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  1. Free ammonia pre-treatment of secondary sludge significantly increases anaerobic methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Dongbo; Sun, Jing; Wang, Qilin

    2017-07-01

    Energy recovery in the form of methane from sludge/wastewater is restricted by the poor and slow biodegradability of secondary sludge. An innovative pre-treatment technology using free ammonia (FA, i.e. NH 3 ) was proposed in this study to increase anaerobic methane production. The solubilisation of secondary sludge was significantly increased after FA pre-treatment at up to 680 mg NH 3 -N/L for 1 day, under which the solubilisation (i.e. 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS; SCOD: soluble chemical oxygen demand; VS: volatile solids) was >10 times higher than that without FA pre-treatment (i.e. 0.03 mg SCOD/mg VS). Biochemical methane potential assays showed that FA pre-treatment at above 250 mg NH 3 -N/L is effective in improving anaerobic methane production. The highest improvement in biochemical methane potential (B 0 ) and hydrolysis rate (k) was achieved at FA concentrations of 420-680 mg NH 3 -N/L, and was determined as approximately 22% (from 160 to 195 L CH 4 /kg VS added) and 140% (from 0.22 to 0.53 d -1 ) compared to the secondary sludge without pre-treatment. More analysis revealed that the FA induced improvement in B 0 and k could be attributed to the rapidly biodegradable substances rather than the slowly biodegradable substances. Economic and environmental analyses showed that the FA-based technology is economically favourable and environmentally friendly. Since this FA technology aims to use the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) waste (i.e. anaerobic digestion liquor) to enhance methane production from the WWTPs, it will set an example for the paradigm shift of the WWTPs from 'linear economy' to 'circular economy'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pretreatment of cellulosic wastes to increase enzyme reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neese, N.; Wallick, J.; Harper, J.M.

    1977-03-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose is generally a slow reaction. Different pretreatments, such as ball milling to a -200 mesh or swelling in 1 to 2 percent NaOH are reported to increase the reactivity considerably. In this work a fiber fraction from cattle manure was treated in an autoclave for 5 to 30 min at temperatures ranging from 130 to 200/sup 0/C. The reactivity of the cellulose, measured by incubating samples with a commercial cellulase preparation for one hour at 50/sup 0/C and pH 4.8, was increased by a factor of 4 to 6 compared to NaOH treatment and 10 to 20 compared to untreated fiber. The increased reaction rate is probably mostly due to an increase in cellulose availability to enzymatic attack, as structural hemicellulose is hydrolyzed and removed during the treatment. Sugars, produced by hemicellulosis hydrolysis, will react further to give caramelization products. These side reactions were shown to be suppressed by short treatment times. The treated fiber could support growth of a mixed culture of Trichoderma viride and Candida utilis only after washing, indicating the formation of water soluble inhibitory products during treatment. The treatment with high-temperature steam can probably be used also with other cellulosic materials to increase reactivity. This may be an attractive way to prepare low-valued wastes such as manure fibers, straw, stalks, or corn cobs for fermentation processes to increase the protein content or for use directly as ruminant animal feed.

  3. Pretreated high lipid serum method and its significance before determine INS C-P by RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Guangxia; Zhu Liqiang; Wu Yufang

    2004-01-01

    The method of predigest high lipid serum before determine INS and C-P for elimination of the high lipid in serum was studied. The specimen was divided into two groups, one was directly tested, the other was pretreated, then determined(including INS and QC of serum, normal and high lipid serum, pretreating serum). The results were compared by examine and analysed correlatively. Results show that INS and C-P of the specimens pretreated by PEG, were no statistic difference in relation to direct tested (P>0.05) and those were close correlatively (P<0.001) in normal. The results of high lipid serum after the specimens were predigest by PEG were marked by decrease in relation to direct tested (P<0.001). High lipid and INS antibody were eliminated by PEG so that was increased the results nicety. (authors)

  4. Increased detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in cats after heat pretreatment of samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntmeir, Jeff M; Adolph, Chris B; Thomas, Jennifer E; Reichard, Mason V; Blagburn, Byron L; Little, Susan E

    2017-10-01

    Objectives To determine whether pretreating diagnostic samples with heat increases the detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in adult cats, we evaluated feline serum and plasma samples collected in heartworm-endemic areas of the southern United States. Methods Commercial microtiter well assays for detection of D immitis antigen were used to evaluate serum or plasma samples from 385 shelter and free-roaming cats from the southcentral and southeastern United States before and after heat treatment; commercial antibody tests were performed on a subset of samples. Results Prior to sample heat treatment, 1/220 (0.5%) shelter cats and 4/165 (2.4%) free-roaming cats had detectable D immitis antigen. After heat pretreatment, the detection rate increased to 13/220 (5.9%) and 13/165 (7.9%), respectively. Antibody reactive to D immitis was significantly more common ( P cats that were antigen positive after heat treatment (10/13; 76.9%) than serum from cats that remained antigen negative after heat treatment (22/163; 13.5%). Conclusions and relevance Heat pretreatment of feline samples increased antigen detection by commercial assays for D immitis and improved overall concordance of antigen and antibody test results in antigen-positive samples in this population. Although further work to investigate the specificity of D immitis antigen assays when using pre-treated samples is warranted, this approach may be useful in the diagnosis of heartworm infection in individual cats and may increase the accuracy of surveys based on antigen detection.

  5. Enzymatic pre-treatment increases the protein bioaccessibility and extractability in dulse (Palmaria palmata)

    OpenAIRE

    Mæhre, Hanne K; Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik

    2016-01-01

    Several common protein extraction protocols have been applied on seaweeds, but extraction yields have been limited. The aims of this study were to further develop and optimize existing extraction protocols and to examine the effect of enzymatic pre-treatment on bioaccessibility and extractability of seaweed proteins. Enzymatic pre-treatment of seaweed samples resulted in a three-fold increase in amino acids available for extraction. Combining enzymatic pre-treatment with a...

  6. How the detector resolution affects the clinical significance of SBRT pre-treatment quality assurance results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, A; Esposito, M; Pini, S; Ghirelli, A; Zatelli, G; Russo, S

    2017-12-01

    Aim of this work was to study how the detector resolution can affect the clinical significance of SBRT pre-treatment volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) verification results. Three detectors (PTW OCTAVIUS 4D 729, 1500 and 100 SRS) used in five configurations with different resolution were compared: 729, 729 merged, 1500, 1500 merged and 1000 SRS. Absolute local gamma passing rates of 3D pre-treatment quality assurance (QA) were evaluated for 150 dose distributions in 30 plans. Five different kinds of error were introduced in order to establish the detection sensitivity of the three devices. Percentage dosimetric differences were evaluated between planned dosevolume histogram (DVH) and patients' predicted DVH calculated by PTW DVH 4D® software. The mean gamma passing rates and the standard deviations were 92.4% ± 3.7%, 94.6% ± 1.8%, 95.3% ± 4.2%, 97.4% ± 2.5% and 97.6% ± 1.4 respectively for 729, 729 merged, 1500, 1500 merged and 1000 SRS with 2% local dose/2mm criterion. The same trend was found on the sensitivity analysis: using a tight gamma analysis criterion (2%L/1mm) only the 1000 SRS detected every kind of error, while 729 and 1500 merged detected three and four kinds of error respectively. Regarding dose metrics extracted from DVH curves, D50% was within the tolerance level in more than 90% of cases only for the 1000 SRS. The detector resolution can significantly affect the clinical significance of SBRT pre-treatment verification results. The choice of a detector with resolution suitable to the investigated field size is of main importance to avoid getting false positive. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pretreatment factors significantly influence quality of life in cancer patients: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movsas, Benjamin; Scott, Charles; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this analysis was to assess the impact of pretreatment factors on quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients. Methods and Materials Pretreatment QOL (via Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy [FACT], version 2) was obtained in 1,428 patients in several prospective Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials including nonmetastatic head-and-neck (n = 1139), esophageal (n = 174), lung (n = 51), rectal (n = 47), and prostate (n = 17) cancer patients. Clinically meaningful differences between groups were defined as a difference of 1 standard error of measurement (SEM). Results The mean FACT score for all patients was 86 (20.7-112) with SEM of 5.3. Statistically significant differences in QOL were observed based on age, race, Karnofsky Performance Status, marital status, education level, income level, and employment status, but not by gender or primary site. Using the SEM, there were clinically meaningful differences between patients ≤50 years vs. ≥65 years. Hispanics had worse QOL than whites. FACT increased linearly with higher Karnofsky Performance Status and income levels. Married patients (or live-in relationships) had a better QOL than single, divorced, or widowed patients. College graduates had better QOL than those with less education. Conclusion Most pretreatment factors meaningfully influenced baseline QOL. The potentially devastating impact of a cancer diagnosis, particularly in young and minority patients, must be addressed

  8. Combined ultrasonication and thermal pre-treatment of sewage sludge for increasing methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Tian, Xinbo; Wang, Chong; Lin, Li Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the combination of ultrasonic and thermal treatment of sewage sludge (SS). The combination involved ultrasonicating a fraction of the sludge and thermal treatment at various temperatures and this resulted in solubilization of proteins and carbohydrates, and so contributing to increased COD solubilization. During the treatment, SCOD, soluble proteins and carbohydrates increased from 760 mg L(-1) to 10,200 mg L(-1), 110 mg L(-1) to 2,900 mg L(-1) and 60 mg L(-1) to 630 mg L(-1), respectively. It was found ultrasonication of only a fraction of the sludge (>20%) followed by thermal treatment led to significant improvement compared to thermal and ULS treatments applied on their own. At 65°C, the kinetic of solubilization was improved and the hyper-thermophilic treatment time could be reduced to a few hours when ultrasonication was used first. A linear correlation (R(2) = 95%) was found between the SCOD obtained after ultrasonication pre-treatment and anaerobic biodegradability. The combined treatment resulted in 20% increase in biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of the pre-treated sludge.

  9. Enzymatic Pre-Treatment Increases the Protein Bioaccessibility and Extractability in Dulse (Palmaria palmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne K. Mæhre

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several common protein extraction protocols have been applied on seaweeds, but extraction yields have been limited. The aims of this study were to further develop and optimize existing extraction protocols and to examine the effect of enzymatic pre-treatment on bioaccessibility and extractability of seaweed proteins. Enzymatic pre-treatment of seaweed samples resulted in a three-fold increase in amino acids available for extraction. Combining enzymatic pre-treatment with alkaline extraction resulted in a 1.6-fold increase in the protein extraction yield compared to a standard alkaline extraction protocol. A simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model showed that enzymatic pre-treatment of seaweed increased the amount of amino acids available for intestinal absorption 3.2-fold. In conclusion, enzymatic pre-treatment of seaweeds is effective for increasing the amount of amino acids available for utilization and may thus be an effective means for increasing the utilization potential of seaweed proteins. However, both the enzymatic pre-treatment protocol and the protein extraction protocol need further optimization in order to obtain optimal cost-benefit and results from the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model need to be confirmed in clinical models.

  10. Enzymatic Pre-Treatment Increases the Protein Bioaccessibility and Extractability in Dulse (Palmaria palmata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mæhre, Hanne K; Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik

    2016-10-26

    Several common protein extraction protocols have been applied on seaweeds, but extraction yields have been limited. The aims of this study were to further develop and optimize existing extraction protocols and to examine the effect of enzymatic pre-treatment on bioaccessibility and extractability of seaweed proteins. Enzymatic pre-treatment of seaweed samples resulted in a three-fold increase in amino acids available for extraction. Combining enzymatic pre-treatment with alkaline extraction resulted in a 1.6-fold increase in the protein extraction yield compared to a standard alkaline extraction protocol. A simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model showed that enzymatic pre-treatment of seaweed increased the amount of amino acids available for intestinal absorption 3.2-fold. In conclusion, enzymatic pre-treatment of seaweeds is effective for increasing the amount of amino acids available for utilization and may thus be an effective means for increasing the utilization potential of seaweed proteins. However, both the enzymatic pre-treatment protocol and the protein extraction protocol need further optimization in order to obtain optimal cost-benefit and results from the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model need to be confirmed in clinical models.

  11. Mechanical pretreatment at harvesting increases the bioenergy output from marginal land grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Egelund, H.

    2017-01-01

    Meadow grass has recently gained increased attention as a substrate for full-scale biogas reactors. However, to increase its biodegradability, pretreatment is needed. In the present work, different harvesting machines were compared in order to assess their effect on biogas production. Specifically......, a Disc-mower, an Excoriator and a Chopper were used to define the most appropriate machinery in order to improve the energy output per hectare for full-scale biogas plants. Among the harvesters, Excoriator, a novel simultaneous harvest and mechanical treatment, was found to significantly increase...... enhance the bioenergy output of a full-scale biogas plant in a range of 12%-23%. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Homocysteine pre-treatment increases redox capacity in both endothelial and tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Santiago, Elena; Rodríguez-Caso, Luis; Cárdenas, Casimiro; Serrano, José J; Quesada, Ana R; Medina, Miguel Ángel

    2017-07-01

    We studied the modulatory effects of homocysteine pre-treatment on the disulfide reduction capacity of tumor and endothelial cells. Human MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma and bovine aorta endothelial cells were pre-treated for 1-24 hours with 0.5-5 mM homocysteine or homocysteine thiolactone. After washing to eliminate any rest of homocysteine or homocysteine thiolactone, cell redox capacity was determined by using a method for measuring disulfide reduction. Homocysteine pre-treatments for 1-4 hours at a concentration of 0.5-5 mM increase the disulfide reduction capacity of both tumor and endothelial cells. This effect cannot be fully mimicked by either cysteine or homocysteine thiolactone pre-treatments of tumor cells. Taken together, our data suggest that homocysteine can behave as an anti-oxidant agent by increasing the anti-oxidant capacity of tumor and endothelial cells.

  13. Clinical significance of pretreatment FDG PET/CT IN MOBG-avid pediatric neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seo Young; Kim, Yong Il; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Shin, Hee Young [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E. Edmund [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rahim, Muhammad Kashif [Nishtar Medical College and Hospital, Multan (Pakistan)

    2017-06-15

    {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging is well known to have clinical significance in the initial staging and response evaluation of the many kinds of neoplasms. However, its role in the pediatric neuroblastoma is not clearly defined. In the present study, the clinical significance of FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) in 123I- or 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG)-avid pediatric neuroblastoma was investigated. Twenty patients with neuroblastoma who undertook pretreatment FDG PET/CT at our institute between 2008 and 2015 and showed MIBG avidity were retrospectively enrolled in the present study. Clinical information—including histopathology, and serum markers—and several PET parameters—including SUVmax of the primary lesion (Psuv), target-to-background ratio (TBR), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and coefficient of variation (CV)—were analyzed. The prognostic effect of PET parameters was evaluated in terms of progression-free survival (PFS). Total 20 patients (4.5 ± 3.5 years) were divided as two groups by disease progression. Six patients (30.0 %) experienced disease progression and one patient (5.0 %) died during follow-up period. There were not statistically significant in age, stage, MYCN status, primary tumor size, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and ferritin level between two groups with progression or no progression. However, Psuv (p = 0.017), TBR (p = 0.09), MTV (p = 0.02), and CV (p = 0.036) showed significant differences between two groups. In univariate analysis, PFS was significantly associated with Psuv (p = 0.021) and TBR (p = 0.023). FDG-PET parameters were significantly related with progression of neuroblastoma. FDG-PET/CT may have the potential as a valuable modality for evaluating prognosis in the patients with MIBG-avid pediatric neuroblastoma.

  14. Increased binding of [3H]apomorphine in caudate membranes after dopamine pretreatment in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManus, C.; Hartley, E.J.; Seeman, P.

    1978-01-01

    Most patients with Parkinson's disease treated with L-dopa show a progressively deteriorating response which may possibly be attributed to an L-dopa-induced process of unknown origin. Long-term administration of dopamine-mimetic drugs to animals sometimes produces behavioural facilitation. To investigate one possible molecular mechanism of this facilitation or sensitization the effects of prolonged exposure, in vitro, of dopamine on the dopamine/neuroleptic receptors in the caudate nucleus of the calf were tested. Calf caudate homogenates pretreated with dopamine or other drugs were tested for the binding of [ 3 H]apomorphine, [ 3 H]haloperidol, 3H-WB-4101, or [ 3 H]naloxine. Pre-exposure with dopamine or noradrenaline lead to an increased binding of [ 3 H]apomorphine. The significance of the results is discussed. (author)

  15. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of ensiled sorghum forage and wheat straw to increase methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambusiti, C; Ficara, E; Rollini, M; Manzoni, M; Malpei, F

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sodium hydroxide pretreatment on the chemical composition and the methane production of ensiled sorghum forage and wheat straw. NaOH pretreatment was conducted in closed bottles, at 40 °C for 24 h. Samples were soaked in a NaOH solution at different dosages (expressed in terms of total solids (TS) content) of 1 and 10% gNaOH/gTS, with a TS concentration of 160 gTS/L. At the highest NaOH dosage the reduction of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin was 31, 66 and 44%, and 13, 45 and 3% for sorghum and wheat straw, respectively. The concentration of soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) in the liquid phase after the pretreatment was also improved both for wheat straw and sorghum (up to 24 and 33%, respectively). Total sugars content increased up to five times at 10% gNaOH/gTS with respect to control samples, suggesting that NaOH pretreatment improves the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses. The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests showed that the NaOH pretreatment favoured the anaerobic degradability of both substrates. At 1 and 10% NaOH dosages, the methane production increased from 14 to 31% for ensiled sorghum forage and from 17 to 47% for wheat straw. The first order kinetic constant increased up to 65% for sorghum and up to 163% for wheat straw.

  16. Mechanical Pretreatment to Increase the Bioenergy Yield for Full-scale Biogas Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Angelidaki, Irini

    % compared to the untreated one. The digestion of meadow grass as an alternative co-substrate had positive impact on the energy yield of full-scale biogas reactors operating with cattle manure, pig manure or mixture of both. A preliminary analysis showed that the addition of meadow grass in a manure based...... biogas reactor was possible with biomass share of 10%, leading to energy production of 280 GJ/day. The digestion of pretreated meadow grass as alternative co-substrate had clearly positive impact in all the examined scenarios, leading to increased biogas production in the range of 10%-20%.......This study investigated the efficiency of commercially available harvesting machines for mechanical pretreatment of meadow grass, in order to enhance the energy yield per hectare. Excoriator was shown to be the most efficient mechanical pretreatment increasing the biogas yield of grass by 16...

  17. Prognostic Significance of Pre-treatment Serum C-Reactive Protein Level in Patients with Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner-Adler, Barbara; Kimberger, Oliver; Schneidinger, Cora; Kölbl, Heinz; Bodner, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate pre-treatment serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level as a prognostic parameter in patients with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Pre-treatment CRP levels were analyzed to determine potential associations with clinicopathological parameters and to assess prognostic value in 46 patients with sole adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. The mean (±SD) pre-treatment serum CRP level was 5.82 (7.21) mg/l. Serum CRP concentration significantly correlated positively with age at diagnosis (p=0.001), lymphovascular space invasion (p=0.0026), recurrent disease (p=0.0001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (p=0.0002). In multivariate Cox regression models with age, FIGO stage, histological grade and lymph node status, elevated CRP and cancer antigen 125 levels were associated with shortened survival (pcervix. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Low Thermal Pretreatment as Method for Increasing the Bioavailability of Organic Matters in Domestic Mixed Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seswoya Roslinda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In practice, primary and secondary sludge are fed into anaerobic digestion. However, the microbial cell exists in secondary sludge are an unfavorable substrate for biodegradation. Thermal pretreatment is proved to increase the bioavailability of organic and improve the biodegradation subsequently. During low thermal pretreatment, both intracellular (within the microbial cell and extracellular (within the polymeric network materials were extracted. This process increases the bioavailability meaning that organic compounds are accessible to the microorganisms for their degradation. This research aims to investigate the effect of thermal pretreatment on domestic mixed sludge disintegration. Domestic mixed sludge was thermally treated at 70°C for various holding times. The pre-thermally treated domestic mixed sludge was measured for protein and carbohydrates following the Lowry Method, and Phenol-Sulphuric Acid Method respectively. DR 6000 UV-Vis spectrophotometer, DRB200 Reactor (digester and COD vial (TNT plus 822 were used for COD determination, based on Reactor Digestion Method approved by USEPA. The results showed that the organic matter in domestic mixed sludge is efficiently solubilised during thermal treatment organic matter. The higher soluble yield for each monitored parameter determined in this study indicated that low thermal pretreatment improve bioavailability.

  19. Pretreatment of RPE Cells with Lutein Can Mitigate Bevacizumab-Induced Increases in Angiogenin and bFGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Natàlia; Coblentz, Jacqueline; Moreira-Neto, Carlos; Bravo-Filho, Vasco; Zoroquiain, Pablo; Burnier, Miguel N

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether pretreatment of retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells with lutein can affect the response of cells to bevacizumab therapy. One human RPE cell line (ARPE-19) was used for all experiments. The cells were treated with lutein in different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 μg/ml). After 24 h, all plates were treated with bevacizumab (0.25 mg/ml). Media were harvested 24 h later for sandwich ELISA-based angiogenesis arrays. A Quantibody Human Angiogenesis Array was used in order to quantify the secretion of the following 10 proangiogenic cytokines: angiogenin, ANG2, EGF, bFGF, HB-EGF, PDGF-BB, leptin, PIGF, HGF and VEGF. Treatment with bevacizumab alone led to a significant decrease in VEGF, as well as a significant increase in angiogenin and bFGF. Pretreatment with 0.1 and 1.0 μg/ml of lutein led to significant decreases in both bFGF and angiogenin following treatment with bevacizumab compared to bevacizumab treatment alone. Lutein alone did not modify the secretion of proangiogenic cytokines. Pretreatment of human RPE cells in culture with specific doses of lutein prior to bevacizumab treatment mitigated the increase in bFGF and angiogenin caused by bevacizumab monotherapy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The Prognostic Significance of Pretreatment Serum CEA Levels in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis Including 14651 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kai; Yang, Li; Hu, Bing; Wu, Hao; Zhu, Hong; Tang, Chengwei

    2015-01-01

    Background Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is commonly used as a serum tumor marker in clinical practice; however, its prognostic value for gastric cancer patients remains uncertain. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of CEA and investigate CEA as a tumor marker. Methods PubMed, EMBASE and other databases were searched for potentially eligible studies. Forty-one studies reporting the prognostic effect of pretreatment serum CEA expression in gastric cancer patients were selected. Data on 14651 eligible patients were retrieved for the meta-analysis. Based on the data extracted from the available literature, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for an adverse prognosis were estimated for gastric cancer patients with elevated pretreatment serum levels of CEA (CEA+) relative to patients with normal pretreatment CEA levels (CEA-). Results The CEA+ patients had a significantly poorer prognosis than the CEA- patients in terms of overall survival (OS: HR 1.716, 95% CI 1.594 - 1.848, P 0.05). In the pooled analyses of multivariate-adjusted HRs, the results suggested that pretreatment serum CEA may be an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer (OS: HR 1.681, 95% CI 1.425 - 1.982; DSS: HR 1.900, 95% CI 1.441 - 2.505; DFS: HR 2.579, 95% CI 1.935 - 3.436). Conclusion/Significance The meta-analysis based on the available literature supported the association of elevated pretreatment serum CEA levels with a poor prognosis for gastric cancer and a nearly doubled risk of mortality in gastric cancer patients. CEA may be an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients and may aid in determining appropriate treatment which may preferentially benefit the CEA+ patients. PMID:25879931

  1. Pretreatment of wheat straw with potassium hydroxide for increasing enzymatic and microbial degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Zicari, Steven M; Liu, Guangqing; Li, Yeqing; Zhang, Ruihong

    2015-06-01

    The pretreatment of wheat straw with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at ambient temperature (20°C) was investigated. The pretreatment effects on chemical composition and physical structures, and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion were evaluated. Wheat straw at 10% total solids (TS) was treated with KOH solution for 24h at a wide range of KOH loadings from 2% to 50% (w/w dry basis). Higher KOH loading resulted in higher lignin reduction from the straw and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the resulting black liquor. Maximum lignin reduction of 54.7% was observed at 50% KOH loading. In comparison to untreated straw, specific hydrolysis yields achieved 14.0-92.3% over the range of 2-50% KOH loading, and methane yields increased 16.7-77.5% for KOH loadings of 10-50%, respectively. Accounting for losses during pretreatment, 20% KOH loading resulted in maximum overall reducing sugar yield and methane yield and therefore is the recommended loading for pretreatment under these conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increasing Water System Efficiency with Ultrafiltration Pre-treatment in Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majamaa, Katariina; Suarez, Javier; Gasia Eduard

    2012-09-01

    Water demineralization with reverse osmosis (RO) membranes has a long and successful history in water treatment for power plants. As the industry strives for more efficient, reliable and compact water systems, pressurized hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (UF) has become an increasingly appealing pre-treatment technology. Compared to conventional, non- membrane based pretreatments, ultrafiltration offers higher efficiency in the removal of suspended solids, microorganisms and colloidal matter, which are all common causes for operational challenges experienced in the RO systems. In addition, UF is more capable of handling varying feed water qualities and removes the risk of particle carry-over often seen with conventional filtration techniques. Ultrafiltration is a suitable treatment technology for various water types from surface waters to wastewater, and the more fluctuating or challenging the feed water source is, the better the benefits of UF are seen compared to conventional pretreatments. Regardless of the feed water type, ultrafiltration sustains a constant supply of high quality feed water to downstream RO, allowing a more compact and cost efficient RO system design with improved operational reliability. A detailed focus on the design and operational aspects and experiences of two plants is provided. These examples demonstrate both economical UF operation and tangible impact of RO process improvement. Experience from these plants can be leveraged to new projects. (authors)

  3. Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment to increase the anaerobic hydrolysis rate of waste activated sludge during anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Guangyin; Lu, Xueqin; Li, Yu-You; Zhao, Youcai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment for improving sludge anaerobic digestion was proposed. • Combined process enhanced the cell lysis, biopolymers releases, and thus sludge disintegration. • Increased solubilization of sludge increased the anaerobic hydrolysis rate. • Increased solubilization does not always induce an improved anaerobic digestion efficiency. - Abstract: Pretreatment can be used prior to anaerobic digestion to improve the efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion. In this study, electrolysis and a commonly used pretreatment method of alkaline (NaOH) solubilization were integrated as a pretreatment method for promoting WAS anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment effectiveness of combined process were investigated in terms of disintegration degree (DD SCOD ), suspended solids (TSS and VSS) removals, the releases of protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS), and subsequent anaerobic digestion as well as dewaterability after digestion. Electrolysis was able to crack the microbial cells trapped in sludge gels and release the biopolymers (PN and PS) due to the cooperation of alkaline solubilization, enhancing the sludge floc disintegration/solubilization, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays showed the highest methane yield was achieved with 5 V plus pH 9.2 pretreatment with up to 20.3% improvement over the non-pretreated sludge after 42 days of mesophilic operation. In contrast, no discernible improvements on anaerobic degradability were observed for the rest of pretreated sludges, probably due to the overmuch leakage of refractory soluble organics, partial chemical mineralization of solubilized compounds and sodium inhibition. The statistical analysis further indicated that increased solubilization induced by electrical-alkali pretreatment increased the first-order anaerobic hydrolysis rate (k hyd ), but had no, or very slight enhancement on WAS ultimate

  4. Increased levels of unscheduled DNA synthesis in UV-irradiated human fibroblasts pretreated with sodium butyrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.I.; Friedberg, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    Pretreatment of growing normal and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) human fibroblasts with sodium butyrate at concentrations of 5-20 mM results in increased levels of DNA repair synthesis measured by autoradiography after exposure of the cells to 254 nm UV radiation in the fluence range 0-25 J/m 2 . The phenomenon manifests as an increased extent and an increased initial rate of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). This experimental result is not due to an artifact of autoradiography related to cell size. Xeroderma pigmentosum cells from complementation groups A, C, D and E and XP variant cells all exhibit increases in the levels of UV-induced UDS in response to sodium butyrate proportional to those observed with normal cells. These UDS increases associated with butyrate pretreatment correlate with demonstrable changes in intracellular thymidine pool size and suggest that sodium butyrate enhances uptake of exogenous radiolabeled thymidine during UV-induced repair synthesis by reducing endogenous levels of thymidine. (author)

  5. Does Surgery Without Lugol's Solution Pretreatment for Graves' Disease Increase Surgical Morbidity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Frederic; Bonal, Mathieu; Fanget, Florian; Maillard, Laure; Laplace, Nathalie; Peix, Jean-Louis; Lifante, Jean-Christophe

    2018-01-04

    Total thyroidectomy can be performed for Graves' disease after a euthyroid state is achieved using inhibitors of thyroid hormone synthesis (thioamides). However, hypervascularization of the thyroid gland is associated with increased hemorrhage risk, in addition to complicating identification of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and parathyroid gland. Saturated iodine solution (Lugol's solution) has been recommended to reduce thyroid gland hypervascularization and intraoperative blood loss, although this approach is not used at our center based on our experience that it induces thyroid firmness and potentially hypoparathyroidism. This retrospective single-center study evaluated patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for Graves' disease between November 2010 and November 2015. The rates of various complications at our center were compared to those from the literature (e.g., cervical hematoma, hypocalcemia, and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy). Three hundred and eighty consecutive patients underwent total thyroidectomy without preoperative Lugol's solution (311 women [81.84%] and 69 men [18.16%], mean age 43.41 years). No postoperative deaths were reported, although 30 patients (7.89%) experienced recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and 9 patients experienced permanent injuries (2.37%). Hypoparathyroidism was experienced by 87 patients (25.53%) and 14 patients experienced permanent hypoparathyroidism (3.68%). Four patients required reoperation for cervical hematoma (1.05%; 2 deep and 2 superficial hematomas). Despite the recommendation of iodine pretreatment, few of our non-pretreated patients experienced permanent nerve injury (2.37%) or permanent hypoparathyroidism (3.68%). These results are comparable to the outcomes from the literature. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether iodine pretreatment is necessary before surgery for Graves' disease.

  6. Climate impacts of oil extraction increase significantly with oilfield age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnadi, Mohammad S.; Brandt, Adam R.

    2017-08-01

    Record-breaking temperatures have induced governments to implement targets for reducing future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Use of oil products contributes ~35% of global GHG emissions, and the oil industry itself consumes 3-4% of global primary energy. Because oil resources are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, requiring different extraction and processing methods, GHG studies should evaluate oil sources using detailed project-specific data. Unfortunately, prior oil-sector GHG analysis has largely neglected the fact that the energy intensity of producing oil can change significantly over the life of a particular oil project. Here we use decades-long time-series data from twenty-five globally significant oil fields (>1 billion barrels ultimate recovery) to model GHG emissions from oil production as a function of time. We find that volumetric oil production declines with depletion, but this depletion is accompanied by significant growth--in some cases over tenfold--in per-MJ GHG emissions. Depletion requires increased energy expenditures in drilling, oil recovery, and oil processing. Using probabilistic simulation, we derive a relationship for estimating GHG increases over time, showing an expected doubling in average emissions over 25 years. These trends have implications for long-term emissions and climate modelling, as well as for climate policy.

  7. Stress significantly increases mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms contribute to the viral-bacterial synergy which results in fatal secondary bacterial respiratory infections. Epidemiological investigations have implicated physical and psychological stressors as factors contributing to the incidence and severity of respiratory infections and psychological stress alters host responses to experimental viral respiratory infections. The effect of stress on secondary bacterial respiratory infections has not, however, been investigated. A natural model of secondary bacterial respiratory infection in naive calves was used to determine if weaning and maternal separation (WMS) significantly altered mortality when compared to calves pre-adapted (PA) to this psychological stressor. Following weaning, calves were challenged with Mannheimia haemolytica four days after a primary bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) respiratory infection. Mortality doubled in WMS calves when compared to calves pre-adapted to weaning for two weeks prior to the viral respiratory infection. Similar results were observed in two independent experiments and fatal viral-bacterial synergy did not extend beyond the time of viral shedding. Virus shedding did not differ significantly between treatment groups but innate immune responses during viral infection, including IFN-γ secretion, the acute-phase inflammatory response, CD14 expression, and LPS-induced TNFα production, were significantly greater in WMS versus PA calves. These observations demonstrate that weaning and maternal separation at the time of a primary BHV-1 respiratory infection increased innate immune responses that correlated significantly with mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection. PMID:22435642

  8. Sixteen-Day Bedrest Significantly Increases Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Hsieh, S. T.; Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Convertino, V. A.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Upon exposure to microgravity, astronauts lose up to 10% of their total plasma volume, which may contribute to orthostatic intolerance after space flight. Because plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is a primary factor maintaining plasma volume, our objective was to measure time course changes in COP during microgravity simulated by 6 deg. head-down tilt (HDT). Seven healthy male subjects (30-55 years of age) were placed in HDT for 16 days. For the purpose of another study, three of the seven subjects were chosen to exercise on a cycle ergometer on day 16. Blood samples were drawn immediately before bedrest on day 14 of bedrest, 18-24 hours following exercise while all subjects were still in HDT and 1 hour following bedrest termination. Plasma COP was measured in all 20 microliter EDTA-treated samples using an osmometer fitted with a PM 30 membrane. Data were analyzed with paired and unpaired t-tests. Plasma COP on day 14 of bedrest (29.9 +/- 0.69 mmHg) was significantly higher (p less than 0.005) than the control, pre-bedrest value (23.1 +/- 0.76 mmHg). At one hour of upright recovery after HDT, plasma COP remained significantly elevated (exercise: 26.9 +/- 0.87 mmHg; no exercise: 26.3 +/- 0.85 mmHg). Additionally, exercise had no significant effect on plasma COP 18-24 hours following exercise (exercise: 27.8 +/- 1.09 mmHg; no exercise: 27.1 +/- 0.78 mmHg). Our results demonstrate that plasma COP increases significantly with microgravity simulated by HDT. However, preliminary results indicate exercise during HDT does not significantly affect plasma COP.

  9. Prognostic significance of pretreatment VEGF, survivin, and Smac/DIABLO serum levels in patients with serous ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzycka, Bozena; Mackowiak-Matejczyk, Beata; Terlikowska, Katarzyna Maria; Kulesza-Bronczyk, Bozena; Kinalski, Maciej; Terlikowski, Slawomir Jerzy

    2015-06-01

    The second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac/DIABLO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and survivin are known to play a significant role in the growth and development of numerous tumors. Serum concentrations of VEGF, survivin, and Smac/DIABLO were analyzed in 92 patients with serous ovarian cancer and 94 healthy controls. Values were correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes. The median pretreatment serum VEGF and survivin levels in patients with serous ovarian carcinoma were significantly higher, while Smac/DIABLO levels were significantly lower than that in healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the best cutoff point for VEGF was determined to be 345 pg/ml; with 83 % sensitivity and 65 % specificity. For survivin, the cutoff point was 110 pg/ml and for Smac/DIABLO was 75 pg/ml, with 82 and 62 % sensitivity and 43 and 87 % specificity, respectively. In the patients group, higher VEGF and survivin levels and lower Smac/DIABLO levels in sera were significantly associated with poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Preoperative measurement of serum VEGF, survivin, and Smac/DIABLO may be of help in early detection of serous ovarian cancer and may provide important information about the patient's outcome and prognosis.

  10. Physical-chemical pretreatment as an option for increased sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : municipal wastewater treatment, physical-chemical pretreatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment, organic polymers, environmental sustainability

    Most of the currently applied municipal wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands are

  11. Myriocin significantly increases the mortality of a non-mammalian model host during Candida pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Rodrigues de Melo

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a major human pathogen whose treatment is challenging due to antifungal drug toxicity, drug resistance and paucity of antifungal agents available. Myrocin (MYR inhibits sphingosine synthesis, a precursor of sphingolipids, an important cell membrane and signaling molecule component. MYR also has dual immune suppressive and antifungal properties, potentially modulating mammalian immunity and simultaneously reducing fungal infection risk. Wax moth (Galleria mellonella larvae, alternatives to mice, were used to establish if MYR suppressed insect immunity and increased survival of C. albicans-infected insects. MYR effects were studied in vivo and in vitro, and compared alone and combined with those of approved antifungal drugs, fluconazole (FLC and amphotericin B (AMPH. Insect immune defenses failed to inhibit C. albicans with high mortalities. In insects pretreated with the drug followed by C. albicans inoculation, MYR+C. albicans significantly increased mortality to 93% from 67% with C. albicans alone 48 h post-infection whilst AMPH+C. albicans and FLC+C. albicans only showed 26% and 0% mortalities, respectively. MYR combinations with other antifungal drugs in vivo also enhanced larval mortalities, contrasting the synergistic antifungal effect of the MYR+AMPH combination in vitro. MYR treatment influenced immunity and stress management gene expression during C. albicans pathogenesis, modulating transcripts putatively associated with signal transduction/regulation of cytokines, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade, G-protein coupled receptor and inflammation. In contrast, all stress management gene expression was down-regulated in FLC and AMPH pretreated C. albicans-infected insects. Results are discussed with their implications for clinical use of MYR to treat sphingolipid-associated disorders.

  12. Myriocin Significantly Increases the Mortality of a Non-Mammalian Model Host during Candida Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Nadja Rodrigues; Abdrahman, Ahmed; Greig, Carolyn; Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Thornton, Catherine; Ratcliffe, Norman A.; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Butt, Tariq M.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major human pathogen whose treatment is challenging due to antifungal drug toxicity, drug resistance and paucity of antifungal agents available. Myrocin (MYR) inhibits sphingosine synthesis, a precursor of sphingolipids, an important cell membrane and signaling molecule component. MYR also has dual immune suppressive and antifungal properties, potentially modulating mammalian immunity and simultaneously reducing fungal infection risk. Wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae, alternatives to mice, were used to establish if MYR suppressed insect immunity and increased survival of C. albicans-infected insects. MYR effects were studied in vivo and in vitro, and compared alone and combined with those of approved antifungal drugs, fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMPH). Insect immune defenses failed to inhibit C. albicans with high mortalities. In insects pretreated with the drug followed by C. albicans inoculation, MYR+C. albicans significantly increased mortality to 93% from 67% with C. albicans alone 48 h post-infection whilst AMPH+C. albicans and FLC+C. albicans only showed 26% and 0% mortalities, respectively. MYR combinations with other antifungal drugs in vivo also enhanced larval mortalities, contrasting the synergistic antifungal effect of the MYR+AMPH combination in vitro. MYR treatment influenced immunity and stress management gene expression during C. albicans pathogenesis, modulating transcripts putatively associated with signal transduction/regulation of cytokines, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade, G-protein coupled receptor and inflammation. In contrast, all stress management gene expression was down-regulated in FLC and AMPH pretreated C. albicans -infected insects. Results are discussed with their implications for clinical use of MYR to treat sphingolipid-associated disorders. PMID:24260135

  13. Pretreatment direct bilirubin and total cholesterol are significant predictors of overall survival in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanwei; Xu, Jianlin; Lou, Yuqing; Hu, Song; Yu, Keke; Li, Rong; Zhang, Xueyan; Jin, Bo; Han, Baohui

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to examine the prediction of pretreatment circulating bilirubin and cholesterol for overall survival in 459 advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Circulating total bilirubin, direct bilirubin (DB), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured at baseline. The mean age (standard deviation) of all study patients was 58.7 (10.5) years, and 42.9% of them was males. Ever smokers accounted for 27.0% and lung adenocarcinoma for 90.4%. The median follow-up time and survival time were 29.5 and 34.9 months, respectively. Patients with higher DB had a 1.68-fold increased risk of death compared with patients with lower DB (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-2.30, p = 0.001), while patients with higher TC were at a 63% reduced risk of death compared with patients with lower TC (HR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.20-0.67, p = 0.001). As for HDL-C, patients with higher levels had the risk of death reduced by 46% (HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29-1.00, p = 0.049) compared with patients with lower levels. After the Bonferroni correction, only DB and TC were significantly associated with NSCLC survival. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that pretreatment DB was identified as a significant risk factor, yet TC as a protective factor, for overall survival in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations. © 2016 UICC.

  14. The significance of pretreatment CD4 count on the outcome and treatment tolerance of HIV-positive patients with anal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, Rex; Welton, Mark L.; Klencke, Barbara; Weinberg, Vivian; Krieg, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the outcome and tolerance of HIV-positive patients with anal cancer to standard therapy based on their pretreatment CD4 count. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 1997, 17 HIV-positive patients with anal cancer and documented pretreatment CD4 counts were treated at the University of California, San Francisco or its affiliated hospitals with either concurrent chemotherapy and radiation or radiation alone. The outcome and complications of treatment were correlated with the patients' pretreatment CD4 count. Results: Disease for all 9 patients with pretreatment CD4 counts ≥ 200 was controlled with chemoradiation. Although four required a treatment break of 2 weeks because of toxicity, none required hospitalization. Of the 8 patients with pretreatment CD4 counts < 200, 4 experienced decreased counts, intractable diarrhea, or moist desquamation requiring hospitalization. Additionally, 4 of these 8 ultimately required a colostomy either for a therapy-related complication or for salvage. Nevertheless, 6/7 in this group who received concurrent chemotherapy and radiation had their disease controlled, whereas the patient treated with radiation alone failed and required a colostomy for salvage. Conclusion: Patients with CD4 ≥ 200 had excellent disease control with acceptable morbidity. Patients with CD4 < 200 had markedly increased morbidity; however, disease was ultimately controlled in 7/8 patients

  15. Tramadol Pretreatment Enhances Ketamine-Induced Antidepressant Effects and Increases Mammalian Target of Rapamycin in Rat Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that acute administration of ketamine elicits fast-acting antidepressant effects. Moreover, tramadol also has potential antidepressant effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with tramadol on ketamine-induced antidepressant activity and was to determine the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR in rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Rats were intraperitoneally administrated with ketamine at the dose of 10 mg/kg or saline 1 h before the second episode of the forced swimming test (FST. Tramadol or saline was intraperitoneally pretreated 30 min before the former administration of ketamine or saline. The locomotor activity and the immobility time of FST were both measured. After that, rats were sacrificed to determine the expression of mTOR in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Tramadol at the dose of 5 mg/kg administrated alone did not elicit the antidepressant effects. More importantly, pretreatment with tramadol enhanced the ketamine-induced antidepressant effects and upregulated the expression of mTOR in rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Pretreatment with tramadol enhances the ketamine-induced antidepressant effects, which is associated with the increased expression of mTOR in rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

  16. Increased viability of fibroblasts when pretreated with ceria nanoparticles during serum deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genier FS

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Francielli S Genier,1 Maximilian Bizanek,1 Thomas J Webster,1,2 Amit K Roy1,2 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering (WIBE, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Conditions of cellular stress are often the cause of cell death or dysfunction. Sustained cell stress can lead to several health complications, such as extensive inflammatory responses, tumor growth, and necrosis. To prevent disease and protect human tissue during these conditions and to avoid medication side effects, nanomaterials with unique characteristics have been applied to biological systems. This paper introduces the pretreatment in human dermal fibroblasts with cerium oxide nanoparticles during nutritional stress. For this purpose, human dermal fibroblast cells received cell culture media with concentrations of 250 µg/mL and 500 µg/mL of nano-cerium oxide before being exposed to 24, 48, and 72 hours of serum starvation. Contrast images demonstrated higher cell confluence and cell integrity in cells pretreated with ceria nanoparticles compared to untreated cells. It was confirmed by MTS assay after 72 hours of serum starvation that higher cell viability was achieved with ceria nanoparticles. The results demonstrate the potential of cerium oxide nanoparticles as protective agents during cellular starvation. Keywords: cerium oxide, nanoparticles, serum starvation, human dermal fibroblasts

  17. Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalence in foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, M; Dam-Deisz, W D C; van Roon, A M; Takumi, K; van der Giessen, J W B

    2014-12-15

    The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk map model predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococcosis patients in the province of Limburg, The Netherlands. This study was designed to determine trends in the prevalence and worm burden of E. multilocularis in foxes in a popular recreational area in the southern part of Limburg to assess the risk of infection for humans and to study the prevalence of E. multilocularis in dogs in the adjacent city of Maastricht. Thirty-seven hunted red foxes were tested by the intestinal scraping technique and nested PCR on colon content. Additionally, 142 fecal samples of domestic dogs from Maastricht were analyzed by qPCR for the presence of E. multilocularis. In foxes, a significantly increased prevalence of 59% (95% confidence interval 43-74%) was found, compared to the prevalence of 11% (95% CI 7-18%) in 2005-2006. Average worm burden increased to 37 worms per fox, the highest since the first detection, but consistent with the prediction about the parasite population for this region. Updated prediction on the number of AE cases did not lead to an increase in previous estimates of human AE cases up to 2018. No dogs in the city of Maastricht tested positive, but results of questionnaires showed that deworming schemes were inadequate, especially in dogs that were considered at risk for infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nicotine Pretreatment Increases Dysphoric Effects of Alcohol in Luteal-Phase Female Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Lukas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The present report shows that nicotine enhances some of alcohol’s positive and negative effects in women and that these effects are most pronounced during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Ten low progesterone and 10 high progesterone/luteal-phase women received nicotine patch pretreatments (placebo or 21 mg 3 hours before an alcohol challenge (0.4 g/kg. Subjective effects were recorded on mood adjective scales and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI. Heart rate and skin temperature were recorded. Luteal-phase women reported peak positive (e.g. “stimulated” and peak negative effects (e.g. “clumsy”, “dizzy” almost twice as great as low progesterone women.

  19. Shotgun Approach to Increasing Enzymatic Saccharification Yields of Ammonia Fiber Expansion Pretreated Cellulosic Biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Gao, Dahai; Curran, Paul G.; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E.

    2017-01-01

    Most cellulolytic enzyme blends, either procured from a commercial vendor or isolated from a single cellulolytic microbial secretome, do not efficiently hydrolyze ammonia-pretreated (e.g., ammonia fiber expansion, AFEX) lignocellulosic agricultural crop residues like corn stover to fermentable sugars. Typically reported commercial enzyme loading (30–100 mg protein/g glucan) necessary to achieve >90% total hydrolysis yield (to monosaccharides) for AFEX-treated biomass, within a short saccharification time frame (24–48 h), is economically unviable. Unlike acid-based pretreatments, AFEX retains most of the hemicelluloses in the biomass and therefore requires a more complex suite of enzymes for efficient hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose at industrially relevant high solids loadings. One strategy to reduce enzyme dosage while improving cocktail effectiveness for AFEX-treated biomass has been to use individually purified enzymes to determine optimal enzyme combinations to maximize hydrolysis yields. However, this approach is limited by the selection of heterologous enzymes available or the labor required for isolating low-abundance enzymes directly from the microbial secretomes. Here, we show that directly blending crude cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes-rich microbial secretomes can maximize specific activity on AFEX-treated biomass without having to isolate individual enzymes. Fourteen commercially available cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes were procured from leading enzyme companies (Novozymes ® , Genencor ® , and Biocatalysts ® ) and were mixed together to generate several hundred unique cocktail combinations. The mixtures were assayed for activity on AFEX-treated corn stover (AFEX-CS) using a previously established high-throughput methodology. The optimal enzyme blend combinations identified from these screening assays were enriched in various low-abundance hemicellulases and accessory enzymes typically absent in most commercial

  20. Fasting and exercise increase plasma cannabinoid levels in THC pre-treated rats: an examination of behavioural consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexander; Keats, Kirily; Rooney, Kieron; Hicks, Callum; Allsop, David J; Arnold, Jonathon C; McGregor, Iain S

    2014-10-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, accumulates in fat tissue where it can remain for prolonged periods. Under conditions of increased fat utilisation, blood cannabinoid concentrations can increase. However, it is unclear whether this has behavioural consequences. Here, we examined whether rats pre-treated with multiple or single doses of THC followed by a washout would show elevated plasma cannabinoids and altered behaviour following fasting or exercise manipulations designed to increase fat utilisation. Behavioural impairment was measured as an inhibition of spontaneous locomotor activity or a failure to successfully complete a treadmill exercise session. Fat utilisation was indexed by plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels with plasma concentrations of THC and its terminal metabolite (-)-11-nor-9-carboxy-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) also measured. Rats given daily THC (10 mg/kg) for 5 days followed by a 4-day washout showed elevated plasma THC-COOH when fasted for 24 h relative to non-fasted controls. Fasted rats showed lower locomotor activity than controls suggesting a behavioural effect of fat-released THC. However, rats fasted for 20 h after a single 5-mg/kg THC injection did not show locomotor suppression, despite modestly elevated plasma THC-COOH. Rats pre-treated with THC (5 mg/kg) and exercised 20 h later also showed elevated plasma THC-COOH but did not differ from controls in their likelihood of completing 30 min of treadmill exercise. These results confirm that fasting and exercise can increase plasma cannabinoid levels. Behavioural consequences are more clearly observed with pre-treatment regimes involving repeated rather than single THC dosing.

  1. Shotgun Approach to Increasing Enzymatic Saccharification Yields of Ammonia Fiber Expansion Pretreated Cellulosic Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chundawat, Shishir P. S., E-mail: shishir.chundawat@rutgers.edu [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers-State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Uppugundla, Nirmal; Gao, Dahai [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Curran, Paul G. [Center for Statistical Training and Consulting (CSTAT), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Most cellulolytic enzyme blends, either procured from a commercial vendor or isolated from a single cellulolytic microbial secretome, do not efficiently hydrolyze ammonia-pretreated (e.g., ammonia fiber expansion, AFEX) lignocellulosic agricultural crop residues like corn stover to fermentable sugars. Typically reported commercial enzyme loading (30–100 mg protein/g glucan) necessary to achieve >90% total hydrolysis yield (to monosaccharides) for AFEX-treated biomass, within a short saccharification time frame (24–48 h), is economically unviable. Unlike acid-based pretreatments, AFEX retains most of the hemicelluloses in the biomass and therefore requires a more complex suite of enzymes for efficient hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose at industrially relevant high solids loadings. One strategy to reduce enzyme dosage while improving cocktail effectiveness for AFEX-treated biomass has been to use individually purified enzymes to determine optimal enzyme combinations to maximize hydrolysis yields. However, this approach is limited by the selection of heterologous enzymes available or the labor required for isolating low-abundance enzymes directly from the microbial secretomes. Here, we show that directly blending crude cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes-rich microbial secretomes can maximize specific activity on AFEX-treated biomass without having to isolate individual enzymes. Fourteen commercially available cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes were procured from leading enzyme companies (Novozymes{sup ®}, Genencor{sup ®}, and Biocatalysts{sup ®}) and were mixed together to generate several hundred unique cocktail combinations. The mixtures were assayed for activity on AFEX-treated corn stover (AFEX-CS) using a previously established high-throughput methodology. The optimal enzyme blend combinations identified from these screening assays were enriched in various low-abundance hemicellulases and accessory enzymes typically absent in most

  2. Preoperative chemoradiation with capecitabine, irinotecan and cetuximab in rectal cancer: significance of pre-treatment and post-resection RAS mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollins, Simon; West, Nick; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Myint, Arthur Sun; Saunders, Mark; Susnerwala, Shabbir; Quirke, Phil; Essapen, Sharadah; Samuel, Leslie; Sizer, Bruce; Worlding, Jane; Southward, Katie; Hemmings, Gemma; Tinkler-Hundal, Emma; Taylor, Morag; Bottomley, Daniel; Chambers, Philip; Lawrie, Emma; Lopes, Andre; Beare, Sandy

    2017-10-24

    The influence of EGFR pathway mutations on cetuximab-containing rectal cancer preoperative chemoradiation (CRT) is uncertain. In a prospective phase II trial (EXCITE), patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-defined non-metastatic rectal adenocarinoma threatening/involving the surgical resection plane received pelvic radiotherapy with concurrent capecitabine, irinotecan and cetuximab. Resection was recommended 8 weeks later. The primary endpoint was histopathologically clear (R0) resection margin. Pre-planned retrospective DNA pyrosequencing (PS) and next generation sequencing (NGS) of KRAS, NRAS, PIK3CA and BRAF was performed on the pre-treatment biopsy and resected specimen. Eighty-two patients were recruited and 76 underwent surgery, with R0 resection in 67 (82%, 90%CI: 73-88%) (four patients with clinical complete response declined surgery). Twenty-four patients (30%) had an excellent clinical or pathological response (ECPR). Using NGS 24 (46%) of 52 matched biopsies/resections were discrepant: ten patients (19%) gained 13 new resection mutations compared to biopsy (12 KRAS, one PIK3CA) and 18 (35%) lost 22 mutations (15 KRAS, 7 PIK3CA). Tumours only ever testing RAS wild-type had significantly greater ECPR than tumours with either biopsy or resection RAS mutations (14/29 [48%] vs 10/51 [20%], P=0.008), with a trend towards increased overall survival (HR 0.23, 95% CI 0.05-1.03, P=0.055). This regimen was feasible and the primary study endpoint was met. For the first time using pre-operative rectal CRT, emergence of clinically important new resection mutations is described, likely reflecting intratumoural heterogeneity manifesting either as treatment-driven selective clonal expansion or a geographical biopsy sampling miss.

  3. Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalencein foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.; Dam-Deisz, W.D.C.; Roon, van A.M.; Takumi, K.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent ofalveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk mapmodel predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococ-cosis patients in the province of

  4. Increased number of intestinal villous M cells in levamisole - pretreated weaned pigs experimentally infected with F4ac+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Valpotić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Immunoprophylaxis of porcine postweaning colibacillosis (PWC caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC expressing F4 fimbriae is an unsolved problem. Just as ETEC strains can exploit intestinal microfold (M cells as the entry portal for infection, their high transcytotic ability make them an attractive target for mucosally delivered vaccines, adjuvants and therapeutics. We have developed a model of parenteral/oral immunization of 4-weeks-old pigs with either levamisole or vaccine candidate F4ac+ non-ETEC strain to study their effects on de novo differentiation of antigen-sampling M cells. Identification, localization and morphometric quantification of cytokeratin 18 positive M cells in the ileal mucosa of 6-weeks-old pigs revealed that they were: 1 exclusively located within villous epithelial layer, 2 significantly numerous (P< 0.01 in levamisole pretreated/challenged pigs, and 3 only slightly, but not significantly numerous in vaccinated/challenged pigs compared with non-pretreated/challenged control pigs. The fact that levamisole may affect the M cells frequency by increasing their numbers, makes it an interesting adjuvant to study development of an effective M cell-targeted vaccine against porcine PWC.

  5. Microwave and thermal pretreatment as methods for increasing the biogas potential of secondary sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the sludge was pretreated with microwave irradiation and low-temperature thermal method, both conducted under the same temperature range (30–100°C). Microwave pretreatment was found to be superior over the thermal treatment with respect to sludge solubilization and biogas pr...... experiments indicated that pre-treated sludge (microwave irradiation: 900W, temperature: 60–70°C) gave 35% more methane, compared to untreated sludge. Moreover, the results of this study clearly demonstrated that microwave pretreated sludge showed better degree of sanitation....

  6. Acid pre-treatment of sewage anaerobic sludge to increase hydrogen producing bacteria HPB: effectiveness and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, T; Sassi, G; Ruggeri, B

    2008-01-01

    The present study is aimed to test the effectiveness and the reproducibility of the acid pre-treatment of sewage sludge to suppress the methanogenic bacteria activity, in order to increase the hydrogen forming bacteria activity, mainly Clostridium species. The treated sludge has been tested on glucose reach medium under mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C), in batch mode to quantify the biological fermentative hydrogen production. In the whole series of experiments, the main components of biogas are hydrogen (52-60%) and carbon dioxide (40-48%); no methane and hydrogen sulphide were present in it. The rate of biogas production reached a maximum of 75 ml/lh. An overall mean hydrogen conversion efficiency was 11.20% on the assumption of maximum of 3 mol H2/mol glucose. Clostridium spp. multiplied ten times after 10 h of fermentation and over that thousand times at the end of fermentation. IWA Publishing 2008.

  7. Increased blastocyst formation of cloned porcine embryos produced with donor cells pre-treated with Xenopus egg extract and/or digitonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Østrup, Olga; Li, Juan

    2012-01-01

    SummaryPre-treating donor cells before somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, 'cloning') may improve the efficiency of the technology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early development of cloned embryos produced with porcine fibroblasts pre-treated with a permeabilizing agent and extract...... from Xenopus laevis eggs. In Experiment 1, fetal fibroblasts were permeabilized by digitonin, incubated in egg extract and, after re-sealing of cell membranes, cultured for 3 or 5 days before use as donor cells in handmade cloning (HMC). Controls were produced by HMC with non-treated donor cells....... The blastocyst rate for reconstructed embryos increased significantly when digitonin-permeabilized, extract-treated cells were used after 5 days of culture after re-sealing. In Experiment 2, fetal and adult fibroblasts were treated with digitonin alone before re-sealing the cell membranes, then cultured for 3...

  8. Increased formation of halomethanes during chlorination of chloramphenicol in drinking water by UV irradiation, persulfate oxidation, and combined UV/persulfate pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenhai, Chu; Tengfei, Chu; Erdeng, Du; Deng, Yang; Yingqing, Guo; Naiyun, Gao

    2016-02-01

    Ultraviolet/persulfate (UV/PS) has been widely used to generate sulfate radicals for degradation of water organic pollutants in previous studies. However, its impacts on disinfection byproduct formation during post-chlorination of degraded compounds is unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of UV irradiation, PS oxidation, and the combined UV/PS advanced oxidation process (AOP) pre-treatments on halomethane formation during the following chlorination of chloramphenicol (CAP), a model antibiotic commonly found in wastewater-impacted water. Results showed that CAP could be transformed to more trichloromethane (TCM) than monochloromethane (MCM) and dichloromethane (DCM) in the presence of excess chlorine. UV photolysis, PS oxidation and UV/PS AOP all directly decomposed CAP to produce halomethanes (HMs) before post-chlorination. Moreover, UV and UV/PS pre-treatments both enhanced the formation of all the HMs in the subsequent chlorination. PS pre-oxidation decreased the TCM formation during post-chlorination, but increased the yields of MCM, DCM and total HMs. UV pre-irradiation significantly increased the bromide utilization of HMs, whereas UV/PS pre-oxidation decreased the bromine incorporation and utilization of HMs from the chlorination of CAP in a low-bromide water. UV irradiation, PS oxidation, and UV/PS AOP can inactivate pathogens and degrade organic pollutants, but this benefit should be weighed against a potential risk of the increased halomethane formation from degraded organic pollutants with and without post-chlorination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Advances in aluminum pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudour, Michel; Maintier, Philippe [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Simpson, Mark [PPG Industries Inc., 1200 Piedmont Troy, Michigan 48083 (United States); Quaglia, Paolo [PPG Industries Italia, Via Garavelli 21, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    As automotive manufacturers continue to look for ways to reduce vehicle weight, aluminum is finding more utility as a body panel component. The substitution of cold-rolled steel and zinc-coated substrates with aluminum has led to new challenges in vehicle pretreatment. As a result, changes to traditional pretreatment chemistries and operating practices are necessary in order to produce an acceptable coating on aluminum body panels. These changes result in increased sludging and other undesirable characteristics. In addition to the chemistry changes, there are also process-related problems to consider. Many existing automotive pretreatment lines simply were not designed to handle aluminum and its increased demands on filtration and circulation equipment. To retrofit such a system is capital intensive and in addition to requiring a significant amount of downtime, may not be totally effective. Thus, the complexities of pre-treating aluminum body panels have actually had a negative effect on efforts to introduce more aluminum into new vehicle design programs. Recent research into ways of reducing the negative effects has led to a new understanding of the nature of zinc phosphate bath -aluminum interactions. Many of the issues associated with the pretreatment of aluminum have been identified and can be mitigated with only minor changes to the zinc phosphate bath chemistry. The use of low levels of soluble Fe ions, together with free fluoride, has been shown to dramatically improve the efficiency of a zinc phosphate system processing aluminum. Appearance of zinc phosphate coatings, coating weights and sludge are all benefited by this chemistry change. (authors)

  10. Significance of pretreatment cardiovascular morbidity as a risk factor during treatment with parenteral oestrogen or combined androgen deprivation of 915 patients with metastasized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Per Olov; Johansson, Robert; Damber, Jan Erik

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate prognostic risk factors for cardiovascular events during treatment of metastatic prostate cancer patients with high-dose parenteral polyoestradiol phosphate (PEP, Estradurin®) or combined androgen deprivation (CAD) with special emphasis on pretreatment cardiovascular...

  11. Enzymatic Pretreatment Coupled with the Addition of p-Hydroxyanisole Increased Levulinic Acid Production from Steam-Exploded Rice Straw Short Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Tong; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Yu, Bin; Chen, Hong-Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Levulinic acid production, directly from lignocellulosic biomass, resulted in low yields due to the poor substrate accessibility and occurrence of side reactions. The effects of reaction conditions, enzymatic pretreatment, and inhibitor addition on the conversion of steam-exploded rice straw (SERS) short fiber to levulinic acid catalyzed by solid superacid were investigated systematically. The results indicated that the optimal reaction conditions were temperature, time, and solid superacid concentration combinations of 200 °C, 15 min, and 7.5 %. Enzymatic pretreatment improved the substrate accessibility to solid superacid catalyst, and p-hydroxyanisole inhibitor reduced the side reactions during reaction processes, which helped to increase levulinic acid yield. The levulinic acid yield reached 25.2 % under the optimal conditions, which was 61.5 % higher than that without enzymatic pretreatment and inhibitor addition. Therefore, enzymatic pretreatment coupled with the addition of p-hydroxyanisole increased levulinic acid production effectively, which contributed to the value-added utilization of lignocellulosic biomass.

  12. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  13. Methods for pretreating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2017-05-09

    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  14. Cost of wound treatment to increase significantly in Denmark over the next decade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Anne Mette; Gottrup, F

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate that changes in demography, life expectancy and incidence of background diseases (including type 2 diabetes mellitus) during the period 2009-2020 will significantly increase the costs of wound care in Denmark.......To demonstrate that changes in demography, life expectancy and incidence of background diseases (including type 2 diabetes mellitus) during the period 2009-2020 will significantly increase the costs of wound care in Denmark....

  15. Chronic nicotine pretreatment is sufficient to upregulate α4* nicotinic receptors and increase oral nicotine self-administration in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Renda, Anthony; Nashmi, Raad

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the underlying causes of nicotine addiction will require a multidisciplinary approach examining the key molecular, cellular and neuronal circuit functional changes that drive escalating levels of nicotine self-administration. In this study, we examined whether mice pretreated with chronic nicotine, at a dosing regimen that results in maximal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) upregulation, would display evidence of nicotine-dependent behaviour during nicotine se...

  16. Significance of pretreatment cardiovascular morbidity as a risk factor during treatment with parenteral oestrogen or combined androgen deprivation of 915 patients with metastasized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Robert; Damber, Jan Erik; Hagerman, Inger

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate prognostic risk factors for cardiovascular events during treatment of metastatic prostate cancer patients with high-dose parenteral polyoestradiol phosphate (PEP, Estradurin®) or combined androgen deprivation (CAD) with special emphasis on pretreatment cardiovascular...... disease....

  17. Impact of pretreatment on colour and texture of watermelon rind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaselvi, K.; Alagusundaram, K.; Kavitha, C.; Arumuganathan, T.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of osmotic dehydration pretreatment on water loss, solid gain, colour and textural change was investigated. Watermelon rind 1 x 1 cm size was immersed in sucrose solution of 40, 50 and 60° Brix after pretreatment with microwave and conventional boiling in water for 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively. Water loss and solid gain increased with the time of cooking and sugar concentration. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher water loss and solid gain. Increase in the time of cooking decreased the brightness of all the samples. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher `b' values than conventionally pretreated ones. There was no significant difference (P≤0.05) in texture profile analysis parameters except for hardness. Hardness decreased with increase in time of cooking and sugar concentration. Second order regression model was developed for water loss and solid gain of microwave and conventional pretreated watermelon rind.

  18. Continuous background light significantly increases flashing-light enhancement of photosynthesis and growth of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2015-01-01

    Under specific conditions, flashing light enhances the photosynthesis rate in comparison to continuous illumination. Here we show that a combination of flashing light and continuous background light with the same integrated photon dose as continuous or flashing light alone can be used to significantly enhance photosynthesis and increase microalgae growth. To test this hypothesis, the green microalga Dunaliella salina was exposed to three different light regimes: continuous light, flashing light, and concomitant application of both. Algal growth was compared under three different integrated light quantities; low, intermediate, and moderately high. Under the combined light regime, there was a substantial increase in all algal growth parameters, with an enhanced photosynthesis rate, within 3days. Our strategy demonstrates a hitherto undescribed significant increase in photosynthesis and algal growth rates, which is beyond the increase by flashing light alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shih-Ying; Juang, Shin-Hun; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2012-01-01

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C max of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  20. Urban Growth Causes Significant increase in Extreme Rainfall - A modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, Assela

    2010-05-01

    World's urban centers are growing rapidly causing the impact of extreme rainfall events felt much more severely due to relatively well unerstood phenomena like decreased infiltration and flow resistance. However, an increasing set of evidence (e.g. heavy rainfall event observed at Nerima, central part of Tokyo metropolitan area, on 21 July 1999) suggest that the extreme rainfall, the driving force itself increases as a result of the microclimatic changes due to urban growth. Urban heat islands(UHI) due to heat anomalies of urban sprawl act as virtual mountains resulting in a local atmosphere more conducive for heavy rainfall. In this study, we employ a popular mesoscale atmoshperic model to numerically simulate the UHI induced rainfall enhancement. Initial idealized experiments conducted under trophical atmospheric conditions indicated that the changes in landuse due to significant urban growth will indeed cause more intense rainfall events. This is largely due to increased convective breakup, causing a favourable situation for convective cloud systems. Five historical heavy rainfall events that caused floods in five urban centres (Dhaka, Mumbai, Colombo, Lyon and Taipei) were selected from historical records. Numerical simulations were setup to assertain what would be the amount of rainfall if the same large-scale atmospheric situations (forcings) occured under a hypothetical situation of doubled urbanization level these events. Significant increases (upto 50%) of extreme rainfall was indicated for many of the events. Under major assumptions, these simulations were used to estimate the anticipated changes in the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF). The magnitude of the 30min event with 25 year return period increased by about 20 percent. Without considering any changes in the external forcing the urban growth alone could cause very significant increase in local rainfall.

  1. Evaluation of Significance of Diffusely Increased Bilateral Renal Uptake on Bone Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Mi Sook; Yang, Woo Jin; Byun, Jae Young; Park, Jung Mi; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-03-15

    Unexpected renal abnormality can be detected on bone scan using {sup 99m}Tc-MDP. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic significance of diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake on bone scan. 1,500 bone scan were reviewed and 43 scans which showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake were selected for analysis. Laboratory findings for renal and liver function tests including routine urinalysis were reviewed in 43 patients. 26 of 43 case showed abnormality in urinalysis and renal function study. 20 of 43 cases showed abnormal liver function study and 3 of these cases were diagnosed as hepatorenal syndrome later. 13 of those 20 cases had liver cirrhosis with or without hepatoma. 12 of 43 cases showed abnormality both in renal and liver function studies. 2 of 43 cases showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake after chemotherapy for cancer but not on previous scans before chemotherapy. 2 of 43 cases showed hypercalcaemia and 8 of 43 cases had multifocal bone uptake due to metastasis or benign bone lesion. But the latter showed no hypercalcaemia at all. There was no significant correlation between increased renal uptake and MDP uptake in soft tissue other than kidneys. This study raised the possibility that the impaired liver and/or renal function may result in diffuse increase of bilateral renal uptake of MDP of unknown mechanism. It seems to need further study on this correlation.

  2. Introducing extra NADPH consumption ability significantly increases the photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production of cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Fuliang; Meng, Hengkai; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Increasing photosynthetic efficiency is crucial to increasing biomass production to meet the growing demands for food and energy. Previous theoretical arithmetic analysis suggests that the light reactions and dark reactions are imperfectly coupled due to shortage of ATP supply, or accumulation of NADPH. Here we hypothesized that solely increasing NADPH consumption might improve the coupling of light reactions and dark reactions, thereby increasing the photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production. To test this hypothesis, an NADPH consumption pathway was constructed in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The resulting extra NADPH-consuming mutant grew much faster and achieved a higher biomass concentration. Analyses of photosynthesis characteristics showed the activities of photosystem II and photosystem I and the light saturation point of the NADPH-consuming mutant all significantly increased. Thus, we demonstrated that introducing extra NADPH consumption ability is a promising strategy to increase photosynthetic efficiency and to enable utilization of high-intensity lights. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Significant increase of summertime ozone at Mount Tai in Central Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone (O3 is a trace gas playing important roles in atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climate change. In contrast to North America and Europe, long-term measurements of surface O3 are very limited in China. We compile available O3 observations at Mt. Tai – the highest mountain over the North China Plain – during 2003–2015 and analyze the decadal change of O3 and its sources. A linear regression analysis shows that summertime O3 measured at Mt. Tai has increased significantly by 1.7 ppbv yr−1 for June and 2.1 ppbv yr−1 for the July–August average. The observed increase is supported by a global chemistry-climate model hindcast (GFDL-AM3 with O3 precursor emissions varying from year to year over 1980–2014. Analysis of satellite data indicates that the O3 increase was mainly due to the increased emissions of O3 precursors, in particular volatile organic compounds (VOCs. An important finding is that the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx have diminished since 2011, but the increase of VOCs appears to have enhanced the ozone production efficiency and contributed to the observed O3 increase in central eastern China. We present evidence that controlling NOx alone, in the absence of VOC controls, is not sufficient to reduce regional O3 levels in North China in a short period.

  4. Breast cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. Methods To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. Results We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor

  5. Breast-cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) may contribute

  6. Endurance training significantly increases serum endocan but not osteoprotegerin levels: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponder, Michael; Campean, Ioana-Alexandra; Emich, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Litschauer, Brigitte; Bergler-Klein, Jutta; Graf, Senta; Strametz-Juranek, Jeanette

    2017-01-05

    Endocan (EN) was suggested a potential inflammatory and cardiovascular disease (CVD) marker which might also be involved in renal failure and/or renal failure-associated vascular events. It is not clear whether osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a pro- or anti-atherogenic factor, however, it is agreed upon that OPG is elevated in subjects with increased calcification status. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of long-term physical activity on serum endocan (EN) and osteoprotegerin-levels. One hundred nine subjects were told to increase their amount of physical activity for 8 months by performing 150min/week moderate or 75min/week vigorous exercise. Incremental cycle ergometer tests were performed at the beginning and the end of the study to prove and quantify the performance gain. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and every 2 months for the determination of EN and OPG. To investigate the difference between baseline and 8 months levels of EN and OPG we used a paired sample t-test. To investigate the significance of the tendency of the progression (baseline/2 months/4 months/6 months/8 months) we used a Friedman test. Thirty-eight female and 60 male subjects completed the study. In the group of 61 subjects who had a performance gain by >4,9% EN-levels increased from 146 ± 110 to 196 ± 238 pg/ml (p = 0,036) equivalent to an increase of 33,5% but there was no significant change in OPG (4,4 ± 2,4 pmol/l vs. 4,3 ± 2,1 pmol/l; p = 0,668). Physical activity increases significantly EN-levels relativizing the status of EN as proinflammatory factor. EN should rather be considered as a mediator which is involved in several physiological (e.g., angiogenesis) but also pathological processes (e.g., CVD, tumour progression or endothelium-dependent inflammation) and whose expression can be significantly influenced by long term endurance training. Clinical trial registration number: NCT02097199 Date of trial registration at Clinical Trials

  7. Asparagus stem as a new lignocellulosic biomass feedstock for anaerobic digestion: increasing hydrolysis rate, methane production and biodegradability by alkaline pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohua; Gu, Yu; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei

    2014-07-01

    Recently, anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass for methane production has attracted considerable attention. However, there is little information regarding methane production from asparagus stem, a typical lignocellulosic biomass, by anaerobic digestion. In this study, alkaline pretreatment of asparagus stem was investigated for its ability to increase hydrolysis rate and methane production and to improve biodegradability (BD). The hydrolysis rate increased with increasing NaOH dose, due to higher removal rates of lignin and hemicelluloses. However, the optimal NaOH dose was 6% (w/w) according to the specific methane production (SMP). Under this condition, the SMP and the technical digestion time of the NaOH-treated asparagus stem were 242.3 mL/g VS and 18 days, which were 38.4% higher and 51.4% shorter than those of the untreated sample, respectively. The BD was improved from 40.1% to 55.4%. These results indicate that alkaline pretreatment could be an efficient method for increasing methane production from asparagus stem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mortality of acute mesenteric ischemia remains unchanged despite significant increase in utilization of endovascular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Mohammad H; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; McPhee, James T; Farber, Alik

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated if increase in utilization of endovascular surgery has affected in-hospital mortality rates among patients with acute mesenteric ischemia. The National Inpatient Sample (2003-2011) was queried for acute mesenteric ischemia using ICD-9 code for acute mesenteric ischemia (557.1). This cohort was divided into patients treated with open vascular surgery (open vascular group) and by endovascular therapies (endovascular group) based on the ICD-9CM procedure codes. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine temporal trend for mortality while adjusting for confounding variables. There was 1.45-fold increase in utilization of endovascular techniques in this study. In-hospital mortality rate, total median charges and length of stay were significantly lower among the endovascular group than the open vascular group despite having significantly higher Elixhauser comorbidities index (3 ± 0.1 vs. 2.7 ± 0.1, p = .003). Over the course of the study period, there was no change in the overall mortality rate despite higher endovascular utilization. Factors associated with increased mortality included age, open surgical repair (Odds ratio: 1.45, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.10-1.91, p = .016) and bowel resection Odds ratio: 2.88, 95% Confidence Interval: 2.01-4.12). The mortality rate for acute mesenteric ischemia remains unchanged throughout this contemporary study. Open surgical intervention, bowel resection and age were associated with increased mortality. Endovascular group patients had better survival despite higher morbidity indices. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Application of Bioorganic Fertilizer Significantly Increased Apple Yields and Shaped Bacterial Community Structure in Orchard Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Jing; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2017-02-01

    and Rhodospirillaceae, were found to be the significantly increased by the BOF addition and the genus Lysobacter may identify members of this group effective in biological control-based plant disease management and the members of family Rhodospirillaceae had an important role in fixing molecular nitrogen. These results strengthen the understanding of responses to the BOF and possible interactions within bacterial communities in soil that can be associated with disease suppression and the accumulation of carbon and nitrogen. The increase of apple yields after the application of BOF might be attributed to the fact that the application of BOF increased SOM, and soil total nitrogen, and changed the bacterial community by enriching Rhodospirillaceae, Alphaprotreobateria, and Proteobacteria.

  10. Combining abdominal and cosmetic breast surgery does not increase short-term complication rates: a comparison of each individual procedure and pretreatment risk stratification tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavanin, Nima; Jordan, Sumanas W; Vieira, Brittany L; Hume, Keith M; Mlodinow, Alexei S; Simmons, Christopher J; Murphy, Robert X; Gutowski, Karol A; Kim, John Y S

    2015-11-01

    Combined abdominal and breast surgery presents a convenient and relatively cost-effective approach for accomplishing both procedures. This study is the largest to date assessing the safety of combined procedures, and it aims to develop a simple pretreatment risk stratification method for patients who desire a combined procedure. All women undergoing abdominoplasty, panniculectomy, augmentation mammaplasty, and/or mastopexy in the TOPS database were identified. Demographics and outcomes for combined procedures were compared to individual procedures using χ(2) and Student's t-tests. Multiple logistic regression provided adjusted odds ratios for the effect of a combined procedure on 30-day complications. Among combined procedures, a logistic regression model determined point values for pretreatment risk factors including diabetes (1 point), age over 53 (1), obesity (2), and 3+ ASA status (3), creating a 7-point pretreatment risk stratification tool. A total of 58,756 cases met inclusion criteria. Complication rates among combined procedures (9.40%) were greater than those of aesthetic breast surgery (2.66%; P risk (0 points total) with a 9.78% complication rates. Medium-risk patients (1 to 3 points) had a 16.63% complication rate, and high-risk (4 to 7 points) 38.46%. Combining abdominal and breast procedures is safe in the majority of patients and does not increase 30-day complications rates. The risk stratification tool can continue to ensure favorable outcomes for patients who may desire a combined surgery. 4 Risk. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. One stone, two birds: silica nanospheres significantly increase photocatalytic activity and colloidal stability of photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamani, Kowsalya D.; Foley, Jonathan J., IV; Sun, Yugang

    2018-03-01

    Silver-doped silver chloride [AgCl(Ag)] nanoparticles represent a unique class of visible-light-driven photocatalysts, in which the silver dopants introduce electron-abundant mid-gap energy levels to lower the bandgap of AgCl. However, free-standing AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles, particularly those with small sizes and large surface areas, exhibit low colloidal stability and low compositional stability upon exposure to light irradiation, leading to easy aggregation and conversion to metallic silver and thus a loss of photocatalytic activity. These problems could be eliminated by attaching the small AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles to the surfaces of spherical dielectric silica particles with submicrometer sizes. The high optical transparency in the visible spectral region (400-800 nm), colloidal stability, and chemical/electronic inertness displayed by the silica spheres make them ideal for supporting photocatalysts and significantly improving their stability. The spherical morphology of the dielectric silica particles can support light scattering resonances to generate significantly enhanced electric fields near the silica particle surfaces, on which the optical absorption cross-section of the AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles is dramatically increased to promote their photocatalytic activity. The hybrid silica/AgCl(Ag) structures exhibit superior photocatalytic activity and stability, suitable for supporting photocatalysis sustainably; for instance, their efficiency in the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue decreases by only ˜9% even after ten cycles of operation.

  12. HBV Outreach Programs Significantly Increase Knowledge and Vaccination Rates Among Asian Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Tresa; Wang, Winnie; Dao, Doan; Wojciechowski, Helena; Lee, William M; Do, Son; Singal, Amit G

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing and vaccination rates remain low among Asian-American/Pacific Islanders (APIs) despite high rates of HBV infection. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of an outreach campaign to increase HBV knowledge, testing, and vaccination among a cohort of APIs. Vietnamese Americans were invited to participate in a free HBV screening and vaccination outreach program though pubic service announcements. Attendees completed a survey to assess barriers to vaccination and HBV-related knowledge before and after a 30-min education session by a bilingual board-certified gastroenterologist. Among 98 participants, 100% (22/22) of HBV naïve patients were provided a HBV vaccination series at no cost and over 75% (14/18) of HBV-infected patients were connected to further medical care. Notable reported barriers to prior testing and/or vaccination were cost of the vaccine, concern about missing work for evaluation, and lack of provider recommendation. Knowledge levels about HBV risk factors, potential consequences, and treatment options were poor at baseline but significantly increased after the education session (49 vs. 64%, p campaigns linked with education can successfully address several barriers to HBV testing and offer an approach to improve HBV awareness and prevention among difficult-to-reach populations.

  13. High phosphate content significantly increases apatite formation of fluoride-containing bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mneimne, Mohammed; Hill, Robert G; Bushby, Andrew J; Brauer, Delia S

    2011-04-01

    Bioactive glass-containing toothpastes for treating dentine hypersensitivity work by precipitating hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) onto the tooth surface, but concerns exist over the long-term durability of HCA in the mouth. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses form fluorapatite (FAp) in physiological solutions, which is more chemically stable against acid attack. The influence of phosphate content on apatite formation was investigated by producing a low-phosphate (about 1 mol% P(2)O(5)) and a high-phosphate (about 6 mol%) series of melt-derived bioactive glasses in the system SiO(2)P(2)O(5)CaONa(2)O; increasing amounts of CaF(2) were added by keeping the ratio of all other components constant. pH change, ion release and apatite formation during immersion in Tris buffer at 37°C over up to 7 days were investigated. Crystal phases formed in Tris buffer were characterized using infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. An increase in phosphate or fluoride content allowed for apatite formation at lower pH; fluoride enhanced apatite formation due to lower solubility of FAp compared to hydroxyapatite or HCA. High phosphate content glasses formed apatite significantly faster (within 6h) than low phosphate content glasses (within 3 days). In addition, an increase in phosphate content favoured apatite formation rather than fluorite (CaF(2)). (19)F magic angle spinning NMR showed the apatite formed by fluoride-containing glasses to be FAp, which makes these glasses of particular interest for dental applications. This study shows that by varying the phosphate content, the reactivity and apatite formation of bioactive glasses can be controlled successfully. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of moisture on pretreatment efficiency for anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, M; Astals, S; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2015-12-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of moisture in low-temperature and ultrasound pretreatment on lignocellulosic substrates anaerobic biodegradability, where brewer's spent grain was used as model substrate. Besides moisture content, low-temperature pretreatment was also evaluated in terms of temperature (60-80°C) and exposure time (12-72 h). Likewise, ultrasonication was also evaluated in terms of specific energy (1000-50,000 kJ kg TS(-1)). In addition, the effect of substrate particle size reduction by milling pretreatment was also considered. The results clearly demonstrated that substrate moisture (total solid concentration) is a significant parameter for pretreatment performance, although it has been rarely considered in pretreatment optimisation. Specifically, moisture optimisation increased the methane yield of brewer's spent grain by 6% for low-temperature pretreatment (60°C), and by 14% for ultrasound pretreatment (1000 kJ kg TS(-1)) towards the control (without pretreatment). In both pretreatments, the experimental optimum total solid concentration was 100 gTS kg(-1). Thus, lowering substrate moisture, a strategy suggested attaining energetic pretreatment feasibility, needs to be analysed as another pretreatment variable since it might have limited correlation. Finally, a preliminary energetic balance of the pretreatments under study showed that the extra methane production could not cover the energetic pretreatment expenses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Chung, Wen-Ting; Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan; Wu, Meei-Maan; Tseng, Hung-Pin; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 μg/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 μg/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 μg/l). - Highlights: →Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. → A case

  16. Integrated analysis of hydrothermal flow through pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archambault-Leger Veronique

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of hydrothermal flowthrough (FT pretreatment severity on pretreatment and solubilization performance metrics was evaluated for three milled feedstocks (corn stover, bagasse, and poplar and two conversion systems (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using yeast and fungal cellulase, and fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum. Results Compared to batch pretreatment, FT pretreatment consistently resulted in higher XMG recovery, higher removal of non-carbohydrate carbon and higher glucan solubilization by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF. XMG recovery was above 90% for FT pretreatment below 4.1 severity but decreased at higher severities, particularly for bagasse. Removal of non-carbohydrate carbon during FT pretreatment increased from 65% at low severity to 80% at high severity for corn stover, and from 40% to 70% for bagasse and poplar. Solids obtained by FT pretreatment were amenable to high conversion for all of the feedstocks and conversion systems examined. The optimal time and temperature for FT pretreatment on poplar were found to be 16 min and 210°C. At these conditions, SSF glucan conversion was about 85%, 94% of the XMG was removed, and 62% of the non carbohydrate mass was solubilized. Solubilization of FT-pretreated poplar was compared for C. thermocellum fermentation (10% inoculum, and for yeast-fungal cellulase SSF (5% inoculum, cellulase loading of 5 and 10 FPU/g glucan supplemented with β-glucosidase at 15 and 30 U/g glucan. Under the conditions tested, which featured low solids concentration, C. thermocellum fermentation achieved faster rates and more complete conversion of FT-pretreated poplar than did SSF. Compared to SSF, solubilization by C. thermocellum was 30% higher after 4 days, and was over twice as fast on ball-milled FT-pretreated poplar. Conclusions XMG removal trends were similar between feedstocks whereas glucan conversion trends were significantly

  17. Increased Mortality in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients: The Significance of Ulcer Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammas, N. K.; Hill, R. L. R.; Edmonds, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients have a greater than twofold increase in mortality compared with nonulcerated diabetic patients. We investigated (a) cause of death in DFU patients, (b) age at death, and (c) relationship between cause of death and ulcer type. This was an eleven-year retrospective study on DFU patients who attended King's College Hospital Foot Clinic and subsequently died. A control group of nonulcerated diabetic patients was matched for age and type of diabetes mellitus. The cause of death was identified from death certificates (DC) and postmortem (PM) examinations. There were 243 DFU patient deaths during this period. Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was the major cause of death in 62.5% on PM compared to 45.7% on DC. Mean age at death from IHD on PM was 5 years lower in DFU patients compared to controls (68.2 ± 8.7 years versus 73.1 ± 8.0 years, P = 0.015). IHD as a cause of death at PM was significantly linked to neuropathic foot ulcers (OR 3.064, 95% CI 1.003–9.366, and P = 0.049). Conclusions. IHD is the major cause of premature mortality in DFU patients with the neuropathic foot ulcer patients being at a greater risk. PMID:27213157

  18. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  19. Glycerol carbonate as green solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a prerequisite for effective saccharification to produce fermentable sugars. In this study, “green” solvent systems based on acidified mixtures of glycerol carbonate (GC) and glycerol were used to treat sugarcane bagasse and the roles of each solvent in deconstructing biomass were determined. Results Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 90°C for only 30 min with acidified GC produced a solid residue having a glucan digestibility of 90% and a glucose yield of 80%, which were significantly higher than a glucan digestibility of 16% and a glucose yield of 15% obtained for bagasse pretreated with acidified ethylene carbonate (EC). Biomass compositional analyses showed that GC pretreatment removed more lignin than EC pretreatment (84% vs 54%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that fluffy and size-reduced fibres were produced from GC pretreatment whereas EC pretreatment produced compact particles of reduced size. The maximal glucan digestibility and glucose yield of GC/glycerol systems were about 7% lower than those of EC/ethylene glycol (EG) systems. Replacing up to 50 wt% of GC with glycerol did not negatively affect glucan digestibility and glucose yield. The results from pretreatment of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) showed that (1) pretreatment with acidified alkylene glycol (AG) alone increased enzymatic digestibility compared to pretreatments with acidified alkylene carbonate (AC) alone and acidified mixtures of AC and AG, (2) pretreatment with acidified GC alone slightly increased, but with acidified EC alone significantly decreased, enzymatic digestibility compared to untreated MCC, and (3) there was a good positive linear correlation of enzymatic digestibility of treated and untreated MCC samples with congo red (CR) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Acidified GC alone was a more effective solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse than acidified EC alone. The higher glucose yield obtained

  20. Investigation of Pleurotus ostreatus pretreatment on switchgrass for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavens, Shelyn Gehle

    Fungal pretreatment using the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus on switchgrass for ethanol production was studied. In a small-scale storage study, small switchgrass bales were inoculated with fungal spawn and automatically watered to maintain moisture. Sampled at 25, 53, and 81 d, the switchgrass composition was determined and liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment was conducted. Fungal pretreatment significantly decreased the xylan and lignin content; glucan was not significantly affected by fungal loading. The glucan, xylan, and lignin contents significantly decreased with increased fungal pretreatment time. The effects of the fungal pretreatment were not highly evident after the LHW pretreatment, showing only changes based on sampling time. Although other biological activity within the bales increased cellulose degradation, the fungal pretreatment successfully reduced the switchgrass lignin and hemicellulose contents. In a laboratory-scale nutrient supplementation study, copper, manganese, glucose, or water was added to switchgrass to induce production of ligninolytic enzymes by P. ostreatus. After 40 d, ligninolytic enzyme activities and biomass composition were determined and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was conducted to determine ethanol yield. Laccase activity was similar for all supplements and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity was significantly less in copper-treated samples than in the other fungal-inoculated samples. The fungal pretreatment reduced glucan, xylan, and lignin content, while increasing extractable sugars content. The lowest lignin contents occurred in the water-fungal treated samples and produced the greatest ethanol yields. The greatest lignin contents occurred in the copper-fungal treated samples and produced the lowest ethanol yields. Manganese-fungal and glucose-fungal treated samples had similar, intermediate lignin contents and produced similar, intermediate ethanol yields. Ethanol yields from switchgrass

  1. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman 99164-6120, WA (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-12-15

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. - Highlights: • Pre-treatments reduce ash, extractives, alkalines and hemicellulose from biomass. • Torrefaction of Douglas fir yields more solid product than hybrid poplar. • Salt pretreatment significantly increases the activation energy of biomass. • Acid and salt pretreatment bestows thermal stability in biomass.

  2. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K.

    2015-01-01

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. - Highlights: • Pre-treatments reduce ash, extractives, alkalines and hemicellulose from biomass. • Torrefaction of Douglas fir yields more solid product than hybrid poplar. • Salt pretreatment significantly increases the activation energy of biomass. • Acid and salt pretreatment bestows thermal stability in biomass.

  3. Gas Plasma Pre-treatment Increases Antibiotic Sensitivity and Persister Eradication in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Xu, Ruobing; Zhao, Yiming; Liu, Dingxin; Liu, Zhijie; Wang, Xiaohua; Chen, Hailan; Kong, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of serious nosocomial infections, and recurrent MRSA infections primarily result from the survival of persister cells after antibiotic treatment. Gas plasma, a novel source of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) generation, not only inactivates pathogenic microbes but also restore the sensitivity of MRSA to antibiotics. This study further found that sublethal treatment of MRSA with both plasma and plasma-activated saline increased the antibiotic sensitivity and promoted the eradication of persister cells by tetracycline, gentamycin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, and vancomycin. The short-lived ROS and RNS generated by plasma played a primary role in the process and induced the increase of many species of ROS and RNS in MRSA cells. Thus, our data indicated that the plasma treatment could promote the effects of many different classes of antibiotics and act as an antibiotic sensitizer for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria involved in infectious diseases.

  4. High-temperature pretreatment of biogas substrate by using district heating to increase the biogas production; Hoegtemperaturfoerbehandling av biogassubstrat med fjaerrvaerme foer oekad biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Ascue, Johnny [JTI, Uppsala (Sweden); Olsson, Marcus; Henriksson, Gunilla; Nordman, Roger [SP, Boraas (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    In this study, we have shown that pre-heating sludge from a waste water treatment plant can give a higher biogas production rate. However, pretreatment showed no effect on substrate from a biogas plant at the conditions tested in this study. The study has also shown that there is potential of using district heating in the biogas industry for thermal pretreatment of sludge.

  5. Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdenak, Nils; Wang Junru; Sung, C.-C.; Kelly, Thomas; Fajardo, Luis F.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Rectal toxicity (proctitis) is a dose-limiting factor in pelvic radiation therapy. Mucosal atrophy, i.e., net extracellular matrix degradation, is a prominent feature of radiation proctitis, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We prospectively examined changes in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 (gelatinase A and B) in the rectal mucosa during radiation therapy of prostate cancer, as well as the relationships of these changes with symptomatic, structural, and cellular evidence of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients scheduled for external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled. Symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity were recorded, and endoscopy with biopsy of the rectal mucosa was performed before radiation therapy, as well as 2 and 6 weeks into the treatment course. Radiation proctitis was assessed by endoscopic scoring, quantitative histology, and quantitative immunohistochemistry. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were localized immunohistochemically, and activities were determined by gelatin zymography. Results: Symptoms, endoscopic scores, histologic injury, and mucosal macrophages and neutrophils increased from baseline to 2 weeks. Symptoms increased further from 2 weeks to 6 weeks, whereas endoscopic and cellular evidence of proctitis did not. Compared to pretreatment values, there was increased total gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 at 2 weeks (p=0.02 and p=0.004, respectively) and 6 weeks (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively). Active MMP-2 was increased at both time points (p=0.0001 and p=0.002). Increased MMP-9 and MMP-2 at 6 weeks was associated with radiation-induced diarrhea (p=0.007 and p=0.02, respectively) and with mucosal neutrophil infiltration (rho=0.62). Conclusions: Pelvic radiation therapy causes increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the rectal mucosa. These changes correlate with radiation-induced diarrhea and granulocyte infiltration and may contribute to abnormal

  6. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis significantly increases hospital charges in patients undergoing heart valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Elangovan, Satheesh; Rampa, Sankeerth; Shin, Kyungsup; Nalliah, Romesh P; Allareddy, Veerajalandhar

    2015-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and impact of gingivitis and periodontitis in patients having heart valve surgical procedures. Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2004-2010 was used. All patients who had heart valve surgical procedures were selected. Prevalence of gingivitis/periodontitis was examined in these patients. Impact of gingivitis/periodontitis on hospital charges, length of stay, and infectious complications was examined. 596,190 patients had heart valve surgical procedures. Gingivitis/periodontitis was present in 0.2 percent. Outcomes included: median hospital charges ($175,418 with gingivitis/ periodontitis versus $149,353 without gingivitis/periodontitis) and median length of stay (14 days with gingivitis/periodontitis versus 8 days without gingivitis/periodontitis). After adjusting for the effects of patient- and hospital-level confounding factors, hospital charges and length of stay were significantly higher (p gingivitis/periodontitis compared to their counterparts. Further, patients with gingivitis/periodontitis had significantly higher odds for having bacterial infections (OR = 3.41, 95% CI = 2.33-4.98, p gingivitis/periodontitis. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis is associated with higher risk for bacterial infections and significant hospital resource utilization.

  7. Significance of increased and reduced proteasome activity in the pathomechanism of selected disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Tylicka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteasomes are structures responsible for the elimination of damaged and misfolded proteins. Thus, they also regulate the most important intracellular processes. Changes in their functions can lead to many molecular diseases. There are two possible disorders in the function of proteasomes. Their increasing activity causes excessive degradation of important cell proteins. On the other hand, their insufficiency can inhibit the degradation of pathological proteins and lead to their accumulation.The increase of proteasome activity and the degradation of important proteins are observed in many pathological disorders. Therefore the study of pharmacological methods using proteasome inhibitors has gained growing interest in the last years. This review summarizes recent findings regarding the role of proteasomes in pathogenesis of selected diseases and discusses the potential use of proteasomes in diagnosis of different disorders.

  8. Staphylococcus epidermidis Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin Production Significantly Increases during Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Cuong; Kidder, Joshua B.; Jacobson, Erik R.; Otto, Michael; Proctor, Richard A.; Somerville, Greg A.

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcal polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) is important for the development of a mature biofilm. PIA production is increased during growth in a nutrient-replete or iron-limited medium and under conditions of low oxygen availability. Additionally, stress-inducing stimuli such as heat, ethanol, and high concentrations of salt increase the production of PIA. These same environmental conditions are known to repress tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, leading us to hypothesize that altering TCA cycle activity would affect PIA production. Culturing Staphylococcus epidermidis with a low concentration of the TCA cycle inhibitor fluorocitrate dramatically increased PIA production without impairing glucose catabolism, the growth rate, or the growth yields. These data lead us to speculate that one mechanism by which staphylococci perceive external environmental change is through alterations in TCA cycle activity leading to changes in the intracellular levels of biosynthetic intermediates, ATP, or the redox status of the cell. These changes in the metabolic status of the bacteria result in the attenuation or augmentation of PIA production. PMID:15838022

  9. Pretreatment with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) increases cocaine-stimulated activity in adolescent but not adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow-Edwards, Diana; Izenwasser, Sari

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) remains one of the most widely used illegal drugs, with adolescents being particularly vulnerable to its use and abuse. In spite of this, most studies are conducted in adult animals even though the effects might be quite different in adolescents. Additionally, the use of marijuana often precedes the use of other psychoactive drugs including cocaine, especially when marijuana exposure begins during early adolescence. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of repeated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active ingredient in marijuana, in adolescents compared to adults and to determine its subsequent effects on cocaine-stimulated activity. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day PND 34) and adult (PND 66) rats were administered 3 mg/kg/day THC for 8 days and locomotor activity was measured on days 1, 2, 7 and 8 after dosing. On day 12 (4 days after the last dose of THC), rats were injected with escalating doses of cocaine and behavior was recorded. Results show that THC depressed locomotor activity in adult rats but not in adolescents. However, following a cocaine challenge, adolescents exposed to THC showed increased locomotor responses to cocaine compared to chronic vehicle-injected controls. This was not seen in adults. These results show that the effects of cocaine are enhanced after THC in adolescents, but not adults, and that this might account for the greater transition to cocaine after early, as opposed to later, marijuana use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Calcium phosphate cement augmentation after volar locking plating of distal radius fracture significantly increases stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, Hans; Dall'Ara, Enrico; Antoni, Anna; Redl, Heinz; Zysset, Philippe; Weninger, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    Distal radius fractures represent the most common fractures in adults. Volar locking plating to correct unstable fractures has become increasingly popular. Although reasonable primary reduction is possible in most cases, maintenance of reduction until the fracture is healed is often problematic in osteoporotic bone. To our knowledge, no biomechanical studies have compared the effect of enhancement with biomaterial on two different volar fixed-angle plates. Human fresh-frozen cadaver pairs of radii were used to simulate an AO/OTA 23-A3 fracture. In a total of four groups (n = 7 for each group), two volar fixed-angle plates (Aptus 2.5 mm locking fracture plate, Medartis, Switzerland and VA-LCP two-column distal radius plate 2.4, volar, Synthes, Switzerland) with or without an additional injection of a biomaterial (Hydroset Injectable HA Bone Substitute, Stryker, Switzerland) into the dorsal comminution zone were used to fix the distal metaphyseal fragment. Each specimen was tested load-controlled under cyclic loading with a servo-hydraulic material testing machine. Displacement, stiffness, dissipated work and failure mode were recorded. Improved mechanical properties (decreased displacement, increased stiffness, decreased dissipated work) were found in both plates if the biomaterial was additionally injected. Improvement of mechanical parameters after biomaterial injection was more evident in the Synthes plate compared to the Aptus plate. Pushing out of the screws was noticed as a failure mode only in samples lacking supplementary biomaterial. Injection of a biomaterial into the dorsal comminution zone increases stability after volar locking plating of distal radius fractures in vitro.

  11. Strong Selection Significantly Increases Epistatic Interactions in the Long-Term Evolution of a Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epistatic interactions between residues determine a protein's adaptability and shape its evolutionary trajectory. When a protein experiences a changed environment, it is under strong selection to find a peak in the new fitness landscape. It has been shown that strong selection increases epistatic interactions as well as the ruggedness of the fitness landscape, but little is known about how the epistatic interactions change under selection in the long-term evolution of a protein. Here we analyze the evolution of epistasis in the protease of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 using protease sequences collected for almost a decade from both treated and untreated patients, to understand how epistasis changes and how those changes impact the long-term evolvability of a protein. We use an information-theoretic proxy for epistasis that quantifies the co-variation between sites, and show that positive information is a necessary (but not sufficient condition that detects epistasis in most cases. We analyze the "fossils" of the evolutionary trajectories of the protein contained in the sequence data, and show that epistasis continues to enrich under strong selection, but not for proteins whose environment is unchanged. The increase in epistasis compensates for the information loss due to sequence variability brought about by treatment, and facilitates adaptation in the increasingly rugged fitness landscape of treatment. While epistasis is thought to enhance evolvability via valley-crossing early-on in adaptation, it can hinder adaptation later when the landscape has turned rugged. However, we find no evidence that the HIV-1 protease has reached its potential for evolution after 9 years of adapting to a drug environment that itself is constantly changing. We suggest that the mechanism of encoding new information into pairwise interactions is central to protein evolution not just in HIV-1 protease, but for any protein adapting to a changing

  12. Corruption Significantly Increases the Capital Cost of Power Plants in Developing Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Biswajit Debnath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging economies with rapidly growing population and energy demand, own some of the most expensive power plants in the world. We hypothesized that corruption has a relationship with the capital cost of power plants in developing countries such as Bangladesh. For this study, we analyzed the capital cost of 61 operational and planned power plants in Bangladesh. Initial comparison study revealed that the mean capital cost of a power plant in Bangladesh is twice than that of the global average. Then, the statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between corruption and the cost of power plants, indicating that higher corruption leads to greater capital cost. The high up-front cost can be a significant burden on the economy, at present and in the future, as most are financed through international loans with extended repayment terms. There is, therefore, an urgent need for the review of the procurement and due diligence process of establishing power plants, and for the implementation of a more transparent system to mitigate adverse effects of corruption on megaprojects.

  13. Longer duration of asthma is significantly associated with increased RV/TLC ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Anupama; Rahman, Kazi; Abejie, Belayneh; Jain, Vipul V; Vempilly, Jose Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Although FEV1/FVC ratio has been shown to be negatively associated with longer duration of asthma; an association between RV/TLC ratio and longer duration of asthma has not been explored. Patients with established asthma for more than a year and met inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited. Data obtained by questionnaire after informed consent was obtained, Pulmonary function tests and laboratory results were collected through chart review. Correlation and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the data. Among the 93 subjects, 61 were women. The mean age of patients was 58 ± 15 years, and the mean duration of asthma was 21 ± 18 years. The ethnic composition included: Caucasians 64%, Hispanics 28% and other groups 8%. The FEV1/FVC ratio was not significantly associated with duration of asthma (R2 = 0.15, p = 0.05). However, the RV/TLC ratio was significantly associated with duration of asthma (R2 = 0.46, p TLC ratio may be a better indicator than FEV1/FVC ratio to detect airway obstruction related to longer duration of asthma. Lung volume measurements should be done in addition to spirometry to detect changes related to airway obstruction in patients with longer duration of asthma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modern environmental health hazards: a public health issue of increasing significance in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C; Sanders, William H

    2009-06-01

    Traditional hazards such as poor sanitation currently account for most of Africa's environmentally related disease burden. However, with rapid development absent appropriate safeguards for environment and health, modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs) may emerge as critical contributors to the continent's disease burden. We review recent evidence of human exposure to and health effects from MEHHs, and their occurrence in environmental media and consumer products. Our purpose is to highlight the growing significance of these hazards as African countries experience urbanization, industrial growth, and development. We reviewed published epidemiologic, exposure, and environmental studies of chemical agents such as heavy metals and pesticides. The body of evidence demonstrates ongoing environmental releases of MEHHs and human exposures sometimes at toxicologically relevant levels. Several sources of MEHHs in environmental media have been identified, including natural resource mining and processing and automobile exhaust. Biomonitoring studies provided direct evidence of human exposure to metals such as mercury and lead and pesticides such as p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and organophosphates. Land and water resource pollution and industrial air toxics are areas of significant data gaps, notwithstanding the presence of several emitting sources. Unmitigated MEHH releases and human exposure have implications for Africa's disease burden. For Africans encumbered by conditions such as malnutrition that impair resilience to toxicologic challenges, the burden may be higher. A shift in public health policy toward accommodating the emerging diversity in Africa's environmental health issues is necessary to successfully alleviate the burden of avoidable ill health and premature death for all its communities now and in the future.

  15. Dietary phosphorus is associated with a significant increase in left ventricular mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kalani T.; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; de Oliveira, Marcia C.; Kostina, Alina; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Ix, Joachim H.; Nguyen, Ha; Eng, John; Lima, Joao A.C.; Siscovick, David; Weiss, Noel S.; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Dietary phosphorus consumption has risen steadily in the United States. Oral phosphorus loading alters key regulatory hormones and impairs vascular endothelial function which may lead to an increase in left ventricular mass (LVM). We investigated the association of dietary phosphorus with LVM in 4,494 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based study of individuals free of known cardiovascular disease. The intake of dietary phosphorus was estimated using a 120-item food frequency questionnaire and the LVM was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Regression models were used to determine associations of estimated dietary phosphorus with LVM and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Mean estimated dietary phosphorus intake was 1,167 mg/day in men and 1,017 mg/day in women. After adjustment for demographics, dietary sodium, total calories, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and established LVH risk factors, each quintile increase in the estimated dietary phosphate intake was associated with an estimated 1.1 gram greater LVM. The highest gender-specific dietary phosphorus quintile was associated with an estimated 6.1 gram greater LVM compared to the lowest quintile. Higher dietary phosphorus intake was associated with greater odds of LVH among women, but not men. These associations require confirmation in other studies. PMID:23283134

  16. Significantly Increased Extreme Precipitation Expected in Europe and North America from Extratropical Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawcroft, M.; Hodges, K.; Walsh, E.; Zappa, G.

    2017-12-01

    For the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, changes in circulation are key to determining the impacts of climate warming. The mechanisms governing these circulation changes are complex, leading to the well documented uncertainty in projections of the future location of the mid-latitude storm tracks simulated by climate models. These storms are the primary source of precipitation for North America and Europe and generate many of the large-scale precipitation extremes associated with flooding and severe economic loss. Here, we show that in spite of the uncertainty in circulation changes, by analysing the behaviour of the storms themselves, we find entirely consistent and robust projections across an ensemble of climate models. In particular, we find that projections of change in the most intensely precipitating storms (above the present day 99th percentile) in the Northern Hemisphere are substantial and consistent across models, with large increases in the frequency of both summer (June-August, +226±68%) and winter (December-February, +186±34%) extreme storms by the end of the century. Regionally, both North America (summer +202±129%, winter +232±135%) and Europe (summer +390±148%, winter +318±114%) are projected to experience large increases in the frequency of intensely precipitating storms. These changes are thermodynamic and driven by surface warming, rather than by changes in the dynamical behaviour of the storms. Such changes in storm behaviour have the potential to have major impacts on society given intensely precipitating storms are responsible for many large-scale flooding events.

  17. Significance of Increasing n-3 PUFA Content in Pork on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianyong; Jiang, Zongyong; Lai, Chaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for the health-promoting effects of food rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is reviewed. Pork is an important meat source for humans. According to a report by the US Department of Agriculture ( http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics ), the pork consumption worldwide in 2011 was about 79.3 million tons, much higher than that of beef (48.2 million tons). Pork also contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids relative to ruminant meats (Enser, M., Hallett, K., Hewett, B., Fursey, G. A. J. and Wood, J. D. (1996) . Fatty acid content and composition of English beef, lamb, and pork at retail. Meat Sci. 44:443-458). The available literature indicates that the levels of eicosatetraenoic and docosahexaenoic in pork may be increased by fish-derived or linseed products, the extent of which being dependent on the nature of the supplementation. Transgenic pigs and plants show promise with high content of n-3 PUFA and low ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in their tissues. The approaches mentioned for decreasing n-6/n-3 ratios have both advantages and disadvantages. Selected articles are critically reviewed and summarized.

  18. Exposure to Tumescent Solution Significantly Increases Phosphorylation of Perilipin in Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ilknur; Sutcu, Mustafa; Eren, Hilal; Keskin, Mustafa

    2017-02-01

    Lidocaine and epinephrine could potentially decrease adipocyte viability, but these effects have not been substantiated. The phosphorylation status of perilipin in adipocytes may be predictive of cell viability. Perilipin coats lipid droplets and restricts access of lipases; phospho-perilipin lacks this protective function. The authors investigated the effects of tumescent solution containing lidocaine and epinephrine on the phosphorylation status of perilipin in adipocytes. In this in vitro study, lipoaspirates were collected before and after tumescence from 15 women who underwent abdominoplasty. Fat samples were fixed, sectioned, and stained for histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Relative phosphorylation of perilipin was inferred from pixel intensities of immunostained adipocytes observed with confocal microscopy. For adipocytes collected before tumescent infiltration, 10.08% of total perilipin was phosphorylated. In contrast, 30.62% of total perilipin was phosphorylated for adipocytes collected from tumescent tissue (P < .01). The tumescent technique increases the relative phosphorylation of perilipin in adipocytes, making these cells more vulnerable to lipolysis. Tumescent solution applied for analgesia or hemostasis of the donor site should contain the lowest possible concentrations of lidocaine and epinephrine. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Elicitor Mixtures Significantly Increase Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, and Quality Parameters in Sweet Bell Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Garcia-Mier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet bell peppers are greatly appreciated for their taste, color, pungency, and aroma. Additionally, they are good sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be improved by the use of elicitors. Elicitors act as metabolite-inducing factors (MIF by mimic stress conditions. Since plants rarely experience a single stress condition one by one but are more likely to be exposed to simultaneous stresses, it is important to evaluate the effect of elicitors on plant secondary metabolism as mixtures. Jasmonic acid (JA, hydrogen peroxide (HP, and chitosan (CH were applied to fruits and plants of bell pepper as mixtures. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and quality parameters were evaluated. The assessed elicitor cocktail leads to an increase in the variables evaluated (P ≤ 0.05 when applied to mature fruits after harvest, whereas the lowest values were observed in the treatment applied to immature fruits. Therefore, the application of the elicitor cocktail to harvested mature fruits is recommended in order to improve bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of sweet bell peppers.

  20. Continues administration of Nano-PSO significantly increased survival of genetic CJD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binyamin, Orli; Keller, Guy; Frid, Kati; Larush, Liraz; Magdassi, Shlomo; Gabizon, Ruth

    2017-12-01

    We have shown previously that Nano-PSO, a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil, delayed progression of neurodegeneration signs when administered for a designated period of time to TgMHu2ME199K mice, modeling for genetic prion disease. In the present work, we treated these mice with a self-emulsion formulation of Nano-PSO or a parallel Soybean oil formulation from their day of birth until a terminal disease stage. We found that long term Nano-PSO administration resulted in increased survival of TgMHu2ME199K lines by several months. Interestingly, initiation of treatment at day 1 had no clinical advantage over initiation at day 70, however cessation of treatment at 9months of age resulted in the rapid loss of the beneficial clinical effect. Pathological studies revealed that treatment with Nano-PSO resulted in the reduction of GAG accumulation and lipid oxidation, indicating a strong neuroprotective effect. Contrarily, the clinical effect of Nano-PSO did not correlate with reduction in the levels of disease related PrP, the main prion marker. We conclude that long term administration of Nano-PSO is safe and may be effective in the prevention/delay of onset of neurodegenerative conditions such as genetic CJD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The pro-active payload strategy significantly increases selective release from mesoporous nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Shahed; Steinmann, Mark; Estupiñán, Diego; Landfester, Katharina; Crespy, Daniel

    2016-11-28

    The controlled release of payloads from mesoporous silica nanocapsules (SiNCs) consisting of stimulus-responsive shells is of considerable interest in applications such as self-healing materials and drug delivery. However, the release of payloads from SiNCs before application of external triggers (i.e. non-selective release) remains a formidable challenge. In fact, the non-selective release of payloads from SiNCs occurs because of the mesoporous nature of the silica shell that cannot trap payloads in the core of SiNCs perfectly. We establish an efficient and straightforward strategy based on the encapsulation of a pro-active payload to hinder the non-selective release of small payloads from mesoporous capsules. A pro-active payload is defined as a compound that is converted to an active functional molecule in the environment where it is needed. In this sense, it is a generalization of a prodrug. Encapsulating a pro-active payload instead of a payload allowed hindering the non-selective release of the payload from SiNCs. A selective release of the payload could be achieved upon reduction of the encapsulated pro-active payload. Furthermore, the total amount of released substance is significantly enhanced by introducing responsive groups in the silica shell. These results show that the pro-active payload strategy combined with the use of stimulus-responsive materials can be successfully exploited to achieve selective release of cargo from mesoporous nanocapsules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Significant increase in the stability of rare gas hydrides on insertion of beryllium atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekharan, T; Ghanty, Tapan K

    2007-09-21

    Chemical binding between a rare gas atom with other elements leading to the formation of stable chemical compounds has received considerable attention in recent years. With an intention to predict highly stable novel rare gas compounds, the process of insertion of beryllium atom into rare gas hydrides (HRgF with Rg=Ar, Kr, and Xe) has been investigated, which leads to the prediction of HBeRgF species. The structures, energetic, and charge distributions have been obtained using MP2, density functional theory, and CCSD(T) methods. Analogous to the well-known rare gas hydrides, HBeRgF species are found to be metastable in nature; however, the stabilization energy of the newly predicted species has been calculated to be significantly higher than that of HRgF species. Particularly, for HBeArF molecule, it has been found to be an order of magnitude higher. Strong chemical binding between beryllium and rare gas atom has also been found in the HBeArF, HBeKrF, and HBXeF molecules. In fact, the basis set superposition error and zero-point energy corrected Be-Ar bond energy calculated using CCSD(T) method has been found to be 112 kJ/mol, which is the highest bond energy ever achieved for a bond involving an argon atom in any chemically bound neutral species. Vibrational analysis reveals a large blueshift (approximately 200 cm(-1)) of the H-Be stretching frequency in HBeRgF with respect to that in BeH and HBeF species. This feature may be used to characterize these species after their preparation by the laser ablation of Be metal along with the photolysis of HF precursor in a suitable rare gas matrix. An analysis of the nature of interactions involved in the present systems has been performed using theory of atoms in molecules (AIM). Geometric as well as energetic considerations along with the AIM results suggest a substantial covalent nature of Be-Rg bond in these systems. Thus, insertion of a suitable metal atom into rare gas hydrides is a promising way to energetically

  3. Gangrenous cholecystitis: Deceiving ultrasounds, significant delay in surgical consult, and increased postoperative morbidity!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Daniel Dante; Cropano, Catrina; Fagenholz, Peter; King, David R; Chang, Yuchiao; Klein, Eric N; DeMoya, Marc; Kaafarani, Haytham; Velmahos, George

    2015-11-01

    Gangrenous cholecystitis (GC) is difficult to diagnose preoperatively in the patient with suspected acute cholecystitis. We sought to characterize preoperative risk factors and post-operative complications. Pathology reports of all patients undergoing cholecystectomy for suspected acute cholecystitis from June 2010 to January 2014 and admitted through the emergency department were examined. Patients with GC were compared with those with acute/chronic cholecystitis (AC/CC). Data collected included demographics, preoperative signs and symptoms, radiologic studies, operative details, and clinical outcomes. Thirty-eight cases of GC were identified and compared with 171 cases of AC/CC. Compared with AC/CC, GC patients were more likely to be older (57 years vs. 41 years, p < 0.001), of male sex (63% vs. 31%, p < 0.001), hypertensive (47% vs. 22%, p = 0.002), hyperlipidemic (29% vs. 14%, p = 0.026), and diabetic (24% vs. 8%, p = 0.006). GC patients were more likely to have a fever (29% vs. 12%, p = 0.007) and less likely to have nausea/vomiting (61% vs. 80%, p = 0.019) or an impacted gallstone on ultrasound (US) (8% vs. 26%, p = 0.017). Otherwise, there was no significant difference in clinical or US findings. Among GC patients, US findings were absent (8%, n = 3) or minimal (42%, n = 16). Median time from emergency department registration to US (3.3 hours vs. 2.8 hours, p = 0.28) was similar, but US to operation was longer (41.2 hours vs. 18.4 hours, p < 0.001), conversion to open cholecystectomy was more common (37% vs. 10%, p < 0.001), and hospital stay was longer (median, 4 days vs. 2 days, p < 0.0001). Delay in surgical consultation occurred in 16% of GC patients compared with 1% of AC patients (p < 0.001). Demographic features may be predictive of GC. Absent or minimal US signs occur in 50%, and delay in surgical consultation is common. Postoperative morbidity is greater for patients with GC compared with those with AC/CC. Epidemiologic study, level III; therapeutic

  4. Structural Analysis of Alkaline Pretreated Rice Straw for Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paripok Phitsuwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw (RS is an abundant, readily available agricultural waste, which shows promise as a potential feedstock for Asian ethanol production. To enhance release of glucose by enzymatic hydrolysis, RS was pretreated with aqueous ammonia (27% w/w at two pretreatment temperatures: room temperature and 60°C. Statistical analysis indicated similarity of enzymatic glucose production at both pretreatment temperatures after 3-day incubation. Chemical composition, FTIR, and EDX analyses confirmed the retention of glucan and xylan in the pretreated solid, but significant reduction of lignin (60.7% removal and silica. SEM analysis showed the disorganized surfaces and porosity of the pretreated RS fibers, thus improving cellulose accessibility for cellulase. The crystallinity index increased from 40.5 to 52.3%, indicating the higher exposure of cellulose. With 10% (w/v solid loadings of pretreated RS, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation yielded a final ethanol concentration of 24.6 g/L, corresponding to 98% of maximum theoretical yield. Taken together, aqueous ammonia pretreatment is an effective method to generate highly digestible pretreated RS for bioethanol production and demonstrates potential application in biorefinery industry.

  5. In situ detoxification of dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover by co-culture of xylose-utilizing and inhibitor-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Qing; Li, Xia; Qin, Lei; Li, Wen-Chao; Li, Hui-Ze; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-10-01

    Co-culture of xylose-utilizing and inhibitor-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed for bioethanol production from undetoxified pretreated biomass in simultaneously saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) process. Glucose accumulation during late fermentation phase in SSCF using xylose-utilizing strain can be eliminated by the introduction of inhibitor-tolerant strain. Effect of different ratios of two strains was investigated and xylose-utilizing strain to inhibitor-tolerant strain ratio of 10:1 (w/w) showed the best xylose consumption and the highest ethanol yield. Inoculating of xylose-utilizing strain at the later stage of SSCF (24-48h) exhibited lower ethanol yield than inoculating at early stage (the beginning 0-12h), probably due to the reduced enzymatic efficiency caused by the unconsumed xylose and oligomeric sugars. Co-culture SSCF increased ethanol concentration by 21.2% and 41.0% comparing to SSCF using individual inhibitor-tolerant and xylose-utilizing strain (increased from 48.5 and 41.7g/L to 58.8g/L), respectively, which suggest this co-culture system was very promising. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of ultrasound pretreatment on wood physiochemical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhengbin; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zijian; Yi, Songlin; Mu, Jun; Wang, Xiaoxu

    2017-01-01

    As an initial step to increase the use of renewable biomass resources, this study was aimed at investigating the effects of ultrasound pretreatment on structural changes of wood. Samples were pretreated by ultrasound with the power of 300W and frequency of 28kHz in aqueous soda solution, aqueous acetic acid, or distilled water, then pretreated and control samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results shown that ultrasound pretreatment is indeed effective in modifying the physiochemical structure of eucalyptus wood; the pretreatment decreased the quantity of alkali metals (e.g., potassium, calcium and magnesium) in the resulting material. Compared to the control group, the residual char content of samples pretreated in aqueous soda solution increased by 10.08%-20.12% and the reaction temperature decreased from 361°C to 341°C, however, in samples pretreated by ultrasound in acetic solution or distilled water, the residual char content decreased by 12.40%-21.45% and there were no significant differences in reactivity apart from a slightly higher maximum reaction rate. Ultrasound pretreatment increased the samples' crystallinity up to 35.5% and successfully removed cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin from the samples; the pretreatment also increased the exposure of the sample to the treatment solutions, broke down sample pits, and generated collapses and microchannels on sample pits, and removed attachments in the samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Recovery of metals from waste printed circuit boards by supercritical water pre-treatment combined with acid leaching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Qi, Yingying; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2013-05-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) contain a large number of metals such as Cu, Sn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, and Mn. In this work, an efficient and environmentally friendly process for metals recovery from waste PCBs by supercritical water (SCW) pre-treatment combined with acid leaching was developed. In the proposed process, waste PCBs were pre-treated by SCW, then the separated solid phase product with concentrated metals was subjected to an acid leaching process for metals recovery. The effect of SCW pre-treatment on the recovery of different metals from waste PCBs was investigated. Two methods of SCW pre-treatment were studied: supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and supercritical water depolymerization (SCWD). Experimental results indicated that SCWO and SCWD pre-treatment had significant effect on the recovery of different metals. SCWO pre-treatment was highly efficient for enhancing the recovery of Cu and Pb, and the recovery efficiency increased significantly with increasing pre-treatment temperature. The recovery efficiency of Cu and Pb for SCWO pre-treatment at 420°C was 99.8% and 80%, respectively, whereas most of the Sn and Cr were immobilized in the residue. The recovery of all studied metals was enhanced by SCWD pre-treatment and increased along with pre-treatment temperature. Up to 90% of Sn, Zn, Cr, Cd, and Mn could be recovered for SCWD pre-treatment at 440°C. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lime pretreatment and fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline C

    2013-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was subjected to lime (calcium hydroxide) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for second-generation ethanol production. A central composite factorial design was performed to determine the best combination of pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading, as well as to evaluate the influence of enzymatic loadings on hydrolysis conversion. The influence of increasing solids loading in the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis stages was also determined. The hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and continuous mode. In the continuous fermentation, the hydrolysates were concentrated with molasses. Lime pretreatment significantly increased the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse without the need for prior particle size reduction. In the optimal pretreatment conditions (90 h, 90 °C, 0.47 glime/g bagasse) and industrially realistic conditions of hydrolysis (12.7 FPU/g of cellulase and 7.3 CBU/g of β-glucosidase), 139.6 kglignin/ton raw bagasse and 126.0 kg hemicellulose in the pretreatment liquor per ton raw bagasse were obtained. The hydrolysate from lime pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented low amounts of inhibitors, leading to ethanol yield of 164.1 kgethanol/ton raw bagasse.

  9. Enhanced enzymatic conversion with freeze pretreatment of rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ken-Lin; Thitikorn-amorn, Jitladda; Ou, Bay-Ming; Chen, Shan-He; Huang, Po-Jung [Institute of Biological Chemistry and Genomics Research Center Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115 (China); Hsieh, Jung-Feng [Department of Food Science, Fu Jen Catholic University, Xin Zhuang, Taipei 242 (China); Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok [School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Chen, Shui-Tein [Institute of Biological Chemistry and Genomics Research Center Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115 (China); Institute of Biochemical Sciences, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Production of bioethanol by the conversion of lignocellulosic waste has attracted much interest in recent years, because of its low cost and great potential availability. The pretreatment process is important for increasing the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic materials. Enzymatic conversion with freeze pretreatment of rice straw was evaluated in this study. The freeze pretreatment was found to significantly increase the enzyme digestibility of rice straw from 48% to 84%. According to the results, enzymatic hydrolysis of unpretreated rice straw with 150 U cellulase and 100 U xylanase for 48 h yielded 226.77 g kg{sup -1} and 93.84 g kg{sup -1} substrate-reducing sugars respectively. However, the reducing sugar yields from freeze pretreatment under the same conditions were 417.27 g kg{sup -1} and 138.77 g kg{sup -1} substrate, respectively. In addition, hydrolyzates analysis showed that the highest glucose yield obtained during the enzymatic hydrolysis step in the present study was 371.91 g kg{sup -1} of dry rice straw, following pretreatment. Therefore, the enhanced enzymatic conversion with freeze pretreatment of rice straw was observed in this study. This indicated that freeze pretreatment was highly effective for enzymatic hydrolysis and low environmental impact. (author)

  10. Increased viability and resilience of haemolymph cells in blue mussels following pre-treatment with acute high-dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, B. [Stockholm University (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    In an initial experiment, blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed to a range of acute high doses of gamma radiation in the laboratory. Haemolymph was extracted and the haemocytes (blood cells) were scored for cell viability (% living cells) under a microscope, directly after irradiation (0.04, 0.4 or 4 Gy) and again after a subsequent treatment with hydrogen peroxide in vitro (final H{sub 2}O{sub 2} conc.: 0.2 μM). Cell viability in controls (0 Gy) was approximately 100% and no cell death was observable from radiation exposure alone. When treated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} a decrease in cell viability was seen across all treatments, however this decrease in viability was reduced with increasing radiation pre-treatment (0 Gy = 53%; 0.04 Gy = 66%; 0.4 Gy = 75%; 4 Gy = 83%). To investigate the mechanism for this therapeutic effect observed, the experiment was repeated. Using mussels from a different location, the same, but more extensive method of irradiation (0[control], 0.04, 0.4 Gy, 5 or 40 Gy) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment was used. Additional haemolymph sub-samples were taken for analysis of catalase concentration. In this second experiment, viability of cells from controls was only 62%, indicating the mussels were in a poorer condition than those of the previous experiment. The lowest level of radiation exposure (0.04 Gy) further decreased the viability (56%). However, at higher doses the viability was increased compared to control, which then gradually declined with increasing dose (0.4 Gy = 75%; 5 Gy = 72%; 40 Gy = 65%). Catalase analysis demonstrated a complimentary pattern of activity of the antioxidant in the haemolymph, directly correlating with radiation dose (0 Gy = 0.2 U; 0.04 Gy = 0.1 U; 0.4 Gy = 1.3 U; 5 Gy = 0.9 U; 40 Gy = 0.1 Gy). Treatment with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decreased cell viability across all treatments, but no pattern between radiation treatments was discernable. The results indicate that an acute dose of radiation not only has negligible

  11. Pretreatment of radiata pine using two white rot fungal strains Stereum hirsutum and Trametes versicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkavand, Ehsan; Baroutian, Saeid; Gapes, Daniel J.; Young, Brent R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fungal pretreatment by two New Zealand native white rot fungi was proposed. • Trametes versicolor was more efficient in selective degradation of pine wood chips. • Both fungal strains significantly decreased crystallinity index of biomass only after week 7 of degradation. • Structural analysis showed that Trametes versicolor and Stereum hirsutum increased porous surface area of woody biomass. - Abstract: Stereum hirsutum and Trametes versicolor, were studied over a period of 3–7 weeks for pretreatment of radiata pine wood chips. Chemical analysis of pretreated biomass showed that the two studied strains were able to selectively degrade lignin. Selective lignin degradation was greater in week 3 of the pretreatment by Trametes versicolor compared to the other strain. Lengthening pretreatment time increased both lignin and cellulose losses which caused a reduction in selective lignin degradation for both strains. X-ray diffractometry showed that after seven weeks of pretreatment, the crystallinity of the woody biomass was decreased significantly. It decreased from 46% for untreated wood chips to 37% and 44% for Stereum hirsutum and Trametes versicolor treated biomass, respectively. The pretreatment with these two white rot fungi showed that 3-week pretreatment provided a cellulose rich biomass with the minimum cellulose loss compared to the other time of pretreatment.

  12. Alarming increase in pretreatment HIV drug resistance in children living in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, R S; Sigaloff, K C E; Akanmu, A S; Inzaule, S; Boele van Hensbroek, M; Rinke de Wit, T F; Calis, J C

    2017-02-01

    Children have an augmented risk of pretreatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) due to exposure to antiretroviral drugs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Paediatric data are essential to evaluate the effectiveness of the restricted number of paediatric regimens currently available, but these data are scarce. We conducted a systematic review of the literature on PDR in children (median age ≤12 years) in sub-Saharan Africa. We separately extracted the proportion of children with PDR for children with and without prior PMTCT exposure, used random-effects meta-analysis to pool proportions and used meta-regression to assess subgroup differences. We included 19 studies representing 2617 children from 13 countries. The pooled PDR prevalence was 42.7% (95% CI 26.2%-59.1%) among PMTCT-exposed children and 12.7% (95% CI 6.7%-18.7%) among PMTCT-unexposed children (P = 0.004). The PDR prevalence in PMTCT-unexposed children increased from 0% in 2004 to 26.8% in 2013 (P = 0.009). NNRTI mutations were detected in 32.4% (95% CI 18.7%-46.1%) of PMTCT-exposed children and in 9.7% (95% CI 4.6%-14.8%) of PMTCT-unexposed children; PI mutations were uncommon (<2.5%). PDR was more common in children aged <3 years compared with children aged ≥3 years [40.9% (95% CI 27.6%-54.3%) versus 17.6% (95% CI 8.9%-26.3%), respectively (P = 0.025)]. The PDR prevalence in African children is high and rapidly increasing. Even in PMTCT-unexposed children, the most recent reports indicate that PDR is present in up to a third of children starting first-line therapy. Our data underscore the importance of initiating PI-based first-line ART in young children (<3 years of age) and suggest that older children may also benefit from this approach. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Continuous treatment of non-sterile hospital wastewater by Trametes versicolor: How to increase fungal viability by means of operational strategies and pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Tutusaus, J A; Sarrà, M; Caminal, G

    2016-11-15

    Hospital wastewaters have a high load of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs). Fungal treatments could be appropriate for source treatment of such effluents but the transition to non-sterile conditions proved to be difficult due to competition with indigenous microorganisms, resulting in very short-duration operations. In this article, coagulation-flocculation and UV-radiation processes were studied as pretreatments to a fungal reactor treating non-sterile hospital wastewater in sequential batch operation and continuous operation modes. The influent was spiked with ibuprofen and ketoprofen, and both compounds were successfully degraded by over 80%. UV pretreatment did not extent the fungal activity after coagulation-flocculation measured as laccase production and pellet integrity. Sequential batch operation did not reduce bacteria competition during fungal treatment. The best strategy was the addition of a coagulation-flocculation pretreatment to a continuous reactor, which led to an operation of 28days without biomass renovation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. ALA Pretreatment Improves Waterlogging Tolerance of Fig Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyan An

    Full Text Available 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, a natural and environmentally friendly plant growth regulator, can improve plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, whether ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of ALA pretreatment on the waterlogging-induced damage of fig (Ficus carica Linn. plants, which often suffer from waterlogging stress. ALA pretreatment significantly alleviated stress-induced morphological damage, increased leaf relative water content (RWC, and reduced leaf superoxide anion ([Formula: see text] production rate and malonaldehyde (MDA content in fig leaves, indicating ALA mitigates waterlogging stress of fig plants. We further demonstrated that ALA pretreatment largely promoted leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic electron transfer ability, and photosynthetic performance index, indicating ALA significantly improves plant photosynthetic efficiency under waterlogging stress. Moreover, ALA pretreatment significantly increased activities of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD, root vigor, and activities of root alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, indicating ALA also significantly improves antioxidant ability and root function of fig plants under waterlogging stress. Taken together, ALA pretreatment improves waterlogging tolerance of fig plants significantly, and the promoted root respiration, leaf photosynthesis, and antioxidant ability may contribute greatly to this improvement. Our data firstly shows that ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance.

  15. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  16. Pretreatment of Cottage Cheese to Enhance Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhya Prabhudessai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the possibility of pretreating selected solid fraction of an anaerobic digester treating food waste to lower the hydraulic retention time and increase the methane production. The study investigated the effect of different pretreatments (thermal, chemical, thermochemical and enzymatic for enhanced methane production from cottage cheese. The most effective pretreatments were thermal and enzymatic. Highest solubilisation of COD was observed in thermal pretreatment, followed by thermochemical. In single enzyme systems, lipase at low concentration gave significantly higher methane yield than for the experiments without enzyme additions. The highest lipase dosages decreased methane yield from cottage cheese. However, in case of protease enzyme an increase in concentration of the enzyme showed higher methane yield. In the case of mixed enzyme systems, pretreatment at 1 : 2 ratio of lipase : protease showed higher methane production in comparison with 1 : 1 and 2 : 1 ratios. Methane production potentials for different pretreatments were as follows: thermal 357 mL/g VS, chemical 293 mL/g VS, and thermochemical 441 mL/g VS. The average methane yield from single enzyme systems was 335 mL/g VS for lipase and 328 mL/g VS for protease. Methane potentials for mixed enzyme ratios were 330, 360, and 339 mL/g VS for 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 lipase : protease, respectively.

  17. Potential Increased Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality With Significant Dose Fractionation in the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Lydia B.; Little, Mark P.; Cornett, R. Jack

    2014-01-01

    Risks of noncancer causes of death, particularly cardiovascular disease, associated with exposures to high-dose ionizing radiation, are well known. Recent studies have reported excess risk in workers who are occupationally exposed to low doses at a low dose rate, but the risks of moderately fractionated exposures, such as occur during diagnostic radiation procedures, remain unclear. The Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study includes 63,707 tuberculosis patients exposed to multiple fluoroscopic procedures in 1930–1952 and followed-up for death from noncancer causes in 1950–1987. We used a Poisson regression to estimate excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy of cumulative radiation dose to the lung (mean dose = 0.79 Gy; range, 0–11.60). The risk of death from noncancer causes was significantly lower in these subjects compared with the Canadian general population (P < 0.001). We estimated small, nonsignificant increases in the risk of death from noncancer causes with dose. We estimated an ERR/Gy of 0.176 (95% confidence interval: 0.011, 0.393) (n = 5,818 deaths) for ischemic heart disease (IHD) after adjustment for dose fractionation. A significant (P = 0.022) inverse dose fractionation effect in dose trends of IHD was observed, with the highest estimate of ERR/Gy for those with the fewest fluoroscopic procedures per year. Radiation-related risks of IHD decreased significantly with increasing time since first exposure and age at first exposure (both P < 0.05). This is the largest study of patients exposed to moderately fractionated low-to-moderate doses of radiation, and it provides additional evidence of increased radiation-associated risks of death from IHD, in particular, significantly increased radiation risks from doses similar to those from diagnostic radiation procedures. The novel finding of a significant inverse dose-fractionation association in IHD mortality requires further investigation. PMID:24145888

  18. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shih-Ying [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Juang, Shin-Hun [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hou, Yu-Chi, E-mail: hou5133@gmail.com [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C{sub max} of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  19. Significant social events and increasing use of life-sustaining treatment: trend analysis using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Yuan; Chen, Likwang; Huang, Tien-Shang; Ko, Wen-Je; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2014-03-04

    Most studies have examined the outcomes of patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a life-sustaining treatment. It is unclear whether significant social events are associated with the use of life-sustaining treatment. This study aimed to compare the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan with that in the world, and to examine the influence of significant social events on the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan. Taiwan's extracorporeal membrane oxygenation uses from 2000 to 2009 were collected from National Health Insurance Research Dataset. The number of the worldwide extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cases was mainly estimated using Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report International Summary July 2012. The trend of Taiwan's crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was compared with that of the rest of the world. Each trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was examined using joinpoint regression. The measurement was the crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. Each of the Taiwan's crude annual incidence rates was much higher than the worldwide one in the same year. Both the trends of Taiwan's and worldwide crude annual incidence rates have significantly increased since 2000. Joinpoint regression selected the model of the Taiwan's trend with one joinpoint in 2006 as the best-fitted model, implying that the significant social events in 2006 were significantly associated with the trend change of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use following 2006. In addition, significantly social events highlighted by the media are more likely to be associated with the increase of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use than being fully covered by National Health Insurance. Significant social events, such as a well-known person's successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use highlighted by the mass media, are associated with the use of

  20. Modeling of pretreatment condition of extrusion-pretreated prairie cordgrass and corn stover with poly (oxyethylen)20 sorbitan monolaurate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckard, Anahita Dehkhoda; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gibbons, William

    2012-05-01

    Extrusion processing has shown potential to be used as a pretreatment method for second-generation bioethanol production. Furthermore, surfactants have been shown to reduce enzyme deactivation and increase the efficiency of hydrolysis. Therefore, a sequential pretreatment technique was developed for corn stover (CS) and prairie cordgrass (PCG) in which a single screw extruder was used for the first pretreatment according to a previously optimized condition using 70-180 °C for feed, barrel, and die zones with 65-155 rpm screw speed. The second pretreatment was optimized in this study at 45-55 °C, 1-4 h, 0.15-0.6 g Tween 20/g glucan according to response surface methodology. Optimization of surfactant pretreatment facilitated the estimation of interaction and higher-order effects for major factors involved in surfactant treatment (temperature, time, surfactant loading). Using 8.6 FPU/g glucan cellulase, the optimum conditions found by fitting appropriate quadratic models to the data increased glucose and xylose yield by 27.5 and 33% for CS and by 21.5 and 27% for PCG, respectively. Tween 20 concentrations and pretreatment temperature were the most significant factors affecting sugar yield (p value <0.05). Studies of SDS concentration at and beyond critical micelle concentration (5.2-100 mM) demonstrated a decrease in sugar yield compared to control.

  1. Interspecific rice hybrid of Oryza sativa x Oryza nivara reveals a significant increase in seed protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed A; Sukumar, S; Krishnan, Hari B

    2008-01-23

    Wild species offer a potential reservoir of genetic variation for crop improvement. Besides the valuable genes for disease resistance that the wild species have provided for rice improvement, recent studies have shown that these wild species could also provide favorable alleles for the improvement of yield and yield-related traits. The present study reports yet another potential of wild relatives of rice, which involves the improvement of seed protein content. A significant increase in seed protein content was observed in an interspecific hybrid between Oryza sativa ssp. indica and the wild species Oryza nivara. The hybrid showed a protein content of 12.4%, which was 28 and 18.2% higher than those of the parents O. nivara and IR 64, respectively. The increase in protein content was dependent on the genetic background of the rice variety used in the hybridization. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of seed storage proteins demonstrated that a significant increase in prolamins and glutelins was mainly responsible for the elevated protein content of the hybrid. Amino acid analysis of seed proteins revealed that the hybrid had net gains of 19.5% in lysine and 19.4% in threonine over the O. nivara parent on a seed dry weight basis. Molecular analysis indicated that the increase in protein content of the hybrid was not a result of chromosomal rearrangements or transposable element activation, at least in the chromosomal regions containing seed storage protein genes. A preliminary genetic analysis of the F 2 segregating population showed that the inheritance of the increased protein content was polygenic in nature. The development of this interspecific hybrid offers a great potential for selecting new rice cultivars that combine the high yield and superior cooking quality of IR 64 with improved seed protein content.

  2. Pre-Treatment with Either L-Carnitine or Piracetam Increases Ultrasound-Mediated Gene Transfection by Reducing Sonoporation-Associated Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Hao; Wu, Chueh-Hung; Chen, Wen-Shiang

    2018-03-14

    Sonoporation, the use of ultrasound to alter the permeability of cell membranes, is a non-viral technique used to facilitate gene delivery, possibly by opening transient pores in the cell membrane. However, sonoporation may have negative bio-effects on cells, such as causing apoptosis, which limits its efficacy in gene delivery. In this study, we investigated whether pre-treatment with either L-carnitine or piracetam could protect cells from undergoing apoptosis after sonoporation and the possible mechanisms. We found that either L-carnitine or piracetam can promote gene transfection without reducing cell viability, possibly by reducing cavitation-induced reactive oxygen species generation, reversing alterations of mitochondrial membrane potential, preventing caspase-3/7 activity and facilitating mitochondrial ATP production. In conclusion, pre-treatment with either L-carnitine or piracetam could protect cells from sonoporation-associated apoptosis by preserving mitochondrial function. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Intracranial Volume Pressure Response in Increased Intracranial Pressure Patients: Clinical Significance of the Volume Pressure Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yi; Lee, Ching-Hsin; Lee, Ching-Yi

    2016-01-01

    For patients suffering from primary brain injury, monitoring intracranial pressure alone is not enough to reflect the dynamic intracranial condition. In our previous study, a segment of the pressure-volume curve can be expressed by the parabolic regression model with single indicator "a". The aim of this study is to evaluate if the indicator "a" can reflect intracranial conditions. Patients with traumatic brain injury, spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage, and/or hydrocephalus who had external ventricular drainage from January 2009 to February 2010 were included. The successive volume pressure response values were obtained by successive drainage of cerebral spinal fluid from intracranial pressure 20-25 mm Hg to 10 mm Hg. The relationship between withdrawn cerebral spinal fluid volume and intracranial pressure was analyzed by the parabolic regression model with single parameter "a". The overall mean for indicator "a" was 0.422 ± 0.046. The mean of "a" in hydrocephalus was 0.173 ± 0.024 and in severe intracranial mass with slender ventricle, it was 0.663 ± 0.062. The two extreme intracranial conditions had a statistical significant difference (ppressure-volume curve can reflect the dynamic intracranial condition and is comparable in different situations. A significantly larger indicator "a" with increased intracranial pressure is always observed in severe intracranial mass lesions with cerebral edema. A significantly smaller indicator "a" with increased intracranial pressure is observed in hydrocephalus. Brain computed tomography should be performed early if a rapid elevation of indicator "a" is detected, as it can reveal some ongoing intracranial pathology prior to clinical deterioration. Increased intracranial pressure was frequently observed in patients with intracranial pathology. The progression can be differentiated using the pattern of the volume pressure indicator.

  4. Significant increase of light emission efficiency by in situ site-selective etching of InGaN quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhilai

    2009-07-01

    An indium post-treatment of the InGaN epilayers was employed for InGaN-to-GaN interface modification. We find that the treatment could lead to selective etching of the InGaN epilayers around threading dislocations (TDs) due to preferential etching of the chemically active step-correlated TDs and formation of indium-rich InGaN nanostructures on the smooth InGaN surface. The intentionally formed V-shaped pits by site-selective etching of the InGaN epilayers resulted in an increased surface potential barrier at the pit sidewalls due to the relatively thin InGaN single quantum well. The increased energy bandgap of the InGaN active layers around the TDs cores caused the lateral carrier confinement away from nonradiative recombination at the defects and thus significantly enhanced the light emission efficiency.

  5. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  6. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, Mark W.; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; He, Hong-Zhi; Shiver, Austin; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhou, Li; Isales, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. → We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. → Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. → Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient-related hormones such as leptin

  7. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: mhamrick@mail.mcg.edu [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); He, Hong-Zhi [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Shiver, Austin [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Qi, Rui-Qun [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhou, Li [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Isales, Carlos M. [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); and others

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  8. Prognostic significance of increased bone marrow microcirculation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: results of a prospective DCE-MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, Maximilian; Hillengass, Jens [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Moehler, Thomas M.; Ritsch, Judith; Delorme, Stefan [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Baeuerle, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Zechmann, Christian M. [Rinecker Proton Therapy, Muenchen (Germany); Wagner, Barbara; Hose, Dirk [University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Jauch, Anna [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Human Genetics, Heidelberg (Germany); Kunz, Christina; Hielscher, Thomas [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Biostatistics, Heidelberg (Germany); Laue, Hendrik [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Aim of this prospective study was to investigate prognostic significance of increased bone marrow microcirculation as detected by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for survival and local complications in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We performed DCE-MRI of the lumbar spine in 131 patients with newly diagnosed MM and analysed data according to the Brix model to acquire amplitude A and exchange rate constant k{sub ep}. In 61 patients a second MRI performed after therapy was evaluated to assess changes in vertebral height and identify vertebral fractures. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive association between beta2-microglobulin as well as immunoparesis with DCE-MRI parameters A and k{sub ep}. Additionally, A was negatively correlated with haemoglobin levels and k{sub ep} was positively correlated with LDH levels. Higher baseline k{sub ep} values were associated with decreased vertebral height in a second MRI (P = 0.007) and A values were associated with new vertebral fractures in the lower lumbar spine (P = 0.03 for L4). Pre-existing lytic bone lesions or remission after therapy had no impact on the occurrence of vertebral fractures. Multivariate analysis revealed that amplitude A is an independent adverse risk factor for overall survival. DCE-MRI is a non-invasive tool with significance for systemic prognosis and vertebral complications. (orig.)

  9. The contribution of human agricultural activities to increasing evapotranspiration is significantly greater than climate change effect over Heihe agricultural region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Minzhong; Niu, Jun; Kang, Shaozhong; Li, Xiaolin; Lu, Hongna

    2017-08-18

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component linking the water, energy, and carbon cycles. Understanding changes in ET and the relative contribution rates of human activity and of climate change at the basin scale is important for sound water resources management. In this study, changes in ET in the Heihe agricultural region in northwest China during 1984-2014 were examined using remotely-sensed ET data with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Correlation analysis identified the dominant factors that influence change in ET per unit area and those that influence change in total ET. Factor analysis identified the relative contribution rates of the dominant factors in each case. The results show that human activity, which includes factors for agronomy and irrigation, and climate change, including factors for precipitation and relative humidity, both contribute to increases in ET per unit area at rates of 60.93% and 28.01%, respectively. Human activity, including the same factors, and climate change, including factors for relative humidity and wind speed, contribute to increases in total ET at rates of 53.86% and 35.68%, respectively. Overall, in the Heihe agricultural region, the contribution of human agricultural activities to increased ET was significantly greater than that of climate change.

  10. The GIP/GIPR axis is functionally linked to GH-secretion increase in a significant proportion of gsp- somatotropinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzo, D; Losa, M; Albiger, N M; Terreni, M R; Vazza, G; Ceccato, F; Emanuelli, E; Denaro, L; Scaroni, C; Occhi, G

    2017-05-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor ( GIPR ) overexpression has been recently described in a proportion of gsp - somatotropinomas and suggested to be associated with the paradoxical increase of GH (GH-PI) during an oral glucose load. This study was aimed at linking the GIP/GIPR pathway to GH secretion in 25 somatotropinomas-derived primary cultures and correlating molecular with clinical features in acromegalic patients. Given the impairment of the GIP/GIPR axis in acromegaly, an additional aim was to assess the effect of GH/IGF-1 stimulation on GIP expression in the enteroendocrine cell line STC-1. Nearly 80% of GIPR -expressing somatotropinomas, all of them negative for gsp mutations, show increased GH secretion upon GIP stimulation, higher sensitivity to Forskolin but not to somatostatin analogs. Besides increased frequency of GH-PI, GIPR overexpression does not appear to affect acromegalic patients' clinical features. In STC-1 cells transfected with GIP promoter-driven luciferase vector, IGF-1 but not GH induced dose-dependent increase in luciferase activity. We demonstrate that GIPR mediates the GH-PI in a significant proportion of gsp - acromegalic patients. In these cases, the stimulatory effect of IGF-1 on GIP promoter support the hypothesis of a functional GH/IGF-1/GIP axis. Further studies based on larger cohorts and the development of a stable transgenic model with inducible GIPR overexpression targeted to pituitary somatotroph lineage will be mandatory to establish the real role of GIPR in the pathogenesis of somatotropinomas. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  11. Perineural invasion and Gleason 7-10 tumors predict increased failure in prostate cancer patients with pretreatment PSA <10 ng/ml treated with conformal external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Penny R.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Patchefsky, Arthur; Al-Saleem, Tahseen; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: It has been well established that prostate cancer patients with pretreatment PSA<10 ng/ml enjoy excellent bNED control when treated with definitive external beam radiation therapy. This report identifies predictors of failure for patients with pretreatment PSA <10 ng/ml. These predictors are then used to define favorable and unfavorable prognostic subgroups of patients for which bNED control is compared. Methods and Materials: Between 3/87 and 11/94, 266 patients with T1-T3NXM0 prostate cancer and pretreatment PSA values <10 ng/ml were treated with definitive external beam radiation therapy. Median central axis dose and median follow-up for the entire group was 72 Gy (63-79 Gy) and 48 months (2-120 months). Predictors of bNED control were evaluated univariately using Kaplan-Meier methodology and the log-rank test and multivariately using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Covariates considered were pretreatment PSA, palpation stage, Gleason score, presence of perineual invasion (PNI) and central axis dose. Independent predictors based on multivariate results were then used to stratify the patients into two prognostic groups for which bNED control was compared. bNED failure is defined as PSA ≥ 1.5 ng/ml and rising on two consecutive determinations. Results: Univariate analysis according to pretreatment and treatment factors for bNED control demonstrates a statistically significant improvement in 5-year bNED control for patients with Gleason score 2-6 vs. 7-10, patients without evidence of perineural invasion (PNI) vs. those with PNI, and patients with palpation stage T1/T2AB vs. T2C/T3. Multivariate analysis demonstrates that Gleason score (p = 0.0496), PNI (p = 0.0008) and palpation stage (p = 0.0153) are significant independent predictors of bNED control. Based on these factors, patients are stratified into a more favorable prognosis group (Gleason 2-6, no PNI, and stage T1/T2AB, n = 172) and a less favorable prognosis group (Gleason 7-10 or PNI or T2C

  12. Influence of pretreatment of agriculture residues on phytase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phytase production. Pretreatment of agriculture residues with water to remove excess inorganic phosphate has significantly enhanced the phytase activity in case of de-oiled rice bran, wheat bran, peanut cake (low and high oil) and coconut cake. Maximum increase of 20.3 times in phytase activity was observed in case of ...

  13. Simulation of Jack-Up Overturning Using the Monte Carlo Method with Artificially Increased Significant Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2010-01-01

    wave height irrespectively of the non-linearity in the system. However, the FORM analysis only gives an approximation to the mean out-crossing rate. A more exact result can be obtained by Monte Carlo simulations, but the necessary length of the time domain simulations for very low out-crossing rates...... might be prohibitive long. In such cases the property mentioned above for the FORM reliability index can be assumed valid in the Monte Carlo simulations making it possible to increase the out-crossing rates and thus reduced the necessary length of the time domain simulations by applying a larger......-linear processes the mean out-crossing rate depends non-linearly on the response level r and a good estimate can be found using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM), see e.g. Jensen and Capul (2006). The FORM analysis also shows that the reliability index is strictly inversely proportional to the significant...

  14. Plucking the Golden Goose: Higher Royalty Rates on the Oil Sands Generate Significant Increases in Government Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. McKenzie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Alberta government’s 2009 New Royalty Framework elicited resistance on the part of the energy industry, leading to subsequent reductions in the royalties imposed on natural gas and conventional oil. However, the oil sands sector, subject to different terms, quickly accepted the new arrangement with little complaint, recognizing it as win-win situation for industry and the government. Under the framework, Alberta recoups much more money in royalties — about $1 billion over the two year period of 2009 and 2010 — without impinging significantly on investment in the oil sands. This brief paper demonstrates that by spreading the financial risks and benefits to everyone involved, the new framework proves it’s possible to generate increased revenue without frightening off future investment. The same model could conceivably be applied to the conventional oil and natural gas sectors.

  15. Frontal Sinus Breach During Routine Frontal Craniotomy Significantly Increases Risk of Surgical Site Infection: 10-Year Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzey, Joseph R; Wilson, Thomas J; Sullivan, Stephen E; Thompson, B Gregory; Pandey, Aditya S

    2017-09-01

    Frontotemporal craniotomies are commonly performed for a variety of neurosurgical pathologies. Infections related to craniotomies cause significant morbidity. We hypothesized that the risk of cranial surgical site infections (SSIs) may be increased in patients whose frontal sinuses are breached during craniotomy. To compare the rate of cranial SSIs in patients undergoing frontotemporal craniotomies with and without frontal sinus breach (FSB). We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing frontotemporal craniotomies for the management of cerebral aneurysms from 2005 to 2014. This study included 862 patients undergoing 910 craniotomies. Primary outcome of interest was occurrence of a cranial SSI. Standard statistical methods were utilized to explore associations between a variety of variables including FSB, cranial SSI, and infections requiring reoperation. Of the 910 craniotomies, 141 (15.5%) involved FSB. Of those involving FSB, 22 (15.6%) developed a cranial SSI, compared to only 56 of the 769 without FSB (7.3%; P = .001). Cranial SSI requiring reoperation was much more likely in patients with FSB compared to those without a breach (7.8% vs 1.6%; P craniotomies are at significantly greater risk of serious cranial SSIs if the frontal sinus has been breached. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  16. The Effect of Ionic Liquid Pretreatment on the Bioconversion of Tomato Processing Waste to Fermentable Sugars and Biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Brittany J; Cádiz, Juan Canales; Karuna, Nardrapee; Jeoh, Tina; Simmons, Christopher W

    2016-08-01

    Tomato pomace is an abundant lignocellulosic waste stream from industrial tomato processing and therefore a potential feedstock for production of renewable biofuels. However, little research has been conducted to determine if pretreatment can enhance release of fermentable sugars from tomato pomace. Ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging pretreatment technology for lignocellulosic biomass to increase enzymatic digestibility and biofuel yield while utilizing recyclable chemicals with low toxicity. In this study, pretreatment of tomato pomace with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) was investigated. Changes in pomace enzymatic digestibility were affected by pretreatment time and temperature. Certain pretreatment conditions significantly improved reducing sugar yield and hydrolysis time compared to untreated pomace. Compositional analyses suggested that pretreatment primarily removed water-soluble compounds and enriched for lignocellulose in pomace, with only subtle changes to the composition of the lignocellulose. While tomato pomace was effectively pretreated with [C2mim][OAc] to improve enzymatic digestibility, as of yet, unknown factors in the pomace caused ionic liquid pretreatment to negatively affect anaerobic digestion of pretreated material. This result, which is unique compared to similar studies on IL pretreatment of grasses and woody biomass, highlights the need for additional research to determine how the unique chemical composition of tomato pomace and other lignocellulosic fruit residues may interact with ionic liquids to generate inhibitors for downstream fermentation to biofuels.

  17. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Waleed F., E-mail: Waleed246@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (Israel); Packianathan, Satyaseelan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Shourbaji, Rania A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS (United States); Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Khan, Majid A. [Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Baird, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Russell, George [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A {<=}3, B {<=}7, C {<=}14, D {<=}21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered {<=}3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p < 0.0001). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between all other factors and the risk of HO (race, gender, cause and type of fracture, surgical approach, or the use of indomethacin). Conclusions: Our data suggest that there is higher incidence and risk of HO if prophylactic RT is significantly delayed after a displaced acetabular fracture. Thus, RT should be administered as early as clinically possible after the trauma. Patients undergoing RT >3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

  18. Comparison between wet oxidation and steam explosion as pretreatment methods for enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, Carlos Martín; Marcet, M.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2008-01-01

    , and to a two-fold increase of cellulose content in the pretreated solids, while steam explosion solubilised only 60% of xylan and 35% of lignin and increased cellulose content in the solid material by one third. Wet oxidation formed more aliphatic acids and phenolics, and less furan aldehydes in the liquid...... significantly in steam explosion. This investigation demonstrates the potential of wet oxidation as a promising pretreatment method for enzyme-based bagasse-to-ethanol processes....

  19. Edge effect and significant increase of the superconducting transition onset temperature of 2D superconductors in flat and curved geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Chi Ho; Lortz, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The superconducting transition temperature T c in the case of a 2D rectangular sheet, a hollow cylinder and a hollow sphere of one coherence length thickness is compared. • Being extremely thin in a flat rectangular shape is not enough to significantly enhance the T c through phonon softening unless a curvature is added. • The edge effect of such a 2D sheet has a strong broadening effect on T c in addition to the effect of order parameter phase fluctuations. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a simple method to model the curvature activated phonon softening in a 2D superconducting layer. The superconducting transition temperature T c in the case of a 2D rectangular sheet, a hollow cylinder and a hollow sphere of one coherence length thickness is calculated by the quantum mechanical electron–phonon scattering matrix, and a series of collective lattice vibrations in the surface state. We will show that being extremely thin in a flat rectangular shape is not enough to significantly enhance the T c through phonon softening. However, if a curvature is added, T c can be strongly enhanced. The increase in T c with respect to the bulk is greatest in a hollow sphere, intermediate in a hollow cylinder and weakest for the rectangular sheet, when systems of identical length scale are considered. In addition, we find that the edge effect of such a 2D sheet has a strong broadening effect on T c in addition to the effect of order parameter phase fluctuations.

  20. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourad, Waleed F.; Packianathan, Satyaseelan; Shourbaji, Rania A.; Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew; Khan, Majid A.; Baird, Michael C.; Russell, George; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A ≤3, B ≤7, C ≤14, D ≤21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered ≤3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p 3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

  1. Significant increase of IGF-I concentration and of IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio in generation test predicts the good response to growth hormone (GH) therapy in children with short stature and normal results of GH stimulating tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyczynska, Joanna; Hilczer, Maciej; Stawerska, Renata; Lewinski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) generation test has been introduced for the assessment of growth hormone (GH) sensitivity, however, its significance in predicting growth response to GH therapy has also been brought up. The molar ratio of IGF-I to its binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) determines IGF-I bioavailability. Evaluation of usefulness of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 generation test in predicting the effectiveness of rhGH therapy in children with short stature. The analysis comprised 60 children with short stature, normal results of GH stimulating tests but decreased IGF-I secretion. In all the patients, GH insensitivity was excluded on the basis of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 generation test. Next, GH therapy was administered and height velocity (HV), together with IGF-I and IGFBP-3 secretion, was assessed every year, during 3 years. The comparative group consisted of 30 children with partial GH deficiency (pGHD). Both IGF-I secretion and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio increased significantly during generation test (pGH therapy (however insignificantly), together with at least doubling of pretreatment HV. There was no significant difference between the studied group of patients and children with pGHD. Significant increase of IGF-I in generation test speaks for GH therapy effectiveness in short children, despite normal results of GH stimulating tests.

  2. Pretreatment with polyamines alleviate the deleterious effects of diuron in maize leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmuş, Nuran; Bekircan, Tuba

    2015-03-01

    The effects of diuron, a photosystem II inhibiting herbicide, on lipid peroxidation, photosynthetic pigments, soluble protein, proline contents and some antioxidant enzymes in maize leaves were studied and protective effects of polyamines against diuron toxicity were investigated. Diuron significantly increased lipid peroxidation, suggesting oxidative damage in the plants and proline content, while it decreased total chlorophyll, carotenoid and soluble protein levels in the leaves during the experiments. Pretreatment with polyamines statistically decreased lipid peroxidation induced by diuron and spermine (SPM) proved to be the most effective polyamine. Also, pretreatment with polyamines significantly prevented the losses of total chlorophyll, carotenoid and soluble protein induced by diuron. On the other hand, pretreatment with polyamines significantly increased proline contents of the leaves in comparison with the leaves treated with diuron. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities increased in the leaves treated with diuron while catalase (CAT ) activity decreased. Pretreatment with spermidine (SPD) did not change significantly SOD activity at 24 and 72 hrs of diuron treatment but prevented the increase in SOD activity induced by diuron at 48 h. However, pretreatment with SPD increased GPX activity at 24 h and GR activity at 48 and 72 hrs. CAT activity in the leaves pretreated with SPD was similar to that of the leaves treated with diuron. Pretreatment with SPM prevented the increase in SOD activity induced by diuron at 48 h but significantly increased it at 72 h of diuron treatment. However, pretreatment with SPM did not significantly change GPX and GR activities during the experiments but reversed the decrease in CAT activity induced by diuron at 72 h. Pretreatment with putrescine (PUT) prevented the increase in SOD activity induced by diuron at 48 and 72 hrs while it increased GPX and GR activities at 48

  3. Clinical significance of increased serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in elderly subjects with osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Luo Nanping; Sun Xiaoming; Liu Hengguo; Li Jinhua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α and bone r-carboxyglutamic acid protein (BGP) in elderly subjects with osteoporosis. Methods: Serum IL-6, TNF-α and BGP levels were measured with RIA in 40 elderly patients with osteoporosis, 40 elderly subjects with decreased bone density but not to the degree of osteoporosis (i.e. decreased bone mass), 35 aged controls (above 60) and 35 younger controls (below 45). Results: By definition, the bone density in patients with osteoporosis was significantly lower than that in all other groups (P<0.05-0.01) and the bone density in subjects with decreased bone mass only was also significantly lower than that in younger controls (P<0.01). The serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with osteoporosis were significantly higher than those in all controls (P<0.05-0.01), especially in advanced eases, while the BGP levels were significantly lower. Conclusion: Serum IL-6, TNF-α and BGP levels could be used as indicators of the degree of osteoporosis. (authors)

  4. The impacts of deacetylation prior to dilute acid pretreatment on the bioethanol process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Shekiro, Joseph; Franden, Mary Ann; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Min; Kuhn, Erik; Johnson, David K; Tucker, Melvin P

    2012-02-27

    Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising pretreatment technology for the biochemical production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. During dilute acid pretreatment, xylan depolymerizes to form soluble xylose monomers and oligomers. Because the xylan found in nature is highly acetylated, the formation of xylose monomers requires two steps: 1) cleavage of the xylosidic bonds, and 2) cleavage of covalently bonded acetyl ester groups. In this study, we show that the latter may be the rate limiting step for xylose monomer formation. Furthermore, acetyl groups are also found to be a cause of biomass recalcitrance and hydrolyzate toxicity. While the removal of acetyl groups from native corn stover by alkaline de-esterification prior to pretreatment improves overall process yields, the exact impact is highly dependent on the corn stover variety in use. Xylose monomer yields in pretreatment generally increases by greater than 10%. Compared to pretreated corn stover controls, the deacetylated corn stover feedstock is approximately 20% more digestible after pretreatment. Finally, by lowering hydrolyzate toxicity, xylose utilization and ethanol yields are further improved during fermentation by roughly 10% and 7%, respectively. In this study, several varieties of corn stover lots were investigated to test the robustness of the deacetylation-pretreatment-saccharification-fermentation process. Deacetylation shows significant improvement on glucose and xylose yields during pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, but it also reduces hydrolyzate toxicity during fermentation, thereby improving ethanol yields and titer. The magnitude of effect is dependent on the selected corn stover variety, with several varieties achieving improvements of greater than 10% xylose yield in pretreatment, 20% glucose yield in low solids enzymatic hydrolysis and 7% overall ethanol yield.

  5. The impacts of deacetylation prior to dilute acid pretreatment on the bioethanol process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaowen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising pretreatment technology for the biochemical production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. During dilute acid pretreatment, xylan depolymerizes to form soluble xylose monomers and oligomers. Because the xylan found in nature is highly acetylated, the formation of xylose monomers requires two steps: 1 cleavage of the xylosidic bonds, and 2 cleavage of covalently bonded acetyl ester groups. Results In this study, we show that the latter may be the rate limiting step for xylose monomer formation. Furthermore, acetyl groups are also found to be a cause of biomass recalcitrance and hydrolyzate toxicity. While the removal of acetyl groups from native corn stover by alkaline de-esterification prior to pretreatment improves overall process yields, the exact impact is highly dependent on the corn stover variety in use. Xylose monomer yields in pretreatment generally increases by greater than 10%. Compared to pretreated corn stover controls, the deacetylated corn stover feedstock is approximately 20% more digestible after pretreatment. Finally, by lowering hydrolyzate toxicity, xylose utilization and ethanol yields are further improved during fermentation by roughly 10% and 7%, respectively. In this study, several varieties of corn stover lots were investigated to test the robustness of the deacetylation-pretreatment-saccharification-fermentation process. Conclusions Deacetylation shows significant improvement on glucose and xylose yields during pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, but it also reduces hydrolyzate toxicity during fermentation, thereby improving ethanol yields and titer. The magnitude of effect is dependent on the selected corn stover variety, with several varieties achieving improvements of greater than 10% xylose yield in pretreatment, 20% glucose yield in low solids enzymatic hydrolysis and 7% overall ethanol yield.

  6. Influence of hydrophilic pre-treatment on resin bonding to zirconia ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noro, Akio; Kameyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Akiko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric plasma or ultraviolet (UV) treatment alters the surface characteristics of tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (TZP), increasing its hydrophilicity by reducing the contact angle against water to zero. This suggests that such treatment would increase the wettability of bonding resin. The purpose of this study was to determine how increasing the hydrophilicity of TZP through plasma irradiation, UV treatment, or application of ceramic primer affected initial bonding with resin composites. Here, the effect of each pre-treatment on the hydrophilicity of TZP surfaces was determined by evaluating change in shear bond strength. Plasma irradiation, UV, or ceramic primer pre-treatment showed no significant effect on bonding strength between TZP surfaces and resin composites. In addition, alumina blasting yielded no significant increase in bond strength. Plasma irradiation, UV treatment, or ceramic primer pre-treatment did not lead to significant increase in bond strength between TZP and resin composites.

  7. Increasing significance of advanced physical/chemical processes in the development and application of sustainable wastewater treatment systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    The awareness of the problem of the scarcity of water of high quality has strongly changed the approach of wastewater treatment. Currently, there is an increasing need for the beneficial reuse of treated wastewater and to recover valuable products and energy from the wastewater. Because

  8. Enzymatic digestion of alkaline-sulfite pretreated sugar cane bagasse and its correlation with the chemical and structural changes occurring during the pretreatment step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fernanda M; Laurito, Debora F; Bazzeggio, Mariana; Ferraz, André; Milagres, Adriane M F

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse is recalcitrant to enzymatic digestion, which hinders the efficient conversion of its polysaccharides into fermentable sugars. Alkaline-sulfite pretreatment was used to overcome the sugar cane bagasse recalcitrance. Chemical and structural changes that occurred during the pretreatment were correlated with the efficiency of the enzymatic digestion of the polysaccharides. The first 30 min of pretreatment, which removed approximately half of the initial lignin and 30% of hemicellulose seemed responsible for a significant enhancement of the cellulose conversion level, which reached 64%. After the first 30 min of pretreatment, delignification increased slightly, and hemicellulose removal was not enhanced; however, acid groups continued to be introduced into the residual lignin. Water retention values were 145% to the untreated bagasse and 210% to the bagasse pretreated for 120 min and fiber widths increased from 10.4 to 30 μm, respectively. These changes were responsible for an additional increase in the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose, which reached 92% with the 120 min pretreated sample. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  9. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  10. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    1995-01-01

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  11. Determination of relative CMRO2 from CBF and BOLD changes: significant increase of oxygen consumption rate during visual stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can...... be estimated during neural activity using a reference condition obtained with known CMRO2 change. In this work, nine subjects were studied at a magnetic field of 1.5 T; each subject underwent inhalation of a 5% carbon dioxide gas mixture as a reference and two visual stimulation studies. Relative CBF and BOLD...... signal changes were measured simultaneously using the flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) technique. During hypercapnia established by an end-tidal CO2 increase of 1.46 kPa, CBF in the visual cortex increased by 47.3 +/- 17.3% (mean +/- SD; n = 9), and deltaR2* was -0.478 +/- 0.147 sec...

  12. Increased Risk of Clinically Significant Gallstones following an Appendectomy: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Dong Chung

    Full Text Available Although the vermiform appendix is commonly considered a vestigial organ, adverse health consequences after an appendectomy have garnered increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the risks of gallstone occurrence during a 5-year follow-up period after an appendectomy, using a population-based dataset. We used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. The exposed cohort included 4916 patients who underwent an appendectomy. The unexposed cohort was retrieved by randomly selecting 4916 patients matched with the exposed cohort in terms of sex, age, and year. We individually tracked each patient for a 5-year period to identify those who received a diagnosis of gallstones during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for the analysis. During the 5-year follow-up period, the incidence rate per 1000 person-years was 4.71 for patients who had undergone an appendectomy, compared to a rate of 2.59 for patients in the unexposed cohort (p<0.001. Patients who had undergone an appendectomy were independently associated with a 1.79 (95% CI = 1.29~2.48-fold increased risk of being diagnosed with gallstones during the 5-year follow-up period. We found that among female patients, the adjusted hazard ratio of gallstones was 2.25 (95% CI = 1.41~3.59 for patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. However, for male patients, we failed to observe an increased hazard for gallstones among patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. We found an increased risk of a subsequent gallstone diagnosis within 5 years after an appendectomy.

  13. Dissolution of cellulose from AFEX-pretreated Zoysia japonica in AMIMCl with ultrasonic vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Le; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Hou, Qidong

    2013-10-15

    In this study, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl), an ionic liquid, was synthesized and characterized by a series of test methods. Pretreatment of Zoysia japonica by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) was shown to reduce significantly the mass of hemicellulose and lignin in biomass, thereby breaking the lignocellulosic structure. Z. japonica samples pretreated with AFEX showed reasonable solubility in AMIMCl upon ultrasonic treatment. The rate of cellulose regeneration from Z. japonica samples pretreated with AFEX increased with increase in applied power of ultrasonication within a certain power range from 0 to 110 W. The regeneration rate of cellulose from AFEX-pretreated Z. japonica reached a maximum of 97% when the ultrasonic power was 110 W. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses indicated that the regenerated cellulose was similar to microcrystalline cellulose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Significant, but limited collateral blood flow increases occur with prolonged training in rats with femoral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, B M; Ren, J; Terjung, R L; Yang, H T

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the capacity of collateral dependent blood flow induced by a prolonged treadmill training program, as compared to a low collateral resistance model created by femoral artery to vein (A-V) shunt. Sprague-Dawley rats, with bilateral femoral artery occlusion were confined to cage activity (Sed, n=9) or trained by daily treadmill exercise (Tr, n=15; up to ≈350 min/d) for 15 weeks. Another set of animals received a femoral A-V anastomosis in one limb and treated with (n=4) or without VEGF(165) (n=9) infusion for 2 weeks. The contralateral side was used as control. Blood flow (BF) was measured with isotope labeled microspheres. Maximal calf muscle BF increased by 15 week training (up to 100±5.0 ml x min(-1) x 100g(-1) (ptraining programs used previously. In contrast, femoral A-V shunt with VEGF(165) increased calf muscle conductance to 1.70±0.3 ml x min(-1) x 100 g(-1) x mmHg(-1) that is similar to blood flows observed in non-occluded rats during maximal running. Our data indicate that the collateral circuit development is related to the driving stimulus and that exercise training, does not provide a maximal stimulus for adaptation that is possible. Nonetheless, exercise training results in profound increases in exercise capacity associated with this enhanced collateral blood flow. Our results illustrate that vascular adaptations can be much greater when physiologically induced stimuli are enhanced at the time of therapeutic angiogenesis.

  15. Love is the triumph of the imagination: Daydreams about significant others are associated with increased happiness, love and connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerio, Giulia L; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor

    2015-05-01

    Social relationships and interactions contribute to daily emotional well-being. The emotional benefits that come from engaging with others are known to arise from real events, but do they also come from the imagination during daydreaming activity? Using experience sampling methodology with 101 participants, we obtained 371 reports of naturally occurring daydreams with social and non-social content and self-reported feelings before and after daydreaming. Social, but not non-social, daydreams were associated with increased happiness, love and connection and this effect was not solely attributable to the emotional content of the daydreams. These effects were only present when participants were lacking in these feelings before daydreaming and when the daydream involved imagining others with whom the daydreamer had a high quality relationship. Findings are consistent with the idea that social daydreams may function to regulate emotion: imagining close others may serve the current emotional needs of daydreamers by increasing positive feelings towards themselves and others. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Electronic prompts significantly increase response rates to postal questionnaires: a randomized trial within a randomized trial and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Laura; Ronaldson, Sarah; Dyson, Lisa; Hewitt, Catherine; Torgerson, David; Adamson, Joy

    2015-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of sending electronic prompts to randomized controlled trial participants to return study questionnaires. A "trial within a trial" embedded within a study determining the effectiveness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) screening on smoking cessation. Those participants taking part in DOC who provided a mobile phone number and/or an electronic mail address were randomized to either receive an electronic prompt or no electronic prompt to return a study questionnaire. The results were combined with two previous studies in a meta-analysis. A total of 437 participants were randomized: 226 to the electronic prompt group and 211 to the control group. A total of 285 (65.2%) participants returned the follow-up questionnaire: 157 (69.5%) in the electronic prompt group and 128 (60.7%) in the control group [difference 8.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.11%, 17.7%; P = 0.05]. The mean time to response was 23 days in the electronic prompt group and 33 days in the control group (hazard ratio = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.105, 1.47). The meta-analysis of all three studies showed an increase in response rate of 7.1% (95% CI: 0.8%, 13.3%). The use of electronic prompts increased response rates and reduces the time to response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Significantly Increased Odds of Reporting Previous Shoulder Injuries in Female Marines Based on Larger Magnitude Shoulder Rotator Bilateral Strength Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Shawn R; Connaboy, Chris; Nindl, Bradley C; Allison, Katelyn F

    2018-02-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries to the extremities are a primary concern for the United States (US) military. One possible injury risk factor in this population is side-to-side strength imbalance. To examine the odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury in US Marine Corps Ground Combat Element Integrated Task Force volunteers based on side-to-side strength differences in isokinetic shoulder strength. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Male (n = 219) and female (n = 91) Marines were included in this analysis. Peak torque values from 5 shoulder internal/external rotation repetitions were averaged and normalized to body weight. The difference in side-to-side strength measurements was calculated as the absolute value of the limb difference divided by the mean peak torque of the dominant limb. Participants were placed into groups based on the magnitude of these differences: 20%. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated. When separated by sex, 13.2% of men reported an injury, while 5.5% of women reported an injury. Female Marines with >20% internal rotation side-to-side strength differences demonstrated increased odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with female Marines with reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with those with lesser magnitude differences. Additionally, female sex appears to drastically affect the increased odds of reporting shoulder injuries (OR, 13.9-15.4) with larger magnitude differences (ie, >20%) compared with those with lesser magnitude differences (ie, <10% and 10%-20%). The retrospective cohort design of this study cannot delineate cause and effect but establishes a relationship between female Marines and greater odds of larger magnitude strength differences after returning from an injury.

  18. Irrigation Is Significantly Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Produce Production Environments in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2015-06-01

    Environmental (i.e., meteorological and landscape) factors and management practices can affect the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in produce production environments. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes), Salmonella, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in produce production environments and to identify environmental factors and management practices associated with their isolation. Ten produce farms in New York State were sampled during a 6-week period in 2010, and 124 georeferenced samples (80 terrestrial, 33 water, and 11 fecal) were collected. L. monocytogenes, Listeria spp., Salmonella, and STEC were detected in 16, 44, 4, and 5% of terrestrial samples, 30, 58, 12, and 3% of water samples, and 45, 45, 27, and 9% of fecal samples, respectively. Environmental factors and management practices were evaluated for their association with terrestrial samples positive for L. monocytogenes or other Listeria species by univariate logistic regression; analysis was not conducted for Salmonella or STEC because the number of samples positive for these pathogens was low. Although univariate analysis identified associations between isolation of L. monocytogenes or Listeria spp. from terrestrial samples and various water-related factors (e.g., proximity to wetlands and precipitation), multivariate analysis revealed that only irrigation within 3 days of sample collection was significantly associated with isolation of L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 39) and Listeria spp. (odds ratio = 5) from terrestrial samples. These findings suggest that intervention at the irrigation level may reduce the risk of produce contamination.

  19. Surface pretreatments for medical application of adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Michael

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medical implants and prostheses (artificial hips, tendono- and ligament plasties usually are multi-component systems that may be machined from one of three material classes: metals, plastics and ceramics. Typically, the body-sided bonding element is bone. The purpose of this contribution is to describe developments carried out to optimize the techniques , connecting prosthesis to bone, to be joined by an adhesive bone cement at their interface. Although bonding of organic polymers to inorganic or organic surfaces and to bone has a long history, there remains a serious obstacle in realizing long-term high-bonding strengths in the in vivo body environment of ever present high humidity. Therefore, different pretreatments, individually adapted to the actual combination of materials, are needed to assure long term adhesive strength and stability against hydrolysis. This pretreatment for metal alloys may be silica layering; for PE-plastics, a specific plasma activation; and for bone, amphiphilic layering systems such that the hydrophilic properties of bone become better adapted to the hydrophobic properties of the bone cement. Amphiphilic layering systems are related to those developed in dentistry for dentine bonding. Specific pretreatment can significantly increase bond strengths, particularly after long term immersion in water under conditions similar to those in the human body. The bond strength between bone and plastic for example can be increased by a factor approaching 50 (pealing work increasing from 30 N/m to 1500 N/m. This review article summarizes the multi-disciplined subject of adhesion and adhesives, considering the technology involved in the formation and mechanical performance of adhesives joints inside the human body.

  20. Depressive episodes of bipolar disorder in early teenage years: changes with increasing age and the significance of IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratsuchi, T; Takahashi, N; Suzuki, T; Abe, K

    2000-05-01

    Depressive (or depression-like) episodes are the most common manifestations of bipolar affective disorder in early teenage years. The present paper analyses the clinical features and their changes over time in these episodes. By a prospective study on children who had their first affective or psychotic episodes between the ages of ten and fifteen, those who eventually met the ICD 10 diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder were selected and followed up. There were three boys and nine girls. Their early depressive episodes were characterised by psychotic features and clinging to the mother in most cases, and in some by brief episodes and/or a good response to sulpiride. However, these characteristics tended to disappear with increasing age. Five children (42%) had an IQ of 61-75. Generalisability of the results is limited because of the small number of patients and the lack of control groups. Bipolar disorder in early teenage years may show clinical features and a drug response that are different from those in adulthood. Low IQ may expedite the onset of bipolar disorder.

  1. Plant Explants Grown on Medium Supplemented with Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Have a Significant Increase in Embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inese Kokina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of nanotechnology leads to the increasing release of nanoparticles in the environment that results in accumulation of different NPs in living organisms including plants. This can lead to serious changes in plant cultures which leads to genotoxicity. The aims of the present study were to detect if iron oxide NPs pass through the flax cell wall, to compare callus morphology, and to estimate the genotoxicity in Linum usitatissimum L. callus cultures induced by different concentrations of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Two parallel experiments were performed: experiment A, where flax explants were grown on medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l, 1 mg/l, and 1.5 mg/l Fe3O4 NPs for callus culture obtaining, and experiment B, where calluses obtained from basal MS medium were transported into medium supplemented with concentrations of NPs identical to experiment A. Obtained results demonstrate similarly in both experiments that 25 nm Fe3O4 NPs pass into callus cells and induce low toxicity level in the callus cultures. Nevertheless, calluses from experiment A showed 100% embryogenesis in comparison with experiment B where 100% rhizogenesis was noticed. It could be associated with different stress levels and adaptation time for explants and calluses that were transported into medium with Fe3O4 NPs supplementation.

  2. C-terminal provasopressin (copeptin) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia--influence of antibiotic pre-treatment: results from the German competence network CAPNETZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Stefan; Ewig, Santiago; Kunde, Jan; Hanschmann, Alexa; Marre, Reinhard; Suttorp, Norbert; Welte, Tobias

    2009-07-01

    Recently, C-terminal provasopressin (copeptin) turned out to be predictive for mortality in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of antibiotic pre-treatment on copeptin levels in CAP. We enrolled 370 hospitalized patients (66 +/- 17 years; 42% females) with proven CAP. Venous blood samples were collected at the time of inclusion into the study and as soon as possible after the diagnosis of CAP. Copeptin (B.R.A.H.M.S. AG, Henningsdorf, Germany) levels were determined in venous blood on admission. Eighty-five patients had antibiotic pre-treatment and 285 patients did not. Copeptin levels increased with increasing severity of CAP in patients without antibiotic pre-treatment but not in patients with antibiotic pre-treatment. Patients with prior antibiotic treatment showed significantly lower levels of copeptin [median (interquartile range): 12.8 (5.3-22.6) versus 20.8 (11.1-37.8) pmol/L, P antibiotic pre-treatment. Copeptin serum levels are higher in patients without antibiotic pre-treatment compared with those with antibiotic pre-treatment. Copeptin serum levels increase with an increasing severity of CAP in patients without, but not in patients with, antibiotic pre-treatment. Thus, antibiotic pre-treatment has to be taken into account for the correct interpretation of copeptin levels in CAP.

  3. Effect of microwave pretreatment on pyrolysis of crude glycerol–olive kernel alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesapillai, M.; Manara, P.; Zabaniotou, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave activation investigated as pretreatment of glycerol–biomass mixtures. • Microwave irradiation was performed for a 25 wt% crude glycerol–olive kernel fuel. • Pyrolysis of microwave-activated fuel showed increased liquids at 500 °C. • Pyrolysis at 720 °C gave a high yield of syngas (84.9 wt%). • Microwave activation had no significant effect on char yields and characteristics. - Abstract: Pyrolysis is considered to be a sustainable energy technology and is practiced widely in waste management. In this study, three issues were explored: (a) the implication of crude glycerol addition to lignocellulosic biomass in pyrolysis, (b) the effect of microwave pretreatment on the pyrolysis product yields and (c) study of pyrolysis parameters and assessment of products quality. Characterization of the above glycerol–biomass mixtures along with pyrolysis products was performed by ICP–OES, SEM, EDX and GC techniques. It was resulted that higher liquid yield (max 59.53% v/v) obtained by pyrolysis of pretreated mixtures at 500 °C, compared to pyrolysis yields of non-pretreated mixtures, due to the prevalence of recombination reactions in pyrolysis of the microwave-pretreated mixtures. The gas produced from the microwave pretreated feedstock-based pyrolysis showed an enriched syngas (H 2 + CO) concentration (84.9% v/v), compared to the non-microwave pretreated samples (79.1% v/v), at 720 °C. No significant effect, either on the char yields or on the char structural characteristics were observed. Consequently, microwave pretreatment before pyrolysis, can serve as a potential pretreatment for enhanced production of fuels via post-pyrolysis.

  4. High Dose Atorvastatin Associated with Increased Risk of Significant Hepatotoxicity in Comparison to Simvastatin in UK GPRD Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan T Clarke

    Full Text Available Occasional risk of serious liver dysfunction and autoimmune hepatitis during atorvastatin therapy has been reported. We compared the risk of hepatotoxicity in atorvastatin relative to simvastatin treatment.The UK GPRD identified patients with a first prescription for simvastatin [164,407] or atorvastatin [76,411] between 1997 and 2006, but with no prior record of liver disease, alcohol-related diagnosis, or liver dysfunction. Incident liver dysfunction in the following six months was identified by biochemical value and compared between statin groups by Cox regression model adjusting for age, sex, year treatment started, dose, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index and comorbid conditions.Moderate to severe hepatotoxicity [bilirubin >60μmol/L, AST or ALT >200U/L or alkaline phosphatase >1200U/L] developed in 71 patients on atorvastatin versus 101 on simvastatin. Adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] for all atorvastatin relative to simvastatin was 1.9 [95% confidence interval 1.4-2.6]. High dose was classified as 40-80mg daily and low dose 10-20mg daily. Hepatotoxicity occurred in 0.44% of 4075 patients on high dose atorvastatin [HDA], 0.07% of 72,336 on low dose atorvastatin [LDA], 0.09% of 44,675 on high dose simvastatin [HDS] and 0.05% of 119,732 on low dose simvastatin [LDS]. AHRs compared to LDS were 7.3 [4.2-12.7] for HDA, 1.4 [0.9-2.0] for LDA and 1.5 [1.0-2.2] for HDS.The risk of hepatotoxicity was increased in the first six months of atorvastatin compared to simvastatin treatment, with the greatest difference between high dose atorvastatin and low dose simvastatin. The numbers of events in the analyses were small.

  5. The significance of increased FDG accumulation in the anterior mediastinum following chemotherapy. A follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu, Y.; Sun, X.G.; Yu, J.Q.; El-Haddad, G.; Kumar, R.; Alavi, A.; Chen, S.L.; Zhuang, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    It has been reported that increased FDG uptake in the anterior mediastinum following chemotherapy could represent thymic uptake and probably not malignancy. However, long-term follow-up of these 'thymic uptake' has not been reported. The purpose of this retrospective investigation was to assess whether the FDG accumulation in the anterior mediastinum following chemotherapy is indeed a benign finding. Method: The records of 83 patients who following chemotherapy revealed FDG uptake in the anterior mediastinum on PET scan were retrospectively analyzed. Forty-one of these 83 patients had follow-up imaging study and were included in the final analysis. A repeat FDG-PET was performed in 23 patients and follow-up chest CT was performed in 25 patients (7 patients had both follow-up PET and CT). The average follow-up period was 9.3 month. Results: For 40 of the 41 patients no malignancy was noted in the mediastinum during the follow-up period. In 23 patients with follow-up PET scans, FDG uptake in the thymic region remained unchanged in 4 patients, decreased in intensity or returned to completely normal in 18 patients. One patient had more intense FDG activity in the thymic region in the follow-up PET study. However, in this patient, 4 subsequent follow-up CTs up to 634 days post PET scan demonstrated no mediastinal pathology. None of the follow-up CT demonstrated any mediastinal pathology except for one patient with primary thymic carcinoma. Conclusion: Diffuse anterior mediastinal FDG uptake in post-chemotherapy states does not represent a pathological process and is possibly related to an inflammatory reaction to the immunological effects of chemotherapy. (authors)

  6. Optimization of twin gear-based pretreatment of rice straw for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Muhammad Ajaz; Rehman, Muhammd Saif Ur; Terán-Hilares, Ruly; Khalid, Saira; Han, Jong-In

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Twin gear reactor is a continuous high solids pretreatment reactor. • RSM was applied to optimize twin gear pretreatment for enzymatic digestibility. • 89% enzymatic digestibility was achieved under optimum conditions. • Thermomechanical pretreatment altered the structural features of rice straw. - Abstract: A laboratory twin-gear reactor (TGR) was investigated as a new means for the pretreatment of high solid lignocelluloses. Response surface methodology based on Box Behnken Design was used to optimize the enzymatic digestibility with respect to the pretreatment process variables: temperature of 50–90 °C, NaOH concentration of 2–6% and no. of cycles of 30–60. The results revealed that the TGR-based pretreatment led to the significant structural alterations through increases in pore size, pore volume, cellulose crystallinity and surface area. SEM images also confirmed the surface modifications in the pretreated rice straw. A response surface quadratic model predicted 90% of the enzymatic digestibility, and it was confirmed experimentally and through the analysis of variance (ANOVA) as well. The TGR extrusion proved to be an effective means for exceedingly high solids lignocellulose.

  7. Elucidating the role of ferrous ion cocatalyst in enhancing dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hui

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigation of the mechanisms that result in this enhancement. Results During dilute acid and ferrous ion cocatalyst pretreatments, we observed concomitant increases in solubilized sugars in the hydrolysate and reducing sugars in the (insoluble biomass residues. We also observed enhancements in sugar release during subsequent enzymatic saccharification of iron cocatalyst-pretreated biomass. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy showed that major peaks representing the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose are significantly attenuated by iron cocatalyst pretreatment. Imaging using Prussian blue staining indicated that Fe2+ ions associate with both cellulose/xylan and lignin in untreated as well as dilute acid/Fe2+ ion-pretreated corn stover samples. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural details of biomass after dilute acid/Fe2+ ion pretreatment, in which delamination and fibrillation of the cell wall were observed. Conclusions By using this multimodal approach, we have revealed that (1 acid-ferrous ion-assisted pretreatment increases solubilization and enzymatic digestion of both cellulose and xylan to monomers and (2 this pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose.

  8. Low temperature lignocellulose pretreatment: effects and interactions of pretreatment pH are critical for maximizing enzymatic monosaccharide yields from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Johansen, Katja S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The recent development of improved enzymes and pentose-using yeast for cellulosic ethanol processes calls for new attention to the lignocellulose pretreatment step. This study assessed the influence of pretreatment pH, temperature, and time, and their interactions on the enzymatic...... alkaline pretreatments. Alkaline pretreatments also solubilized most of the lignin. Conclusions: Pretreatment pH exerted significant effects and factor interactions on the enzymatic glucose and xylose releases. Quite extreme pH values were necessary with mild thermal pretreatment strategies (T...... glucose and xylose yields from mildly pretreated wheat straw in multivariate experimental designs of acid and alkaline pretreatments. Results: The pretreatment pH was the most significant factor affecting both the enzymatic glucose and xylose yields after mild thermal pretreatments at maximum 140 degrees...

  9. Endophytic Fungi as Pretreatment to Enhance Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Olive Tree Pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Martín-Sampedro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive tree pruning, as one of the most abundant lignocellulosic residues in Mediterranean countries, has been evaluated as a source of sugars for fuel and chemicals production. A mild acid pretreatment has been combined with a fungal pretreatment using either two endophytes (Ulocladium sp. and Hormonema sp. or a saprophyte (Trametes sp. I-62. The use of endophytes is based on the important role that some of them play during the initial stages of wood decomposition. Without acid treatment, fungal pretreatment with Ulocladium sp. provided a nonsignificant enhancement of 4.6% in glucose digestibility, compared to control. When a mild acid hydrolysis was carried out after fungal pretreatments, significant increases in glucose digestibility from 4.9% to 12.0% (compared to control without fungi were observed for all fungal pretreatments, with maximum values yielded by Hormonema sp. However, despite the observed digestibility boost, the total sugar yields (taking into account solid yield were not significantly increased by the pretreatments. Nevertheless, based on these preliminary improvements in digestibility, this work proves the potential of endophytic fungi to boost the production of sugar from olive tree pruning, which would add an extra value to the bioeconomy of olive crops.

  10. Increasing estradiol benzoate, pretreatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and impediments for successful estradiol-based fixed-time artificial insemination protocols in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, P L J; Borsato, M; Silva, F L M; Prata, A B; Wiltbank, M C; Sartori, R

    2015-06-01

    With the objective to optimize fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols based on estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P4), we performed 2 experiments (Exp.) in dairy cows. In Exp. 1 (n=44), we hypothesized that increased EB (EB3=3 mg vs. EB2=2 mg) on d 0 would improve synchronization of ovarian follicle wave emergence. Likewise, in Exp. 2 (n=82), we hypothesized that a GnRH treatment on d -3 (early in a follicular wave on d 0) versus d -7 (presence of a dominant follicle on d 0) would better synchronize wave emergence. Moreover, results from both experiments were combined to identify reasons for the lack of synchronization. All cows were treated with EB at the time of introduction of a P4 implant (d 0). On d 7, cows were given 25 mg of prostaglandin F2α; on d 8, the implant was removed and cows were given 1mg of estradiol cypionate. All cows received FTAI on d 10. In both experiments, daily ultrasound evaluations were performed and, in Exp. 2, circulating P4 was evaluated during the protocol. Pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) was determined on d 31 and 59 after FTAI. In Exp. 1, EB dose did not change time to wave emergence, but EB3 compared with EB2 decreased the percentage of cows with a corpus luteum on d 7 (19.8 vs. 55.3%) and time to ovulation (10.4 vs. 10.9 d). In Exp. 2, although we detected a tendency for delayed follicle wave emergence after the start of the FTAI protocol in cows ovulating to GnRH given on d -7, there was no difference in percentage of cows with a synchronized wave emergence (~80%). Regardless of treatment, more cows with P4<0.1 ng/mL, compared with P4≥0.1 and <0.22 ng/mL at the time of AI, ovulated to the protocol (81.2 vs. 58.0%) and had increased P/AI (47.4 vs. 21.4%). An analysis of data from both experiments showed that only 73.8% (93/126) of cows had synchronized wave emergence, and only 77.8% (98/126) of cows ovulated at the end of the protocol. Fertility was much greater in cows that had emergence of a

  11. Clinical significance of VEGFR-2 and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT SUVmax pretreatment score in predicting the long-term outcome of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, Claudio V. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, Felipe A. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Alvarez, Emilio; Peligros, Isabel [School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Pathology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Alfonso, Pilar [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Medical Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Ferrer, Carlos; Ochoa, Enrique [Hospital Provincial de Castellon, Institute of Oncology, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Herranz, Rafael [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Radiation Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Carreras, Jose L. [School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Radiology and Medical Physics, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), epidermal growth factor receptor-1 (EGFR), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) stimulate key processes involved in tumor progression and are important targets for cancer drugs. {sup 18}F-FDG maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) is a marker of tumor metabolic activity. The purpose of this study was to measure SUVmax combined with VEGFR-2, EGFR and COX-2 proteins in pretreatment tumor biopsies from patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving intensive neoadjuvant treatment and to correlate the findings with clinical outcome. VEGFR-2, EGFR and COX-2 were measured using the immunoreactive score (IRS). SUVmax (median 8.4) was quantified in tumors with molecular overexpression (IRS {>=}3 + SUVmax {>=} 8.4 indicating active tumors; SUVmax <8.4 indicating inactive tumors). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to explore associations between tumor markers, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The study group comprised 38 patients with a median follow-up of 69.3 months (range 4.5 - 92 months). Multivariate analysis showed that active tumors (overexpressing VEGFR-2, high SUVmax) were associated with worse DFS (HR 4.73, 95 % CI 1.18 - 22.17; p = 0.04) and OS (HR 4.28, 95 % CI 1.04 - 20.12; p = 0.05). Active tumors overexpressing VEGFR-2 are associated with a worse overall outcome in patients with rectal cancer treated with induction chemotherapy followed by pelvic chemoradiation and surgery. The optimal diagnostic cut-off level for this novel biomarker association should be investigated. Evaluation in a clinical trial is required to determine whether selected patients could benefit from a VEGFR-targeting drug. (orig.)

  12. Changes in Lignin Chemistry of Switchgrass due to Delignification by Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woochul Jung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass was pretreated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH at various concentrations and pretreatment times to investigate how delignification caused by NaOH affects its lignin chemistry. NaOH resulted in significant delignification ranging from 44.0 to 84.6% depending on pretreatment intensity. While there was no significant glucan loss due to NaOH pretreatment, higher NaOH concentrations removed xylan by up to 28.3%. Nitrobenzene oxidation (NBO was used to study changes in lignin chemistry, and indicated that at higher NaOH concentrations, the amount of 4-hydroxygenzaldehyde (Hy degraded from p-hydroxyphenyl propanol (H lignin units was significantly reduced (p < 0.05. However, amounts of syringic (SA and vanillic (VA acids generated from syringyl (S and guaiacyl (G degradation were greater at higher NaOH concentration. S/G ratio (=0.62 raw switchgrass did not significantly (p > 0.05 change with 15 min pretreatment, but it increased to 0.75 and 0.72, respectively, with 30 and 60 min pretreatments (p < 0.05. Increase in NaOH concentration did not significantly (p > 0.05 change S/G ratio, but H/G ratio (=0.48 raw switchgrass decreased significantly to 0.14 regardless of pretreatment times. Overall, the H unit was found to be more susceptible to NaOH than S and G unit monolignols. Though changes in lignin chemistry due to NaOH concentration were observed, their impact on cellulolytic enzyme action during hydrolysis could not be fully understood. Further studies on lignin isolation may help to determine how these changes in lignin chemistry by NaOH impact cellulolytic enzymes.

  13. Pretreatment with Cry1Ac Protoxin Modulates the Immune Response, and Increases the Survival of Plasmodium-Infected CBA/Ca Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Legorreta-Herrera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a major global health problem that kills 1-2 million people each year. Despite exhaustive research, naturally acquired immunity is poorly understood. Cry1A proteins are potent immunogens with adjuvant properties and are able to induce strong cellular and humoral responses. In fact, it has been shown that administration of Cry1Ac protoxin alone or with amoebic lysates induces protection against the lethal infection caused by the protozoa Naegleria fowleri. In this work, we studied whether Cry1Ac is able to activate the innate immune response to induce protection against Plasmodium berghei ANKA (lethal and P. chabaudi AS (nonlethal parasites in CBA/Ca mice. Treatment with Cry1Ac induced protection against both Plasmodium species in terms of reduced parasitaemia, longer survival time, modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and increased levels of specific antibodies against Plasmodium. Understanding how to boost innate immunity to Plasmodium infection should lead to immunologically based intervention strategies.

  14. The Impact of Post-Pretreatment Conditioning on Enzyme Accessibility and Water Interactions in Alkali Pretreated Rice Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuna, Nardrapee

    Rice straw, a high-abundance lignocellulosic residue from rice production has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biofuel production in California. In this study, the impact of post-alkali pretreatment conditioning schemes on enzyme saccharification efficiency was examined, particularly focusing on understanding resulting biomass compositional impacts on water interactions with the biomass and enzyme accessibility to the cellulose fraction. Rice straw was pretreated with sodium hydroxide and subsequently washed by two different conditions: 1) by extensive washing with distilled water to reduce the pH to the optimum for cellulases which is pH 5--6, and 2) immediate pH adjustment to pH 5--6 with hydrochloric acid before extensive washing with distilled water. The two post-pretreatment conditions gave significant differences in ash, acid-insoluble lignin, glucan and xylan compositions. Alkali pretreatment improved cellulase digestibility of rice straw, and water washing improved enzymatic digestibility more than neutralization. Hydrolysis reactions with a purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A, a reducing-end specific cellulase, demonstrated that the differences in saccharification are likely due to differences in the accessibility of the cellulose fraction to the cellulolytic enzymes. Further analyses were conducted to study the mobility of the water associated with the rice straw samples by measuring T2 relaxation times of the water protons by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxometry. Results showed significant changes in water association with the rice straw due to the pretreatment and due to the two different post-pretreatment conditions. Pretreatment increased the amount of water at the surface of the rice straw samples as indicated by increased amplitude of the shortest T2 time peaks in the relaxation spectra. Moreover, the amount of water in the first T2 pool in the water washed sample was significantly greater than in the neutralized sample. These

  15. Techniques and practices for pretreatment of low and intermediate level solid and liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    An overall waste management strategy generally includes several components: pretreatment, treatment, conditioning, transport and disposal. Benefits of pretreatment are improved safety, lower radiation exposures and significantly lower costs in subsequent waste management operations. This publication reviews current practices in the pretreatment of wastes in different countries and may assist the specialist in selection of appropriate pretreatment techniques

  16. Topical methotrexate pretreatment enhances the therapeutic effect of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy on hamster buccal pouch precancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-Fu Yang

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that topical MTX-pretreatment can increase intracellular PpIX production in hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions and significantly improves the outcomes of the precancerous lesions treated with topical ALA-PDT.

  17. Combination of ensiling and fungal delignification as effective wheat straw pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Sune T; Londoño, Jorge E G; Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Heiske, Stefan; Kádár, Zsofia; Meyer, Anne S

    2016-01-01

    Utilization of lignocellulosic feedstocks for bioenergy production in developing countries demands competitive but low-tech conversion routes. White-rot fungi (WRF) inoculation and ensiling are two methods previously investigated for low-tech pretreatment of biomasses such as wheat straw (WS). This study was undertaken to assess whether a combination of forced ensiling with Lactobacillus buchneri and WRF treatment using a low cellulase fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, could produce a relevant pretreatment effect on WS for bioethanol and biogas production. A combination of the ensiling and WRF treatment induced efficient pretreatment of WS by reducing lignin content and increasing enzymatic sugar release, thereby enabling an ethanol yield of 66 % of the theoretical max on the WS glucan, i.e. a yield comparable to yields obtained with high-tech, large-scale pretreatment methods. The pretreatment effect was reached with only a minor total solids loss of 5 % by weight mainly caused by the fungal metabolism. The combination of the biopretreatments did not improve the methane potential of the WS, but improved the initial biogas production rate significantly. The combination of the L. buchneri ensiling and C. subvermispora WRF treatment provided a significant improvement in the pretreatment effect on WS. This combined biopretreatment produced particularly promising results for ethanol production.

  18. Changes in rocket salad phytochemicals within the commercial supply chain: Glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, amino acids and bacterial load increase significantly after processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Luke; Yahya, Hanis Nadia; Oloyede, Omobolanle Oluwadamilola; Methven, Lisa; Wagstaff, Carol

    2017-04-15

    Five cultivars of Eruca sativa and a commercial variety of Diplotaxis tenuifolia were grown in the UK (summer) and subjected to commercial growth, harvesting and processing, with subsequent shelf life storage. Glucosinolates (GSL), isothiocyanates (ITC), amino acids (AA), free sugars, and bacterial loads were analysed throughout the supply chain to determine the effects on phytochemical compositions. Bacterial load of leaves increased significantly over time and peaked during shelf life storage. Significant correlations were observed with GSL and AA concentrations, suggesting a previously unknown relationship between plants and endemic leaf bacteria. GSLs, ITCs and AAs increased significantly after processing and during shelf life. The supply chain did not significantly affect glucoraphanin concentrations, and its ITC sulforaphane significantly increased during shelf life in E. sativa cultivars. We hypothesise that commercial processing may increase the nutritional value of the crop, and have added health benefits for the consumer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Electroacupuncture pretreatment induces tolerance against focal cerebral ischemia through activation of canonical Notch pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electroacupuncture (EA pretreatment can induce the tolerance against focal cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully understood. Emerging evidences suggest that canonical Notch signaling may be involved in ischemic brain injury. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that EA pretreatment-induced tolerance against focal cerebral ischemia is mediated by Notch signaling. Results EA pretreatment significantly enhanced Notch1, Notch4 and Jag1 gene transcriptions in the striatum, except Notch1 intracellular domain level, which could be increased evidently by ischemia. After ischemia and reperfusion, Hes1 mRNA and Notch1 intracellular domain level in ischemic striatum in EA pretreatment group were increased and reached the peak at 2 h and 24 h, respectively, which were both earlier than the peak achieved in control group. Intraventricular injection with the γ-secretase inhibitor MW167 attenuated the neuroprotective effect of EA pretreatment. Conclusions EA pretreatment induces the tolerance against focal cerebral ischemia through activation of canonical Notch pathway.

  20. Pretreatment of Agave americana stalk for enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Pan, Xuejun

    2012-12-01

    Agave americana is one of commonly grown agave species but currently less valuable because its large flower stalk cannot be used for producing alcoholic beverage. In the present study, the stalk was pretreated with dilute acid (DA), sulfite (SPORL), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to preliminarily assess its potential as feedstock for bioethanol production. The changes of cell wall components during the pretreatments, enzymatic digestibility of the pretreated stalks, and the adsorption of cellulases on the substrates were investigated. Results indicated that the pretreatments significantly improved the enzymatic digestibility of the agave stalk. SPORL pretreatment gave higher substrate and sugar yields, while NaOH pretreated stalk had better digestibility under the investigated conditions. The better hydrolysability of NaOH-pretreated stalk was attributed to low lignin and hemicellulose content and high affinity to cellulases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Extrusion Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol has shown environmental, economic and energetic advantages in comparison to bioethanol produced from sugar or starch. However, the pretreatment process for increasing the enzymatic accessibility and improving the digestibility of cellulose is hindered by many physical-chemical, structural and compositional factors, which make these materials difficult to be used as feedstocks for ethanol production. A wide range of pretreatment methods has been developed to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to (enzymatic hydrolysis over the last few decades; however, only a few of them can be used at commercial scale due to economic feasibility. This paper will give an overview of extrusion pretreatment for bioethanol production with a special focus on twin-screw extruders. An economic assessment of this pretreatment is also discussed to determine its feasibility for future industrial cellulosic ethanol plant designs.

  2. Hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, A.; Gunawan, K. Y.; Hadiwijaya, F. A.

    2017-11-01

    Banana peel is one of food wastes that are rich in carbohydrate. This shows its potential as fermentation substrate including bio-ethanol. This paper presented banana peel alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was intended to prepare banana peel in order to increase hydrolysis performance. The alkaline pretreatment used 10, 20, and 30% w/v NaOH solution and was done at 60, 70 and 80°C for 1 hour. The hydrolysis reaction was conducted using two commercial cellulose enzymes. The reaction time was varied for 3, 5, and 7 days. The best condition for pretreatment process was one conducted using 30% NaOH solution and at 80°C. This condition resulted in cellulose content of 90.27% and acid insoluble lignin content of 2.88%. Seven-day hydrolysis time had exhibited the highest reducing sugar concentration, which was7.2869 g/L.

  3. Enzymatic saccharification of dilute acid pretreated saline crops for fermentable sugar production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Ruihong [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, University of California, Davis One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Pan, Zhongli [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, University of California, Davis One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Processed Foods Research Unit, USDA-ARS-WRRC, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA 94710 (United States); Wang, Donghai [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Four saline crops [athel (Tamarix aphylla L), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), Jose Tall Wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum), and Creeping Wild Ryegrass (Leymus triticoides)] that are used in farms for salt uptake from soil and drainage irrigation water have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they don't take a large number of arable lands. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were conducted to select the optimum pretreatment conditions and the best saline crop for further enzymatic hydrolysis research. The optimum dilute acid pretreatment conditions included T = 165 C, t = 8 min, and sulfuric acid concentration 1.4% (w/w). Creeping Wild Ryegrass was decided to be the best saline crop. Solid loading, cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase concentrations had significant effects on the enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated Creeping Wild Ryegrass. Glucose concentration increased by 36 mg/mL and enzymatic digestibility decreased by 20% when the solid loading increased from 4 to 12%. With 8% solid loading, enzymatic digestibility increased by over 30% with the increase of cellulase concentration from 5 to 15 FPU/g-cellulose. Under given cellulase concentration of 15 FPU/g-cellulose, 60% increase of enzymatic digestibility of pretreated Creeping Wild Ryegrass was obtained with the increase of {beta}-glucosidase concentration up to 15 CBU/g-cellulose. With a high solid loading of 10%, fed-batch operation generated 12% and 18% higher enzymatic digestibility and glucose concentration, respectively, than batch process. (author)

  4. Effects of Different Pretreatments to Fresh Fruit on Chemical and Thermal Characteristics of Crude Palm Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minmin; Xia, Qiuyu; Holland, Brendan J; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yufeng; Li, Rui; Cao, Hongxing

    2017-12-01

    This study selected 5 methods, including boiling, hot air drying, high-pressurized steam, freezing, and microwave radiation to pretreat fresh oil palm fruit before solvent extraction of the oil. Using fresh fruit as a control, the pretreatment methods were compared for the effects on the activity of the 2 main enzymes in the fruit and some physicochemical properties of the crude palm oil. The results indicated, although all the 5 pretreatments could inactivate lipase and peroxidase in the treated flesh significantly (P oils. The crude oil from frozen fruit contained significantly more vitamin E (37829.33 ppm) than previously reported. Microwave radiation was shown to significantly decrease the free fatty acid content and the peroxide value, while increasing the oxidative stability index. Thermal behaviors of the oils were significantly different to each other with the exception a few parameters (P < 0.05). © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation pretreatment on callus inductivity and differentiation of strawberry anther

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huiqin; Xie Ming; Jiang Guihua; Sun Congbo; Huang Pule; Wu Yanjun; Wu Qing

    2007-01-01

    Strawberry buds, in which a majority of pollen had single nuclear keeping to the side, were pretreated by 60 Co γ-rays irradiation at different doses. The irradiation effect on the callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate of strawberry anther were studied. The results indicated that the pretreatment by 60 Co γ-rays could increase the anther callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate significantly, and 20 Gy was the best dose. The callus inductivity of Akihime and Toyonoka increased by 39.09% and 35.68%, respectively, compared with the no-pretreatment materials. On the same media, the plant differentiation rate of Akihime and Toyonoka were also increased by 6.67%-6.72% and 4.73%-6.45%, respectively, compared with the two varieties of no-pretreatment. (authors)

  6. Characterization of agave bagasse as a function of ionic liquid pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Pimienta, Jose A.; Lopez-Ortega, Monica G.; Chavez-Carvayar, Jose A.; Varanasi, Patanjali; Stavila, Vitalie; Cheng, Gang; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of agave bagasse (AGB-byproduct of tequila industry) presented unidentified crystalline peaks that are not typical from common biofuel feedstocks (e.g. sugarcane bagasse, switchgrass or corn stover) making it an important issue to be addressed for future biorefinery applications. Ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment of AGB was performed using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C 2 mim][OAc]) at 120, 140 and 160 °C for 3 h and a mass fraction of 3% in order to identify these peaks. Pretreated samples were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FE-SEM), thermal analysis (TGA-DSC) and wet chemistry methods. Previous unidentified XRD peaks on AGB at 2θ = 15°, 24.5° and 30.5°, were found to correspond to calcium oxalate (CaC 2 O 4 ) in a monohydrated form. IL pretreatment with [C 2 mim][OAc] was observed to remove CaC 2 O 4 and decrease cellulose crystallinity. At 140 °C, IL pretreatment significantly enhances enzymatic kinetics and leads to ∼8 times increase in sugar yield (6.66 kg m −3 ) when compared to the untreated samples (960 g m −3 ). These results indicate that IL pretreatment can effectively process lignocellulosic biomass with high levels of CaC 2 O 4 . - Highlights: • Chemical behavior of agave bagasse pretreated by ionic liquid (IL) is assessed. • Previously unidentified XRD peaks correspond to calcium oxalate (CaC 2 O 4 ). • Total sugar yield and initial enzymatic hydrolysis rate were higher at 140 °C. • IL pretreatment can effectively process biomass with high levels of CaC 2 O 4. • Increasing the temperature of IL pretreatment causes the agglomeration of CaC 2 O 4

  7. GREET Pretreatment Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from cellulosic biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. Process simulations of dilute acid and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment processes and subsequent hydrolysis were developed in Aspen Plus for four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar). This processing yields sugars that can be subsequently converted to biofuels or biochemical. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in a new Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREETTM) pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  8. Effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on product distribution and characteristics of oil produced by the pyrolysis of Huadian oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Deng, Sunhua; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Mingyue; Li, Shu; Shao, Yifei; Yang, Jiaqi; Li, Junfeng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The maximum yield of pyrolysis oil is obtained at the pretreatment time of 2.0 h. • The higher H/C ratio of oil is obtained after hydrothermal pretreatment. • Hydrothermal treatment promotes the formation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the oil. • Long pretreatment time causes the increase of heavier oil fraction in the oil. - Abstract: In this work, Huadian oil shale from China was treated by hydrothermal pretreatment at 200 °C with 1.0–2.5 h in order to investigate the effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on pyrolysis product distribution and characteristics of oil. The differences in the elemental composition and thermal behavior between the untreated and treated oil shale were analyzed and compared. The hydrothermal treatment process could decompose oxygen functional groups and remove some water soluble inorganics in oil shale, which decreased the formation of gas and water during the pyrolysis. However, hydrothermal pretreatment was conducive to increasing shale oil yield. The maximum of oil yield was obtained at the pretreatment time of 2.0 h. The enhancement of the free-radical reactions during the pyrolysis and the reduction of the secondary cracking reactions of the generated oil vapors were considered as the main reasons. The oil obtained by the treated oil shale had a higher H/C ratio, indicating it had high energy content. The analysis results of chemical compositions in oils showed that the relative content of aliphatic hydrocarbons significantly increased after hydrothermal pretreatment. The further analysis demonstrated that the increase in the pretreatment time caused the generated long chain hydrocarbons tended to be directly released from oil shale particles, and were condensed into the oil.

  9. In vivo metabolism of CCl4 by rats pretreated with chlordecone, mirex, or phenobarbital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehendale, H.M.; Klingensmith, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The propensity of chlordecone (CD) to potentiate hepatotoxic and lethal effects of CCl4 is well established. Mirex (M), a close structural analogue of CD, or phenobarbital (PB), powerful inducers of hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes, are much weaker potentiators of CCl4 toxicity. The purpose of this study was to test the possibility that CD potentiates the toxicity of CCl4 by increasing the metabolism of CCl4 to a greater degree than either PB or M. We compared the in vivo metabolism of CCl4 in rats pretreated with CD, M, or PB, by measuring the hepatic content of 14CCl4, the expiration of 14CCl4, expiration of 14CCl4-derived 14CO2, and lipid peroxidation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-270 g) were pretreated with a single oral dose of CD (10 mg/kg), M (10 mg/kg), or corn oil vehicle (1 ml/kg). PB pretreatment consisted of an ip injection of sodium PB (80 mg/kg) in saline (0.9%) for 2 successive days. Twenty-four hours later, 14CCl4 (0.1 ml/kg; sp act: 0.04 mCi/mmol) was administered ip in corn oil and the radioactivity present in the expired air was collected for 6 hr. Excretion of the parent compound as represented by the 14C label in the toluene trap was unchanged by any of the pretreatments. Expiration of 14CO2 measured during the 6 hr after CCl4 administration was increased in animals pretreated with PB or CD. In vivo lipid peroxidation measured as diene conjugation in lipids extracted from the livers was increased to a similar extent in animals pretreated with PB and CD, whereas the serum transaminases (ALT, AST) were significantly elevated only in animals pretreated with CD.M did not affect 14CO2 production and was without a significant effect on the lipid peroxidation

  10. Experimental and economical evaluation of bioconversion of forest residues to biogas using organosolv pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Maryam M; Rajendran, Karthik; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona

    2015-02-01

    The methane potential of forest residues was compared after applying organic solvent, i.e., acetic acid, ethanol, and methanol pretreatments using batch anaerobic digestion (AD). The pretreatments were performed at 190 °C with 50% (V/V) organic solvent for 60 min. The accumulated methane yields after 40 days of AD from pretreated forest residues were between 0.23 and 0.34 m(3) CH4/kg VS, which shows a significant improvement compared to 0.05 m(3) CH4/kg VS, from untreated forest residues. These improvements count up to 50% increase in the methane yields from the pretreated substrates based on expected theoretical yield from carbohydrates. Among the organic solvents, pretreatments with acetic acid and ethanol led to highest methane yields, i.e., over 0.30 m(3) CH4/kg VS. However, techno-economical evaluation showed, pretreatment with methanol was more viable financially. The capital investments of the plant operating 20,000 tons of forest residues varied between 56 and 60 million USD, which could be recovered in less than 8 years of operation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intraprocedural abciximab bolus versus pretreatment oral dual antiplatelet medication for endovascular stenting of unruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Michael R; Moon, Karam; Albuquerque, Felipe C; Mulholland, Celene B; Kalani, M Yashar S; McDougall, Cameron G

    2016-09-01

    Standard pretreatment with dual antiplatelet medication (DAPM) was compared with a standalone intraprocedural abciximab bolus for the prevention of thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events during endovascular stenting of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We treated 94 patients with 99 aneurysms with intracranial stenting (with or without coiling). Patients were either pretreated with DAPM daily for ≥3 days before stenting (pretreatment group) or received an abciximab bolus during or immediately after stent placement followed by postoperative DAPM (abciximab group), at the treating physician's discretion. Twenty patients underwent immediate postoperative MRI. Demographic, clinical, and radiological information and periprocedural complications were recorded. There were 52 procedures in the pretreatment group and 47 in the abciximab group. More flow-diverting stents were placed in the pretreatment group than in the abciximab group (45 vs 23, p0.99 and p=0.12, respectively). There were no intracranial hemorrhages. In patients with postoperative MRI, there was no difference in the presence of diffusion-restricted lesions between groups (p=0.20). Multivariate analysis of a composite of any complication did not show significant associations with aneurysm or patient variables in either group. Standalone intraprocedural abciximab bolus was not associated with an increased rate of complications compared with pretreatment with DAPM for unruptured intracranial aneurysm stenting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Physiochemical Characterization of Lignocellulosic Biomass Dissolution by Flowthrough Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Lishi; Pu, Yunqiao; Bowden, Mark; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yang, Bin

    2016-01-04

    Comprehensive understanding of biomass solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of valorizing biomass to fermentable sugars and lignin for biofuels production. In this study, poplar wood was flowthrough pretreated by water-only or 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid at different temperatures (220-270 °C), flow rate (25 mL/min), and reaction times (8-90 min), resulting in significant disruption of the lignocellulosic biomass. Ion chromatography (IC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and solid state cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were applied to characterize the pretreated biomass whole slurries in order to reveal depolymerization as well as solubilization mechanism and identify unique dissolution structural features during these pretreatments. Results showed temperature-dependent cellulose decrystallization in flowthrough pretreatment. Crystalline cellulose was completely disrupted, and mostly converted to amorphous cellulose and oligomers by water-only operation at 270 °C for 10 min and by 0.05 wt % H2SO4 flowthrough pretreatment at 220 °C for 12 min. Flowthrough pretreatment with 0.05% (w/w) H2SO4 led to a greater disruption of structures in pretreated poplar at a lower temperature compared to water-only pretreatment.

  14. Treatment of olive mill wastewater by chemical processes: effect of acid cracking pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hande Gursoy-Haksevenler, B; Arslan-Alaton, Idil

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acid cracking (pH 2.0; T 70 °C) and filtration as a pretreatment step on the chemical treatability of olive mill wastewater (chemical oxygen demand (COD) 150,000 m/L; total organic carbon (TOC) 36,000 mg/L; oil-grease 8,200 mg/L; total phenols 3,800 mg/L) was investigated. FeCl3 coagulation, Ca(OH)2 precipitation, electrocoagulation using stainless steel electrodes and the Fenton's reagent were applied as chemical treatment methods. Removal performances were examined in terms of COD, TOC, oil-grease, total phenols, colour, suspended solids and acute toxicity with the photobacterium Vibrio fischeri. Significant oil-grease (95%) and suspended solids (96%) accompanied with 58% COD, 43% TOC, 39% total phenols and 80% colour removals were obtained by acid cracking-filtration pretreatment. Among the investigated chemical treatment processes, electrocoagulation and the Fenton's reagent were found more effective after pretreatment, especially in terms of total phenols removal. Total phenols removal increased from 39 to 72% when pretreatment was applied, while no significant additional (≈10-15%) COD and TOC removals were obtained when acid cracking was coupled with chemical treatment. The acute toxicity of the original olive mill wastewater sample increased considerably after pretreatment from 75 to 89% (measured for the 10-fold diluted wastewater sample). An operating cost analysis was also performed for the selected chemical treatment processes.

  15. Microbial pretreatment of cotton stalks by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian

    .04% for SmC and SSC pretreated samples, respectively) compared with untreated cotton stalk samples (17.93%). Washing of pretreated cotton stalks alone caused no significant increase in cellulose conversion. However, a heat treatment (autoclaving) followed by washing remarkably improved (Penzyme production, and oxygen uptake associated with the growth of P. chrysosporium during 14 days fungal pretreatment were developed. For SmC pretreatment, model parameters were estimated by nonlinear regression and validated using an independent set of experimental data. Models yielded sufficiently accurate predictions for holocellulose consumption (R2=0.9772 and 0.9837, 1d and 3d oxygen flushing, respectively), lignin degradation (R2=0.9879 and 0.8682) and ligninolytic enzyme production (R2=0.8135 and 0.9693) under both 1 and 3d oxygen flushing conditions. However, the prediction capabilities for fungal growth (1d and 3d), cellulase production (3d) and oxygen uptake (3d) were limited. For SSC, the models were established in three phases (I: day 0-4, II: day 4-7, III: day 7-14). After validation it was shown that the developed models can yield sufficiently accurate predictions for fungal growth (R 2=0.9724), holocellulose consumption (R2=0.9686), lignin degradation (R2=0.9309) and ligninolytic enzyme production (R2=0.9203); however predictions of cellulase production were fair (R2=0.6133). Although significant delignification occurred during fungal pretreatment indicating the presence of ligninolytic enzymes, common spectrophotometric enzyme assays failed to detect lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities in fungal pretreatment cultures. Efforts were made to overcome the drawbacks of standardized assays by performing protein gel electrophoresis and crude enzyme delignification studies. Results from this research are expected to be beneficial in the development of pretreatment technologies that are environment friendly and utilize naturally occurring

  16. In situ end labelling: effect of proteolytic enzyme pretreatment and hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, N. J.; Talbot, I. C.

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of dilute hydrochloric acid on the in situ end labelling (ISEL) reaction, with and without a variety of different proteolytic enzymes. METHODS: Sections of tissue fixed in buffered formalin were pretreated with trypsin, protease XIV (at two different concentrations), or protease XXIV (for two different incubation times), with and without subsequent 1 M hydrochloric acid treatment. The results were compared with those obtained using hydrochloric acid alone, with proteinase K, and pepsin pretreatment, and with no pretreatment. RESULTS: When hydrochloric acid was added to the sections in addition to trypsin, protease XIV, and protease XXIV, there was a significant increase in ISEL reactivity in both apoptotic nuclei and morphologically normal nuclei. Hydrochloric acid alone had no significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: Hydrochloric acid has a distinctive effect on the ISEL reaction that is dependent on prior proteolytic digestion. Images PMID:9292152

  17. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhong; Wang Qunhui; Jiang Zhaohua; Yang Xuexin; Ji Yongzhen

    2007-01-01

    In order to produce lactic acid, from agricultural residues such as soybean straw, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastic production, it is necessary to decompose the soybean straw into soluble sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the methods in common use, while pretreatment is the effective way to increase the hydrolysis rate. The optimal conditions of pretreatment using ammonia and enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean straw were determined. Compared with the untreated straw, cellulose in straw pretreated by ammonia liquor (10%) soaking for 24 h at room temperature increased 70.27%, whereas hemicellulose and lignin in pretreated straw decreased to 41.45% and 30.16%, respectively. The results of infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also showed that the structure and the surface of the straw were changed through pretreatment that is in favor of the following enzymatic hydrolysis. maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 51.22% was achieved at a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v) at 50 deg. C and pH 4.8 using cellulase (50 fpu/g of substrate) for 36 h

  18. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  19. The significance of pretreatment anemia in the era of R-IPI and NCCN-IPI prognostic risk assessment tools: a dual-center study in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troppan, Katharina T; Melchardt, Thomas; Deutsch, Alexander; Schlick, Konstantin; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Bullock, Marc D; Reitz, Daniel; Beham-Schmid, Christine; Weiss, Lukas; Neureiter, Daniel; Wenzl, Kerstin; Greil, Richard; Neumeister, Peter; Egle, Alexander; Pichler, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Anemia is frequently identified at the time of diagnosis in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); however, studies addressing the prognostic significance of this important clinical parameter are lacking. In this dual-center study of patients with DLBCL (n = 556) treated with rituximab-containing regimens, we evaluated the prognostic relevance of anemia at diagnosis in a training set (n = 211) and validated our findings in a second independent patient cohort (n = 345). Using Kaplan-Meier curves as well as univariate and multivariate Cox regression models, we analyzed the impact of anemia on 5-year overall survival (OS) and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) alongside established prognostic indicators including age, tumor stage, the revised International Prognostic Index (R-IPI), and the recently published NCCN-IPI. The influence of anemia on the predictive accuracy of IPI, R-IPI, and NCCN-IPI prognosis scores was subsequently determined using the Harrell's concordance index. Anemia was an independent predictor of impaired OS and DFS at 5 years in both DLBCL patient cohorts (P IPI or NCCN-IPI score. In survival analysis, the estimated concordance index, using IPI, R-IPI, and NCCN-IPI stratification measures (0.69, 0.64, and 0.70, respectively), improved to 0.70, 0.68, and 0.73, respectively, when anemia was also considered. In this study, we have demonstrated that anemia at the time of diagnosis is an independent predictor of impaired clinical outcome in DLBCL. Furthermore, consideration of hemoglobin levels may improve the accuracy of recently established prognostic tools in lymphoma. Our data encourage further evaluation of the prognostic utility of this readily accessible biological parameter in prospective clinical trials. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments plus anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge for dewatering and biogas production: Bench-scale research and pilot-scale verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxing; Wang, Xingdong; Zhang, Guangyi; Yu, Guangwei; Lin, Jingjiang; Wang, Yin

    2017-06-15

    To test the feasibility and practicability of the process combing hydrothermal pretreatment for dewatering with biogas production for full utilization of sewage sludge, hydrothermal/alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments and in turn anaerobic digestion of the filtrates obtained after dewatering the pretreated sludge were performed at bench- and pilot-scales. The hydrothermal temperature fell within the range of 140 °C-220 °C and the pretreatment time varied from 30 min to 120 min. For the alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment the pH value of the sludge was adjusted to 9.0-11.0 by adding Ca(OH) 2 . The results showed that the dewaterability of the sewage sludge was improved with increasing pretreatment temperature but the impact of the pretreatment time was not significant. The addition of Ca(OH) 2 gave better performance on the subsequent mechanical dewatering of the pretreated sludge compared to pure hydrothermal pretreatment, and the higher the pH value was, the better the dewaterability of the pretreated sludge was. The conditions of 180 °C/30 min and 160 °C/60 min/pH = 10.0 (for hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments, respectively) resulted in relatively good results in the theoretical energy balance, which were verified in the pilot-scale tests. Based on the data from the pilot tests, the alkaline hydrothermal process realized self-sufficiency in energy at the cost of a proper amount of CaO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative effects of biomass pre-treatments for direct and indirect transesterification to enhance microalgal lipid recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough eGhasemi Naghdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal lipid recovery for biodiesel production is currently considered suboptimal, but pre-treatment of algal biomass, the use of solvent mixtures and the positioning of transesterification can lead to increased yields. Here, the effect of various reportedly successful pre-treatments and solvent mixtures were directly compared to each other and combined with direct and indirect transesterification methods using the oleaginous microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. Microwave and thermal pre-treatments were applied and the total lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME recoveries were investigated. The application of pre-treatments increased FAME recovery through indirect transesterification when a Soxhlet system was used but they had no significant effect for direct transesterification. Gravimetric analyses of total lipids revealed that lipid recovery was highest when utilizing the chloroform-based Bligh and Dyer extraction method; however FAME yield was the highest when applying a Soxhlet system utilizing a solvent mixture of hexane-ethanol (3:1. Total lipid recovery did not necessarily correlate with the recovery of FAMEs. The highest FAME recovery was achieved from thermal or microwave pre-treated biomass followed by indirect transesterification through Soxhlet extraction. FAME recovery could be more than doubled (increase of up to 171% under these conditions. We conclude that a simple thermal pre-treatment (80°C for 10 min in combination with solvent mixture extraction through indirect transesterification may present a cost-effective and scalable option for large-scale lipid extraction from microalgae.

  2. Fungal treatment of cornstalks enhances the delignification and xylan loss during mild alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic digestibility of glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbo; Du, Wanqing; Zhang, Ji; Ma, Fuying; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhong, Weixin

    2010-09-01

    Fungal treatment with Irpex lacteus was used to enhance the delignification and xylan loss during mild alkaline pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic conversion in this research. The 15-day bio-treatment can modify the lignin structure and increase losses of lignin (from 75.67% to 80.00%) and xylan (from 40.68% to 51.37%) during alkaline pretreatment, making the enzymatic conversion more efficient. The high digestibility of glucan can be obtained after the bio-treatment and alkaline pretreatment at near room-temperature (30 degrees C), and the maximum digestibility increased 14% in comparison with that after the sole alkaline pretreatment. The bio-treatment enhanced delignification and glucan digestibility more significantly when the alkaline pretreatment was performed at lower severity. Additionally, Nuclei Growth model with a time-dependent rate constant can describe well the delignification and xylan loss. Results indicated that the bio-treatment increased the rate constant of initial reaction, but accelerated the decline of rate constant during alkaline pretreatment. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Alkaline Pretreatment of Sugarcane Bagasse and Filter Mud Codigested to Improve Biomethane Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talha, Zahir; Ding, Weimin; Mehryar, Esmaeil; Hassan, Muhammad; Bi, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the codigestion of degradation and improve biomethane production potential, sugarcane bagasse and filter mud were pretreated by sodium hydroxide NaOH 1 N at 100°C for 15, 30, and 45 minutes, respectively. Biomethane generation from 1-liter batch reactor was studied at mesophilic temperature (37 ± 1)°C, solid concentrations of 6%, and five levels of mixing proportion with and without pretreatment. The results demonstrate that codigestion of filter mud with bagasse produces more biomethane than fermentation of filter mud as single substrate; even codigested substrate composition presented a better balance of nutrients (C/N ratio of 24.70) when codigestion ratio between filter mud and bagasse was 25 : 75 in comparison to filter mud as single substrate (C/N ratio 9.68). All the pretreatments tested led to solubilization of the organic matter, with a maximum lignin reduction of 86.27% and cumulative yield of biomethane (195.8 mL·gVS -1 , digestion of pretreated bagasse as single substrate) obtained after 45 minutes of cooking by NaOH 1 N at 100°C. Under this pretreatment condition, significant increase in cumulative methane yield was observed (126.2 mL·gVS -1 ) at codigestion ratio of 25 : 75 between filter mud and bagasse by increase of 81.20% from untreated composition.

  4. Combination of ensiling and fungal delignification as effective wheat straw pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune T.; Londono, Jorge E. G.; Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    : A combination of the ensiling and WRF treatment induced efficient pretreatment of WS by reducing lignin content and increasing enzymatic sugar release, thereby enabling an ethanol yield of 66 % of the theoretical max on the WS glucan, i.e. a yield comparable to yields obtained with high-tech, large.......Conclusion: The combination of the L. buchneri ensiling and C. subvermispora WRF treatment provided a significant improvement in the pretreatment effect on WS. This combined biopretreatment produced particularly promising results for ethanol production....

  5. Significant association of high-grade inflammation and thick lining epithelium with the increased number of Langerhans cells in dentigerous cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Han Chang

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: A significant association of high-grade inflammation and thick lining epithelium with the increased LC number in DCs is found. The finding of few LCs in the lining epithelia of DCs without inflammation indicates the reduced immunosurveillance ability against DC lining epithelial cells in DC patients. It needs further studies to confirm the role of reduced immunosurveillance in the enlargement of the DC.

  6. Significance of the rapid increase in GSH levels in the protective response to cadmium exposure through phosphorylated Nrf2 signaling in Jurkat T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Yuki; Takeda, Yuko; Takayama, Hazuki; Nishimoto, Shouichi; Ichikawa, Keisuke; Ueki, Maiko; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2014-04-01

    Although cadmium (Cd) is a redox system disruptor, the systematic defensive responses to Cd-induced oxidative stress remain unclear. In this study, we initially determined that when human T-cell-derived Jurkat cells were exposed to a low concentration of Cd, the glutathione (GSH) concentration rapidly increased via the transient nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor Nrf2. Therefore, we hypothesized that this increase in the GSH levels was a significant event that occurred in response to the Cd toxicity in the Jurkat T-cells. To test this hypothesis, the expression of Nrf2 in the cells was silenced using siRNA transfection. These restricted expression conditions demonstrated that the sensitivity of the Jurkat T-cells to Cd toxicity was significantly higher in the knockdown cells. Whereas we could not find differences in the metallothionein (MT) expression responses, accumulation of Nrf2 in the nuclei and the GSH increase after Cd exposure were clearly suppressed in the Nrf2 knockdown cells. These findings strongly suggest that the Cd-induced activation of GSH synthesis is initiated as an acute response for Cd detoxification. Furthermore, the Cd remaining in the Jurkat T-cells did not cause a significant inhibition of cell growth after the rapid and transient increase in the GSH concentration returned to its basal level. Additionally, we found that MT expression induced by Cd occurred much later, with the expression seen at least 12h or more after the Nrf2-dependent immediate responses were almost completed. These results indicate that the rapid increase in GSH is an essential defensive response, with the subsequent induction of MT potentially chelating the Cd retained in the cell, thereby leading to continued suppression of Cd toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Liver-Specific Deletion of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome 10 Significantly Ameliorates Chronic EtOH-Induced Increases in Hepatocellular Damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin T Shearn

    Full Text Available Alcoholic liver disease is a significant contributor to global liver failure. In murine models, chronic ethanol consumption dysregulates PTEN/Akt signaling. Hepatospecific deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTENLKO mice possess constitutive activation of Akt(s and increased de novo lipogenesis resulting in increased hepatocellular steatosis. This makes PTENLKO a viable model to examine the effects of ethanol in an environment of preexisting steatosis. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of chronic ethanol consumption and the absence of PTEN (PTENLKO compared to Alb-Cre control mice (PTENf/f on hepatocellular damage as evidenced by changes in lipid accumulation, protein carbonylation and alanine amino transferase (ALT. In the control PTENf/f animals, ethanol significantly increased ALT, liver triglycerides and steatosis. In contrast, chronic ethanol consumption in PTENLKO mice decreased hepatocellular damage when compared to PTENLKO pair-fed controls. Consumption of ethanol elevated protein carbonylation in PTENf/f animals but had no effect in PTENLKO animals. In PTENLKO mice, overall hepatic mRNA expression of genes that contribute to GSH homeostasis as well as reduced glutathione (GSH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG concentrations were significantly elevated compared to respective PTENf/f counterparts. These data indicate that during conditions of constitutive Akt activation and steatosis, increased GSH homeostasis assists in mitigation of ethanol-dependent induction of oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage. Furthermore, data herein suggest a divergence in EtOH-induced hepatocellular damage and increases in steatosis due to polyunsaturated fatty acids downstream of PTEN.

  8. Pretreatment of woody biomass for biofuel production: energy efficiency, technologies, and recalcitrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J Y; Pan, Xuejun; Zalesny, Ronald S

    2010-07-01

    This mini review discusses several key technical issues associated with cellulosic ethanol production from woody biomass: energy consumption for woody biomass pretreatment, pretreatment energy efficiency, woody biomass pretreatment technologies, and quantification of woody biomass recalcitrance. Both total sugar yield and pretreatment energy efficiency, defined as the total sugar recovery divided by total energy consumption for pretreatment, should be used to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment process. A post-chemical pretreatment wood size-reduction approach was proposed to significantly reduce energy consumption. The review also emphasizes using a low liquid-to-wood ratio (L/W) to reduce thermal energy consumption for any thermochemical/physical pretreatment in addition to reducing pretreatment temperature.

  9. Intrafraction Bladder Motion in Radiation Therapy Estimated From Pretreatment and Posttreatment Volumetric Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foroudi, Farshad; Pham, Daniel; Bressel, Mathias; Gill, Suki; Kron, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The use of image guidance protocols using soft tissue anatomy identification before treatment can reduce interfractional variation. This makes intrafraction clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) changes more important, including those resulting from intrafraction bladder filling and motion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the required intrafraction margins for soft tissue image guidance from pretreatment and posttreatment volumetric imaging. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T2-T4) underwent an adaptive radiation therapy protocol using daily pretreatment cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with weekly posttreatment CBCT. A total of 235 pairs of pretreatment and posttreatment CBCT images were retrospectively contoured by a single radiation oncologist (CBCT-CTV). The maximum bladder displacement was measured according to the patient's bony pelvis movement during treatment, intrafraction bladder filling, and bladder centroid motion. Results: The mean time between pretreatment and posttreatment CBCT was 13 minutes, 52 seconds (range, 7 min 52 sec to 30 min 56 sec). Taking into account patient motion, bladder centroid motion, and bladder filling, the required margins to cover intrafraction changes from pretreatment to posttreatment in the superior, inferior, right, left, anterior, and posterior were 1.25 cm (range, 1.19-1.50 cm), 0.67 cm (range, 0.58-1.12 cm), 0.74 cm (range, 0.59-0.94 cm), 0.73 cm (range, 0.51-1.00 cm), 1.20 cm (range, 0.85-1.32 cm), and 0.86 cm (range, 0.73-0.99), respectively. Small bladders on pretreatment imaging had relatively the largest increase in pretreatment to posttreatment volume. Conclusion: Intrafraction motion of the bladder based on pretreatment and posttreatment bladder imaging can be significant particularly in the anterior and superior directions. Patient motion, bladder centroid motion, and bladder filling all contribute to changes between

  10. Intrafraction Bladder Motion in Radiation Therapy Estimated From Pretreatment and Posttreatment Volumetric Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroudi, Farshad, E-mail: farshad.foroudi@petermac.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Pham, Daniel [Radiation Therapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Bressel, Mathias [Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Gill, Suki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Kron, Tomas [Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: The use of image guidance protocols using soft tissue anatomy identification before treatment can reduce interfractional variation. This makes intrafraction clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) changes more important, including those resulting from intrafraction bladder filling and motion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the required intrafraction margins for soft tissue image guidance from pretreatment and posttreatment volumetric imaging. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T2-T4) underwent an adaptive radiation therapy protocol using daily pretreatment cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with weekly posttreatment CBCT. A total of 235 pairs of pretreatment and posttreatment CBCT images were retrospectively contoured by a single radiation oncologist (CBCT-CTV). The maximum bladder displacement was measured according to the patient's bony pelvis movement during treatment, intrafraction bladder filling, and bladder centroid motion. Results: The mean time between pretreatment and posttreatment CBCT was 13 minutes, 52 seconds (range, 7 min 52 sec to 30 min 56 sec). Taking into account patient motion, bladder centroid motion, and bladder filling, the required margins to cover intrafraction changes from pretreatment to posttreatment in the superior, inferior, right, left, anterior, and posterior were 1.25 cm (range, 1.19-1.50 cm), 0.67 cm (range, 0.58-1.12 cm), 0.74 cm (range, 0.59-0.94 cm), 0.73 cm (range, 0.51-1.00 cm), 1.20 cm (range, 0.85-1.32 cm), and 0.86 cm (range, 0.73-0.99), respectively. Small bladders on pretreatment imaging had relatively the largest increase in pretreatment to posttreatment volume. Conclusion: Intrafraction motion of the bladder based on pretreatment and posttreatment bladder imaging can be significant particularly in the anterior and superior directions. Patient motion, bladder centroid motion, and bladder filling all contribute to changes between

  11. Improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of thermo-mechanical fiber from Eucalyptus urophylla by a combination of hydrothermal pretreatment and alkali fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shaoni; Cao, Xuefei; Sun, Shaolong; Xu, Feng; Song, Xianliang; Sun, Run-Cang; Jones, Gwynn Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass is a major limitation for its conversion into biofuels by enzymatic hydrolysis. The use of a pretreatment technology is an essential step to diminish biomass recalcitrance for bioethanol production. In this study, a two-step pretreatment using hydrothermal pretreatment at various temperatures and alkali fractionation was performed on eucalyptus fiber. The detailed chemical composition, physicochemical characteristics, and morphology of the pretreated fibers in each of the fractions were evaluated to advance the performance of eucalyptus fiber in enzymatic digestibility. The hydrothermal pretreatment (100 to 220°C) significantly degraded hemicelluloses, resulting in an increased crystallinity of the pretreated fibers. However, as the pretreatment temperature reached 240°C, partial cellulose was degraded, resulting in a reduced crystallinity of cellulose. As compared to the hydrothermal pretreatment alone, a combination of hydrothermal and alkali treatments significantly removed hemicelluloses and lignin, resulting in an improved enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose-rich fractions. As compared with the raw fiber, the enzymatic hydrolysis rate increased 1.1 to 8.5 times as the hydrothermal pretreatment temperature increased from 100 to 240°C. Interestingly, after a combination of hydrothermal pretreatment and alkali fractionation, the enzymatic hydrolysis rate increased 3.7 to 9.2 times. Taking into consideration the consumption of energy and the production of xylo-oligosaccharides and lignin, an optimum pretreatment condition was found to be hydrothermal pretreatment at 180°C for 30 min and alkali fractionation with 2% NaOH at 90°C for 2.5 h, in which 66.3% cellulose was converted into glucose by enzymatic hydrolysis. The combination of hydrothermal pretreatment and alkali fractionation was a promising method to remove hemicelluloses and lignin as well as overcome the biomass recalcitrance for enzymatic hydrolysis

  12. Pretreatment of Hardwood and Miscanthus with Trametes versicolor for Bioenergy Conversion and Densification Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinoski, Ryan M; Flores, Hector D; Thapa, Sunil; Tuegel, Erin R; Bilek, Michael A; Reyes-Mendez, Evelin Y; West, Michael J; Dumonceaux, Tim J; Canam, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    The pretreatment of plant biomass negatively impacts the economics of many bioenergy and bioproduct processes due to the thermochemical requirements for deconstruction of lignocelluluose. An effective strategy to reduce these severity requirements is to pretreat the biomass with white-rot fungi, such as Trametes versicolor, which have the innate ability to deconstruct lignocellulose with a suite of specialized enzymes. In the present study, the effects of 12 weeks of pretreatment with a wild-type strain (52J) and a cellobiose dehydrogenase-deficient strain (m4D) of T. versicolor on hardwood and Miscanthus were explored. Both strains of T. versicolor led to significant decreases of insoluble lignin and significant increases of soluble lignin after acid hydrolysis, which suggests improved lignin extractability. The glucose yields after saccharification using an enzyme cocktail containing chitinase were similar or significantly higher with 52J-treated biomass compared to untreated hardwood and Miscanthus, respectively. The fungal treated biomass, regardless of the strain used, also showed significant increases in energy content and compressive strength of pellets. Overall, the use of T. versicolor as a pretreatment agent for hardwood and Miscanthus could be an environmentally friendly strategy for conversion technologies that require delignification and saccharification, and/or processes that require densification and transport.

  13. The pretreatment cost of a pyroprocess facility in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. K.; Youn, S. R.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. J.; Ko, W. I.

    2015-01-01

    Shale gas still has many disadvantages such as significant technological difficulties and high costs even when the fracking technology is used to extract shale gas since shale gas is dispersed widely. Moreover, it is estimated that the shale gas can be used for about 60 years, which is comparable to the period estimated for oil deposits. Another concern is that the climate may change due to the discharge of harmful gas produced during the gas extraction process. PRIDE facility producing 10 ton/year uranium ingot was set as the cost object for the cost estimation, and it was possible to increase cost calculation's accuracy level since labor cost and expenses incurred in this facility were the costs incurred in actuality. In the end, First-In, First Out process costing method was used to calculate the pretreatment cost of pyroprocess. According to the cost calculation results, the pretreatment cost was estimated as $195/kgHM and the cost share of the pretreatment of pyroprocess was calculated as 20%. Accordingly, electrochemical reduction process is the process requires most cost, followed by the cost of electro-winning process

  14. [Advances in research on mechanisms of seed pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Liu, Juan; Liu, Qian; Gao, Ya Ni; Wang, Quan Zhen

    2016-11-18

    Seeds play a vital role in nature and agro-ecosystems. The success of seed germination and the establishment of a normal seedling determine the propagation and survival of a plant species, but seed vigor is often seriously damaged because of seed aging, dormancy and the deterioration of natural habitat. Thus, exploring methods for improving germination quality is of great significance to ecology and the economy. Based on the latest international reports, seed pre-treatments are the most practical and effective methods for improving plant performance, increasing yields and enhancing stress resistance. This review provided a summary of the current pre-sowing treatment technologies and the physiological and biochemical responses of plants to these methods by addressing gene expression, cytological effects, enzyme system activities, material and energy metabolism, antioxidation mechanisms and signal transduction pathways. We also interpreted the mechanisms of the seed pre-treatment methods from aspects of seed germination acceleration and stress resistance enhancement. The bottleneck in seed pre-treatments at the cytological and molecular levels and the problems involved in their application were also discussed. Thus far, most studies had largely focused on the partial reaction alterations of plant biochemistry and enzyme activities, and they had generally been characterized by a lack of systematic and holistic study for applications to crop production. Finally, we proposed an outlook for further study in an attempt to provide a prospective and scientific reference for plant germplasm conservation, high-efficiency organic agriculture development and ecological environment re-construction.

  15. Effects of carbon pretreatment for oxygen reduction in alkaline electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjamali, Massoud; Kiros, Yohannes

    The effects of different media on carbon pretreatments for oxygen reduction in alkaline electrolyte without application of active electrocatalysts were examined. Low surface area Vulcan XC-72 and high surface area Ketjenblack EC-300 were subjected to aqueous acid (flouric or formic), gaseous (H 2, N 2 or CO 2) and thermal treatments at 600 or 900 °C. Though non-scrubbed air was used, as a result of which carbonate build-up was high and peroxide concentration increased due to the electrode reaction, some of the electrodes resulted in life-tests of more than 2000 h at 65 °C, 6 M KOH with a constant load of 50 mA cm -2 and intermittent polarisations at higher current densities. BET-surface areas and pH changes of more than 60% and weight losses of up to 15% of the carbon blacks were observed after the pretreatment steps. Electrochemical characterisation of the carbons showed that pretreatment steps of the carbon blacks have a significant effect on the long-term stability and activity of the gas diffusion electrodes in alkaline electrolyte.

  16. Pretreatment of bagasse and coconut fibres for enhanced anaerobic degradation by rumen microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivaisi, A.K.; Eliapenda, S. (Dar es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania, United Republic of). Applied Microbiology Unit)

    1994-08-01

    Both chemical pretreatment and particle size affected total fibre degradation and production of methane and volatile fatty acids from these waste materials significantly compared to the untreated materials. Pretreatment of bagasse with sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and ammonium hydroxide followed by incubations for 168 h increased fibre degradation by 11, 31 and 14%, respectively. Pretreatment of coconut fibres increased degradation by 55, 74 and 46%. Methane yield from bagasse was increased by 44, 32 and 22%, and from coconut fibres 73,76 and 46%. Amounts of volatile fatty acids produced from bagasse and coconut fibres increased by 42, 37 and 11%, and 40, 28 and 11 %, respectively. By reducing particle sizes of bagasse and coconut fibres from 5 mm to less than 0.85 mm, total fibre degradation increased by over 40%, the yields of methane increased by an average of 30%, and those of volatile fatty acids by about the same order of magnitude. The suitability of using pretreated lignocellulosic waste biomass as a substrate for methane production in Rumen Derived Anaerobic Digestion -process is discussed. (Author)

  17. Fungal cellulase/xylanase production and corresponding hydrolysis using pretreated corn stover as substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ruan, Zhenhua; Liu, Ying; Niu, Xiaorui; Yue, Zhengbo; Li, Zhimin; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Three pretreated corn stover (ammonia fiber expansion, dilute acid, and dilute alkali) were used as carbon source to culture Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 for cellulase and xylanase production. The results indicated that the cultures on ammonia fiber expansion and alkali pretreated corn stover had better enzyme production than the acid pretreated ones. The consequent enzymatic hydrolysis was performed applying fungal enzymes on pretreated corn stover samples. Tukey's statistical comparisons exhibited that there were significant differences on enzymatic hydrolysis among different combination of fungal enzymes and pretreated corn stover. The higher sugar yields were achieved by the enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute alkali pretreated corn stover.

  18. Evaluation of the improvement of sonication pre-treatment in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, María Ángeles; González, Inmaculada; Serrano, Antonio; Siles, José Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Sewage sludge is a polluting and hazardous waste generated in wastewater treatment plants with severe management problems. The high content in heavy metal, pathogens and micropolluting compounds limit the implementation of the available management methods. Anaerobic digestion could be an interesting treatment method, but must be improved since the biomethanisation of sewage sludge entails low biodegradability and low methane production. A sonication pre-treatment at lab scale is proposed to increase the organic matter solubilisation of sewage sludge and enhance the biomethanisation yield. Sonication time was optimised by analysing the physicochemical characteristics of sewage sludge (both total and soluble fraction) at different pre-treatment times. The pre-treatment time was fixed at 45 min under the study conditions given that the solubilisation of organic matter did not increase significantly at lower sonication times, whereas the concentration of total nitrogen increased markedly at higher times. The volatile fatty acids generation rate was also evaluated for the pre-treatment conditions. The anaerobic digestion of untreated and pre-treated sewage sludge was subsequently compared and promising results were obtained for loads of 1.0 g VS/L (VS, total volatile solids). The methane yield coefficient increased from 88 to 172 mLSTP/g VS (STP, 0 °C, 1 atm) after the pre-treatment, while biodegradability was found to be around 81% (in VS). Moreover, the allowed organic loading rate and methane production rate observed for the sewage sludge reached values of up to 4.1 kg VS/m(3)·d and 1270 LSTP/m(3)·d, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with carbonate-containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Raymond

    2012-11-06

    Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with an acidic solution and then a carbonate-containing solution to produce a pretreated cellulosic material are provided. The pretreated material may then be further treated in a pulping process, for example, a soda-anthraquinone pulping process, to produce a cellulose pulp. The pretreatment solutions may be extracted from the pretreated cellulose material and selectively re-used, for example, with acid or alkali addition, for the pretreatment solutions. The resulting cellulose pulp is characterized by having reduced lignin content and increased yield compared to prior art treatment processes.

  20. Diet control to achieve euglycemia induces significant loss of heart and liver weight via increased autophagy compared with ad libitum diet in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Ju-Han; Jin, Mingli; Han, Sang-Don; Chon, Gyu-Rak; Kim, Ick-Hee; Kim, Seonguk; Kim, Sung-Young; Choi, Soo-Bong; Noh, Yun-Hee

    2014-08-29

    Intensive glucose control increases the all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that strict diet control to achieve euglycemia in diabetes damages major organs, increasing the mortality risk. To evaluate effects on major organs when euglycemia is obtained by diet control, we generated a model of end-stage T2DM in 13-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats by subtotal pancreatectomy, followed by ad libitum feeding for 5 weeks. We divided these rats into two groups and for the subsequent 6 weeks provided ad libitum feeding to half (AL, n=12) and a calorie-controlled diet to the other half (R, n=12). To avoid hypoglycemia, the degree of calorie restriction in the R group was isocaloric (g per kg body weight per day) compared with a sham-operated control group (C, n=12). During the 6-week diet control period, AL rats ate three times more than rats in the C or R groups, developing hyperglycemia with renal hyperplasia. R group achieved euglycemia but lost overall body weight significantly compared with the C or AL group (49 or 22%, respectively), heart weight (39 or 23%, respectively) and liver weight (50 or 46%, respectively). Autophagy levels in the heart and liver were the highest in the R group (Pdiabetes but may be deleterious even at isocaloric rate when insulin is deficient because of significant loss of heart and liver mass via increased autophagy.

  1. Evaluation of High Solids Alkaline Pretreatment of Rice Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Zheng, Yi; Yu, Chao Wei; Dooley, Todd M.; Jenkins, Bryan M.

    2010-01-01

    Fresh-harvested, air-dried rice straw was pretreated at a water content of 5 g H2O/g straw using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and compared to pretreatment at 10 g H2O/g straw by hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2). Full factorial experiments including parallel wash-only treatments were completed with both sources of alkali. The experiments were designed to measure the effects of alkaline loading and pretreatment time on delignification and sugar yield upon enzymatic hydrolysis. Reaction temperature was held constant at 95°C for lime pretreatment and 55°C for NaOH pretreatment. The range of delignification was 13.1% to 27.0% for lime pretreatments and was 8.6% to 23.1% for NaOH pretreatments. Both alkaline loading and reaction time had significant positive effects (p delignification under the design conditions, but only alkaline loading had a significant positive effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. Treatment at higher temperature also improved delignification; delignification with water alone ranged from 9.9% to 14.5% for pretreatment at 95°C, but there was little effect observed at 55°C. Post-pretreatment washing of biomass was not necessary for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum glucose yields were 176.3 mg/g dried biomass (48.5% conversion efficiency of total glucose) in lime-pretreated and unwashed biomass and were 142.3 mg/g dried biomass (39.2% conversion efficiency of total glucose) in NaOH-pretreated and unwashed biomass. PMID:20440580

  2. Increased brain expression of GPNMB is associated with genome wide significant risk for Parkinson's disease on chromosome 7p15.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Megha N; Blauwendraat, Cornelis; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hardy, John; Lewis, Patrick A; Trabzuni, Daniah

    2017-07-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) have previously revealed a significant association with a locus on chromosome 7p15.3, initially designated as the glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) locus. In this study, the functional consequences of this association on expression were explored in depth by integrating different expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) datasets (Braineac, CAGEseq, GTEx, and Phenotype-Genotype Integrator (PheGenI)). Top risk SNP rs199347 eQTLs demonstrated increased expressions of GPNMB, KLHL7, and NUPL2 with the major allele (AA) in brain, with most significant eQTLs in cortical regions, followed by putamen. In addition, decreased expression of the antisense RNA KLHL7-AS1 was observed in GTEx. Furthermore, rs199347 is an eQTL with long non-coding RNA (AC005082.12) in human tissues other than brain. Interestingly, transcript-specific eQTLs in immune-related tissues (spleen and lymphoblastoid cells) for NUPL2 and KLHL7-AS1 were observed, which suggests a complex functional role of this eQTL in specific tissues, cell types at specific time points. Significantly increased expression of GPNMB linked to rs199347 was consistent across all datasets, and taken in combination with the risk SNP being located within the GPNMB gene, these results suggest that increased expression of GPNMB is the causative link explaining the association of this locus with PD. However, other transcript eQTLs and subsequent functional roles cannot be excluded. This highlights the importance of further investigations to understand the functional interactions between the coding genes, antisense, and non-coding RNA species considering the tissue and cell-type specificity to understand the underlying biological mechanisms in PD.

  3. Increased expression of interleukin-21 along colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence and its predicating significance in patients with sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guanglin; Yuan, Aping; Zhu, Li; Florholmen, Jon; Goll, Rasmus

    2017-10-01

    The role and significance of interleukin (IL)-21 in the development of sporadic CRC have not been well defined. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the dynamics of the IL-21 along colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence and to evaluate the impact of IL-21 on clinicopathological parameters and CRC prognosis. The real-time PCR results showed that the level of IL-21 in adenomas (n=50) and sporadic CRC (n=50) were significantly higher than that in normal controls (n=18), which were predominately observed in the adenoma/CRC stroma. Analysis revealed that IL-21 level was correlated with the overall survival time in CRC patients. Double immunofluorescence observations confirmed that IL-21 positive cells were mostly natural killer cells and T lymphocytes in the tumor stroma. These results indicate that significant increased IL-21 expression present within the adenoma/CRC microenvironment might have a potential predicating significance for survival time in patients with CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Final report of a randomized trial on altered-fractionated radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma prematurely terminated by significant increase in neurologic complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, Peter Man Lung; Leung, Sing Fai; Chan, Anthony Tak Cheung; Leung, Thomas Wai Tong; Choi, Peter Ho Keung; Kwan, Wing Hong; Lee, Wai Yee; Chau, Ricky Ming Chun; Yu, Peter Kau Wing; Johnson, Philip James

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the survival, local control and complications of conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy and conventional radiotherapy in nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: From February 1993 to October 1995, 159 patients with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic (M0) NPC with N0 or 4 cm or less N1 disease (Ho's N-stage classification, 1978) were randomized to receive either conventional radiotherapy (Arm I, n = 82) or conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy (Arm II, n = 77). Stratification was according to the T stage. The biologic effective dose (10 Grays) to the primary and the upper cervical lymphatics were 75.0 and 73.1 for Arm I and 84.4 and 77.2 for Arm II, respectively. Results: With comparable distribution among the T stages between the two arms, the free from local failure rate at 5 years after radiotherapy was not significantly different between the two arms (85.3%; 95% confidence interval, 77.2-93.4% for Arm I; and 88.9%; 95% confidence interval, 81.7-96.2% for Arm II). The two arms were also comparable in overall survival, relapse-free survival, and rates of distant metastasis and regional relapse. Conventional/accelerated-hyperfractionated radiotherapy was associated with significantly increased radiation-induced damage to the central nervous system (including temporal lobe, cranial nerves, optic nerve/chiasma, and brainstem/spinal cord) in Arm II. Although insignificant, radiation-induced cranial nerve(s) palsy (typically involving VIII-XII), trismus, neck soft tissue fibrosis, and hypopituiturism and hypothyroidism occurred more often in Arm II. In addition, the complications occurred at significantly shorter intervals after radiotherapy in Arm II. Conclusion: Accelerated hyperfractionation when used in conjunction with a two-dimensional radiotherapy planning technique, in this case the Ho's technique, resulted in increased radiation damage to the central

  5. Characterization of oxalic acid pretreatment on lignocellulosic biomass using oxalic acid recovered by electrodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Joo; Seo, Young-Jun; Lee, Jae-Won

    2013-04-01

    The properties of pretreated biomass and hydrolysate obtained by oxalic acid pretreatment using oxalic acid recovered through electrodialysis (ED) were investigated. Most of the oxalic acid was recovered and some of the fermentation inhibitors were removed by ED. For the original hydrolysate, the ethanol production was very low and fermentable sugars were not completely consumed by Pichia stipitis during fermentation. Ethanol yield was less than 0.12 g/g in all stage. For the ED-treated hydrolysate, ethanol production was increased by up to two times in all stages compared to the original hydrolysate. The highest ethanol production was 19.38 g/l after 72 h which correspond to the ethanol yield of 0.33 g/g. Enzymatic conversion of the cellulose to glucose for all the pretreated biomass was in the range of 76.03 and 77.63%. The hydrolysis rate on each pretreated biomass was not significantly changed when oxalic acid recovered by ED was used for pretreatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by gamma irradiation–alkaline pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment of wheat straw with gamma irradiation and NaOH was performed to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw for production of reducing sugar. The results showed that the irradiation of wheat straw at 50 kGy decreased the yield of reducing sugar, however, the reducing sugar yield increased with increasing dose from 50 kGy to 400 kGy. The irradiation of wheat straw at 100 kGy can significantly decrease NaOH consumption and treatment time. The reducing sugar yield could reach 72.67% after irradiation at 100 kGy and 2% NaOH treatment for 1 h. The combined pretreatment of wheat straw by gamma radiation and NaOH immersion can increase the solubilization of hemicellulose and lignin as well as the accessible surface area for enzyme molecules. - Highlights: • Pretreatment of wheat straw by gamma radiation and NaOH was investigated. • Irradiation pretreatment can significantly decrease NaOH consumption. • Reducing sugar yield reached 72.67% at 100 kGy and 2% NaOH treatment for 1 h.

  7. [Percutaneous transfemoral valvuloplasty in patients with calcified aortic stenosis and significantly increased surgical risk: clinical course and value of Doppler sonography in assessment of therapeutic success].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kücherer, H; Katus, H; Dietz, R; Rauch, B; Kübler, W

    1988-07-01

    Percutaneous transluminal valvuloplasty (PTV) was performed in 24 patients (aged 67-86 years, mean: 76 +/- 5.7 years) with calcific aortic stenosis and high operative risk. The gradient between maximal left ventricular and aortic pressures (peak-to-peak gradient, PPPG) could be reduced by 52% from 73 +/- 21 to 34 +/- 12 mmHg (p less than 0.001). Peak pressure gradient (PPG), as assessed by continuous wave Doppler, could be reduced from 80 +/- 28 to 58 +/- 21 mmHg (p less than 0.001). Aortic valve area (AVA) as determined by Doppler and two dimensional echocardiography increased significantly from 0.39 +/- 0.14 to 0.61 +/- 0.3 cm2 (p less than 0.05). Clinical symptoms were found to be improved in 5 of 8 patients with impaired ejection fraction and in 11 of 16 patients with normal ejection fraction during the first week after PTV. Complications due to the procedure were surgical revision of femoral artery puncture site in one patient and hemodynamic relevant pericardial effusion in another patient. Transmitral early (E) and late (L) diastolic filling integrals were measured by pulsed Doppler: the ratio E/L decreased significantly after PTV from 0.9 +/- 0.5 to 0.63 +/- 0.31 (p less than 0.03) indicating further reduction of left ventricular early diastolic filling. Ejection fraction, stroke volume and cardiac output did not significantly change immediately after PTV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Training Programs on Endoscopic Scoring Systems for Inflammatory Bowel Disease Lead to a Significant Increase in Interobserver Agreement Among Community Gastroenterologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daperno, Marco; Comberlato, Michele; Bossa, Fabrizio; Armuzzi, Alessandro; Biancone, Livia; Bonanomi, Andrea G; Cosintino, Rocco; Lombardi, Giovanni; Mangiarotti, Roberto; Papa, Alfredo; Pica, Roberta; Grassano, Luca; Pagana, Guido; D'Incà, Renata; Orlando, Ambrogio; Rizzello, Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Endoscopic outcomes are increasingly used in clinical trials and in routine practice for inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] in order to reach more objective patient evaluations than possible using only clinical features. However, reproducibility of endoscopic scoring systems used to categorize endoscopic activity has been reported to be suboptimal. The aim of this study was to analyse the inter-rated agreement of non-dedicated gastroenterologists on IBD endoscopic scoring systems, and to explore the effects of a dedicated training programme on agreement. A total of 237 physicians attended training courses on IBD endoscopic scoring systems, and they independently scored a set of IBD endoscopic videos for ulcerative colitis [with Mayo endoscopic subscore], post-operative Crohn's disease [with Rutgeerts score] and luminal Crohn's disease (with the Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease [SESCD] and Crohn's Endoscopic Index of Severity [CDEIS]). A second round of scoring was collected after discussion about determinants of discrepancy. Interobserver agreement was measured by means of the Fleiss' kappa [kappa] or intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] as appropriate. The inter-rater agreement increased from kappa 0.51 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.48-0.55) to 0.76 [95% CI 0.72-0.79] for the Mayo endoscopic subscore, and from 0.45 [95% CI 0.40-0.50] to 0.79 [0.74-0.83] for the Rutgeerts score before and after the training programme, respectively, and both differences were significant [P training programme can significantly impact on inter-rater agreement, increasing it to levels expected among expert central reviewers. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Does residual H2O2 result in inhibitory effect on enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge pretreated by microwave-H2O2 pretreatment process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jibao; Jia, Ruilai; Wang, Yawei; Wei, Yuansong; Zhang, Junya; Wang, Rui; Cai, Xing

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of residual H 2 O 2 on hydrolysis-acidification and methanogenesis stages of anaerobic digestion after microwave-H 2 O 2 (MW-H 2 O 2 ) pretreatment of waste activated sludge (WAS). Results showed that high sludge solubilization at 35-45 % was achieved after pretreatment, while large amounts of residual H 2 O 2 remained and refractory compounds were thus generated with high dosage of H 2 O 2 (0.6 g H 2 O 2 /g total solids (TS), 1.0 g H 2 O 2 /g TS) pretreatment. The residual H 2 O 2 not only inhibited hydrolysis-acidification stage mildly, such as hydrolase activity, but also had acute toxic effect on methanogens, resulting in long lag phase, low methane yield rate, and no increase of cumulative methane production during the 30-day BMP tests. When the low dosage of H 2 O 2 at 0.2 g H 2 O 2 /g TS was used in MW-H 2 O 2 pretreatment, sludge anaerobic digestion was significantly enhanced. The cumulative methane production increased by 29.02 %, but still with a lag phase of 1.0 day. With removing the residual H 2 O 2 by catalase, the initial lag phase of hydrolysis-acidification stage decreased from 1.0 to 0.5 day.

  10. Mass loss controlled thermal pretreatment system to assess the effects of pretreatment temperature on organic matter solubilization and methane yield from food waste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Minale Yeshanew

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of thermal pretreatment (TP on the main characteristics of food waste (FW and its biochemical methane potential (BMP and distribution of volatile fatty acids (VFAs under mesophilic condition (35 ⁰C were investigated. The TP experiments were carried out at 80 °C, 100 °C, 120 °C for 2 hour and 140 °C for 1 hour. The designed TP set-up was able to minimize the organic matter loss during the course of the pretreatments. Soluble organic fractions evaluated in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD and soluble protein increased linearly with pretreatment temperature. In contrast, the carbohydrate solubilization was more enhanced (30 % higher solubilization by the TP at lower temperature (80 °C. A slight increment of soluble phenols was found, particularly for temperatures exceeding 100 °C. Thermally pretreated FW under all conditions exhibited an improved methane yield than the untreated FW, due to the increased organic matter solubilization. The highest cumulative methane yield of 442 (± 8.6 mL/gVSadded, corresponding to a 28.1 % enhancement compared to the untreated FW, was obtained with a TP at 80 °C. No significant variation in the VFAs trends were observed during the BMP tests under all investigated conditions.

  11. Understanding of alkaline pretreatment parameters for corn stover enzymatic saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research on alkaline pretreatment has mainly focused on optimization of the process parameters to improve substrate digestibility. To achieve satisfactory sugar yield, extremely high chemical loading and enzyme dosages were typically used. Relatively little attention has been paid to reduction of chemical consumption and process waste management, which has proven to be an indispensable component of the bio-refineries. To indicate alkali strength, both alkali concentration in pretreatment solution (g alkali/g pretreatment liquor or g alkali/L pretreatment liquor and alkali loading based on biomass solids (g alkali/g dry biomass have been widely used. The dual approaches make it difficult to compare the chemical consumption in different process scenarios while evaluating the cost effectiveness of this pretreatment technology. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment of corn stover at various combinations of pretreatment conditions. Enzymatic hydrolysis with different enzyme blends was subsequently performed to identify the effects of pretreatment parameters on substrate digestibility as well as process operational and capital costs. Results The results showed that sodium hydroxide loading is the most dominant variable for enzymatic digestibility. To reach 70% glucan conversion while avoiding extensive degradation of hemicellulose, approximately 0.08 g NaOH/g corn stover was required. It was also concluded that alkali loading based on total solids (g NaOH/g dry biomass governs the pretreatment efficiency. Supplementing cellulase with accessory enzymes such as α-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase significantly improved the conversion of the hemicellulose by 6–17%. Conclusions The current work presents the impact of alkaline pretreatment parameters on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover as well as the process operational and capital investment costs. The high chemical consumption for alkaline

  12. Pretreatment prostate-specific antigen values in patients with prostate cancer: 1989 patterns of care study process survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Teruki; Hanlon, Alexandra M.; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: A Patterns of Care Study (PCS) national survey was conducted to show the national averages for processes of radiation therapy care for prostate cancer patients in 1989. In the current study we report an analysis of pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by stage, grade, and ethnic origin. Methods and Materials: Process data were collected from 672 patients treated in 1989 at 71 separate institutions. Four hundred and twenty-seven (64%) of these patients had a pretreatment PSA value recorded. Three hundred and forty-three of the 427 patients were treated with external beam irradiation alone and were selected for the current analysis. The 1992 AJCC staging system was used. Results: There was a significant increase in pretreatment PSA with increasing stage. The median values of PSA were 8.3 ngm/ml in the T1 group (n = 65), 11.2 ngm/ml in the T2 group (n = 178), and 20.9 ngm/ml in the T3 group (n = 90) (p < 0.001). Ten patients were not staged. There was a significant increase in pretreatment PSA with decreasing differentiation. The median pretreatment PSA was 9.7 ngm/ml in well-differentiated tumors (n = 109), 13.0 ngm/ml in moderately differentiated tumors (n = 163), and 22.0 ngm/ml in poorly differentiated tumors. (n = 61) (p < 0.001). Ten patients had no differentiation recorded. African Americans (24) showed a significant increase in pretreatment PSA compared to Caucasians (304). The respective medians were 23.2 ng/ml and 11.9 ng/ml (p = 0.04). They also show more poorly differentiated tumors (33% vs. 17%) and more T3 tumors (46% vs. 25%). Other minorities, although small in number (n = 9) were similar to African Americans. Conclusion: Pretreatment PSA levels were established for patients treated with external beam irradiation in 1989 in the United States. They increase with stage and decreasing differentiation. African Americans and other minorities show a doubling of median values compared to Caucasians' pretreatment PSA with an increase in stage

  13. Effect of silane pretreatment on the immediate bonding of universal adhesives to computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing lithium disilicate glass ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chenmin; Zhou, Liqun; Yang, Hongye; Wang, Yake; Sun, Hualing; Guo, Jingmei; Huang, Cui

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of silane pretreatment on the universal adhesive bonding between lithium disilicate glass ceramic and composite resin. IPS e.max ceramic blocks etched with hydrofluoric acid were randomly assigned to one of eight groups treated with one of four universal adhesives (two silane-free adhesives and two silane-containing adhesives), each with or without silane pretreatment. Bonded specimens were stored in water for 24 h. The shear bond strength (SBS) of the ceramic-resin interface was measured to evaluate bond strength, and the debonded interface after the SBS test was analysed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy to determine failure mode. Light microscopy was performed to analyse microleakage and marginal sealing ability. Silane pretreatment significantly and positively influenced SBS and marginal sealing ability. For all the universal adhesive groups, SBS increased and the percentage of microleakage decreased after the pretreatment. Without the pretreatment, SBS and the percentage of microleakage were not significantly different between the silane-containing universal adhesive groups and the silane-free groups. Cohesive failure was the main fracture pattern. The results suggest that additional silane pretreatment can effectively improve the bonding strength and marginal sealing of adhesives to lithium disilicate glass ceramics. The bonding performance of silane-containing universal adhesives without pretreatment is similar to that of silane-free adhesives. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  14. Significant ecological impact on the progression of fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli with increased community use of moxifloxacin, levofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Oscar; Oteo, Jesús; Lázaro, Edurne; Aracil, Belén; de Abajo, Francisco; García-Cobos, Silvia; Ortega, Adriana; Campos, José

    2011-03-01

    To determine trends in ciprofloxacin resistance and co-resistance to other antibiotic classes in blood isolates of Escherichia coli, and to investigate if there is an ecological relationship to the community use of fluoroquinolones and other antibiotics. Forty-two Spanish hospitals of the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network collected ciprofloxacin and other antibiotic susceptibility data for non-duplicate consecutive E. coli isolates from patients with bacteraemia between 2001 and 2009. The nationwide ambulatory use of antibiotics between 1997 and 2008 was determined by WHO methods, and the co-evolution of both parameters was further analysed. Of the 28 307 E. coli blood isolates, 27.9% were ciprofloxacin non-susceptible (CIPNS), increasing from 17.6% in 2001 to 32.7% in 2009. A continuous increase was observed between CIPNS and other resistances, including cephalosporin resistance due to the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and non-susceptibility to both amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and tobramycin. Although the total use of antibiotics did not increase, community use of levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid increased by 307.2%, 62.6% and 70.1%, respectively. Yearly rates of CIPNS E. coli strongly correlated with the use of levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (r(2 )> 0.80; P resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, production of ESBLs and resistance to aminoglycosides. Community use of fluoroquinolones (mainly moxifloxacin and levofloxacin) and of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid represents a significant driver in the progression of fluoroquinolone resistance in bacteraemic E. coli.

  15. The in vitro mass-produced model mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, significantly increases yields of the globally important food security crop cassava.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ceballos

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P. The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future.

  16. Synergistic effect of alkaline pretreatment and Fe dosing on batch anaerobic digestion of maize straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatri, Shailendra; Wu, Shubiao; Kizito, Simon; Zhang, Wanqin; Li, Jiaxi; Dong, Renjie

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synergistic effect of NaOH treatment and Fe dosage to maize straw was investigated. • Combining NaOH treatment and Fe dosing resulted in 57% and 56% higher biogas and methane yield respectively. • Combined treatment shortened the technical digestion time from 48 days to 7 days. • Methane content did not differ significantly among the straw treatments. - Abstract: The synergistic effect of alkaline pretreatment and Fe dosing on anaerobic digestion of maize straw was investigated using mesophilic batch reactors. Three straw treatments were investigated as follows: NaOH (4% and 6%) pretreatment, Fe dosage (50, 200, 1000 and 2000 mg/L), and combined NaOH pretreatment and Fe dosage. Compared to the control, NaOH pretreatment alone increased methane yield by 3.5% (313.3 mL CH 4 /gVS) and 22.5% (370.9 mL CH 4 /gVS) and shortened the technical digestion time (TDT) from 48 days to 19 days and 10 days in 4% NaOH and 6% NaOH pretreatment respectively. Moreover, Fe dosing (200–1000 mg/L) alone gave a methane yield higher (9.4%) than that obtained from 4% NaOH and 7.5% less than the methane yield from 6% NaOH pretreatment; however, the TDT was 10 days longer. Combining NaOH pretreatment and Fe dosage (200–1000 mg/L) significantly increased the methane yield even further to 21.8% (368.8 mL CH 4 /gVS) and 56.2% (472.9 mL CH 4 /gVS), and shortened TDT from 48 days to 13 days and 7 days in 4% NaOH and 6% NaOH pretreatment respectively. This synergistic effect may be attributed to the fact that the alkaline treatment improved accessibility of the biodegradable fraction of the straw while Fe contributed to increased microbial enzyme activity.

  17. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of rapeseed straw for enhancing bioethanol production by Same Vessel Saccharification and Co-Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagöz, Pinar; Vaitkeviciute-Rocha, Indre; Özkan, Melek

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of rapeseed straw was evaluated for conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. After pretreatment, a liquid phase called pretreatment liquid and a solid phase were separated by filtration. The neutralized pretreatment liquids were used in a co...... pretreatment combination with respect to overall ethanol production. At this condition, 5.73g ethanol was obtained from pretreatment liquid and 14.07g ethanol was produced by co-fermentation of solid fraction with P. stipitis. Optimum delignification was observed when 0.5M MgSO4 was included...... in the pretreatment mixture, and it resulted in 0.92% increase in ethanol production efficiency....

  18. Pretreatment of Biomass by Aqueous Ammonia for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Gupta, Rajesh; Lee, Y. Y.

    The methods of pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using aqueous ammonia are described. The main effect of ammonia treatment of biomass is delignification without significantly affecting the carbohydrate contents. It is a very effective pretreatment method especially for substrates that have low lignin contents such as agricultural residues and herbaceous feedstock. The ammonia-based pretreatment is well suited for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) because the treated biomass retains cellulose as well as hemicellulose. It has been demonstrated that overall ethanol yield above 75% of the theoretical maximum on the basis of total carbohydrate is achievable from corn stover pretreated with aqueous ammonia by way of SSCF. There are two different types of pretreatment methods based on aqueous ammonia: (1) high severity, low contact time process (ammonia recycle percolation; ARP), (2) low severity, high treatment time process (soaking in aqueous ammonia; SAA). Both of these methods are described and discussed for their features and effectiveness.

  19. L-carnitine pretreatment protects slow-twitch skeletal muscles in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Mert; Kaya, Burak; Cerkez, Cem; Ertunc, Mert; Sara, Yildirim

    2013-10-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury negatively affects the outcome of surgical interventions for amputated or severely traumatized extremities. This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of l-carnitine on the contractile properties of fast-twitch (extensor digitorum longus [EDL]) and slow-twitch (soleus [SOL]) skeletal muscles following I/R-induced injury in a rat model. Rats were divided into 4 groups (1) saline pretreatment, (2) l-carnitine pretreatment, (3) saline pretreatment and I/R, and (4) l-carnitine pretreatment and I/R. Twitch and tetanic contractions in the EDL and SOL muscles in each group were recorded. Additionally, a fatigue protocol was performed in these muscles. Twitch and tetanic contraction amplitudes were lower in the EDL and SOL muscles in which I/R was induced (P < .01). l-Carnitine pretreatment significantly increased tetanic contraction amplitude in the SOL muscles following I/R (P < .01) but not in the EDL muscles. l-Carnitine pretreatment did not alter the fatigue response in any of the muscles.

  20. Exploring surface characterization and electrostatic property of Hybrid Pennisetum during alkaline sulfite pretreatment for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Wang, Jingfeng; Hou, Xincun; Wu, Juying; Fan, Xifeng; Jiang, Fan; Tao, Pan; Wang, Fan; Peng, Pai; Yang, Fangxia; Zhang, Junhua

    2017-11-01

    The surface characterization and electrostatic property of Hybrid Pennisetum (HP) after alkaline sulfite pretreatment were explored for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysability. The O/C ratio in HP increased from 0.34 to 0.60, and C1 concentration decreased from 62.5% to 31.6%, indicating that alkaline sulfite pretreatment caused poorer lignin but richer carbohydrate on HP surface. Zeta potential and sulfur element analysis indicated that more enzymes would preferably adsorb on the carbohydrate surface of alkaline sulfite pretreated HP because the lignin was sulfonated, which facilitated the decrease of non-productive adsorption. Glucose yield of alkaline sulfite pretreated HP reached to 100% by synergistic action of cellulase and xylanase in the hydrolysis, which was significantly higher than that of NaOH pretreated, and the concentration of glucose released was 1.52times higher. The results suggested that alkaline sulfite pretreatment had potential for improving the HP hydrolysability, and the surface characterization and electrostatic property facilitated the enzymatic digestibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Substrate-Specific Development of Thermophilic Bacterial Consortia by Using Chemically Pretreated Switchgrass

    OpenAIRE

    Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Joshua, Chijioke; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities that deconstruct plant biomass have broad relevance in biofuel production and global carbon cycling. Biomass pretreatments reduce plant biomass recalcitrance for increased efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. We exploited these chemical pretreatments to study how thermophilic bacterial consortia adapt to deconstruct switchgrass (SG) biomass of various compositions. Microbial communities were adapted to untreated, ammonium fiber expansion (AFEX)-pretreated, and ionic-liqui...

  2. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma pretreatment on hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fangmin; Long, Zhouyang; Liu, Sa; Qin, Zhenglong

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was used as a pretreatment method for downstream hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The degree of polymerization (DP) of MCC decreased after it was pretreated by DBD plasma under a carrier gas of air/argon. The effectiveness of depolymerization was found to be influenced by the crystallinity of MCC when under the pretreatment of DBD plasma. With the addition of tert-butyl alcohol in the treated MCC water suspension solution, depolymerization effectiveness of MCC was inhibited. When MCC was pretreated by DBD plasma for 30 min, the total reducing sugar concentration (TRSC) and liquefaction yield (LY) of pretreated-MCC (PMCC) increased by 82.98% and 34.18% respectively compared with those for raw MCC.

  3. Organosolv pretreatment of olive tree biomass for fermentable sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M.J.; Cara, C.; Castro, E. [Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, Campus Las Lagunillas, University of Jaen, Jaen (Spain); Huijgen, W.J.J.; Van der Laan, R.R.; Reith, J.H. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Olive tree pruning biomass is one of the main agricultural residues available in Mediterranean countries and is currently lacking commercial applications. To take advantage of its sugar content, a pretreatment is necessary to enhance enzyme accessibility of the cellulose fraction of the residue. This paper describes for the first time the use of organosolv pretreatment in this regard. The main process variables such as pretreatment temperature, residence time, and solvent composition (aqueous ethanol) are studied. Results show that organosolv pretreatment causes delignification and hydrolysis of hemicelluloses and improves the enzymatic digestibility of olive tree pruning biomass. A higher pretreatment severity and ethanol content of the solvent were found to increase delignification (up to 64% at 66% w/w aqueous ethanol, 210C, 60 min). By contrast, xylan hydrolysis was promoted by a lower ethanol content (maximum 92%). The highest enzymatic hydrolysis yield (90% of the structural glucan present in the raw material) has been obtained after pretreatment with 43% w/w aqueous ethanol at 210C for 15 min. Organosolv pretreatment was found to be the most effective pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of olive tree pruning biomass.

  4. Loading of the knee during 3.0 T MRI is associated with significantly increased medial meniscus extrusion in mild and moderate osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehling, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.stehling@radiology.ucsf.edu [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Souza, Richard B. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio Le; Wyman, Bradley T. [Pfizer Inc. New London, CT (United States); Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Standard knee MRI is performed under unloading (ULC) conditions and not much is known about changes of the meniscus, ligaments or cartilage under loading conditions (LC). The aim is to study the influence of loading of different knee structures at 3 Tesla (T) in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls. Materials and methods: 30 subjects, 10 healthy and 20 with radiographic evidence of OA (10 mild and 10 moderate) underwent 3 T MRI under ULC and LC at 50% body weight. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous abnormalities. The changes between ULC and LC were assessed. For meniscus, cartilage and ligaments the changes of lesions, signal and shape were evaluated. In addition, for the meniscus changes in extrusion were examined. A multivariate regression model was used for correlations to correct the data for the impact of age, gender, BMI. A paired T-Test was performed to calculate the differences in meniscus extrusion. Results: Subjects with degenerative knee abnormalities demonstrated significantly increased meniscus extrusion under LC when compared to normal subjects (p = 0.0008-0.0027). Subjects with knee abnormalities and higher KL scores showed significantly more changes in lesion, signal and shape of the meniscus (80% (16/20) vs. 20% (2/10); p = 0.0025), ligaments and cartilage during LC. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that axial loading has an effect on articular cartilage, ligament, and meniscus morphology, which is more significant in subjects with degenerative disease and may serve as an additional diagnostic tool for disease diagnosis and assessing progression in subjects with knee OA.

  5. Loading of the knee during 3.0 T MRI is associated with significantly increased medial meniscus extrusion in mild and moderate osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehling, Christoph; Souza, Richard B.; Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio Le; Wyman, Bradley T.; Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Standard knee MRI is performed under unloading (ULC) conditions and not much is known about changes of the meniscus, ligaments or cartilage under loading conditions (LC). The aim is to study the influence of loading of different knee structures at 3 Tesla (T) in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls. Materials and methods: 30 subjects, 10 healthy and 20 with radiographic evidence of OA (10 mild and 10 moderate) underwent 3 T MRI under ULC and LC at 50% body weight. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous abnormalities. The changes between ULC and LC were assessed. For meniscus, cartilage and ligaments the changes of lesions, signal and shape were evaluated. In addition, for the meniscus changes in extrusion were examined. A multivariate regression model was used for correlations to correct the data for the impact of age, gender, BMI. A paired T-Test was performed to calculate the differences in meniscus extrusion. Results: Subjects with degenerative knee abnormalities demonstrated significantly increased meniscus extrusion under LC when compared to normal subjects (p = 0.0008–0.0027). Subjects with knee abnormalities and higher KL scores showed significantly more changes in lesion, signal and shape of the meniscus (80% (16/20) vs. 20% (2/10); p = 0.0025), ligaments and cartilage during LC. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that axial loading has an effect on articular cartilage, ligament, and meniscus morphology, which is more significant in subjects with degenerative disease and may serve as an additional diagnostic tool for disease diagnosis and assessing progression in subjects with knee OA.

  6. Effects of temperature and moisture on dilute-acid steam explosion pretreatment of corn stover and cellulase enzyme digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Melvin P; Kim, Kyoung H; Newman, Mildred M; Nguyen, Quang A

    2003-01-01

    Corn stover is emerging as a viable feedstock for producing bioethanol from renewable resources. Dilute-acid pretreatment of corn stover can solubilize a significant portion of the hemicellulosic component and enhance the enzymatic digestibility of the remaining cellulose for fermentation into ethanol. In this study, dilute H2SO4 pretreatment of corn stover was performed in a steam explosion reactor at 160 degrees C, 180 degrees C, and 190 degrees C, approx 1 wt % H2SO4, and 70-s to 840-s residence times. The combined severity (Log10 [Ro] - pH), an expression relating pH, temperature, and residence time of pretreatment, ranged from 1.8 to 2.4. Soluble xylose yields varied from 63 to 77% of theoretical from pretreatments of corn stover at 160 and 180 degrees C. However, yields >90% of theoretical were found with dilute-acid pretreatments at 190 degrees C. A narrower range of higher combined severities was required for pretreatment to obtain high soluble xylose yields when the moisture content of the acidimpregnated feedstock was increased from 55 to 63 wt%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of washed solids from corn stover pretreated at 190 degrees C, using an enzyme loading of 15 filter paper units (FPU)/ g of cellulose, gave ethanol yields in excess of 85%. Similar SSF ethanol yields were found using washed solid residues from 160 and 180 degrees C pretreatments at similar combined severities but required a higher enzyme loading of approx 25 FPU/g of cellulose.

  7. Calf muscle stimulation with the Veinoplus device results in a significant increase in lower limb inflow without generating limb ischemia or pain in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Pierre; Mateus, Victor; Bieuzen, Francois; Ouedraogo, Nafi; Cisse, Fallou; Leftheriotis, Georges

    2013-03-01

    Increase in arterial inflow to the lower limbs is important to obtain functional improvement in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients with claudication. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of electrical stimulation of calf muscles on arterial inflow and tissue oxygen content in PAD in the area of stimulation. Fifteen adult patients [mean (standard deviation) age, 62 (12 ) years; height, 165 (8)cm; weight, 76 (13) kg; lowest ankle-brachial index 0.66 (0.19)] with stable arterial claudication were recruited. All patients performed a treadmill test (3.2 km/h, 10% slope) associated with a transcutaneous oximetry test expressed as decrease from rest of oxygen pressure (DROP) index values (calf changes minus chest changes from rest) with a maximum walking distance (median [25th/75th percentiles]) of 295 [133-881] m. The DROP index on the symptomatic side was -25 [-18/-34] mm Hg. On another day the patients underwent electrical stimulation in the seated position on the leg that was the most symptomatic on the treadmill. After resting values were recorded, the gastrocnemius was stimulated for 20minutes at increasing contraction rates at 5-minute steps of 60, 75, 86, and 100bpm on the most symptomatic side. Arterial blood inflow with duplex Doppler ultrasound scanning of the femoral artery, DROP transcutaneous oxygen pressure value, and oxygen concentration (O2Hb) from the near-infrared spectroscopic signal of the calf were recorded on both sides. Patients were instructed to report eventual contraction-induced pain in the stimulated calf. Results are given as mean (standard deviation) or median [25th/75th percentiles] according to distribution, and the level of statistical significance was set at P  .05) before stimulation, 123 [75/156] vs 57 [44/92] (P calf muscle with the Veinoplus device results in a significant increase of arterial inflow without measurable muscle ischemia or pain. Potential use of this device as an adjuvant treatment to improve

  8. Symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n reduce methylation of RARB and PTEN while significantly increase methylation of rRNA genes in MCF-7 cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Kostyuk

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation is observed in the promoter regions of suppressor genes in the tumor cancer cells. Reactivation of these genes by demethylation of their promoters is a prospective strategy of the anticancer therapy. Previous experiments have shown that symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n are able to block DNA methyltransferase activities. It was also found that DBP(n produces a moderate effect on the activation of total gene expression in HeLa-TI population containing epigenetically repressed avian sarcoma genome.It is shown that DBP(n are able to penetrate the cellular membranes and accumulate in breast carcinoma cell MCF-7, mainly in the mitochondria and in the nucleus, excluding the nucleolus. The DBP(n are non-toxic to the cells and have a weak overall demethylation effect on genomic DNA. DBP(n demethylate the promoter regions of the tumor suppressor genes PTEN and RARB. DBP(n promotes expression of the genes RARB, PTEN, CDKN2A, RUNX3, Apaf-1 and APC "silent" in the MCF-7 because of the hypermethylation of their promoter regions. Simultaneously with the demethylation of the DNA in the nucleus a significant increase in the methylation level of rRNA genes in the nucleolus was detected. Increased rDNA methylation correlated with a reduction of the rRNA amount in the cells by 20-30%. It is assumed that during DNA methyltransferase activity inhibition by the DBP(n in the nucleus, the enzyme is sequestered in the nucleolus and provides additional methylation of the rDNA that are not shielded by DBP(n.It is concluded that DBP (n are able to accumulate in the nucleus (excluding the nucleolus area and in the mitochondria of cancer cells, reducing mitochondrial potential. The DBP (n induce the demethylation of a cancer cell's genome, including the demethylation of the promoters of tumor suppressor genes. DBP (n significantly increase the methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in the nucleoli. Therefore the further study of these compounds is needed

  9. Ozonation and Thermal Pre-Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludge-Implications for Toxicity and Methane Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, A.; Eriksson, Eva; Fick, J.

    2013-01-01

    resulted in higher chemical oxygen demand (COD)-solubilisation, while the highest volatile fatty acids (VFA) increase was obtained with ozonation. Sludges had inhibiting effects in a barley seed germination assay and a yeast oestrogen screen both before and after pre-treatment, but inhibition was reduced......The aim of this study was to determine effects on methane potential and overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 degrees C). In general both treatments produced increased methane potential. Thermal treatment...... by ozone treatment and digestion. No statistical significant reduction in concentrations of included pharmaceuticals could be observed....

  10. Lignocellulose pretreatment severity – relating pH to biomatrix opening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    different pH values, temperatures, types of catalysts, and holding times. The consequences of the pretreatment on lignocellulosic biomass are described with special emphasis on the chemical alterations of the biomass during pretreatment, especially highlighting the significance of the pretreatment pH. We...... present a new illustration of the pretreatment effects encompassing the differential responses to the pH and temperature. A detailed evaluation of the use of severity factor calculations for pretreatment comparisons signifies that the multiple effects of different pretreatment factors on the subsequent...... the hydrolysis yields (glucose, xylose) and the pretreatment pH, but no correlation with the pretreatment temperature (90–200 °C). A better recognition and understanding of the factors affecting biomatrix opening, and use of more standardized evaluation protocols, will allow for the identification of new...

  11. Emerged HA and NA Mutants of the Pandemic Influenza H1N1 Viruses with Increasing Epidemiological Significance in Taipei and Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chuan-Liang; Chan, Ta-Chien; Tsai, Chu-Han; Chu, Kuan-Ying; Chuang, Shu-Fang; Lee, Chang-Chun; Li, Zheng-Rong Tiger; Wu, Ko-Wen; Chang, Luan-Yin; Shen, Yea-Huei; Huang, Li-Min; Lee, Ping-Ing; Yang, ChingLai; Compans, Richard; Rouse, Barry T.; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 influenza pandemic provided an opportunity to observe dynamic changes of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of pH1N1 strains that spread in two metropolitan areas -Taipei and Kaohsiung. We observed cumulative increases of amino acid substitutions of both HA and NA that were higher in the post–peak than in the pre-peak period of the epidemic. About 14.94% and 3.44% of 174 isolates had one and two amino acids changes, respective, in the four antigenic sites. One unique adaptive mutation of HA2 (E374K) was first detected three weeks before the epidemic peak. This mutation evolved through the epidemic, and finally emerged as the major circulated strain, with significantly higher frequency in the post-peak period than in the pre-peak (64.65% vs 9.28%, p<0.0001). E374K persisted until ten months post-nationwide vaccination without further antigenic changes (e.g. prior to the highest selective pressure). In public health measures, the epidemic peaked at seven weeks after oseltamivir treatment was initiated. The emerging E374K mutants spread before the first peak of school class suspension, extended their survival in high-density population areas before vaccination, dominated in the second wave of class suspension, and were fixed as herd immunity developed. The tempo-spatial spreading of E374K mutants was more concentrated during the post–peak (p = 0.000004) in seven districts with higher spatial clusters (p<0.001). This is the first study examining viral changes during the naïve phase of a pandemic of influenza through integrated virological/serological/clinical surveillance, tempo-spatial analysis, and intervention policies. The vaccination increased the percentage of E374K mutants (22.86% vs 72.34%, p<0.001) and significantly elevated the frequency of mutations in Sa antigenic site (2.36% vs 23.40%, p<0.001). Future pre-vaccination public health efforts should monitor amino acids of HA and NA of pandemic influenza viruses isolated at

  12. PARP-1 depletion in combination with carbon ion exposure significantly reduces MMPs activity and overall increases TIMPs expression in cultured HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorai, Atanu; Sarma, Asitikantha; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Ghosh, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Hadron therapy is an innovative technique where cancer cells are precisely killed leaving surrounding healthy cells least affected by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation like carbon ion beam. Anti-metastatic effect of carbon ion exposure attracts investigators into the field of hadron biology, although details remain poor. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors are well-known radiosensitizer and several PARP-1 inhibitors are in clinical trial. Our previous studies showed that PARP-1 depletion makes the cells more radiosensitive towards carbon ion than gamma. The purpose of the present study was to investigate combining effects of PARP-1 inhibition with carbon ion exposure to control metastatic properties in HeLa cells. Activities of matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, MMP-9) were measured using the gelatin zymography after 85 MeV carbon ion exposure or gamma irradiation (0- 4 Gy) to compare metastatic potential between PARP-1 knock down (HsiI) and control cells (H-vector - HeLa transfected with vector without shRNA construct). Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of MMPs such as TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 were checked by immunofluorescence and western blot. Cell death by trypan blue, apoptosis and autophagy induction were studied after carbon ion exposure in each cell-type. The data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and 2-tailed paired-samples T-test. PARP-1 silencing significantly reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and carbon ion exposure further diminished their activities to less than 3 % of control H-vector. On the contrary, gamma radiation enhanced both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in H-vector but not in HsiI cells. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in H-vector and HsiI showed different pattern after carbon ion exposure. All three TIMPs were increased in HsiI, whereas only TIMP-1 was up-regulated in H-vector after irradiation. Notably, the expressions of all TIMPs were significantly higher in HsiI than H-vector at 4 Gy. Apoptosis was

  13. Laninamivir octanoate and artificial surfactant combination therapy significantly increases survival of mice infected with lethal influenza H1N1 Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Fukushi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with influenza virus infection can develop severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS which have a high mortality. Influenza virus infection is treated worldwide mainly by neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs. However, monotherapy with NAIs is insufficient for severe pneumonia secondary to influenza virus infection. We previously demonstrated that mice infected with a lethal dose of influenza virus develop diffuse alveolar damage (DAD with alveolar collapse similar to that seen in ARDS in humans. Additionally, pulmonary surfactant proteins were gradually increased in mouse serum, suggesting a decrease in pulmonary surfactant in the lung. Therefore, the present study examined whether combination therapy of NAI with exogenous artificial surfactant affects mortality of influenza virus-infected mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BALB/c mice were inoculated with several viral doses of influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8 virus (H1N1. The mice were additionally administered exogenous artificial surfactant in the presence or absence of a new NAI, laninamivir octanoate. Mouse survival, body weight and general condition were observed for up to 20 days after inoculation. Viral titer and cytokine/chemokine levels in the lungs, lung weight, pathological analysis, and blood O(2 and CO(2 pressures were evaluated. Infected mice treated with combination therapy of laninamivir octanoate with artificial surfactant showed a significantly higher survival rate compared with those that received laninamivir octanoate monotherapy (p = 0.003. However, virus titer, lung weight and cytokine/chemokine responses were not different between the groups. Histopathological examination, a hydrostatic lung test and blood gas analysis showed positive results in the combination therapy group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Combination therapy of laninamivir octanoate with artificial surfactant reduces lethality in mice infected with influenza virus, and

  14. Incorporating biologic measurements (SF2, CFE) into a tumor control probability model increases their prognostic significance: a study in cervical carcinoma treated with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffa, Francesca Meteora; Davidson, Susan E.; Hunter, Robert D.; Nahum, Alan E.; West, Catharine M.L.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether incorporation of measurements of surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF 2 ) and colony-forming efficiency (CFE) into a tumor control probability (tcp) model increases their prognostic significance. Methods and Materials: Measurements of SF 2 and CFE were available from a study on carcinoma of the cervix treated with radiation alone. These measurements, as well as tumor volume, dose, and treatment time, were incorporated into a Poisson tcp model (tcp α,ρ ). Regression analysis was performed to assess the prognostic power of tcp α,ρ vs. the use of either tcp models with biologic parameters fixed to best-fit estimates (but incorporating individual dose, volume, and treatment time) or the use of SF 2 and CFE measurements alone. Results: In a univariate regression analysis of 44 patients, tcp α,ρ was a better prognostic factor for both local control and survival (p 2 alone (p=0.009 for local control, p=0.29 for survival) or CFE alone (p=0.015 for local control, p=0.38 for survival). In multivariate analysis, tcp α,ρ emerged as the most important prognostic factor for local control (p α,ρ , CFE was still a significant independent prognostic factor for local control, whereas SF 2 was not. The sensitivities of tcp α,ρ and SF 2 as predictive tests for local control were 87% and 65%, respectively. Specificities were 70% and 77%, respectively. Conclusions: A Poisson tcp model incorporating individual SF 2 , CFE, dose, tumor volume, and treatment time was found to be the best independent prognostic factor for local control and survival in cervical carcinoma patients

  15. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 -28C>G is significantly associated with an increased risk of tuberculosis: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lelin; Zhang, Kaixian; Yao, Lihong; Wang, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) has been shown to play an important role in antimycobacterial immune responses. Previous studies have extensively reported that the CCL5 -28C>G gene polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). However, the results of these studies have been inconsistent. To investigate the relationship between the CCL5 -28C>G and the risk of TB, we performed a meta-analysis. Methods: We searched articles published before June 6, 2014 from PubMed, CNKI, and Wanfang databases. Data were extracted from all eligible publications independently by two investigators and statistically analyzed. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to assess the strength of the association between CCL5 polymorphism and TB. Results: Four case-control studies including 647 TB cases and 726 controls were involved in the meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis indicated the CCL5 -28C>G gene polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of TB (G vs. C: 3.75, 95% CI = 1.76-7.99; GG vs. CC: OR = 30.26, 95% CI = 14.28-64.12). Conclusion: Our results suggested that the -28C>G polymorphism is significantly associated with higher TB risk, which is opposite from previously published reports. However, the number of the study is limited, additional well-designed studies are required to elucidate the association between the CCL5 -28C>G gene polymorphism and TB. PMID:26550245

  16. Dephytinisation with intrinsic wheat phytase and iron fortification significantly increase iron absorption from fonio (Digitaria exilis meals in West African women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Koréissi-Dembélé

    Full Text Available Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16, using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat, each fortified with (57Fe or (58Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed, with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU per g (whole wheat. Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C. Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8-7.8 in FFP to 8.3% (3.8-17.9 in FWFP (P<0.0001. Dephytinisation of fonio porridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges.

  17. Dephytinisation with intrinsic wheat phytase and iron fortification significantly increase iron absorption from fonio (Digitaria exilis) meals in West African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Moretti, Diego; Schuth, Stephan; Dossa, Romain A M; Egli, Ines; Zimmermann, Michael B; Brouwer, Inge D

    2013-01-01

    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat), each fortified with (57)Fe or (58)Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut) to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed), with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio) to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU) per g (whole wheat). Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C). Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8-7.8) in FFP to 8.3% (3.8-17.9) in FWFP (P<0.0001). Dephytinisation of fonio porridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges.

  18. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors may predispose to significant increase in tuberculosis risk: a multicenter active-surveillance report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Carmona, Loreto; Valverde, Vicente Rodríguez; Mola, Emilio Martín; Montero, Maria Dolores

    2003-08-01

    The long-term safety of therapeutic agents that neutralize tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is uncertain. Recent evidence based on spontaneous reporting shows an association with active tuberculosis (TB). We undertook this study to determine and describe the long-term safety of 2 of these agents, infliximab and etanercept, in rheumatic diseases based on a national active-surveillance system following the commercialization of the drugs. We analyzed the safety data actively collected in the BIOBADASER (Base de Datos de Productos Biológicos de la Sociedad Española de Reumatología) database, which was launched in February 2000 by the Spanish Society of Rheumatology. For the estimation of TB risk, the annual incidence rate in patients treated with these agents was compared with the background rate and with the rate in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) assembled before the era of anti-TNF treatment. Seventy-one participating centers sent data on 1,578 treatments with infliximab (86%) or etanercept (14%) in 1,540 patients. Drug survival rates (reported as the cumulative percentage of patients still receiving medication) for infliximab and etanercept pooled together were 85% and 81% at 1 year and 2 years, respectively. Instances of discontinuation were essentially due to adverse events. Seventeen cases of TB were found in patients treated with infliximab. The estimated incidence of TB associated with infliximab in RA patients was 1,893 per 100,000 in the year 2000 and 1,113 per 100,000 in the year 2001. These findings represent a significant increased risk compared with background rates. In the first 5 months of 2002, after official guidelines were established for TB prevention in patients treated with biologics, only 1 new TB case was registered (in January). Therapy with infliximab is associated with an increased risk of active TB. Proper measures are needed to prevent and manage this adverse event.

  19. N- and C-terminal truncations of a GH10 xylanase significantly increase its activity and thermostability but decrease its SDS resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fei; Huang, Jingxuan; Liu, Xingchen; Hu, Hang; Long, Liangkun; Chen, Kaixiang; Ding, Shaojun

    2016-04-01

    XynII from Volvariella volvacea has high sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resistance, with the potential for industrial applications under harsh conditions. It consists of a single glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) catalytic domain but contains an additional unique 10 and 4 amino acid residues at the N- and C-terminus, respectively. In this study, five XynII derivatives with N- and/or C-terminus deletions were constructed to determine the effects of these regions on enzyme activity, substrate specificity, thermostability, and SDS resistance. Our results revealed that N- and/or C-terminal truncations significantly increased enzyme activity and thermostability, but reduced SDS resistance. Specifically, the XynIIΔNC4 mutant had 2.53-fold more catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) towards beechwood xylan than wild-type and 3.0-fold more thermostability (t 1/2 [55°C]). XynIIΔNC4 displayed 3.33-, 4.38-, 1.37-, and 1.98-fold more activity against xylotriose, xylotetraose, xylopentaose, and xylohexaose, respectively, than XynII did. However, its half-life (t 1/2) in 4 % SDS was only 1.72 h, while that of XynII was 4.65 h. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that deletion of N- and C-terminal segments caused minor changes in secondary structure. Our observations suggest that the extra N- and C-terminal segments in wild-type XynII evolved to strengthen the interaction between these regions of the protein, making the local structure more rigid and reducing structural flexibility. In this way, N- and C-terminal truncations increased the thermostability and activity of XynII on different xylans and linear xylooligosaccharides, but reduced its resistance to SDS.

  20. Epilepsy by the Numbers: Epilepsy deaths by age, race/ethnicity, and gender in the United States significantly increased from 2005 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlund, Sujay F; Croft, Janet B; Kobau, Rosemarie

    2017-04-01

    To inform public health efforts to prevent epilepsy-related deaths, we used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER; Wonder.cdc.gov) to examine any-listed epilepsy deaths for the period 2005-2014 by age groups (≤24, 25-44, 45-64, 65-84, ≥85years), sex, and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic African American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, or American Indian/Alaska Native). Epilepsy deaths were defined by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes G40.0-G40.9. The total number of deaths per year with epilepsy as any listed cause ranged from 1760 in 2005 to 2962 in 2014. Epilepsy was listed as the underlying cause of death for about 54% of all deaths with any mention of epilepsy in 2005 and for 43% of such deaths in 2014. Age-adjusted epilepsy mortality rates (as any-listed cause of death) per 100,000 significantly increased from 0.58 in 2005 to 0.85 in 2014 (47% increase). In 2014, deaths among the non-Hispanic Black population (1.42 deaths per 100,000) were higher than among non-Hispanic White (0.86 deaths per 100,000) and Hispanic populations (0.70 deaths per 100,000). Males had a higher mortality rate than females (1.01 per 100,000 versus 0.74 per 100,000 in 2014), and those aged 85years or older had the highest mortality among age groups. Results highlight the need for heightened action to prevent and monitor epilepsy-associated mortality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Pretreatment of Reed by Wet Oxidation and Subsequent Utilization of the Pretreated Fibers for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szijarto, Nora; Kádár, Zsófia; Varga, Eniko

    2009-01-01

    lignocelluloses usually do. In the present study, wet oxidation was investigated as the pretreatment method to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of reed cellulose to soluble sugars and thus improve the convertibility of reed to ethanol. The most effective treatment increased the digestibility of reed cellulose...... by cellulases more than three times compared to the untreated control. During this wet oxidation, 51.7% of the hemicellulose and 58.3% of the lignin were solubilized, whereas 87.1% of the cellulose remained in the solids. After enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated fibers from the same treatment, the conversion...... of cellulose to glucose was 82.4%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated solids resulted in a final ethanol concentration as high as 8.7 g/L, yielding 73% of the theoretical....

  2. Ultrasound pretreatment for enhanced biogas production from olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Nilgun Ayman; Uzun, Alev Cagla

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates applicability of low frequency ultrasound technology to olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) as a pretreatment step prior to anaerobic batch reactors to improve biogas production and methane yield. OMWs originating from three phase processes are characterized with high organic content and complex nature. The treatment of the wastewater is problematic and alternative treatment options should be investigated. In the first part of the study, OMW samples were subjected to ultrasound at a frequency of 20kHz with applied powers varying between 50 and 100W under temperature controlled conditions for different time periods in order to determine the most effective sonication conditions. The level of organic matter solubilization at ultrasound experiments was assessed by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand/total chemical oxygen demand (SCOD/TCOD). The results revealed that the optimum ultrasonic condition for diluted OMW is 20kHz, 0.4W/mL for 10min. The application of ultrasound to OMW increased SCOD/TCOD ratio from 0.59 to 0.79. Statistical analysis (Friedman's tests) show that ultrasound was significantly effective on diluted OMW (p0.05). For raw OMW, this increase has been found to be limited due to high concentration of suspended solids (SS). In the second part of the study, biogas and methane production rates of anaerobic batch reactor fed with the ultrasound pretreated OMW samples were compared with the results of control reactor fed with untreated OMW in order to determine the effect of sonication. A nonparametric statistical procedure, Mann-Whitney U test, was used to compare biogas and methane production from anaerobic batch reactors for control and ultrasound pretreated samples. Results showed that application of low frequency ultrasound to OMW significantly improved both biogas and methane production in anaerobic batch reactor fed with the wastewater (pbiogas and methane compared with the untreated one (control reactor). The

  3. Exendin-4 pretreated adipose derived stem cells are resistant to oxidative stress and improve cardiac performance via enhanced adhesion in the infarcted heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Liu

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS, which were largely generated after myocardial ischemia, severely impaired the adhesion and survival of transplanted stem cells. In this study, we aimed to determine whether Exendin-4 pretreatment could improve the adhesion and therapeutic efficacy of transplanted adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs in ischemic myocardium. In vitro, H2O2 was used to provide ROS environments, in which ADSCs pretreated with Exendin-4 were incubated. ADSCs without pretreatment were used as control. Then, cell adhesion and viability were analyzed with time. Compared with control ADSCs, Exendin-4 treatment significantly increased the adhesion of ADSCs in ROS environment, while reduced intracellular ROS and cell injury as determined by dihydroethidium (DHE staining live/Dead staining, lactate dehydrogenase-release assay and MTT assay. Western Blotting demonstrated that ROS significantly decreased the expression of adhesion-related integrins and integrin-related focal adhesion proteins, which were significantly reversed by Exendin-4 pretreatment and followed by decreases in caspase-3, indicating that Exendin-4 may facilitate cell survival through enhanced adhesion. In vivo, myocardial infarction (MI was induced by the left anterior descending artery ligation in SD rats. Autologous ADSCs with or without Exendin-4 pretreatment were injected into the border area of infarcted hearts, respectively. Multi-techniques were used to assess the beneficial effects after transplantation. Longitudinal bioluminescence imaging and histological staining revealed that Exendin-4 pretreatment enhanced the survival and differentiation of engrafted ADSCs in ischemic myocardium, accompanied with significant benefits in cardiac function, matrix remodeling, and angiogenesis compared with non-pretreated ADSCs 4 weeks post-transplantation. In conclusion, transplantation of Exendin-4 pretreated ADSCs significantly improved cardiac performance and can be an innovative

  4. Improved biohydrogen production and treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent through ultrasonication pretreatment of wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, Jacqueline Xiao Wen; Wu, Ta Yeong; Juan, Joon Ching; Md Jahim, Jamaliah

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrasonication facilitated the reuse of PPME in biohydrogen production. • Ultrasonication at an amplitude of 60% for 45 min produced the highest biohydrogen. • Ultrasonication increased the solubilization of PPME. • Higher net savings were obtained in pretreated PPME compared to raw PPME. - Abstract: Pulp and paper mill effluent (PPME), a rich cellulosic material, was found to have great potential for biohydrogen production through a photofermentation process. However, pretreatments were needed for degrading the complex structure of PPME before biohydrogen production. The aim of this study was to gain further insight into the effect of an ultrasonication process on PPME as a pretreatment method and on photofermentative biohydrogen production using Rhodobacter sphaeroides NCIMB. The ultrasonication amplitudes and times were varied between 30–90% and 15–60 min, respectively, and no dilution or nutrient supplementation was introduced during the biohydrogen production process. A higher biohydrogen yield, rate, light efficiency and COD removal efficiency were attained in conditions using ultrasonicated PPME. Among these different pretreatment conditions, PPME with ultrasonication pretreatment employing an amplitude of 60% and time of 45 min (A60:T45) gave the highest yield and rate of 5.77 mL H 2 /mL medium and 0.077 mL H 2 /mL h, respectively, while the raw PPME without ultrasonication showed a significantly lower yield and rate of 1.10 mL H 2 /mL medium and 0.015 mL H 2 /mL h, respectively. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of using ultrasonication as a pretreatment for PPME because the yield and rate of biohydrogen production were highly enhanced compared to the raw PPME. Economic analysis was also performed in this study, and in comparison with raw PPME, the highest net saving was $0.2132 for A60:T45.

  5. Understanding the impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on eucalyptus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centikol, Ozgul [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Dibble, Dean [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; Knierim, Manfred [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The development of cost-competitive biofuels necessitates the realization of advanced biomass pretreatment technologies. Ionic liquids provide a basis for one of the most promising pretreatment technologies and are known to allow effective processing of cellulose and some biomass species. Here, we demonstrate that the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate, [C2mim][OAc], induces structural changes at the molecular level in the cell wall of Eucalyptus globulus. Deacetylation of xylan, acetylation of the lignin units, selective removal of guaiacyl units (increasing the syringyl:guaiacyl ratio) and decreased {beta}-ether content were the most prominent changes observed. Scanning electron microscopy images of the plant cell wall sections reveal extensive swelling during [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate a change in cellulose crystal structure from cellulose I to cellulose II after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated material produced increased sugar yields and improved hydrolysis kinetics after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. These results provide new insight into the mechanism of ionic liquid pretreatment and reaffirm that this approach may be promising for the production of cellulosic biofuels from woody biomass.

  6. In vivo metabolism of CCl4 by gerbils pretreated with chlordecone, phenobarbital, or mirex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Z.; Mehendale, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    Gerbils are known to be much more sensitive to CCl 4 lethality than rats as indicated by 48 hours LD 50 (0.08 vs 2.8 ml/kg). On the other hand, gerbils are refractory to chlordecone (CD) potentiation of CCl 4 toxicity. To investigate the possible mechanism underlying gerbil's high sensitivity to CCl 4 lethality, the authors studied in vivo metabolism of CCl 4 in gerbils pretreated with dietary CD (10 ppm), phenobarbital (PB, 225 ppm) or mirex (M, 10 ppm). The hepatic content of CCl 4 , the expiration of 14 CCl 4 and 14 CCl 4 -derived Co 2 , and lipid peroxidation were measured and the results were compared with our previous data for rats. After 15-day dietary pretreatment, male gerbils (60-80 g) received 14 CCl 4 (80 ml/kg; sp act: 0.04 mCi/mmol) ip in corn oil and the expired air was collected for 6 hours. More than 80% of the dose administered was expired as parent compound in 6 hours regardless of pretreatments. Expiration of 14 CCl 4 derived 14 CO 2 in control gerbils was 3.5-fold more than in control rats and was increased significantly in pretreated gerbils (M>PB>CD). PB and M pretreatments resulted in significant increase of 14 C label bound to non-lipid fraction of hepatic content as compared with CD or control gerbils. The radiolabel present in hepatic content of control gerbils was 5-fold higher than that of control rats. In vivo liquid peroxidation measured as diene conjugation in lipid extracts from the livers was lower in gerbils than in rats, and there were no significant differences among control and pretreated gerbils. These data indicate that the more extensive metabolism of CCl 4 in gerbils may partially explain their high sensitivity to CCl 4 toxicity. However, the significantly enhanced metabolism of CCl 4 found in CD, PB, or M pretreated gerbils did not lead to amplification of CCl 4 hepatotoxic and lethal effects

  7. The Effect of Pretreatment by using Electron Beam Irradiation on Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kristiani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB is a potential type of lignocellulosic biomass for second-generation bioethanol production. The pretreatment process is an important process in the series of processes to produce bioethanol. This research aims to study the effects of pretreatment process by using electron beam irradiation to OPEFB’s characterization as raw materials for the hydrolysis reaction to produce monomer sugars which will be fermented into ethanol. The untreated and treated OPEFB are characterized in terms of their physical and chemical properties. Analysis results of the compositional analysis by using NREL/TP-510-42618 method show that after pretreatment by using electron beam irradiation, OPEFB's total lignin content is changed little while its cellulose and hemicellulose contents tend to decrease with increasing irradiation dose. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis shows that there is a decrease of crystallinity compared to untreated OPEFB, except for 200-kGy irradiated OPEFB. The highest decrease of crystallinity was shown by 300-kGy irradiated OPEFB. Further, crystallite sizes of treated OPEFBs are not significantly different from the untreated, except for the 200-kGy irradiated OPEFB. Irradiation pretreatment also increases specific surface area, pore volume, and pore size. The IR spectra analysis show the absorption of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.

  8. Pretreatment of Adipose Derived Stem Cells with Curcumin Facilitates Myocardial Recovery via Antiapoptosis and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The poor survival rate of transplanted stem cells in ischemic myocardium has limited their therapeutic efficacy. Curcumin has potent antioxidant property. This study investigates whether prior curcumin treatment protects stem cells from oxidative stress injury and improves myocardial recovery following cells transplantation. Autologous Sprague-Dawley rat adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs were pretreated with or without curcumin. The hydrogen peroxide/serum deprivation (H2O2/SD medium was used to mimic the ischemic condition in vitro. Cytoprotective effects of curcumin on ADSCs were evaluated. Curcumin pretreatment significantly increased cell viability and VEGF secretion, and decreased cell injury and apoptosis via regulation of PTEN/Akt/p53 and HO-1 signal proteins expression. The therapeutic potential of ADSCs implantation was investigated in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI model. Transplantation of curcumin pretreated ADSCs not only resulted in better heart function, higher cells retention, and smaller infarct size, but also decreased myocardial apoptosis, promoted neovascularization, and increased VEGF level in ischemic myocardium. Together, priming of ADSCs with curcumin improved tolerance to oxidative stress injury and resulted in enhancement of their therapeutic potential of ADSCs for myocardial repair. Curcumin pretreatment is a promising adjuvant strategy for stem cells transplantation in myocardial restoration.

  9. Methane production and microbial community structure for alkaline pretreated waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Xing, Defeng; Jia, Jianna; Zhou, Aijuan; Zhang, Lu; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-10-01

    Alkaline pretreatment was studied to analyze the influence on waste activated sludge (WAS) reduction, methane production and microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion. Methane production from alkaline pretreated sludge (A-WAS) (pH = 12) increased from 251.2 mL/Ld to 362.2 mL/Ld with the methane content of 68.7% compared to raw sludge (R-WAS). Sludge reduction had been improved, and volatile suspended solids (VSS) removal rate and protein reduction had increased by ∼ 10% and ∼ 35%, respectively. The bacterial and methanogenic communities were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing and clone libraries of 16S rRNA gene. Remarkable shifts were observed in microbial community structures after alkaline pretreatment, especially for Archaea. The dominant methanogenic population changed from Methanosaeta for R-WAS to Methanosarcina for A-WAS. In addition to the enhancement of solubilization and hydrolysis of anaerobic digestion of WAS, alkaline pretreatment showed significant impacts on the enrichment and syntrophic interactions between microbial communities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Allevation of Oxidative Damages Induced by Salinity in Cress (Lepidium sativum by Pretreating with Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Asadi karam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the main stresses that have negative effectcs on seedling growth, and plant production. It inhibits growth of plants through disturbance of the balance between production of ROS and antioxidant defense mechanism which results in oxidative stress. Because, arginine is a vital regulator of physiological and developmental processes the effect of different concentrations of arginine pretreatment of the plant on alleviation of oxidative stress induced by salt 50 and 100Mm NaCl was investigated. Arginine pretreatment increased chlorophyll a, b, carotenoid and seedling growth under salinity condition. Results also showed that salt stress increased proline, protein, H2O2, soluble sugar and the activity of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase and catalase. Pretreatment of plants with Arg reduced proline, soluble sugar, H2O2 and antioxidant enzymes activity content significantly. The conclusion is that in garden cress plants, pretreatment with concentration of 5 µM and 10 μM arginine may protect cress under salinity stress, probably through the contracting with ROS and or induction of anti-oxidative enzymes

  11. Pre-treatment anxiety in a dental hygiene recall population: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Deborah; Thoma, Myriam V; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Attin, Thomas; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M

    2016-03-24

    Increased levels of anxiety may affect a patient's receptiveness to treatment, health care information and behaviour modification. This study was undertaken to assess pre-treatment anxiety in a dental hygiene recall population maintaining a schedule of regular preventive care appointments. The sample population consisted of 46 consecutive adult recall patients waiting for their regularly scheduled dental hygiene appointment. Pre-treatment state (current) anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI), State form; dental anxiety with the Hierarchical Anxiety Questionnaire (HAQ); subjective stress using a visual analogue scale (VAS); and mood/alertness/calmness using the Multidimensional Mood Questionnaire (MDMQ). Two distinct groups, based on state anxiety scores, were formed; one displaying increased levels of pre-treatment anxiety (n = 14), the other low anxiety (n = 32). The HA group was characterized by significantly higher dental anxiety and subjective stress levels prior to treatment; as well as worse mood, lower alertness, and less calmness in the dental office setting. There was no correlation between anxiety level and years in dental hygiene recall. A high level of pre-treatment anxiety was present in about one third of the sample population. The prevalence of this anxiety demonstrates the need for both early recognition and patient management strategies (psychological and pain management) to positively influence their treatment experience.

  12. Microwave Assisted Alkali Pretreatment of Rice Straw for Enhancing Enzymatic Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialization, increasing energy demand, and climate change are the conditions that forced the researchers to develop a clean, efficient, renewable, and sustainable source of energy which has a potential to replace fossil fuels. Ethanol is one of the attractive and suitable renewable energy resources. In present study, effectiveness of microwave pretreatment in combination with sodium hydroxide (NaOH for increasing enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw has been investigated and under optimum conditions obtained a maximum reducing sugar (1334.79 µg/mL through microwave assisted NaOH pretreatment. Chemical composition analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM images showed that the removal of lignin, hemicellulose, and silicon content is more in microwave assisted NaOH pretreatment than the blank sample. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis revealed that the crystallinity index of rice straw treated with microwave assisted alkali (54.55% is significantly high as compared to the blank (49.07%. Hence, the present study proves that microwave assisted alkali pretreatment can effectively enhance enzymatic digestibility of rice straw and it is feasible to convert rice straw for bioethanol production.

  13. Kinetic studies of cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis from pretreated corn cob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanie, Jeannie; Kartawiria, Irvan; Abimanyu, Haznan

    2017-01-01

    Successful utilization of corn cob biomass as raw material in bioethanol production is depending on the hydrolysis process where high level of β-cellulose is converted into glucose. Enzymatic hydrolysis is the common process for this purpose. This study is focusing on the evaluation of hydrolysis of pre-treated corn cob using Novozymes Cellic ® C-Tec2 and H-Tec2 enzymes to obtain the optimum reaction condition and its general reaction kinetics. The corn cob used was pretreated using 10% of NaOH solution. Hydrolysis reactions were conducted in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask for 72 hour using mixture of C-Tec2 and H-Tec2 enzymes at the fixed ratio of 5:1 and glucose concentration were measured using HPLC. Reaction temperature of 40°C and quantity of 0.5 ml enzyme solution per gram substrate gives the highest reaction rate (0.0123 gram of glucose/gram sample.h) with the glucose yield being 0.089 g glucose/ g substrate. Total conversion of cellulose observed was 11.91 %. Corn cob hydrolysis using C-Tec2 and H-Tec2 enzymes also result in xylose (0.0202 g/g substrate), which can also contribute to bioethanol productivity in further fermentation process. The reaction is following zero order kinetics for the first 8 hours and reaches maximum yield within 10 hours; significantly shorter compared to previous studies of cellulosic material hydrolysis that may take up to 72 hour to complete. Prolonging the hydrolysis of pre-treated corn cob more than 24 hour gives no significant increase in glucose conversion and yield. Hydrolysis temperature range of 40°C to 60°C is in accordance with the manufacturer recommendation for the purpose; however the decrease of reaction rate is observable at temperature 50°C or higher.

  14. Comparison of gamma irradiation and steam explosion pretreatment for ethanol production from agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke-qin; Xiong, Xing-yao; Chen, Jing-ping; Chen, Liang; Su, Xiaojun; Liu, Yun

    2012-01-01

    It was evaluated the influence of gamma irradiation and steam explosion pretreatment on the components and the water-soluble sugars of rice straw. Compared with the steam explosion pretreated rice straw, cellucose, hemicellucose and lignin for irradiation pretreated rice sample were much more greatly degraded and the relative content of glucose was significantly enhanced from 6.58% to 47.44%. Interestingly, no glucuronide acid was detected in irradiation pretreated rice straw, while glucuronide acid with the content from 8.5 mg/g to 9.2 mg/g was obtained in steam explosion pretreated sample. Followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, higher concentration of reducing sugars (including glucose and xylose) of irradiation pretreated rice sample (90.3 mg/g) was obtained, which was approximately 2.4- and 1.1- fold higher of the unpretreated (37.2 mg/g) and of steam explosion pretreated sample (85.4 mg/g). To further verify the effectiveness of irradiation pretreatment, characterizations of rice straw, corn stalk and bagasse by an integrated process of dilute acid/enzymatic hydrolysis and irradiation pretreatment were also investigated. -- Highlights: ► We compare irradiation and steam explosion pretreatments for bioethanol production. ► We examine changes in compositions of the components and the water-soluble sugars. ► No glucuronide acid was detected in gamma irradiation pretreated rice straw. ► We evaluate an integrated method of acid/enzyme-hydrolyzed irradiation pretreatment.

  15. Ozonolysis combined with ultrasound as a pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse: Effect on the enzymatic saccharification and the physical and chemical characteristics of the substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Olavo Micali; Colombari, Felippe Mariano; Rossi, Jessika Souza; Moretti, Marcia Maria Souza; Bordignon, Sidnei Emilio; Nunes, Christiane da Costa Carreira; Gomes, Eleni; Boscolo, Mauricio; Da-Silva, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was treated in three stages using ozone oxidation (O), washing in an alkaline medium (B) and ultrasonic irradiation (U). The impact of each pretreatment stage on the physical structure of the SCB was evaluated by its chemical composition, using an infrared technique (FTIR-ATR), and using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG). The pretreatment sequence O, B, U provided a significant reduction of lignin and hemicellulose, which was confirmed by changes in the absorption bands corresponding to these compounds, when observed using infrared. Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed an increased thermal stability in the treated sample due to the removal of hemicellulose and extractives during the pretreatment. This pretreatment released 391mg glucose/g from treated SCB after the enzymatic hydrolysis, corresponding to a yield of 94% of the cellulose available. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EFFECTS OF SOME CHEMICAL PRE-TREATMENTS ON SOME PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLEBOARD MANUFACTURED FROM VINE PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergün GÜNTEKİN, Samim YAŞAR, Beyhan KARAKUŞ, Mustafa Burak ARSLAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of some pre-treatments on some physical and mechanical properties of particleboard manufactured from vine pruning. Chips that were produced from vine pruning were subjected to some pre-treatments namely cold water, 1 % sodium hydroxide, and 1 % acetic acid in order to improve their performance in particleboard manufacturing. One-layer experimental particleboards with density of 0.5 g/cm3 were manufactured from vine pruning using 6,8,10 % percent of urea formaldehyde (UF adhesive. Modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR, internal bond strength (IB, thickness swelling (TS and water absorption properties of the boards were evaluated, and a statistical analysis was performed in order to evaluate effects of pre-treatments on physical and mechanical properties. The results have shown that pre-treatments increase bending and internal bond strength of the boards while no significant effects has been observed on modulus of elasticity. The results also indicate that pre-treatments have significant effects on water absorption values of the boards but not on thickness swelling of the boards. This study demonstrates that vine pruning can be more efficiently used in particleboard manufacturing.

  17. Electro-Acupuncture at Neiguan Pretreatment Alters Genome-Wide Gene Expressions and Protects Rat Myocardium against Ischemia-Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated genome-wide gene expressions and the cardioprotective effects of electro-acupuncture pretreatment at the PC6 Neiguan acupoint on myocardial ischemia reperfusion (I/R injury. Male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operation (SO, I/R, electro-acupuncture at the PC6 Neiguan acupoint pretreatment (EA and electro-acupuncture at non-acupoint pretreatment (NA. Compared with the I/R group, the survival rate of the EA group was significantly increased, the arrhythmia score, infarction area, serum concentrations of CK, LDH and CK-Mb and plasma level of cTnT were significantly decreased. RNA-seq results showed that 725 genes were up-regulated and 861 genes were down-regulated under I/R conditions compared to the SO group; both EA and NA reversed some of these gene expression levels (592 in EA and 238 in NA group. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that these genes were involved in multiple pathways, including ECM, MAPK signaling, apoptosis, cytokine and leukocyte pathways. In addition, some pathways were uniquely regulated by EA, but not NA pretreatment, such as oxidative stress, cardiac muscle contraction, gap junction, vascular smooth muscle contraction, hypertrophic, NOD-like receptor, and P53 and B-cell receptor pathways. This study was first to reveal the gene expression signatures of acute myocardial I/R injury and electro-acupuncture pretreatment in rats.

  18. Electro-acupuncture at Neiguan pretreatment alters genome-wide gene expressions and protects rat myocardium against ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Lu, Sheng-Feng; Hu, Chen-Jun; Fu, Shu-Ping; Shen, Wei-Xing; Liu, Wan-Xin; Li, Qian; Wang, Ning; He, Su-Yun; Liang, Fan-Rong; Zhu, Bing-Mei

    2014-10-09

    This study investigated genome-wide gene expressions and the cardioprotective effects of electro-acupuncture pretreatment at the PC6 Neiguan acupoint on myocardial ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. Male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operation (SO), I/R, electro-acupuncture at the PC6 Neiguan acupoint pretreatment (EA) and electro-acupuncture at non-acupoint pretreatment (NA). Compared with the I/R group, the survival rate of the EA group was significantly increased, the arrhythmia score, infarction area, serum concentrations of CK, LDH and CK-Mb and plasma level of cTnT were significantly decreased. RNA-seq results showed that 725 genes were up-regulated and 861 genes were down-regulated under I/R conditions compared to the SO group; both EA and NA reversed some of these gene expression levels (592 in EA and 238 in NA group). KEGG pathway analysis indicated that these genes were involved in multiple pathways, including ECM, MAPK signaling, apoptosis, cytokine and leukocyte pathways. In addition, some pathways were uniquely regulated by EA, but not NA pretreatment, such as oxidative stress, cardiac muscle contraction, gap junction, vascular smooth muscle contraction, hypertrophic, NOD-like receptor, and P53 and B-cell receptor pathways. This study was first to reveal the gene expression signatures of acute myocardial I/R injury and electro-acupuncture pretreatment in rats.

  19. Enhanced thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by chemical pretreatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Luo, Gang; Xie, Li

    2013-01-01

    Acid and alkaline pretreatments for enhanced hydrogen production from cassava stillage were investigated in the present study. The result showed that acid pretreatment was suitable for enhancement of soluble carbohydrate while alkaline pretreatment stimulated more soluble total organic carbon...... that the increase of all factors increased the soluble carbohydrate production, whereas hydrogen production was inhibited when the factors exceeded their optimal values. The optimal conditions for hydrogen production were pretreatment temperature 89.5 °C, concentration 1.4% and time 69 min for the highest hydrogen...... production from cassava stillage. Acid pretreatment thereby has higher capacity to promote hydrogen production compared with alkaline pretreatment. Effects of pretreatment temperature, time and acid concentration on hydrogen production were also revealed by response surface methodology. The results showed...

  20. Effects of Pretreatment Methods on Electrodes and SOFC Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Bin Jung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available tapes (anode, electrolyte and paste (cathode were choosen to prepare anode-supported cells for solid oxide fuel cell applications. For both anode-supported cells or electrolyte-supported cells, the anode needs pretreatment to reduce NiO/YSZ to Ni/YSZ to increase its conductivity as well as its catalytic characteristics. In this study, the effects of different pretreatments (open-circuit, closed-circuit on cathode and anodes as well as SOFC performance are investigated. To investigate the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode alone, a Pt cathode is utilized as reference for comparison with the LSM cathode. The characterization of the electrical resistance, AC impedance, and SOFC performance of the resulting electrodes and/or anode-supported cell were carried out. It’s found that the influence of open-circuit pretreatment on the LSM cathode is limited. However, the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on both the LSM cathode and NiO/YSZ anode and the resulting SOFC performance is profound. The effect of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode is attributed to its change of electronic/pore structure as well as catalytic characteristics. With closed-circuit pretreatment, the SOFC performance improved greatly from the change of LSM cathode (and Pt reference compared to the Ni/YSZ anode.

  1. Physicochemical characterization, modelling and optimization of ultrasono-assisted acid pretreatment of two Pennisetum sp. using Taguchi and artificial neural networking for enhanced delignification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Sonali; Dandapat, Snigdha Jyotsna; Thatoi, Hrudayanath

    2017-02-01

    Acid as well as ultrasono-assisted acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass of two Pennisetum sp.; Denanath grass (DG) and Hybrid Napier grass (HNG) have been investigated for enhanced delignification and maximum exposure of cellulose for production of bioethanol. Screening of pretreatment with different acids such as H 2 SO 4 , HCl, H 3 PO 4 and H 2 NO 3 were optimized for different temperature, soaking time and acid concentrations using Taguchi orthogonal array and the data obtained were statistically validated using artificial neural networking. HCl was found to be the most effective acid for pretreatment of both the Pennisetum sp. The optimized conditions of HCl pretreatment were acid concentration of 1% and 1.5%, soaking time 130 and 50 min and temperature 121 °C and 110 °C which yielded maximum delignification of 33.0% and 33.8% for DG and HNG respectively. Further ultrosono-assisted HCl pretreatment with a power supply of 100 W, temperature of 353 K, and duty cycle of 70% has resulted in significantly higher delignification of 80.4% and 82.1% for both DG and HNG respectively than that of acid pretreatment. Investigation using SEM, FTIR and autofloresence microscopy for both acid and ultrasono-assisted acid pretreatment lignocellulosic biomass revealed conformational changes of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass with decreased lignin content and increased exposure of cellulose, with greater effectiveness in case of ultrasono assisted acid pretreatment condition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Carbohydrate degradation mechanisms and compounds from pretreated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helena

    The formation of inhibitors during pretreatment of lignocellulosic feedstocks is a persistent problem, and notably the compounds that retard enzymatic cellulose conversion represent an obstacle for achieving optimal enzymatic productivity and high glucose yields. Compounds with many chemical......, reduced the level of oligophenolic compounds with 73 % compared to the original pretreatment and 41 % compared to the control. When pretreatment severity was increased the amount of xylooligosaccharides decreased whereas the amount of oligophenolic compounds increased. No new degradation compounds were...... pretreated wheat straw after enzymatic treatment. It was found that formation of the oligophenolic degradation compounds were common across biomass sources as sugar cane bagasse and oil palm empty fruit bunches. These findings were in line with that the oligophenolic compounds arise from reactions involving...

  3. Amelioration of bromobenzene hepatotoxicity by Withania somnifera pretreatment: Role of mitochondrial oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Vedi, Mahima; Rasool, Mahaboobkhan; Sabina, Evan Prince

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the possible protective role of Withania somnifera (Linn.) Dunal (Solanaceae) root powder against bromobenzene-induced oxidative damage in rat liver mitochondria. Administration of bromobenzene (10 mmol/kg body weight) to rats resulted in increased levels of liver marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, TNF-α, IL-1β and VEGF. There was also marked depletion in the levels of mitochondrial enzymes and antioxidant activity. Pre-treatment with W. somnifera significantly...

  4. Effects of thermal pre-treatments on solid slaughterhouse waste methane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Abalde, A; Fernández, B; Silvestre, G; Flotats, X

    2011-07-01

    The effects of thermal pre-treatments on the biogas production potential of two solid slaughterhouse waste types (poultry and piggery slaughterhouse by-products) were assessed by means of batch experiments. Both animal by-products were characterized in terms of fat, protein and carbohydrate concentrations. The selected thermal pre-treatments, pasteurization (70 °C for 60 min) and sterilization (133 °C and 3 bars for 20 min), are included in the current European regulations for the disposal or use of animal by-products. The pre-treatments produced notable improvements in organic matter solubilization, but had different effects on the anaerobic bioavailability of the treated substrates. The methane yield of the initial volatile solids did not increase significantly after pre-treatment when carbohydrate concentration was high, reaching a maximum of 0.48 m(CH4)(3) kg(VS)(-1) for the pasteurized poultry waste. However, this yield increased by up to 52.7% after pasteurization and 66.1% after sterilization for the lower carbohydrate concentration sample (piggery waste), reaching maxima of 0.88 and 0.96 m(CH4)(3) kg(VS)(-1), respectively. The maximum methane production rates, measured as the maximum slope of the accumulated methane production curve, per unit of initial biomass content, were also different. While this rate increased by 52.6% and 211.6% for piggery waste after pasteurization and sterilization, respectively, it decreased by 43.8% for poultry waste after pasteurization with respect to untreated waste. Compounds with low biodegradability that are produced by Maillard reactions during thermal pre-treatment could explain the low bioavailability observed for waste with a high carbohydrate concentration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  6. Deep eutectic solvent (DES) as a pretreatment for oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) in production of sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Nur Atikah Md; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Hassan, Osman

    2015-09-01

    Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) at different parameters to enable a highest yield of sugar. DES is a combination of two or more cheap and safe components to form a eutectic mixture through hydrogen bond interaction, which has a melting point lower than that of each component. DES can be used to replace ionic liquids (ILs), which are more expensive and toxic. In this study, OPEFB was pretreated with DES mixture of choline chloride: urea in 1:2 molar ratio. The pretreatment was performed at temperature 110°C and 80°C for 4 hours and 1 hour. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours), B (110°C, 1 hour), C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour). Enzymatic hydrolysis was done by using the combination of two enzymes, namely, Cellic Ctec2 and Cellic Htec2. The treated fiber is tested for crystallinity using XRD and functional group analysis using FTIR, to check the effect of the pretreatment on the fiber and compared it with the untreated fiber. From XRD analysis, DES successfully gave an effect towards degree of crystallinity of cellulose. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours) and B (110°C, 1 hour) successfully reduce the percentage of crystallinity while pretreatment C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour) increased the percentage of crystallinity. From FTIR analysis, DES cannot remove the functional group of lignin and hemicellulose but it is believed that DES can expose the structure of cellulose. Upon enzymatic hydrolysis, DES-treated fiber successfully produced sugar but not significantly when compared with raw. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours), B (110°C, 1 hour), C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour) produced glucose at the amount of 60.47 mg/ml, 66.33 mg/ml, 61.96 mg/ml and 59.12 mg/ml respectively. However, pretreatment C gave the highest xylose (70.01 mg/ml) production compared to other DES pretreatments.

  7. Optimization pretreatment condition of sweet sorghum bagasse for production of second generation bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiyani, Yanni; Waluyo, Joko; Triwahyuni, Eka; Burhani, Dian; Muryanto, Primandaru, Prasetyo; Riandy, Andika Putra; Sumardi, Novia

    2017-01-01

    The bagasse residue of Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) consist of cellulose 39.48%; hemicellulose 16.56% and lignin 24.77% that can be converted to ethanol. Pretreatment is of great importance to ethanol yield. In this study, pretreatment process was conducted in a 5-liter reactor using NaOH 10% at various temperature 110, 130, 150°C and reaction time 10, 20, 30 minutes and optimizing severity parameter (log R0 between 1.3 - 2.9). The statistical analysis using two way anova showed that third variations of temperature give different effects significant on lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content at 95% the confidence level. The optimum pretreatment of bagasse sorghum were obtained with Log R0 value between 2.4-2.9. High severity value in pretreatment condition reduce lignin almost 84-86%, maximum reducing lignin content was 86% obtained at temperature 150°C for 20 minutes reaction time and cellulose increased almost two times the initial content.

  8. Release of non-methane organic compounds during simulated landfilling of aerobically pretreated municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yue, Dongbei; Liu, Jianguo; Lu, Peng; Wang, Ying; Liu, Jing; Nie, Yongfeng

    2012-06-30

    Characteristics of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) emissions during the anaerobic decomposition of untreated (APD-0) and four aerobically pretreated (APD-20, APD-39, APD-49, and APD-63) samples of municipal solid waste (MSW) were investigated in laboratory. The cumulative mass of the NMOCs of APD-20, APD-39, APD-49, and APD-63 accounted for 15%, 9%, 16%, and 15% of that of APD-0, respectively. The intensities of the NMOC emissions calculated by dividing the cumulative NMOC emissions by the quantities of organic matter removed (Q(VS)) decreased from 4.1 mg/kg Q(VS) for APD-0 to 0.8-3.4 mg/kg Q(VS) for aerobically pretreated MSW. The lipid and starch contents might have significant impact on the intensity of the NMOC emissions. Alkanes dominated the NMOCs released from the aerobically pretreated MSW, while oxygenated compounds were the chief component of the NMOCs generated from untreated MSW. Aerobic pretreatment of MSW prior to landfilling reduces the organic content of the waste and the intensity of the NMOC emissions, and increases the odor threshold, thereby reducing the environmental impact of landfills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Curing kinetics and mechanical behavior of natural rubber reinforced with pretreated carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, G.; Zhong, W.H.; Yang, X.P.; Yu, Y.H.

    2008-01-01

    To significantly improve the performance of rubber materials, fundamental studies on rubber nanocomposites are necessary. The curing kinetics and vulcanizate properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/natural rubber (NR) nanocomposites were analyzed in this paper. The pretreatment of CNTs was carried out by acid bath followed by ball milling with HRH bonding systems in experiments. The CNT/NR nanocomposites were prepared through solvent mixing on the basis of pretreatment of CNTs. The surface characteristic of CNTs and physical interaction between CNTs and NR macromolecules were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The vulcanization kinetics of CNT/NR nanocomposites were studied contrasting with the neat NR. The quality of the NR vulcanizates was assessed through static and dynamic mechanical property tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Curing kinetic parameters of the neat NR and CNT/NR nanocomposites were obtained from experiments; the results indicated that the presence of CNTs affects the curing process of the NR, and additional heating is required to cure CNT/NR nanocomposites due to its higher active energy. The dispersion of pretreated CNTs in the rubber matrix and interfacial adhesion between them were obviously improved. The physical and mechanical properties of the CNT/NR nanocomposites showed considerable increases by incorporation of the pretreated CNTs compared to the neat NR and untreated CNTs-filled NR nanocomposites

  10. High pressure assist-alkali pretreatment of cotton stalk and physiochemical characterization of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shuang-kui; Zhu, Xinna; Wang, Hua; Zhou, Dayun; Yang, Weihua; Xu, Hongxia

    2013-11-01

    Ground cotton stalks were pretreated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at concentrations of 1-4% (w/v), pressures of 30-130 kPa, durations of 15-75 min, and liquid/solid ratios of 10:1-30:1. Modeling of the high pressure assist-alkali pretreatment (HPAP) of cotton stalk was attempted. The levels of NaOH concentration, pressure, and duration were optimized using a Box-Behnken design to enhance the cellulose content of treated solid residue. The optimum pretreatment conditions were as follows: liquid/solid ratio, 20:1; pressure, 130 kPa; NaOH concentration, 3.0%; duration, 40 min. During the conditions, cellulose content of pretreated cotton stalk residue was 64.07%. The maximum cellulose conversion of 45.82% and reducing sugar yield of 0.293 g/g upon hydrolysis were obtained. Significant differences were observed in biomass composition and physiochemical characteristics between native and alkali-treated biomass. High NaOH concentration and pressure were conducive to lignin dissolution and resulted in increased cellulose content and conversion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of NTP Pretreatment on Thermal Resistance and Fouling Components of Oilfield Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Li, Wenli; Zou, Longsheng; Fu, Honghun

    2018-01-01

    In order to prevent scaling in the process of oilfield wastewater evaporation, low temperature plasma is used for pretreatment of heavy oil wastewater. It reacts with the ions and radicals produced by the low-temperature plasma and then is send into the evaporator. The changes of various indexes of the distilled water and the distribution of fouling in the evaporation process of heavy oil wastewater after plasma pretreatment were studied. The results showed that the content and hardness of silica in wastewater were decreased after plasma pretreatment, which was more suitable for evaporation treatment. At the same time, the content of salt and oil in distilled water is reduced, and the quality is improved. In addition, when the steam concentration was 30∼40 times, the suspended solids in the concentrated solution of the wastewater increased significantly after the plasma treatment. Correspondingly, the fouling at the bottom of evaporator is greatly reduced. Comparing the various indexes of distilled water and the feed water index of gas injection boiler, it can be seen that the excessive oil content in distilled water is the biggest obstacle to the recovery of distilled water to boiler feed water. Low temperature plasma pretreatment can provide a quick and new way to solve the scaling problems and water quality problems in the recovery of distilled water from a large number of heavy oil wastewater.

  12. Pretreatment prostate-specific antigen doubling times: clinical utility of this predictor of prostate cancer behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Gerald E.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Lee, W. Robert; Slivjak, Anne; Schultheiss, Timothy E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The distribution of pretreatment and posttreatment prostate specific antigen (PSA) doubling times (PSADT) varies widely. This report examines the pretreatment PSADT as an independent predictor of biochemical freedom from disease (bNED) and describes the clinical utility of PSADT. Methods and Materials: Ninety-nine patients with T1-3 NX, M-0 prostate cancer treated between February 1989 and November 1993 have pretreatment PSADTs calculated from three or more PSA levels. Biochemical disease-free (bNED) survival (failure is PSA ≥ 1.5 ngm/ml and rising) is evaluated by multivariate analysis of common prognostic indicators and PSADT. Results: Prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) is a significant predictor of survival along with radiation dose. Patients with a pretreatment PSADT of < 12 months show 50% failure by 18 months, while those with a PSADT that is not increasing show only 3% failure at 3 years. Conclusions: Prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) is a predictor of bNED outcome in prostate cancer. Patients with PSADT < 12 months have aggressive disease and should be considered for multimodal therapy. Slow PSADT (≥ 5 years) is observed in 57% of patients, and this end point may be considered in the decision to observe rather than to treat. After treatment failure, the PSADT may be used to determine which patients do not need immediate androgen deprivation

  13. Gambling Disorder: Exploring Pre-treatment and In-treatment Dropout Predictors. A UK Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Soldini, Emiliano; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify predictors of treatment dropout in a sample of gamblers attending a specialist clinic for gambling disorder. We analysed data on 846 treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Firstly, we investigated differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables between treatment completers and pre-treatment dropouts, as well as between treatment completers and during-treatment dropouts. Subsequently, variables were entered into a multinomial logistic regression model to identify significant predictors of pre-treatment and in-treatment dropout. Overall, 44.8% of clients did not complete the treatment: 27.4% dropped out before starting it, while 17.4% dropped out during the treatment. Younger age and use of drugs were associated with pre-treatment dropout, while family history of gambling disorder, a lower PGSI score, and being a smoker were related with in-treatment dropout. Our findings suggest that pre-treatment dropouts differ from in-treatment dropouts, and, thus, further research will benefit from considering these groups separately. In addition, this newly gained knowledge will also be helpful in increasing treatment retention in specific subgroups of problem gamblers.

  14. INFLUENCE OF NANOFILTRATION PRETREATMENT ON SCALE DEPOSITION IN MULTI-STAGE FLASH THERMAL DESALINATION PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman E Al-Rawajfeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scale formation represents a major operational problem encountered in thermal desalination plants. In current installed plants, and to allow for a reasonable safety margin, sulfate scale deposition limits the top brine temperature (TBT in multi-stage flash (MSF distillers up to 110-112oC. This has significant effect on the unit capital, operational and water production cost. In this work, the influence of nanofiltration (NF pretreatment on the scale deposition potential and increasing TBT in MSF thermal desalination plants is modeled on the basis of mass transfer with chemical reaction of solutes in the brine. Full and partial NF-pretreatment of the feed water were investigated. TBT can be increased in MSF by increasing the percentage of NF-treated feed. Full NF pretreatment of the make-up allows TBT in the MSF plant to be raised up to 175oC in the case of di hybrid NF-MSF and up to 165oC in the case of tri hybrid NF-RO-MSF. The significant scale reduction is associated with increasing flashing range, unit recovery, unit performance, and will lead to reduction in heat transfer surface area, pumping power and therefore, water production cost.

  15. Experimentally-induced immune activation in natural hosts of SIV induces significant increases in viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Chronically SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) have a remarkably stable non-pathogenic disease course, with levels of immune activation in chronic SIVagm infection similar to those observed in uninfected monkeys and stable viral loads (VLs) for long periods of time. In vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4{sup +} T cells. Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating that immune activation and T cell prolifeation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis.

  16. Modulation of gamma radiation induced changes in the weight of spleen and thymus by centella asiatica pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Radha; Jaimala

    2003-01-01

    Centella asiatica (Linn) is a medicinal plant widely used in several Ayurvedic preparations. Pretreatment of swiss albino mice with Centella asiatica one hour before irradiation with a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight protected the animal from death by way of reducing the histopathological changes and loss of weight of the spleen and thymus against radiation. In irradiated animals (6 and 8 Gy) the reduction in the weight of spleen and thymus was significantly higher and recovery was slower in comparison to animals pretreated with Centella asiatica. It might be due to the increased cell population in the spleen and thymus of the animal pretreated with the plant extract or plant extract might have inhibited the cell death caused by radiation. (author)

  17. Impact of surfactant type for ionic liquid pretreatment on enhancing delignification of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ken-Lin; Chen, Xi-Mei; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Han, Ye-Ju; Potprommanee, Laddawan; Liu, Jing-Yong; Liao, Yu-Ling; Ning, Xun-An; Sun, Shui-Yu; Huang, Qing

    2017-03-01

    This work describes an environmentally friendly method for pretreating rice straw by using 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl) as an ionic liquid (IL) assisted by surfactants. The impacts of surfactant type (including nonionic-, anionic-, cationic- and bio-surfactant) on the ionic liquid pretreatment were investigated. The bio-surfactant+IL-pretreated rice straw showed significant lignin removal (26.14%) and exhibited higher cellulose conversion (36.21%) than the untreated (16.16%) rice straw. The cellulose conversion of the rice straw pretreated with bio-surfactant+IL was the highest and the lowest was observed for pretreated with cationic-surfactant+IL. Untreated and pretreated rice straw was thoroughly characterized through SEM and AFM. In conclusion, the results provided an effective and environmental method for pretreating lignocellulosic substrates by using green solvent (ionic liquid) and biodegradable bio-surfactant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of oral THC pretreatment on marijuana cue-induced responses in cannabis dependent volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Leslie H; Greenwald, Mark K

    2015-04-01

    The current study tested whether oral Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC: 0-, 10-, and 20-mg) pretreatment would attenuate polysensory cue-induced craving for marijuana. Cannabis dependent participants (7 males and 7 females, who smoked on average 5.4 ± 1.1 blunts daily) completed 3 experimental sessions (oral THC pretreatment dose; counterbalanced order) using a placebo-controlled within-subject crossover design. During each session, participants completed a baseline evaluation and were first exposed to neutral cues then marijuana cues while physiological measures and subjective ratings of mood, craving, and drug effect were recorded. Following placebo oral THC pretreatment, marijuana (vs. neutral) cues significantly increased ratings of marijuana craving (desire and urge to use, Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ)-Compulsivity scale), anxious mood and feeling hungry. Males also reported feeling more "Down" during marijuana cues relative to females. Pretreatment with oral THC (10-mg and/or 20-mg vs. placebo) significantly attenuated marijuana cue-induced increases in craving and anxiety but not hunger. Oral THC attenuation of the cue-induced increase in MCQ-Compulsivity ratings was observed in females only. Oral THC produced statistically (but not clinically) significant increases in heart rate and decreases in diastolic blood pressure, independent of cues. These marijuana-cue findings replicate earlier results and further demonstrate that oral THC can attenuate selected effects during marijuana multi-cue exposure, and that some of these effects may be sex-related. Results of this study suggest oral THC may be effective for reducing marijuana cue-elicited (conditioned) effects. Further study is needed to determine whether females may selectively benefit from oral THC for this purpose. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Respiratory actions of tachykinins in the nucleus of the solitary tract: effect of neonatal capsaicin pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Stuart B; Geraghty, Dominic P

    2000-01-01

    The respiratory response to microinjection of capsaicin and tachykinin receptor agonists into the commissural nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS) was investigated in adult, urethane-anaesthetized rats which had been pretreated with capsaicin (50 mg kg−1 s.c.) or vehicle (10% Tween 80, 10% ethanol in saline) as day 2 neonates. Microinjection of capsaicin (1 nmol) into the cNTS of vehicle-pretreated rats, significantly reduced respiratory frequency (59 breaths min−1, preinjection control, 106 breaths min−1) without affecting tidal volume (VT). In capsaicin-pretreated rats, the capsaicin-induced bradypnoea was markedly attenuated (minimum frequency, 88 breaths min−1; control, 106 breaths min−1). In vehicle-pretreated rats, microinjection of substance P (SP, 33 pmol), neurokinin A (NKA, 33 pmol) and NKB (330 pmol), and the selective NK1 tachykinin receptor agonists, [Sar9,Met(O2)11]-SP (33 pmol) and septide (10 pmol), increased VT (maxima, 3.60–3.93 ml kg−1) compared with preinjection control (2.82 ml kg−1), without affecting frequency. The selective NK3 agonist senktide (10 pmol) also increased VT (3.93 ml kg−1) which was accompanied by a bradypnoea (−25 breaths min−1). The selective NK2 agonist, [Nle10]-NKA(4-10) (330 pmol) increased VT slightly but significantly decreased frequency (−12 breaths min−1). In capsaicin-pretreated rats, VT responses to SP and [Sar9,Met(O2)11]-SP were increased whereas the response to septide was abolished. Both the VT and bradypnoeic responses to senktide and [Nle10]-NKA(4-10) were significantly enhanced. These results show that neonatal capsaicin administration markedly reduces the respiratory response to microinjection of capsaicin into the cNTS. The destruction of capsaicin-sensitive afferents appears to sensitize the NTS to SP, NKB, [Sar9,Met(O2)11]-SP, senktide and [Nle10]-NKA(4-10). Moreover, the loss of septide responsiveness in capsaicin-pretreated rats

  20. The significance of the European beaver (Castor fibre activity for the process of renaturalization of river valleys in the era of increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusztal Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the environment that are caused by the activity of beavers bring numerous advantages. They affect the increase in biodiversity, contribute to improving the condition of cleanliness of watercourses, improve local water relations and restore the natural landscape of river valleys.

  1. Co-downregulation of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase and coumarate 3-hydroxylase significantly increases cellulose content in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zongyong; Li, Heng; Zhang, Rongxue; Ma, Lei; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Lignin is a component of the cell wall that is essential for growth, development, structure and pathogen resistance in plants, but high lignin is an obstacle to the conversion of cellulose to ethanol for biofuel. Genetically modifying lignin and cellulose contents can be a good approach to overcoming that obstacle. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is rich in lignocellulose biomass and used as a model plant for the genetic modification of lignin in this study. Two key enzymes in the lignin biosynthesis pathway-hydroxycinnamoyl -CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) and coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)-were co-downregulated. Compared to wild-type plants, the lignin content in the modified strain was reduced by 38%, cellulose was increased by 86.1%, enzyme saccharification efficiency was increased by 10.9%, and cell wall digestibility was increased by 13.0%. The modified alfalfa exhibited a dwarf phenotype, but normal above ground biomass. This approach provides a new strategy for reducing lignin and increasing cellulose contents and creates a new genetically modified crop with enhanced value for biofuel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ensiling of wheat straw decreases the required temperature in hydrothermal pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia; Meyer, Anne S

    2013-01-01

    Ensiling is a well-known method for preserving green biomasses through anaerobic production of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria. In this study, wheat straw is subjected to ensiling in combination with hydrothermal treatment as a combined pretreatment method, taking advantage of the produced organic acids. Ensiling for 4 weeks was accomplished in a vacuum bag system after addition of an inoculum of Lactobacillus buchneri and 7% w/w xylose to wheat straw biomass at 35% final dry matter. Both glucan and xylan were preserved, and the DM loss after ensiling was less than 0.5%. When comparing hydrothermally treated wheat straw (170, 180 and 190°C) with hydrothermally treated ensiled wheat straw (same temperatures), several positive effects of ensiling were revealed. Glucan was up-concentrated in the solid fraction and the solubilisation of hemicellulose was significantly increased. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fractions showed that ensiling significantly improved the effect of pretreatment, especially at the lower temperatures of 170 and 180°C. The overall glucose yields after pretreatments of ensiled wheat straw were higher than for non-ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 190°C, namely 74-81% of the theoretical maximum glucose in the raw material, which was ~1.8 times better than the corresponding yields for the non-ensiled straw pretreated at 170 or 180°C. The highest overall conversion of combined glucose and xylose was achieved for ensiled wheat straw hydrothermally treated at 180°C, with overall glucose yield of 78% and overall conversion yield of xylose of 87%. Ensiling of wheat straw is shown to be an effective pre-step to hydrothermal treatment, and can give rise to a welcomed decrease of process temperature in hydrothermal treatments, thereby potentially having a positive effect on large scale pretreatment costs.

  3. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole...... slurry (Filter cake + filtrate) in SSF were also tested. Except ethanol yields, pretreatment methods were evaluated based on achieved glucose yields, amount of water used, recovery of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.The highest ethanol yield obtained was 67% after fermenting the whole slurry...... produced by WO at 205 °C for 3 min with 12 bar of oxygen gas pressure and featured with presoaking in water. At these conditions after pre-treatment, cellulose and hemicellulose was recovered quantitatively (100%) together with 86% of the lignin. WO treatments of 2–3 min at 205–210 °C with 12 bar of oxygen...

  4. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    an efficient production of ethanol. Lastly, the conversion of xylan was extremely low in both grass and grass silage. Optimization of the enzymatic saccharification of grass was attempted through improvement of the hemicellulase content in the enzyme blend. However, neither additional xylanases (Cellic HTec2......Development of sound technologies of biomass conversion will be increasingly important for many years to come as planetary bounderies drive the development towards a biobased society. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is, in this regard, an essential technology. Current pretreatment methods...... method with low cost and low energy requirements, plus brings about multiple advantages with regards to agricultural management. However, the pretreatment effect of ensiling, and the overall effects for further conversion are limited. In this study, ensiling was evaluated as a method of pretreatment...

  5. Effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on emulsion polymerization of styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Daichi; Horie, Takafumi; Hongo, Chizuru; Ohmura, Naoto

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of pretreatment of ultrasonic irradiation on emulsion polymerization of styrene to propose a process intensification method which gives high conversion, high reaction rate, and high energy efficiency. The solution containing styrene monomer was irradiated by a horn mounted on the ultrasonic transducer with the diameter of 5mm diameter and the frequency of 28 kHz before starting polymerization. The pretreatment of ultrasound irradiation as short as 1 min drastically improved monomer dispersion and increased reaction rate even under the agitation condition with low rotational speed of impeller. Furthermore, the ultrasonic pretreatment resulted in higher monomer concentration in polymer particles and produced larger polymer particles than conventional polymerization without ultrasonic pretreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pretreatment of microalgae to improve biogas production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Fabiana; Uggetti, Enrica; Carrère, Hélène; Ferrer, Ivet

    2014-11-01

    Microalgae have been intensively studied as a source of biomass for replacing conventional fossil fuels in the last decade. The optimization of biomass production, harvesting and downstream processing is necessary for enabling its full-scale application. Regarding biofuels, biogas production is limited by the characteristics of microalgae, in particular the complex cell wall structure of most algae species. Therefore, pretreatment methods have been investigated for microalgae cell wall disruption and biomass solubilization before undergoing anaerobic digestion. This paper summarises the state of the art of different pretreatment techniques used for improving microalgae anaerobic biodegradability. Pretreatments were divided into 4 categories: (i) thermal; (ii) mechanical; (iii) chemical and (iv) biological methods. According to experimental results, all of them are effective at increasing biomass solubilization and methane yield, pretreatment effect being species dependent. Pilot-scale research is still missing and would help evaluating the feasibility of full-scale implementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pretreatment Characteristics of Waste Oak Wood by Ammonia Percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Seok; Kim, Hyunjoon; Lee, Jin-Suk; Lee, Joon-Pyo; Park, Soon-Chul

    A log of waste oak wood collected from a Korean mushroom farm has been tested for ammonia percolation pretreatment. The waste log has different physical characteristics from that of virgin oak wood. The density of the waste wood was 30% lower than that of virgin oak wood. However, there is little difference in the chemical compositions between the woods. Due to the difference in physical characteristics, the optimal pretreatment conditions were also quite different. While for waste oak the optimum temperature was determined to be 130°C, for virgin oak wood the optimum pretreatment was only achieved at 170°C. Presoaking for 12 h with ammonia solution before pretreatment was helpful to increase the delignification efficiency.

  8. Increased levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with chronic schizophrenia — significance for activation of the kynurenine pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieler, Lilly; Larsson, Markus K.; Skogh, Elisabeth; Kegel, Magdalena E.; Orhan, Funda; Abdelmoaty, Sally; Finn, Anja; Bhat, Maria; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Sellgren, Carl; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Svensson, Camilla I.; Erhardt, Sophie; Engberg, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that schizophrenia is associated with brain immune activation. While a number of reports suggest increased cytokine levels in patients with schizophrenia, many of these studies have been limited by their focus on peripheral cytokines or confounded by various antipsychotic treatments. Here, well-characterized patients with schizophrenia, all receiving olanzapine treatment, and healthy volunteers were analyzed with regard to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines. We correlated the CSF cytokine levels to previously analyzed metabolites of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway. Methods We analyzed the CSF from patients and controls using electrochemiluminescence detection with regard to cytokines. Cell culture media from human cortical astrocytes were analyzed for KYN and kynurenic acid (KYNA) using high-pressure liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results We included 23 patients and 37 controls in our study. Patients with schizophrenia had increased CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-6 compared with healthy volunteers. In patients, we also observed a positive correlation between IL-6 and the tryptophan:KYNA ratio, indicating that IL-6 activates the KYN pathway. In line with this, application of IL-6 to cultured human astrocytes increased cell medium concentration of KYNA. Limitations The CSF samples had been frozen and thawed twice before analysis of cytokines. Median age differed between patients and controls. When appropriate, all present analyses were adjusted for age. Conclusion We have shown that IL-6, KYN and KYNA are elevated in patients with chronic schizophrenia, strengthening the idea of brain immune activation in patients with this disease. Our concurrent cell culture and clinical findings suggest that IL-6 induces the KYN pathway, leading to increased production of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist KYNA in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25455350

  9. VaCPK20 gene overexpression significantly increased resveratrol content and expression of stilbene synthase genes in cell cultures of Vitis amurensis Rupr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleynova-Shumakova, O A; Dubrovina, A S; Manyakhin, A Y; Karetin, Y A; Kiselev, K V

    2014-06-01

    Resveratrol, a naturally occurring plant phenol, has been reported to exhibit a wide range of valuable biological and pharmacological properties. In the present investigation, we show that transformation of a Vitis amurensis Rupr. cell suspension with the gene VaCPK20 for a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) under the control of double CaMV 35S promoter increased resveratrol production in five independently transformed cell lines in 9-68 times compared with control cells. The VaCPK20-transformed calli were capable of producing 0.04-0.42 % dry wt. of resveratrol, while the control calli produced up to 0.008 % dry wt. of resveratrol Also, we characterized expression of stilbene synthase (STS) genes in the five VaCPK20-transgenic cell lines of V. amurensis. In all VaCPK20-transgenic cell lines, expression of VaSTS7 increased; while expression of VaSTS1 decreased. We suggest that transformation of V. amurensis calli with the VaCPK20 gene induced resveratrol accumulation via enhancement of expression of the VaSTS7 gene involved in resveratrol biosynthesis. The obtained data first demonstrate that overexpression of a CDPK gene resulted in increased accumulation of a stilbenoid phytoalexine in transgenic plant cells. We propose that the VaCPK20 gene could play an important role in the regulation of resveratrol biosynthesis in grape cells.

  10. Hydrogen fermentation of food waste by alkali-shock pretreatment: microbial community analysis and limitation of continuous operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sujin; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Lee, Mo-Kwon; Moon, Chungman; Kang, Won-Seok; Kwak, Seung-Shin; Kim, Mi-Sun

    2015-06-01

    In the study, at first, batch tests were performed to investigate the effect of alkali-shock on H2 production from food waste (FW). After alkali-pretreatment of FW at pH 9.0-13.0, the FW was cultivated under mesophilic condition at pH 6.0 for 30 h without external inoculum addition. The amount of H2 production from FW pretreated at pH 11.0 and 12.0 was higher than that achieved in other pretreatment pH. The main metabolite was butyrate, and Clostridium were dominant at pH 11.0 and 12.0. Meanwhile, lactate was the main metabolite with Enterococcus and Streptococcus being the dominant genus at other pretreatment pH. When the batch process was switched to a continuous mode, H2 production was significantly dropped due to the increased activity of H2-consumers. The reliability of alkali-pretreatment at pH 11.0 was proven by repeating the scale-up batch process, recording 1.57±0.11 mol H2/mol hexose(added) (17±2LH2/kg FW) and 4.39±0.32LH2/L/d. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of levocabastine and furosemide pretreatment on hyperreactive response after nasal provocation with hypotonic aerosol in subjects with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzic, Srdjan Ante; Dzepina, Davor; Kalogjera, Livije

    2007-11-01

    Patients with allergic rhinitis demonstrate hyperreactive response in distilled water nasal provocation, shown by significant increase in nasal airway resistance (NAR). Antihistamines, including topical antihistamine, levocabastine, reduce response in non-specific nasal provocation tests. Furosemide is a diuretic which reduces hyperreactivity in lower airways, but the mode of its action is not yet fully understood. In this study, we hypothesized that either levocabastine or furosemide pre-treatment in allergic rhinitis patients reduced response to nasal challenge with non-isotonic aerosol. To test the hypothesis, we measured the effect of pre-treatment with levocabastine and furosemide in topical application on suppression of hyperreactive response to distilled water nasal inhalation. Nasal resistance was measured, prior to and after the provocation, by active anterior rhinomanometry in two randomized groups of patients, according to pre-treatment, either by levocabastine or furosemide, 20 patients in each group, respectively. Nasal airflow resistance and level of hyperreactive response considering nasal eosinophilia were tested. Significant increase in nasal resistance following provocation was found at baseline conditions (without pre-medication); pre-treatment with levocabastine and furosemide has suppressed such response. Patients with positive nasal eosinophilia showed a significantly higher increase in nasal resistance compared to those with negative smears. Furosemide has shown significantly better protective effect on nasal resistance increase in patients with positive eosinophils nasal smears. Levocabastine and furosemide pre-treatment suppress hyperreactive response to distilled water nasal provocation. Comparison of resistances (pre-treatment vs. without) showed more protective effect of furosemide, measured on both better and worse patent side of nose, in contrast to levocabastine group for which it was shown only on better patent side prior to

  12. Biologically Pre-Treated Habitation Waste Water as a Sustainable Green Urine Pre-Treat Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Thompson, Bret; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Morse, Audra; Meyer, Caitlin; Callahan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The ability to recover water from urine and flush water is a critical process to allow long term sustainable human habitation in space or bases on the moon or mars. Organic N present as urea or similar compounds can hydrolyze producing free ammonia. This reaction results in an increase in the pH converting ammonium to ammonia which is volatile and not removed by distillation. The increase in pH will also cause precipitation reactions to occur. In order to prevent this, urine on ISS is combined with a pretreat solution. While use of a pretreatment solution has been successful, there are numerous draw backs including: storage and use of highly hazardous solutions, limitations on water recovery (less than 85%), and production of brine with pore dewatering characteristics. We evaluated the use of biologically treated habitation wastewaters (ISS and early planetary base) to replace the current pretreat solution. We evaluated both amended and un-amended bioreactor effluent. For the amended effluent, we evaluated "green" pretreat chemicals including citric acid and citric acid amended with benzoic acid. We used a mock urine/air separator modeled after the urine collection assembly on ISS. The urine/air separator was challenged continually for >6 months. Depending on the test point, the separator was challenged daily with donated urine and flushed with amended or un-amended reactor effluent. We monitored the pH of the urine, flush solution and residual pH in the urine/air separator after each urine event. We also evaluated solids production and biological growth. Our results support the use of both un-amended and amended bioreactor effluent to maintain the operability of the urine /air separator. The ability to use bioreactor effluent could decrease consumable cost, reduce hazards associated with current pre-treat chemicals, allow other membrane based desalination processes to be utilized, and improve brine characteristics.

  13. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Liza S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Osipov, Andrian N. [Federal Medial and Biological Center named after Burnazyan of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBTz named after Burnazyan of FMBA), Moscow (Russian Federation); State Research Center - Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Zhivopisnaya, 46, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The chronic exposure to low-dose IR induces DSBs in human lymphocytes (TM index). • Exposure to IR decreases the level of human circulating DNA (cfDNA index). • IR induces an increase of DNase1 activity (DNase1 index) in plasma. • IR induces an increase of the level of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA index) in plasma. • The ratio cfDNA/(DNase 1 × Ab DNA × TM) is a potential marker of human exposure to IR. - Abstract: The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism’s cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1 × Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab

  14. Pretreatment of bituminous coal for hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer, H.

    1943-03-29

    Bituminous coal became plastic at certain temperature ranges and swelled, causing plugging of preheater tubes. With few exceptions, this problem was encountered only when hydrogenating bituminous coal. This swelling often appeared in the coking of coals, and for the majority of the cases it was found that efforts to reduce the baking ability of bituminous coal also reduced the swelling of coal paste in the preheater tubes. Three methods of pretreatment to reduce swelling were preheating, oxidation (anoxidation), and sulfur treatment. The preheating by hot nitrogen at 250 atm for 3 hours showed no improvement in swelling characteristics, but produced a greater asphalt content and a lower amount of gasification. Absorption of oxygen was shown to increase the viscosity of the coal paste, while preheating in a vacuum showed no effects. Oxidation (anoxidation) increased the splitting and gasification and gave higher asphalt content. The baking ability of Saar coal could be destroyed by addition of 2.5% sulfur and heating for 1/sup 1///sub 2/ hours at 110/sup 0/C, in a stream of H/sub 2/S. The volatile content dropped significantly when the same coal was heated to 200/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C. When neutralized Saar coal was dried under a stream of H/sub 2/S, only slight deterioration of the yield was noted with equal degree of gasification. It was concluded that a more or less distinct improvement would be observed from the absorption of sulfur, but that residue processing would have to be altered to account for the sulfur content.

  15. Woody biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production: Technology and energy consumption evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J Y; Pan, X J

    2010-07-01

    This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the key technical issues in woody biomass pretreatment: barriers to efficient cellulose saccharification, pretreatment energy consumption, in particular energy consumed for wood-size reduction, and criteria to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment. A post-chemical pretreatment size-reduction approach is proposed to significantly reduce mechanical energy consumption. Because the ultimate goal of biofuel production is net energy output, a concept of pretreatment energy efficiency (kg/MJ) based on the total sugar recovery (kg/kg wood) divided by the energy consumption in pretreatment (MJ/kg wood) is defined. It is then used to evaluate the performances of three of the most promising pretreatment technologies: steam explosion, organosolv, and sulfite pretreatment to overcome lignocelluloses recalcitrance (SPORL) for softwood pretreatment. The present study found that SPORL is the most efficient process and produced highest sugar yield. Other important issues, such as the effects of lignin on substrate saccharification and the effects of pretreatment on high-value lignin utilization in woody biomass pretreatment, are also discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Distribution of Report on Procedures to Estimate Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Emission Increases from Mobile and Area Sources for Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Increment Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. Enhanced methane production and its kinetics model of thermally pretreated lignocellulose waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluchamy, C; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2017-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effect of substrate concentration by specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of thermally pretreated pulp and paper mill sludge. Different substrate concentration through food to microorganism ratio varied from 1.0 to 3.0 was carried out in a mesophilic condition as biochemical methane potential assay. Experimental results offered that cellulose removal rate spikes up to 60.2%. The specific methane gas production and biodegradability were increased up to 303mL of CH 4 /g VS and 73% respectively. By increasing the substrate concentration, SMA was significantly improved in a linear manner. The net energy of 8735kJ was gained after thermal pretreatment. In addition to that three kinetics model were used, among that the modified Gompertz and logistic function models represent and reproduce the experimental data, while the earlier has the better fit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment

  19. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Liza S; Osipov, Andrian N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    2015-09-01

    The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism's cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1×Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab DNA and TM values may provide the information about the human organism's cell resistivity to chronic exposure to the low-dose IR and about the development of the adaptive response in the organism that is aimed, firstly, at the effective cfDNA elimination from the blood circulation, and, secondly - at survival of the cells, including the cells with the damaged DNA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Ultrasonic and thermal pretreatments to enhance the anaerobic bioconversion of olive husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianico, A; Braguglia, C M; Mescia, D; Mininni, G

    2013-11-01

    Olive husks, typical solid by-products from the olive oil industry, were selected to carry out anaerobic digestion tests. Before digestion, olive husks were subjected to ultrasonic or thermal pretreatments in order to release the organic matter into solution. Both sonication and thermal pretreatment allowed to solubilize the particulate matter with 22% and 72% increase in soluble organics of olive husks, respectively. Nevertheless, such pretreatments caused the release of unwanted molecules in solution, with the related risks of inhibition of the methanogenic process. Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests on olive husks mixed with olive-mill wastewater and dairy wastewater, either pretreated or not, showed that ultrasound pretreatment resulted in 15% increase in volatile solids reduction and a 13% increase in biogas production, while after thermal pretreatment no benefits were observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Conjugation of the CRM197-inulin conjugate significantly increases the immunogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis CFP10-TB10.4 fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shun; Yu, Weili; Hu, Chunyang; Wei, Dong; Shen, Lijuan; Hu, Tao; Yi, Youjin

    2017-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a serious fatal pathogen that causes tuberculosis (TB). Effective vaccination is urgently needed to deal with the serious threat from TB. Mtb-secreted protein antigens are important virulence determinants of Mtb with poor immunogenicity. Adjuvants and antigen delivery systems are thus highly desired to improve the immunogenicity of protein antigens. Inulin is a biocompatible polysaccharide (PS) adjuvant that can stimulate a strong cellular and humoral immunity. Bacterial capsular PS and haptens have been conjugated with cross-reacting material 197 (CRM 197 ) to improve their immunogenicity. CFP10 and TB10.4 were two Mtb-secreted immunodominant protein antigens. A CFP10-TB10.4 fusion protein (CT) was used as the antigen for covalent conjugation with the CRM 197 -inulin conjugate (CRM-inu). The resultant conjugate (CT-CRM-inu) elicited high CT-specific IgG titers, stimulated splenocyte proliferation and provoked the secretion of Th1-type and Th2-type cytokines. Conjugation with CRM-inu significantly prolonged the systemic circulation of CT and exposure to the immune system. Moreover, CT-CRM-inu showed no apparent toxicity to cardiac, hepatic and renal functions. Thus, conjugation of CT with CRM-inu provided an effective strategy for development of protein-based vaccines against Mtb infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pretreatment of Sialic Acid Efficiently Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Renal Failure and Suppresses TLR4/gp91-Mediated Apoptotic Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ping Hsu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS binding to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 activate NADPH oxidase gp91 subunit-mediated inflammation and oxidative damage. Recognizing the high binding affinity of sialic acid (SA with LPS, we further explored the preventive potential of SA pretreatment on LPS-evoked acute renal failure (ARF. Methods: We determined the effect of intravenous SA 30 min before LPS-induced injury in urethane-anesthetized female Wistar rats by evaluating kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS responses, renal and systemic hemodynamics, renal function, histopathology, and molecular mechanisms. Results: LPS time-dependently reduced arterial blood pressure, renal microcirculation, and increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in the rats. LPS enhanced monocyte/macrophage infiltration and ROS production, and subsequently impaired kidneys with the enhancement of TLR4/NADPH oxidase gp91/Caspase 3/poly-(ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP-mediated apoptosis in the kidneys. SA pretreatment effectively alleviated LPS-induced ARF. The levels of LPS-increased ED-1 infiltration and ROS production in the kidney were significantly depressed by SA pretreatment. Furthermore, SA pretreatment significantly depressed TLR4 activation, gp91 expression, and Caspase 3/PARP induced apoptosis in the kidneys. Conclusion: We suggest that pretreatment of SA significantly and preventively attenuated LPS-induced detrimental effects on systemic and renal hemodynamics, renal ROS production and renal function, as well as, LPS-activated TLR4/gp91/Caspase3 mediated apoptosis signaling.

  3. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Torres, M.; Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH) 2 ), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH) 2 /L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m 3 CH 4 /kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW

  4. Deficiencies in both starch synthase IIIa and branching enzyme IIb lead to a significant increase in amylose in SSIIa-inactive japonica rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Hiroki; Abe, Natsuko; Matsushima, Ryo; Crofts, Naoko; Oitome, Naoko F; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2014-10-01

    Starch synthase (SS) IIIa has the second highest activity of the total soluble SS activity in developing rice endosperm. Branching enzyme (BE) IIb is the major BE isozyme, and is strongly expressed in developing rice endosperm. A mutant (ss3a/be2b) was generated from wild-type japonica rice which lacks SSIIa activity. The seed weight of ss3a/be2b was 74-94% of that of the wild type, whereas the be2b seed weight was 59-73% of that of the wild type. There were significantly fewer amylopectin short chains [degree of polymerization (DP) ≤13] in ss3a/be2b compared with the wild type. In contrast, the amount of long chains (DP ≥25) connecting clusters of amylopectin in ss3a/be2b was higher than in the wild type and lower than in be2b. The apparent amylose content of ss3a/be2b was 45%, which was >1.5 times greater than that of either ss3a or be2b. Both SSIIIa and BEIIb deficiencies led to higher activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), which partly explains the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b endosperm. The percentage apparent amylose content of ss3a and ss3a/be2b at 10 days after flowering (DAF) was higher than that of the wild type and be2b. At 20 DAF, amylopectin biosynthesis in be2b and ss3a/be2b was not observed, whereas amylose biosynthesis in these lines was accelerated at 30 DAF. These data suggest that the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b mutant results from higher amylose biosynthesis at two stages, up to 20 DAF and from 30 DAF to maturity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Enzymolysis reaction kinetics and thermodynamics of defatted wheat germ protein with ultrasonic pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wenjuan; Ma, Haile; Liu, Bin; He, Ronghai; Pan, Zhongli; Abano, Ernest Ekow

    2013-11-01

    This research explores the mechanism of ultrasonic pretreatment on enzymolysis of defatted wheat germ protein (DWGP). The enzymolysis reaction kinetics and thermodynamics were studied after ultrasonic pretreatments using a probe-type sonicator and an ultrasonic cleaning bath, and the results were compared with traditional enzymolysis. The results showed that both the traditional and ultrasonic pretreated enzymolysis fit well to first-order kinetics. Both the temperature and ultrasound had a positive effect on the enzymolysis of DWGP, with temperature playing a dominant role. Under the optimized conditions of DWGP concentration of 1% (w/v), Alcalase concentration of 2000 U/g, time of 10 min and temperature of 50 °C, both the probe and cleaning bath ultrasonic pretreated enzymolysis showed high polypeptide concentrations (231.019 and 231.320 μg/mL) and low energy requirements. In comparison with traditional enzymolysis, these methods significantly increased the reaction rate constant (k) by 166.7% and 144.4%, 92.9% and 85.7%, 28.0% and 28.0%, 16.1% and 12.9% at 20, 30, 40 and 50 °C, and decreased the activation energy (Ea), enthalpy of activation (ΔH), Gibbs free energy of activation (ΔG) and entropy of activation (ΔS) by 68.6% and 62.4%, 74.1% and 67.5%, 34.3% and 31.2%, 1.4% and 1.3%. It can be concluded that ultrasonic pretreatment of DWGP can remarkably improve the enzymolysis efficiency and consequently leads to the production of higher polypeptide yield. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Low-temperature thermal pre-treatment of municipal wastewater sludge: Process optimization and effects on solubilization and anaerobic degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Laleh; Yuan, Zhongshun; Santoro, Domenico; Sarathy, Siva; Ho, Dang; Batstone, Damien; Xu, Chunbao Charles; Ray, Madhumita B

    2017-04-15

    The present study examines the relationship between the degree of solubilization and biodegradability of wastewater sludge in anaerobic digestion as a result of low-temperature thermal pre-treatment. The main effect of thermal pre-treatment is the disintegration of cell membranes and thus solubilization of organic compounds. There is an established correlation between chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization and temperature of thermal pre-treatment, but results of thermal pre-treatment in terms of biodegradability are not well understood. Aiming to determine the impact of low temperature treatments on biogas production, the thermal pre-treatment process was first optimized based on an experimental design study on waste activated sludge in batch mode. The optimum temperature, reaction time and pH of the process were determined to be 80 °C, 5 h and pH 10, respectively. All three factors had a strong individual effect (p effect for temp. pH 2 (p = 0.002). Thermal pre-treatments, carried out on seven different municipal wastewater sludges at the above optimum operating conditions, produced increased COD solubilization of 18.3 ± 7.5% and VSS reduction of 27.7 ± 12.3% compared to the untreated sludges. The solubilization of proteins was significantly higher than carbohydrates. Methane produced in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests, indicated initial higher rates (p = 0.0013) for the thermally treated samples (k hyd up to 5 times higher), although the ultimate methane yields were not significantly affected by the treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of mechanical disruption on the effectiveness of three reactors used for dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover Part 1: chemical and physical substrate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Xiaowen; Donohoe, Bryon S; Ciesielski, Peter N; Katahira, Rui; Kuhn, Erik M; Kafle, Kabindra; Lee, Christopher M; Park, Sunkyu; Kim, Seong H; Tucker, Melvin P; Himmel, Michael E; Johnson, David K

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels to provide substitutes for fossil fuels. Pretreatments, conducted to reduce biomass recalcitrance, usually remove at least some of the hemicellulose and/or lignin in cell walls. The hypothesis that led to this research was that reactor type could have a profound effect on the properties of pretreated materials and impact subsequent cellulose hydrolysis. Corn stover was dilute-acid pretreated using commercially relevant reactor types (ZipperClave(®) (ZC), Steam Gun (SG) and Horizontal Screw (HS)) under the same nominal conditions. Samples produced in the SG and HS achieved much higher cellulose digestibilities (88% and 95%, respectively), compared to the ZC sample (68%). Characterization, by chemical, physical, spectroscopic and electron microscopy methods, was used to gain an understanding of the effects causing the digestibility differences. Chemical differences were small; however, particle size differences appeared significant. Sum-frequency generation vibrational spectra indicated larger inter-fibrillar spacing or randomization of cellulose microfibrils in the HS sample. Simons' staining indicated increased cellulose accessibility for the SG and HS samples. Electron microscopy showed that the SG and HS samples were more porous and fibrillated because of mechanical grinding and explosive depressurization occurring with these two reactors. These structural changes most likely permitted increased cellulose accessibility to enzymes, enhancing saccharification. Dilute-acid pretreatment of corn stover using three different reactors under the same nominal conditions gave samples with very different digestibilities, although chemical differences in the pretreated substrates were small. The results of the physical and chemical analyses of the samples indicate that the explosive depressurization and mechanical grinding with these reactors increased enzyme accessibility

  8. Effect of mechanical disruption on the effectiveness of three reactors used for dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover Part 1: chemical and physical substrate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is considerable interest in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels to provide substitutes for fossil fuels. Pretreatments, conducted to reduce biomass recalcitrance, usually remove at least some of the hemicellulose and/or lignin in cell walls. The hypothesis that led to this research was that reactor type could have a profound effect on the properties of pretreated materials and impact subsequent cellulose hydrolysis. Results Corn stover was dilute-acid pretreated using commercially relevant reactor types (ZipperClave® (ZC), Steam Gun (SG) and Horizontal Screw (HS)) under the same nominal conditions. Samples produced in the SG and HS achieved much higher cellulose digestibilities (88% and 95%, respectively), compared to the ZC sample (68%). Characterization, by chemical, physical, spectroscopic and electron microscopy methods, was used to gain an understanding of the effects causing the digestibility differences. Chemical differences were small; however, particle size differences appeared significant. Sum-frequency generation vibrational spectra indicated larger inter-fibrillar spacing or randomization of cellulose microfibrils in the HS sample. Simons’ staining indicated increased cellulose accessibility for the SG and HS samples. Electron microscopy showed that the SG and HS samples were more porous and fibrillated because of mechanical grinding and explosive depressurization occurring with these two reactors. These structural changes most likely permitted increased cellulose accessibility to enzymes, enhancing saccharification. Conclusions Dilute-acid pretreatment of corn stover using three different reactors under the same nominal conditions gave samples with very different digestibilities, although chemical differences in the pretreated substrates were small. The results of the physical and chemical analyses of the samples indicate that the explosive depressurization and mechanical grinding with these reactors increased

  9. Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Murthy, Ganti S

    2011-09-05

    While advantages of biofuel have been widely reported, studies also highlight the challenges in large scale production of biofuel. Cost of ethanol and process energy use in cellulosic ethanol plants are dependent on technologies used for conversion of feedstock. Process modeling can aid in identifying techno-economic bottlenecks in a production process. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was performed for conversion of cellulosic feedstock to ethanol using some of the common pretreatment technologies: dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion. Detailed process models incorporating feedstock handling, pretreatment, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, ethanol recovery and downstream processing were developed using SuperPro Designer. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) was used as a model feedstock. Projected ethanol yields were 252.62, 255.80, 255.27 and 230.23 L/dry metric ton biomass for conversion process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies respectively. Price of feedstock and cellulose enzymes were assumed as $50/metric ton and 0.517/kg broth (10% protein in broth, 600 FPU/g protein) respectively. Capital cost of ethanol plants processing 250,000 metric tons of feedstock/year was $1.92, $1.73, $1.72 and $1.70/L ethanol for process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Ethanol production cost of $0.83, $0.88, $0.81 and $0.85/L ethanol was estimated for production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Water use in the production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment was estimated 5.96, 6.07, 5.84 and 4.36 kg/L ethanol respectively. Ethanol price and energy use were highly dependent on process conditions used in the ethanol production plant. Potential for significant ethanol cost reductions exist in increasing

  10. Salicylic acid and heat acclimation pretreatment protects Laminaria japonica sporophyte (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You

    2010-07-01

    Possible mediatory roles of heat acclimation and salicylic acid in protecting the sporophyte of marine macroalga Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress were studied. Heat stress resulted in oxidative injury in the kelp blades. Under heat stress significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA), a membrane lipid peroxidation product, and a drastic decrease in chlorophyll a content were recorded. Activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system was drastically affected by heat stress. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased while peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were greatly inhibited and, simultaneously, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was activated while polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was inhibited. Both heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous application of salicylic acid alleviated oxidative damage in kelp blades. Blades receiving heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous salicylic acid prior to heat stress exhibited a reduced increase in H2O2 and MDA content, and a lower reduction in chlorophyll a content. Pretreatment with heat acclimation and salicylic acid elevated activities of SOD, POD, CAT, GPX and PPO. Considering these results collectively, we speculate that the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes is a possible cause of the heat-stress-induced oxidative stress in L. japonica, and enhanced thermotolerance may be associated, at least in part, with the elevated activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system.

  11. White-rot fungi pretreatment combined with alkaline/oxidative pretreatment to improve enzymatic saccharification of industrial hemp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chunliang; Gong, Wenbing; Yang, Qi; Zhu, Zuohua; Yan, Li; Hu, Zhenxiu; Peng, Yuande

    2017-11-01

    White-rot fungi combined with alkaline/oxidative (A/O) pretreatments of industrial hemp woody core were proposed to improve enzymatic saccharification. In this study, hemp woody core were treated with only white rot fungi, only A/O and combined with the two methods. The results showed that Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii) was the most effective fungus for pretreatment. Reducing sugars yield was 329mg/g with 30 Filter Paper Unit (FPU)/g cellulase loading when treated 21day. In the A/O groups, the results showed that when treated with 3% NaOH and 3% H 2 O 2 , the yield of reducing sugars was 288mg/g with 30FPU/g cellulase loading. After combination pretreatment with P. eryngii and A/O pretreatment, the reducing sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis of combined sample increased 1.10-1.29-fold than that of bio-treated or A/O pretreatment sample at the same conditions, suggesting that P. eryngii combined with A/O pretreatment was an effective method to improve enzyme hydrolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel fungal consortium pretreatment of waste oat straw to enhance economic and efficient biohydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bio-pretreatment using a fungal consortium to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored.  A fungal consortium comprised of T. viride and P. chrysosporium as microbial inoculum was compared with untreated and single-species-inoculated samples. Fungal bio-pretreatment was carried out at atmospheric conditions with limited external energy input.  The effectiveness of the pretreatment is evaluated according to its lignin removal and digestibility. Enhancement of biohydrogen production is observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. Fungal consortium pretreatment effectively degraded oat straw lignin (by >47% in 7 days leading to decomposition of cell-wall structure as revealed in SEM images, increasing biohydrogen yield. The hydrogen produced from the fungal consortium pretreated straw increased by 165% 6 days later, and was more than produced from either a single fungi species of T. viride or P. chrysosponium pretreated straw (94% and 106%, respectively. No inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed.

  13. Influence of Thermal and Bacterial Pretreatment of Microalgae on Biogas Production in Mesophilic and Thermophilic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Beti; Marinšek Logar, Romana; Panjičko, Mario; Fanedl, Lijana

    2017-01-01

    Microalgae biomass has a great potential in search for new alternative energy sources. They can be used as a substrate for the biogas production in anaerobic digestion. When using microalgae, the efficiency of this process is hampered due to the resistant cell wall. In order to accelerate the hydrolysis of cell wall and increase the efficiency of biogas production we applied two different pretreatments - biological and thermal under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. During biological pretreatment we incubated microalgae with anaerobic hydrolytic bacteria Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans Mz5T. In thermal pretreatment we incubated microalgae at 90 °C. We also tested a combined thermal and biological pretreatment in which we incubated P. xylanivorans Mz5T with thermally pretreated microalgae. Thermal pretreatment in mesophilic and thermophilic process has increased methane production by 21% and 6%, respectively. Biological pretreatment of microalgae has increased methane production by 13%, but only under thermophilic conditions (pretreatment under mesophilic conditions showed no effect on methane production). Thermal-biological pretreatment increased methane production by 12% under thermophilic conditions and by 6% under mesophilic conditions.

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF PRETREATMENT CONDITIONS OF CARROTS TO MAXIMIZE JUICE RECOVERY BY RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. SHARMA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Carrot juice was expressed in a hydraulic press using a wooden set up. Carrot samples pretreated at different designed combinations, using Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD, Response Surface Methodology (RSM, of pH, temperature and time were expressed and juice so obtained was characterized for various physico-chemical parameters which involved yield, TSS and water content, reducing sugars, total sugars and color (absorbance. The study indicated that carrots exposed to the different pretreatment conditions resulted in increased amount of yield than that of the control. The responses were optimized by numerical method and were found to be 78.23% yield, 0.93% color (abs, 3.41% reducing sugars, 5.53% total sugars, 6.69obrix, and 90.50% water content. All the derived mathematical models for the various responses were found to be fit significantly to predict the data.

  15. Effect of L-Cysteine Pretreatment on the Control of Formaldehyde and Browning of the Culinary-Medicinal Shiitake Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Higher Basidiomycetes) during Drying and Canning Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guijie; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Peng; Chen, Feng; Chen, Xiaolin; Wang, Cun; Zhao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Fresh culinary-medicinal Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were pretreated by soaking in 0.1 mg/mL of L-cysteine solution for 1 hour; then the variation in formaldehyde content and browning degree were studied during hot air-drying and canning processes. The results indicated that L-cysteine pretreatment significantly inhibited the increase of formaldehyde content and browning during the drying process; these increases in the pretreatment groups ranged from 7.0% to 14.0% and 65.4% to 68.9%, respectively, of that of the control groups. While the L-cysteine pretreatment did not seem to have a significant effect on controlling the formaldehyde content during the canning process, the increase of the browning degree of the canned products of the pretreatment groups ranged from 64.8% to 78.5% of that of the control groups, indicating the inhibitive effect of L-cysteine on browning during the canning process of L. edodes. Overall, L-cysteine pretreatment improved the sensory quality of both dried and canned L. edodes.

  16. Optimization of Saccharification Conditions of Lignocellulosic Biomass under Alkaline Pre-Treatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Łukajtis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pre-treatment is a significant step in the production of second-generation biofuels from waste lignocellulosic materials. Obtaining biofuels as a result of fermentation processes requires appropriate pre-treatment conditions ensuring the highest possible degree of saccharification of the feed material. An influence of the following process parameters were investigated for alkaline pre-treatment of Salix viminalis L.: catalyst concentration (NaOH, temperature, pre-treatment time and granulation. For this purpose, experiments were carried out in accordance to the Box-Behnken design for four factors. In the saccharification process of the pre-treated biomass, cellulolytic enzymes immobilized on diatomaceous earth were used. Based on the obtained results, a mathematical model for the optimal conditions of alkaline pre-treatment prediction is proposed. The optimal conditions of alkaline pre-treatment are established as follows: granulation 0.75 mm, catalyst concentration 7%, pre-treatment time 6 h and temperature 65 °C if the saccharification efficiency and cost analysis are considered. An influence of the optimized pre-treatment on both the chemical composition and structural changes for six various lignocellulosic materials (energetic willow, energetic poplar, beech, triticale, meadow grass, corncobs was investigated. SEM images of raw and pre-treated biomass samples are included in order to follow the changes in the biomass structure during hydrolysis.

  17. The pretreatment of corn stover with Gloeophyllum trabeum KU-41 for enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ziqing

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass for bio-ethanol production. The dominant concern in this step is how to decrease the high cost of pretreatment while achieving a high sugar yield. Fungal pretreatment of biomass was previously reported to be effective, with the advantage of having a low energy requirement and requiring no application of additional chemicals. In this work, Gloeophyllum trabeum KU-41 was chosen for corn stover pretreatment through screening with 40 strains of wood-rot fungi. The objective of the current work is to find out which characteristics of corn stover pretreated with G. trabeum KU-41 determine the pretreatment method to be successful and worthwhile to apply. This will be done by determining the lignin content, structural carbohydrate, cellulose crystallinity, initial adsorption capacity of cellulase and specific surface area of pretreated corn stover. Results The content of xylan in pretreated corn stover was decreased by 43% in comparison to the untreated corn stover. The initial cellulase adsorption capacity and the specific surface area of corn stover pretreated with G. trabeum were increased by 7.0- and 2.5-fold, respectively. Also there was little increase in the cellulose crystallinity of pretreated corn stover. Conclusion G. trabeum has an efficient degradation system, and the results indicated that the conversion of cellulose to glucose increases as the accessibility of cellulose increases due to the partial removal of xylan and the structure breakage of the cell wall. This pretreatment method can be further explored as an alternative to the thermochemical pretreatment method.

  18. Mechanical pre-treatment for enzymatically enhanced energy efficient TMP; Mekanisk foerbehandling av flis foer effektiv enzymatisk paaverkan vid energieffektiv TMP tillverkning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viforr, Silvia

    2008-11-15

    Thermomechanical pulp (TMP) processes are high energy demanding. This together with the high energy prices of nowadays results in significant costs, why less energy demanding processes are wished. This project has evaluated the potential for energy reductions in a TMP process by a mechanical pre-treatment of the wood chips combined with an enzymatic modification based on a cellulase mixture. The structure of the wood was opened up by the mechanical pre-treatment making it easier for the enzymes to penetrate into the pre-treated wood material. The enzymatic treatment was then run at optimum standard conditions. The EU project - Ecotarget 2004-2008 (www.ecotarget.com) have studied different types of enzymes that could be used for pre-treatment of wood chips in order to save energy during TMP processes. Based on these studies cellulose enzyme was recommended to be used at pre-treatment experiment performed by the Vaermeforsk project. Due to the fact that the Ecotarget-project has also been run during 2008 with activities involving enzymes, the steering board of the Vaermeforsk project took the decision to co-ordinate the experiments from both of the projects. This co-operation increased the funds and also the number of experiments for both of the projects. The experimental results from this project showed that energy reductions at a given tensile index could be achieved if gently mechanical pre-treated wood chips were enzymatically treated. An intensive mechanical pre-treatment gave negative effects on both fibre length and tear index while the light scattering coefficient was promoted, probably due to the fibre shortening. Enzymatic modification of mechanically pre-treated chips showed a favourable modification of the fibres, even regarding the fibre shortening, if compared to mechanical pre-treated chips only. The effects of cellulases was however not as expected, why a high amount of cellulases was used. Other types of enzymes which could attack the primary wall of

  19. Lignin Sulfonation and SO2Addition Enhance the Hydrolyzability of Deacetylated and Then Steam-Pretreated Poplar with Reduced Inhibitor Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Dou, Xiaoli; Hu, Jinguang; Jiang, Jianxin; Saddler, Jack N

    2018-01-01

    The merit of deacetylation of corn stover prior to pretreatment is decreasing the formation of inhibitors and improving enzyme hydrolysis, proved in dilute acid pretreatment. However, few studies are done on how deacetylation would affect bioconversion process containing steam explosion. In this study, the effect of deacetylation on steam explosion was conducted using poplar as substrate. About 57 to 90% of acetyl group in poplar, depending on alkaline types and concentration, was removed by dilute alkaline deacetylation in 6 h. Deacetylation eliminated over 85% of inhibitor formation during downstream steam explosion. However, deacetylation prior to steam explosion decreased the dissolution of hemicellulose, thus reducing the cellulose accessibility of pretreated poplar, finally resulting in 5-20% decrease in glucose yield and 20-35% decrease in xylose yield. The addition of 5% SO 2 during steam explosion significantly improved the hydrolysis of deacetylated and pretreated poplar without significantly increasing the concentration of inhibitors. Incorporating 45 mmol/kg sulfoacid group in lignin fraction of deacetylated and then pretreated poplar dramatically improved the xylose yield to about 100% and increased the glucose yield by 30%.

  20. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pretreated Coconut Coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarningrum Fatmawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of concentration and temperature on the cellulose and lignin content, and the reducing sugars produced in the enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut coir. In this research, the coconut coir is pretreated using 3%, 7%, and 11% NaOH solution at 60oC, 80oC, and 100oC. The pretreated coir were assayed by measuring the amount of cellulose and lignin and then hydrolysed using Celluclast and Novozyme 188 under various temperature (30oC, 40oC, 50oC and pH (3, 4, 5. The hydrolysis results were assayed for the reducing sugar content. The results showed that the alkaline delignification was effective to reduce lignin and to increase the cellulose content of the coir. The best delignification condition was observed at 11% NaOH solution and 100oC which removed 14,53% of lignin and increased the cellulose content up to 50,23%. The best condition of the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained at 50oC and pH 4 which produced 7,57 gr/L reducing sugar. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 2nd October 2012; Revised: 31st January 2013; Accepted: 6th February 2013[How to Cite: Fatmawati, A., Agustriyanto, R., Liasari, Y. (2013. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pre-treated Coconut Coir. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 34-39 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39] | View in  |

  1. Pre-treating Seed to Enhance Germination of Desert Shrubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. K. Ostler; D. C. Anderson; D. J. Hansen

    2002-06-01

    Creosotebush [Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cav.] and white bursage [Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) W.W. Payne] seeds were subjected to pre-treatments of rinsing and soaking in water and thiourea to enhance germination in laboratory experiments. The effects of darkness, temperature, seed source, and soil moisture were also evaluated in the laboratory. The best pre-treatment from the laboratory experiments, rinsing with water for 36 hours followed by drying, was field-tested at Fort Irwin, California. Two sites and two seeding dates (early March and mid April) were determined for each site. Five mulch treatments (no mulch, straw, gravel, chemical stabilizer, and plastic) were evaluated in combination with the seed pre-treatments. Field emergence was greatly enhanced with the seed pre-treatment for white bursage during the March (18-42% increase in germination) and April seedings (16-23% increase in germination). Creosotebush showed poor germination during March (2-5%) when soil temperatures averaged 15 C, but germination increased during the April trials (6-43%) when soil temperatures averaged 23 C. The seed pre-treatment during the April trials increased germination from 16-23%. The plastic mulch treatment increased germination dramatically during both the March and April trials. The plastic mulch increased soil temperatures (8-10 C)and maintained high humidity during germination. Both the chemical stabilizer and the gravel mulches improved germination over the control while the straw mulch decreased germination. These results suggest that seed pre-treatments combined with irrigation and mulch are effective techniques to establish these two dominant Mojave Desert species from seed.

  2. Biogas Production from Citrus Wastes and Chicken Feather: Pretreatment and Codigestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forgacs, Gergely

    2012-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a sustainable and economically feasible waste management technology, which lowers the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), decreases the soil and water pollution, and reduces the dependence on fossil fuels. The present thesis investigates the anaerobic digestion of waste from food-processing industries, including citrus wastes (CWs) from juice processing and chicken feather from poultry slaughterhouses. Juice processing industries generate 15-25 million tons of citrus wastes every year. Utilization of CWs is not yet resolved, since drying or incineration processes are costly, due to the high moisture content; and biological processes are hindered by its peel oil content, primarily the D-limonene. Anaerobic digestion of untreated CWs consequently results in process failure because of the inhibiting effect of the produced and accumulated VFAs. The current thesis involves the development of a steam explosion pretreatment step. The methane yield increased by 426 % to 0.537 Nm{sup 3}/kg VS by employing the steam explosion treatment at 150 deg C for 20 min, which opened up the compact structure of the CWs and removed 94 % of the D-limonene. The developed process enables a production of 104 m{sup 3} methane and 8.4 L limonene from one ton of fresh CWs. Poultry slaughterhouses generate a significant amount of feather every year. Feathers are basically composed of keratin, an extremely strong and resistible structural protein. Methane yield from feather is low, around 0.18 Nm{sup 3}/kg VS, which corresponds to only one third of the theoretical yield. In the present study, chemical, enzymatic and biological pretreatment methods were investigated to improve the biogas yield of feather waste. Chemical pretreatment with Ca(OH){sub 2} under relatively mild conditions (0.1 g Ca(OH){sub 2}/g TS{sub feather}, 100 deg C, 30 min) improved the methane yield to 0.40 Nm{sup 3}/kg VS, corresponding to 80 % of the theoretical yield. However, prior to digestion, the

  3. Comparative Study of the Preparation of Reducing Sugars Hydrolyzed from High-Lignin Lignocellulose Pretreated with Ionic Liquid, Alkaline Solution and Their Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanny F. Sangian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ionicliquid [MMIM][DMP] was synthesized from the reactants methyl imidazole [MIM] and trimethylphosphate [TMP] and verified using 1HNMR and FTIR. Coconut coir dust was pretreated with a 1% alkaline solution.Its crystalline structure increased significantly due to the dissolution of lignin and hemicelluloses under alkaline conditions, exposing the cellulose. After NaOH and IL were employed, the XRD showed that peak (002 decreased significantly and peak (101 almost vanished. This significant decrease in crystallinity was related to the alteration of the substrate from the cellulose I structure to the cellulose II structure. The pretreated substrates were hydrolyzed to convert them to reducing sugars by pure cellulase and xylanase,and the reaction was conducted at 60°C, pH 3, for 12 or 48 hours. The yields of sugar hydrolyzed from untreated and NaOH-pretreated substrates were 0.07 and 0.12 g sugar/g lignocellulose, respectively. Pretreatment with IL or the combination of NaOH+IL resulted in yields of reducing sugars of 0.11 and 0.13 g/g, respectively. These findings showed that IL pretreatment of the high-lignin lignocellulose is a new prospect for the economical manufacture of reducing sugars and bioethanol in the coming years.

  4. Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.

    1989-12-21

    We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

  5. Biomass pretreatment affects Ustilago maydis in producing itaconic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klement Tobias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last years, the biotechnological production of platform chemicals for fuel components has become a major focus of interest. Although ligno-cellulosic material is considered as suitable feedstock, the almost inevitable pretreatment of this recalcitrant material may interfere with the subsequent fermentation steps. In this study, the fungus Ustilago maydis was used to produce itaconic acid as platform chemical for the synthesis of potential biofuels such as 3-methyltetrahydrofuran. No studies, however, have investigated how pretreatment of ligno-cellulosic biomass precisely influences the subsequent fermentation by U. maydis. Thus, this current study aims to first characterize U. maydis in shake flasks and then to evaluate the influence of three exemplary pretreatment methods on the cultivation and itaconic acid production of this fungus. Cellulose enzymatically hydrolysed in seawater and salt-assisted organic-acid catalysed cellulose were investigated as substrates. Lastly, hydrolysed hemicellulose from fractionated beech wood was applied as substrate. Results U. maydis was characterized on shake flask level regarding its itaconic acid production on glucose. Nitrogen limitation was shown to be a crucial condition for the production of itaconic acid. For itaconic acid concentrations above 25 g/L, a significant product inhibition was observed. Performing experiments that simulated influences of possible pretreatment methods, U. maydis was only slightly affected by high osmolarities up to 3.5 osmol/L as well as of 0.1 M oxalic acid. The production of itaconic acid was achieved on pretreated cellulose in seawater and on the hydrolysed hemicellulosic fraction of pretreated beech wood. Conclusion The fungus U. maydis is a promising producer of itaconic acid, since it grows as single cells (yeast-like in submerged cultivations and it is extremely robust in high osmotic media and real seawater. Moreover, U. maydis can grow on

  6. Ultrasound Pretreatment as an Useful Tool to Enhance Egg White Protein Hydrolysis: Kinetics, Reaction Model, and Thermodinamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Jelena R; Stefanović, Andrea B; Šekuljica, Nataša Ž; Tanasković, Sonja M Jakovetić; Dojčinović, Marina B; Bugarski, Branko M; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica D

    2016-09-28

    The impact of ultrasound waves generated by probe-type sonicator and ultrasound cleaning bath on egg white protein susceptibility to hydrolysis by alcalase compared to both thermal pretreatment and conventional enzymatic hydrolysis was quantitatively investigated. A series of hydrolytic reactions was carried out in a stirred tank reactor at different substrate concentrations, enzyme concentrations, and temperatures using untreated, and pretreated egg white proteins (EWPs). The kinetic model based on substrate inhibition and second-order enzyme deactivation successfully predicts the experimental behavior providing an effective tool for comparison and optimization. The ultrasound pretreatments appear to greatly improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of EWPs under different conditions when compare to other methods. The apparent reaction rate constants for proteolysis (k 2 ) are 0.009, 0.011, 0.053, and 0.045 min -1 for untreated EWPs, and those pretreated with heat, probe-type sonicator, and ultrasound cleaning bath technologies, respectively. The ultrasound pretreatment also decreases hydrolysis activation (E a ) and enzyme deactivation (E d ) energy, enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS) of activation and for the probe-type sonication this decrease is 61.7%, 61.6%, 63.6%, and 32.2%, respectively, but ultrasound has little change in Gibbs free energy value in the temperature range of 318 to 338 K. The content of sulfhydryl groups and ζ potential show a significant increase (P < 0.05) for both applied ultrasound pretreatments and the reduction of particle size distribution are achieved, providing some evidence that the ultrasound causes EWP structural changes affecting the proteolysis rate. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Comparison of Ultrasonic and CO2 Laser Pretreatment Methods on Enzyme Digestibility of Corn Stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Zuo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To decrease the cost of bioethanol production, biomass recalcitrance needs to be overcome so that the conversion of biomass to bioethanol becomes more efficient. CO2 laser irradiation can disrupt the lignocellulosic physical structure and reduce the average size of fiber. Analyses with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, specific surface area, and the microstructure of corn stover were used to elucidate the enhancement mechanism of the pretreatment process by CO2 laser irradiation. The present work demonstrated that the CO2 laser had potential to enhance the bioconversion efficiency of lignocellulosic waste to renewable bioethanol. The saccharification rate of the CO2 laser pretreatment was significantly higher than ultrasonic pretreatment, and reached 27.75% which was 1.34-fold of that of ultrasonic pretreatment. The results showed the impact of CO2 laser pretreatment on corn stover to be more effective than ultrasonic pretreatment.

  8. Enhanced biogas production from penicillin bacterial residue by thermal-alkaline pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Weizhang; Li, Guixia; Gao, Yan; Li, Zaixing; Geng, Xiaoling; Li, Yubing; Yang, Jingliang; Zhou, Chonghui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the orthogonal experimental design was used to determine the optimum conditions for the effect of thermal alkaline; pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of penicillin bacterial residue. The biodegradability of the penicillin; bacterial residue was evaluated by biochemical methane potential tests in laboratory. The optimum values of temperature,; alkali concentration, pretreatment time and moisture content for the thermal-alkaline pretreatment were determined as; 70 °C, 6% (w/v), 30 min, and 85%, respectively. Thermal-alkaline pretreatment could significantly enhance the soluble; chemical oxygen demand solubilization, the suspended solid solubilization and the biodegradability. Biogas production; was enhanced by the thermal-alkaline pretreatment, probably as a result of the breakdown of cell walls and membranes of; micro-organisms, which may facilitate the contact between organic molecules and anaerobic microorganisms.; Keywords: penicillin bacterial residue; anaerobic digestion; biochemical methane potential tests; pretreatment

  9. Comparison of ultrasonic and CO₂laser pretreatment methods on enzyme digestibility of corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shuang-Qi; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Zi-Luan; Zuo, Li-Li

    2012-01-01

    To decrease the cost of bioethanol production, biomass recalcitrance needs to be overcome so that the conversion of biomass to bioethanol becomes more efficient. CO(2) laser irradiation can disrupt the lignocellulosic physical structure and reduce the average size of fiber. Analyses with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, specific surface area, and the microstructure of corn stover were used to elucidate the enhancement mechanism of the pretreatment process by CO(2) laser irradiation. The present work demonstrated that the CO(2) laser had potential to enhance the bioconversion efficiency of lignocellulosic waste to renewable bioethanol. The saccharification rate of the CO(2) laser pretreatment was significantly higher than ultrasonic pretreatment, and reached 27.75% which was 1.34-fold of that of ultrasonic pretreatment. The results showed the impact of CO(2) laser pretreatment on corn stover to be more effective than ultrasonic pretreatment.

  10. Chemical composition and resistance to oxidation of high-oleic rapeseed oil pressed from microwave pre-treated intact and de-hulled seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rękas, A.; Wroniak, M.; Siger, A.; Ścibisz, I.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of a microwave (MV) pre-treatment (3, 6, 9 min, 800W) on the physicochemical properties of high-oleic rapeseed oil prepared from intact (HORO) and de-hulled seeds (DHORO) was investigated in this study. A control DHORO contained higher levels of total tocopherols and carotenoids, while higher concentrations of total phenolic compounds and chlorophylls were detected in the HORO. The MV pre-treatment caused a decrease in the unsaturated fatty acids content that was more evident for the DHOROs. The microwaving time significantly affected phytochemical contents and the color of both types of oils. A vast increase in canolol concentration was noticeable following 9 min of microwaving, which increased 506- and 155-fold in the HORO and DHORO, respectively. At the same time, the antioxidant capacity of oil produced from MV pre-treated seeds for 9 min was nearly 4 times higher than that of the control oil for both types of oils. [es

  11. Comparison of Microwave and Ozonolysis Effect as Pretreatment on Sugarcane Bagasse Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Eqra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from agricultural residues is one of the promising methods. Pretreatment is the most important step in this type of bioethanol production. In this study, the saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse was investigated after two types of pretreatments including ozone steaming and microwave. Microwave pretreatment was studied with two factors of microwave radiation (170, 450, and 850 w and microwave duration (2, 6, and 10 min. The ozonolysis (ozone steaming pretreatment was surveyed with two factors of moisture content of bagasse (30, 40, and 50% and ozonolysis time (1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 hr. After hydrolysis, the Saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse increased to 57.2% and 67.06% with microwave and ozonolysis pretreatments, respectively; compare to 20.85% in non-ozonated bagasse. It can be concluded that the ozonolysis is the most effective pretreatment regarding to saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse.

  12. Impact of mechanical, chemical and enzymatic pre-treatments on the methane yield from the anaerobic digestion of switchgrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigon, Jean-Claude; Mehta, Punita; Guiot, Serge R.

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of cellulosic crops into biofuels, including methane, is receiving a lot of attention lately. Panicum vergatum, or switchgrass, is a warm season perennial grass well adapted to grow in North America. Different pre-treatments were tested in 0.5 l batch reactors, at 35 °C, in order to enhance the methane production from switchgrass, including temperature, sonication, alkalinization and autoclaving. The methane production on the basis of volatile solids (VS) added to the fermentation were 112.4 ± 8.4, 132.5 ± 9.7 and 139.8 ml g −1 after 38 days of incubation for winter harvested switchgrass (WHS) after grinding, grinding with alkalinization, and grinding with alkalinization and autoclaving, respectively. The methane production was higher for fresh summer harvested switchgrass (SHS), with a production of 256.6 ± 8.2 ml g −1 VS after mulching, alkalinization and autoclaving. The methane production from SHS was improved by 29 and 42% when applying lignin (LiP) or manganese peroxidase (MnP), at 202.1 ± 9.8 and 222.9 ± 22.5 ml g −1 VS, respectively. The combination of an alkali pre-treatment with the MnP increased the methane production furthermore at 297.7 ml g −1 VS. The use of pectinases without chemical pre-treatment showed promising yields at 287.4 and 239.5 ml g −1 VS for pectate-lyase and poly-galacturonase, respectively. An estimation of the methane yield per hectare of crop harvested resulted in net energy production of 29.8, 49.7 and 78.1 GJ for winter harvested switchgrass, mulched and pretreated summer harvested switchgrass, respectively. Switchgrass represents an interesting candidate as a lignocellulosic crop for methane production. -- Highlights: ► Switchgrass is a model energy crops for biofuels production. ► This study evaluated different pre-treatments to enhance methane production. ► Pre-treatments increase significantly the methane produced from switchgrass. ► Enzymatic pre-treatments were superior to physical and

  13. Optimization of H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw for bioconversion to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Lu; Zhang, Y.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    measured to evaluate the optimal pretreatment conditions for maximizing ethanol production. The results showed that acid concentration and treatment time were more significant than solid content for optimization of xylose release and cellulose recovery. Pretreatment with 1% sulfuric acid and 20% solid...... content for 10 min at 180 degrees C was found to be the most optimal condition for pretreatment of rapeseed straw for ethanol production. After pretreatment at the optimal condition and enzymatic hydrolysis, 75.12% total xylan and 63.17% total glucan were converted to xylose and glucose, respectively....... Finally, 66.79% of theoretical ethanol yielded after fermentation....

  14. Effect of alkaline addition on anaerobic sludge digestion with combined pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Jin, Shuguang; Li, Dongyi; Zhang, Meixia; Xu, Xiangzhe

    2014-09-01

    To improve anaerobic digestion efficiency, combination pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization was applied to pretreat sewage sludge. Effect of alkaline dosage on anaerobic sludge digestion was investigated in detail. SCOD of sludge supernatant significantly increased with the alkaline dosage increase after the combined pretreatment because of sludge disintegration. Organics were significantly degraded after the anaerobic digestion, and the maximal SCOD, TCOD and VS removal was 73.5%, 61.3% and 43.5%, respectively. Cumulative biogas production, methane content in biogas and biogas production rate obviously increased with the alkaline dosage increase. Considering both the biogas production and alkaline dosage, the optimal alkaline dosage was selected as 0.04 mol/L. Relationships between biogas production and sludge disintegration showed that the accumulative biogas was mainly enhanced by the sludge disintegration. The methane yield linearly increased with the DDCOD increase as Methane yield (ml/gVS)=4.66 DDCOD-9.69. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of the Alkaline Pretreatment of Rice Straw for Enhanced Methane Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilin Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lime pretreatment process for rice straw was optimized to enhance the biodegradation performance and increase biogas yield. The optimization was implemented using response surface methodology (RSM and Box-Behnken experimental design. The effects of biodegradation, as well as the interactive effects of Ca(OH2 concentration, pretreatment time, and inoculum amount on biogas improvement, were investigated. Rice straw compounds, such as lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose, were significantly degraded with increasing Ca(OH2 concentration. The optimal conditions for the use of pretreated rice straw in anaerobic digestion were 9.81% Ca(OH2 (w/w TS, 5.89 d treatment time, and 45.12% inoculum content, which resulted in a methane yield of 225.3 mL/g VS. A determination coefficient (R2 of 96% was obtained, indicating that the model used to predict the anabolic digestion process shows a favorable fit with the experimental parameters.

  16. Pretreatment or Posttreatment with Aripiprazole Attenuates Methamphetamine-induced Stereotyped Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobue Kitanaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole is a third-generation atypical antipsychotic and a dopamine D 2 receptor partial agonist. In the present study, we investigated whether a single administration of aripiprazole to mice, either as a pretreatment or as a posttreatment, would affect stereotypy induced by methamphetamine (METH. Pretreatment of male ICR mice with aripiprazole (1 or 10 mg/kg, i.p. attenuated the incidence of METH-induced stereotypical behavior in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of mice with 1 mg/kg aripiprazole produced an increase in the locomotor activity in mice treated with METH compared with mice treated with vehicle plus METH and with 10 mg/kg aripiprazole plus METH. This increase in locomotion is indicative of a rightward shift in the dose-response curve for METH, consistent with a shift in the type of stereotypical behavior observed from biting to sniffing. Aripiprazole posttreatment, after METH-induced stereotypical behavior, was fully expressed and also significantly attenuated overall stereotypy in an aripiprazole dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that the antagonism of METH effects by aripiprazole should be investigated as a potential treatment for acute METH overdose.

  17. Fungal pretreatment of straw for enhanced biogas yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xinmei; Pilar Castillo, Maria del; Schnuerer, Anna

    2013-07-01

    Among lignocellulosic materials from the agricultural sector, straw is considered to have the biggest potential as a biofuel and therefore also represents a big potential for biogas production. However, the degradation of lignocellulosic materials is somewhat restricted due to the high content of lignin that binds cellulose and hemicellulose and makes them unavailable for microbial degradation. Consequently, low methane yields are achieved. The biodegradability of the lignocellulosic material can be increased by a pretreatment. Optimally the pre-treatment should give an increase in the formation of sugars while avoiding the degradation or loss of carbohydrates and the formation of inhibitory by-products. The treatment should also be cost-effective. Different methods for pre-treatment of lignocellulosic material have been explored, for example thermal, acid, alkaline and oxidative pretreatments. However, they often have a high energy demand. Biological treatment with fungi represents an alternative method for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials that could be comparably more environmentally friendly, easier to operate and with low energy input. The fungal groups of interest for lignocellulose degradation are the wood decaying fungi, such as the white-, brown-rot and cellulose degraders. The purpose with this work was to increase the biogas potential of straw by using a pretreatment with fungi. Straw was incubated with fungi at aerobic conditions under certain periods of time. The growth and colonization of the straw by the fungi was expected to increase the availability of the lignocellulosic structure of the straw and thus positively affect the biogas potential. In addition also, the spent lignocellulosic material from the cultivation of edible fungi was investigated. We hypothesized that also growth of edible fungi could give a more accessible material and thus give higher biogas potential compared to the substrate before fungal growth.

  18. Different physical and chemical pretreatments of wheat straw for enhanced biobutanol production in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirmal, Chumangalah; Dahman, Yaser [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study is to increase butanol product yields using wheat straw as the biomass. First this study examined different pretreatment and saccharification processes to obtain the maximum sugar concentration. Three different physical and chemical pretreatment methods for the wheat straws were examined in the present work in comparison with physical pretreatment alone as a reference. This included water, acidic, and alkaline pretreatment. For all cases, physical pretreatment represented by 1 mm size reduction of the straws was applied prior to each pretreatment. Results showed that 13.91 g/L glucose concentration was produced from saccharification with just the physical pretreatment (i.e., no chemical pretreatment). This represented {approx}5-20 % lower sugar release in saccharification compared to the other three pretreatment processes. Saccharification with acid pretreatment obtained the highest sugar concentrations, which were 18.77 g/L glucose and 12.19 g/L xylose. Second this study produced butanol from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using wheat straw hydrolysate and Clostridium beijerinckii BA101. Water pretreatment was applied to separate lignin and polysaccharides from the wheat straw. Physical pretreatment was applied prior to water pretreatment where, wheat straw was grounded into fine particles less than 1 mm size. Another experiment was conducted where physical pretreatment was applied alone prior to SSF (i.e. no chemical pretreatment was applied). Both processes converted more than 10% of wheat straw into butanol product. This was 2% higher than previous studies. The results illustrated that SSF with physical pretreatment alone obtained 2.61 g/L butanol.

  19. Pretreatment Solution for Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Chemical pretreatments are used to produce usable water by treating a water source with a chemical pretreatment that contains a hexavalent chromium and an acid to generate a treated water source, wherein the concentration of sulfate compounds in the acid is negligible, and wherein the treated water source remains substantially free of precipitates after the addition of the chemical pretreatment. Other methods include reducing the pH in urine to be distilled for potable water extraction by pretreating the urine before distillation with a pretreatment solution comprising one or more acid sources selected from a group consisting of phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, and nitric acid, wherein the urine remains substantially precipitate free after the addition of the pretreatment solution. Another method described comprises a process for reducing precipitation in urine to be processed for water extraction by mixing the urine with a pretreatment solution comprising hexavalent chromium compound and phosphoric acid.

  20. Silane pre-treatments on copper and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflorian, F.; Rossi, S.; Fedrizzi, L.

    2006-01-01

    A large part of aluminium products are coated with an organic layer in order to improve the corrosion resistance. Copper surfaces are also sometimes protected with an organic coating to improve the durability or the aesthetic properties. Examples of industrial applications are household appliances and heat exchanger components. For these applications it is not rare to have the industrial need to treat at the same time components made of aluminium and copper. In order to extend the service life of the organic coated copper a specific surface pre-treatment is often required. Nevertheless, probably because of the limited market of this application, no specific pre-treatments for copper are industrially developed, with the exception of cleaning procedures, but simply extensions of existing pre-treatments optimised for other metals (aluminium, zinc) are used. The application of silane pre-treatments as adhesion promoters for organic coated metals is remarkably increasing in the last decade, because silanes offer very good performance together with high environmental compatibility. The idea is therefore to try to develop a specific silane based pre-treatment for copper. The starting point is the existing silane products for aluminium, optimising the composition and the application conditions (concentration, temperature, pH of the bath, etc.) in order to develop a high performance copper alloy pre-treatment increasing the protective properties and the adhesion of a successively applied organic coating. Moreover these pre-treatments could be used for aluminium alloys too and therefore could be suggested for multi-metals components. The deposits were analysed using FTIR spectroscopy and optical and electron microscopic observations. A careful electrochemical characterisation, mainly by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements (EIS) was carried out to highlight the presence of silane and to evaluate the performance of the different deposits. In order to study an

  1. Parameter optimization of ferro-sonication pre-treatment process for degradation of bisphenol A and biodegradation from wastewater sludge using response surface model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2011-05-15

    In this study, the application of response surface model in predicting and optimizing the ferro-sonication pre-treatment for degradation of bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupter compound from wastewater sludge (WWS) was investigated. The ferro-sonication pre-treatment process was carried out according to central composite design (CCD) with four independent variables such as wastewater sludge solids concentration, pH, ultrasonication time and FeSO(4) concentration. The effect of ferro-sonication pre-treatment was assessed in terms of increase in sludge solids (suspended solids (SS) and volatile solids (VS)) and organic matter (chemical oxygen demand (COD) and soluble organic carbon (SOC)) solubilization and simultaneous BPA degradation from WWS. It was observed that among all the variables studied, ultrasonication time had more significantly affected the efficiency of the ferro-sonication pre-treatment process followed by FeSO(4) and solids concentration. Through this optimization process, it was found that maximum BPA degradation of 88% could be obtained with 163 min ultrasonication time, 2.71 mg/L FeSO(4) concentration, pH 2.81 with 22 g/L SS. Further, the effect of ferro-sonication pre-treatment on biodegradation of WWS was also studied. It was observed that ultrasonication time had significant effect and the higher biodegradation (32.48%) was observed at 180 min ultrasonication time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Specific pretreatments reduce curing period of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, R V; Roohie, K; Venkatachalam, L; Narayan, M S; Bhagyalakshmi, N

    2007-04-18

    With the aiming of reducing the curing period, effects of pretreatments on flavor formation in vanilla beans during accelerated curing at 38 degrees C for 40 days were studied. Moisture loss, change in texture, levels of flavoring compounds, and activities of relevant enzymes were compared among various pretreatments as well as the commercial sample. Use of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 5 mg/L) or Ethrel (1%) with blanching pretreatment resulted in 3-fold higher vanillin on the 10th day. Other flavoring compounds-vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde-fluctuated greatly, showing no correlation with the pretreatments. Scarification of beans resulted in nearly 4- and 3.6-fold higher vanillin formations on the 10th day in NAA- and Ethrel-treated beans, respectively, as compared to control with a significant change in texture. When activities of major relevant enzymes were followed, addition of NAA or Ethrel helped to retain higher levels of cellulase throughout the curing period and higher levels of beta-glucosidase on the 20th day that correlated with higher vanillin content during curing and subsequent periods. Peroxidase, being highest throughout, did not correlate with the change in levels of major flavoring compounds. The pretreatment methods of the present study may find importance for realizing higher flavor formation in a shorter period because the major quality parameters were found to be comparable to those of a commercial sample.

  3. Effect of pretreating of host oil on coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajdu, P.E.; Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The principal objective of this research was to determine if coprocessing performance (i.e., coal conversion and oil yield) could be significantly improved by pretreating the heavy resid prior to reacting it with coal. For this purpose, two petroleum vacuum resids (1000{degrees}F+), one from the Amoco Co. and another from the Citgo Co., were used as such and after they had been pretreated by catalytic hydrogenation and hydrocracking reactions. The pretreatments were aimed at improving the host oil by; (1) converting any aromatic structures in the petroleum to hydroaromatic compounds capable of donating hydrogen, (2) cracking the heavy oil to lower molecular weight material that might serve as a better solvent, (3) reducing the coking propensity of the heavy oil through the hydrogenation of polynuclear aromatic compounds, and (4) removing metals and heteroatoms that might poison a coprocessing catalyst. Highly dispersed catalysts, including fine particle Fe- and Mo-based, and dicobalt octacarbonyl, Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}, were used in this study. The untreated and pretreated resids were extensively characterized in order to determine chemical changes brought about by the pretreatments. The modified heavy oils were then coprocessed with an Illinois No. 6 coal as well as with a Wyodak coal, and compared to coprocessing with untreated resids under the same hydroliquefaction conditions. The amount of oil derived from coal was estimated by measuring the level of phenolic oxygen (derived mainly from coal) present in the oil products. Results are presented and discussed.

  4. The influence of pulsed electric fields and microwave pretreatments on some selected physicochemical properties of oil extracted from black cumin seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshabadi, Hamid; Mirzaei, HabibOllah; Ghodsvali, Alireza; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Ziaiifar, Aman Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Application of novel technologies such as microwave and pulsed electric fields (PEF) might increase the speed and efficiency of oil extraction. In the present research, PEF (3.25 kV/cm electric field intensity and 30 pulse number) and microwave (540 W for 180 s) pretreatments were used to study the process of oil extraction from black cumin ( Nigella sativa ) seeds. After applying the selected pretreatments, the oil of seeds was extracted with the use of a screw press and the extraction efficiency, refractive index, oil density, color index, oxidative stability, and chemical components of oil and protein of meal were evaluated. The achieved results expressed that PEF and microwave pretreatments increased the oil extraction efficiency and its oxidative stability. Different pretreatments didn't have any significant influence on the refractive index of black cumin seed oil ( p >.05). When microwave and PEF were used, the oil density showed an enhancement as the following: 1.51% and 0.96%, respectively in comparison with the samples with no pretreatments. Evaluation of the extracted oils, using GC/MS analysis indicated that thymoquinone was the dominant phenolic component in the black cumin oil. Finally, the SEM analysis revealed that microwave and PEF can be useful in the extraction of oil from black cumin seeds since these treatments damaged cell walls and facilitated the oil extraction process.

  5. Occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile genetic elements in enterococci and genomic DNA during anaerobic digestion of pharmaceutical waste sludge with different pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juan; Lu, XueTing; Zhang, JunYa; Sui, Qianwen; Wang, Rui; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong

    2017-07-01

    Pharmaceutical waste sludge harbors large amounts of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and it is necessary to study the reduction of ARGs and MGEs during sludge treatment. Therefore, the antibiotic resistance phenotypes and genotypes of enterococci, and the ARGs and MGEs in genomic DNA were investigated during anaerobic digestion (AD) with microwave (MW), thermal hydrolysis (TH) and ozone pretreatment. Results showed that sludge pretreatment increased the occurrence of the resistance phenotypes and genotypes of enterococci. During AD, the resistance of enterococci to macrolides decreased, except for in the MW-pretreated sludge. Horizontal gene transfer and co-occurrence of ermB and tetM in enterococci resulted in increased tetracycline resistance of enterococci throughout the sludge treatment. MGEs such as intI1, ISCR1 and Tn916/1545 had a significant effect on the distribution of ARGs. AD with pretreatment, especially TH pretreatment, resulted in greater ARGs and MGEs reduction and improved methane production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. An approach for upgrading biomass and pyrolysis product quality using a combination of aqueous phase bio-oil washing and torrefaction pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Cen, Kehui; Jing, Xichun; Gao, Jinghui; Li, Chen; Ma, Zhongqing

    2017-06-01

    Bio-oil undergoes phase separation because of poor stability. Practical application of aqueous phase bio-oil is challenging. In this study, a novel approach that combines aqueous phase bio-oil washing and torrefaction pretreatment was used to upgrade the biomass and pyrolysis product quality. The effects of individual and combined pretreatments on cotton stalk pyrolysis were studied using TG-FTIR and a fixed bed reactor. The results showed that the aqueous phase bio-oil washing pretreatment removed metals and resolved the two pyrolysis peaks in the DTG curve. Importantly, it increased the bio-oil yield and improved the pyrolysis product quality. For example, the water and acid content of bio-oil decreased significantly along with an increase in phenol formation, and the heating value of non-condensable gases improved, and these were more pronounced when combined with torrefaction pretreatment. Therefore, the combined pretreatment is a promising method, which would contribute to the development of polygeneration pyrolysis technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of nitrogen oxide pretreatments on enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrevik, R.K.; Wilke, C.R.; Brink, D.L.

    1978-09-01

    This work considers the effect of nitrogen oxide pretreatments on the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis by Trichoderma viride cellulase of the cellulose occurring in wheat straw; Triticum Aestivum-L, em. Thell. In the pretreatment scheme the straw is first reacted with nitric oxide and air, and then extracted in aqueous solution. In this way, overall sugar yields increased from 17% for the case of no pretreatment to 70%. The glucose yield increased from 20 to 60%. The yield of glucose during enzymatic hydrolysis is dependent on the reaction time of the gas phase reaction. For a 24 hour reaction the yield is 60%, but drops to 45% for a reaction time of 2 hours. Xylose, a potentially valuable side product of the pretreatment, is obtained by dilute acid hydrolysis during the extraction stage in yields of 90 to 96%. In acidic media, the kinetics of both the rate of formation and destruction of xylose were found to follow the first-order rate laws reported in the literature. These were determined to be 4.5 (liter/gmole)(hr./sup -1/) and 0.03 hr./sup -1/, respectively. However, the rate of formation is much greater (20.4 (liter/gmole) (hr./sup -1/)) when the extraction liquor is recycled. The most likely explanation for this is that the increased total acidity of the recycled liquor compensates for diffusional limitations. A preliminary design and cost analysis of the pretreatment-hydrolysis scheme indicates that glucose can be produced at 10.86 cents per pound, exclusive of straw cost. The corresponding cost per pound of total sugars produced is 5.0 cents. Sensitivity analyses indicate that 42% of the pretreatment cost (excluding hydrolysis) can be attributed to nitric oxide production, and the high yield of sugar obtained is advantageous when considering the cost of straw.

  8. Autohydrolysis pretreatment assessment in ethanol production from agave bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-González, Leopoldo J; Morales-Martínez, Thelma K; Rodríguez-Flores, María F; Rodríguez-De la Garza, José A; Castillo-Quiroz, David; Castro-Montoya, Agustín J; Martinez, Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the autohydrolysis pretreatment of Agave tequilana bagasse for ethanol production. The pretreatment was conducted using a one-liter high pressure Parr reactor under different severity factors (SF) at a 1:6w/v ratio (solid:liquid) and 200rpm. The solids obtained under the selected autohydrolysis conditions were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis with a commercial cellulase cocktail, and the enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results obtained from the pretreatment process showed that the glucan content in the pretreated solid was mostly preserved, and an increase in the digestibility was observed for the case with a SF of 4.13 (190°C, 30min). Enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated solids showed a yield of 74.3%, with a glucose concentration of 126g/L, resulting in 65.26g/L of ethanol after 10h of fermentation, which represent a 98.4% conversion according to the theoretical ethanol yield value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Breakdown of cell wall nanostructure in dilute acid pretreated biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Urban, Volker S; Heller, William T; McGaughey, Joseph; O'Neill, Hugh; Foston, Marcus; Myles, Dean A; Ragauskas, Arthur; Evans, Barbara R

    2010-09-13

    The generation of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass holds great promise for renewable and clean energy production. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms of lignocellulose breakdown during various pretreatment methods is needed to realize this potential in a cost and energy efficient way. Here we use small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to characterize morphological changes in switchgrass lignocellulose across molecular to submicrometer length scales resulting from the industrially relevant dilute acid pretreatment method. Our results demonstrate that dilute acid pretreatment increases the cross-sectional radius of the crystalline cellulose fibril. This change is accompanied by removal of hemicellulose and the formation of R(g) ∼ 135 A lignin aggregates. The structural signature of smooth cell wall surfaces is observed at length scales larger than 1000 A, and it remains remarkably invariable during pretreatment. This study elucidates the interplay of the different biomolecular components in the breakdown process of switchgrass by dilute acid pretreatment. The results are important for the development of efficient strategies of biomass to biofuel conversion.

  10. Ohmic heating pretreatment of algal slurry for production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodsuwan, Natthawut; Kamonpatana, Pitiya; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote

    2018-02-10

    Suspensions of the model microalga Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 were pretreated by ohmic heating to facilitate release of lipids from the cells in subsequent extraction and lipase-mediated transesterification to biodiesel. After ohmic pretreatment, the moist biomass was suspended in a system of water, hexane, methanol and immobilized lipase for extraction of lipids and simultaneous conversion to biodiesel. The ohmic pretreatment was optimized using an experimental design based on Taguchi method to provide treated biomass that maximized the biodiesel yield in subsequent extraction-transesterification operation. The experimental factors were the frequency of electric current (5-10 5  Hz), the processing temperature (50-70 °C), the algal biomass concentration in the slurry (algal fresh weight to water mass ratio of 1-3) and the incubation time (1-3 min). Extraction-transesterification of the pretreated biomass was carried out at 40 °C for 24 h using a reaction systems of a fixed composition (i.e. biomass, hexane, methanol, water and immobilized enzyme). Compared to control (i.e. untreated biomass), the ohmic pretreatment under optimal conditions (5 Hz current frequency, 70 °C, 1:2 mass ratio of biomass to water, incubation time of 2-min) increased the rate of subsequent transesterification by nearly 2-fold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pretreating lignocellulosic biomass by the concentrated phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP) for enzymatic hydrolysis: evaluating the pretreatment flexibility on feedstocks and particle sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Zhanghong; Shen, Fei; Hu, Jinguang; Sun, Fubao; Lin, Lili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai

    2014-08-01

    In order to seek a high-efficient pretreatment path for converting lignocellulosic feedstocks to fermentable sugars by enzymatic hydrolysis, the concentrated H₃PO₄ plus H₂O₂ (PHP) was attempted to pretreat different lignocellulosic biomass for evaluating the pretreatment flexibility on feedstocks. Meanwhile, the responses of pretreatment to particle sizes were also evaluated. When the PHP-pretreatment was employed (final H₂O₂ and H₃PO₄ concentration of 1.77% and 80.0%), 71-96% lignin and more than 95% hemicellulose in various feedstocks (agricultural residues, hardwood, softwood, bamboo, and their mixture, and garden wastes mixture) can be removed. Consequently, more than 90% glucose conversion was uniformly achieved indicating PHP greatly improved the pretreatment flexibility to different feedstocks. Moreover, when wheat straw and oak chips were PHP-pretreated with different sizes, the average glucose conversion reached 94.9% and 100% with lower coefficient of variation (7.9% and 0.0%), which implied PHP-pretreatment can significantly weaken the negative effects of feedstock sizes on subsequent conversion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical characterization and hydrothermal pretreatment of Salicornia bigelovii straw for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cybulska, Iwona; Chaturvedi, Tanmay; Brudecki, Grzegorz P.

    2014-01-01

    to hydrothermal pretreatment, producing highly digestible (up to 92% glucan-to-glucose conversion) and fermentable (up to 100% glucose-to-ethanol conversion) fiber fractions. Liquid fractions obtained in the pretreatment did not show inhibition towards Saccharomyces cerevisiae. No significant differences among...

  13. Chemical pretreatment of Arundo donax L. for second-generation ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silva Lemões

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Alkaline pretreatment was essential for obtaining high concentrations of glucose and xylose. The application of an alkaline pretreatment alone resulted in high glucose and xylose concentrations. This result is very significant as it allows a cost reduction by eliminating one step.

  14. Cellulose conversion of corn pericarp without pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Orrego, David; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Ladisch, Michael R

    2017-12-01

    We report enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose in unpretreated pericarp at a cellulase loading of 0.25FPU/g pericarp solids using a phenol tolerant Aspergillus niger pectinase preparation. The overall protein added was 5mg/g and gave 98% cellulose conversion in 72h. However, for double the amount of enzyme from Trichoderma reesei, which is significantly less tolerant to phenols, conversion was only 16%. The key to achieving high conversion without pretreatment is combining phenol inhibition-resistant enzymes (such as from A. niger) with unground pericarp from which release of phenols is minimal. Size reduction of the pericarp, which is typically carried out in a corn-to-ethanol process, where corn is first ground to a fine powder, causes release of highly inhibitory phenols that interfere with cellulase enzyme activity. This work demonstrates hydrolysis without pretreatment of large particulate pericarp is a viable pathway for directly producing cellulose ethanol in corn ethanol plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pretreatment attrition and childhood social phobia: Parental concerns about medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brennan J; Beidel, Deborah C; Turner, Samuel M; Ammerman, Robert T; McGraw, Kelly; Coaston, Susannah C

    2006-01-01

    Pretreatment attrition, the systematic self-exclusion of potential participants during the recruitment phase of a study, poses a significant threat to the external validity of randomized clinical trials. Very little is known about the factors that contribute to pretreatment attrition, especially among families seeking treatment for a child. The current study assessed pretreatment attrition in a randomized clinical trial of behavior therapy, fluoxetine, and placebo for child and adolescent social phobia. Reluctance toward medication treatment accounted for 44.7% of study refusals and was disproportionately common among ethnic minority families. Parents were particularly worried about the potential for side effects or physical/psychological dependency upon the medication. Results are discussed in terms of the implications for external validity in future psychopharmacological clinical trials.

  16. Pretreatment with Recombinant Flt3 Ligand Partially Protects against Progressive Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Susceptible BALB/c Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Inger B.; Gould, Meetha P.; Cooper, Kevin D.; Heinzel, Frederick P.

    2001-01-01

    Dendritic cells are potent antigen-presenting cells that also produce interleukin-12 (IL-12) during innate and adaptive cellular immune responses and that thereby promote the differentiation of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing Th1-type CD4+ T lymphocytes. We hypothesized that expanded dendritic-cell populations in mice pretreated with the hematopoietic cytokine Flt3L would protect against cutaneous Leishmania major infection. Pretreatment of disease-susceptible BALB/c mice with 10 μg of recombinant Flt3L (rFlt3L) for 9 to 10 days before infection increased lymph node IL-12 p40 productive capacity 20-fold compared to that of saline-injected controls. Furthermore, 9 of 22 (40.9%) rFlt3L-pretreated BALB/c mice resolved their cutaneous infections, whereas none of the 22 control BALB/c mice healed. Healed, rFlt3L-pretreated mice did not develop disease following reinfection. Flt3L pretreatment also reduced parasite numbers 1,000-fold in the cutaneous lesions at 2 weeks after infection relative to numbers in lesions of untreated controls. However, Flt3L pretreatment did not significantly alter L. major-induced IFN-γ and IL-4 production in lymph node culture at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after infection. Despite the lack of Th immune deviation, Flt3L ligand-pretreated lymph nodes expressed up to 10-fold higher levels of IL-12 p40 and inducible (type 2) nitric oxide synthase mRNA at 7 days after infection. In contrast, treatment with rFlt3L after infection failed to protect against disease despite comparable expansions of dendritic cells and IL-12 p40 productive capacity in both infected and uninfected BALB/c mice treated with rFlt3L. We conclude that rFlt3L pretreatment before infection with L. major reduces parasite load and promotes healing of cutaneous lesions without stable cytokine deviation towards a dominant Th1 cytokine phenotype. PMID:11159954

  17. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Kádár, Zsófia; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2011-01-01

    , while lignin was degraded up to 95% by O3. The loss of biomass after washing could be explained by the amount of lignin degraded. The washing water of pretreated samples (0–7 h) was analyzed for potential fermentation inhibitors. Approximately 30 lignin degradation products and a number of simple...... carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds were found, e.g., vanillic acid, acetic acid, and formic acid. Some components had the highest concentration at the beginning of the ozonisation process (0.5, 1 h), e.g., 4-hydroxybenzladehyde, while the concentration of others increased during the entire pretreatment...

  18. Fundamental characteristics of microwave explosion pretreatment of wood. I, Properties of temperature development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian-jun Li; Ke-yang Lu; Lan-ying Lin; Yong-dong Zhou; Zhi-yong Cai; Feng Fu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of microwave radiation intensity, radiation time and initial wood moisture content (MC) on the properties of temperature development in Eucalyptus urophylla wood samples during the microwave explosion pretreatment have been investigated using a new microwave pretreatment equipment. The results show that 1) with the increase of microwave...

  19. Oxalic acid pretreatment of rice straw particles and loblolly pine chips : release of hemicellulosic carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Eric Horn; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oxalic acid (OA) pretreatment on carbohydrates released from rice straw particles and wood chips. The results showed that OA treatment accelerated carbohydrates extraction from rice straw particles and wood chips. OA pretreatment dramatically increased the amount of carbohydrates extracted, up to 24 times for wood...

  20. Use of new endophytic fungi as pretreatment to enhance enzymatic saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sampedro, Raquel; Fillat, Úrsula; Ibarra, David; Eugenio, María E

    2015-11-01

    New endophytic fungi are assessed for the first time as pretreatment to enhance saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus wood. The fungi are all laccase-producing ascomycetes and were isolated from eucalyptus trees in Spain. After five endophytes had been assayed alone or in combination with white-rot fungus Trametes sp. I-62, three were pre-selected. To improve sugar production, an autohydrolysis pretreatment was performed before or after fungal treatment. Pretreatment increased sugar production 2.7 times compared to non-pretreated wood. When fungal and autohydrolysis pretreatments were combined, a synergistic increase in saccharification was observed in all cases. Endophytic fungi Ulocladium sp. and Hormonema sp. produced greater enhancements in saccharification than Trametes sp. I-62 (increase in sugar yields of 8.5, 8.0 and 6.0 times, respectively), demonstrating the high potential of these new endophytic fungi for saccharification enhancement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of heat pretreatment temperature on fermentative hydrogen production using mixed cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghchehsaraee, Bita; Nakhla, George; Karamanev, Dimitre; Margaritis, Argyrios [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Reid, Gregor [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Canadian Research and Development Center for Probiotics, Lawson Health Research Institute, 268 Grosvenor Street, London, Ontario N6A 4V2 (Canada)

    2008-08-15

    The effect of heat treatment at different temperatures on two types of inocula, activated sludge and anaerobically digested sludge, was investigated in batch cultures. Heat treatments were conducted at 65, 80 and 95 C for 30 min. The untreated inocula produced less amount of hydrogen than the pretreated inocula, with lactic acid as the main metabolite. The maximum yields of 2.3 and 1.6 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose were achieved for the 65 C pretreated anaerobically digested and activated sludges, respectively. Approximately a 15% decrease in yield was observed with increasing pretreatment temperature from 65 to 95 C concomitant with an increase in butyrate/acetate ratio from 1.5 to 2.4 for anaerobically digested sludge. The increase of pretreatment temperature of activated sludge to 95 C suppressed the hydrogen production by lactic acid fermentation. DNA analysis of the microbial community showed that the elevated pretreatment temperatures reduced the species diversity. (author)

  2. Evaluation of ultrasound assisted potassium permanganate pre-treatment of spent coffee waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Swarna; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, novel pre-treatment for spent coffee waste (SCW) has been proposed which utilises the superior oxidising capacity of alkaline KMnO 4 assisted by ultra-sonication. The pre-treatment was conducted for different exposure times (10, 20, 30 and 40min) using different concentrations of KMnO 4 (1, 2, 3, 4, 5%w/v) at room temperature with solid/liquid ratio of 1:10. Pretreating SCW with 4% KMnO 4 and exposing it to ultrasound for 20min resulted in 98% cellulose recovery and a maximum lignin removal of 46%. 1.7 fold increase in reducing sugar yield was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of KMnO 4 pretreated SCW as compared to raw. SEM, XRD and FTIR analysis of the pretreated SCW revealed the various effects of pretreatment. Thermal behaviour of the pretreated substrate against the native biomass was also studied using DSC. Ultrasound-assisted potassium permanganate oxidation was found to be an effective pretreatment for SCW, and can be a used as a potential feedstock pretreatment strategy for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of corn stover: effects of biomass, peroxide, and enzyme loading and composition on yields of glucose and xylose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodge David B

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment is a critical step in the conversion of lignocellulose to fermentable sugars. Although many pretreatment processes are currently under investigation, none of them are entirely satisfactory in regard to effectiveness, cost, or environmental impact. The use of hydrogen peroxide at pH 11.5 (alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP was shown by Gould and coworkers to be an effective pretreatment of grass stovers and other plant materials in the context of animal nutrition and ethanol production. Our earlier experiments indicated that AHP performed well when compared against two other alkaline pretreatments. Here, we explored several key parameters to test the potential of AHP for further improvement relevant to lignocellulosic ethanol production. Results The effects of biomass loading, hydrogen peroxide loading, residence time, and pH control were tested in combination with subsequent digestion with a commercial enzyme preparation, optimized mixtures of four commercial enzymes, or optimized synthetic mixtures of pure enzymes. AHP pretreatment was performed at room temperature (23°C and atmospheric pressure, and after AHP pretreatment the biomass was neutralized with HCl but not washed before enzyme digestion. Standard enzyme digestion conditions were 0.2% glucan loading, 15 mg protein/g glucan, and 48 h digestion at 50°C. Higher pretreatment biomass loadings (10% to 20% gave higher monomeric glucose (Glc and xylose (Xyl yields than the 2% loading used in earlier studies. An H2O2 loading of 0.25 g/g biomass was almost as effective as 0.5 g/g, but 0.125 g/g was significantly less effective. Optimized mixtures of four commercial enzymes substantially increased post-AHP-pretreatment enzymatic hydrolysis yields at all H2O2 concentrations compared to any single commercial enzyme. At a pretreatment biomass loading of 10% and an H2O2 loading of 0.5 g/g biomass, an optimized commercial mixture at total protein loadings of 8 or 15 mg

  4. Effects of magnetic fields pretreatment of mungbean seeds on sprout ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tony

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... control, magnetic field pretreatment caused an increase by 12% in the concentration of spouts protein, by 5.1% in the concentration of ... been reported by many researches. The first studies were conducted ... For protein extraction, 0.5 g mungbean sprouts (fresh weight) were homogenized at 0°C with 2.5 ...

  5. Effects of low-temperature pretreatment on carbonization of cellulose for the production of biocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Gu-Joong; Kim, Dae-Young; Kang, Kyu-Young

    2012-05-01

    Pretreatment of cellulose at temperatures below 300 °C prior to carbonization at 1200 °C was studied for the production of high-yield biocarbons. Filter paper as the cellulosic raw material was pyrolyzed by using heating schemes, including 16-h isothermal step at 215-270 °C under nitrogen atmosphere, followed by fast heating up to 600 °C and finally to 1200 °C. Cellulose degradation was completed in the 16-h holding isothermal step at a temperature above 250 °C, as confirmed by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The yield of char was increased from 11% to 21% by pretreatment of cellulose after post-treatment at 600 °C or 1200 °C. The BET surface area as the microporosity value was also significantly enhanced from 461 m2/g to 837 m2/g by straight heating of 10 °C/min. These results are thought to be caused by slow heating and stabilizing effects due to pretreatment of cellulose at the critical temperature for degradation.

  6. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee

    2015-08-18

    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  7. InGaN/GaN quantum well improved by in situ SiN{sub x} pretreatment of GaN template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Demeng; Wu, Zhengyuan; Fang, Zhilai [Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Semiconductors and Efficient Devices, Xiamen University (China)

    2016-12-15

    In situ SiN{sub x} pretreatment was employed to modify the growth behavior and optical properties of InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs). With moderate SiN{sub x} pretreatment surface smoothness of InGaN/GaN QWs was improved and attributed to enhanced layer growth by Ga surfactant effect. Significant increase of photoluminescence peak intensity and relatively uniform and bright cathodoluminescence images were observed, which were attributed to the improvement in crystalline quality and strain reduction for the InGaN/GaN QWs with moderate SiN{sub x} pretreatment. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Assessment of Shock Pretreatment of Corn Stover Using the Carboxylate Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvekar, Pratik; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2016-03-01

    Corn stover was pretreated with lime and shock, a mechanical process that uses a shockwave to alter the biomass structure. Two pretreatments (lime-only and lime + shock) were evaluated using enzymatic hydrolysis, batch mixed-culture fermentations, and continuous countercurrent mixed-culture fermentation. In a 120-h enzymatic hydrolysis, shock pretreatment increased the glucan digestibility of submerged lime pretreatment (SLP) corn stover by 3.5 % and oxidative lime pretreatment (OLP) corn stover by 2.5 %. The continuum particle distribution model (CPDM) was used to simulate a four-stage continuous countercurrent mixed-culture fermentation using empirical rate models obtained from simple batch experiments. The CPDM model determined that lime + shock pretreatment increased the total carboxylic acids yield by 28.5 % over lime-only pretreatment in a countercurrent fermentation with a volatile solids loading rate (VSLR) of 12 g/(L/day) and liquid retention time (LRT) of 30 days. In a semi-continuous countercurrent fermentation performed in the laboratory for 112 days with a VSLR of 1.875 g/(L day) and LRT of 16 days, lime + shock pretreatment increased the total carboxylic acid yield by 14.8 %. The experimental results matched closely with CPDM model predictions (4.05 % error).

  9. Adsorption characteristics of cellulase and β-glucosidase on Avicel, pretreated sugarcane bagasse, and lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Daniele Longo; Moreira Neto, João; da Cruz Pradella, José Geraldo; Bonomi, Antonio; Rabelo, Sarita Cândida; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Although adsorption is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials, literature reports controversial results in relation to the adsorption of the cellulolitic enzymes on different biomasses/pretreatments, which makes difficult the description of this phenomenon in hydrolysis mathematical models. In this work, the adsorption of these enzymes on Avicel and sugarcane bagasse pretreated by the hydrothermal bagasse (HB) and organosolv bagasse (OB) methods was evaluated. The results have shown no significant adsorption of β-glucosidase on Avicel or HB. Increasing solids concentration from 5% (w/v) to 10% (w/v) had no impact on the adsorption of cellulase on the different biomasses if stirring rates were high enough (>100 rpm for Avicel and >150 rpm for HB and OB). Adsorption equilibrium time was low for Avicel (10 Min) when compared with the lignocellulosic materials (120 Min). Adsorption isotherms determined at 4 and 50 °C have shown that for Avicel there was a decrease in the maximum adsorption capacity (Emax) with the temperature increase, whereas for HB increasing temperature increased Emax . Also, Emax increased with the content of lignin in the material. Adsorption studies of cellulase on lignin left after enzymatic digestion of HB show lower but significant adsorption capacity (Emax = 11.92 ± 0.76 mg/g). © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Increased 3H-spiperone binding sites in mesolimbic area related to methamphetamine-induced behavioral hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, K.; Sato, M.; Otsuki, S.

    1982-01-01

    The specific 3 H-spiperone binding to membrane homogenates of the striatum, mesolimbic area, and frontal cortex was examined in two groups of rats pretreated once daily with saline or 4 mg/kg of methamphetamine (MAP) for 14 days. At 7 days following cessation of chronic pretreatment, all rats received an injection of 4 mg/kg of MAP and were decapitated 1 hr after the injection. In the chronic saline-pretreatment group, the single administration of MAP induced significant changes in the number (Bmax) of specific 3 H-spiperone binding sites (a decrease in the striatum and an increase in the mesolimbic area and frontal cortex), but no significant changes in the affinity (KD) in any brain area. The chronic MAP pretreatment markedly augmented the changes in Bmax in the striatum and mesolimbic area. The increase in specific 3 H-spiperone binding sites in the mesolimbic area is discussed in relation to MAP-induced behavioral hypersensitivity

  11. Acute antioxidant pre-treatment attenuates endothelial microparticle release after decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrismas, Bryna Cr; Midgley, Adrian W; Taylor, Lee; Vince, Rebecca V; Laden, Gerard; Madden, Leigh A

    2010-12-01

    The hyperbaric and hyperoxic effects of a dive have been demonstrated to elicit changes in oxidative stress, endothelial function and microparticle (MP) release. Endothelial MP, which are small membrane vesicles shed from the endothelium, have been suggested as a valid in vivo marker of endothelial function. Furthermore, recent research has shown an increase in CD105 MP post-dive to be associated with a decline in endothelial function. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether antioxidant (AOX) pre-treatment can attenuate increased CD105 MP release post-dive. Five healthy, male, pressure-naive subjects completed two simulated dives (control and intervention) breathing compressed air to a depth of 18 metres' sea water for 80 min. For the intervention dive, all subjects received a commercially available AOX pill containing vitamins C and E, selenium and beta-carotene 2 h pre-dive. CD105 MP, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and thiobarbituric reactive substances assay (TBARS) were determined pre-dive, at depth, immediately and 4 h post-dive. In the control dive, there was a significant increase in CD105 MP immediately post-dive when compared with at depth (P < 0.001) and pre-dive (P = 0.039) values. Antioxidant pre-treatment significantly attenuated this release of CD105 MP post-decompression (P = 0.002). There were no significant changes in TBARS or TAC. These results may provide evidence of the potential use of AOX pre-treatment as an effective endothelial pre-conditioner for divers.

  12. Biogas Production from Distilled Grain Waste by Thermophilic Dry Anaerobic Digestion: Pretreatment of Feedstock and Dynamics of Microbial Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Huang, Yu-Lian; Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2018-02-01

    Distilled grain waste (DGW) eluted from the Chinese liquor making process poses potential serious environmental problems. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of converting DGW to biogas by thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion. To improve biogas production, the effects of dilute H 2 SO 4 and thermal pretreatment on DGW were evaluated by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The results indicate that 90 °C thermal pretreatment provided the highest methane production at 212.7 mL/g-VTS add . The long-term thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion process was conducted in a 5-L separable flask for more than 3 years at a volatile total solid (VTS) loading rate of 1 g/kg-sludge/d, using synthetic waste, untreated and 90 °C thermal pretreated DGW as the feedstock, respectively. A higher methane production, 451.6 mL/g-VTS add , was obtained when synthetic waste was used; the methane production decreased to 139.4 mL/g-VTS add when the untreated DGW was used. The 90 °C thermal pretreated DGW increased the methane production to 190.5 mL/g-VTS add , showing an increase of 36.7% in methane production compared with that using untreated DGW. The microbial community structure analysis indicates that the microbial community in the thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion system maintained a similar structure when untreated or pretreated DGW was used, whereas the structure differed significantly when synthetic waste was used as the feedstock.

  13. Retention Strength of PMMA/UDMA-Based Crowns Bonded to Dentin: Impact of Different Coupling Agents for Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Stawarczyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM polymers for long-term dental restorations benefit from enhanced mechanical properties. However, the quantification of their bonding properties on teeth is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the retention strength (RS of differently pretreated new developed polymethylmethacrylate/ urethanedimethacrylate-based CAD/CAM polymer bonded on dentin. In summary, 120 human caries-free molars were prepared, and polymeric crowns were milled and pretreated (n = 20: visio.link (VL, Scotchbond Universal (SU, Monobond Plus/Heliobond (MH, Margin Bond (MB, Margin Bond mixed with acetone (1:1 (MBA or not pretreated (CG. Half of the specimens were cemented using Variolink II and the other half with RelyX Ultimate. Specimens were stored for 24 h in distilled water and thermal cycled (5000 ×, 5 °C/55 °C. The retention load was measured and failure types were defined. RS was calculated and analyzed using both two- and one-way ANOVA with a post-hoc Scheffé-test, unpaired t-test, Kaplan–Meier with Breslow–Gehan test and chi-squared test (p < 0.05. Crowns bonded using RelyX Ultimate showed higher RS than those bonded using Variolink II. The pretreatment showed no impact on the RS. However, survival analysis within Variolink II found an impact of pretreatment. The median RS for MH was the lowest and statistically different from MB, MBA and CG. For Variolink II MH had the poorest survival as the estimated cumulative failure function of the debonded crown increased very quickly with increasing TBS. Within the RelyX Ultimate groups, no significant differences were determined. The newly developed CAD/CAM polymer showed the highest bonding properties after cementation using RelyX Ultimate.

  14. [The protective effect of propofol pretreatment on glutamate injury of neonatal rat brain slices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-feng; Huang, Ding-ding; Wang, Di-fen; Fu, Jiang-quan

    2012-12-01

    To study the protective effect of propofol precondition against glutamate (Glu) neurotoxicity to neonatal rat cerebrocortical slices. Brain slices of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were cultured in vitro and observed the morphologic changes. Brain slices were randomly divided into three groups: blank control group, Glu injury group (1 mmol/L Glu for 0.5 hour), propofol precondition group (20 mg/L propofol for 24 hours), each n=12. Changes in pathological and ultra-structure of cells were observed using microscope. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage rate was measured. Meanwhile, the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was detected by immunohistochemical technology, then the positive cell were counted. Cultured brain slices of cell were intact and survived well. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, electron microscopy and LDH test results showed that cerebral film neuron severely damage, gliosis, edema, LDH leakage rate in Glu injury group were significantly more severe compared with blank control group [(68.5±2.0)% vs. (16.0±2.5)%, P<0.01]. Reduce the brain slice of the propofol pretreatment group of neuronal cell jury, cell shape recovery significantly reduced LDH leakage rate compared with the Glu injury group [(38.5±2.4)% vs. (68.5±2.0)%, P<0.05]. Immunohistochemical detection of GFAP expression of Glu injury group glial cell body swelling, producing increase in the number of GFAP positive reaction strong, the number of positive cells compared with blank control group was significantly increased (50±5 cells/HP vs. 10±3 cells/HP, P<0.01). The recovery of propofol pretreatment group glial cell morphology, cell processes slender GFAP positive reaction decreased the number of positive cells compared with the Glu injury group was significantly decreased (30±4 cells/HP vs. 50±5 cells/HP, P<0.05). Propofol pretreatment has protective effect against Glu injured rat cerebrocortical slices.

  15. Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Co-gasification/co-firing of Biomass and Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ping [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Howard, Bret [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hedges, Sheila [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Morreale, Bryan [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Van Essendelft, Dirk [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Berry, David [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-10-29

    Utilization of biomass as a co-feed in coal and biomass co-firing and co-gasification requires size reduction of the biomass. Reducing biomass to below 0.2 mm without pretreatment is difficult and costly because biomass is fibrous and compressible. Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment process and has the advantages of increasing energy density, improving grindability, producing fuels with more homogenous compositions and hydrophobic behavior. Temperature is the most important factor for the torrefaction process. Biomass grindability is related to cell wall structure, thickness and composition. Thermal treatment such as torrefaction can cause chemical changes that significantly affect the strength of biomass. The objectives of this study are to understand the mechanism by which torrefaction improves the grindability of biomass and discuss suitable temperatures for thermal pretreatment for co-gasification/co-firing of biomass and coal. Wild cherry wood was selected as the model for this study. Samples were prepared by sawing a single tangential section from the heartwood and cutting it into eleven pieces. The samples were consecutively heated at 220, 260, 300, 350, 450 and 550⁰C for 0.5 hr under flowing nitrogen in a tube furnace. Untreated and treated samples were characterized for physical properties (color, dimensions and weight), microstructural changes by SEM, and cell wall composition changes and thermal behaviors by TGA and DSC. The morphology of the wood remained intact through the treatment range but the cell walls were thinner. Thermal treatments were observed to decompose the cell wall components. Hemicellulose decomposed over the range of ~200 to 300⁰C and resulted in weakening of the cell walls and subsequently improved grindability. Furthermore, wood samples treated above 300⁰C lost more than 39% in mass. Therefore, thermal pretreatment above the hemicelluloses decomposition temperature but below 300⁰C is probably sufficient to

  16. Vacuum-assisted alkaline pretreatment as an innovative approach for enhancing fermentable sugar yield and decreasing inhibitor production of sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaojing; Xiong, Chunjiang; Li, Shuai; Chen, Xiaodong; Xiao, Wenjuan; Zhang, Dou; Li, Jiasheng; Gong, Yingxue; Lin, Jianghai; Liu, Zehuan

    2017-09-01

    Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse under vacuum conditions was established and evaluated in this study. Compared to pretreatment under conventional moderate pressure conditions, only half of the total phenolic compounds and less than half of the formic acid were produced under vacuum conditions, while the yield of total fermentable sugar was significantly increased by 31.38%. The pretreatment parameters: NaOH concentration, pretreatment time, and pretreatment temperature, were optimized using response surface methodology based on the response values of the total fermentable sugar yield (TFSY) and the total fermentable sugar concentration (TFSC), respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the TFSY of 0.5146g/g and the TFSC of 17.37g/L were achieved, respectively. By adjusting the ratio of cellulases to xylanase, the TFSY reached a maximum of 0.5213g/g when the ratio was 1:1, while the maximum TFSC of 17.71g/L was achieved when the ratio was 1:4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Suitability of steam exploded residual softwood for the production of binderless panels. Effect of the pre-treatment severity and lignin addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angles, M.N.; Ferrando, F.; Farriol, X.; Salvado, J. [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria

    2001-07-01

    A steam explosion pre-treatment was applied at various severities to softwood residual substrate to determine the most suitable pre-treatment for the manufacture of binderless panels. The effect of adding acid to the pre-treatment of fibres was also evaluated. The changes in the chemical composition and morphology of the original material were investigated by fractionation analyses and scanning electron micrographs. High severities caused defibrillation of the material allowing to build links to form the panels. Prehydrolysis with acid had a great effect of the structure of the material even at low acid concentration, The physical and mechanical properties of the panel improved with as the severity of the pre-treatment increased up to a point where mechanical properties deteriorated. The composites with highest internal bond had a high cellulose content and a medium lignin content, All these factors suggested that steamed pre-treated residual could be improved by adding a natural binder to produce the panels. A test of producing panels with addition of several kinds of lignin (up to 20%) was performed. With no significant changes in density, water stability (thickness swelling and water absorption) internal bond and mechanical properties were greatly improved., Results after accelerated ageing test were also enhanced. (Author)

  18. Pretreatment with UV light renders the chromatin in human fibroblasts more susceptible to the DNA-damaging agents bleomycin, gamma radiation and 8-methoxypsoralen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungman, Mats

    1989-01-01

    Confluent human fibroblast cultures were pretreated with either 254 nm UV light (UV) or methyl methanesulphonate (MMS), incubated at 37 0 C and subsequently challenged on ice with bleomycin (BLM), gamma-radiation or 8-methoxy-psoralen (MOP). The resulting number of challenge-induced DNA damages (measured as DNA strand breaks or cross-links) were compared with the numbers induced in similarly challenged but non-pretreated control cells. It was found that the timing of the subsequent challenge of cells pretreated with UV did significantly affect the amount of induced DNA damage. When the challenging agents were administered after a 10-20 min incubation period following UV pretreatment, the amount of induced DNA damage was increased 50% over control cells. In contrast, the timing of the subsequent challenge of cells pretreated with MMS has no influence on the level of challenge-induced damage. It is hypothesized that UV-irradiated chromatin undergoes a time-dependent decondensation that renders it more susceptible to the induction of strand breaks and cross-links by BLM, gamma-radiation and MOP. A possible role for chromatin decondensation in UV-induced excision repair is discussed. (author)

  19. Evaluation of lime and hydrothermal pretreatments for efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of raw sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Maira Prearo; Marques, Marina Paganini; Laluce, Cecília; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud; Sponchiado, Sandra Regina Pombeiro

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse requires a pretreatment step to disrupt the cellulose-hemicellulose-lignin complex and to increase biomass digestibility, thus allowing the obtaining of high yields of fermentable sugars for the subsequent fermentation. Hydrothermal and lime pretreatments have emerged as effective methods in preparing the lignocellulosic biomass for bioconversion. These pretreatments are advantageous because they can be performed under mild temperature and pressure conditions, resulting in less sugar degradation compared with other pretreatments, and also are cost-effective and environmentally sustainable. In this study, we evaluated the effect of these pretreatments on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of raw sugarcane bagasse obtained directly from mill without prior screening. In addition, we evaluated the structure and composition modifications of this bagasse after lime and hydrothermal pretreatments. The highest cellulose hydrolysis rate (70 % digestion) was obtained for raw sugarcane bagasse pretreated with lime [0.1 g Ca(OH)2/g raw] for 60 min at 120 °C compared with hydrothermally pretreated bagasse (21 % digestion) under the same time and temperature conditions. Chemical composition analyses showed that the lime pretreatment of bagasse promoted high solubilization of lignin (30 %) and hemicellulose (5 %) accompanied by a cellulose accumulation (11 %). Analysis of pretreated bagasse structure revealed that lime pretreatment caused considerable damage to the bagasse fibers, including rupture of the cell wall, exposing the cellulose-rich areas to enzymatic action. We showed that lime pretreatment is effective in improving enzymatic digestibility of raw sugarcane bagasse, even at low lime loading and over a short pretreatment period. It was also demonstrated that this pretreatment caused alterations in the structure and composition of raw bagasse, which had a pronounced effect on the enzymes accessibility to the

  20. Predicted effects of mineral neutralization and bisulfate formation on hydrogen ion concentration for dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Todd A; Wyman, Charles E

    2004-01-01

    Dilute acid and water-only hemicellulose hydrolysis are being examined as part of a multiinstitutional cooperative effort to evaluate the performance of leading cellulosic biomass pretreatment technologies on a common basis. Cellulosic biomass, such as agricultural residues and forest wastes, can have a significant mineral content. It has been shown that these minerals neutralize some of the acid during dilute acid pretreatment, reducing its effectiveness, and the higher solids loadings desired to minimize costs will require increased acid use to compensate. However, for sulfuric acid in particular, an equilibrium shift to formation of bisulfate during neutralization can further reduce hydrogen ion concentrations and compound the effect of neutralization. Because the equilibrium shift has a more pronounced effect at lower acid concentrations, additional acid is needed to compensate. Coupled with the effect of temperature on acid dissociation, these effects increase acid requirements to achieve a particular reaction rate unless minerals are removed prior to hydrolysis.

  1. Transdermal testosterone pretreatment in poor responders undergoing ICSI: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdou, J K; Venetis, C A; Dafopoulos, K; Zepiridis, L; Chatzimeletiou, K; Anifandis, G; Mitsoli, A; Makedos, A; Messinis, I E; Tarlatzis, B C; Kolibianakis, E M

    2016-05-01

    Does pretreatment with transdermal testosterone increase the number of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) retrieved by more than 1.5 in poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), using recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa)? Testosterone pretreatment failed to increase the number of COCs by more than 1.5 as compared with no pretreatment in poor responders undergoing ICSI (difference between medians: 0.0, 95% CI: -1.0 to +1.0). Androgens are thought to play an important role in early follicular development by enhancing ovarian sensitivity to FSH. In a recent meta-analysis, testosterone pretreatment resulted in an increase of 1.5 COCs as compared with no pretreatment. However, this effect was based on the analysis of only two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including 163 patients. Evidently, there is a need for additional RCTs that will allow firmer conclusions to be drawn. The present RCT was designed to detect a difference of 1.5 COCs (sample size required = 48 patients). From 02/2014 until 04/2015, 50 poor responders fulfilling the Bologna criteria have been randomized (using a randomization list) to either testosterone pretreatment for 21 days ( ITALIC! n = 26) or no pretreatment ( ITALIC! n = 24). All patients underwent a long follicular GnRHa protocol. Recombinant FSH stimulation was started on Day 22 following GnRHa initiation. In the testosterone pretreatment group, a daily dose of 10 mg of testosterone gel was applied transdermally for 21 days starting from GnRHa initiation. Results are expressed as median (interquartile range). No differences in baseline characteristics were observed between the two groups compared. Testosterone levels [median (interquartile range)] were significantly higher in the testosterone pretreatment on the day of initiation of FSH stimulation [114 (99.5) ng/dl versus 20 (20) ng/dl, respectively, ITALIC! P interquartile range)] was similar between

  2. Enhancing methane production from U. lactuca using combined anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) and rumen fluid pre-treatment and the effect on the solubilization of microbial community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu; Xu, Xiaochen; Li, Liang; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen

    2018-04-01

    Methane production by the anaerobic digestion of seaweed is restricted by the slow degradation caused by the influence of the rigid algal cell wall. At the present time, there has been no study focusing on the anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca by co-fermentation and pre-treatment with rumen fluid. Rumen fluid can favor methane production from algal biomass by utilizing the diversity and quantity of bacterial and archaeal communities in the rumen fluid. This research presents a novel method based on combined ADS and rumen fluid pre-treatment to improve the production of methane from seaweed. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed to investigate the biogas production using combined ADS and rumen fluid pre-treatment at varied inoculum ratios on the performance of methane production from U. lactuca biomass. Compared to the control (no rumen fluid pre-treatment), the highest BMP yields of U. lactuca increased from 3%, 27.5% and 39.5% to 31.1%, 73% and 85.6%, respectively, for three different types of treatment. Microbial community analysis revealed that the Methanobrevibacter species, known to accept electrons to form methane, were only detected when rumen fluid was added. Together with the significant increase in species of Methanoculleus, Methanospirillum and Methanosaeta, rumen fluid improved the fermentation and degradation of the microalgae biomass not only by pre-treatment to foster cell-wall degradation but also by relying on methane production within itself during anaerobic processes. Batch experiments further indicated that rumen fluid applied to the co-fermentation and pre-treatment could increase the economic value and hold promise for enhancing biogas production from different seaweed species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Enhancement of anaerobic digestion of excess sludge by acid-alkali pretreatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guang-Huan; Zhou, Xing-Qiu; Wu, Jian-Dong

    2012-06-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of anaerobic digestion of excess sludge, acid-alkali pretreatment method was studied. Three different pretreatment methods (alkali alone,acid-alkali, alkali-acid) were compared to investigate their impacts on hydrolysis and acidification of activated sludge. In addition, their influences on methane-producing in subsequent anaerobic digestion process were also studied. The results showed that the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of alkaline treatment alone was about 16% higher than the combining of acid and alkali treatment, SCOD concentration increased to 5406.1 mg x L(-1) after 8 d pretreatment. After treated by acid (pH 4.0, 4 d) and alkali (pH 10.0, 4 d), the acetic acid production and its content in short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were higher than other pretreatment methods. And the acetic acid production (as COD/VSS) could reach 74.4 mg x g(-1), accounting for 60.5% of SCFAs. After acid-alkali pretreatment, the C: N ratio of the sludge mixed liquor was about 25, and the C: P ratio was between 35-40, which was more favorable than C: N and C: P ratio of alkali alone and alkali-acid to subsequent anaerobic digestion. The control experiments showed that, after acid-alkali pretreatment, anaerobic digestion cumulative methane yield (CH4/VSS(in)) reached to 136.1 mL x g(-1) at 15 d, which was about 2.5-, 1.6-, and 1.7-fold of the blank (unpretreated), alkali alone pretreatment and alkali-acid pretreatment, respectively. After acid-alkali pretreatment for 8 d and anaerobic digestion for 15 d, the removal efficiency of VSS was about 60.9%, and the sludge reduction effect was better than other pretreatments. It is obvious that the acid-alkali pretreatment method was more favorable to anaerobic digestion and sludge reduction.

  4. Efficacy of pretreating oil palm fronds with an acid-base mixture catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Park, Yong-Cheol; Park, Kyungmoon; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2017-07-01

    Oil palm fronds are abundant but recalcitrant to chemical pretreatment. Herein, an acid-base mixture was applied as a catalyst to efficiently pretreat oil palm fronds. Optimized conditions for the pretreatment were a 0.1M acidic acid-base mixture and 3min ramping to 190°C and 12min holding. The oil palm fronds pretreated and washed with the acid-base mixture exhibited an enzymatic digestibility of 85% by 15 FPU Accellerase 1000/g glucan after 72h hydrolysis, which was significantly higher than the enzymatic digestibilities obtained by acid or alkali pretreatment alone. This could be attributed to the synergistic actions of the acid and base, producing an 87% glucose recovery with 100% and 40.3% removal of xylan and lignin, respectively, from the solids. Therefore, an acid-base mixture can be a feasible catalyst to deconstruct oil palm fronds for sugar production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethanol production from industrial hemp: effect of combined dilute acid/steam pretreatment and economic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur B; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Prade, Thomas; Johansson, Eva; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, combined steam (140-180°C) and dilute-acid pre-hydrolysis (0.0-2.0%) were applied to industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), as pretreatment for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. The influence of the pretreatment conditions and cultivation type on the hydrolysis and ethanol yields was also evaluated. Pretreatment with 1% sulfuric acid at 180°C resulted in the highest glucose yield (73-74%) and ethanol yield of 75-79% (0.38-0.40 g-ethanol/g-glucose). Taking into account the costs of biomass processing, from field to ethanol facility storage, the field-dried hemp pretreated at the optimal conditions showed positive economic results. The type of hemp cultivation (organic or conventional) did not influence significantly the effectiveness of the pretreatment as well as subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pretreatment blood concentrations of chloroquine in patients with malaria infection: relation to response to treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quashie, Neils Ben; Akanmori, Bartholomew D; Goka, Bamenla Q

    2005-01-01

    , respectively. Seventy-five per cent of the patients without any detectable pretreatment blood chloroquine had parasites that were sensitive to chloroquine whilst 89.8 per cent, 98 per cent, and 100 per cent with pretreatment blood chloroquine concentration ranges of 0.5--100.5 ng/ml, 100.5--200 ng/ml, and >200...... ng/ml, respectively, had chloroquine-sensitive parasites. An inverse relationship was thus observed between pretreatment blood chloroquine concentration and the degree of resistance in this study. We conclude that pre-hospital treatment ingested chloroquine contributes significantly to the resolution...... with malaria infection in Ghana, we hypothesized that the 'added effect' of the pretreatment ingested drug to the full dose given at the hospital may be responsible for the low proportion of RIII type of resistance observed. To ascertain this, pretreatment blood levels of chloroquine were correlated...

  7. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  8. Steam explosion pretreatment for enhancing biogas production of late harvested hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Lizasoain, Javier; Theuretzbacher, Franz; Agger, Jane W; Rincón, María; Menardo, Simona; Saylor, Molly K; Enguídanos, Ramón; Nielsen, Paal J; Potthast, Antje; Zweckmair, Thomas; Gronauer, Andreas; Horn, Svein J

    2014-08-01

    Grasslands are often abandoned due to lack of profitability. Extensively cultivating grassland for utilization in a biogas-based biorefinery concept could mend this problem. Efficient bioconversion of this lignocellulosic biomass requires a pretreatment step. In this study the effect of different steam explosion conditions on hay digestibility have been investigated. Increasing severity in the pretreatment induced degradation of the hemicellulose, which at the same time led to the production of inhibitors and formation of pseudo-lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis showed that the maximum glucose yields were obtained under pretreatment at 220 °C for 15 min, while higher xylose yields were obtained at 175 °C for 10 min. Pretreatment of hay by steam explosion enhanced 15.9% the methane yield in comparison to the untreated hay. Results indicate that hay can be effectively converted to methane after steam explosion pretreatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for separation hemicellulose from straw during the lignocellulosic bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhuber, Katharina; Krennhuber, Klaus; Steinmüller, Viktoria; Kahr, Heike; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for 73% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and consequently contributes to global warming. This fact has enormously increased the interest in the development of methods to reduce greenhouse gases. Therefore, the focus is on the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic agricultural residues. The feedstocks used for 2nd generation bioethanol production are lignocellulosic raw materials like different straw types or energy crops like miscanthus sinensis or arundo donax. Lignocellulose consists of hemicellulose (xylose and arabinose), which is bonded to cellulose (glucose) and lignin. Prior to an enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and fermentation of the resulting sugars, the lignocelluloses must be pretreated to make the sugar polymers accessible to enzymes. A variety of pretreatment methods are described in the literature: thermophysical, acid-based and alkaline methods.In this study, we examined and compared the most important pretreatment methods: Steam explosion versus acid and alkaline pretreatment. Specific attention was paid to the mass balance, the recovery of C 5 sugars and consumption of chemicals needed for pretreatment. In lab scale experiments, wheat straw was either directly pretreated by steam explosion or by two different protocols. The straw was either soaked in sulfuric acid or in sodium hydroxide solution at different concentrations. For both methods, wheat straw was pretreated at 100°C for 30 minutes. Afterwards, the remaining straw was separated by vacuum filtration from the liquid fraction.The pretreated straw was neutralized, dried and enzymatically hydrolyzed. Finally, the sugar concentrations (glucose, xylose and arabinose) from filtrate and from hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The recovery of xylose from hemicellulose was about 50% using the sulfuric acid pretreatment and less than 2% using the sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Increasing concentrations of sulfuric acid

  10. Microwave-assisted co-pyrolysis of pretreated lignin and soapstock for upgrading liquid oil: Effect of pretreatment parameters on pyrolysis behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Dengle; Ruan, Roger; Lei, Hanwu; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yunpu; Zhang, Yayun; Zhao, Yunfeng; Dai, Leilei; Wu, Qiuhao; Zhang, Shumei

    2018-06-01

    The co-pyrolysis of pretreated lignin and soapstock was carried out to upgrade vapors under microwave irradiation. Results showed that the yield of 29.92-42.21 wt% of upgraded liquid oil was achieved under varied pretreatment conditions. Char yield decreased from 32.44 wt% for untreated control to 24.35 wt% for the 150 °C pretreated samples. The increased temperature, irradiation time and acid concentration were conducive to decrease the relative contents of phenols and oxygenates in liquid oils. The main components of the liquid oil were gasoline fraction (mono-aromatics and C5-C12 aliphatics), which ranged from 57.38 to 71.98% under various pretreatment conditions. Meanwhile, the diesel fraction (C12+ aliphatics) ranged from 13.16 to 22.62% from co-pyrolysis of pretreated lignin and soapstock, comparing with 10.18% of C12+ aliphatics from co-pyrolysis of non-pretreated lignin and soapstock. A possible mechanism was proposed for co-pyrolysis of pretreated lignin and soapstock for upgraded liquid oils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pretreating wheat straw by the concentrated phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP): Investigations on pretreatment conditions and structure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Hu, Jinguang; Shen, Fei; Mei, Zili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Hu, Yaodong; Zhang, Jing; Deng, Shihuai

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by PHP (the concentrated H3PO4 plus H2O2) to clarify effects of temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion on hemicellulose removal, delignification, cellulose recovery and enzymatic digestibility. Overall, hemicellulose removal was intensified by PHP comparing to the concentrated H3PO4. Moreover, efficient delignification specially happened in PHP pretreatment. Hemicellulose removal and delignification by PHP positively responded to temperature and time. Increasing H3PO4 proportion in PHP can promote hemicellulose removal, however, decrease the delignification. Maximum hemicellulose removal and delignification were achieved at 100% and 83.7% by PHP. Enzymatic digestibility of PHP-pretreated wheat straw was greatly improved by increasing temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion, and complete hydrolysis can be achieved consequently. As temperature of 30-40°C, time of 2.0 h and H3PO4 proportion of 60% were employed, more than 92% cellulose was retained in the pretreated wheat straw, and 29.1-32.6g glucose can be harvested from 100g wheat straw. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in the Material Characteristics of Maize Straw during the Pretreatment Process of Methanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhong Feng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment technology is important to the direct methanation of straw. This study used fresh water, four bacterium agents (stem rot agent, “result” microbe decomposition agent, straw pretreatment composite bacterium agent, and complex microorganism agent, biogas slurry, and two chemical reagents (sodium hydroxide and urea as pretreatment promoters. Different treatments were performed, and the changes in the straw pH value, temperature, total solid (TS, volatile solid (VS, and carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio under different pretreatment conditions were analyzed. The results showed that chemical promoters were more efficient than biological promoters in straw maturity. Pretreatment using sodium hydroxide induced the highest degree of straw maturity. However, its C/N ratio had to be reduced during fermentation. In contrast, the C/N ratio of the urea-pretreated straw was low and was easy to regulate when used as anaerobic digestion material. The biogas slurry pretreatment was followed by pretreatments using four different bacterium agents, among which the effect of the complex microorganism agent (BA4 was more efficient than the others. The current study is significant to the direct and efficient methanation of straw.

  13. Cardiac autonomic modulation induced by doxorubicin in a rodent model of colorectal cancer and the influence of fullerenol pretreatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejka Potočnik

    Full Text Available The very effective anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX is known to have cardiotoxic side effects, which could be accompanied by autonomic modulation. Autonomic disbalance might even be an initiating mechanism underlying DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and can be studied noninvasively by the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV. A number of strategies have been assessed to predict chemotherapy-induced cardiac dysfunction while HRV, a potential detecting tool, has not yet been tested. Thus, we aimed to determine the effect of DOX treatment on HRV in a rat model of colorectal cancer. While pretreatment with fullerenol (Frl acts protectively on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, we aimed to test the effect of Frl pretreatment on DOX-induced HRV alterations. After the induction of colorectal cancer, adult male Wistar rats were treated with saline (n = 7, DOX (1.5 mg/kg per week, n = 7 or DOX after pretreatment with Frl (25 mg/kg per week, n = 7 for three weeks (cumulative DOX dose 4.5 mg/kg. One week after treatment rats were anaesthetized, standard ECG was measured and HRV was analyzed in time and frequency domain. During autopsy the intestines and hearts were gathered for biochemical analysis and histopathological examination. DOX treatment significantly decreased parasympathetically mediated high-frequency component (p<0.05 and increased the low-frequency component of HRV (p<0.05, resulting in an increased LF/HF ratio (p<0.05 in cancerous rats. When pretreated with Frl, DOX-induced HRV alterations were prevented: the high-frequency component of HRV increased (p<0.01, the low-frequency decreased (p<0.01, LF/HF ratio decreased consequently (p<0.01 compared to DOX only treatment. In all DOX-treated animals, disbalance of oxidative status in heart tissue and early myocardial lesions were found and were significantly reduced in rats receiving Frl pretreatment. Autonomic modulation accompanied the development of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in rat model of colorectal

  14. Improving methane production using hydrodynamic cavitation as pre-treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsson, Louise

    2016-01-01

    To develop anaerobic digestion (AD), innovative solutions to increase methane yields in existing AD processes are needed. In particular, the adoption of low energy pre-treatments to enhance biomass biodegradability is needed to provide efficient digestion processes increasing profitability. To obtain these features, hydrodynamic cavitation has been evaluated as an innovative solutions for AD of waste activated sludge (WAS), food waste (FW), macro algae and grass, in comparison with steam expl...

  15. Microwave assisted acid and alkali pretreatment of Miscanthus biomass for biorefineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyuan Zhu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Miscanthus is a major bioenergy crop in Europe and a potential feedstock for second generation biofuels. Thermochemical pretreatment is a significant step in the process of converting lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. In this work, microwave energy was applied to facilitate NaOH and H2SO4 pretreatments of Miscanthus. This was carried out at 180 ℃ in a monomode microwave cavity at 300 W. Our results show that H2SO4 pretreatment contributes to the breakdown of hemicelluloses and cellulose, leading to a high glucose yield. The maximum sugar yield from available carbohydrates during pretreatment is 75.3% (0.2 M H2SO4 20 Min, and glucose yield is 46.7% under these conditions. NaOH and water pretreatments tend to break down only hemicellulose in preference to cellulose, contributing to high xylose yield. Compared to conventional heating NaOH/H2SO4 pretreatment, 12 times higher sugar yield was obtained by using microwave assisted pretreatment within half the time. NaOH pretreatments lead to a significantly enhanced digestibility of the residue, because the effective removal of lignin and hemicellulose makes cellulose fibres more accessible to cellulases. Morphological study of biomass shows that the tightly packed fibres in the Miscanthus were dismantled and exposed under NaOH condition. We studied sugar degradation under microwave assisted H2SO4 conditions. The results shows that 6-8% biomass was converted into levulinic acid (LA during pretreatment, showing the possibility of using microwave technology to produce LA from biomass. The outcome of this work shows great potential for using microwave in the thermo-chemical pretreatment for biomass and also selective production of LA from biomass.

  16. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of lignin derived from enzymatic hydrolysis residue of bamboo pretreated with white-rot fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Keliang; Liu, Fang; Chen, Qing; Ke, Ming; Huang, Xin; Hu, Weiyao; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    The lignocellulose biorefinery based on the sugar platform usually focuses on polysaccharide bioconversion, while lignin is only burned for energy recovery. Pyrolysis can provide a novel route for the efficient utilization of residual lignin obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. The pyrolysis characteristics of residual lignin are usually significantly affected by the pretreatment process because of structural alteration of lignin during pretreatment. In recent years, biological pretreatment using white-rot fungi has attracted extensive attention, but there are only few reports on thermal conversion of lignin derived from enzymatic hydrolysis residue (EHRL) of the bio-pretreated lignocellulose. Therefore, the study investigated the pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of EHRL obtained from bamboo pretreated with Echinodontium taxodii in order to evaluate the potential of thermal conversion processes of EHRL. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra showed that EHRL of bamboo treated with E. taxodii had the typical lignin structure, but aromatic skeletal carbon and side chain of lignin were partially altered by the fungus. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that EHRL pyrolysis at different heating rates could be divided into two depolymerization stages and covered a wide temperature range from 500 to 900 K. The thermal decomposition reaction can be well described by two third-order reactions. The kinetics study indicated that the EHRL of bamboo treated with white-rot fungus had lower apparent activation energies, lower peak temperatures of pyrolysis reaction, and higher char residue than the EHRL of raw bamboo. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was applied to characterize the fast pyrolysis products of EHRL at 600 ℃. The ratios of guaiacyl-type to syringyl-type derivatives yield (G/S) and guaiacyl-type to p-hydroxy-phenylpropane-type derivatives yield (G/H) for the treated sample were increased by 33.18 and

  17. Effect of Kaempferol Pretreatment on Myocardial Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Anamika; Singh, Thakur Uttam; Rungsung, Soya; Kumar, Tarun; Kandasamy, Arunvikram; Parida, Subhashree; Lingaraju, Madhu Cholenahalli; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Asok; Kumar, Dinesh

    2018-01-20

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of kaempferol in isoprenaline (ISP)-induced myocardial injury in rats. ISP was administered subcutaneously for two subsequent days to induce myocardial injury. Assessment of myocardial injury was done by estimation of hemodynamic functions, myocardial infarcted area, cardiac injury markers, lipid profile, oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and histopathology of heart and liver. Rats pretreated with kaempferol showed reduction in the myocardial infarcted area and heart rate. However, no improvement was observed in change in body weight, mean arterial, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Kaempferol showed significant decrease in serum LDH, CK-MB, troponin-I and lipid profile. However, highest dose of kaempferol did not reduce the serum triglyceride level. Further, antioxidant enzymes, SOD and catalase, were also higher. However, reduced glutathione, serum SGOT and creatinine did not show any improvement. Kaempferol showed reduction in MDA level. Kaempferol at highest dose showed reduction in pro-MMP-2 expression and MMP-9 level. mRNA expression level of TNF-α was not different in kaempferol-pretreated myocardial injured rats with ISP-alone group. Pretreatment with kaempferol at highest dose showed mild mononuclear infiltration and degenerative changes in heart tissue section of myocardial injured rats. Rats pretreated with kaempferol at higher concentration showed normal cordlike arrangement of hepatocytes with moderate swelling of hepatocytes (vacuolar degeneration) around the central vein. Study suggests that kaempferol attenuated lipid profile, infarcted area and oxidative stress in ISP-induced myocardial injury in rats.

  18. [DNA quantification of blood samples pre-treated with pyramidon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chuan-Hong; Zheng, Dao-Li; Ni, Rao-Zhi; Wang, Hai-Sheng; Ning, Ping; Fang, Hui; Liu, Yan

    2014-06-01

    To study DNA quantification and STR typing of samples pre-treated with pyramidon. The blood samples of ten unrelated individuals were anticoagulated in EDTA. The blood stains were made on the filter paper. The experimental groups were divided into six groups in accordance with the storage time, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24h after pre-treated with pyramidon. DNA was extracted by three methods: magnetic bead-based extraction, QIAcube DNA purification method and Chelex-100 method. The quantification of DNA was made by fluorescent quantitative PCR. STR typing was detected by PCR-STR fluorescent technology. In the same DNA extraction method, the sample DNA decreased gradually with times after pre-treatment with pyramidon. In the same storage time, the DNA quantification in different extraction methods had significant differences. Sixteen loci DNA typing were detected in 90.56% of samples. Pyramidon pre-treatment could cause DNA degradation, but effective STR typing can be achieved within 24 h. The magnetic bead-based extraction is the best method for STR profiling and DNA extraction.

  19. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to

  20. Microalgal biomass pretreatment for bioethanol production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Velazquez-Lucio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels derived from microalgae biomass have received a great deal of attention owing to their high potentials as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Microalgae have a high capacity of CO2 fixation and depending on their growth conditions, they can accumulate different quantities of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. Microalgal biomass can, therefore, represent a rich source of fermentable sugars for third generation bioethanol production. The utilization of microalgal carbohydrates for bioethanol production follows three main stages: i pretreatment, ii saccharification, and iii fermentation. One of the most important stages is the pretreatment, which is carried out to increase the accessibility to intracellular sugars, and thus plays an important role in improving the overall efficiency of the bioethanol production process. Diverse types of pretreatments are currently used including chemical, thermal, mechanical, biological, and their combinations, which can promote cell disruption, facilitate extraction, and result in the modification the structure of carbohydrates as well as the production of fermentable sugars. In this review, the different pretreatments used on microalgae biomass for bioethanol production are presented and discussed. Moreover, the methods used for starch and total carbohydrates quantification in microalgae biomass are also briefly presented and compared.

  1. Electrohydrolysis pretreatment for enhanced methane production from lignocellulose waste pulp and paper mill sludge and its kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluchamy, C; Raju, V Wilson; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2018-03-01

    A novel electrohydrolysis pretreatment enhances methane production from lignocellulose material during anaerobic digestion. A biochemical methane potential assay was carried out to determine the effect of direct current and the efficacy of electrohydrolysis pretreatment on biogas production. Methane yield was increased by 13.8%, to 301 ± 3 mL CH 4 /g VS, when lignocellulosic waste was pretreated with electrohydrolysis. A net energy gain of 13,224 kJ was realized after electrohydrolysis pretreatment, which was 1.51 times higher than reported for thermal pretreatment. In addition, two kinetic models were used, including the modified Gompertz model to reproduce the experimental data. These finding support the potential for increased methane recovery from lignocellulosic waste using electrohydrolysis as a pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the production of bioethanol - Comparison of five pretreatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    -assisted pretreatment (PAP) and ball milling (BM), to determine effects of the pretreatment methods on the conversion of C. linum into ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). WO and BM showed the highest ethanol yield of 44. g ethanol/100. g glucan, which was close to the theoretical ethanol......A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma...... yield of 57. g ethanol/100. g glucan. A 64% higher ethanol yield, based on raw material, was reached after pretreatment with WO and BM compared with unpretreated C. linum, however 50% of the biomass was lost during WO. Results indicated that the right combination of pretreatment and marine macroalgae...

  3. Microwave Pretreatment for Thiourea Leaching for Gold Concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nag-Choul Choi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we studied the use of microwave pretreatment to enhance the efficiency of Au leaching from gold concentrate. The gold concentrate was pretreated using microwaves with different irradiation time. The sample temperature was increased up to 950 °C by the microwave irradiation. A scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer showed the evolution of microcracks and the reduction of sulfur on the mineral surface. X-ray diffraction data also showed the mineral phase shift from pyrite to hematite or pyrrhotite. A leaching test was conducted for the microwave-treated and untreated gold concentrates using thiourea. Although the thiourea leaching recovered 80% of Au from the untreated concentrate, from the treated concentration, the Au could be recovered completely. Au leaching efficiency increased as the microwave irradiation time increased, as well as with a higher composition of thiourea.

  4. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Henning

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional chemicals. In the current work, the effect of the pretreatment on the straw cell-wall matrix and its components are characterised microscopically (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopically (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in order to understand this increase in digestibility. Results The hydrothermal pretreatment does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes profound lignin re-localisation. Results from the current work indicate that wax has been removed and hemicellulose has been partially removed. Similar changes were found in wheat straw pretreated by steam explosion. Conclusion Results indicate that hydrothermal pretreatment increases the digestibility by increasing the accessibility of the cellulose through a re-localisation of lignin and a partial removal of hemicellulose, rather than by disruption of the cell wall.

  5. Comparison the effects of nitric oxide and spermidin pretreatment on alleviation of salt stress in chamomile plant (Matricaria recutita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazelian Nasrin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is an important environmental stress that produces reactive oxygen species in plants and causes oxidative injuries. In this investigation, salt stress reduced the shoot and root length, while increased the content of malondealdehyde, Hydrogen peroxide, and the activity of Ascorbate peroxidase andguaiacol peroxidase. Pretreatment of chamomile plants under salt stress with sodium nitroprussideand Spermidin caused enhancement of growth parameters and reduction of malondealdehyde and Hydrogen peroxide content. Pretreatment of plants with sodium nitroprusside remarkably increased Ascorbate peroxidase activity, while Spermidin pre-treatment significantly increased guaiacol peroxidase activity. Application of sodium nitroprusside or Spermidin with Methylene blue which is known to block cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling pathway, reduced the protective effects of sodium nitroprussideand Spermidin in plants under salinity condition. The result of this study indicated that Methylene blue could partially and entirely abolish the protective effect of Nitric oxide on some physiological parameter. Methylene blue also has could reduce the alleviation effect of Spermidin on some of parameters in chamomile plant under salt stress, so with comparing the results of this study it seems that Spermidin probably acts through Nitric oxide pathway, but the use of 2-4- carboxyphenyl- 4,4,5,5- tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide is better to prove.

  6. Effect of Surface Pretreatment on the Underpaint Corrosion of AA2024-T3 at Various Temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Little, D. A; Jakab, M. A; Scully, J. R

    2006-01-01

    .... The scribe-creep rate was accelerated at all temperatures especially by pretreatments that increased the concentration of surface Cu or left a high capacity for Cu-replating. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH...

  7. Synergistic benefits of ionic liquid and alkaline pretreatments of poplar wood. Part 1: effect of integrated pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tong-Qi; Wang, Wei; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-09-01

    An environmentally friendly pretreatment process was developed to fractionate hemicelluloses and lignin from poplar wood by ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment coupled with mild alkaline extraction. Hemicellulosic and lignin fractions were obtained in high yields, amounting to 59.3% and 74.4%, respectively, which can served as raw materials for production of value-added products. The yield of glucose for the integrated pretreated poplar wood was 99.2%, while it was just 19.2% for the untreated material. The synergistic benefits of the removal of lignin and hemicelluloses, the increase of the cellulose surface area, and the conversion of cellulose fibers from the cellulose I to the cellulose II crystal phase resulted in the high glucose yield for the integrated pretreated substrate. Therefore, the IL based biorefining strategy proposed can integrate biofuels production into a biorefinery scheme in which the major components of poplar wood can be converted into value-added products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrasound pretreatment of filamentous algal biomass for enhanced biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwanyong; Chantrasakdakul, Phrompol; Kim, Daegi; Kong, Mingeun; Park, Ki Young

    2014-06-01

    The filamentous alga Hydrodictyon reticulatum harvested from a bench-scale wastewater treatment pond was used to evaluate biogas production after ultrasound pretreatment. The effects of ultrasound pretreatment at a range of 10-5000 J/mL were tested with harvested H. reticulatum. Cell disruption by ultrasound was successful and showed a higher degree of disintegration at a higher applied energy. The range of 10-5000 J/mL ultrasound was able to disintegrated H. reticulatum and the soluble COD was increased from 250 mg/L to 1000 mg/L at 2500 J/mL. The disintegrated algal biomass was digested for biogas production in batch experiments. Both cumulative gas generation and volatile solids reduction data were obtained during the digestion. Cell disintegration due to ultrasound pretreatment increased the specific biogas production and degradation rates. Using the ultrasound approach, the specific methane production at a dose of 40 J/mL increased up to 384 mL/g-VS fed that was 2.3 times higher than the untreated sample. For disintegrated samples, the volatile solids reduction was greater with increased energy input, and the degradation increased slightly to 67% at a dose of 50 J/mL. The results also indicate that disintegration of the algal cells is the essential step for efficient anaerobic digestion of algal biomass. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. pH catalyzed pretreatment of corn bran for enhanced enzymatic arabinoxylan degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, Jane; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Meyer, Anne S

    2011-02-28

    Corn bran is mainly made up of the pericarp of corn kernels and is a byproduct stream resulting from the wet milling step in corn starch processing. Through statistic modeling this study examined the optimization of pretreatment of corn bran for enzymatic hydrolysis. A low pH pretreatment (pH 2, 150 °C, 65 min) boosted the enzymatic release of xylose and glucose and maximized biomass solubilization. With more acidic pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis the total xylose release was maximized (at pH 1.3) reaching ∼ 50% by weight of the original amount present in destarched corn bran, but the enzyme catalyzed xylose release was maximal after pretreatment at approx. pH 2. The total glucose release peaked after pretreatment of approx. pH 1.5 with an enzymatic release of approx. 68% by weight of the original amounts present in destarched corn bran. For arabinose the enzymatic release was negatively affected by the acidic pretreatment as labile arabinosyl-linkages were presumably hydrolysed directly during the pretreatment. A maximum of 60% arabinose release was achieved directly from the optimal (acidic) pretreatment. The total content of diferulic acids, supposedly involved in the cross-linking of the arabinoxylan polymers, decreased by both alkaline and acidic pretreatment pH, with the loss by alkaline pretreatments being highest. No direct correlation between the enzymatic release of xylose and the content of diferulic acids in the substrate could be verified. On the contrary the enzymatic release of xylose was significantly correlated to the total release of arabinose, indicating that the degree of arabinosyl-substitutions on the xylan backbone is an essential parameter for enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative study of sulfite pretreatments for robust enzymatic saccharification of corn cob residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Lingxi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corn cob residue (CCR is a kind of waste lignocellulosic material with enormous potential for bioethanol production. The moderated sulphite processes were used to enhance the hydrophily of the material by sulfonation and hydrolysis. The composition, FT-IR spectra, and conductometric titrations of the pretreated materials were measured to characterize variations of the CCR in different sulfite pretreated environments. And the objective of this study is to compare the saccharification rate and yield of the samples caused by these variations. Results It was found that the lignin in the CCR (43.2% had reduced to 37.8%, 38.0%, 35.9%, and 35.5% after the sulfite pretreatment in neutral, acidic, alkaline, and ethanol environments, respectively. The sulfite pretreatments enhanced the glucose yield of the CCR. Moreover, the ethanol sulfite sample had the highest glucose yield (81.2%, based on the cellulose in the treated sample among the saccharification samples, which was over 10% higher than that of the raw material (70.6%. More sulfonic groups and weak acid groups were produced during the sulfite pretreatments. Meanwhile, the ethanol sulfite treated sample had the highest sulfonic group (0.103 mmol/g and weak acid groups (1.85 mmol/g in all sulfite treated samples. In FT-IR spectra, the variation of bands at 1168 and 1190 cm-1 confirmed lignin sulfonation during sulfite pretreatment. The disappearance of the band at 1458 cm-1 implied the methoxyl on lignin had been removed during the sulfite pretreatments. Conclusions It can be concluded that the lignin in the CCR can be degraded and sulfonated during the sulfite pretreatments. The pretreatments improve the hydrophility of the samples because of the increase in sulfonic group and weak acid groups, which enhances the glucose yield of the material. The ethanol sulfite pretreatment is the best method for lignin removal and with the highest glucose yield.

  11. Bonding effectiveness to different chemically pre-treated dental zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokoshi, Masanao; Poitevin, André; De Munck, Jan; Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different chemical pre-treatments on the bond durability to dental zirconia. Fully sintered IPS e.max ZirCAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) blocks were subjected to tribochemical silica sandblasting (CoJet, 3M ESPE). The zirconia samples were additionally pre-treated using one of four zirconia primers/adhesives (Clearfil Ceramic Primer, Kuraray Noritake; Monobond Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent; Scotchbond Universal, 3M ESPE; Z-PRIME Plus, Bisco). Finally, two identically pre-treated zirconia blocks were bonded together using composite cement (RelyX Ultimate, 3M ESPE). The specimens were trimmed at the interface to a cylindrical hourglass and stored in distilled water (7 days, 37 °C), after which they were randomly tested as is or subjected to mechanical ageing involving cyclic tensile stress (10 N, 10 Hz, 10,000 cycles). Subsequently, the micro-tensile bond strength was determined, and SEM fractographic analysis performed. Weibull analysis revealed the highest Weibull scale and shape parameters for the 'Clearfil Ceramic Primer/mechanical ageing' combination. Chemical pre-treatment of CoJet (3M ESPE) sandblasted zirconia using Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) and Monobond Plus (Ivoclar Vivadent) revealed a significantly higher bond strength than when Scotchbond Universal (3M ESPE) and Z-PRIME Plus (Bisco) were used. After ageing, Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) revealed the most stable bond durability. Combined mechanical/chemical pre-treatment, the latter with either Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) or Monobond Plus (Ivoclar Vivadent), resulted in the most durable bond to zirconia. As a standard procedure to durably bond zirconia to tooth tissue, the application of a combined 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate/silane ceramic primer to zirconia is clinically highly recommended.

  12. Influence of absorbed moisture on surface hydrophobization of ethanol pretreated and plasma treated ramie fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhou; Wang Jilong; Huang Xiao; Zhang Liwen; Moyo, Senelisile; Sun Shiyuan; Qiu Yiping

    2012-01-01

    The existence of moisture in the substrate material may influence the effect of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment. Our previous study has found that the employment of ethanol pretreatment and plasma treatment can effectively induce hydrophobic surface modification of cellulose fiber to enhance the compatibility to polypropylene (PP) matrix, and this study aims to investigate the influence of fiber moisture regain on the treatment effect of this technique. Ramie fibers with three different moisture regains (MR) (2.5, 6.1 and 23.5%) are pretreated with ethanol followed by atmospheric pressure plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows that the 2.5% MR group has the most significant plasma etching effect. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates an increase of C-C and a decrease of C-O bond in the plasma treated groups, and the largest raise of C-C bond for the 2.5% MR group. The water contact angles of the 2.5 and 6.1% MR groups increase, whereas no significant change is showed in the 23.5% MR group. The interfacial shear strengths (IFSS) measured by microbond pull-out test are raised by 44 and 25% when moisture regains are 2.5 and 6.1%, while presented no apparent improvement at high moisture regain of 23.5%. Therefore, it can be concluded that moisture regain has negative influence on the surface hydrophobization of ramie fibers in the improvement of adhesion property to PP matrix.

  13. Application of SCGE assay, classical cytogenetics and FISH for studying in vitro californium-252 neutrons irradiations and BSH pretreatment on human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florjan, D.; Niedzwiedz, W.; Schneider, K.; Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Kreft, A.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, there has been observed a tendency to apply various energy neutrons for tumor therapy and particularly low energy neutrons from various sources, including californium-252 source, for cancer radiotherapy based on the neutron capture. In this study peripheral blood lymphocytes were used as a model for human cells and three methods were applied to assess the effectiveness of californium-252 neutrons irradiations in vitro in normal cells or pre-treated with compound enriched in B-10 ion. Human blood samples or isolated lymphocytes were irradiated with neutrons from isotopic 252 Cf source at the Faculty of Nuclear Physics and Technics at University of Mining and Metallurgy (both neutron source and samples were placed in polyethylene block). Chemical pretreatment with BSH (Na 2 10 B 12 H 11 SH) was done to introduce boron-10 ion into cells in order to check any enhancement effect due to the process of boron neutron capture. Comet assay was done to investigate the DNA damage. Classical cytogenetics was applied to assess the frequencies of unstable aberrations (dicentrics and rings). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 1, 4 (14.3% of whole genome) and pancentromeric probe was performed to evaluate the frequencies of stable aberrations. Linear (or close to linear) increase of DNA damage and aberration frequency was observed with dose of radiation both for lymphocytes untreated or pre-treated with BSH. Very little differences (statistically insignificant) due to radiation dose and BSH pretreatment were observed in the frequencies of SCEs detected in the second mitosis. There is no significant difference between boron pre-treated and not treated cells, and even slightly higher effects were observed in case of the highest dose without BSH pretreatment. The level of translocations observed is comparable with the frequencies of dicentrics and rings. (author)

  14. Variation of Particle Size and Pretreatment Temperature to the Crystallinity of Leucaena Leucocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Safaai Nor Sharliza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the effect of different particle size and pretreatment temperature to the crystallinity of leucaena leucocephala. The leucaena was pretreated by ionic liquid [1-ethyl-3 methylimidazolium acetate [Emim]Ac. There were three different particle sizes that have been tested in this experiment; less than 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm. In the other hand, the pretreatment temperature tested were 30°C, 60°C and 90°C. The effect of particle size and pretreatment temperature to the crystallinity of leucaena was investigated by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The crystallinity index of the sample represents the percentage of crystalline materials. A lower in the cristallinity index indicated that the material has lower crystillinity, hence give more benefit to the cellulose hydrolysis. From XRD analysis, it shows that the cristallinity index of leucaena decreased with decreasing particle size and increasing pretreatment temperature. SEM analysis also shows that the structure of leucaena has more irregular, porous and destroyed structure with decreasing particle size and increasing pretreatment temperature. Thus, the result from this experiment shows that the smaller particle size and higher pretreatment temperature would provide a more accessible surface area to enhance the cellulose hydrolysis.

  15. Biofouling potential reductions using a membrane hybrid system as a pre-treatment to seawater reverse osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sanghyun; Kim, Lan Hee; Kim, Sung-Jo; Nguyen, Tien Vinh; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kim, In S

    2012-07-01

    Biofouling on reverse osmosis (RO) membranes is the most serious problem which affects desalination process efficiency and increases operation cost. The biofouling cannot be effectively removed by the conventional pre-treatment traditionally used in desalination plants. Hybrid membrane systems coupling the adsorption and/or coagulation with low-pressure membranes can be a sustainable pre-treatment in reducing membrane fouling and at the same time improving the feed water quality to the seawater reverse osmosis. The addition of powder activated carbon (PAC) of 1.5 g/L into submerged membrane system could help to remove significant amount of both hydrophobic compounds (81.4%) and hydrophilic compounds (73.3%). When this submerged membrane adsorption hybrid system (SMAHS) was combined with FeCl(3) coagulation of 0.5 mg of Fe(3+)/L, dissolved organic carbon removal efficiency was excellent even with lower dose of PAC (0.5 g/L). Detailed microbial studies conducted with the SMAHS and the submerged membrane coagulation-adsorption hybrid system (SMCAHS) showed that these hybrid systems can significantly remove the total bacteria which contain also live cells. As a result, microbial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as well as total ATP concentrations in treated seawater and foulants was considerably decreased. The bacteria number in feed water prior to RO reduced from 5.10E(+06) cells/mL to 3.10E(+03) cells/mL and 9.30E(+03) cells/mL after SMAHS and SMCAHS were applied as pre-treatment, respectively. These led to a significant reduction of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) by 10.1 μg/L acetate-C when SMCAHS was used as a pre-treatment after 45-h RO operation. In this study, AOC method was modified to measure the growth of bacteria in seawater by using the Pseudomonas P.60 strain.

  16. Fate of antibiotic resistance bacteria and genes during enhanced anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by microwave pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juan; Liu, Jibao; Zheng, Xiang; Zhang, Junya; Ni, Xiaotang; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-10-01

    The fate of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were investigated during the sludge anaerobic digestion (AD) with microwave-acid (MW-H), microwave (MW) and microwave-H2O2-alkaline (MW-H2O2) pretreatments. Results showed that combined MW pretreatment especially for the MW-H pretreatment could efficiently reduce the ARB concentration, and most ARG concentrations tended to attenuate during the pretreatment. The subsequent AD showed evident removal of the ARB, but most ARGs were enriched after AD. Only the concentration of tetX kept continuous declination during the whole sludge treatment. The total ARGs concentration showed significant correlation with 16S rRNA during the pretreatment and AD. Compared with unpretreated sludge, the AD of MW and MW-H2O2 pretreated sludge presented slightly better ARB and ARGs reduction efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of ultrasound pretreatment on rennet-induced coagulation properties of goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lily; Zhang, Shuwen; Uluko, Hankie; Liu, Lu; Lu, Jing; Xue, Haixiao; Kong, Fanhua; Lv, Jiaping

    2014-12-15

    The effects of ultrasound (US) pretreatment on goat milk before rennet-induced coagulation were studied in order to improve the milk coagulation properties. Skimmed goat milk was subjected to US at 800 W for different times (0-20 min) and various parameters were evaluated. The particle sizes in US pretreated goat milk under the transmission electron microscopy were smaller than in untreated samples. For US pretreated samples, the degree of whey protein denaturation, contents of soluble calcium and phosphorus increased by 9.57%, 16.90% and 13.68%, respectively. The gel firmness, coagulum strength, final storage modulus, cohesiveness, water holding capacity and cross-linking of gels demonstrated marked increase. The turbiscan stability index (TSI) also confirmed the improvement of goat milk coagulation properties with increasing duration of US pretreatment, whereas the gelation time was prolonged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Apple's dehydration by the irradiation pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie; Chao Yan; Shen Weiqiao; Wang Jun

    2001-01-01

    60 Co γ-ray irradiation was used as a pre-treatment method to dry the apple. The aim of this study was to discover the effect factor concerning the change of the apple cell structure which would affect the speed of drhydration and the relation between the speed of hot air dehydration and the irradiation dose. The results demonstrated that with the increasing of irradiation dose. The damage of apple's vacuole membrane increased. The positive correlation was shown in slice thickness and dehydration rate, the relation of the irradiation dose and the temperature of hot air was negatively correlated. The optimum of pre-treatment was gained for slice thickness, the irradiation dose and dry temperature of hot air. (authors)

  19. Infections and mixed infections with the selected species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in eastern Poland: a significant increase in the course of 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2016-02-01

    In the years 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, 1620 and 1500 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, were examined on the territory of the Lublin province (eastern Poland). The presence of three pathogenic species causing Lyme disease was investigated: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii and B. garinii. The proportion of I. ricinus ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato showed a highly significant increase between 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, from 6.0 to 15.3%. A significant increase was noted with regard to all types of infections with individual species: single (4.7-7.8%), dual (1.2-6.6%), and triple (0.1-0.9%). When expressed as the percent of all infections, the frequency of mixed infections increased from 21.4 to 49.2%. Statistical analysis performed with two methods (by calculating of odds ratios and by Fisher's exact test) showed that the frequencies of mixed infections in most cases proved to be significantly greater than expected. The strongest associations were found between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. afzelii, and between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii. They appeared to be highly significant (P < 0.0001) when assessed by two methods for 2013-2014, and for the sum of findings for both time periods. The proportions of the individual species detected in the mixed infections in 2008-2009 and 2013-2014 revealed highly significant increases for B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii (from 33.9 to 71.1% and from 18.2 to 82.9%, respectively), and an insignificant decrease for B. afzelii (from 51.4 to 41.6%). The proportions of the species B. burgdorferi s. s., B. afzelii and B. garinii (with combined single and mixed infections) for 2008-2009 and 2013-2014 were: 51.2/44.0 %, 30.6/24.9% and 18.2/31.1%, respectively. In conclusion, our results seem to indicate the detrimental trend of the increasing infection rate of I. ricinus ticks with B. burgdorferi s. l. in eastern Poland, and dramatic enhancement of mixed infections with individual species, which

  20. Structural characterization of alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreated grasses exhibiting diverse lignin phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Muyang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For cellulosic biofuels processes, suitable characterization of the lignin remaining within the cell wall and correlation of quantified properties of lignin to cell wall polysaccharide enzymatic deconstruction is underrepresented in the literature. This is particularly true for grasses which represent a number of promising bioenergy feedstocks where quantification of grass lignins is particularly problematic due to the high fraction of p-hydroxycinnamates. The main focus of this work is to use grasses with a diverse range of lignin properties, and applying multiple lignin characterization platforms, attempt to correlate the differences in these lignin properties to the susceptibility to alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic deconstruction. Results We were able to determine that the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to to glucose (i.e. digestibility of four grasses with relatively diverse lignin phenotypes could be correlated to total lignin content and the content of p-hydroxycinnamates, while S/G ratios did not appear to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility or delignification. The lignins of the brown midrib corn stovers tested were significantly more condensed than a typical commercial corn stover and a significant finding was that pretreatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide increases the fraction of lignins involved in condensed linkages from 88–95% to ~99% for all the corn stovers tested, which is much more than has been reported in the literature for other pretreatments. This indicates significant scission of β-O-4 bonds by pretreatment and/or induction of lignin condensation reactions. The S/G ratios in grasses determined by analytical pyrolysis are significantly lower than values obtained using either thioacidolysis or 2DHSQC NMR due to presumed interference by ferulates. Conclusions It was found that grass cell wall polysaccharide hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes for grasses

  1. Pulsed electric field pretreatment of rapeseed green biomass (stems) to enhance pressing and extractives recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X; Gouyo, T; Grimi, N; Bals, O; Vorobiev, E

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) pretreatment on the valorization of extractives (proteins and polyphenols) from rapeseed green biomass (stems) by pressing. The effect of pressure, electric field strength and pulse number on the juice expression yield, total polyphenols and total proteins content in the expressed juices were studied. Experiments conducted under optimal conditions (E = 8 kV/cm, tPEF = 2 ms, P = 10 bar) permitted to increase the juice expressed yield from 34% to 81%. Significant increases in total polyphenols content (0.48 vs. 0.10 g GAE/100g DM), in total proteins content (0.14 vs. 0.07 g BSA/100g DM) and in consolidation coefficient (9.0 × 10(-8) vs. 2.2 × 10(-8)m(2)/s) were also observed after PEF pretreatment. The recovered press cake was well dehydrated with an increase of dry matter content from 8.8% to 53.0%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.