-Integrated Program and the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System were joint participants. This document provides the detailed minutes, including responses to questions asked, an attendance list, reproductions of the workshop presentations, and a revised chart showing technology development activities

  5. Design Criteria for Process Wastewater Pretreatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Stripping Column H13 ’Re Purpose: The purpose of this report, is to provide design criteria for pretreatment needs for ’ I. INTRODUCTION ’". discharge of...which a portion of the vessel is filled with packing. Packing materials vary from corrugated steel to bundles of fibers (Langdon et al., 1972) to beds...concentration(s) using Table 20. Wastewater treatability studies should be considered as a process-screening tool for all wastewater streams for

  6. Pretreatment on Corn Stover with Low Concentration of Formic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    the cellulose easily degraded into sugars and further fermented to ethanol. In this work, hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover at 195 degrees for 15 min with and without lower concentration of formic acid was compared in terms of sugar recoveries and ethanol fermentation. For pretreatment with formic acid...... pretreatment without formic acid. Toxicity tests of liquor parts showed that there were no inhibitions found for both pretreatment conditions. After simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the pretreated corn stover with Baker's yeast, the highest ethanol yield of 76.5% of the theoretical...

  7. The Effect of Acid Pre-Treatment using Acetic Acid and Nitric Acid in The Production of Biogas from Rice Husk during Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Winardi Dwi; Syafrudin; Keumala, Cut Fadhila; Matin, Hasfi Hawali Abdul; Budiyono

    2018-02-01

    Pretreatment during biogas production aims to assist in degradation of lignin contained in the rice husk. In this study, pretreatment which is used are acid and biological pretreatment. Acid pretreatment was performed using acetic acid and nitric acid with a variety levels of 3% and 5%. While biological pretreatment as a control variable. Acid pretreatment was conducted by soaking the rice straw for 24 hours with acid variation. The study was conducted using Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD) with 21% TS. Biogas production was measured using water displacement method every two days for 60 days at room temperature conditions. The results showed that acid pretreatment gave an effect on the production of biogas yield. The yield of the biogas produced by pretreatment of acetic acid of 5% and 3% was 43.28 and 45.86 ml/gr.TS. While the results without pretreatment biogas yield was 29.51 ml/gr.TS. The results yield biogas produced by pretreatment using nitric acid of 5% and 3% was 12.14 ml/gr.TS and 21.85 ml/gr.TS. Results biogas yield with acetic acid pretreatment was better than the biogas yield results with nitric acid pretreatment.

  8. Radioprotection of mice following garlic pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Abraham, S.K.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    Freshly prepared aqueous extract of garlic was tested in mice for its possible in vivo protective effect against gamma-radiation-induced chromosomal damage. In the same animals, the changes in the sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity were evaluated. Three doses of garlic extract [125, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 body weight (bw)] were administered orally for five consecutive days and the animals were exposed to 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy gamma-radiation 2 h after the final feeding. The results of the bone marrow micronucleus test revealed that pretreatment with garlic extract was effective in reducing gamma-radiation-induced chromosomal damage. Against 0.25 Gy gamma-radiation, a high dose of 500 mg kg-1 bw garlic extract was required to significantly reduce the chromosomal damage. All the three doses of garlic extract were effective in exerting a protective effect against 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy gamma-radiation. However a dose-related effect was observed only against 2.0 Gy. The sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity registered a significant increase after either pretreatment with garlic with extract or irradiation. In the garlic extract pretreated irradiated animals, a significant reduction was observed in the sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity

  9. Prognostic Value of Tc99m-Pertechnetate Thyroid Scintigraphy in Radioiodine Therapy in a Cohort of Chinese Graves’ Disease Patients: A Pilot Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study is to assess the prognostic value of Tc99m-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy for predicting the outcomes of fixed low dose of radioiodine therapy (RIT in a cohort of Chinese Graves’ disease (GD patients. Materials and Methods. This is a retrospective study of GD patients who received RIT with a single dose of radioiodine (5 mCi. All the patients received Tc99m-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy prior to RIT. Thyroid mass, Tc99m-pertechnetate uptake, gender, age at diagnosis, duration of the disease, ophthalmopathy, and serum levels of FT4, FT3, TT4, and TT3 prior to RIT were analyzed as potential interference factors for outcomes of RIT. Results. One hundred and eighteen GD patients who completed RIT were followed up for 12 months. The outcomes (euthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism were found to be significantly associated with thyroid mass and Tc99m-pertechnetate uptake. Patients with thyroid mass ≤ 40.1 g or Tc99m-pertechnetate uptake ≤ 15.2% had higher treatment success. Conclusions. A fixed low dose of 5 mCi radioiodine seems to be practical and effective for the treatment of Chinese GD patients with thyroid mass ≤ 40.1 g and Tc99m-pertechnetate uptake ≤ 15.2%. This study demonstrates Tc99m-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy is an important prognostic factor for predicting the outcomes of RIT.

  10. Ultrasound pretreatment for enhanced biogas production from olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Nilgun Ayman; Uzun, Alev Cagla

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates applicability of low frequency ultrasound technology to olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) as a pretreatment step prior to anaerobic batch reactors to improve biogas production and methane yield. OMWs originating from three phase processes are characterized with high organic content and complex nature. The treatment of the wastewater is problematic and alternative treatment options should be investigated. In the first part of the study, OMW samples were subjected to ultrasound at a frequency of 20kHz with applied powers varying between 50 and 100W under temperature controlled conditions for different time periods in order to determine the most effective sonication conditions. The level of organic matter solubilization at ultrasound experiments was assessed by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand/total chemical oxygen demand (SCOD/TCOD). The results revealed that the optimum ultrasonic condition for diluted OMW is 20kHz, 0.4W/mL for 10min. The application of ultrasound to OMW increased SCOD/TCOD ratio from 0.59 to 0.79. Statistical analysis (Friedman's tests) show that ultrasound was significantly effective on diluted OMW (p0.05). For raw OMW, this increase has been found to be limited due to high concentration of suspended solids (SS). In the second part of the study, biogas and methane production rates of anaerobic batch reactor fed with the ultrasound pretreated OMW samples were compared with the results of control reactor fed with untreated OMW in order to determine the effect of sonication. A nonparametric statistical procedure, Mann-Whitney U test, was used to compare biogas and methane production from anaerobic batch reactors for control and ultrasound pretreated samples. Results showed that application of low frequency ultrasound to OMW significantly improved both biogas and methane production in anaerobic batch reactor fed with the wastewater (pbiogas and methane compared with the untreated one (control reactor). The

  11. Impeding 99Tc(IV) mobility in novel waste forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mal-Soon; Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Kruger, Albert A.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant, long-lived radioactive fission product whose mobility in the subsurface is largely governed by its oxidation state. Tc immobilization is crucial for radioactive waste management and environmental remediation. Tc(IV) incorporation in spinels has been proposed as a novel method to increase Tc retention in glass waste forms during vitrification. However, experiments under high-temperature and oxic conditions show reoxidation of Tc(IV) to volatile pertechnetate, Tc(VII). Here we examine this problem with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and propose that, at elevated temperatures, doping with first row transition metal can significantly enhance Tc retention in magnetite in the order Co>Zn>Ni. Experiments with doped spinels at 700 °C provide quantitative confirmation of the theoretical predictions in the same order. This work highlights the power of modern, state-of-the-art simulations to provide essential insights and generate theory-inspired design criteria of complex materials at elevated temperatures. PMID:27357121

  12. A new look at 99Tc releases to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, J.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Recent experimental data suggest that the uptake of 99 Tc by vegetation from soils may be two to three orders of magnitude higher than the 0.25 value currently being used in radiological assessments. Following a survey of the literature, a concentration factor of 50 was applied to evaluate the dose from a 1.0 Ci/yr-release to the atmosphere by a hypothetical uranium enrichment facility. Doses to the GI tract and thyroid of an adult living 1600 m from the facility were 18 mrem and 80 mrem respectively. These doses are delivered entirely through transport of 99 Tc through food chain pathways. This assessment indicates a potential for 99 Tc exposures to exceed recently proposed standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 40 CFR 190. The previously assumed concentration factor of 0.25 would have produced corresponding doses of 0.13 mrem to the GI tract and 0.57 mrem to the thyroid. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need for additional research on the environmental behaviour and dosimetry of 99 Tc. In particular, data are needed to elucidate the retention of 99 Tc in soils and the uptake of 99 Tc by edible vegetation in field studies simulating chronic exposure conditions. Data on the uptake and retention of 99 Tc in humans are also necessary to improve the reliability of dose conversion factors for specific organs and various age groups. (author)

  13. Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin SPECT of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Min Ki [Good Samaritan Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Won Sick [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Tc-99m ciprofloxacin is available for imaging infection. However, there has been no study on employing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with using Tc-99m ciprofloxacin to image active pulmonary tuberculosis. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess the efficacy of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT for imaging active pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty-one participants were enrolled in this prospective study. They were divided into two groups according to the clinical and radiological assessment. Group one (Gr. 1) consisted of five normal volunteers and six patients with inactive pulmonary tuberculosis. Group two (Gr. 2) consisted of ten patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. SPECT was performed 3 h after injecting 555 MBq (15 mCi) of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin. The findings of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT were interpreted by a nuclear medicine specialist and then the results were analyzed according to the patients' clinical and radiological classifications. The results of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT were as follows: eight true-positive cases, ten true-negative cases, one false-positive case and two false-negative cases. The sensitivity and specificity was 80.0% and 90.0%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 88.9% and the negative predictive value was 83.3%. Conclusions Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT is feasible for imaging active pulmonary tuberculosis. It is a useful nuclear-imaging method for discriminating between the active and inactive tuberculosis states in patients with a past medical history of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  14. The effect of wastewater pretreatment on nanofiltration membrane performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hashlamon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Membrane fouling is considered a serious obstacle for operation and cost efficiency in wastewater treatment using nanofiltration (NF. However, pretreatment is the most practical way to reduce this prior to NF. In this research, two types of wastewaters were pretreated with different methods prior to NF to examine the effect of pretreatment on membrane fouling in terms of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD and permeate flux. Turbidity and COD were measured to assess solid foulants and organic species in the wastewater, respectively. The first sample was secondary treated sewage, which was pretreated using coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation (CFS only. Steady flux was increased from 24 L/m2h for wastewater without pretreatment to 32.1 L/m2h with pretreatment. COD was also eliminated after CFS/NF, and turbidity was reduced to 0.6 NTU. The second sample was diluted biodiesel wastewater, which was pretreated using a combination of powdered-activated carbon (PAC adsorption and CFS (PAC/CFS. Steady flux was increased from 22.3 L/m2h for wastewater without pretreatment to 28.7 L/m2h with pretreatment; biodiesel wastewater quality also improved. Turbidity was reduced from 12 to 0.6 NTU, and COD was reduced from 526 to 4 mg/L after NF with PAC/CFS pretreatment, while COD was reduced from 526 to 95 mg/L using NF without pretreatment.

  15. Chemical Pretreatment Methods for the Production of Cellulosic Ethanol: Technologies and Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edem Cudjoe Bensah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment of lignocellulose has received considerable research globally due to its influence on the technical, economic and environmental sustainability of cellulosic ethanol production. Some of the most promising pretreatment methods require the application of chemicals such as acids, alkali, salts, oxidants, and solvents. Thus, advances in research have enabled the development and integration of chemical-based pretreatment into proprietary ethanol production technologies in several pilot and demonstration plants globally, with potential to scale-up to commercial levels. This paper reviews known and emerging chemical pretreatment methods, highlighting recent findings and process innovations developed to offset inherent challenges via a range of interventions, notably, the combination of chemical pretreatment with other methods to improve carbohydrate preservation, reduce formation of degradation products, achieve high sugar yields at mild reaction conditions, reduce solvent loads and enzyme dose, reduce waste generation, and improve recovery of biomass components in pure forms. The use of chemicals such as ionic liquids, NMMO, and sulphite are promising once challenges in solvent recovery are overcome. For developing countries, alkali-based methods are relatively easy to deploy in decentralized, low-tech systems owing to advantages such as the requirement of simple reactors and the ease of operation.

  16. Low-heat, mild alkaline pretreatment of switchgrass for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guang; Bierma, Tom; Walker, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of alkaline pretreatment under mild heat conditions (100°C or 212°F) on the anaerobic co-digestion of switchgrass. The effects of alkaline concentration, types of alkaline, heating time and rinsing were evaluated. In addition to batch studies, continuous-feed studies were performed in triplicate to identify potential digester operational problems caused by switchgrass co-digestion while accounting for uncertainty due to digester variability. Few studies have examined anaerobic digestion of switchgrass or the effects of mild heating to enhance alkaline pretreatment prior to biomass digestion. Results indicate that pretreatment can significantly enhance digestion of coarse-ground (≤ 0.78 cm particle size) switchgrass. Energy conversion efficiency as high as 63% was observed, and was comparable or superior to fine-grinding as a pretreatment method. The optimal NaOH concentration was found to be 5.5% (wt/wt alkaline/biomass) with a 91.7% moisture level. No evidence of operational problems such as solids build-up, poor mixing, or floating materials were observed. These results suggest the use of waste heat from a generator could reduce the concentration of alkaline required to adequately pretreat lignocellulosic feedstock prior to anaerobic digestion.

  17. Negative impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye Bin; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-09-15

    Although anemia is considered to be a contributor to intra-tumoral hypoxia and tumor resistance to ionizing radiation in cancer patients, the impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for rectal cancer remains unclear. We reviewed the records of 247 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with NACRT followed by curative-intent surgery. The patients with anemia before NACRT (36.0%, 89/247) achieved less pathologic complete response (pCR) than those without anemia (p = 0.012). The patients with pretreatment anemia had worse 3-year local control than those without pretreatment anemia (86.0% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment anemia (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor and nodal stage (p = 0.020 and 0.032, respectively) were independently significant factors for local control. Pretreatment anemia had negative impacts on pCR and local control among patients who underwent NACRT and surgery for rectal cancer. Strategies maintaining hemoglobin level within normal range could potentially be used to improve local control in rectal cancer patients.

  18. Negative impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hye Bin; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won

    2012-01-01

    Although anemia is considered to be a contributor to intra-tumoral hypoxia and tumor resistance to ionizing radiation in cancer patients, the impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for rectal cancer remains unclear. We reviewed the records of 247 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with NACRT followed by curative-intent surgery. The patients with anemia before NACRT (36.0%, 89/247) achieved less pathologic complete response (pCR) than those without anemia (p = 0.012). The patients with pretreatment anemia had worse 3-year local control than those without pretreatment anemia (86.0% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment anemia (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor and nodal stage (p = 0.020 and 0.032, respectively) were independently significant factors for local control. Pretreatment anemia had negative impacts on pCR and local control among patients who underwent NACRT and surgery for rectal cancer. Strategies maintaining hemoglobin level within normal range could potentially be used to improve local control in rectal cancer patients.

  19. Clinical efficacy of 99mTc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Itaru; Sugioka, Yasushi; Tanaka, Yasunori

    1993-01-01

    99m Tc-tetrofosmin is a lipophilic, cationic diphosphine which has been developed for myocardial imaging. We examined 9 patients with ischemic heart disease including 3 angina pectoris (AP), 4 old myocardial infarction (OMI), 1 AP with OMI and 1 syndrome X. One patient was examined before and after operation. Three hundred seventy MBq of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin was injected during exercise and 740 MBq at rest. And 74 MBq of 201 Tl myocardial exercise and redistribution scintigraphy was also performed to compare with 99m Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy. SPECT, multiple gated SPECT and anterior planar images were obtained in all cases. We calculated percent wall thickening (%WT) using multiple gated SPECT images. There was a decreased lung uptake in 99m Tc-tetrofosmin planar images compared to 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy. Liver and Biliary system uptake in 99m Tc-tetrofosmin images was decreased with intake of milk. Segmental comparison of SPECT images showed an agreement in 9/10 of the segment between 201 Tl and 99m Tc-tetrofosmin. We could obtain excellent quality of multiple gated SPECT images in all patients. We could calculate percent wall thickening (%WT) in all patients. We conclude that 99m Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy should provide usefulness for detection of ischemic myocardium as same as 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy, although the biologic characteristics of two agents were different. These data and excellent quality of multiple gated SPECT images suggest that 99m Tc-tetrofosmin is a new 99m Tc agent for evaluation of patients with ischemic heart disease. (author)

  20. Alternative generators of the 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.

    2004-01-01

    9 9mTc is the most widely used radionuclide in nuclear medicine. 9 9mTc radionuclide is obtained from a generator, in which 9 9Mo servest as the parent radionuclide. In the generator 9 9mTc and 9 9Mo radionuclides are found in genetic balance and 9 9mTc radionuclide is chemically extracted from the system periodically. Although there already exists many ways and variants of manufacturing 9 9mTc generators, search for new variants of the 9 9Mo → 9 9mTc generator systems continue. An example is the investigations carried out with the support of the IAEA. In these research works, generators based on elution of poly molybdate gels have been developed and evaluated. These generators will be serving as alternative technologies for production of 9 9mTc radionuclide, which use 9 9Mo produced by non-fission means. It is known that in Australia and China more than 30% of 9 9mTc generators are gel-generators. The works of authors are devoted to the problem of searching new perspective materials as a column material that will serve as adsorbent. The main purpose of all the research on alternative technologies is the usage of parent radionuclide 9 9Mo that is obtained from 9 8Mo(n, γ) 9 9Mo reaction instead of as a fission product. Our work examines the possibility of reception of generators 9 9Mo → 9 9mTc using non-fission 9 9Mo that is based on insoluble salts of molybdate

  1. Lymphoscintigraphy in melanoma patients using Tc-99m dextran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, D.; Padgett, H.; Henze, E.; Carlson, C.; Bennett, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Surgical removal of regional lymph nodes draining the site of a melanoma is a generally practiced procedure. It is often difficult in many cases of truncal melanomas near the midline or near the waistline to determine which group or groups of nodes to remove. Colloidal Au-198, Tc-99m sulfur colloid, and Tc-99m antimony sulfur colloid have all been used and have given useful clinical information. Objections, however, have been raised to the local radiation dose with these compounds. To reduce this problem while obtaining greater information on lymph flow, the authors have studied dextran, a macromolecule commonly used as plasma substitute. Dextran (average mol. wt. 72,000) labeled with Tc-99m has been used to study lymph drainage from the site of truncal melanoma in 29 patients. Serial images in the first hour following intradermal injection clearly demonstrate tracer in efferent lymphatics within 5 to 10 minutes, and brief pooling in the regional lymph nodes between 20 and 60 minutes. When compared with particulate tracers such as micro Tc-99m sulfur colloid, the Tc-99m dextran appears to move much faster through the lymphatics. Overall distribution of the Tc-99m dextran to lymph nodes is very similar to previous findings with micro Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Dextran drainage to more than one group of regional nodes was seen in 12/29 patients as compared with 17/50 patients using micro Tc-99m sulfur colloid. The superior images with Tc-99m dextran appear to make it the agent of choice

  2. Pharmacokinetic model of myocardial 99mTc-sestamibi washout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tsubasa; Monzen, Hajime; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Hara, Masatake

    2013-01-01

    Technetium-99m sestamibi ( 99m Tc-MIBI) scintigraphy has been reported to be a functional imaging tool for in vivo detection of mitochondrial dysfunction in myocardium and multidrug resistance-associated protein expression in tumors. The purpose of this study was to propose a clinically applicable pharmacokinetic model with metabolic equilibrium of 99m Tc-MIBI and to evaluate the accuracy of the model. For this study, eight healthy men received 99m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy. The planar images were obtained at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h after 99m Tc-MIBI injection. The measured time series 99m Tc-MIBI counts were fitted to our model by nonlinear regression analysis. The predictive performance of the model was determined by comparing the residuals between measured and predicted values. We obtained a good regression by fitting data from 0.25 to 6 h after 99m Tc-MIBI injection, with excellent correlation between measured and predicted 99m Tc-MIBI counts (R 2 =0.9792) and a slope near unity. The 95% confidence interval of the mean prediction error included 0, which means that the prediction was not significantly biased. The precision of the prediction was also excellent. Our model shows good predictive capacity, with favorable bias and accuracy. By comparing the predictive values of this model with measured values, mitochondrial 99m Tc-MIBI washout can be quantified. 99m Tc-MIBI washout rates are reported to be a promising method for evaluating cardiac function in patients with cardiac diseases and P-glycoprotein expression in tumor cells. Therefore, this quantification could be useful for mitochondrial functional imaging, especially in patients with cardiac diseases or tumors. (author)

  3. Reducing biomass recalcitrance via mild sodium carbonate pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmohamadsadeghi, Safoora; Chen, Zhu; Wan, Caixia

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effects of mild sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of different feedstocks (i.e., corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass). The results showed that sodium carbonate pretreatment markedly enhanced the sugar yields of the tested biomass feedstocks. The pretreated corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass gave the glucose yields of 95.1%, 62.3%, and 81.3%, respectively, after enzymatic hydrolysis. The above glucose yields of pretreated feedstocks were 2-4 times that of untreated ones. The pretreatment also enhanced the xylose yields, 4 times for corn stover and 20 times for both Miscanthus and switchgrass. Sodium carbonate pretreatment removed 40-59% lignin from the tested feedstocks while preserving most of cellulose (sodium carbonate pretreatment was effective for reducing biomass recalcitrance and subsequently improving the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pretreatment of Hanford PUREX Plant first-cycle waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, M.W.; Gerboth, D.M.; Peters, B.B.

    1987-04-01

    A process has been developed to pretreat neutralized, first-cycle high-level waste from the fuels reprocessing facility at the Hanford Site. The process separates solids from the supernate liquid, which contains soluble salts. The solids, including most of the fission products and transuranic elements, may then be vitrified for disposal, while the low-level supernate stream may be processed into a less expensive grout waste form. The process also includes ion exchange treatment of the separated supernate stream to remove radiocesium. A flow sheet based on these operations was completed to support a planned demonstration of the process in the Hanford Site B Plant canyon facility. 5 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Effects of sulphiting and osmotic pre-treatments on the effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fruit slices were pretreated at three levels of sulphiting and sucrose/osmosis and two conditions of drying (50 oC at 16 h and 70 oC at 10 h), resulting in 18 treatments in a factorial experimental design. Changes in moisture were monitored hourly and Fick's second law was used to describe the rate of moisture transfer to ...

  6. Adsorptive detoxification of fermentation inhibitors in acid pretreated liquor using functionalized polymer designed by molecular simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, Leena P; Pandey, Ashok

    2017-11-01

    Acid pretreatment is the most common method employed in the lignocellulosic biorefinery leading to the separation of pentose and hexose sugar. The liquor obtained after pretreatment (acid pretreatment liquor or APL) needs to be detoxified prior to fermentation. The aim of this study was to design functional groups on a polymer matrix which are selective in their interaction to inhibitors with little or no specificity to sugars. Molecular modeling was used as a tool to design a suitable adsorbent for selective adsorption of inhibitors from a complex mixture of APL. Phenyl glycine-p-sulfonic acid loaded on chloromethylated polystyrene polymer was designed as an adsorbent for selective interaction with inhibitors. Experimental verification of the selectivity was successfully achieved. The current study provides insights on the adsorptive separation processes at the molecular level by design of specific adsorbent which can be tailor made for the better selectivity of the desired component.

  7. PROJECT W-551 DETERMINATION DATA FOR EARLY LAW INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM SELECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI AR

    2008-08-11

    This report provides the detailed assessment forms and data for selection of the solids separation and cesium separation technology for project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This project will provide early pretreated low activity waste feed to the Waste Treatment Plant to allow Waste Treatment Plan Low Activity Waste facility operation prior to construction completion of the Pretreatment and High Level Waste facilities. The candidate solids separations technologies are rotary microfiltration and crossflow filtration, and the candidate cesium separation technologies are fractional crystallization, caustic-side solvent extraction, and ion-exchange using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde resin. This data was used to prepare a cross-cutting technology summary, reported in RPP-RPT-37740.

  8. Pretreatment technologies for industrial effluents: Critical review on bioenergy production and environmental concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakar, Desika; Suvetha K, Subha; Manimudi, Varshini T; Mathimani, Thangavel; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Rene, Eldon R; Pugazhendhi, Arivalagan

    2018-07-15

    The implementation of different pretreatment techniques and technologies prior to effluent discharge is a direct result of the inefficiency of several existing wastewater treatment methods. A majority of the industrial sectors have known to cause severe negative effects on the environment. The five major polluting industries are the paper and pulp mills, coal manufacturing facilities, petrochemical, textile and the pharmaceutical sectors. Pretreatment methods have been widely used in order to lower the toxicity levels of effluents and comply with environmental standards. In this review, the possible environmental benefits and concerns of adopting different pretreatment technologies for renewable energy production and product/resource recovery has been reviewed and discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neuroprotective effect of pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangxin; Zhang, Quiling; Deng, Wen; Li, Yalu; Xing, Guoqing; Shi, Xinjun; Du, Yifeng

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been shown to have both anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and noticeably decreases both the infarct area and neuronal apoptosis of the ischemic cortex. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum (by intragastric administration) in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Our results showed that pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum for 3 and 7 days reduced neuronal loss in the hippocampus, diminished the content of malondialdehyde in the hippocampus and serum, decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8 in the hippocampus, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in the hippocampus and serum. These results suggest that pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum was protective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:25317156

  10. Tc-99m sucralfate scanning for inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, L.M.; Becker, S.; Mekhmandarov, S.; Steinmetz, A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigated 14 patients with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by administering Tc-99m sucralfate (TcS) orally and imaging the abdomen 4 and 24 hours after dose. All patients had either barium radiographic studies or colonoscopy before the scan. The scan identified seven of nine patients who had radiologically demonstrated small-bowel lesions and four of five patients with colonic disease. The authors' preliminary experience suggests that TcS maybe a useful procedure to document location and extent of active disease. It provides information about both small and large bowel in one procedure, is noninvasive, easy to perform, and has low radiation absorbed dose

  11. Response of the mouse fetus to radiation from Na/sup 99m/TcO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.A.; Gloria, I.V.; Harper, P.V.

    1975-01-01

    The element technetium has recently assumed ecological importance as a source of low-level radiation, with the use of /sup 99m/Tc in nuclear medicine and production of /sup 99m/Tc during generation of electricity by nuclear reaction. When technetium is introduced as pertechnetate into the blood stream of pregnant females, it is transported across the placental barrier to the fetus, where a portion appears to be incorporated into biomolecules. When combined as biomolecules, radionuclides that decay by electron capture or isomeric transition show a lethality greater than that predicted in cell cultures and radiation therapy. The decay of /sup 99m/Tc by isomeric transition, together with the other considerations, places a high priority on the investigation of its radiation effects due to clinical doses of up to 25 mCi. Female mice were given daily i.v. injections of 0, 5, 50, and 500 μ Ci of /sup 99m/Tc as pertechnetate in isotonic saline throughout gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation. At two months of age, the progeny were mated with randomly selected litter mates to produce a second generation; the process was repeated with their progeny for production of the third generation.Preliminary results reinforce the existing concern about use of /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate in pregnant or potentially pregnant subjects

  12. The role of pharmacological stress Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging in an Australian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, D.M.; Booker, J.A.; Tan, T.S.K.; Bellamy, G.R.; Hardy, D.B.; Howarth, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    This observational study was performed in order to assess the exercise-related incremental diagnostic accuracy of Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in a hospital-based Australian population, and to assess the relative roles of exercise and pharmacological stress in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Two hundred and eight adult patients who had both Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging and coronary angiography within a median time of 16 weeks were studied. The diagnostic end-point was coronary artery lesions of ≥50% and >70% stenosis detected on angiography. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the overall diagnostic accuracy was calculated, as well as the comparative accuracies in patients who undertook various levels of exercise stress testing (n=130) and those who received pharmacological (dipyridamole) stress testing (n=78). The overall respective diagnostic accuracy of Tc-99m sestamibi MPI for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (>70% stenosis) was 81% and 76% when using the diagnostic criterion of ≥50% stenosis. On direct comparison of perfusion defects with angiographic stenoses, the respective sensitivity and specificity for the detection of >70% stenosis in each coronary artery territory was 73% and 79%. Pharmacological MPI showed a significantly greater sensitivity for the detection of localised stenoses compared to the overall group who had exercise MPI performed. Consequently, exercise stress MPI showed significantly more false negative lesions compared to dipyridamole stress imaging (p<0.003). However, a large proportion of patients were unable to perform to adequate exercise levels in this patient sample. We conclude that Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging is an accurate non-invasive test for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Where any doubt exists as to the patient's ability to achieve exercise levels at or above 85% of the predicted value for age and gender, pharmacological

  13. Bone uptake of Tc-99m MIBI in patients with hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yunyun; Wang, Qian

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the incidence of bone uptake of tracer on Tc-99m MIBI imaging and explore its influencing factors and significance for diagnosis of metabolic bone disease (MBD) in patients with hyperparathyroidism (HPT). Seventy-nine consecutive patients with histopathologically confirmed HPT (63 primary and 16 secondary) who had preoperative Tc-99m MIBI imaging were retrospectively evaluated. Serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were measured for all patients, and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was measured for 62 patients. Of the 79 patients, 50 underwent bone mineral density (BMD) examination and 30 underwent bone scintigraphy. The incidence and characteristics of abnormal bone uptake of MIBI were recorded. Mann-Whitney test was performed to determine if serum iPTH, Ca, P, ALP, and BMD were different between the patients with and without MIBI bone uptake. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the factors that influence the bone uptake of MIBI. The concordance rate between Tc-99m MIBI imaging and bone scintigraphy in delineating MBD was calculated. Tc-99m MIBI imaging disclosed the abnormal bone uptake of tracer in 22 (27.8%) patients. Of them, 19 showed diffusely increased activity in skeleton, 2 showed focal uptake in brown tumors, and one showed both above patterns. Patients with bone uptake MIBI had higher level of serum iPTH (Z=-4.34, P < 0.001) and ALP (Z=-3.50, P < 0.001) than those without bone uptake. Logistic regression analysis also showed that bone uptake of MIBI was correlated with serum iPTH (OR=4.42, P < 0.001) and ALP (OR=3.21, P=0.002). Among the 30 patients that underwent bone scintigraphy, 76.7% patients showed signs of MBD, and the concordance rate between Tc-99m MIBI imaging and bone scintigraphy was 60% for detecting MBD. Bone uptake of MIBI in patients with HPT is commonly related to a high level of iPTH and ALP; it probably reflects an active stage of MBD, and it should be

  14. Volatility of ruthenium-106, technetium-99, and iodine-129, and the evolution of nitrogen oxide compounds during the calcination of high-level, radioactive nitric acid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimshaw, S.J.; Case, F.N.; Tompkins, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    The nitrate anion is the predominant constituent in all high-level nuclear wastes. Formic acid reacts with the nitrate anion to yield noncondensable, inert gases (N 2 or N 2 O), which can be scrubbed free of 106 Ru, 129 I, and 99 Tc radioactivities prior to elimination from the plant by passing through HEPA filters. Treatment of a high-level authentic radioactive waste with two moles of formic acid per mole of nitrate anion leads to a low RuO 4 volatility of about 0.1%, which can be reduced to an even lower level of 0.007% on adding a 15% excess of formic acid. Without pretreatment of the nitrate waste with formic acid, a high RuO 4 volatility of approx. 35% is observed on calcining a 4.0 N HNO 3 solution in quartz equipment at 350 0 C. The RuO 4 volatility falls to approx. 1.0% on decreasing the initial HNO 3 concentration to 1.0 N or lower. It is postulated that thermal denitration of a highly nitrated ruthenium complex leads to the formation of volatile RuO 4 , while decarboxylation of a ruthenium-formate complex leads to the formation of nonvolatile RuO 2 . Wet scrubbing with water is used to remove RuO 4 from the off-gas stream. In all glass equipment, small amounts of particulate RuO 2 are formed in the gas phase by decomposition of RuO 4 . The 99 Tc volatility was found to vary from 0.2 to 1.4% on calcining HNO 3 and HCOOH (formic acid) solutions over the temperature range of 250 to 600 0 C. These unexpectedly low volatilities of 99 Tc are correlated to the high thermal stability limits of various metal pertechnetates and technetates. Iodine volatilities were high, varying from a low of 30% at 350 0 C to a high of 97% at 650 0 C. It is concluded that with a proper selection of pretreatment and operating conditions the 106 Ru and 99 Tc activities can be retained in the calcined solid with recycle of the wet scrubbing solution