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  1. Joint Test Protocol: Environmentally Friendly Zirconium Oxide Pretreatment Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    and compliance issues associated with the use of zinc phosphate and chromate/ chrome containing conversion coatings while maintaining military...safety, and occupational health risks associated with the use of zinc phosphate and chromate/ chrome -containing conversion coatings. There is a need to...zirconium-based pretreatment will be shown to be both environmentally acceptable (no hazardous air pollutants or heavy metals such as hexavalent chromium

  2. Delayed brain ischemia tolerance induced by electroacupuncture pretreatment is mediated via MCP-induced protein 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging studies have demonstrated that pretreatment with electroacupuncture (EA) induces significant tolerance to focal cerebral ischemia. The present study seeks to determine the involvement of monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1), a recently identified novel modulator of inflammatory reactions, in the cerebral neuroprotection conferred by EA pretreatment in the animal model of focal cerebral ischemia and to elucidate the mechanisms of EA pretreatment-induced ischemic brain tolerance. Methods Twenty-four hours after the end of the last EA pretreatment, focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 minutes in male C57BL/6 mice and MCPIP1 knockout mice. Transcription and expression of MCPIP1 gene was monitored by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The neurobehavioral scores, infarction volumes, proinflammatory cytokines and leukocyte infiltration in brain and NF-κB signaling were evaluated after ischemia/reperfusion. Results MCPIP1 protein and mRNA levels significantly increased specifically in mouse brain undergoing EA pretreatment. EA pretreatment significantly attenuated the infarct volume, neurological deficits, upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and leukocyte infiltration in the brain of wild-type mice after MCAO compared with that of the non-EA group. MCPIP1-deficient mice failed to evoke EA pretreatment-induced tolerance compared with that of the control MCPIP1 knockout group without EA treatment. Furthermore, the activation of NF-κB signaling was significantly reduced in EA-pretreated wild-type mice after MCAO compared to that of the non-EA control group and MCPIP1-deficient mice failed to confer the EA pretreatment-induced inhibition of NF-κB signaling after MCAO. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that MCPIP1 deficiency caused significant lack of EA pretreatment-induced cerebral protective effects after MCAO compared with the control group and that MCPIP1 is

  3. Electroacupuncture pretreatment induces tolerance against focal cerebral ischemia through activation of canonical Notch pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electroacupuncture (EA pretreatment can induce the tolerance against focal cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully understood. Emerging evidences suggest that canonical Notch signaling may be involved in ischemic brain injury. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that EA pretreatment-induced tolerance against focal cerebral ischemia is mediated by Notch signaling. Results EA pretreatment significantly enhanced Notch1, Notch4 and Jag1 gene transcriptions in the striatum, except Notch1 intracellular domain level, which could be increased evidently by ischemia. After ischemia and reperfusion, Hes1 mRNA and Notch1 intracellular domain level in ischemic striatum in EA pretreatment group were increased and reached the peak at 2 h and 24 h, respectively, which were both earlier than the peak achieved in control group. Intraventricular injection with the γ-secretase inhibitor MW167 attenuated the neuroprotective effect of EA pretreatment. Conclusions EA pretreatment induces the tolerance against focal cerebral ischemia through activation of canonical Notch pathway.

  4. Reduced cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in cultured liver cells following 5-azacytidine pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, M.P.; Wilson, M.J.; Poirier, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent work indicated that administration of the pyrimidine analog 5-azacytidine (AZA), either to cells in culture or to rats, results in an enhancement of expression of the metallothionein (MT) gene. Since MT is thought to play a central role in the detoxification of cadmium, the present study was designed to assess the effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium cytotoxicity. Cultured rat liver cells in log phase of growth were first exposed to AZA (8 microM). Forty-eight hours later, cadmium was added. A modest increase in MT amounts over control was detected after AZA treatment alone. Cadmium alone resulted in a 10-fold increase in MT concentrations. The combination of AZA pretreatment followed by cadmium exposure caused a 23-fold increase in MT concentrations over control. Treatment with the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU) eliminated the enhancing effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium induction of MT, indicating that cell division is required. AZA-pretreated cells were also harvested and incubated in suspension with cadmium for 0 to 90 min. AZA-pretreated cells showed marked reductions in cadmium-induced cytotoxicity as reflected by reduced intracellular potassium loss, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase loss, and lipid peroxidation following cadmium exposure. Results suggest that AZA pretreatment induces tolerance to cadmium cytotoxicity which appears to be due to an increased capacity to synthesize MT rather than high quantities of preexisting MT at the time of cadmium exposure

  5. Facilitating influence of stress on the consolidation of fear memory induced by a weak training: reversal by midazolam pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Noelia Martina; Martijena, Irene Delia; Molina, Víctor Alejandro

    2011-11-20

    It is well known that an emotionally arousing experience usually results in a robust and persistent memory trace. The present study explored the potential mechanisms involved in the influence of stress on the consolidation of a contextual fear memory in animals subjected to a weak fear training protocol, and whether pretreatment with intra-basolateral amygdala or systemic administration of midazolam (MDZ) prevents the potential stress-induced influence on fear memory formation. A previous restraint session facilitated fear retention, this effect was not due to a sensitized effect of restraint on the footshock experience. MDZ, both systemically or intra-basolateral amygdala infusion prior to the restraint, attenuated the stress-induced promoting influence on fear memory formation. In addition, stress exposure activated the ERK1/2 pathway in basolateral amygdala (BLA) after the weak training procedure but not after the immediate footshock protocol. Similar to our behavioral findings, MDZ attenuated stress-induced elevation of phospho-ERK2 (p-ERK2) in BLA following the acquisition session. Given that the activation of ERK1/2 pathway is essential for associative learning, we propose that stress-induced facilitation of p-ERK2 in BLA is an important mechanism for the promoting influence of stress on the consolidation of contextual fear memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, Ernie [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Nelson, James [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Robertson-Tait, Ann [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Savy, Jean [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Wong, Ivan [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This Protocol is a living guidance document for geothermal developers, public officials, regulators and the general public that provides a set of general guidelines detailing useful steps to evaluate and manage the effects of induced seismicity related to EGS projects.

  7. Hypoxic pretreatment protects against neuronal damage of the rat hippocampus induced by severe hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgias, N; Maidatsi, P; Tsolaki, M; Alvanou, A; Kiriazis, G; Kaidoglou, K; Giala, M

    1996-04-01

    The present study investigates whether under conditions of successive hypoxic exposures pretreatment with mild (15% O(2)) or moderate (10% O(2)) hypoxia, protects hippocampal neurones against damage induced by severe (3% O(2)) hypoxia. The ultrastructural findings were also correlated with regional superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity changes. In unpretreated rats severe hypoxia induced ultrastructural changes consistent with the aspects of delayed neuronal death (DND). However, in preexposed animals hippocampal damage was attenuated in an inversely proportional way with the severity of the hypoxic pretreatment. The ultrastructural hypoxic tolerance findings were also closely related to increased regional SOD activity levels. Thus the activation of the endogenous antioxidant defense by hypoxic preconditioning, protects against hippocampal damage induced by severe hypoxia. The eventual contribution of increased endogenous adenosine and/or reduced excitotoxicity to induce hypoxic tolerance is discussed.

  8. Heat pretreatment-induced activation of gadolinium surfaces towards the initial precipitation of hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamar, G.; Schweke, D.; Shamir, N.; Zalkind, S.; Livneh, T.; Danon, A.; Kimmel, G.; Mintz, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    A vacuum heat pretreatment is applied, in order to enhance the reactivity of hydride-forming metals towards hydrogen reaction. For gadolinium, as for other rare-earth metals and some actinides, pretreatment temperatures of about 470 K are sufficient to induce such activation. The different factors that may be involved in that activation mechanism are identified and analyzed for gadolinium and their role is evaluated. It is concluded that the most prominent effect is desorption of surface hydroxyl groups, which impede the dissociative chemisorptions of hydrogen.

  9. Effect of Magnesium pre-treatment on Alloxan induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The role of vitamins and mineral supplementation in the prevention of diabetes mellitus is not well elucidated. Objective: The effect of prior administration of magnesium on alloxan induced diabetes was assessed in rats. Methods: 36 Male albino rats were used for this study. The animals were divided into 6 ...

  10. The effects of Pretreatment with stomach extract on the incidence of x-ray-induced gastric tumor in ICR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Naito, Masashi; Kawashima, Kengo; Ito, Akihiro

    1984-01-01

    The effect of crude stomach extracts (CSE) on X-ray-induced gastric tumorigenesis was examined. ICR mice were treated with two or four administrations of CSE at one-week intervals then irradiated with 20 Gy of X-rays one week after the final CSE administration. Unexpectedly, the incidence of X-ray-induced tumors was not significantly altered by two CSE pretreatments but was markedly reduced by four CSE pretreatments. Similarly, erosion and squamous metaplasia produced in the glandular stomach a week after X-irradiation were markedly diminished by four CSE pretreatments but not by two CSE pretreatments. (author)

  11. Prevention of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy by lithium pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Michelle; Erdelyi, Ildiko; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Benbow, Jennifer H.; Ehrlich, Barbara E.

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating side effect that occurs in many patients undergoing chemotherapy. It is often irreversible and frequently leads to early termination of treatment. In this study, we have identified two compounds, lithium and ibudilast, that when administered as a single prophylactic injection prior to paclitaxel treatment, prevent the development of CIPN in mice at the sensory-motor and cellular level. The prevention of neuropathy was not obs...

  12. Attenuation of methamphetamine-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice by lipopolysaccharide pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin Chiu; Kuo, Yu-Min; Liao, Pao-Chi; Cherng, Chianfang G; Su, Su-Wen; Yu, Lung

    2007-04-30

    Immunological activation has been proposed to play a role in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic terminal damage. In this study, we examined the roles of lipopolysaccharide, a pro-inflammatory and inflammatory factor, treatment in modulating the methamphetamine-induced nigrostriatal dopamine neurotoxicity. Lipopolysaccharide pretreatment did not affect the basal body temperature or methamphetamine-elicited hyperthermia three days later. Such systemic lipopolysaccharide treatment mitigated methamphetamine-induced striatal dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid depletions in a dose-dependent manner. As the most potent dose (1 mg/kg) of lipopolysaccharide was administered two weeks, one day before or after the methamphetamine dosing regimen, methamphetamine-induced striatal dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid depletions remained unaltered. Moreover, systemic lipopolysaccharide pretreatment (1 mg/kg) attenuated local methamphetamine infusion-produced dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid depletions in the striatum, indicating that the protective effect of lipopolysaccharide is less likely due to interrupted peripheral distribution or metabolism of methamphetamine. We concluded a critical time window for systemic lipopolysaccharide pretreatment in exerting effective protection against methamphetamine-induced nigrostriatal dopamine neurotoxicity.

  13. Erythropoietin Pretreatment Attenuates Seawater Aspiration-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Mu-Huo; Tong, Jian-Hua; Tan, Yuan-Hui; Cao, Zhen-Yu; Ou, Cong-Yang; Li, Wei-Yan; Yang, Jian-Jun; Peng, Y G; Zhu, Si-Hai

    2016-02-01

    Seawater drowning-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious clinical condition characterized by increased alveolar-capillary permeability, excessive inflammatory responses, and refractory hypoxemia. However, current therapeutic options are largely supportive; thus, it is of great interest to search for alternative agents to treat seawater aspiration-induced ALI. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a multifunctional agent with antiinflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic properties. However, the effects of EPO on seawater aspiration-induced ALI remain unclear. In the present study, male rats were randomly assigned to the naive group, normal saline group, seawater group, or seawater + EPO group. EPO was administered intraperitoneally at 48 and 24 h before seawater aspiration. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed with a gas analyzer at baseline, 30 min, 1 h, 4 h, and 24 h after seawater aspiration, respectively. Histological scores, computed tomography scan, nuclear factor kappa B p65, inducible nitric oxide synthase, caspase-3, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, wet-to-dry weight ratio, myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase in the lung were determined 30 min after seawater aspiration. Our results showed that EPO pretreatment alleviated seawater aspiration-induced ALI, as indicated by increased arterial partial oxygen tension and decreased lung histological scores. Furthermore, EPO pretreatment attenuated seawater aspiration-induced increase in the expressions of pulmonary nuclear factor kappa B p65, inducible nitric oxide synthase, caspase-3, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1β, myeloperoxidase activity, and malondialdehyde when compared with the seawater group. Collectively, our study suggested that EPO pretreatment attenuates seawater aspiration-induced ALI by down-regulation of pulmonary pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and apoptosis.

  14. Allevation of Oxidative Damages Induced by Salinity in Cress (Lepidium sativum by Pretreating with Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Asadi karam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the main stresses that have negative effectcs on seedling growth, and plant production. It inhibits growth of plants through disturbance of the balance between production of ROS and antioxidant defense mechanism which results in oxidative stress. Because, arginine is a vital regulator of physiological and developmental processes the effect of different concentrations of arginine pretreatment of the plant on alleviation of oxidative stress induced by salt 50 and 100Mm NaCl was investigated. Arginine pretreatment increased chlorophyll a, b, carotenoid and seedling growth under salinity condition. Results also showed that salt stress increased proline, protein, H2O2, soluble sugar and the activity of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase and catalase. Pretreatment of plants with Arg reduced proline, soluble sugar, H2O2 and antioxidant enzymes activity content significantly. The conclusion is that in garden cress plants, pretreatment with concentration of 5 µM and 10 μM arginine may protect cress under salinity stress, probably through the contracting with ROS and or induction of anti-oxidative enzymes

  15. Effect of oral THC pretreatment on marijuana cue-induced responses in cannabis dependent volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Leslie H; Greenwald, Mark K

    2015-04-01

    The current study tested whether oral Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC: 0-, 10-, and 20-mg) pretreatment would attenuate polysensory cue-induced craving for marijuana. Cannabis dependent participants (7 males and 7 females, who smoked on average 5.4 ± 1.1 blunts daily) completed 3 experimental sessions (oral THC pretreatment dose; counterbalanced order) using a placebo-controlled within-subject crossover design. During each session, participants completed a baseline evaluation and were first exposed to neutral cues then marijuana cues while physiological measures and subjective ratings of mood, craving, and drug effect were recorded. Following placebo oral THC pretreatment, marijuana (vs. neutral) cues significantly increased ratings of marijuana craving (desire and urge to use, Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ)-Compulsivity scale), anxious mood and feeling hungry. Males also reported feeling more "Down" during marijuana cues relative to females. Pretreatment with oral THC (10-mg and/or 20-mg vs. placebo) significantly attenuated marijuana cue-induced increases in craving and anxiety but not hunger. Oral THC attenuation of the cue-induced increase in MCQ-Compulsivity ratings was observed in females only. Oral THC produced statistically (but not clinically) significant increases in heart rate and decreases in diastolic blood pressure, independent of cues. These marijuana-cue findings replicate earlier results and further demonstrate that oral THC can attenuate selected effects during marijuana multi-cue exposure, and that some of these effects may be sex-related. Results of this study suggest oral THC may be effective for reducing marijuana cue-elicited (conditioned) effects. Further study is needed to determine whether females may selectively benefit from oral THC for this purpose. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Ethanol and phencyclidine interact with respect to nucleus accumbens dopamine release: differential effects of administration order and pretreatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Pickering

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Executive dysfunction is a common symptom among alcohol-dependent individuals. Phencyclidine (PCP injection induces dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex of animals but little is known about how PCP affects the response to ethanol. Using the in vivo microdialysis technique in male Wistar rats, we investigated how systemic injection of 5 mg/kg PCP would affect the dopamine release induced by local infusion of 300 mM ethanol into the nucleus accumbens. PCP given 60 min before ethanol entirely blocked ethanol-induced dopamine release. However, when ethanol was administered 60 min before PCP, both drugs induced dopamine release and PCP’s effect was potentiated by ethanol (180% increase vs 150%. To test the role of prefrontal cortex dysfunction in ethanol reinforcement, animals were pre-treated for 5 days with 2.58 mg/kg PCP according to previously used ‘PFC hypofunction protocols’. This, however, did not change the relative response to PCP or ethanol compared to saline-treated controls. qPCR illustrated that this PCP dose did not significantly change expression of glucose transporters Glut1 (SLC2A1 or Glut3 (SLC2A3, monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 (SLC16A7, glutamate transporters GLT-1 (SLC1A2 or GLAST (SLC1A3, the immediate early gene Arc (Arg3.1 or GABAergic neuron markers GAT-1 (SLC6A1 and parvalbumin. Therefore, we concluded that PCP at a dose of 2.58 mg/kg for 5 days did not induce hypofunction in Wistar rats. However, PCP and ethanol do have overlapping mechanisms of action and these drugs differentially affect mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission depending on the order of administration.

  17. Oral contraceptive pretreatment does not improve outcome in microdose gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol among poor responder intracytoplasmic sperm injection patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvan, Candan Iltemir; Berker, Bulent; Turhan, Nilgun Ozturk; Satiroglu, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    To compare oral contraceptive (OC) pretreatment plus microdose GnRH-a in flare-up protocol and non-OC microdose GnRH-a in flare-up protocol among poor responder ICSI patients. A retrospective analysis of poor responder ICSI patients. Patients were divided into two groups according to used microdose protocol. Precycle treatment with OC followed by follicular phase administration of 40 microg s.c. leuprolide acetate (LA) every 12 h beginning on after 2 day pill-free period and rFSH administration was begun on the third day of LA administration (OC-Group, n=26). Alternatively on day 2 after menses, patients were administered similar stimulation regime (non-OC Group, n=27). There were no significant differences between groups in the number of oocytes, peak estradiol levels, endometrial thickness, fertilization rates and embryo quality. Implantations and pregnancy rates per embryo transfer were similar. OC pretreatment plus microdose GnRHa in flare-up protocol does not offer advantages over non-OC microdose GnRHa in flare-up protocol among poor responder ICSI patients.

  18. Quinacrine pretreatment reduces microwave-induced neuronal damage by stabilizing the cell membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xue-feng; Wu, Yan; Qu, Wen-rui; Fan, Ming; Zhao, Yong-qi

    2018-01-01

    Quinacrine, widely used to treat parasitic diseases, binds to cell membranes. We previously found that quinacrine pretreatment reduced microwave radiation damage in rat hippocampal neurons, but the molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. Considering the thermal effects of microwave radiation and the protective effects of quinacrine on heat damage in cells, we hypothesized that quinacrine would prevent microwave radiation damage to cells in a mechanism associated with cell membrane stability. To test this, we used retinoic acid to induce PC12 cells to differentiate into neuron-like cells. We then pretreated the neurons with quinacrine (20 and 40 mM) and irradiated them with 50 mW/cm2 microwaves for 3 or 6 hours. Flow cytometry, atomic force microscopy and western blot assays revealed that irradiated cells pretreated with quinacrine showed markedly less apoptosis, necrosis, and membrane damage, and greater expression of heat shock protein 70, than cells exposed to microwave irradiation alone. These results suggest that quinacrine stabilizes the neuronal membrane structure by upregulating the expression of heat shock protein 70, thus reducing neuronal injury caused by microwave radiation. PMID:29623929

  19. Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hong-Won; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Im, Hyun-Ju; Hong, Jae-Seung

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 µg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a Gi inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii and pre-treatment protocols for polymerase chain reaction analysis of milk samples: a field trial in sheep from Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vismarra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Ingestion of raw milk has been suggested as a risk for transmission to humans. Here the authors evaluated pre-treatment protocols for DNA extraction on T. gondii tachyzoite-spiked sheep milk with the aim of identifying the method that resulted in the most rapid and reliable polymerase chain reaction (PCR positivity. This protocol was then used to analyse milk samples from sheep of three different farms in Southern Italy, including real time PCR for DNA quantification and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism for genotyping. The pre-treatment protocol using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and Tris-HCl to remove casein gave the best results in the least amount of time compared to the others on spiked milk samples. One sample of 21 collected from sheep farms was positive on one-step PCR, real time PCR and resulted in a Type I genotype at one locus (SAG3. Milk usually contains a low number of tachyzoites and this could be a limiting factor for molecular identification. Our preliminary data has evaluated a rapid, cost-effective and sensitive protocol to treat milk before DNA extraction. The results of the present study also confirm the possibility of T. gondii transmission through consumption of raw milk and its unpasteurised derivatives.

  1. Lycopene pretreatment improves hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Ana Carla Balthar; da Silva, Rafaella Cecília; Rossoni, Joamyr Victor; Figueiredo, Vivian Paulino; Talvani, André; Cangussú, Silvia Dantas; Bezerra, Frank Silva; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2017-02-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is an antipyretic and analgesic drug that, in high doses, leads to severe liver injury and potentially death. Oxidative stress is an important event in APAP overdose. Researchers are looking for natural antioxidants with the potential to mitigate the harmful effects of reactive oxygen species in different models. Lycopene has been widely studied for its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of lycopene pretreatment in APAP-induced liver injury in C57BL/6 mice. C57BL/6 male mice were divided into the following groups: control (C); sunflower oil (CO); acetaminophen 500mg/kg (APAP); acetaminophen 500mg/kg+lycopene 10mg/kg (APAP+L10), and acetaminophen 500mg/kg+lycopene 100mg/kg (APAP+L100). Mice were pretreated with lycopene for 14 consecutive days prior to APAP overdose. Analyses of blood serum and livers were performed. Lycopene was able to improve redox imbalance, decrease thiobarbituric acid reactive species level, and increase CAT and GSH levels. In addition, it decreased the IL-1β expression and the activity of MMP-2. This study revealed that preventive lycopene consumption in C57BL/6 mice can attenuate the effects of APAP-induced liver injury. Furthermore, by improving the redox state, and thus indicating its potential antioxidant effect, lycopene was also shown to have an influence on inflammatory events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibitory Effects of Pretreatment with Radon on Acute Alcohol-Induced Hepatopathy in Mice

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    Teruaki Toyota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibits carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in mice. In addition, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species contribute to alcohol-induced hepatopathy. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of 50% alcohol (5 g/kg bodyweight after inhaling approximately 4000 Bq/m3 radon for 24 h. Alcohol administration significantly increased the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT in serum, and the levels of triglyceride and lipid peroxide in the liver, suggesting acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy. Radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver. Furthermore, pretreatment with radon inhibited the depression of hepatic functions and antioxidative functions. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibited acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice.

  3. Pre-Treatment with Amifostine Protects against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Disruption of Taste in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Nabanita; Carroll, Brittany L.; Spees, Jeffrey L.; Delay, Eugene R.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CYP), a commonly prescribed chemotherapy drug, has multiple adverse side effects including alteration of taste. The effects on taste are a cause of concern for patients as changes in taste are often associated with loss of appetite, malnutrition, poor recovery and reduced quality of life. Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent that was previously shown to be effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis and nephrotoxicity. Here we determined its ability to protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to taste buds using a mouse model of CYP injury. We conducted detection threshold tests to measure changes in sucrose taste sensitivity and found that administration of amifostine 30 mins prior to CYP injection protected against CYP-induced loss in taste sensitivity. Morphological studies showed that pre-treatment with amifostine prevented CYP-induced reduction in the number of fungiform taste papillae and increased the number of taste buds. Immunohistochemical assays for markers of the cell cycle showed that amifostine administration prevented CYP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and also protected against loss of mature taste cells after CYP exposure. Our results indicate that treatment of cancer patients with amifostine prior to chemotherapy may improve their sensitivity for taste stimuli and protect the taste system from the detrimental effects of chemotherapy. PMID:23626702

  4. Pre-treatment with amifostine protects against cyclophosphamide-induced disruption of taste in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CYP, a commonly prescribed chemotherapy drug, has multiple adverse side effects including alteration of taste. The effects on taste are a cause of concern for patients as changes in taste are often associated with loss of appetite, malnutrition, poor recovery and reduced quality of life. Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent that was previously shown to be effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis and nephrotoxicity. Here we determined its ability to protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to taste buds using a mouse model of CYP injury. We conducted detection threshold tests to measure changes in sucrose taste sensitivity and found that administration of amifostine 30 mins prior to CYP injection protected against CYP-induced loss in taste sensitivity. Morphological studies showed that pre-treatment with amifostine prevented CYP-induced reduction in the number of fungiform taste papillae and increased the number of taste buds. Immunohistochemical assays for markers of the cell cycle showed that amifostine administration prevented CYP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and also protected against loss of mature taste cells after CYP exposure. Our results indicate that treatment of cancer patients with amifostine prior to chemotherapy may improve their sensitivity for taste stimuli and protect the taste system from the detrimental effects of chemotherapy.

  5. Attenuation of Morphine-Induced Tolerance and Dependence by Pretreatment with Cerebrolysin in Male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavimi, Hamed; Darvishi, Sara; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed

    2018-01-01

    Dependence and tolerance to morphine are major problems which limit its chronic clinical application. This study was aimed to investigate the attenuation effect of Cerebrolysin, a mixture of potent growth factors (BDNF, GDNF, NGF, CNTF etc,), on the development of Morphine-induced dependence and tolerance. Male Wistar rats were selected randomly and divided into different groups (n=8) including: a control group, groups received additive doses of morphine (5-25 mg/kg, ip, at an interval of 12 h until tolerance completion), and groups pretreated with Cerebrolysin (40, 80 and 160 mg/kg, ip, before morphine administration). Development of tolerance was assessed by tail-flick test and the attenuation effect of Cerebrolysin on morphine-induced dependence was evaluated after injection of naloxone (4 mg/kg, ip, 12 h after the morning dose of morphine). Seven distinct withdrawal signs including: jumping, rearing, genital grooming, abdominal writhing, wet dog shake and teeth grinding were recorded for 45 min and total withdrawal score (TWS) was calculated. Results showed that administration of Cerebrolysin could prolonged development (10 and 14 days in administration of 80 mg/kg and 160 mg/kg Cerebrolysin) and completion (4, 10 and 14 days in administration of 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg Cerebrolysin, respectively) of tolerance. Results also indicated that administration of Cerebrolysin (40, 80 and 160 mg/kg) could significantly decreased the TWS value (62±2, 77±4 and 85±6%, respectively). In conclusion, it was found that pretreatment with Cerebrolysin could attenuated morphine-induced tolerance and dependence. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Possible involvement of ROS generation in vorinostat pretreatment induced enhancement of the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masadeh MM

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Majed M Masadeh,1 Karem H Alzoubi,2 Sayer I Al-azzam,2 Ahlam M Al-buhairan3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The mechanism underlying ciprofloxacin action involves interference with transcription and replication of bacterial DNA and, thus, the induction of double-strand breaks in DNA. It also involves elevated oxidative stress, which might contribute to bacterial cell death. Vorinostat was shown to induce oxidative DNA damage. The current work investigated a possible interactive effect of vorinostat on ciprofloxacin-induced cytotoxicity against a number of reference bacteria. Standard bacterial strains were Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 12459, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA (ATCC 43300, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 25923. The antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin, with or without pretreatment of bacterial cells by vorinostat, was examined using the disc diffusion procedure and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and zones of inhibition of bacterial growth. All tested bacterial strains showed sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. When pretreated with vorinostat, significantly larger zones of inhibition and smaller MIC values were observed in all bacterial strains compared to those treated with ciprofloxacin alone. In correlation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS induced by the antibacterial action of ciprofloxacin was enhanced by treatment of bacterial cells with vorinostat. Results showed the possible agonistic properties of vorinostat when used together with ciprofloxacin. This could be related to the

  7. Marmoset induced pluripotent stem cells: Robust neural differentiation following pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Qiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The marmoset is an important nonhuman primate model for regenerative medicine. For experimental autologous cell therapy based on induced pluripotent (iPS cells in the marmoset, cells must be able to undergo robust and reliable directed differentiation that will not require customization for each specific iPS cell clone. When marmoset iPS cells were aggregated in a hanging drop format for 3 days, followed by exposure to dual SMAD inhibitors and retinoic acid in monolayer culture for 3 days, we found substantial variability in the response of different iPS cell clones. However, when clones were pretreated with 0.05–2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO for 24 hours, all clones showed a very similar maximal response to the directed differentiation scheme. Peak responses were observed at 0.5% DMSO in two clones and at 1% DMSO in a third clone. When patterns of gene expression were examined by microarray analysis, hierarchical clustering showed very similar responses in all 3 clones when they were pretreated with optimal DMSO concentrations. The change in phenotype following exposure to DMSO and the 6 day hanging drop/monolayer treatment was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Analysis of DNA content in DMSO-exposed cells indicated that it is unlikely that DMSO acts by causing cells to exit from the cell cycle. This approach should be generally valuable in the directed neural differentiation of pluripotent cells for experimental cell therapy.

  8. Decreased sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures as a consequence of nicotine pretreatment in long-sleep and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, C M; Collins, A C

    1988-01-01

    Male and female long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice were pretreated with a subseizure-producing dose of nicotine (2.0 mg/kg) 7.5, 15 and 30 minutes prior to challenge with seizure-producing doses of this drug. Nicotine pretreated animals were less susceptible to nicotine-induced seizures than were saline pretreated animals. The latency to seizure following nicotine challenge was greater in nicotine pretreated animals than in saline controls. Nicotine pretreated LS mice show a greater decrease in nicotine-induced seizure susceptibility than do nicotine pretreated SS mice. This decrease in seizure susceptibility is consistent with induction of nicotinic receptor desensitization via nicotine pretreatment. It is hypothesized that LS and SS mice might differ in sensitivity to nicotine in part because they differ in baseline levels of desensitized versus functional nicotinic receptors.

  9. Suppression of alkylating agent induced cell transformation and gastric ulceration by low-dose alkylating agent pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Akira; Kawai, Yuichi; Kashimura, Asako; Ogita, Fumiya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo; Itoh, Norio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Low-dose MNNG pretreatment suppresses high-dose MNNG induced in vitro transformation. •Gastric ulcers induced by high-dose MNNG decreased after low-dose MNNG pretreatment. •Efficacy of low-dose MNNG related to resistance of mutation and oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Exposure to mild stress by chemicals and radiation causes DNA damage and leads to acquired stress resistance. Although the linear no-threshold (LNT) model of safety assessment assumes risk from any dose, evidence from radiological research demonstrates a conflicting hormetic phenomenon known as the hormesis effect. However, the mechanisms underlying radiation hormesis have not yet been clarified, and little is known about the effects of low doses of chemical carcinogens. We analyzed the efficacy of pretreatment with low doses of the alkylating agent N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) on the subsequent induction of cell transformation and gastric ulceration by high-dose MNNG. We used an in vitro Balb/3T3 A31-1-1 cell transformation test and monitored the formation of gastric ulcers in 5-week-old male ICR mice that were administered MNNG in drinking water. The treatment concentrations of MNNG were determined by the cell survival rate and past reports. For low-dose in vitro and in vivo experiments, MNNG was used at 0.028 μM, and 2.8 μg/mL, respectively. The frequency of cell transformation induced by 10 μm MNNG was decreased by low-dose MNNG pretreatment to levels similar to that of spontaneous transformation. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mutation frequencies induced by 10 μm MNNG were decreased by low-dose MNNG pretreatment. Importantly, low-dose MNNG pretreatment had no effect on cell proliferation. In vivo studies showed that the number of gastric ulcers induced by 1 mg/mL MNNG decreased after low-dose MNNG pretreatment. These data indicate that low-dose pretreatment with carcinogens may play a beneficial role in the prevention of chemical toxicity

  10. Suppression of alkylating agent induced cell transformation and gastric ulceration by low-dose alkylating agent pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, Akira, E-mail: onodera@pharm.kobegakuin.ac.jp [Department of Toxicology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kobegakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Kawai, Yuichi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kobegakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Kashimura, Asako; Ogita, Fumiya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo; Itoh, Norio [Department of Toxicology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •Low-dose MNNG pretreatment suppresses high-dose MNNG induced in vitro transformation. •Gastric ulcers induced by high-dose MNNG decreased after low-dose MNNG pretreatment. •Efficacy of low-dose MNNG related to resistance of mutation and oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Exposure to mild stress by chemicals and radiation causes DNA damage and leads to acquired stress resistance. Although the linear no-threshold (LNT) model of safety assessment assumes risk from any dose, evidence from radiological research demonstrates a conflicting hormetic phenomenon known as the hormesis effect. However, the mechanisms underlying radiation hormesis have not yet been clarified, and little is known about the effects of low doses of chemical carcinogens. We analyzed the efficacy of pretreatment with low doses of the alkylating agent N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) on the subsequent induction of cell transformation and gastric ulceration by high-dose MNNG. We used an in vitro Balb/3T3 A31-1-1 cell transformation test and monitored the formation of gastric ulcers in 5-week-old male ICR mice that were administered MNNG in drinking water. The treatment concentrations of MNNG were determined by the cell survival rate and past reports. For low-dose in vitro and in vivo experiments, MNNG was used at 0.028 μM, and 2.8 μg/mL, respectively. The frequency of cell transformation induced by 10 μm MNNG was decreased by low-dose MNNG pretreatment to levels similar to that of spontaneous transformation. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mutation frequencies induced by 10 μm MNNG were decreased by low-dose MNNG pretreatment. Importantly, low-dose MNNG pretreatment had no effect on cell proliferation. In vivo studies showed that the number of gastric ulcers induced by 1 mg/mL MNNG decreased after low-dose MNNG pretreatment. These data indicate that low-dose pretreatment with carcinogens may play a beneficial role in the prevention of chemical toxicity

  11. Naltrexone pretreatment blocks microwave-induced changes in central cholinergic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Wen, Y.F.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Repeated exposure of rats to pulsed, circularly polarized microwaves (2,450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses at 500 pps, power density 1 mW/cm2, at an averaged, whole-body SAR of 0.6 W/kg) induced biphasic changes in the concentration of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the central nervous system. An increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 45-min sessions of microwave exposure, whereas a decrease in concentration was observed in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats exposed to ten 20-min sessions. These findings, which confirm earlier work in the authors' laboratory, were extended to include pretreatment of rats with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone (1 mg/kg, IP) before each session of exposure. The drug treatment blocked the microwave-induced changes in cholinergic receptors in the brain. These data further support the authors' hypothesis that endogenous opioids play a role in the effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems.

  12. Tramadol Pretreatment Enhances Ketamine-Induced Antidepressant Effects and Increases Mammalian Target of Rapamycin in Rat Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that acute administration of ketamine elicits fast-acting antidepressant effects. Moreover, tramadol also has potential antidepressant effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with tramadol on ketamine-induced antidepressant activity and was to determine the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR in rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Rats were intraperitoneally administrated with ketamine at the dose of 10 mg/kg or saline 1 h before the second episode of the forced swimming test (FST. Tramadol or saline was intraperitoneally pretreated 30 min before the former administration of ketamine or saline. The locomotor activity and the immobility time of FST were both measured. After that, rats were sacrificed to determine the expression of mTOR in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Tramadol at the dose of 5 mg/kg administrated alone did not elicit the antidepressant effects. More importantly, pretreatment with tramadol enhanced the ketamine-induced antidepressant effects and upregulated the expression of mTOR in rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Pretreatment with tramadol enhances the ketamine-induced antidepressant effects, which is associated with the increased expression of mTOR in rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

  13. Expression of three sHSP genes involved in heat pretreatment-induced chilling tolerance in banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-hong; Chen, Jian-ye; Kuang, Jian-fei; Lu, Wang-jin

    2012-07-01

    Banana fruit is highly susceptible to chilling injury. In previous research it was shown that heat pretreatment of banana fruit at 38 °C for 3 days before storage at a chilling temperature of 8 °C for 12 days prevented increases in visible chilling injury index, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content and also decreases in lightness and chroma, indicating that heat pretreatment could effectively alleviate chilling injury of banana fruit. However, little is known about the role of small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) in postharvest chilling tolerance of banana fruit. In the present study, three cytosolic sHSP expression profiles in peel and pulp tissues of banana fruit during heat pretreatment and subsequent chilled storage (8 °C) were investigated in relation to heat pretreatment-induced chilling tolerance. Three full-length cDNAs of cytosolic sHSP genes, including two class I sHSP (CI sHSP) and one class II sHSP (CII sHSP) cDNAs, named Ma-CI sHSP1, Ma-CI sHSP2 and Ma-CII sHSP3 respectively, were isolated and characterised from harvested banana fruit. Accumulation of Ma-CI sHSP1 mRNA transcripts in peel and pulp tissues and Ma-CII sHSP3 mRNA transcripts in peel tissue increased during heat pretreatment. Expression of all three Ma-sHSP genes in peel and pulp tissues was induced during subsequent chilled storage. Furthermore, Ma-CI sHSP1 and Ma-CII sHSP3 mRNA transcripts in pulp tissue and Ma-CI sHSP2 mRNA transcripts in peel and pulp tissues were obviously enhanced by heat pretreatment at days 6 and 9 of subsequent chilled storage. These results suggested that heat pretreatment enhanced the expression of Ma-sHSPs, which might be involved in heat pretreatment-induced chilling tolerance of banana fruit. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. N-acetylcysteine-pretreated human embryonic mesenchymal stem cell administration protects against bleomycin-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Wu-Gang; Guo, Xiao-Can; Wu, Min-Juan; Xu, Zhen-Yu; Jiang, Jun-feng; Shen, Ce; Liu, Hou-Qi

    2013-08-01

    The transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been reported to be a promising approach in the treatment of acute lung injury. However, the poor efficacy of transplanted MSCs is one of the serious handicaps in the progress of MSC-based therapy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the pretreatment of human embryonic MSCs (hMSCs) with an antioxidant, namely N-acetylcysteine (NAC), can improve the efficacy of hMSC transplantation in lung injury. In vitro, the antioxidant capacity of NAC-pretreated hMSCs was assessed using intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione assays and cell adhesion and spreading assays. In vivo, the therapeutic potential of NAC-pretreated hMSCs was assessed in a bleomycin-induced model of lung injury in nude mice. The pretreatment of hMSCs with NAC improved antioxidant capacity to defend against redox imbalances through the elimination of cellular ROS, increasing cellular glutathione levels, and the enhancement of cell adhesion and spreading when exposed to oxidative stresses in vitro. In addition, the administration of NAC-pretreated hMSCs to nude mice with bleomycin-induced lung injury decreased the pathological grade of lung inflammation and fibrosis, hydroxyproline content and numbers of neutrophils and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and apoptotic cells, while enhancing the retention and proliferation of hMSCs in injured lung tissue and improving the survival rate of mice compared with results from untreated hMSCs. The pretreatment of hMSCs with NAC could be a promising therapeutic approach to improving cell transplantation and, therefore, the treatment of lung injury.

  15. Gemfibrozil pretreatment proved protection against acute restraint stress-induced changes in the male rats' hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaj, Leila; Nejad, Sara Chavoshi; Mohammadi, Marzieh; Zadeh, Sadaf Sarraf; Pour, Marieh Hossein; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Khodagholi, Fariba; Ashabi, Ghorbangol; Alamdary, Shabnam Zeighamy; Samami, Elham

    2013-08-21

    Stress predisposes the brain to various neuropathological disorders. Fibrates like gemfibrozil, commonly used for hyperlipidemia, have not yet been examined for their protective/deteriorative potential against restraint stress-induced disturbances. Pretreatment of rats with a range of gemfibrozil concentrations showed significant protection against stress consequences at 90 mg/kg of gemfibrozil, as it resulted in the highest level of antioxidant defense system potentiation among other doses. It also reduced plasma corticosterone compared with the stressed animals. Administration of gemfibrozil (90 mg/kg) before stress induction was able to significantly induce the protein levels of some protective factors including hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone-1 (NQO-1) in the antioxidant nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf-2) pathway, as well as mitochondrial pro-survival proteins, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1). In parallel, the level of cleaved caspase-3 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), two proteins involved in apoptotic cell death, and the number of damaged neurons detected in hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) stained hippocampus sections were suppressed in the presence of gemfibrozil. Herein, although gemfibrozil demonstrated protection against the restraint stress, considering its dose and context-dependent effects reported in the previous studies, as well as its common application in clinic, further investigations are essential to unravel its exact beneficial/deleterious effects in various neuronal contexts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Protection of dichlorvos induced oxidative stress and nigrostriatal neuronal death by chronic Coenzyme Q10 pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binukumar, BK; Gupta, Nidhi; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2011-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have shown an association between pesticide exposure and increased risk of developing Parkinson's diseases. Oxidative stress generated as a result of mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as an important factor in the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Previously, we reported that chronic dichlorvos exposure causes mitochondrial impairments and nigrostriatal neuronal death in rats. The present study was designed to test whether Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) administration has any neuroprotective effect against dichlorvos mediated nigrostriatal neuronal death, α-synuclein aggregation, and motor dysfunction. Male albino rats were administered dichlorvos by subcutaneous injection at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight over a period of 12 weeks. Results obtained there after showed that dichlorvos exposure leads to enhanced mitochondrial ROS production, α-synuclein aggregation, decreased dopamine and its metabolite levels resulting in nigrostriatal neurodegeneration. Pretreatment by Coenzyme Q 10 (4.5 mg/kg ip for 12 weeks) to dichlorvos treated animals significantly attenuated the extent of nigrostriatal neuronal damage, in terms of decreased ROS production, increased dopamine and its metabolite levels, and restoration of motor dysfunction when compared to dichlorvos treated animals. Thus, the present study shows that Coenzyme Q 10 administration may attenuate dichlorvos induced nigrostriatal neurodegeneration, α-synuclein aggregation and motor dysfunction by virtue of its antioxidant action. - Highlights: → CoQ 10 administration attenuates dichlorvos induced nigrostriatal neurodegenaration. → CoQ 10 pre treatment leads to preservation of TH-IR neurons. → CoQ 10 may decrease oxidative damage and α-synuclin aggregation. → CoQ 10 treatment enhances motor function and protects rats from catalepsy.

  17. Pretreatment with mixed-function oxidase inducers increases the sensitivity of the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaddock, J.G.; Heflich, R.H.; McMillan, D.C.; Hinson, J.A.; Casciano, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    A recent National Toxicology Program evaluation indicates that the rat hepatocyte/DNA repair assay has a high false-negative rate and that it is insensitive to some genotoxic hepatocarcinogens as well as other species and organ-specific carcinogens. In this study, the authors examined whether the sensitivity of the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay might be increased through animal pretreatment with various hepatic mixed-function oxidase inducers, i.e., Aroclor 1254, phenobarbital, and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB). The effects on unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS), a measured of DNA damage and repair, were studied in cultures exposed to known and/or potential carcinogens that had been evaluated as negative or questionable or that produced conflicting results with hepatocytes isolated from uninduced animals. 4,4'-Oxydianiline, 1-nitropy-rene, and TCAB produced concentration-dependent increases in UDS in hepatocytes from rats pretreated with Aroclor 1254. 4,4'-Oxydianiline and TCAB also induced a dose-dependent increase in DNA repair in hepatocytes from rats pretreated with phenobarbital, whereas 1-nitropyrene was negative. These data indicate that the limited sensitivity to chemical carcinogens displayed by the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay may be increased by using hepatocytes isolated from animals exposed to hepatic mixed-function oxidase inducers

  18. Pretreatment with mixed-function oxidase inducers increases the sensitivity of the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaddock, J.G.; Heflich, R.H.; McMillan, D.C.; Hinson, J.A.; Casciano, D.A. (National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AK (USA) Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

    1989-01-01

    A recent National Toxicology Program evaluation indicates that the rat hepatocyte/DNA repair assay has a high false-negative rate and that it is insensitive to some genotoxic hepatocarcinogens as well as other species and organ-specific carcinogens. In this study, the authors examined whether the sensitivity of the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay might be increased through animal pretreatment with various hepatic mixed-function oxidase inducers, i.e., Aroclor 1254, phenobarbital, and 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB). The effects on unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS), a measured of DNA damage and repair, were studied in cultures exposed to known and/or potential carcinogens that had been evaluated as negative or questionable or that produced conflicting results with hepatocytes isolated from uninduced animals. 4,4{prime}-Oxydianiline, 1-nitropy-rene, and TCAB produced concentration-dependent increases in UDS in hepatocytes from rats pretreated with Aroclor 1254. 4,4{prime}-Oxydianiline and TCAB also induced a dose-dependent increase in DNA repair in hepatocytes from rats pretreated with phenobarbital, whereas 1-nitropyrene was negative. These data indicate that the limited sensitivity to chemical carcinogens displayed by the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay may be increased by using hepatocytes isolated from animals exposed to hepatic mixed-function oxidase inducers.

  19. Effects of an Agaricus blazei Aqueous Extract Pretreatment on Paracetamol-Induced Brain and Liver Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia A. Soares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of an Agaricus blazei aqueous extract pretreatment on paracetamol injury in rats was examined not only in terms of the classical indicators (e.g., levels of hepatic enzymes in the plasma but also in terms of functional and metabolic parameters (e.g., gluconeogenesis. Considering solely the classical indicators for tissue damage, the results can be regarded as an indication that the A. blazei extract is able to provide a reasonable degree of protection against the paracetamol injury in both the hepatic and brain tissues. The A. blazei pretreatment largely prevented the increased levels of hepatic enzymes in the plasma (ASP, ALT, LDH, and ALP and practically normalized the TBARS levels in both liver and brain tissues. With respect to the functional and metabolic parameters of the liver, however, the extract provided little or no protection. This includes morphological signs of inflammation and the especially important functional parameter gluconeogenesis, which was impaired by paracetamol. Considering these results and the long list of extracts and substances that are said to have hepatoprotective effects, it would be useful to incorporate evaluations of functional parameters into the experimental protocols of studies aiming to attribute or refute effective hepatoprotective actions to natural products.

  20. Reversal with sugammadex for rocuronium-induced deep neuromuscular block after pretreatment of magnesium sulfate in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Woon Seok; Kim, Kyo Sang; Song, Shin Mi

    2017-04-01

    Magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) has been used in the treatment of pre-eclampsia, hypertension and arrhythmia. Magnesium enhances the neuromuscular block of rocuronium. This study has been conducted to evaluate the reversal efficacy of sugammadex from deep rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block (NMB) during consistent pretreatment of MgSO 4 in rabbits. Twenty-eight rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups, a control group or study groups (50% MgSO 4 150-200 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg/h IV), and received rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. When post-tetanic count 1-2 appeared, sugammadex 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg was administered in the 2-mg group, control and 4-mg group, and 8-mg group, respectively. The recovery course after reversal of sugammadex administration was evaluated in each group. The mean serum concentration of magnesium was maintained at more than 2 mmol/L in the study groups, and the total dose of MgSO 4 was more than 590 mg. The reversal effect of sugammadex on rocuronium-induced NMB in pretreated MgSO 4 was not different from that in the group without MgSO 4 . The recovery time to train-of-four ratio 0.9 after sugammadex administration in the 2-mg group was longer than in the other groups (P rocuronium-induced NMB during large pretreatment of MgSO 4 was not affected. However, we should consider that the reversal effect of sugammadex varied depending on the dose.

  1. Osthole pretreatment alleviates TNBS-induced colitis in mice via both cAMP/PKA-dependent and independent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wu; Cai, Yun; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yan-Die; Li, Hao

    2017-08-01

    Osthole, a natural coumarin found in traditional Chinese medicinal plants, has shown multiple biological activities. In the present study, we investigated the preventive effects of osthole on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Colitis was induced in mice by infusing TNBS into the colonic lumen. Before TNBS treatment, the mice received osthole (100 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 , ip) for 3 d. Pretreatment with osthole significantly ameliorated the clinical scores, colon length shortening, colonic histopathological changes and the expression of inflammatory mediators in TNBS-induced colitis. Pretreatment with osthole elevated serum cAMP levels; but treatment with the PKA inhibitor H89 (10 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 , ip) did not abolish the beneficial effects of osthole on TNBS-induced colitis. In mouse peritoneal macrophages, pretreatment with osthole (50 μmol/L) significantly attenuated the LPS-induced elevation of cytokines at the mRNA level; inhibition of PKA completely reversed the inhibitory effects of osthole on IL-1β, IL-6, COX2, and MCP-1 but not on TNFα. In Raw264.7 cells, the p38 inhibitor SB203580 markedly suppressed LPS-induced upregulation of the cytokines, whereas the PKA inhibitors H89 or KT5720 did not abolish the inhibitory effects of SB203580. Moreover, in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages, SB203580 strongly inhibited the restored expression of IL-1β, IL-6, COX2, and MCP-1, which was achieved by abolishing the suppressive effects of osthole with the PKA inhibitors. Western blot analysis showed that osthole significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of p38, which was induced by TNBS in mice or by LPS in Raw264.7 cells. Inhibition of PKA partially reversed the suppressive effects of osthole on p38 phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated cells. Collectively, our results suggest that osthole is effective in the prevention of TNBS-induced colitis by reducing the expression of inflammatory mediators and attenuating p38 phosphorylation via both cAMP/PKA-dependent and

  2. Pre-treatment with cardamonin protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats: Impact on NOX-1, inflammation and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naga, Reem N.

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer drug; however, its clinical use is usually associated with nephrotoxicity as a dose-limiting side effect. Several molecular mechanisms have been found to be involved in this nephrotoxicity such as oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore the potential nephroprotective effect of cardamonin, a flavone found in Alpinia plant, in a rat model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The possible mechanisms underlying this nephroprotective effect were investigated. Cardamonin was given at two different doses; 10 and 30 mg/kg orally for two weeks, starting one week before giving a single nephrotoxic dose of cisplatin (7 mg/kg). Acute nephrtoxicity was evident by significantly increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Also, cisplatin increased lipid peroxidation and depleted reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase. Additionally, cisplatin showed a marked pro-inflammatory response as evidenced by significant increase in tissue levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, NF-kB, iNOS, ICAM-1 and MCP-1. Pre-treatment with cardamonin significantly attenuated the nephrotoxic effects, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by cisplatin, in a dose-dependent manner. Also, cardamonin decreased caspase-3 expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as compared to cisplatin group. Besides, cradamonin reversed cisplatin-induced decrease in EGF. Furthermore, up-regulation of NOX-1 was found to be involved in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its expression was significantly reduced by cardamonin. Histopathological examination further confirmed the nephroprotective effect of cardamonin. Moreover, pre-treatment with subtoxic concentration of cardamonin has significantly enhanced cisplatin cytotoxic activity in four different human cancer cell lines; hela, hepG2, PC3 and HCT116 cancer cell lines. In conclusion, these findings suggest that cardamonin improves therapeutic index of cisplatin and that NOX-1 is

  3. Pre-treatment with cardamonin protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats: Impact on NOX-1, inflammation and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Naga, Reem N., E-mail: reemelnaga@hotmail.com

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer drug; however, its clinical use is usually associated with nephrotoxicity as a dose-limiting side effect. Several molecular mechanisms have been found to be involved in this nephrotoxicity such as oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore the potential nephroprotective effect of cardamonin, a flavone found in Alpinia plant, in a rat model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The possible mechanisms underlying this nephroprotective effect were investigated. Cardamonin was given at two different doses; 10 and 30 mg/kg orally for two weeks, starting one week before giving a single nephrotoxic dose of cisplatin (7 mg/kg). Acute nephrtoxicity was evident by significantly increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Also, cisplatin increased lipid peroxidation and depleted reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase. Additionally, cisplatin showed a marked pro-inflammatory response as evidenced by significant increase in tissue levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, NF-kB, iNOS, ICAM-1 and MCP-1. Pre-treatment with cardamonin significantly attenuated the nephrotoxic effects, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by cisplatin, in a dose-dependent manner. Also, cardamonin decreased caspase-3 expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as compared to cisplatin group. Besides, cradamonin reversed cisplatin-induced decrease in EGF. Furthermore, up-regulation of NOX-1 was found to be involved in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its expression was significantly reduced by cardamonin. Histopathological examination further confirmed the nephroprotective effect of cardamonin. Moreover, pre-treatment with subtoxic concentration of cardamonin has significantly enhanced cisplatin cytotoxic activity in four different human cancer cell lines; hela, hepG2, PC3 and HCT116 cancer cell lines. In conclusion, these findings suggest that cardamonin improves therapeutic index of cisplatin and that NOX-1 is

  4. Improving swallowing outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer using a theory-based pretreatment swallowing intervention package: protocol for a randomised feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Roganie; Smith, Christina H; Gardner, Benjamin; Barratt, Helen; Taylor, Stuart A

    2017-03-27

    The incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC) in the UK is rising, with an average of 31 people diagnosed daily. Patients affected by HNC suffer significant short-term and long-term post-treatment morbidity as a result of dysphagia, which affects daily functioning and quality of life (QOL). Pretreatment swallowing exercises may provide additional benefit over standard rehabilitation in managing dysphagia after primary HNC treatments, but uncertainty about their effectiveness persists. This study was preceded by an intervention development phase to produce an optimised swallowing intervention package (SIP). The aim of the current study is to assess the feasibility of this new intervention and research processes within a National Health Service (NHS) setting. A two-arm non-blinded randomised controlled feasibility study will be carried out at one tertiary referral NHS centre providing specialist services in HNC. Patients newly diagnosed with stage III and IV disease undergoing planned surgery and/or chemoradiation treatments will be eligible. The SIP will be delivered pre treatment, and a range of swallowing-related and QOL measures will be collected at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months post-treatment. Outcomes will test the feasibility of a future randomised controlled trial (RCT), detailing rate of recruitment and patient acceptance to participation and randomisation. Salient information relating to protocol implementation will be collated and study material such as the case report form will be tested. A range of candidate outcome measures will be examined for suitability in a larger RCT. Ethical approval was obtained from an NHS Research Ethics Committee. Findings will be published open access in a peer-reviewed journal, and presented at relevant conferences and research meetings. ISRCTN40215425; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Pretreatment of Sialic Acid Efficiently Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Renal Failure and Suppresses TLR4/gp91-Mediated Apoptotic Signaling

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    Shih-Ping Hsu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS binding to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 activate NADPH oxidase gp91 subunit-mediated inflammation and oxidative damage. Recognizing the high binding affinity of sialic acid (SA with LPS, we further explored the preventive potential of SA pretreatment on LPS-evoked acute renal failure (ARF. Methods: We determined the effect of intravenous SA 30 min before LPS-induced injury in urethane-anesthetized female Wistar rats by evaluating kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS responses, renal and systemic hemodynamics, renal function, histopathology, and molecular mechanisms. Results: LPS time-dependently reduced arterial blood pressure, renal microcirculation, and increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in the rats. LPS enhanced monocyte/macrophage infiltration and ROS production, and subsequently impaired kidneys with the enhancement of TLR4/NADPH oxidase gp91/Caspase 3/poly-(ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP-mediated apoptosis in the kidneys. SA pretreatment effectively alleviated LPS-induced ARF. The levels of LPS-increased ED-1 infiltration and ROS production in the kidney were significantly depressed by SA pretreatment. Furthermore, SA pretreatment significantly depressed TLR4 activation, gp91 expression, and Caspase 3/PARP induced apoptosis in the kidneys. Conclusion: We suggest that pretreatment of SA significantly and preventively attenuated LPS-induced detrimental effects on systemic and renal hemodynamics, renal ROS production and renal function, as well as, LPS-activated TLR4/gp91/Caspase3 mediated apoptosis signaling.

  6. Curcumin Pretreatment Induces Nrf2 and an Antioxidant Response and Prevents Hemin-Induced Toxicity in Primary Cultures of Cerebellar Granule Neurons of Rats

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    Susana González-Reyes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a bifunctional antioxidant derived from Curcuma longa. This study identifies curcumin as a neuroprotectant against hemin-induced damage in primary cultures of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs of rats. Hemin, the oxidized form of heme, is a highly reactive compound that induces cellular injury. Pretreatment of CGNs with 5–30 μM curcumin effectively increased by 2.3–4.9 fold heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression and by 5.6–14.3-fold glutathione (GSH levels. Moreover, 15 μM curcumin attenuated by 55% the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS production, by 94% the reduction of GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG ratio, and by 49% the cell death induced by hemin. The inhibition of heme oxygenase system or GSH synthesis with tin mesoporphyrin and buthionine sulfoximine, respectively, suppressed the protective effect of curcumin against hemin-induced toxicity. These data strongly suggest that HO-1 and GSH play a major role in the protective effect of curcumin. Furthermore, it was found that 24 h of incubation with curcumin increases by 1.4-, 2.3-, and 5.2-fold the activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase, respectively. Additionally, it was found that curcumin was capable of inducing nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus. These data suggest that the pretreatment with curcumin induces Nrf2 and an antioxidant response that may play an important role in the protective effect of this antioxidant against hemin-induced neuronal death.

  7. Curcumin Pretreatment Induces Nrf2 and an Antioxidant Response and Prevents Hemin-Induced Toxicity in Primary Cultures of Cerebellar Granule Neurons of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Reyes, Susana; Guzmán-Beltrán, Silvia; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin is a bifunctional antioxidant derived from Curcuma longa. This study identifies curcumin as a neuroprotectant against hemin-induced damage in primary cultures of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) of rats. Hemin, the oxidized form of heme, is a highly reactive compound that induces cellular injury. Pretreatment of CGNs with 5–30 μM curcumin effectively increased by 2.3–4.9 fold heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and by 5.6–14.3-fold glutathione (GSH) levels. Moreover, 15 μM curcumin attenuated by 55% the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, by 94% the reduction of GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio, and by 49% the cell death induced by hemin. The inhibition of heme oxygenase system or GSH synthesis with tin mesoporphyrin and buthionine sulfoximine, respectively, suppressed the protective effect of curcumin against hemin-induced toxicity. These data strongly suggest that HO-1 and GSH play a major role in the protective effect of curcumin. Furthermore, it was found that 24 h of incubation with curcumin increases by 1.4-, 2.3-, and 5.2-fold the activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase, respectively. Additionally, it was found that curcumin was capable of inducing nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) translocation into the nucleus. These data suggest that the pretreatment with curcumin induces Nrf2 and an antioxidant response that may play an important role in the protective effect of this antioxidant against hemin-induced neuronal death. PMID:24454990

  8. The Effects of Pretreatment with Various Doses of L-Arginine on Cisplatin-Induced Nephropathy of Male Rats

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    B Rasoulian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug, which its application is limited by nephrotoxicity. In this study, the effect of pretreatment with different l-arginine doses on Cisplatin-induced renal functional injury was investigated. Methods: 63 male rats were divided into 7 groups: In groups 3, 4, 5 and 6, 60 min before the Cisplatin injection (5mg/kg; L-Arginine with doses of 50,100,200 or 400mg/kg was injected, respectively. In group7, normal saline was injected before Cisplatin administration. In groups 1 and 2, normal saline was injected instead of Cisplatin. In group 2, 60min before normal saline injection, 400mg/kg L-Arginine was administered and in group1, instead of L-arginine, normal saline was injected too. Injections were intraperitoneal. 72h after Cisplatin injection, blood sampling and plasma separation were done. Urine sample was collected 24 hours before blood sampling by metabolic cage. The mean of plasma urea and creatinine levels and creatinine clearance (ml/day.kg and fractional excretion of Na (FENa, % were compared among different groups as renal functional parameters. Results: In comparison to group 7, L-arginine injection in a dose of 400mg/kg led to significant amelioration of all parameters. 200 mg/kg L-arginine administration led to significant decrease in plasma urea level and FENa. 100mg/kg L-arginine caused significant improvement in fractional excretion of sodium. L-arginine injection with 50mg/kg dose, significantly ameliorate all renal function tests instead of creatinine clearance. Conclusion: Pretreatment with L-arginine administration with 400 or 50 mg/kg doses, respectively, had the highest effect on reducing Cisplatin-induced nephropathy. L-arginine injection with intermediate doses i.e. 200 or 100 mg/kg had less effect in reducing Cisplatin-induced nephropathy and it needs more investigations.

  9. No Protection against DSS-induced Colitis by Short-term Pretreatment with Seal or Fish Oils in Rats

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    Gülen Arslan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have modulating effects in several chronic inflammatory conditions. The aim of the present study was to test whether prior short-term dietary supplementation with n-3 (fish or seal oil or n-6 (soy oil PUFA rich oils would protect the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in rats.Methods: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: no intervention, sham, DSS, seal oil + DSS, fi sh oil +DSS and soy oil + DSS. Following 7 days of acclimatisation, 1 mL oil (seal, fish or soy or distilled water (sham was administered by gavage day 8 to 14. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in drinking water from day 15 to 21. Rats were sacrificed on day 23. Histological colitis (crypt and inflammation scores, faecal granulocyte marker protein (GMP and quantitative fatty acid composition in red blood cells were measured.Results: Pretreatment with fish or seal oils did not significantly influence DSS induced inflammation. In fact, all the oils tended to exacerbate the inflammation. Soy oil increased the mean crypt score (P < 0.04, but not the inflammation score or GMP. The ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs was 11 to 1 and 10 to 1 in standard diet and in red blood cells of control rats, respectively. Following administration of DSS, the ratio fell in all treatment groups (P < 0.001. The lowest ratios were seen in the groups receiving DSS + fi sh or seal oils (around 6 to 1.Conclusion: Short-term pretreatment with fish or seal oils did not protect against subsequent induction of colitis by DSS in this rat model. Whether the high ratio of n-6 to n-3 FAs in the standard diet concealed effects of n-3 FA supplementation should be further investigated.

  10. Pretreatment Hepatoprotective Effect of the Marine Fungus Derived from Sponge on Hepatic Toxicity Induced by Heavy Metals in Rats

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    Nehad M. Abdel-Monem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the pretreatment hepatoprotective effect of the extract of marine-derived fungus Trichurus spiralis Hasselbr (TS isolated from Hippospongia communis sponge on hepatotoxicity. Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n=7. Group I served as −ve control, group II served as the induced group receiving subcutaneously for seven days 0.25 mg heavy metal mixtures, group III received (i.p. TS extract of dose 40 mg for seven days, and group IV served as the protected group pretreated with TS extract for seven days as a protection dose, and then treated with the heavy metal-mixture. The main pathological changes within the liver after heavy-metal mixtures administrations marked hepatic damage evidenced by foci of lobular necrosis with neutrophilic infiltration, adjacent to dysplastic hepatocytes. ALT and AST measurements show a significant increase in group II by 46.20% and 45.12%, respectively. Total protein, elevated by about 38.9% in induction group compared to the −ve control group, in contrast to albumin, decreased as a consequence of metal administration with significant elevation on bilirubin level. The results prove that TS extract possesses a hepatoprotective property due to its proven antioxidant and free-radical scavenging properties.

  11. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  12. Effects of L-carnitine pretreatment in methamphetamine and 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binienda, Zbigniew K; Przybyla, Beata D; Robinson, Bonnie L; Salem, Nadia; Virmani, Ashraf; Amato, Antonino; Ali, Syed F

    2006-08-01

    Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with 3-ni-tropropionic acid (3-NPA) at 30 mg/kg or methamphetamine (METH) at 20 mg/kg alone or following pretreatment with L-cartnitine (LC) at 100 mg/kg. Rectal temperature was measured before and 4 h following treatment. Animals were sacrificed at 4 h posttreatment. Monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT), and their metabolites were analyzed in the striatum using high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with electrochemical detection (HPLC/ED). Transcripts of several genes related to DA metabolism were quantified using real time reverse transciption polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Core temperature decreased significantly after 3-NPA acid and increased in METH-treated rats (P protection against METH toxicity.

  13. Melatonin pre-treatment mitigates SHSY-5Y cells against oxaliplatin induced mitochondrial stress and apoptotic cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Arnab; Kar, Sudeshna; Tabassum, Heena

    2017-01-01

    Oxaliplatin (Oxa) treatment to SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells has been shown by previous studies to induce oxidative stress, which in turn modulates intracellular signaling cascades resulting in cell death. While this phenomenon of Oxa-induced neurotoxicity is known, the underlying mechanisms involved in this cell death cascade must be clarified. Moreover, there is still little known regarding the roles of neuronal mitochondria and cytosolic compartments in mediating Oxa-induced neurotoxicity. With a better grasp of the mechanisms driving neurotoxicity in Oxa-treated SH-SY5Y cells, we can then identify certain pathways to target in protecting against neurotoxic cell damage. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether one such agent, melatonin (Mel), could confer protection against Oxa-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Results from the present study found Oxa to significantly reduce SH-SY5Y cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Alternatively, we found Mel pre-treatment to SH-SY5Y cells to attenuate Oxa-induced toxicity, resulting in a markedly increased cell viability. Mel exerted its protective effects by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and reducing superoxide radicals inside Oxa-exposed. In addition, we observed pre-treatment with Mel to rescue Oxa-treated cells by protecting mitochondria. As Oxa-treatment alone decreases mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), resulting in an altered Bcl-2/Bax ratio and release of sequestered cytochrome c, so Mel was shown to inhibit these pathways. Mel was also found to inhibit proteolytic activation of caspase 3, inactivation of Poly (ADP Ribose) polymerase, and DNA damage, thereby allowing SH-SY5Y cells to resist apoptotic cell death. Collectively, our results suggest a role for melatonin in reducing Oxa induced neurotoxicity. Further studies exploring melatonin’s protective effects may prove successful in eliciting pathways to further alter the neurotoxic pathways of

  14. Melatonin pre-treatment mitigates SHSY-5Y cells against oxaliplatin induced mitochondrial stress and apoptotic cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Waseem

    Full Text Available Oxaliplatin (Oxa treatment to SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells has been shown by previous studies to induce oxidative stress, which in turn modulates intracellular signaling cascades resulting in cell death. While this phenomenon of Oxa-induced neurotoxicity is known, the underlying mechanisms involved in this cell death cascade must be clarified. Moreover, there is still little known regarding the roles of neuronal mitochondria and cytosolic compartments in mediating Oxa-induced neurotoxicity. With a better grasp of the mechanisms driving neurotoxicity in Oxa-treated SH-SY5Y cells, we can then identify certain pathways to target in protecting against neurotoxic cell damage. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether one such agent, melatonin (Mel, could confer protection against Oxa-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Results from the present study found Oxa to significantly reduce SH-SY5Y cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Alternatively, we found Mel pre-treatment to SH-SY5Y cells to attenuate Oxa-induced toxicity, resulting in a markedly increased cell viability. Mel exerted its protective effects by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS production and reducing superoxide radicals inside Oxa-exposed. In addition, we observed pre-treatment with Mel to rescue Oxa-treated cells by protecting mitochondria. As Oxa-treatment alone decreases mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm, resulting in an altered Bcl-2/Bax ratio and release of sequestered cytochrome c, so Mel was shown to inhibit these pathways. Mel was also found to inhibit proteolytic activation of caspase 3, inactivation of Poly (ADP Ribose polymerase, and DNA damage, thereby allowing SH-SY5Y cells to resist apoptotic cell death. Collectively, our results suggest a role for melatonin in reducing Oxa induced neurotoxicity. Further studies exploring melatonin's protective effects may prove successful in eliciting pathways to further alter the neurotoxic

  15. Prevention of propofol-induced pain in children: pretreatment with small doses of ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guang-yi; Guo, Yao; Bao, Shu-min; Meng, Ling-xin; Zhang, Li-hong

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of ketamine in preventing propofol injection pain in children. Prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. University-affiliated hospital. 192 ASA physical status 1 and 2 pediatric patients. Patients were randomly assigned to 4 groups. Group S (control) received normal saline as a placebo; Group K1, Group K3, and Group K5 received 0.1 mg/kg, 0.3 mg/kg, and 0.5 mg/kg of ketamine, respectively. Fifteen seconds after the ketamine injection, patients were injected with propofol at a rate of 12 mL/min until loss-of-eyelash reflex. Pain was evaluated blindly at the time of induction using a 4-point scale: 0 = no pain, 1 = mild pain, 2 = moderate pain, and 3 = severe pain. Adverse effects were recorded. Characteristics of induction of anesthesia, such as dose of propofol and time from propofol injection to loss of consciousness (induction duration), were noted. 39 (84.8%) Group S (control) patients had pain. Pretreatment with ketamine reduced the frequency of pain significantly to 56.5%, 17.0%, and 14.9% in Groups K1, K3, and K5, respectively. Furthermore, the frequency of moderate and severe pain in Group K1 (21.8%), Group K3 (6.4%), and Group K5 (4.3%) was significantly (P ketamine (0.3 mg/kg) reduced the frequency and intensity of propofol injection pain without severe adverse effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Therapeutic effect of flurbiprofen pretreatment on the intravenous injection pain induced by propofol in patients of different ages

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    Song SHI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effect of flurbiprofen pretreatment on the pain induced by propofol in patients of different ages.Methods One hundred and twenty patients with different age and undergoing general anesthesia were assigned to three groups(40 each according to their ages: 6-18 years(adolescent group,18-60 years(adult group,and over 60 years(aged group.Each group was randomly divided into two subgroups(20 each: flurbiprofen group and placebo group,and they respectively received intravenous injection of 5ml of 1mg/kg flurbiprofen(group FB or normal saline(group NS.The induction was produced by 1.5-2mg/kg Ⅳ propofol,and 1.5-2.0mg/kg Ⅳ succinylcholine was administered 20 seconds after propofol injection.Patients’ withdrawal movements,pain scores and any other discomfort complaints were assessed.Results The incidences of intravenous pain in group NS and group FB were respectively 47.9% and 11.2% in adult group,82.0% and 8.8% in adolescent group,and 28.0% and 4.7% in aged group.The incidence of withdrawal movements and pain scores were significantly lower in flurbiprofen group than in saline group regardless of ages(P < 0.05.Conclusion The pretreatment with 1.0mg/kg flurbiprofen may reduce the withdrawal movements and pain caused by propofol injection in patients of different age.

  17. Inhaled nitric oxide pretreatment but not posttreatment attenuates ischemia-reperfusion-induced pulmonary microvascular leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetham, P M; Sefton, W D; Bridges, J P; Stevens, T; McMurtry, I F

    1997-04-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) pulmonary edema probably reflects a leukocyte-dependent, oxidant-mediated mechanism. Nitric oxide (NO) attenuates leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and I/R-induced microvascular leak. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) agonists reverse and prevent I/R-induced microvascular leak, but reversal by inhaled NO (INO) has not been tested. In addition, the role of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activation in the NO protection effect is unknown. Rat lungs perfused with salt solution were grouped as either I/R, I/R with INO (10 or 50 ppm) on reperfusion, or time control. Capillary filtration coefficients (Kfc) were estimated 25 min before ischemia (baseline) and after 30 and 75 min of reperfusion. Perfusate cell counts and lung homogenate myeloperoxidase activity were determined in selected groups. Additional groups were treated with either INO (50 ppm) or isoproterenol (ISO-10 microM) after 30 min of reperfusion. Guanylyl cyclase was inhibited with 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ-15 microM), and Kfc was estimated at baseline and after 30 min of reperfusion. (1) Inhaled NO attenuated I/R-induced increases in Kfc. (2) Cell counts were similar at baseline. After 75 min of reperfusion, lung neutrophil retention (myeloperoxidase activity) and decreased perfusate neutrophil counts were similar in all groups. (3) In contrast to ISO, INO did not reverse microvascular leak. (4) 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-br-cGMP) prevented I/R-induced microvascular leak in ODQ-treated lungs, but INO was no longer effective. Inhaled NO attenuates I/R-induced pulmonary microvascular leak, which requires sGC activation and may involve a mechanism independent of inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. In addition, INO is ineffective in reversing I/R-induced microvascular leak.

  18. Effects of 24-epibrassinolide pre-treatment on UV-B-induced changes in the pigment content of pea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrikova, A.; Vladkova, R.; Stanoeva, D.; Popova, A.; Velitchkova, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, the effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the UV-B-induced changes in the pigment content of pea leaves were studied. Control (non-EBR-treated) and EBR-treated plants were irradiated with UV-B for 3 h and pigment analysis was performed after 24 and 48 h. The results show that EBR spraying of plants 48 h prior to UV-B exposure alleviates its detrimental effect on chlorophyll a and b (Chl a and Chl b) content in comparison with control pea leaves. An increase in carotenoids (Car) and UV-B absorbing compounds was also observed at low dose of UV-B radiation. For the first time, it is shown that UV-B damage effect on control leaves is accompanied by a significant (more than 50%) increase in their pheophytin a (Pheo a) content 48 h after the UV-B exposure and that the EBR pre-treatment prevents the increase of Pheo a content in UV-B irradiated leaves. In addition, it is demonstrated that EBR application modifies UV-B-induced alterations of energy distribution between the main pigment-protein complexes in pea thylakoid membranes

  19. Compositional changes in industrial hemp biomass (Cannabis sativa L.) induced by electron beam irradiation Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Yong Joo [Department of Biobased Materials, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Soo-Jeong [Department of Wood and Paper Science, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical decomposition of industrial hemp biomass were evaluated at doses of 150, 300, and 450 kGy. The quantity of decomposed components was indirectly estimated by measuring changes in alkaline extraction. The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation doses resulted in larger amounts of alkaline extract. Carbohydrate compositional analysis using {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the polysaccharides of the industrial hemp. The xylose peak intensity in the NMR spectra decreased with increasing electron irradiation dose, indicating that xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose. -- Highlights: {yields} The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation. {yields} Carbohydrate analysis was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the industrial hemp. {yields} Xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose.

  20. Compositional changes in industrial hemp biomass (Cannabis sativa L.) induced by electron beam irradiation Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Yong Joo; Shin, Soo-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical decomposition of industrial hemp biomass were evaluated at doses of 150, 300, and 450 kGy. The quantity of decomposed components was indirectly estimated by measuring changes in alkaline extraction. The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation doses resulted in larger amounts of alkaline extract. Carbohydrate compositional analysis using 1 H-NMR spectroscopy was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the polysaccharides of the industrial hemp. The xylose peak intensity in the NMR spectra decreased with increasing electron irradiation dose, indicating that xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose. -- Highlights: → The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation. → Carbohydrate analysis was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the industrial hemp. → Xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose.

  1. Improved Wojcik's eavesdropping attack on ping-pong protocol without eavesdropping-induced channel loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanjun; Li Yong; Man Zhongxiao

    2005-01-01

    The eavesdropping scheme proposed by Wojcik [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003) 157901] on the ping-pong protocol [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 187902] is improved by constituting a new set of attack operations. The improved scheme has a zero eavesdropping-induced channel loss and produces perfect anticorrelation. Therefore, the eavesdropper Eve can safely attack all the transmitted bits and the eavesdropping information gain can always exceed the legitimate user's information gain in the whole domain of the quantum channel transmission efficiency η, i.e., [0,100%]. This means that the ping-pong protocol can be completely eavesdropped in its original version. But the improvement of the ping-pong protocol security produced by Wojcik is also suitable for our eavesdropping attack

  2. Pre-treatment with Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 modulates Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic inflammation and organ specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W; Akin, Ali R; Kosta, Artemis; Zhang, Ning; Tangney, Mark; Francis, Kevin P; Frankel, Gad

    2012-11-01

    Citrobacter rodentium, which colonizes the gut mucosa via formation of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions, causes transmissible colonic hyperplasia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether prophylactic treatment with Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 can improve the outcome of C. rodentium infection. Six-week-old albino C57BL/6 mice were pre-treated for 3 days with B. breve, challenged with bioluminescent C. rodentium and administered B. breve or PBS-C for 8 days post-infection; control mice were either administered B. breve and mock-infected with PBS, or mock-treated with PBS-C and mock-infected with PBS. C. rodentium colonization was monitored by bacterial enumeration from faeces and by a combination of both 2D bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and composite 3D diffuse light imaging tomography with µCT imaging (DLIT-µCT). At day 8 post-infection, colons were removed and assessed for crypt hyperplasia, histology by light microscopy, bacterial colonization by immunofluorescence, and A/E lesion formation by electron microscopy. Prophylactic administration of B. breve did not prevent C. rodentium colonization or A/E lesion formation. However, this treatment did alter C. rodentium distribution within the large intestine and significantly reduced colonic crypt hyperplasia at the peak of bacterial infection. These results show that B. breve could not competitively exclude C. rodentium, but reduced pathogen-induced colonic inflammation.

  3. Butorphanol pre-treatment prevents myoclonus induced by etomidate: a randomised, double-blind, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liang; Ding, Ying; Chen, Huiyu; Qian, Yanning; Li, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Myoclonic movements are common problems during induction of anaesthesia with etomidate. The myoclonus occurring after etomidate administration may represent a form of seizure. Agonistic modulation of the κ opiate receptor may reduce seizures, and butorphanol acts in such a manner. The aim of this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to test our hypothesis that pre-treatment with butorphanol might reduce the incidence and severity of myoclonus induced by etomidate. Patients (108) with American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I or II were randomly assigned to one of two groups to receive either 0.015 mg/kg of butorphanol (n = 54) or saline (n = 54) intravenously. At two minutes after infusion of butorphanol or saline, 0.3 mg/kg etomidate was given. The occurrence and severity (observational score of 0-3) of myoclonus was assessed during 2 minutes after administration of etomidate. For each patient, blood pressure (BP), saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO₂), and heart rate (HR) were measured. The incidence of myoclonus was significantly lower in Group Butorphanol than in Group Saline (13.0% vs 79.6%; RR = 0.163, 95%CI: 0.081-0.329; χ² = 48.265, p <0.0001). The severity levels of myoclonic movement were also significantly lower in Group Butorphanol than in Group Saline (p <0.0001). Throughout the procedure, changes of BP, SpO₂, and HR did not differ between the groups. There were no problems with bradycardia or hypotension. Infusion of 0.015 mg/kg butorphanol 2 minutes before etomidate administration is effective for suppressing myoclonus induced by etomidate during induction of general anaesthesia.

  4. Pre-treatment with dexamethasone attenuates experimental ventilator-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Fernando Fonseca Dos; Reboredo, Maycon de Moura; Lucinda, Leda Marília Fonseca; Bianchi, Aydra Mendes Almeida; Rabelo, Maria Aparecida Esteves; Fonseca, Lídia Maria Carneiro da; Oliveira, Júlio César Abreu de; Pinheiro, Bruno Valle

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects that administering dexamethasone before the induction of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) has on the temporal evolution of that injury. Wistar rats were allocated to one of three groups: pre-VILI administration of dexamethasone (dexamethasone group); pre-VILI administration of saline (control group); or ventilation only (sham group). The VILI was induced by ventilation at a high tidal volume. Animals in the dexamethasone and control groups were euthanized at 0, 4, 24, and 168 h after VILI induction. We analyzed arterial blood gases, lung edema, cell counts (total and differential) in the BAL fluid, and lung histology. At 0, 4, and 24 h after VILI induction, acute lung injury (ALI) scores were higher in the control group than in the sham group (p grupos: administração de dexametasona pré-LPIVM (grupo dexametasona); administração de salina pré-LPIVM (grupo controle); e somente ventilação (grupo sham). A LPIVM foi realizada por ventilação com volume corrente alto. Os animais dos grupos dexametasona e controle foram sacrificados em 0, 4, 24 e 168 h após LPIVM. Analisamos gasometria arterial, edema pulmonar, contagens de células (totais e diferenciais) no lavado broncoalveolar e histologia de tecido pulmonar. Em 0, 4 e 24 h após LPIVM, os escores de lesão pulmonar aguda (LPA) foram maiores no grupo controle que no grupo sham (p grupo dexametasona não foi significativamente diferente daquele observado no grupo sham e foi menor que o observado no grupo controle (p grupos controle e dexametasona, com pico em 4 h após LPIVM (p grupo dexametasona que no grupo controle em 4 e 24 h após LPIVM (p grupo controle. A administração de dexametasona antes de LPIVM atenua os efeitos da lesão em ratos Wistar. Os mecanismos moleculares dessa lesão e o possível papel clínico dos corticosteroides na LPIVM ainda precisam ser elucidados.

  5. Pretreatment of low dose radiation reduces radiation-induced apoptosis in mouse lymphoma (EL4) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Hyun, S J; Yoon, M Y; Ji, Y H; Cho, C K; Yoo, S Y

    1997-06-01

    Induction of an adaptive response to ionizing radiation in mouse lymphoma (EL4) cells was studied by using cell survival fraction and apoptotic nucleosomal DNA fragmentation as biological end points. Cells in early log phase were pre-exposed to low dose of gamma-rays (0.01 Gy) 4 or 20 hrs prior to high dose gamma-ray (4, 8 and 12 Gy for cell survival fraction analysis; 8 Gy for DNA fragmentation analysis) irradiation. Then cell survival fractions and the extent of DNA fragmentation were measured. Significant adaptive response, increase in cell survival fraction and decrease in the extent of DNA fragmentation were induced when low and high dose gamma-ray irradiation time interval was 4 hr. Addition of protein or RNA synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide or 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRFB), respectively during adaptation period, the period from low dose gamma-ray irradiation to high dose gamma-ray irradiation, was able to inhibit the induction of adaptive response, which is the reduction of the extent DNA fragmentation in irradiated EL4 cells. These data suggest that the induction of adaptive response to ionizing radiation in EL4 cells required both protein and RNA synthesis.

  6. Total synthesis of Ivorenolide A following a base-induced elimination protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Debendra K; Umamaheshwar, Gonela; Rao, R Nageshwar; Rao, T Srinivasa; R, Sudheer Kumar; Yadav, Jhillu S

    2015-02-20

    A concise and stereocontrolled first total synthesis of Ivorenolide A (1) is reported in 16 longest linear steps with a 13.4% overall yield starting from (+)-diethyl tartrate (DET). Key features are base-induced elimination protocol for the construction of chiral propargyl alcohols in both fragments, Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of terminal acetylenes, and Shiina's 2-methyl-6-nitrobezoic anhydride (MNBA) mediated macrolactonization.

  7. Enhanced micropropagation and tiller formation in sugarcane through pretreatment of explants with thidiazuron (TDZ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Kavita; Lal, Madan; Saxena, Sangeeta

    2017-10-01

    An efficient, simple and commercially applicable protocol for rapid micropropagation of sugarcane has been designed using variety Co 05011. Pretreatment of shoot tip explants with thidiazuron (TDZ) induced high frequency regeneration of shoot cultures with improved multiplication ratio. The highest frequency (80%) of shoot initiation in explants pretreated with 10 mg/l of TDZ was obtained during the study. Maximum 65% shoot cultures could be established from the explants pretreated with TDZ as compared to minimum 40% establishment in explants without pretreatment. The explants pretreated with 10 mg/l of TDZ required minimum 40 days for the establishment of shoot cultures as compared to untreated explants which required 60 days. The highest average number of shoots per culture (19.1) could be obtained from the explants pretreated with 10 mg/l of TDZ, indicating the highest multiplication ratio (1:6). Highest rooting (over 94%) was obtained in shoots regenerated from pretreated explants on ½ strength MS medium containing 5.0 mg/l of NAA and 50 g/l of sucrose within 15 days. Higher number of tillers/clump (15.3) could be counted in plants regenerated from pretreated explants than untreated ones (10.9 tillers/clump) in field condition, three months after transplantation. Molecular analysis using RAPD and DAMD markers suggested that the pretreatment of explants with TDZ did not adversely affect the genetic stability of regenerated plants and maintained high clonal purity.

  8. Microbiological test results of the environmental control and life support systems vapors compression distillation subsystem recycle tank components following various pretreatment protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Microbiological samples were collected from the recycle tank of the vapor compression distillation (VCD) subsystem of the water recovery test at NASA MSFC following a 68-day run. The recycle tank collects rejected urine brine that was pretreated with a commercially available oxidant (Oxone) and sulfuric acid and pumps it back to the processing component of the VCD. Samples collected included a water sample and two swab samples, one from the particulate filter surface and a second from material floating on the surface of the water. No bacteria were recovered from the water sample. Both swab samples contained a spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus insolitus. A filamentous fungus was isolated from the floating material. Approximately 1 month after the pretreatment chemicals were changed to sodium hypochlorite and sulfuric acid, a swab of the particulate filter was again analyzed for microbial content. One fungus was isolated, and spore-forming bacteria were observed. These results indicate the inability of these pretreatments to inhibit surface attachment. The implications of the presence of these organisms are discussed.

  9. Hypothermia-induced loss of endothelial barrier function is restored after dopamine pretreatment : Role of p42/p44 activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkkoetter, Paul-Thomas; Beck, Grietje C.; Gottmann, Uwe; Loesel, Ralf; Schnetzke, Ulf; Rudic, Boris; Hanusch, Christine; Rafat, Neysan; Liu, Zhenzi; Weiss, Christel; Leuvinik, Henri G. D.; Ploeg, Rutger; Braun, Claude; Schnuelle, Peter; van der Woude, Fokko J.; Yard, Benito A.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Donor dopamine usage is associated with improved immediate graft function after renal transplantation. Although prolonged cold preservation results in an increased vascular permeability, the present study was conducted to examine in vitro and in vivo if dopamine Pretreatment influences

  10. A reliable, practical, and economical protocol for inducing diarrhea and severe dehydration in the neonatal calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, P G; Constable, P D; Morin, D E; Drackley, J K; Foreman, J H; Thurmon, J C

    1998-07-01

    Fifteen healthy, colostrum-fed, male dairy calves, aged 2 to 7 d were used in a study to develop a diarrhea protocol for neonatal calves that is reliable, practical, and economical. After instrumentation and recording baseline data, diarrhea and dehydration were induced by administering milk replacer [16.5 mL/kg of body weight (BW), PO], sucrose (2 g/kg in a 20% aqueous solution, p.o.), spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide (1 mg/kg, PO) every 8 h, and furosemide (2 mg/kg, i.m., q6h). Calves were administered sucrose and diuretic agents for 48 h to induce diarrhea and severe dehydration. Clinical changes after 48 h were severe watery diarrhea, severe depression, and marked dehydration (mean, 14% BW loss). Cardiac output, stroke volume, mean central venous pressure, plasma volume, thiocyanate space, blood pH and bicarbonate concentration, base excess, serum chloride concentration, and fetlock temperature were decreased. Plasma lactate concentration, hematocrit, and serum potassium, creatinine, phosphorus, total protein and albumin concentrations were increased. This non-infectious calf diarrhea protocol has a 100% response rate, while providing a consistent and predictable hypovolemic state with diarrhea that reflects most of the clinicopathologic changes observed in osmotic/maldigestive diarrhea caused by infection with rotavirus, coronavirus or cryptosporidia. Limitations of the protocol, when compared to infectious diarrhea models, include failure to induce a severe metabolic acidosis, absence of hyponatremia, renal instead of enteric loss of chloride, renal as well as enteric loss of free water, absence of profound clinical depression and suspected differences in the morphologic and functional effect on intestinal epithelium. Despite these differences, the sucrose/diuretic protocol should be useful in the initial screening of new treatment modalities for calf diarrhea. To confirm their efficacy, the most effective treatment methods should then be examined in

  11. Mechanisms of gastroprotection by lansoprazole pretreatment against experimentally induced injury in rats: role of mucosal oxidative damage and sulfhydryl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, Gianfranco; Lazzeri, Gloria; Lubrano, Valter; Colucci, Rocchina; Vassalle, Cristina; Fornai, Matteo; Blandizzi, Corrado; Del Tacca, Mario

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms involved in the protective actions exerted by lansoprazole against experimental gastric injury. Following the intraluminal injection of ethanol-HCl, the histomorphometric analysis of rat gastric sections demonstrated a pattern of mucosal lesions associated with a significant increase in the mucosal contents of malondialdehyde and 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α (indices of lipid peroxidation), as well as a decrease in the levels of mucosal sulfhydryl compounds, assayed as reduced glutathione (GSH). Pretreatment with lansoprazole 90 μmol/kg, given intraduodenally as single dose or once daily by intragastric route for 8 days, significantly prevented ethanol-HCl-induced gastric damage. The concomitant changes in the mucosal levels of malondialdehyde, 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α and GSH elicited by ethanol-HCl were also counteracted by lansoprazole. In separate experiments, performed on animals undergoing 2-h pylorus ligation, lansoprazole did not enhance the concentration of prostaglandin E 2 , bicyclo-prostaglandin E 2 , or nitric oxide (NO) metabolites into gastric juice. Western blot analysis revealed the expression of both type 1 and 2 cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms in the gastric mucosa of pylorus-ligated rats. These expression patterns were not significantly modified by single-dose or repeated treatment with lansoprazole. Lansoprazole also exhibited direct antioxidant properties by reducing 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α generation in an in vitro system where human native low-density lipoproteins were subjected to oxidation upon exposure to CuSO 4 . The present results suggest that the protective effects of lansoprazole can be ascribed to a reduction of gastric oxidative injury, resulting in an increased bioavailability of mucosal sulfhydryl compounds. It is also proposed that lansoprazole does not exert modulator effects on the gastric expression of COX isoforms as well as on the activity of NO pathways

  12. Seismic Parameters of Mining-Induced Aftershock Sequences for Re-entry Protocol Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, Javier A.; Estay, Rodrigo A.

    2018-03-01

    A common characteristic of deep mines in hard rock is induced seismicity. This results from stress changes and rock failure around mining excavations. Following large seismic events, there is an increase in the levels of seismicity, which gradually decay with time. Restricting access to areas of a mine for enough time to allow this decay of seismic events is the main approach in re-entry strategies. The statistical properties of aftershock sequences can be studied with three scaling relations: (1) Gutenberg-Richter frequency magnitude, (2) the modified Omori's law (MOL) for the temporal decay, and (3) Båth's law for the magnitude of the largest aftershock. In this paper, these three scaling relations, in addition to the stochastic Reasenberg-Jones model are applied to study the characteristic parameters of 11 large magnitude mining-induced aftershock sequences in four mines in Ontario, Canada. To provide guidelines for re-entry protocol development, the dependence of the scaling relation parameters on the magnitude of the main event are studied. Some relations between the parameters and the magnitude of the main event are found. Using these relationships and the scaling relations, a space-time-magnitude re-entry protocol is developed. These findings provide a first approximation to concise and well-justified guidelines for re-entry protocol development applicable to the range of mining conditions found in Ontario, Canada.

  13. Selenium Pretreatment Alleviated LPS-Induced Immunological Stress Via Upregulation of Several Selenoprotein Encoding Genes in Murine RAW264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Longqiong; Jing, Jinzhong; Yan, Hui; Tang, Jiayong; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Chen, Xiaoling; Tian, Gang; Cai, Jingyi; Shang, Haiying; Zhao, Hua

    2018-04-18

    This study was conducted to profile selenoprotein encoding genes in mouse RAW264.7 cells upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and integrate their roles into immunological regulation in response to selenium (Se) pretreatment. LPS was used to develop immunological stress in macrophages. Cells were pretreated with different levels of Se (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 μmol Se/L) for 2 h, followed by LPS (100 ng/mL) stimulation for another 3 h. The mRNA expression of 24 selenoprotein encoding genes and 9 inflammation-related genes were investigated. The results showed that LPS (100 ng/mL) effectively induced immunological stress in RAW264.7 cells with induced inflammation cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, mRNA expression, and cellular secretion. LPS increased (P immunological stress in RAW264.7 cells accompanied with the global downregulation of selenoprotein encoding genes and Se pretreatment alleviated immunological stress via upregulation of a subset of selenoprotein encoding genes.

  14. Traffic Light Protocol for Induced Seismicity: What is the Best Strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, H.; Mahani, A. B.; Atkinson, G. M.; Eaton, D. W. S.; Maxwell, S.

    2015-12-01

    In response to the occurrence of relatively large (and felt) earthquakes that are potentially induced by man-made activities, there is an increasing trend for the industry and government regulators to include a "traffic light" system in their decision-making process. Despite its tremendous implications to the cost of operations and the protection of public safety, the protocol that defines the different scenarios for different lights ("green", "yellow", or "red") has not been thoroughly validated to truly reflect the associated seismic risk. Most government regulators adopt a traffic light protocol (TLP) that depends on the magnitude of the earthquake of interest and sometimes felt reports from local communities. It is well known that the estimate of an earthquake's magnitude can have some uncertainty. While an uncertainty of +/-0.2 in magnitude is understandable and generally accepted by the seismological community, it can create a serious problem when the value of magnitude is the predominant factor in the TLP for induced seismicity. Recent examples of magnitude 4 and larger earthquakes in northeast BC and western AB that are possibly induced by shale gas hydraulic fracturing have demonstrated vividly the possible deficiency of existing TLP for induced seismicity. From the viewpoint of mitigating seismic risk, we argue that a ground-motion based TLP should be more effective than a magnitude-based approach. A workshop with representatives from government agencies, the industry, and the academia will be held to review the deficiency of the current TLP for induced seismicity and to explore innovative ways of improvement. The ultimate goal of the TLP for induced seismicity is to reach a balance between the protection of public safety and the economic benefit of developing natural resources In this presentation, main conclusions of this workshop will be presented.

  15. Taurine Pretreatment Prevents Isoflurane-Induced Cognitive Impairment by Inhibiting ER Stress-Mediated Activation of Apoptosis Pathways in the Hippocampus in Aged Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Li, Dongliang; Li, Haiou; Hou, Dailiang; Hou, Jingdong

    2016-10-01

    Isoflurane, a commonly used inhalation anesthetic, may induce neurocognitive deficits, especially in elderly patients after surgery. Recent study demonstrated that isoflurane caused endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent neuronal apoptosis in the brain, contributing to cognitive deficits. Taurine, a major intracellular free amino acid, has been shown to inhibit ER stress and neuronal apoptosis in several neurological disorders. Here, we examined whether taurine can prevent isoflurane-induced ER stress and cognitive impairment in aged rats. Thirty minutes prior to a 4-h 1.3 % isoflurane exposure, aged rats were treated with vehicle or taurine at low, middle and high doses. Aged rats without any treatment served as control. The brains were harvested 6 h after isoflurane exposure for molecular measurements, and behavioral study was performed 2 weeks later. Compared with control, isoflurane increased expression of hippocampal ER stress biomarkers including glucose-regulated protein 78, phosphorylated (P-) inositol-requiring enzyme 1, P-eukaryotic initiation factor 2-α (EIF2α), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4), cleaved ATF-6 and C/EBP homologous protein, along with activation of apoptosis pathways as indicated by decreased B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2)/BCL2-associated X protein, increased expressions of cytochrome-c and cleaved caspase-3. Taurine pretreatment dose-dependently inhibited isoflurane-induced increase in expression of ER stress biomarkers except for P-EIF2α and ATF-4, and reversed isoflurane-induced changes in apoptosis-related proteins. Moreover, isoflurane caused spatial working memory deficits in aged rats, which were prevented by taurine pretreatment. The results indicate that taurine pretreatment prevents anesthetic isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment by inhibiting ER stress-mediated activation of apoptosis pathways in the hippocampus in aged rats.

  16. A reliable, practical, and economical protocol for inducing diarrhea and severe dehydration in the neonatal calf.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, P G; Constable, P D; Morin, D E; Drackley, J K; Foreman, J H; Thurmon, J C

    1998-01-01

    Fifteen healthy, colostrum-fed, male dairy calves, aged 2 to 7 d were used in a study to develop a diarrhea protocol for neonatal calves that is reliable, practical, and economical. After instrumentation and recording baseline data, diarrhea and dehydration were induced by administering milk replacer [16.5 mL/kg of body weight (BW), PO], sucrose (2 g/kg in a 20% aqueous solution, p.o.), spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide (1 mg/kg, PO) every 8 h, and furosemide (2 mg/kg, i.m., q6h). Calves...

  17. Developing a dynamic virtual stimulation protocol to induce linear egomotion during orthostatic posture control test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Guimarães Da-Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In this work, the effect of a dynamic visual stimulation (DS protocol was used to induce egomotion, the center of pressure (COP displacement response. Methods DS was developed concerning the scenario structure (chessboard-pattern floor and furniture and luminance. To move the scenario in a discrete forward (or backward direction, the furniture is expanded (or reduced and the black and white background is reversed during floor translation while the luminance is increased (or reduced by steps of 2 cd/m2. This protocol was evaluated using COP signals from 29 healthy volunteers: standing on a force platform observing the virtual scene (1.72 × 1.16 m projected 1 m ahead (visual incidence angle: θl = 81.4° and θv = 60.2°, which moves with constant velocity (2 m/s during 250 ms. A set of 100 DS was applied in random order, interspersed by a 10 s of static scene. Results The Tukey post-hoc test (p < 0.001 indicated egomotion in the same direction of DS. COP displacement increased over stimulation (8.4 ± 1.7 to 22.6 ±5.3 mm, as well as time to recover stability (4.1 ± 0.4 to 7.2 ± 0.6 s. The peak of egomotion during DSF occurred 200 ms after DSB (Wilcoxon, p = 0.002. Conclusion The dynamic configuration of this protocol establishes virtual flow effects of linear egomotion dependent on the direction of the dynamic visual stimulation. This finding indicates the potential application of the proposed virtual dynamic stimulation protocol to investigate the cortical visual evoked response in postural control studies.

  18. Long-term pretreatment with desethylamiodarone (DEA) or amiodarone (AMIO) protects against coronary artery occlusion induced ventricular arrhythmias in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvay, Nikolett; Baczkó, István; Sztojkov-Ivanov, Anita; Falkay, György; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Leprán, István

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare the effectiveness of long-term pretreatment with amiodarone (AMIO) and its active metabolite desethylamiodarone (DEA) on arrhythmias induced by acute myocardial infarction in rats. Acute myocardial infarction was induced in conscious, male, Sprague-Dawley rats by pulling a previously inserted loose silk loop around the left main coronary artery. Long-term oral pretreatment with AMIO (30 or 100 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), loading dose 100 or 300 mg·kg(-1) for 3 days) or DEA (15 or 50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), loading dose 100 or 300 mg·kg(-1) for 3 days), was applied for 1 month before the coronary artery occlusion. Chronic oral treatment with DEA (50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) resulted in a similar myocardial DEA concentration as chronic AMIO treatment (100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) in rats (7.4 ± 0.7 μg·g(-1) and 8.9 ± 2.2 μg·g(-1)). Both pretreatments in the larger doses significantly improved the survival rate during the acute phase of experimental myocardial infarction (82% and 64% by AMIO and DEA, respectively, vs. 31% in controls). Our results demonstrate that chronic oral treatment with DEA resulted in similar cardiac tissue levels to that of chronic AMIO treatment, and offered an equivalent degree of antiarrhythmic effect against acute coronary artery ligation induced ventricular arrhythmias in conscious rats.

  19. Pretreatment by low-dose fibrates protects against acute free fatty acid-induced renal tubule toxicity by counteracting PPARα deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kyoko; Kamijo, Yuji; Hora, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Koji; Higuchi, Makoto; Nakajima, Takero; Ehara, Takashi; Shigematsu, Hidekazu; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2011-01-01

    Development of a preventive strategy against tubular damage associated with proteinuria is of great importance. Recently, free fatty acid (FFA) toxicities accompanying proteinuria were found to be a main cause of tubular damage, which was aggravated by insufficiency of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), suggesting the benefit of PPARα activation. However, an earlier study using a murine acute tubular injury model, FFA-overload nephropathy, demonstrated that high-dose treatment of PPARα agonist (0.5% clofibrate diet) aggravated the tubular damage as a consequence of excess serum accumulation of clofibrate metabolites due to decreased kidney elimination. To induce the renoprotective effects of PPARα agonists without drug accumulation, we tried a pretreatment study using low-dose clofibrate (0.1% clofibrate diet) using the same murine model. Low-dose clofibrate pretreatment prevented acute tubular injuries without accumulation of its metabolites. The tubular protective effects appeared to be associated with the counteraction of PPARα deterioration, resulting in the decrease of FFAs influx to the kidney, maintenance of fatty acid oxidation, diminution of intracellular accumulation of undigested FFAs, and attenuation of disease developmental factors including oxidative stress, apoptosis, and NFκB activation. These effects are common to other fibrates and dependent on PPARα function. Interestingly, however, clofibrate pretreatment also exerted PPARα-independent tubular toxicities in PPARα-null mice with FFA-overload nephropathy. The favorable properties of fibrates are evident when PPARα-dependent tubular protective effects outweigh their PPARα-independent tubular toxicities. This delicate balance seems to be easily affected by the drug dose. It will be important to establish the appropriate dosage of fibrates for treatment against kidney disease and to develop a novel PPARα activator that has a steady serum concentration regardless of

  20. Pre-treatment with Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm uterine contractility, cytokines, and prostaglandins in rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Persing, David; Novy, Miles J.; Sadowsky, Drew W.; Gravett, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Intra-uterine infection, which occurs in the majority of early preterm births, triggers an immune response culminating in preterm labor. We hypothesized that blockade of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immune responses by a Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist (TLR4A) would prevent elevations in amniotic fluid (AF) cytokines, prostaglandins, and uterine contractility. Chronically catheterized rhesus monkeys at 128-147 days gestation received intra-amniotic infusions of either: 1) saline (n=6), 2) LPS (0.15-10μg; n=4), or 3) TLR4A pre-treatment with LPS (10 μg) one hour later (n=4). AF cytokines, prostaglandins, and uterine contractility were compared using oneway ANOVA with Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons. Compared to saline controls, LPS induced significant elevations in AF IL-8, TNF-α, PGE2, PGF2α, and uterine contractility (p<0.05). In contrast, TLR4A pre-treatment inhibited LPS-induced uterine activity and was associated with significantly lower AF IL-8, TNF-α, PGE2, and PGF2α versus LPS alone (p<0.05). Toll-like receptor antagonists, together with antibiotics, may delay or prevent infection-associated preterm birth. PMID:18187405

  1. Pre-treatment with mild whole-body heating prevents gastric ulcer induced by restraint and water-immersion stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Y H; Noguchi, R

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the preventive effect of pre-mild whole-body heating (WBH) on gastric ulcer induced by restraint and water-immersion stress. The ulcer index and ulcer area ratio in rats exposed to restraint and water-immersion stress were significantly decreased (p immersion stress alone (p immersion, thereby preventing gastric ulcer formation. Pre-treatment with mild WBH is the safest cytoprotective method through the accumulation of HSP 70f. The concentration of HSP 70f in peripheral lymphocytes may be a useful clinical laboratory indicator for assessing the level of HSP 70f as having cytoprotective activity.

  2. Drug-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) protocols: cytogenetic approaches in mitotic chromosome and interphase chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Eisuke

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome analysis is a fundamental technique which is used in wide areas of cytogenetic study including karyotyping species, hereditary diseases diagnosis, or chromosome biology study. Chromosomes are usually prepared from mitotic cells arrested by colcemid block protocol. However, obtaining mitotic chromosomes is often hampered under several circumstances. As a result, cytogenetic analysis will be sometimes difficult or even impossible in such cases. Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) (see Note 1) is an alternative method that has proved to be a unique and useful way in chromosome analysis. Former, PCC has been achieved following cell fusion method (cell-fusion PCC) mediated either by fusogenic viruses (e.g., Sendai virus) or cell fusion chemicals (e.g., polyethylene glycol), but the cell fusion PCC has several drawbacks. The novel drug-induced PCC using protein phosphatase inhibitors was introduced about 20 years ago. This method is much simpler and easier even than the conventional mitotic chromosome preparation protocol use with colcemid block and furthermore obtained PCC index (equivalent to mitotic index for metaphase chromosome) is usually much higher than colcemid block method. Moreover, this method allows the interphase chromatin to be condensed to visualize like mitotic chromosomes. Therefore drug-induced PCC has opened the way for chromosome analysis not only in metaphase chromosomes but also in interphase chromatin. The drug-induced PCC has thus proven the usefulness in cytogenetics and other cell biology fields. For this second edition version, updated modifications/changes are supplemented in Subheadings 2, 3, and 4, and a new section describing the application of PCC in chromosome science fields is added with citation of updated references.

  3. A simplified protocol for differentiation of electrophysiologically mature neuronal networks from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunhanlar, N; Shpak, G; van der Kroeg, M; Gouty-Colomer, L A; Munshi, S T; Lendemeijer, B; Ghazvini, M; Dupont, C; Hoogendijk, W J G; Gribnau, J; de Vrij, F M S; Kushner, S A

    2017-04-18

    Progress in elucidating the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders has been hindered by the limited availability of living human brain tissue. The emergence of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has offered a unique alternative strategy using patient-derived functional neuronal networks. However, methods for reliably generating iPSC-derived neurons with mature electrophysiological characteristics have been difficult to develop. Here, we report a simplified differentiation protocol that yields electrophysiologically mature iPSC-derived cortical lineage neuronal networks without the need for astrocyte co-culture or specialized media. This protocol generates a consistent 60:40 ratio of neurons and astrocytes that arise from a common forebrain neural progenitor. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of 114 neurons derived from three independent iPSC lines confirmed their electrophysiological maturity, including resting membrane potential (-58.2±1.0 mV), capacitance (49.1±2.9 pF), action potential (AP) threshold (-50.9±0.5 mV) and AP amplitude (66.5±1.3 mV). Nearly 100% of neurons were capable of firing APs, of which 79% had sustained trains of mature APs with minimal accommodation (peak AP frequency: 11.9±0.5 Hz) and 74% exhibited spontaneous synaptic activity (amplitude, 16.03±0.82 pA; frequency, 1.09±0.17 Hz). We expect this protocol to be of broad applicability for implementing iPSC-based neuronal network models of neuropsychiatric disorders.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 18 April 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.56.

  4. Effects of cyclosporine A pretreatment of deceased organ donors on kidney graft function (Cis-A-rein): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Jean-Christophe; Fontaine, Eric; Cassuto, Elisabeth; Baumstarck, Karine; Leone, Marc; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Ichai, Carole

    2018-04-17

    Renal transplantation represents the treatment of choice of end-stage kidney disease. Delayed graft function (DGF) remains the most frequent complication after this procedure, reaching more than 30%. Its prevention is essential as it impedes early- and long-term prognosis of transplantation. Numerous pharmacological interventions aiming to prevent ischemia-reperfusion injuries failed to reduce the rate of DGF. We hypothesize that cyclosporine as an early preconditioning procedure in donors would be associated with decreased DGF. The Cis-A-rein study is an investigator-initiated, prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled study performed to assess the effects of a donor preconditioning with cyclosporine A on kidney grafts function in transplanted patients. After randomization, a brain dead donor will receive 2.5 mg kg -1 of cyclosporine A or the same volume of 5% glucose solution. The primary objective is to compare the rate of DGF, defined as the need for at least one dialysis session within the 7 days following transplantation, between both groups. The secondary objectives include rate of slow graft function, mild and severe DGF, urine output and serum creatinine during the first week after transplantation, rate of primary graft dysfunction, renal function and mortality at 1 year. The sample size (n = 648) was determined to obtain 80% power to detect a 10% difference for rate of DGF at day 7 between the two groups (30% of the patients in the placebo group and 20% of the patients in the intervention group). Delayed graft function is a major issue after renal transplantation, impeding long-term prognosis. Cyclosporine A pretreatment in deceased donors could improve the outcome of patients after renal transplantation. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02907554 Registered on 20 September 2016.

  5. The Physiological Bases of Hidden Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Protocol for a Functional Neuroimaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Rebecca Susan; Hall, Deborah A; Guest, Hannah; Prendergast, Garreth; Plack, Christopher J; Francis, Susan T

    2018-03-09

    procedures for hidden hearing loss, enabling early identification of noise-induced auditory damage via the detection of changes in central auditory processing. Consequently, this will generate the opportunity to give personalized advice regarding provision of ear defense and monitoring of further damage, thus reducing the incidence of noise-induced hearing loss. ©Rebecca Susan Dewey, Deborah A Hall, Hannah Guest, Garreth Prendergast, Christopher J Plack, Susan T Francis. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 09.03.2018.

  6. SU-F-T-227: A Comprehensive Patient Specific, Structure Specific, Pre-Treatment 3D QA Protocol for IMRT, SBRT and VMAT - Clinical Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueorguiev, G; Cotter, C; Young, M; Toomeh, D [Massachusetts General Hospital Boston MA (United States); University of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell, MA (United States); Khan, F; Crawford, B; Turcotte, J; Sharp, G [Massachusetts General Hospital Boston MA (United States); Mah’D, M [University of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To present a 3D QA method and clinical results for 550 patients. Methods: Five hundred and fifty patient treatment deliveries (400 IMRT, 75 SBRT and 75 VMAT) from various treatment sites, planned on Raystation treatment planning system (TPS), were measured on three beam-matched Elekta linear accelerators using IBA’s COMPASS system. The difference between TPS computed and delivered dose was evaluated in 3D by applying three statistical parameters to each structure of interest: absolute average dose difference (AADD, 6% allowed difference), absolute dose difference greater than 6% (ADD6, 4% structure volume allowed to fail) and 3D gamma test (3%/3mm DTA, 4% structure volume allowed to fail). If the allowed value was not met for a given structure, manual review was performed. The review consisted of overlaying dose difference or gamma results with the patient CT, scrolling through the slices. For QA to pass, areas of high dose difference or gamma must be small and not on consecutive slices. For AADD to manually pass QA, the average dose difference in cGy must be less than 50cGy. The QA protocol also includes DVH analysis based on QUANTEC and TG-101 recommended dose constraints. Results: Figures 1–3 show the results for the three parameters per treatment modality. Manual review was performed on 67 deliveries (27 IMRT, 22 SBRT and 18 VMAT), for which all passed QA. Results show that statistical parameter AADD may be overly sensitive for structures receiving low dose, especially for the SBRT deliveries (Fig.1). The TPS computed and measured DVH values were in excellent agreement and with minimum difference. Conclusion: Applying DVH analysis and different statistical parameters to any structure of interest, as part of the 3D QA protocol, provides a comprehensive treatment plan evaluation. Author G. Gueorguiev discloses receiving travel and research funding from IBA for unrelated to this project work. Author B. Crawford discloses receiving travel funding from

  7. Differential Effects of HRAS Mutation on LTP-Like Activity Induced by Different Protocols of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileone, Michele; Ranieri, Federico; Florio, Lucia; Capone, Fioravante; Musumeci, Gabriella; Leoni, Chiara; Mordillo-Mateos, Laura; Tartaglia, Marco; Zampino, Giuseppe; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is a rare congenital disorder due to a G12S amino acid substitution in HRAS protoncogene. Previous studies have shown that Paired Associative Stimulation (PAS), a repetitive brain stimulation protocol inducing motor cortex plasticity by coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with brain stimulation, leads to an extremely pronounced motor cortex excitability increase in CS patients. Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation (iTBS) represents a protocol able to induce motor cortex plasticity by trains of stimuli at 50 Hz. In healthy subjects PAS and iTBS produce similar after-effects in motor cortex excitability. Experimental models showed that HRAS-dependent signalling pathways differently affect LTP induced by different patterns of repetitive synaptic stimulation. We aimed to compare iTBS-induced after-effects on motor cortex excitability with those produced by PAS in CS patients and to observe whether HRAS mutation differentially affects two different forms of neuromodulation protocols. We evaluated in vivo after-effects induced by PAS and iTBS applied over the right motor cortex in 4 CS patients and in 21 healthy age-matched controls. Our findings confirmed HRAS-dependent extremely pronounced PAS-induced after-effects and showed for the first time that iTBS induces no change in MEP amplitude in CS patients whereas both protocols lead to an increase of about 50% in controls. CS patients are characterized by an impairment of iTBS-related LTP-like phenomena besides enhanced PAS-induced after-effects, suggesting that HRAS-dependent signalling pathways have a differential influence on PAS- and iTBS-induced plasticity in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF microfiltration (MF membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3–5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3–5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2–30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling.

  9. A stepwise protocol for the treatment of refractory gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghuai; Lv, Hanjing; Yu, Li; Chen, Qiang; Liang, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    Background Refractory gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC) is difficult to manage. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of a novel stepwise protocol for treating this condition. Methods A total of 103 consecutive patients with suspected refractory reflux-induced chronic cough failing to a standard anti-reflux therapy were treated with a stepwise therapy. Treatment commences with high-dose omeprazole and, if necessary, is escalated to subsequent sequential treatment with ranitidine and finally baclofen. The primary end-point was overall cough resolution, and the secondary end-point was cough resolution after each treatment step. Results High-dose omeprazole eliminated or improved cough in 28.1% of patients (n=29). Further stepwise of treatment with the addition of ranitide yielded a favorable response in an additional 12.6% (n=13) of patients, and subsequent escalation to baclofen provoked response in another 36.9% (n=38) of patients. Overall, this stepwise protocol was successful in 77.6% (n=80) of patients. The diurnal cough symptom score fell from 3 [1] to 1 [0] (Z=6.316, P=0.000), and the nocturnal cough symptom score decreased from 1 [1] to 0 [1] (Z=–4.511, P=0.000), with a corresponding reduction in the Gastroesophageal Reflux Diagnostic Questionnaire score from 8.6±1.7 to 6.8±0.7 (t=3.612, P=0.000). Conversely, the cough threshold C2 to capsaicin was increased from 0.49 (0.49) µmol/L to 1.95 (2.92) µmol/L (Z=–5.892, P=0.000), and the cough threshold C5 was increased from 1.95 (2.92) µmol/L to 7.8 (5.85) µmol/L (Z=–5.171, P=0.000). Conclusions Sequential stepwise anti-reflux therapy is a useful therapeutic strategy for refractory reflux-induced chronic cough. PMID:26904227

  10. ESR-based Identification of Radiation-Induced Free Radicals in Gamma-Irradiated Basil and Clove Using Different Sample Pre-Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, J.Y.; Ahn, J.J.; Kashif Akram; Kwon, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    An improved detection of radiation-induced paramagnetic faults was developed to identify the irradiation status of basil and clove. The effectiveness of different sample pretreatments, including freeze-drying (FD), oven-drying (OD), alcoholic-extraction (AE), and water-washing and alcoholic-extraction (WAE), were examined. All non-irradiated samples showed a single central signal (g 0 = 2.006), whereas radicals representing two additional side peaks (g 1 = 2.023 and g 2 = 1.986) with a mutual distance of 6 mT were detected in the irradiated samples. AE and WAE produced the best results for irradiated clove in terms of intensities of radiation-specific ESR signals and their ratios to the central signal. However, FD provided the highest intensities of radiation-specific ESR signals for basil, whereas their ratios to the major signal were better in the cases of AE and WAE. Signal noise, particularly due to Mn 2+ signals, was observed, whereas it decreased in AE and WAE pretreatments. Based on our results, AE and WAE can improve the detection conditions for radiation-specific ESR signals in irradiated samples. (author)

  11. Pre-treatment by n-hexane extract of Phyllanthus niruri can alleviate paracetamol-induced damage of the rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Jalaluddin Iqbal

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to obtain and evaluate remedy against viral hepatitis with Phyllanthus niruri (Bhui amla. Viral infection and toxic doses of paracetamol produce similar pattern of hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering paracetamol (750 mg/kg body weight, single dose intraperitoneal into one group (group P of rats. Propylene glycol (vehicle was administered (2 ml into another group (group V of rats. 4 groups of P. niruri extract-pretreated (200 mg/kg body weight/day for 7 days rats were administered the same single dose of paracetamol on the 7th day. Extract of P. niruri were obtained through ethanol (E, hexane (H, dichloromethane (D and butane (B. Rat groups were V, P, E + P, H + P, D + P and B + P. Each group consisted of 6 rats and were sacrificed on the 9th day. Parameters for evaluation were biochemical (serum ALT, serum AST, serum ALP, serum bilirubin, hepatic reduced glutathione concentrations and hepatic histology. Propylene glycol (group V appeared non-toxic to the liver while significant degrees of centrilobuler hepatotoxicity was observed in group P paracetamol-treated rats. The E + P group suggested significant improvements in the serum parameters but these parameters appeared better alleviated in the H + P group. Hepatic reduced glutathione concentrations were replenished to the control level in both E + P and H + P groups. Hepatic histology supported biochemical and other observations in the P, E + P and H + P groups. Lesser degrees of alleviations were observed in the D + P and B + P groups. However, the hexane extract-pretreated group (H + P appeared to provide the most significant hepatoprotection against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in the rat. Titration of the dose following isolation of the active ingredient might offer complete alleviation.

  12. Pre-treatment by n-hexane extract of Phyllanthus niruri can alleviate paracetamol-induced damage of the rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jalaluddin Iqbal, Fawzia Z. Dewan, S.A.R.Chowdhury, M.I.R. Mamun,

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to obtain and evaluate remedy against viral hepatitis with Phyllanthus niruri (Bhui amla. Viral infection and toxic doses of paracetamol produce similar pattern of hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering paracetamol (750 mg/kg body weight, single dose intraperitoneal into one group (group P of rats. Propylene glycol (vehicle was administered (2 ml into another group (group V of rats. Four groups of P. niruri extract-pretreated (200 mg/kg body weight/day for 7 days rats were administered the same single dose of paracetamol on the 7th day. Extract of P. niruri were obtained through ethanol (E, hexane (H, dichloromethane (D and butane (B. Rat groups were V, P, E + P, H + P, D + P and B + P. Each group consisted of 6 rats and were sacrificed on the 9th day. Parameters for evaluation were biochemical (serum ALT, serum AST, serum ALP, serum bilirubin, hepatic reduced glutathione concentrations and hepatic histology. Propylene glycol (group V appeared non-toxic to the liver while significant degrees of centrilobuler hepatotoxicity was observed in group P paracetamol-treated rats. The E + P group suggested significant improvements in the serum parameters but these parameters appeared better alleviated in the H + P group. Hepatic reduced glutathione concentrations were replenished to the control level in both E + P and H + P groups. Hepatic histology supported biochemical and other observations in the P, E + P and H + P groups. Lesser degrees of alleviations were observed in the D + P and B + P groups. However, the hexane extract-pretreated group (H + P appeared to provide the most significant hepatoprotection against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in the rat. Titration of the dose following isolation of the active ingredient might offer complete alleviation.

  13. Pretreatment of MQA, a caffeoylquinic acid derivative compound, protects against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xing; Gao, Lingyue; An, Li; Jiang, Xiaowen; Bai, Junpeng; Huang, Jian; Meng, Weihong; Zhao, Qingchun

    2016-12-01

    Compound MQA (1,5-O-dicaffeoyl-3-O-[4-malic acid methyl ester]-quinic acid) is a natural caffeoylquinic acid derivative isolated from Arctium lappa L. roots. This study aims to explore the neuroprotective effects of MQA against hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The SH-SY5Y cells were divided into four groups, including control, 20 μM MQA, 200 μM H2O2, 200 μM H2O2 + 20 μM MQA groups. The effects of MQA on H 2 O 2 -induced cell death were measured by MTT and LDH assays. Hoechst 33342 and Annexin V-PI double staining were used to observed H2O2-induced apoptosis. Also, the effects of MQA on antioxidant system and mitochondrial pathway were explored. Further, steady-state phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2, Akt and GSK-3β were examined by Western blot analysis. Pretreatment with MQA prevented cell death in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 200 μM H2O2 for 3 h. Meanwhile, Hoechst 33342 and Annexin V-PI double staining showed that MQA attenuated H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis. These changes are related to elevation in SOD activity, reduction in MDA production and ROS formation, and increases in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). In addition, the potential mechanisms of MQA against H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis are associated with increases in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, decreases in cytochrome c release, caspase-3 and caspase-9 expressions, phosphorylation of ERK1/2, and dephosphorylation of AKT and GSK-3β. These findings suggest that protective effects of MQA against H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis might be associated with mitochondrial apoptosis, ERK1/2 and AKT/GSK-3β pathway.

  14. Effect of Paracetamol Pretreatment on Rocuronium-Induced Injection Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Comparison with Lidocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnaz Ates

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effect of intravenous paracetamol on rocuronium-induced injection pain with that of lidocaine. Material and Method: One hundred and eighty patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were recruited to this prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. A 20-gauge cannula was inserted into a vein on the dorsum of the patient%u2019s left hand and lactated Ringer%u2019s solution was infused at 100 ml/h. After 5 minutes, infusion was stopped and the left arm of the patient%u2019s was elevated for 15 seconds for gravity of venous blood. While venous occlusion was applied to the left upper arm using a pneumatic tourniquet, one of the pretreatment solutions (normal saline 5 mL, lidocaine 40 mg, paracetamol 50 mg was injected over a period of 10 seconds. The intensity of the pain patients experienced was assessed using a 4-point verbal rating scale in Group C (normal saline 5 mL, n=60, Group L (lidocaine 40 mg, n=60 and Group P (paracetamol 50 mg, n=60. After 2 minutes, the venous occlusion was released and the patients received 0.06 mg/kg rocuronim bromide over 10 seconds and the rocuronim-induced pain was assessed. Results: The overall incidence of rocuronium-induced injection pain was significantly more in Group C than the other groups (p

  15. Free radical induced grafting of acrylonitrile on pre-treated rice straw for enhancing its durability and flame retardancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Mukherjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation highlights the feasibility of a polymer grafting process to enhance the durability and flame retardancy of rice straw towards application as a low cost roofing material. The success of this grafting methodology was perceived to depend upon a bi-step pre-treatment process encompassing delignification and inorganic salts dispersion. Subsequently free radical polymer grafting of acrylonitrile onto rice straw was implemented by immersion mechanism initiated by oxalic acid-potassium permanganate initiator. The percentage of grafting, limiting oxygen index (LOI, biodegradability of the grafted rice straw and grafting yield percentage was estimated to be 57%, 27%, 0.02% and 136.67%, respectively. The weight loss of polymer grafted rice straw implied its less biodegradability over raw straw. Thus, the process of grafting contrived in the present analysis can be a promising and reliable technique for the efficient utilization of rice straw as an inexpensive roofing element through the augmentation of its durability and flame retardancy.

  16. Improved Wojcik's eavesdropping attack on ping-pong protocol without eavesdropping-induced channel loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhanjun [School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China) and Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)]. E-mail: zhangzj@wipm.ac.cn; Li Yong [Department of Physics, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Man Zhongxiao [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2005-06-27

    The eavesdropping scheme proposed by Wojcik [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003) 157901] on the ping-pong protocol [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 187902] is improved by constituting a new set of attack operations. The improved scheme has a zero eavesdropping-induced channel loss and produces perfect anticorrelation. Therefore, the eavesdropper Eve can safely attack all the transmitted bits and the eavesdropping information gain can always exceed the legitimate user's information gain in the whole domain of the quantum channel transmission efficiency {eta}, i.e., [0,100%]. This means that the ping-pong protocol can be completely eavesdropped in its original version. But the improvement of the ping-pong protocol security produced by Wojcik is also suitable for our eavesdropping attack.

  17. An efficient chronic unpredictable stress protocol to induce stress-related responses in C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana eMonteiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to chronic stress can have broad effects on health ranging from increased predisposition for neuropsychiatric disorders to deregulation of immune responses. The chronic unpredictable stress (CUS protocol has been widely used to study the impact of stress exposure in several animal models and consists in the random, intermittent and unpredictable exposure to a variety of stressors during several weeks. CUS has consistently been shown to induce behavioral and immunological alterations typical of the chronic stress response. Unfortunately C57BL/6 mice, one of the most widely used mouse strains, due to the great variety of genetically modified lines, seem to be resistant to the commonly used 4-week-long CUS protocol. The definition of an alternative CUS protocol allowing the use of C57BL/6 mice in chronic stress experiments is a need. Here we show that by extending the CUS protocol to 8 weeks is possible to induce a chronic stress response in C57BL/6 mice, as revealed by abrogated body weight gain, increased adrenals weight and an overactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis with increased levels of serum corticosterone. Moreover, we also observed stress-associated behavioral alterations, including the potentiation of anxious-like and depressive-like behaviors and a reduction of exploratory behavior, as well as subtle stress-related changes in the cell population of the thymus and of the spleen.The present protocol for C57BL/6 mice consistently triggers the spectrum of CUS-induced changes observed in rats and, thus, will be highly useful to researchers that need to use this particular mouse strain as an animal model of neuropsychiatric disorders and/or immune deregulation related to chronic unpredictable stress.

  18. An efficient chronic unpredictable stress protocol to induce stress-related responses in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Susana; Roque, Susana; de Sá-Calçada, Daniela; Sousa, Nuno; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Cerqueira, João José

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to chronic stress can have broad effects on health ranging from increased predisposition for neuropsychiatric disorders to deregulation of immune responses. The chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) protocol has been widely used to study the impact of stress exposure in several animal models and consists in the random, intermittent, and unpredictable exposure to a variety of stressors during several weeks. CUS has consistently been shown to induce behavioral and immunological alterations typical of the chronic stress-response. Unfortunately C57BL/6 mice, one of the most widely used mouse strains, due to the great variety of genetically modified lines, seem to be resistant to the commonly used 4-week-long CUS protocol. The definition of an alternative CUS protocol allowing the use of C57BL/6 mice in chronic stress experiments is a need. Here, we show that by extending the CUS protocol to 8 weeks is possible to induce a chronic stress-response in C57BL/6 mice, as revealed by abrogated body weight gain, increased adrenals weight, and an overactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis with increased levels of serum corticosterone. Moreover, we also observed stress-associated behavioral alterations, including the potentiation of anxious-like and depressive-like behaviors and a reduction of exploratory behavior, as well as subtle stress-related changes in the cell population of the thymus and of the spleen. The present protocol for C57BL/6 mice consistently triggers the spectrum of CUS-induced changes observed in rats and, thus, will be highly useful to researchers that need to use this particular mouse strain as an animal model of neuropsychiatric disorders and/or immune deregulation related to CUS.

  19. Protocol: using virus-induced gene silencing to study the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Mette; Olsen, Anne; Johansen, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    , the available PEBV-VIGS protocols are inadequate for studying genes involved in the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Here we describe a PEBV-VIGS protocol suitable for reverse genetics studies in pea of genes involved in the symbiosis with AMF and show its effectiveness in silencing genes...... involved in the early and late stages of AMF symbiosis....

  20. Lignin from hydrothermally pretreated grass biomass retards enzymatic cellulose degradation by acting as a physical barrier rather than by inducing nonproductive adsorption of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djajadi, Demi T; Jensen, Mads M; Oliveira, Marlene; Jensen, Anders; Thygesen, Lisbeth G; Pinelo, Manuel; Glasius, Marianne; Jørgensen, Henning; Meyer, Anne S

    2018-01-01

    Lignin is known to hinder efficient enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose in biorefining processes. In particular, nonproductive adsorption of cellulases onto lignin is considered a key mechanism to explain how lignin retards enzymatic cellulose conversion in extended reactions. Lignin-rich residues (LRRs) were prepared via extensive enzymatic cellulose degradation of corn stover ( Zea mays subsp. mays L.), Miscanthus  ×  giganteus stalks (MS) and wheat straw ( Triticum aestivum L.) (WS) samples that each had been hydrothermally pretreated at three severity factors (log R 0 ) of 3.65, 3.83 and 3.97. The LRRs had different residual carbohydrate levels-the highest in MS; the lowest in WS. The residual carbohydrate was not traceable at the surface of the LRRs particles by ATR-FTIR analysis. The chemical properties of the lignin in the LRRs varied across the three types of biomass, but monolignols composition was not affected by the severity factor. When pure cellulose was added to a mixture of LRRs and a commercial cellulolytic enzyme preparation, the rate and extent of glucose release were unaffected by the presence of LRRs regardless of biomass type and severity factor, despite adsorption of the enzymes to the LRRs. Since the surface of the LRRs particles were covered by lignin, the data suggest that the retardation of enzymatic cellulose degradation during extended reaction on lignocellulosic substrates is due to physical blockage of the access of enzymes to the cellulose caused by the gradual accumulation of lignin at the surface of the biomass particles rather than by nonproductive enzyme adsorption. The study suggests that lignin from hydrothermally pretreated grass biomass retards enzymatic cellulose degradation by acting as a physical barrier blocking the access of enzymes to cellulose rather than by inducing retardation through nonproductive adsorption of enzymes.

  1. Propofol pretreatment attenuates LPS-induced granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor production in cultured hepatocytes by suppressing MAPK/ERK activity and NF-κB translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawan, Bruno; Kao, Y.-H.; Goto, Shigeru; Pan, M.-C.; Lin, Y.-C.; Hsu, L.-W.; Nakano, Toshiaki; Lai, C.-Y.; Sun, C.-K.; Cheng, Y.-F.; Tai, M.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Propofol (PPF), a widely used intravenous anesthetic for induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgeries, was found to possess suppressive effect on host immunity. This study aimed at investigating whether PPF plays a modulatory role in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine expression in a cell line of rat hepatocytes. Morphological observation and viability assay showed that PPF exhibits no cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 300 μM after 48 h incubation. Pretreatment with 100 μM PPF for 24 h prior to LPS stimulation was performed to investigate the modulatory effect on LPS-induced inflammatory gene production. The results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that PPF pretreatment significantly suppressed the LPS-induced toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, CD14, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene expression. Western blotting analysis showed that PPF pretreatment potentiated the LPS-induced TLR-4 downregulation. Flow cytometrical analysis revealed that PPF pretreatment showed no modulatory effect on the LPS-upregulated CD14 expression on hepatocytes. In addition, PPF pretreatment attenuated the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) and IκBα, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB primed by LPS. Moreover, addition of PD98059, a MAPK kinase inhibitor, significantly suppressed the LPS-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and GM-CSF production, suggesting that the PPF-attenuated GM-CSF production in hepatocytes may be attributed to its suppressive effect on MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. In conclusion, PPF as an anesthetic may clinically benefit those patients who are vulnerable to sepsis by alleviating sepsis-related inflammatory response in livers

  2. Pre-treatment with N-acetylcysteine upregulates superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase genes in cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the chick omphalocele model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Takashi; Puri, Prem; Bannigan, John; Thompson, Jennifer

    2011-02-01

    In the chick embryo, administration of the heavy metal Cadmium (Cd) induces omphalocele phenotype. Cd is a potent inhibitor of antioxidant enzymes and causes accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) such as hydrogen peroxide. Previous work with the Cd chick model has demonstrated that increased levels of MDA, as a marker for oxidative stress, 24 h post Cd treatment (24H) are identical in chick embryos exposed to Cd. Furthermore, of the several antioxidants assessed, only N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to reduce MDA levels to control values in the Cd-treated chick embryo. However, the molecular mechanisms by which NAC acts to maintain oxidative stress in the Cd-induced ventral body wall defect chick model remains to be unclear. We designed this study to investigate the hypothesis that gene expression levels of antioxidant enzymes are downregulated in malformed embryos exposed to Cd compared to controls and to determine the effect of pre-treatment with NAC on the expression levels of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes. After 60 h incubation, chick embryos were pre-treated with NAC and exposed to either chick saline or Cd. Chicks were then harvested at 24H and divided into five groups: control, Cd group without malformation [Cd(-)], Cd group with malformation [Cd(+)], NAC + Cd(-) and NAC + Cd(+). Real-time PCR was performed to evaluate the relative mRNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, SOD2, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)-4. Differences between five groups were tested by Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test following one-way ANOVA. Statistical significance was accepted at p < 0.05. Immunohistochemistry was also performed to evaluate protein expression. The mRNA expression levels of SOD2 and CAT were significantly decreased in Cd(+) as compared to controls, whereas there was no significant difference between controls and Cd(-) (p < 0.05 vs. controls). In addition, gene expression levels of

  3. [Protective effect of pretreatment of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. f. alba plasma against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injury of cultured rat hippocampal neurons by inhibiting apoptosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Yi; Zhang, Yan-Bo; Zuo, Huan; Liu, Li-Li; Niu, Jing-Zhong

    2012-02-25

    The present study was to investigate the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. f. alba (SMA) pharmacological pretreatment on apoptosis of cultured hippocampal neurons from neonate rats under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Cultured hippocampal neurons were randomly divided into five groups (n = 6): normal plasma group, low dose SMA plasma (2.5%) group, middle dose SMA plasma (5%) group, high dose SMA plasma (10%) group and control group. The hippocampal neurons were cultured and treated with plasma from adult Wistar rats intragastrically administered with saline or aqueous extract of SMA. The apoptosis of neurons was induced by glucose-free Earle's solution containing 1 mmol/L Na2S2O4 and labeled by MTT and Annexin V/PI double staining. Moreover, protein expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax were detected by immunofluorescence. The results showed that few apoptotic cells were observed in control group, whereas the number of apoptotic cells was greatly increased in normal plasma group and low dose SMA plasma group. Both middle and high dose SMA plasma could protect cultured hippocampal neurons from apoptosis induced by OGD (P control, normal plasma and low dose SMA plasma groups, middle and high dose SMA plasma groups both showed significantly higher levels of Bcl-2 (P neurons by up-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and down-regulating the expression of Bax.

  4. Improved W\\'{o}jcik's Eavesdropping Attack on Ping-Pong Protocol Without Eavesdropping-Induced Channel Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhan-jun; Li, Yong; Man, Zhong-xiao

    2004-01-01

    The eavesdropping scheme proposed by W\\'{o}jcik [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 90},157901(2003)] on the ping-pong protocol [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 89}, 187902(2002)] is improved by constituting a new set of attack operations. The improved scheme has a zero eavesdropping-induced channel loss and produces perfect anticorrelation. Therefore, the eavesdropper Eve can safely attack all the transmitted bits and the eavesdropping information gain can always exceed the legitimate user's information gain in th...

  5. An Optimized Protocol to Increase Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Efficiency and Minimize Viral Symptoms in Petunia

    OpenAIRE

    Broderick, Shaun R.; Jones, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is used to down-regulate endogenous plant genes. VIGS efficiency depends on viral proliferation and systemic movement throughout the plant. Although tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based VIGS has been successfully used in petunia (Petunia × hybrida), the protocol has not been thoroughly optimized for efficient and uniform gene down-regulation in this species. Therefore, we evaluated six parameters that improved VIGS in petunia. Inoculation of mechanically wounde...

  6. Effects of substrates, different pretreatment protocols and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induction of seeds germination of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. ... mixture of forest top soil and river sand) and 18 pre-germination treatments ... Keywords: Spice tree, domestication, seed dormancy, scarification, desiccation tolerance. ..... Figure 1: Germinated Xylopia aethiopica seeds at 50 days after sowing, showing ...

  7. The antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of crocin pretreatment on global cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury induced by four vessels occlusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, Serdar; Gönül, Yücel; Tunay, Kamil; Oruc, Oya Akpinar; Bozkurt, Mehmet Fatih; Karavelioğlu, Ergün; Bağcıoğlu, Erman; Coşkun, Kerem Senol; Celik, Sefa

    2016-06-01

    Cerebral ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury is a process in which oxidative and apoptotic mechanisms play a part. Neuroprotective agents to be found could work out well for the efficient and safe minimization of cerebral IR injury. Crocin is a strong antioxidant agent; however the influence of this agent on the experimental cerebral ischemia model has not been studied extensively and thus it is not well-known. The objective of our study was to investigate the antioxidant, antiapoptotic and protective effects of crocin on the global cerebral IR induced by four-vessel occlusion. A total of 30 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were equally and randomly separated into three groups as follows: sham, IR and IR+crocin (40mg/kg/day orally for 10days). 24h after electrocauterization of bilateral vertebral arteries, bilateral common carotid arteries were occluded for 30min and reperfused for 30min. Oxidative stress parameters (TAS, TOS, OSI), haematoxylin and eosin staining, caspase-3 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) expressions and TUNEL methods were investigated. There was a significant difference between the IR and sham groups by means of OSI level, histopathological scoring, caspase-3, HIF-1α and TUNEL-positive cell parameters. We have also observed that pre-treatment with crocin reduced these parameter levels back to the baseline. The data obtained from the present study suggest that crocin may exert antiapoptotic, antioxidant and protective effects in IR-mediated brain injury induced by four-vessel occlusion. To the best of our knowledge, this would be the first study to be conducted in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Diclofenac pretreatment modulates exercise-induced inflammation in skeletal muscle of rats through the TLR4/NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; Bresciani, Guilherme; Cuevas, Maria José; Martínez-Flórez, Susana; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; González-Gallego, Javier

    2017-07-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as diclofenac, are widely used to treat inflammation and pain in several conditions, including sports injuries. This study analyzes the influence of diclofenac on the toll-like receptor-nuclear factor kappa B (TLR-NF-κB) pathway in skeletal muscle of rats submitted to acute eccentric exercise. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: control-saline, control-diclofenac, exercise-saline, and exercise-diclofenac. Diclofenac or saline were administered for 7 days prior to an acute eccentric exercise bout. The inflammatory status was evaluated through mRNA levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and protein content of COX-2, IL-6, and TNF-α in vastus lateralis muscle. Data obtained showed that a single bout of eccentric exercise significantly increased COX-2 gene expression. Similarly, mRNA expression and protein content of other inflammation-related genes also increased after the acute exercise. However, these effects were attenuated in the exercise + diclofenac group. TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), and p65 were also upregulated after the acute eccentric bout and the effect was blunted by the anti-inflammatory drug. These findings suggest that pretreatment with diclofenac may represent an effective tool to ameliorate the pro-inflammatory status induced by acute exercise in rat skeletal muscle possibly through an attenuation of the TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway.

  9. Comparison of Four Protocols to Generate Chondrocyte-Like Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (hiPSCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchorska, Wiktoria Maria; Augustyniak, Ewelina; Richter, Magdalena; Trzeciak, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    Stem cells (SCs) are a promising approach to regenerative medicine, with the potential to treat numerous orthopedic disorders, including osteo-degenerative diseases. The development of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) has increased the potential of SCs for new treatments. However, current methods of differentiating hiPSCs into chondrocyte-like cells are suboptimal and better methods are needed. The aim of the present study was to assess four different chondrogenic differentiation protocols to identify the most efficient method of generating hiPSC-derived chondrocytes. For this study, hiPSCs were obtained from primary human dermal fibroblasts (PHDFs) and differentiated into chondrocyte-like cells using four different protocols: 1) monolayer culture with defined growth factors (GF); 2) embryoid bodies (EBs) in a chondrogenic medium with TGF-β3 cells; 3) EBs in chondrogenic medium conditioned with human chondrocytes (HC-402-05a cell line) and 4) EBs in chondrogenic medium conditioned with human chondrocytes and supplemented with TGF-β3. The cells obtained through these four protocols were evaluated and compared at the mRNA and protein levels. Although chondrogenic differentiation of hiPSCs was successfully achieved with all of these protocols, the two fastest and most cost-effective methods were the monolayer culture with GFs and the medium conditioned with human chondrocytes. Both of these methods are superior to other available techniques. The main advantage of the conditioned medium is that the technique is relatively simple and inexpensive while the directed method (i.e., monolayer culture with GFs) is faster than any protocol described to date because it is does not require additional steps such as EB formation.

  10. Pre-treatment with melatonin decreases abamectin induced toxicity in a nocturnal insect Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subala, Subramanian P; Zubero, Eduardo E; Alatorre-Jimenez, Moises A; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S

    2017-12-01

    Oxidative stress is an important component of the mechanism of pesticide toxicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the time-dependent melatonin effects against abamectin-induced oxidative stress in a S.litura model. Larvae were divided into 5 different groups; (1) control group,(2) Melatonin group (4.3×10 -5 M/100ml diet), (3) Abamectin group 1.5ml/L, (4) Pre-melatonin treated group (PM) (4.3×10 -5 M/100ml diet) before abamectin exposure 1.5ml/L, (5) Post-melatonin treated group (TM) after abamectin exposure. Melatonin was supplemented via artificial diet in PM and TM animals during 24h. Midgut, fatbody, and hemolymph, were collected for the analysis of oxidative stress markers (Total ROS, GSH, nitrite, TBARS, LPO), antioxidant enzyme levels (SOD, GST, CAT, POX, APOX) in fifth instar larvae. Midgut damage was examined by using morphological analysis. Our results observed that ABA group showed significant changes (pmelatonin. Significant (pmelatonin treatment reduces this damage due to its antioxidant properties, especially POX levels in midgut, fatbody, and hemolymph. Therefore, indoleamine can play a vital role curtailing the abamectin toxicity in time dependent manner in S.litura. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preventive effect of pretreatment with intravenous nicorandil on contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with renal dysfunction undergoing coronary angiography (PRINCIPLE Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young-Guk; Lee, Byoung-Kwon; Kang, Woong Chol; Moon, Jae-Youn; Cho, Yun Hyeong; Choi, Seong Hun; Hong, Myeong-Ki; Jang, Yangsoo; Kim, Jong-Youn; Min, Pil-Ki; Kwon, Hyuck-Moon

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the effect of pretreatment with intravenous nicorandil on the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with renal dysfunction undergoing coronary angiography. This randomized controlled multicenter study enrolled a total of 166 patients (nicorandil n=81; control n=85) with an estimated glomerular filtration rate 0.5 mg/dL increase or >25% rise in serum creatinine (SCr) concentration within 48 hours of contrast exposure compared to baseline. The final analysis included 149 patients (nicorandil n=73; control n=76). The baseline characteristics and the total volume of the used contrast (Iodixanol, 125.6±69.1 mL vs. 126.9±74.6 mL, p=0.916) were similar between the two groups. The incidence of CIN also did not differ between the nicorandil and control groups (6.8% vs. 6.6%, p=0.794). There was no difference between the two groups in the relative change in SCr from baseline to peak level within 48 hours after coronary angiography (-1.58±24.07% vs. 0.96±17.49%, p=0.464), although the nicorandil group showed less absolute change in SCr than the control group (-0.01±0.43 mg/mL vs. 0.02±0.31 mg/mL, p=0.005). Prophylactic intravenous infusion of nicorandil did not decrease the incidence of CIN in patients with renal dysfunction undergoing coronary angiography.

  12. Lignocellulose pretreatment severity – relating pH to biomatrix opening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    the hydrolysis yields (glucose, xylose) and the pretreatment pH, but no correlation with the pretreatment temperature (90–200 °C). A better recognition and understanding of the factors affecting biomatrix opening, and use of more standardized evaluation protocols, will allow for the identification of new...... pretreatment strategies that improve biomass utilization and permit rational enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose....

  13. L-carnitine pretreatment protects slow-twitch skeletal muscles in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Mert; Kaya, Burak; Cerkez, Cem; Ertunc, Mert; Sara, Yildirim

    2013-10-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury negatively affects the outcome of surgical interventions for amputated or severely traumatized extremities. This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of l-carnitine on the contractile properties of fast-twitch (extensor digitorum longus [EDL]) and slow-twitch (soleus [SOL]) skeletal muscles following I/R-induced injury in a rat model. Rats were divided into 4 groups (1) saline pretreatment, (2) l-carnitine pretreatment, (3) saline pretreatment and I/R, and (4) l-carnitine pretreatment and I/R. Twitch and tetanic contractions in the EDL and SOL muscles in each group were recorded. Additionally, a fatigue protocol was performed in these muscles. Twitch and tetanic contraction amplitudes were lower in the EDL and SOL muscles in which I/R was induced (P contraction amplitude in the SOL muscles following I/R (P muscles. l-Carnitine pretreatment did not alter the fatigue response in any of the muscles.

  14. Predictive factors of ovarian response and clinical outcome after IVF/ICSI following a rFSH/GnRH antagonist protocol with or without oral contraceptive pre-treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A Nyboe; Witjes, H; Gordon, K

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of ovarian response prior to the first controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) cycle is useful in determining the optimal starting dose of recombinant FSH (rFSH). However, potentially predictive factors may be subject to inter-cycle variability and many patients are pre-treated with oral ...

  15. The Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Blood Cells: An Efficient Protocol Using Serial Plating of Reprogrammed Cells by Centrifugation

    OpenAIRE

    Youngkyun Kim; Yeri Alice Rim; Hyoju Yi; Narae Park; Sung-Hwan Park; Ji Hyeon Ju

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have demonstrated great potential for differentiation into diverse tissues. We report a straightforward and highly efficient method for the generation of iPSCs from PBMCs. By plating the cells serially to a newly coated plate by centrifugation, this protocol provides multiple healthy iPSC colonies even from a small number of PBMCs. The generated iPSCs expressed pluripotent markers and differentiated into all three germ layer lineages. The protocol...

  16. Methods for pretreating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2017-05-09

    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  17. Efficacy of a protocol including heparin ointment for treatment of multikinase inhibitor-induced hand-foot skin reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-ri; Yang, Chi-rei; Cheng, Chen-li; Ho, Hao-chung; Chiu, Kun-yuan; Su, Chung-Kuang; Chen, Wen-Ming; Wang, Shian-Shiang; Chen, Chuan-Shu; Yang, Cheng-Kuang; Ou, Yen-chuan

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a protocol including topical heparin therapy for hand-foot skin reactions (HFSR) during multikinase (MKI) treatment. We prospectively collected 26 patients who had HFSRs during treatment with the MKIs, sunitinib, sorafenib, or axitinib. The age distribution ranged from 46 to 87 years, with a mean of 66 years. The distribution of HFSR severity was 12 patients with grade 1, 12 with grade 2, and 2 with grade 3. A heparin-containing topical ointment treatment, combined with hand-foot shock absorbers and skin moisturizers, was used at the lesion sites. Changes in the grade of HFSR, MKI dosage, and interruptions of MKI therapy were recorded. The results showed that 66.7% of grade 1 patients were cured of disease, 83.3% of grade 2 patients had improved symptoms, and both grade 3 patients (100%) had improved symptoms and were downgraded to grade 2. Four (15.4%) patients required reduction of MKI dosage, but there were no treatment interruptions or dropouts. Our protocol is beneficial in promoting resolution of HFSRs induced by MKIs. Further validation in large control studies should be investigated.

  18. Differentiation/Purification Protocol for Retinal Pigment Epithelium from Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Research Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Iwasaki

    Full Text Available To establish a novel protocol for differentiation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE with high purity from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC.Retinal progenitor cells were differentiated from mouse iPSC, and RPE differentiation was then enhanced by activation of the Wnt signaling pathway, inhibition of the fibroblast growth factor signaling pathway, and inhibition of the Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase signaling pathway. Expanded pigmented cells were purified by plate adhesion after Accutase® treatment. Enriched cells were cultured until they developed a cobblestone appearance with cuboidal shape. The characteristics of iPS-RPE were confirmed by gene expression, immunocytochemistry, and electron microscopy. Functions and immunologic features of the iPS-RPE were also evaluated.We obtained iPS-RPE at high purity (approximately 98%. The iPS-RPE showed apical-basal polarity and cellular structure characteristic of RPE. Expression levels of several RPE markers were lower than those of freshly isolated mouse RPE but comparable to those of primary cultured RPE. The iPS-RPE could form tight junctions, phagocytose photoreceptor outer segments, express immune antigens, and suppress lymphocyte proliferation.We successfully developed a differentiation/purification protocol to obtain mouse iPS-RPE. The mouse iPS-RPE can serve as an attractive tool for functional and morphological studies of RPE.

  19. Comparison of acupuncture pretreatment followed by letrozole versus letrozole alone on live birth in anovulatory infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Hu, Zhenxing; Wu, Wanting; Lai, Maohua; Wu, Taixiang; Ma, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The high prevalence of insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is considered to be one of the major pathophysiological changes in PCOS that leads to anovulatory infertility. We hypothesise that electroacupuncture pretreatment improves insulin sensitivity and leads to a higher ovulation rate and greater chances of live birth after the induction of ovulation. The effect of electroacupuncture pretreatment followed by ovulation induction in women with anovulatory PCOS has not been investigated before, and we present here a randomised controlled trial to test this hypothesis by comparing electroacupuncture pretreatment followed by letrozole versus letrozole alone in anovulatory women with PCOS. Methods/analysis This is a multicentre, randomised,and controlled trial. A total of 384 patients will be enrolled in this study and will be randomly allocated by a central randomisation system to the treatment group or the control group in a 1:1 ratio. The treatment group will undergo 16 weeks of electroacupuncture pretreatment followed by 4 cycles of letrozole, and the control group will only undergo 4 cycles of letrozole. The primary outcome will be the live birth rate. All statistical analyses will be performed using the SPSS program V.21.0 (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois, USA), and a p value <0.05 will be considered statistically significant. Ethics/dissemination This study has been approved by the ethics committees of each participating centre. Written consent will be obtained from each patient and her husband before any study procedure is performed. Adverse events will be categorised, and the percentage of patients experiencing adverse events or serious adverse events during the treatment period will be documented. The results of this trial will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international meetings. Trial registration number NCT02491333. PMID:27855085

  20. Lignin from hydrothermally pretreated grass biomass retards enzymatic cellulose degradation by acting as a physical barrier rather than by inducing nonproductive adsorption of enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djajadi, Demi T.; Jensen, Mads M.; Oliveira, Marlene

    2018-01-01

    -rich residues (LRRs) were prepared via extensive enzymatic cellulose degradation of corn stover (Zea mays subsp. mays L.), Miscanthus × giganteus stalks (MS) and wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) (WS) samples that each had been hydrothermally pretreated at three severity factors (log R0) of 3.65, 3.83 and 3...

  1. Efficacy of long-acting release octreotide for preventing chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Deng, Bo; Jia, Liqun; Tan, Huangying

    2017-06-21

    Diarrhoea is a common adverse effect induced by chemotherapy that can reduce the dose of chemotherapeutic drugs or interrupt the chemotherapy schedule. The current treatment strategies have various limitations. It has been shown that long-acting release octreotide (octreotide LAR) can decrease the occurrence and severity of diarrhoea, yet the efficacy of octreotide LAR in preventing chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea (CID) remains to be assessed. The main objective of this paper was to draw up a protocol for systematic review to evaluate the protective effects of octreotide LAR on CID. We searched Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data and the VIP Database without language restrictions from inception until 1 September 2016. The references of relevant studies were also manually searched. Two investigators independently accessed the selected studies, extracted data and assessed the reliability of the studies. Any discrepancies were resolved by a third investigator. The effect size of the selected studies was assessed by different measures based on the type of data. The selected studies were descriptively analysed. We then chose a fixed-effect model or a random-effect model based on statistical homogeneity, and pooled data from the studies for meta-analysis, if possible. The primary outcome was the incidence of diarrhoea. The secondary outcomes were the duration of diarrhoea, incidence of diarrhoea-associated symptoms, physical function and quality of life. All statistical analyses were performed by Review Manager V.5.3. This systematic review did not require ethics approval, because it included aggregated published data, and not individual patient data. The review was published in a peer-reviewed journal. This systematic review protocol was registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD 42016048573). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  2. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Generation, Characterization, and Differentiation--Methods and Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graversen, Veronica Kon; Chavala, Sai H

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) remains a promising technique for cell replacement therapy. Diverse populations of somatic cells have been examined for their reprogramming potential. Recently, ocular ciliary body epithelial cells (CECs) have been reprogrammed with high reprogramming efficiency and single transcription factor reprogramming, making them an exciting candidate for cellular reprogramming strategies.

  3. A simplified protocol for differentiation of electrophysiologically mature neuronal networks from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Gunhanlar (Nilhan); G. Shpak (Guy); M. Van Der Kroeg; L.A. Gouty-Colomer; S.T. Munshi (Shashini T.); B. Lendemeijer (Bert); M. Ghazvini (Mehrnaz); C. Dupont (Claire); W.J.G. Hoogendijk (Witte); J.H. Gribnau (Joost); F.M.S. Vrij (Femke); S.A. Kushner (Steven)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractProgress in elucidating the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders has been hindered by the limited availability of living human brain tissue. The emergence of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has offered a unique alternative strategy using

  4. Study protocol for an approach based on diagnosis and therapy of cutaneous radiation induced lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Radl, Analia; Portas, Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In the frame of an agreement between the 'Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires'-Burn Center- (a reference hospital of the Medical Radiological Emergency Response Network of Argentina) and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, a research project for diagnostic and therapeutic approach of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) is in progress. Sixty seven persons, which developed acute and/or late CRS, were included in this protocol from 1997 to 2007, treated with an equivalent therapeutic scheme and evaluated through clinical follow-up, serial photographic record and complementary tests (tele-thermography and high frequency ultrasonography). There exist individual variations that could condition the response to ionizing radiation (IR) in not only accidental but also planned exposures (such as radiotherapy and interventional radiology). Deficiencies in DNA repair mechanisms would be involved on hypersensitivity to deterministic effects of IR. Consequently, the characterization of DNA repair capacity in lymphocytes through cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) and alkaline single-cell microgel electrophoresis (comet) assays could be suitable approaches to evaluate in vitro individual radiosensitivity. Under this context, individual radiosensitivity assessment was conducted in patients included in this research protocol that showed acute and/or late cutaneous reactions with grades 3 and 4 of the Toxicity Criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. DNA repair capacity was evaluated through MN and comet assay for initial damage and after specific times of repair (0-120 minutes). DNA damage and repair capacity were quantified by the Olive tail moment. Previous own studies have identified three subpopulations, characterized by the mean values of their repair mean half-time: healthy controls (2.6 ± 0.3 minutes), average-reactor cancer patients (4.7 ± 2.9 minutes) and over

  5. Study Protocol for an Approach Based on Diagnosis and Therapy of Cutaneous Radiation Induced Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Radl, A.; Portas, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of an agreement between the 'Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires' - Burn Center - (a reference hospital of the Medical Radiological Emergency Response Network of Argentina) and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, a research project for diagnostic and therapeutic approach of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) is in progress. Sixty seven persons, which developed acute and/or late CRS, were included in this protocol from 1997 to 2007, treated with an equivalent therapeutic scheme and evaluated through clinical follow-up, serial photographic record and complementary tests (telethermography and high frequency ultrasonography). There exist individual variations that could condition the response to ionizing radiation (IR) in not only accidental but also planned exposures (such as radiotherapy and interventional radiology). Deficiencies in DNA repair mechanisms would be involved on hypersensitivity to deterministic effects of IR. Consequently, the characterization of DNA repair capacity in lymphocytes through cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) and alkaline single-cell microgel electrophoresis (comet) assays could be suitable approaches to evaluate in vitro individual radiosensitivity. Under this context, individual radiosensitivity assessment was conducted in patients included in this research protocol that showed acute and/or late cutaneous reactions with grades 3 and 4 of the Toxicity Criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. DNA repair capacity was evaluated through MN and comet assay for initial damage and after specific times of repair (0-120 minutes). DNA damage and repair capacity were quantified by the Olive tail moment. Previous own studies have identified three subpopulations, characterized by the mean values of their repair mean half-time: healthy controls (2.6 ± 0.3 minutes), average-reactor cancer patients (4.7 ± 2.9 minutes) and over

  6. One-year results of the use of endovenous radiofrequency ablation utilising an optimised radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy protocol for the treatment of truncal superficial venous reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, George E; Dos Santos, Scott J; Lloyd, Lucinda Ba; Holdstock, Judy M; Whiteley, Mark S

    2018-06-01

    Background In previous in vitro and ex vivo studies, we have shown increased thermal spread can be achieved with radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy when using a low power and slower, discontinuous pullback. We aimed to determine the clinical success rate of radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy using this optimised protocol for the treatment of superficial venous reflux in truncal veins. Methods Sixty-three patients were treated with radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy using the optimised protocol and were followed up after one year (mean 16.3 months). Thirty-five patients returned for audit, giving a response rate of 56%. Duplex ultrasonography was employed to check for truncal reflux and compared to initial scans. Results In the 35 patients studied, there were 48 legs, with 64 truncal veins treated by radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy (34 great saphenous, 15 small saphenous and 15 anterior accessory saphenous veins). One year post-treatment, complete closure of all previously refluxing truncal veins was demonstrated on ultrasound, giving a success rate of 100%. Conclusions Using a previously reported optimised, low power/slow pullback radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy protocol, we have shown it is possible to achieve a 100% ablation at one year. This compares favourably with results reported at one year post-procedure using the high power/fast pullback protocols that are currently recommended for this device.

  7. Evaluating and validating the protocol for gamma radiation induced mutations in floral distinct rosa spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadeer, M.; Hafiz, I. A.; Abbasi, N. A.; Ahmad, T.

    2015-01-01

    Among the highly fragrant Rosa species, Rosa gruss an teplitz and Rosa centifolia have high value in terms of commercial importance and economical trade. However, the absence of floral diversification and diversity in color patterns in these species acts as limiting factors in floriculture trade of these species. In the present study, we aimed to induce mutations using gamma radiations up to 120 Gy to observe the rate and the correlated effects on the several plant traits in micropropagated shoot tips of Rosa gruss an teplitz and Rosa centifolia. Irradiated shoot tips were micropropagated for one culture cycle and were acclimatized in a green house after in vitro rooting. Plants of irradiated population at 60 and 30 Gy showed 78.12 and 38.50 percentage less culture rooting percentage age as well as 23.82 and 7 percentage less flower size as compared to non irradiated population of Rosa gruss an teplitz and Rosa centifolia respectively. Moreover, flower color component a* (+ redness - green, 36.16 and 27.16) and chroma (37.77 and 27.5) depicted minimum while L* (Lightness, 45.12 and 76.64), b* (+ yellow - blue, 10.69 and -4.14) and hue angle (17.1 and -8.58) maximum value. Apart from these variations, mutants of Rosa gruss an teplitz also produced variegated, pink color and different shape flowers. Genetic variations observed among the putative mutants of Rosa gruss an teplitz and Rosa centifolia were evaluated using twelve decamer RAPD primers. Phylogenetic inferences showed large genetic diversity in putative mutants as compared to mother plant. (author)

  8. Protocol for the Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells into Mixed Cultures of Neurons and Glia for Neurotoxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistollato, Francesca; Canovas-Jorda, David; Zagoura, Dimitra; Price, Anna

    2017-06-09

    Human pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into various cell types that can be applied to human-based in vitro toxicity assays. One major advantage is that the reprogramming of somatic cells to produce human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) avoids the ethical and legislative issues related to the use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). HiPSCs can be expanded and efficiently differentiated into different types of neuronal and glial cells, serving as test systems for toxicity testing and, in particular, for the assessment of different pathways involved in neurotoxicity. This work describes a protocol for the differentiation of hiPSCs into mixed cultures of neuronal and glial cells. The signaling pathways that are regulated and/or activated by neuronal differentiation are defined. This information is critical to the application of the cell model to the new toxicity testing paradigm, in which chemicals are assessed based on their ability to perturb biological pathways. As a proof of concept, rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory complex I, was used to assess the activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway, a key regulator of the antioxidant-response-element-(ARE)-driven cellular defense mechanism against oxidative stress.

  9. The Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Blood Cells: An Efficient Protocol Using Serial Plating of Reprogrammed Cells by Centrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngkyun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs have demonstrated great potential for differentiation into diverse tissues. We report a straightforward and highly efficient method for the generation of iPSCs from PBMCs. By plating the cells serially to a newly coated plate by centrifugation, this protocol provides multiple healthy iPSC colonies even from a small number of PBMCs. The generated iPSCs expressed pluripotent markers and differentiated into all three germ layer lineages. The protocol can also be used with umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs. In this study, we present a simple and efficient protocol that improved the yield of iPSCs from floating cells such as PBMCs and CBMCs by serial plating and centrifugation.

  10. GREET Pretreatment Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from cellulosic biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. Process simulations of dilute acid and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment processes and subsequent hydrolysis were developed in Aspen Plus for four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar). This processing yields sugars that can be subsequently converted to biofuels or biochemical. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in a new Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREETTM) pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  11. An Upgrade on the Rabbit Model of Anthracycline-Induced Cardiomyopathy: Shorter Protocol, Reduced Mortality, and Higher Incidence of Overt Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, Jesús; Fernández-Del-Palacio, María Josefa; García-Nicolás, Obdulio; Seva, Juan; Brooks, Gavin; Moraleda, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Current protocols of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy in rabbits present with high premature mortality and nephrotoxicity, thus rendering them unsuitable for studies requiring long-term functional evaluation of myocardial function (e.g., stem cell therapy). We compared two previously described protocols to an in-house developed protocol in three groups: Group DOX2 received doxorubicin 2 mg/kg/week (8 weeks); Group DAU3 received daunorubicin 3 mg/kg/week (10 weeks); and Group DAU4 received daunorubicin 4 mg/kg/week (6 weeks). A cohort of rabbits received saline (control). Results of blood tests, cardiac troponin I, echocardiography, and histopathology were analysed. Whilst DOX2 and DAU3 rabbits showed high premature mortality (50% and 33%, resp.), DAU4 rabbits showed 7.6% premature mortality. None of DOX2 rabbits developed overt dilated cardiomyopathy; 66% of DAU3 rabbits developed overt dilated cardiomyopathy and quickly progressed to severe congestive heart failure. Interestingly, 92% of DAU4 rabbits showed overt dilated cardiomyopathy and 67% developed congestive heart failure exhibiting stable disease. DOX2 and DAU3 rabbits showed alterations of renal function, with DAU3 also exhibiting hepatic function compromise. Thus, a shortened protocol of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy as in DAU4 group results in high incidence of overt dilated cardiomyopathy, which insidiously progressed to congestive heart failure, associated to reduced systemic compromise and very low premature mortality. PMID:26788502

  12. PRETREATING THORIUM FOR ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, J.G.; Schaer, G.R.

    1959-07-28

    A method is presented for pretreating a thorium surface prior to electroplating the surface. The pretreatment steps of the invention comprise cleaning by vapor blasting the surface, anodically pickling in a 5 to 15% by volume aqueous hydrochloric acid bath with a current of 125 to 250 amp/sq ft for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, chemically pickling the surface in a 5 to 15% by volume of aqueous sulfuric acid for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, and rinsing the surface with water.

  13. SU-E-T-148: Benchmarks and Pre-Treatment Reviews: A Study of Quality Assurance Effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenstein, J; Nguyen, H; Roll, J; Walsh, A; Tailor, A; Followill, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews have on improving the quality of submitted clinical trial data. Methods: Benchmarks are used to evaluate a site’s ability to develop a treatment that meets a specific protocol’s treatment guidelines prior to placing their first patient on the protocol. A pre-treatment review is an actual patient placed on the protocol in which the dosimetry and contour volumes are evaluated to be per protocol guidelines prior to allowing the beginning of the treatment. A key component of these QA mechanisms is that sites are provided timely feedback to educate them on how to plan per the protocol and prevent protocol deviations on patients accrued to a protocol. For both benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews a dose volume analysis (DVA) was performed using MIM softwareTM. For pre-treatment reviews a volume contour evaluation was also performed. Results: IROC Houston performed a QA effectiveness analysis of a protocol which required both benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews. In 70 percent of the patient cases submitted, the benchmark played an effective role in assuring that the pre-treatment review of the cases met protocol requirements. The 35 percent of sites failing the benchmark subsequently modified there planning technique to pass the benchmark before being allowed to submit a patient for pre-treatment review. However, in 30 percent of the submitted cases the pre-treatment review failed where the majority (71 percent) failed the DVA. 20 percent of sites submitting patients failed to correct their dose volume discrepancies indicated by the benchmark case. Conclusion: Benchmark cases and pre-treatment reviews can be an effective QA tool to educate sites on protocol guidelines and to minimize deviations. Without the benchmark cases it is possible that 65 percent of the cases undergoing a pre-treatment review would have failed to meet the protocols requirements.Support: U24-CA-180803

  14. Ghrelin Pre-treatment Attenuates Local Oxidative Stress and End Organ Damage During Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Anesthetized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Vijayakumar; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Fujii, Yutaka; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Kangawa, Kenji; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Pearson, James T.

    2018-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induced systemic inflammation significantly contributes to the development of postoperative complications, including respiratory failure, myocardial, renal and neurological dysfunction and ultimately can lead to failure of multiple organs. Ghrelin is a small endogenous peptide with wide ranging physiological effects on metabolism and cardiovascular regulation. Herein, we investigated the protective effects of ghrelin against CPB-induced inflammatory reactions, oxidative stress and acute organ damage. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats randomly received vehicle (n = 5) or a bolus of ghrelin (150 μg/kg, sc, n = 5) and were subjected to CPB for 4 h (protocol 1). In separate rats, ghrelin pre-treatment (protocol 2) was compared to two doses of ghrelin (protocol 3) before and after CPB for 2 h followed by recovery for 2 h. Blood samples were taken prior to CPB, and following CPB at 2 h and 4 h. Organ nitrosative stress (3-nitrotyrosine) was measured by Western blotting. CPB induced leukocytosis with increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 indicating a potent inflammatory response. Ghrelin treatment significantly reduced plasma organ damage markers (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase) and protein levels of 3-nitrotyrosine, particularly in the brain, lung and liver, but only partly suppressed inflammatory cell invasion and did not reduce proinflammatory cytokine production. Ghrelin partially attenuated the CPB-induced elevation of epinephrine and to a lesser extent norepinephrine when compared to the CPB saline group, while dopamine levels were completely suppressed. Ghrelin treatment sustained plasma levels of reduced glutathione and decreased glutathione disulphide when compared to CPB saline rats. These results suggest that even though ghrelin only partially inhibited the large CPB induced increase in catecholamines and organ macrophage infiltration, it reduced oxidative

  15. The Pirate group intervention protocol description and a case report of a modified constraint-induced movement therapy combined with bimanual training for young children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Pauline B.; van Hartingsveldt, Margo; Anderson, Patricia G.; van den Tillaar, Ingrid; van der Burg, Jan; Geurts, Alexander C.

    The purpose of this article was to describe a child-friendly modified constraint-induced movement therapy protocol that is combined with goal-directed task-specific bimanual training (mCIMT-BiT). This detailed description elucidates the approach and supports various research reports. This protocol

  16. Activation of Endocannabinoid Receptor 2 as a Mechanism of Propofol Pretreatment-Induced Cardioprotection against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Jing Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Propofol pretreatment before reperfusion, or propofol conditioning, has been shown to be cardioprotective, while its mechanism is unclear. The current study investigated the roles of endocannabinoid signaling in propofol cardioprotection in an in vivo model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury and in in vitro primary cardiomyocyte hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R injury. The results showed that propofol conditioning increased both serum and cell culture media concentrations of endocannabinoids including anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG detected by LC-MS/MS. The reductions of myocardial infarct size in vivo and cardiomyocyte apoptosis and death in vitro were accompanied with attenuations of oxidative injuries manifested as decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS, malonaldehyde (MDA, and MPO (myeloperoxidase and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD production. These effects were mimicked by either URB597, a selective endocannabinoids degradation inhibitor, or VDM11, a selective endocannabinoids reuptake inhibitor. In vivo study further validated that the cardioprotective and antioxidative effects of propofol were reversed by selective CB2 receptor antagonist AM630 but not CB1 receptor antagonist AM251. We concluded that enhancing endogenous endocannabinoid release and subsequent activation of CB2 receptor signaling represent a major mechanism whereby propofol conditioning confers antioxidative and cardioprotective effects against myocardial I/R injury.

  17. Effect of pretreatment with venom of Apis mellifera bees on the yield of gamma-ray induced chromosome aberrations in human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varanda, E.A.; Takahashi, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    Venom of the honey bee Apis mellifera induced a protective effect against the induction of dicentric chromosomes by gamma radiation (2.0 Gy) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes when the cultures were treated with 0.00015 μl venom/1 ml medium 6 h before irradiation. In cultures to which the venom was added immediately before irradiation with 0.25, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy, no significant differences in number of dicentric chromosomes induced was observed when compared to cultures submitted to irradiation only. The venom did not induce clastogenic effects nor did it increase the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges. (author)

  18. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  19. Palonosetron and hydroxyzine pre-treatment reduces the objective signs of experimentally-induced acute opioid withdrawal in humans: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendson, Matthew J; D'Arcy, Nicole; Encisco, Ellen M; Yu, Jeffrey J; Rincon-Cruz, Lorena; Peltz, Gary; Clark, J David; Chu, Larry F

    2017-01-01

    Treatments for reducing opioid withdrawal are limited and prone to problematic side effects. Laboratory studies, clinical observations, and limited human trial data suggest 5-HT3-receptor antagonists and antihistamines may be effective. This double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study employing an acute physical dependence model evaluated whether (i) treatment with a 5-HT3-receptor antagonist (palonosetron) would reduce opioid withdrawal symptoms, and (ii) co-administration of an antihistamine (hydroxyzine) would enhance any treatment effect. At timepoint T = 0, healthy (non-opioid dependent, non-substance abuser) male volunteers (N = 10) were pre-treated with either a) placebo, b) palonosetron IV (0.75 mg), or c) palonosetron IV (0.75 mg) and hydroxyzine PO (100 mg) in a crossover study design. This was followed at T = 30 by intravenous morphine (10 mg/70kg). At T = 165, 10 mg/70kg naloxone IV was given to precipitate opioid withdrawal. The objective opioid withdrawal score (OOWS) and subjective opioid withdrawal score (SOWS) were determined 5 and 15 minutes after naloxone administration (T = 170, 180, respectively). Baseline measurements were recorded at T = -30 and T = -15. Comparison of average baseline OOWS scores with OOWS scores obtained 15 minutes after naloxone was significant (p = 0.0001). Scores from 15 minutes post-naloxone infusion showed significant differences in OOWS scores between treatment groups: placebo, 3.7 ± 2.4; palonosetron, 1.5 ± 0.97; and palonosetron with hydroxyzine, 0.2 ± 0.1333. Pretreatment with palonosetron significantly reduced many signs of experimentally-induced opioid withdrawal. Co-administration with hydroxyzine further reduced opioid withdrawal severity. These results suggest that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, alone or in combination with an antihistamine, may be useful in the treatment of opioid withdrawal.

  20. Intermitted pharmacologic pretreatment by xenon, isoflurane, nitrous oxide, and the opioid morphine prevents tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced adhesion molecule expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Nina C.; Kandler, Jennis; Schlack, Wolfgang; Grueber, Yvonne; Frädorf, Jan; Preckel, Benedikt

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The barrier properties of the endothelium are of critical importance during pathophysiologic processes. These barrier properties depend on an intact cytoskeleton and are regulated by cell adhesion molecules. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is known to induce cell adhesion

  1. Application of Induced Containment Therapy with adapted protocol for home care and its contributions to the motor condition and patient rehabilitation after encephalic vascular accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Tonús

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Encephalic Vascular Accident (EVA is among the most important diseases that cause physical and functional limitations. Hemiplegia is the most common physical changes post-EVA, as compromises the upper and lower limbs at the same side of the body, characterized by a rigid pattern of the flexor muscles of the upper limb and the extensor muscles of the lower limb. The Induced Containment Therapy has been a major rehabilitation technique recently aiming to promote functional improvement of the hemiplegic limb of those who suffered EVA and enable performance and quality of life of the individual. Objective: This study aimed to identify the possible contributions of Induced Containment Therapy using a protocol adapted to technique application to the hemiplegic limb. Moreover, this research points out the influence of the environment interventions, which on the present study, occurred in the participant’s home. Method: this is a case study with exploratory feature. Results and Conclusion: The results indicated improvements in functional ability at the time of execution of the tasks and increased use of hemiplegic limb, increasing motor performance after applying the Induced Containment Therapy adapted protocol compared to the start of treatment

  2. Prolonged Helium Postconditioning Protocols during Early Reperfusion Do Not Induce Cardioprotection in the Rat Heart In Vivo: Role of Inflammatory Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezina Tanya Mei Ling Oei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postconditioning of myocardial tissue employs short cycles of ischemia or pharmacologic agents during early reperfusion. Effects of helium postconditioning protocols on infarct size and the ischemia/reperfusion-induced immune response were investigated by measurement of protein and mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Rats were anesthetized with S-ketamine (150 mg/kg and diazepam (1.5 mg/kg. Regional myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was induced; additional groups inhaled 15, 30, or 60 min of 70% helium during reperfusion. Fifteen minutes of helium reduced infarct size from 43% in control to 21%, whereas 30 and 60 minutes of helium inhalation led to an infarct size of 47% and 39%, respectively. Increased protein levels of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-3 and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β were found after 30 or 60 min of helium inhalation, in comparison to control. 30 min of helium increased mRNA levels of CINC-3, IL-1β, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α in myocardial tissue not directly subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. These results suggest that the effectiveness of the helium postconditioning protocol is very sensitive to duration of noble gas application. Additionally, helium was associated with higher levels of inflammatory cytokines; however, it is not clear whether this is causative of nature or part of an epiphenomenon.

  3. Similar effects of two modified constraint-induced therapy protocols on motor impairment, motor function and quality of life in patients with chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Costa Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modified constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT protocols show motor function and real-world arm use improvement. Meanwhile it usually requires constant supervision by physiotherapists and is therefore more expensive than customary care. This study compared the preliminary efficacy of two modified CIMT protocols. A two-group randomized controlled trial with pre and post treatment measures and six months follow-up was conducted. Nineteen patients with chronic stroke received 10 treatment sessions distributed three to four times a week over 22 days. CIMT3h_direct group received 3 hours of CIMT supervised by a therapist (n=10 while CIMT1.5h_direct group had 1.5 hours of supervised CIMT+1.5 hours home exercises supervised by a caregiver (n=9. Outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, the Motor Activity Log, and the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale. The modified CIMT protocols were feasible and well tolerated. Improvements in motor function, real-world arm use and quality of life did not differ significantly between treated groups receiving either 3 or 1.5 hours mCIMT supervised by a therapist.

  4. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  5. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ..., .. . . . . .. ,. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. 3 2 Granular Nina Sludge Christiansen, Consortia lndra for Bioremediation, M. Mathrani, and Birgitte K. Ahring . 23 PART II PROTOCOLS...

  6. Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment Using AFEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E.

    Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

  7. A Novel Protocol for Directed Differentiation of C9orf72-Associated Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Into Contractile Skeletal Myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Elliot W; Baek, Jaeyun; Pribadi, Mochtar; Wojta, Kevin J; Almeida, Sandra; Karydas, Anna; Gao, Fen-Biao; Miller, Bruce L; Coppola, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    : Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an unlimited resource of cells to be used for the study of underlying molecular biology of disease, therapeutic drug screening, and transplant-based regenerative medicine. However, methods for the directed differentiation of skeletal muscle for these purposes remain scarce and incomplete. Here, we present a novel, small molecule-based protocol for the generation of multinucleated skeletal myotubes using eight independent iPSC lines. Through combinatorial inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) with addition of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), we report up to 64% conversion of iPSCs into the myogenic program by day 36 as indicated by MYOG + cell populations. These cells began to exhibit spontaneous contractions as early as 34 days in vitro in the presence of a serum-free medium formulation. We used this protocol to obtain iPSC-derived muscle cells from frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients harboring C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions (rGGGGCC), sporadic FTD, and unaffected controls. iPSCs derived from rGGGGCC carriers contained RNA foci but did not vary in differentiation efficiency when compared to unaffected controls nor display mislocalized TDP-43 after as many as 120 days in vitro. This study presents a rapid, efficient, and transgene-free method for generating multinucleated skeletal myotubes from iPSCs and a resource for further modeling the role of skeletal muscle in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other motor neuron diseases. Protocols to produce skeletal myotubes for disease modeling or therapy are scarce and incomplete. The present study efficiently generates functional skeletal myotubes from human induced pluripotent stem cells using a small molecule-based approach. Using this strategy, terminal myogenic induction of up to 64% in 36 days and spontaneously contractile myotubes within 34 days were achieved

  8. Radioprotection of mice following garlic pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Abraham, S.K.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    Freshly prepared aqueous extract of garlic was tested in mice for its possible in vivo protective effect against gamma-radiation-induced chromosomal damage. In the same animals, the changes in the sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity were evaluated. Three doses of garlic extract [125, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 body weight (bw)] were administered orally for five consecutive days and the animals were exposed to 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy gamma-radiation 2 h after the final feeding. The results of the bone marrow micronucleus test revealed that pretreatment with garlic extract was effective in reducing gamma-radiation-induced chromosomal damage. Against 0.25 Gy gamma-radiation, a high dose of 500 mg kg-1 bw garlic extract was required to significantly reduce the chromosomal damage. All the three doses of garlic extract were effective in exerting a protective effect against 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy gamma-radiation. However a dose-related effect was observed only against 2.0 Gy. The sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity registered a significant increase after either pretreatment with garlic with extract or irradiation. In the garlic extract pretreated irradiated animals, a significant reduction was observed in the sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity

  9. Hydrogen peroxide bleaching induces changes in the physical properties of dental restorative materials: Effects of study protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Zhang, Chang-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Ning; Cheng, Hui

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of study protocols on the effects of bleaching on the surface roughness, substance loss, flexural strength (FS), flexural modulus (FM), Weibull parameters, and color of 7 restorative materials. The test materials included 4 composite resins, 1 glass-ionomer cement, 1 dental ceramic, and 1 polyacid-modified composite. The specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 20) according to different study protocols: a bleaching group at 25°C (group 25B), a bleaching group at 37°C (group 37B), a control group at 25°C (group 25C), and a control group at 37°C (group 37C). The specimens in the bleaching group were treated with 40% hydrogen peroxide for 80 min at the respective environmental temperatures. The surface roughness, substance loss, FS, FM, and color of the specimens were measured before and after treatment. FS data were also subjected to Weibull analysis, which was used to estimate of the Weibull modulus (m) and the characteristic strength (σ 0 ). Surface roughness increased and significant color changes were observed for all tested specimens after bleaching treatment, except for the ceramic. After bleaching at 37°C, the polyacid-modified composite showed significantly reduced FS, FM, m, and σ 0 values in comparison to the control specimens stored at 37°C in whole saliva. Significant differences were also found between the 37B and 25B polyacid-modified composite groups in terms of surface roughness, FS, m, σ 0 , and color changes. Varying effects of bleaching on the physical properties of dental restorative materials were observed, and the influences of the study protocols on bleaching effects were found to be material-dependent. The influence of study protocols on the effects of bleaching on the surface roughness, flexural properties, and color of dental restorative materials are material-dependent and should be considered when evaluating the effects of bleaching on dental restorative

  10. A computational simulation of long-term synaptic potentiation inducing protocol processes with model of CA3 hippocampal microcircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świetlik, D; Białowąs, J; Kusiak, A; Cichońska, D

    2018-01-01

    An experimental study of computational model of the CA3 region presents cog-nitive and behavioural functions the hippocampus. The main property of the CA3 region is plastic recurrent connectivity, where the connections allow it to behave as an auto-associative memory. The computer simulations showed that CA3 model performs efficient long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) induction and high rate of sub-millisecond coincidence detection. Average frequency of the CA3 pyramidal cells model was substantially higher in simulations with LTP induction protocol than without the LTP. The entropy of pyramidal cells with LTP seemed to be significantly higher than without LTP induction protocol (p = 0.0001). There was depression of entropy, which was caused by an increase of forgetting coefficient in pyramidal cells simulations without LTP (R = -0.88, p = 0.0008), whereas such correlation did not appear in LTP simulation (p = 0.4458). Our model of CA3 hippocampal formation microcircuit biologically inspired lets you understand neurophysiologic data. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 2: 210-220).

  11. A Site Characterization Protocol for Evaluating the Potential for Triggered or Induced Seismicity Resulting from Wastewater Injection and Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R. J.; Zoback, M. D.; Gupta, A.; Baker, J.; Beroza, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Regulatory and governmental agencies, individual companies and industry groups and others have recently proposed, or are developing, guidelines aimed at reducing the risk associated with earthquakes triggered by waste water injection or hydraulic fracturing. While there are a number of elements common to the guidelines proposed, not surprisingly, there are also some significant differences among them and, in a number of cases, important considerations that are not addressed. The goal of this work is to develop a comprehensive protocol for site characterization based on a rigorous scientific understanding of the responsible processes. Topics addressed will include the geologic setting (emphasizing faults that might be affected), historical seismicity, hydraulic characterization of injection and adjacent intervals, geomechanical characterization to identify potentially active faults, plans for seismic monitoring and reporting, plans for monitoring and reporting injection (pressure, volumes, and rates), other factors contributing to risk (potentially affected population centers, structures, and facilities), and implementing a modified Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). The guidelines will be risk based and adaptable, rather than prescriptive, for a proposed activity and region of interest. They will be goal oriented and will rely, to the degree possible, on established best practice procedures, referring to existing procedures and recommendations. By developing a risk-based site characterization protocol, we hope to contribute to the development of rational and effective measures for reducing the risk posed by activities that potentially trigger earthquakes.

  12. Investigation of Pleurotus ostreatus pretreatment on switchgrass for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavens, Shelyn Gehle

    Fungal pretreatment using the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus on switchgrass for ethanol production was studied. In a small-scale storage study, small switchgrass bales were inoculated with fungal spawn and automatically watered to maintain moisture. Sampled at 25, 53, and 81 d, the switchgrass composition was determined and liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment was conducted. Fungal pretreatment significantly decreased the xylan and lignin content; glucan was not significantly affected by fungal loading. The glucan, xylan, and lignin contents significantly decreased with increased fungal pretreatment time. The effects of the fungal pretreatment were not highly evident after the LHW pretreatment, showing only changes based on sampling time. Although other biological activity within the bales increased cellulose degradation, the fungal pretreatment successfully reduced the switchgrass lignin and hemicellulose contents. In a laboratory-scale nutrient supplementation study, copper, manganese, glucose, or water was added to switchgrass to induce production of ligninolytic enzymes by P. ostreatus. After 40 d, ligninolytic enzyme activities and biomass composition were determined and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was conducted to determine ethanol yield. Laccase activity was similar for all supplements and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity was significantly less in copper-treated samples than in the other fungal-inoculated samples. The fungal pretreatment reduced glucan, xylan, and lignin content, while increasing extractable sugars content. The lowest lignin contents occurred in the water-fungal treated samples and produced the greatest ethanol yields. The greatest lignin contents occurred in the copper-fungal treated samples and produced the lowest ethanol yields. Manganese-fungal and glucose-fungal treated samples had similar, intermediate lignin contents and produced similar, intermediate ethanol yields. Ethanol yields from switchgrass

  13. Characterizing the protocol for early modified constraint-induced movement therapy in the EXPLICIT-stroke trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, R van; Wegen, E. van; Krogt, H. van der; Bakker, C.D.; Buma, F.; Klomp, A.; Kordelaar, J. van; Kwakkel, G.; Geurts, A.C.; Kuijk, A.A. van; Lindeman, E.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Arendzen, H.J.; Meskers, C.G.; Helm, F.C.T. van der; Vlugt, E. de

    2013-01-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is a commonly used rehabilitation intervention to improve upper limb function after stroke. CIMT was originally developed for patients with a chronic upper limb paresis. Although there are indications that exercise interventions should start as early as

  14. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  15. First-in-man mesenchymal stem cells for radiation-induced xerostomia (MESRIX): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David H; Glovinski, Peter V; Jensen, Siri Beier; Bardow, Allan; Oliveri, Roberto S; Specht, Lena; Thomsen, Carsten; Darkner, Sune; Kiss, Katalin; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne; von Buchwald, Christian

    2017-03-07

    Salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia are major complications following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer and may lead to debilitating oral disorders and impaired quality of life. Currently, only symptomatic treatment is available. However, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has shown promising results in preclinical studies. Objectives are to assess safety and efficacy in a first-in-man trial on adipose-derived MSC therapy (ASC) for radiation-induced xerostomia. This is a single-center, phase I/II, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. A total of 30 patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive ultrasound-guided, administered ASC or placebo to the submandibular glands. The primary outcome is change in unstimulated whole salivary flow rate. The secondary outcomes are safety, efficacy, change in quality of life, qualitative and quantitative measurements of saliva, as well as submandibular gland size, vascularization, fibrosis, and secretory tissue evaluation based on contrast-induced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and core-needle samples. The assessments are performed at baseline (1 month prior to treatment) and 1 and 4 months following investigational intervention. The trial is the first attempt to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) in patients with radiation-induced xerostomia. The results may provide evidence for the effectiveness of ASC in patients with salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia and deliver valuable information for the design of subsequent trials. EudraCT, Identifier: 2014-004349-29. Registered on 1 April 2015. ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02513238 . First received on 2 July 2015. The trial is prospectively registered.

  16. First-in-man mesenchymal stem cells for radiation-induced xerostomia (MESRIX): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David H; Glovinski, Peter V

    2017-01-01

    and quantitative measurements of saliva, as well as submandibular gland size, vascularization, fibrosis, and secretory tissue evaluation based on contrast-induced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and core-needle samples. The assessments are performed at baseline (1 month prior to treatment) and 1 and 4 months....... A total of 30 patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive ultrasound-guided, administered ASC or placebo to the submandibular glands. The primary outcome is change in unstimulated whole salivary flow rate. The secondary outcomes are safety, efficacy, change in quality of life, qualitative...

  17. ALA Pretreatment Improves Waterlogging Tolerance of Fig Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyan An

    Full Text Available 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, a natural and environmentally friendly plant growth regulator, can improve plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, whether ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of ALA pretreatment on the waterlogging-induced damage of fig (Ficus carica Linn. plants, which often suffer from waterlogging stress. ALA pretreatment significantly alleviated stress-induced morphological damage, increased leaf relative water content (RWC, and reduced leaf superoxide anion ([Formula: see text] production rate and malonaldehyde (MDA content in fig leaves, indicating ALA mitigates waterlogging stress of fig plants. We further demonstrated that ALA pretreatment largely promoted leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic electron transfer ability, and photosynthetic performance index, indicating ALA significantly improves plant photosynthetic efficiency under waterlogging stress. Moreover, ALA pretreatment significantly increased activities of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD, root vigor, and activities of root alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, indicating ALA also significantly improves antioxidant ability and root function of fig plants under waterlogging stress. Taken together, ALA pretreatment improves waterlogging tolerance of fig plants significantly, and the promoted root respiration, leaf photosynthesis, and antioxidant ability may contribute greatly to this improvement. Our data firstly shows that ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance.

  18. Effects of Chloramphenicol Pretreatment on Xylazine/ketamine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keyword: Chloramphenicol, xylazine, ketamine, anaesthesia, cats. The effect of pretreatment with a single intramuscular (im) dose of chloramphenicol (10mg/kg) on the anaethesia induced with im injection of ketamine (25mg/kg) was investigated in five cats premedicated with im xylazine (1.0mg/kg) and atropine ...

  19. Effects of glycyrrhizin pre-treatment on transient ischemic brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of glycyrrhizin pre-treatment on transient ischemic brain injury in mice. ... on transient ischemic brain injury in mice. Chiyeon Lim, Sehyun Lim, Young-Jun Lee, Bokcheul Kong, Byoungho Lee, Chang-Hyun Kim, Buyeo Kim, Suin Cho ... induced brain damage. Keywords: Glycyrrhizin, licorice, stroke, apoptosis ...

  20. Protocol to assess the impact of tobacco-induced volatile organic compounds on cardiovascular risk in a cross- sectional cohort: Cardiovascular Injury due to Tobacco Use study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Rachel J; Fetterman, Jessica L; Riggs, Daniel W; O'Toole, Timothy; Nystoriak, Jessica L; Holbrook, Monika; Lorkiewicz, Pawel; Bhatnagar, Aruni; DeFilippis, Andrew P; Hamburg, Naomi M

    2018-03-30

    Tobacco use leads to increased mortality, the majority of which is attributed to cardiovascular disease. Despite this knowledge, the early cardiovascular impact of tobacco product use is not well understood. Tobacco use increases exposure to harmful and potentially harmful constituents including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acrolein and crotonaldehyde, which may contribute to cardiovascular risk. The link between exposure patterns, risk profiles and demographic distribution of tobacco product users, particularly users of new and emerging products, are not well known. Therefore, we designed the Cardiovascular Injury due to Tobacco Use (CITU) study to assess population characteristics, demographic features, exposure patterns and cardiovascular risk in relation to tobacco. We present the design and methodology of the CITU study, a cross-sectional observational tobacco study conducted in Boston, Massachusetts and Louisville, Kentucky starting in 2014. Healthy participants 21-45 years of age who use tobacco products, including electronic nicotine devices, or who never used tobacco are being recruited. The study aims to recruit an evenly split cohort of African-Americans and Caucasians, that is, sex balanced for evaluation of self-reported tobacco exposure, VOC exposure and tobacco-induced injury profiling. Detailed information about participant's demographics, health status and lifestyle is also collected. The study protocol was approved institutional review boards at both participating universities. All study protocols will protect participant confidentiality. Results from the study will be disseminated via peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific conferences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. A novel PET imaging protocol identifies seizure-induced regional overactivity of P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankstahl, Jens P.; Bankstahl, Marion; Kuntner, Claudia; Stanek, Johann; Wanek, Thomas; Meier, Martin; Ding, Xiao-Qi; Müller, Markus; Langer, Oliver; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    About one third of epilepsy patients are pharmacoresistant. Overexpression of P-glycoprotein and other multidrug transporters at the blood-brain barrier is thought to play an important role in drug-refractory epilepsy. Thus, quantification of regionally different P-glycoprotein activity in the brain in vivo is essential to identify P-glycoprotein overactivity as the relevant mechanism for drug-resistance in an individual patient. Using the radiolabeled P-glycoprotein substrate (R)-[11C]verapamil and different doses of co-administered tariquidar, which is an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein, we evaluated whether small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) can quantify regional changes in transporter function in the rat brain at baseline and 48 h after a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. P-glycoprotein expression was additionally quantified by immunohistochemistry. To reveal putative seizure-induced changes in blood-brain barrier integrity, we performed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance scans on a 7.0 Tesla small-animal scanner. Before P-glycoprotein modulation, brain uptake of (R)-[11C]verapamil was low in all regions investigated in control and post-status epilepticus rats. After administration of 3 mg/kg tariquidar, which inhibits P-glycoprotein only partially, we observed increased regional differentiation in brain activity uptake in post-status epilepticus versus control rats, which diminished after maximal P-glycoprotein inhibition. Regional increases in the efflux rate constant k2, but not in distribution volume VT or influx rate constant K1, correlated significantly with increases in P-glycoprotein expression measured by immunohistochemistry. This imaging protocol proves to be suitable to detect seizure-induced regional changes in P-glycoprotein activity and is readily applicable to humans, with the aim to detect relevant mechanisms of pharmacoresistance in epilepsy in vivo. PMID:21677164

  2. Retinoic acid-pretreated Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells in combination with triiodothyronine improve expression of neurotrophic factors in the subventricular zone of the rat ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbaghziarani, Fatemeh; Mortezaee, Keywan; Akbari, Mohammad; Kashani, Iraj Ragerdi; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Moini, Ashraf; Ataeinejad, Nahid; Zendedel, Adib; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza

    2017-02-01

    Stroke is the consequence of limited blood flow to the brain with no established treatment to reduce the neurological deficits. Focusing on therapeutic protocols in targeting subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis has been investigated recently. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of retinoic acid (RA)-pretreated Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) in combination with triiodothyronine (T3) in the ischemia stroke model. Male Wistar rats were used to induce focal cerebral ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). There were seven groups of six animals: Sham, Ischemic, WJ-MSCs, RA-pretreated WJ-MSCs, T3, WJ-MSCs +T3, and RA-pretreated WJ-MSCs + T3. The treatment was performed at 24 h after ischemia, and animals were sacrificed one week later for assessments of retinoid X receptor β (RXRβ), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Sox2 and nestin in the SVZ. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in sera were measured at days four and seven after ischemia. RXRβ, BDNF, Sox2 and nestin had the significant expressions in gene and protein levels in the treatment groups, compared with the ischemic group, which were more vivid in the RA-pretreated WJ-MSCs + T3 (p ≤ 0.05). The same trend was also resulted for the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 at four days after ischemia (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, application of RA-pretreated WJ-MSCs + T3 could be beneficial in exerting better neurotrophic function probably via modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  3. Can ginger ameliorate chemotherapy-induced nausea? Protocol of a randomized double blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Wolfgang; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Ried, Karin; Vitetta, Luis; McKavanagh, Daniel; Thomson, Damien; Sali, Avni; Isenring, Liz

    2014-04-09

    Preliminary research shows ginger may be an effective adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting but significant limitations need to be addressed before recommendations for clinical practice can be made. In a double-blinded randomised-controlled trial, chemotherapy-naïve patients will be randomly allocated to receive either 1.2 g of a standardised ginger extract or placebo per day. The study medication will be administrated as an adjuvant treatment to standard anti-emetic therapy and will be divided into four capsules per day, to be consumed approximately every 4 hours (300 mg per capsule administered q.i.d) for five days during the first three cycles of chemotherapy. Acute, delayed, and anticipatory symptoms of nausea and vomiting will be assessed over this time frame using a valid and reliable questionnaire, with nausea symptoms being the primary outcome. Quality of life, nutritional status, adverse effects, patient adherence, cancer-related fatigue, and CINV-specific prognostic factors will also be assessed. Previous trials in this area have noted limitations. These include the inconsistent use of standardized ginger formulations and valid questionnaires, lack of control for anticipatory nausea and prognostic factors that may influence individual CINV response, and the use of suboptimal dosing regimens. This trial is the first to address these issues by incorporating multiple unique additions to the study design including controlling for CINV-specific prognostic factors by recruiting only chemotherapy-naïve patients, implementing a dosing schedule consistent with the pharmacokinetics of oral ginger supplements, and independently analysing ginger supplements before and after recruitment to ensure potency. Our trial will also be the first to assess the effect of ginger supplementation on cancer-related fatigue and nutritional status. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are distressing symptoms experienced by oncology patients; this

  4. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment

  5. Effect of Kaempferol Pretreatment on Myocardial Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Anamika; Singh, Thakur Uttam; Rungsung, Soya; Kumar, Tarun; Kandasamy, Arunvikram; Parida, Subhashree; Lingaraju, Madhu Cholenahalli; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Asok; Kumar, Dinesh

    2018-01-20

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of kaempferol in isoprenaline (ISP)-induced myocardial injury in rats. ISP was administered subcutaneously for two subsequent days to induce myocardial injury. Assessment of myocardial injury was done by estimation of hemodynamic functions, myocardial infarcted area, cardiac injury markers, lipid profile, oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and histopathology of heart and liver. Rats pretreated with kaempferol showed reduction in the myocardial infarcted area and heart rate. However, no improvement was observed in change in body weight, mean arterial, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Kaempferol showed significant decrease in serum LDH, CK-MB, troponin-I and lipid profile. However, highest dose of kaempferol did not reduce the serum triglyceride level. Further, antioxidant enzymes, SOD and catalase, were also higher. However, reduced glutathione, serum SGOT and creatinine did not show any improvement. Kaempferol showed reduction in MDA level. Kaempferol at highest dose showed reduction in pro-MMP-2 expression and MMP-9 level. mRNA expression level of TNF-α was not different in kaempferol-pretreated myocardial injured rats with ISP-alone group. Pretreatment with kaempferol at highest dose showed mild mononuclear infiltration and degenerative changes in heart tissue section of myocardial injured rats. Rats pretreated with kaempferol at higher concentration showed normal cordlike arrangement of hepatocytes with moderate swelling of hepatocytes (vacuolar degeneration) around the central vein. Study suggests that kaempferol attenuated lipid profile, infarcted area and oxidative stress in ISP-induced myocardial injury in rats.

  6. Effect of YH0618 soup on chemotherapy-induced toxicity in patients with cancer who have completed chemotherapy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jie-Shu; Chen, Jian-Ping; Chan, Jessie S M; Lee, Ho-Fun; Wong, Mei-Kuen; Yeung, Wing-Fai; Lao, Li-Xing

    2016-07-26

    The incidence of cancer has been staying at a high level worldwide in recent years. With advances in cancer diagnosis and therapy strategy, the survival rate of patients with cancer has been increasing, but the side effects of these treatments, especially chemotherapy, are obvious even when the chemotherapy ceases. YH0618, a prescription, has showed efficacy in reducing chemotherapy-induced toxicity through long clinical practice. However, there is no scientific research exploring the effects of YH0618 in patients with cancer. Therefore, using a randomized controlled trial, this study will explore the efficacy of YH0618 on ameliorating chemotherapy-induced toxicity including dermatologic toxicity, myelosuppression, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity and improving fatigue in cancer patients who have completed chemotherapy. This is a prospective assessor-blinded, parallel, randomized controlled trial. Patients with cancer at any stage who have completed chemotherapy within two weeks will be randomly divided into group A (YH0618) and group B (wait-list) using a 1:1 allocation ratio. The chemotherapeutic agents include taxanes or anthracyclines. Subjects assigned to group A will receive YH0618 soup 6 days a week for 6 weeks and uncontrolled follow-up for 6 weeks, while group B are required to wait for 6 weeks before receiving YH0618 intervention. The primary outcome of this study is the incidence of protocol-specified grade ≥2 dermatologic toxicities graded by NCI CTCAE Chinese version 4.0 and changes of fingernail color, face skin color and tongue color evaluated by the L*a*b system within 6 weeks. There are some secondary outcomes associated with dermatologic toxicity including fatigue and clinical objective examination. There are few scientific and safe methods in ameliorating chemotherapy-induced toxicity. The proposed study may provide direct and convincing evidence to support YH0618 as an adjuvant treatment for reducing chemotherapy-induced toxicity, which

  7. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    cryptography was thus concerned with message confidentiality and integrity. Modern cryptography cover a much wider range of subjects including the area of secure multiparty computation, which will be the main topic of this dissertation. Our first contribution is a new protocol for secure comparison, presented...... implemented the comparison protocol in Java and benchmarks show that is it highly competitive and practical. The biggest contribution of this dissertation is a general framework for secure multiparty computation. Instead of making new ad hoc implementations for each protocol, we want a single and extensible...... in Chapter 2. Comparisons play a key role in many systems such as online auctions and benchmarks — it is not unreasonable to say that when parties come together for a multiparty computation, it is because they want to make decisions that depend on private information. Decisions depend on comparisons. We have...

  8. LH Pretreatment as a Novel Strategy for Poor Responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pia Ferraretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Poor response to ovarian stimulation is still a major problem in IVF. The study presents a new stimulation protocol evaluated in a suppopulation of very difficult young poor ovarian responders. Material and Methods. The study consists in two sections. The first includes data from a randomized controlled study involving forty-three young patients with a poor ovarian response in at least two previous cycles (intended as cycle cancellation or with ≤3 collected oocytes. Patients were randomized in two groups: group A (control received FSH (400 IU/day, while group B received the new stimulation protocol consisting in a sequential association of 150 IU r-LH for 4 days followed by 400 IU r-FSH/after downregulation with daily GnRh agonist. The second includes data from the overall results in 65 patients treated with the new protocol compared to their previous performance with conventional cycles (historical control. Results. Both in the RCT and in the historical control study, LH pretreatment was able to decrease the cancellation rate, to improve the in vitro performance, and to significantly increase the live birth rates. Conclusions. LH pretreatment improved oocyte quantity and quality in young repeated poor responders selected in accordance with the Bologna criteria.

  9. Immunochemical protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pound, John D

    1998-01-01

    ... easy and important refinements often are not published. This much anticipated 2nd edition of Immunochemzcal Protocols therefore aims to provide a user-friendly up-to-date handbook of reliable techniques selected to suit the needs of molecular biologists. It covers the full breadth of the relevant established immunochemical methods, from protein blotting and immunoa...

  10. Evaluation of an alternative treatment protocol by aglepristone to induce parturition in ewes with an experimental model of early pregnancy toxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özalp, G R; Yavuz, A; Seker, I; Udum-Küçükşen, D; Rişvanlı, A; Korlu, Y

    2018-05-04

    A new protocol with aglepristone to induce parturition in ewes with pregnancy toxemia has been reported in the present manuscript. Four experimental groups were defined: Group AG5 (n = 10), Group DEX (n = 10), Group NC (n = 5) and Group PT (n = 5) in which ewes were injected twice with 10 mg/kg of aglepristone and 5 ml dexamethasone in first two groups, respectively; whereas negative control and pregnancy toxemia groups received no treatment for parturition induction. Different clinical parameters associated with parturition in ewes and their newborns were investigated. Blood hematology and biochemical measurements were carried out both in ewes and lambs. Blood pH values of lambs were recorded during the study. The injection time-lambing time, injection time-vaginal discharge intervals, placental expulsion periods, placental weight and vaginal delivery interval between lambs, hematological and biochemical results were not statistically different among the groups (p > 0,05). Increased NEFA and β-HBA concentrations accompanied the disease and all ewes in AG, DEX and PT Groups developed clinical pregnancy toxemia (NEFA; P = 0,009) and β-HBA; (P = 0,039). The differences in rectal body temperature of lambs were not significant (p > 0,05), whereas birth weight was found statistically significant among groups (p < 0,05). Blood pH, biochemical and hematologic measurements of lambs had also significant differences depending on different time points. Parturition pathology by means of incomplete cervical dilatation was severely observed in DEX Group. The results of this study show that aglepristone application in pregnancy toxemia to induce parturition could precisely control lambing time without any side effects in either mothers or lambs. Apart from these, it could be speculated that dexamethasone seems to induce parturition causing crucial pathologies, which results in important and risky changes in newborns' life. Incomplete

  11. Full utilization of silt density index (SDI) measurements for seawater pre-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai; Laborie, Sté phanie; Ben Aï m, Roger M.; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    according to the standard protocol for SDI measurement, in which two kinds of 0.45μm membranes of different material and seawater samples from the Mediterranean including raw seawater and seawater pre-treated by coagulation followed by sand filtration (CSF

  12. Comparison of Physical Pretreatment Regimens to Enhance Protoporphyrin IX Uptake in Photodynamic Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christiane; Lerche, Catharina Margrethe; Ferrick, Bradford

    2017-01-01

    completed the study protocol. Interventions: Participants were each exposed to standardized skin preparation with curettage, microdermabrasion with abrasive pads, microneedling with dermarollers, ablative fractional laser (AFXL), non-AFXL, and no pretreatment, followed by 3 hours of methyl aminolevulinate...... curettage and microdermabrasion and similar vertical penetration depths for microneedling, AFXL, and non-AFXL (median, 125 μm). PPIX fluorescence reached highest intensities in skin pretreated with AFXL (median, 8661 arbitrary units [AU]) compared with microdermabrasion (median, 6731 AU), microneedling....... Conclusions and Relevance: Under standardized conditions, PPIX accumulation was most enhanced after AFXL pretreatment, followed by microdermabrasion, microneedling, and curettage. Increasing the number of pretreatment passes and laser densities did not further augment PPIX accumulation. These results may...

  13. Biological pretreatment of corn stover with ligninolytic enzyme for high efficient enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Qin; Xie, Hui; Chen, Wei; Wang, En-Tao; Du, Feng-Guang; Song, An-Dong

    2013-09-01

    Aiming at increasing the efficiency of transferring corn stover into sugars, a biological pretreatment was developed and investigated in this study. The protocol was characterized by the pretreatment with crude ligninolytic enzymes from Phanerochete chrysosporium and Coridus versicolor to break the lignin structure in corn stover, followed by a washing procedure to eliminate the inhibition of ligninolytic enzyme on cellulase. By a 2 d-pretreatment, sugar yield from corn stover hydrolysis could be increased by 50.2% (up to 323 mg/g) compared with that of the control. X-ray diffractometry and FT-IR analysis revealed that biological pretreatment could partially remove the lignin of corn stover, and consequently enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of cellulose and hemeicellulose. In addition, the amount of microbial inhibitors, such as acetic acid and furfural, were much lower in biological pretreatment than that in acid pretreatment. This study provided a promising pretreatment method for biotransformation of corn stovers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Role of MAPK and Dopaminergic Synapse Signaling Pathways in Antidepressant Effect of Electroacupuncture Pretreatment in Chronic Restraint Stress Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjing Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has demonstrated the function in ameliorating depressive-like behaviors via modulating PKA/CREB signaling pathway. To further confirm the antidepressant mechanism of EA on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and dopaminergic synapse signaling pathways, 4 target proteins were detected based on our previous iTRAQ analysis. Rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, and electroacupuncture (EA group. Except for the control group, all rats were subjected to 28 days of chronic restraint stress (CRS protocols to induce depression. In the EA group, EA pretreatment at Baihui (GV20 and Yintang (GV29 was performed daily (1 mA, 2 Hz, discontinuous wave, 20 minutes prior to restraint. The antidepressant-like effect of EA was measured by body weight and open-field test. The protein levels of DAT, Th, Mapt, and Prkc in the hippocampus were examined by using Western blot. The results showed EA could ameliorate the depression-like behaviors and regulate the expression levels of Prkc and Mapt in CRS rats. The effect of EA on DAT and Th expression was minimal. These findings implied that EA pretreatment could alleviate depression through modulating MAPK signaling pathway. The role of EA on dopaminergic synapse signaling pathways needs to be further explored.

  15. iTACTIC - implementing Treatment Algorithms for the Correction of Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy: study protocol for a multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksaas-Aasen, Kjersti; Gall, Lewis; Eaglestone, Simon; Rourke, Claire; Juffermans, Nicole P; Goslings, J Carel; Naess, Paal Aksel; van Dieren, Susan; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Stensballe, Jakob; Maegele, Marc; Stanworth, Simon J; Gaarder, Christine; Brohi, Karim; Johansson, Per I

    2017-10-18

    Traumatic injury is the fourth leading cause of death globally. Half of all trauma deaths are due to bleeding and most of these will occur within 6 h of injury. Haemorrhagic shock following injury has been shown to induce a clotting dysfunction within minutes, and this early trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) may exacerbate bleeding and is associated with higher mortality and morbidity. In spite of improved resuscitation strategies over the last decade, current transfusion therapy still fails to correct TIC during ongoing haemorrhage and evidence for the optimal management of bleeding trauma patients is lacking. Recent publications describe increasing the use of Viscoelastic Haemostatic Assays (VHAs) in trauma haemorrhage; however, there is insufficient evidence to support their superiority to conventional coagulation tests (CCTs). This multicentre, randomised controlled study will compare the haemostatic effect of an evidence-based VHA-guided versus an optimised CCT-guided transfusion algorithm in haemorrhaging trauma patients. A total of 392 adult trauma patients will be enrolled at major trauma centres. Participants will be eligible if they present with clinical signs of haemorrhagic shock, activate the local massive haemorrhage protocol and initiate first blood transfusion. Enrolled patients will be block randomised per centre to either VHA-guided or CCT-guided transfusion therapy in addition to that therapy delivered as part of standard care, until haemostasis is achieved. Patients will be followed until discharge or 28 days. The primary endpoint is the proportion of subjects alive and free of massive transfusion (less than 10 units of red blood cells) at 24 h. Secondary outcomes include the effect of CCT- versus VHA-guided therapy on organ failure, total hospital and intensive care lengths of stay, health care resources needed and mortality. Surviving patients will be asked to complete a quality of life questionnaire (EuroQol EQ-5D TM ) at day 90. CCTs have

  16. Cerebral palsy in adult patients: constraint-induced movement therapy is effective to reverse the nonuse of the affected upper limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecília P. Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To determine if the original protocol of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT, is adequate to reverse the nonuse of the affected upper limb (AUL in patients with Cerebral Palsy (CP in adulthood. Method The study included 10 patients diagnosed with CP hemiparesis had attended the adult protocol CIMT, from January/August 2009/2014. Results Average age 24.6 (SD 9.44; MAL average pretreatment How Often (HO = 0.72 and How Well (HW = 0.68 and post-treatment HO = 3.77 and HW = 3.60 (p ≤ 0.001 and pretreatment WMFT average = 21.03 and post-treatment average = 18.91 (p = 0.350. Conclusion The constraint-induced movement therapy is effective to reverse the nonuse learn of the AUL in adult patients with CP.

  17. Steam explosion pretreatment for enhancing biogas production of late harvested hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Lizasoain, Javier; Theuretzbacher, Franz; Agger, Jane W; Rincón, María; Menardo, Simona; Saylor, Molly K; Enguídanos, Ramón; Nielsen, Paal J; Potthast, Antje; Zweckmair, Thomas; Gronauer, Andreas; Horn, Svein J

    2014-08-01

    Grasslands are often abandoned due to lack of profitability. Extensively cultivating grassland for utilization in a biogas-based biorefinery concept could mend this problem. Efficient bioconversion of this lignocellulosic biomass requires a pretreatment step. In this study the effect of different steam explosion conditions on hay digestibility have been investigated. Increasing severity in the pretreatment induced degradation of the hemicellulose, which at the same time led to the production of inhibitors and formation of pseudo-lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis showed that the maximum glucose yields were obtained under pretreatment at 220 °C for 15 min, while higher xylose yields were obtained at 175 °C for 10 min. Pretreatment of hay by steam explosion enhanced 15.9% the methane yield in comparison to the untreated hay. Results indicate that hay can be effectively converted to methane after steam explosion pretreatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Protective effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla total alkaloids pretreatment on hippocampal neurons after acute hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhao-qin; Zhao, Xiao-min; Gao, Yun-sheng

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla total alkaloids (RTA) pretreatment on the voltage-gated sodium currents of the rat hippocampal neurons after acute hypoxia. Primary cultured hippocampal neurons were divided into RTA pre-treated and non-pretreated groups. Patch clamp whole-cell recording was used to compare the voltage-gated sodium current amplitude and threshold with those before hypoxia. After acute hypoxia, sodium current amplitude was significantly decreased and its threshold was upside. RTA pretreatment could inhibit the reduction of sodium current amplitude. RTA pretreatment alleviates the acute hypoxia-induced change of sodium currents, which may be one of the mechanisms for protective effect of RTA on cells.

  19. Enzymatic hydrolsis of pretreated rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasenko, E.Y.; Shoemaker, S.P. [California Inst. of Food and Agricultural Research, Davis, CA (United States); Ding, H. [California Univ., Davis (Canada). Dept. of Food Science and Technology; Labavitch, J.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Pomology

    1997-02-01

    California rice straw is being evaluated as a feedstock for production of power and fuel. This paper examines the initial steps in the process: pretreatment of rice straw and enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides in the pretreated material to soluble sugars. Rice straw was subjected to three distinct pretreatment procedures: acid-catalyzed steam explosion (Swan Biomass Company), acid hydrolysis (U.S. DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory), and ammonia fiber explosion or AFEX (Texas A and M University). Standard conditions for each pretreatment were used, but none was optimized for rice straw specifically. Six commercial cellulases, products of Genencor International (USA), Novo (Denmark), Iogen (Canada) and Fermtech (Russia) were used for hydrolysis. The Swan- and the acid-pretreatments effectively removed hemicellulose from rice straw, providing high yields of fermentable sugars. The AFEX-pretreatment was distinctly different from other pretreatments in that it did not significantly solubilize hemicellulose. All three pretreatment procedures substantially increased enzymatic digestibility of rice straw. Three commercial Trichoderma-reesei-derived enzyme preparations: Cellulase 100L (Iogen), Spezyme CP (Genencor), and Al (Fermtech), were more active on pretreated rice straw compared than others tested. Conditions for hydrolysis of rice straw using Cellulase 100L were evaluated. The supplementation of this enzyme preparation with cellobiase (Novozyme 188) significantly improved the parameters of hydrolysis for the Swan- and the acid-pretreated materials, but did not affect the hydrolysis of the AFEX-pretreated rice straw. (Author)

  20. Intrafraction Bladder Motion in Radiation Therapy Estimated From Pretreatment and Posttreatment Volumetric Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroudi, Farshad, E-mail: farshad.foroudi@petermac.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Pham, Daniel [Radiation Therapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Bressel, Mathias [Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Gill, Suki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Kron, Tomas [Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: The use of image guidance protocols using soft tissue anatomy identification before treatment can reduce interfractional variation. This makes intrafraction clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) changes more important, including those resulting from intrafraction bladder filling and motion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the required intrafraction margins for soft tissue image guidance from pretreatment and posttreatment volumetric imaging. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T2-T4) underwent an adaptive radiation therapy protocol using daily pretreatment cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with weekly posttreatment CBCT. A total of 235 pairs of pretreatment and posttreatment CBCT images were retrospectively contoured by a single radiation oncologist (CBCT-CTV). The maximum bladder displacement was measured according to the patient's bony pelvis movement during treatment, intrafraction bladder filling, and bladder centroid motion. Results: The mean time between pretreatment and posttreatment CBCT was 13 minutes, 52 seconds (range, 7 min 52 sec to 30 min 56 sec). Taking into account patient motion, bladder centroid motion, and bladder filling, the required margins to cover intrafraction changes from pretreatment to posttreatment in the superior, inferior, right, left, anterior, and posterior were 1.25 cm (range, 1.19-1.50 cm), 0.67 cm (range, 0.58-1.12 cm), 0.74 cm (range, 0.59-0.94 cm), 0.73 cm (range, 0.51-1.00 cm), 1.20 cm (range, 0.85-1.32 cm), and 0.86 cm (range, 0.73-0.99), respectively. Small bladders on pretreatment imaging had relatively the largest increase in pretreatment to posttreatment volume. Conclusion: Intrafraction motion of the bladder based on pretreatment and posttreatment bladder imaging can be significant particularly in the anterior and superior directions. Patient motion, bladder centroid motion, and bladder filling all contribute to changes between

  1. Pretreatment Solution for Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Chemical pretreatments are used to produce usable water by treating a water source with a chemical pretreatment that contains a hexavalent chromium and an acid to generate a treated water source, wherein the concentration of sulfate compounds in the acid is negligible, and wherein the treated water source remains substantially free of precipitates after the addition of the chemical pretreatment. Other methods include reducing the pH in urine to be distilled for potable water extraction by pretreating the urine before distillation with a pretreatment solution comprising one or more acid sources selected from a group consisting of phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, and nitric acid, wherein the urine remains substantially precipitate free after the addition of the pretreatment solution. Another method described comprises a process for reducing precipitation in urine to be processed for water extraction by mixing the urine with a pretreatment solution comprising hexavalent chromium compound and phosphoric acid.

  2. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Hendrick, Paul; Bateman, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    avoidance behaviours, catastrophising, self-efficacy, sport and leisure activity participation, and general quality of life. Follow-up will be 3 and 6 months. The analysis will focus on descriptive statistics and confidence intervals. The qualitative components will follow a thematic analysis approach....... DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate the feasibility of running a definitive large-scale trial on patients with patellofemoral pain, within the NHS in the UK. We will identify strengths and weaknesses of the proposed protocol and the utility and characteristics of the outcome measures. The results from...... this study will inform the design of a multicentre trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN35272486....

  3. Comparison of different pretreatment methods for separation hemicellulose from straw during the lignocellulosic bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhuber, Katharina; Krennhuber, Klaus; Steinmüller, Viktoria; Kahr, Heike; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for 73% of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and consequently contributes to global warming. This fact has enormously increased the interest in the development of methods to reduce greenhouse gases. Therefore, the focus is on the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic agricultural residues. The feedstocks used for 2nd generation bioethanol production are lignocellulosic raw materials like different straw types or energy crops like miscanthus sinensis or arundo donax. Lignocellulose consists of hemicellulose (xylose and arabinose), which is bonded to cellulose (glucose) and lignin. Prior to an enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and fermentation of the resulting sugars, the lignocelluloses must be pretreated to make the sugar polymers accessible to enzymes. A variety of pretreatment methods are described in the literature: thermophysical, acid-based and alkaline methods.In this study, we examined and compared the most important pretreatment methods: Steam explosion versus acid and alkaline pretreatment. Specific attention was paid to the mass balance, the recovery of C 5 sugars and consumption of chemicals needed for pretreatment. In lab scale experiments, wheat straw was either directly pretreated by steam explosion or by two different protocols. The straw was either soaked in sulfuric acid or in sodium hydroxide solution at different concentrations. For both methods, wheat straw was pretreated at 100°C for 30 minutes. Afterwards, the remaining straw was separated by vacuum filtration from the liquid fraction.The pretreated straw was neutralized, dried and enzymatically hydrolyzed. Finally, the sugar concentrations (glucose, xylose and arabinose) from filtrate and from hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The recovery of xylose from hemicellulose was about 50% using the sulfuric acid pretreatment and less than 2% using the sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Increasing concentrations of sulfuric acid

  4. Differential effect of glucocorticoids on tumour necrosis factor production in mice: up-regulation by early pretreatment with dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantuzzi, G; Demitri, M T; Ghezzi, P

    1994-04-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are well known inhibitors of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) production. We investigated the role of endogenous GC in the regulation of TNF production in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using a pretreatment with dexamethasone (DEX) to down-regulate the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). Short-term DEX pretreatment (up to 12 h before LPS) inhibited TNF production, but earlier (24-48 h) pretreatments potentiated it. This up-regulating effect was not observed in adrenalectomized mice or when GC synthesis was inhibited with cyanoketone (CK). This effect could not be explained only by the suppression of LPS-induced corticosterone (CS) levels induced by DEX, since a 48-h pretreatment potentiated TNF production without affecting LPS-induced CS levels. On the other hand, mice chronically pretreated with DEX were still responsive to its inhibitory effect on TNF production, thus ruling out the possibility of a decreased responsiveness to GC.

  5. Changes in the Material Characteristics of Maize Straw during the Pretreatment Process of Methanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhong Feng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment technology is important to the direct methanation of straw. This study used fresh water, four bacterium agents (stem rot agent, “result” microbe decomposition agent, straw pretreatment composite bacterium agent, and complex microorganism agent, biogas slurry, and two chemical reagents (sodium hydroxide and urea as pretreatment promoters. Different treatments were performed, and the changes in the straw pH value, temperature, total solid (TS, volatile solid (VS, and carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio under different pretreatment conditions were analyzed. The results showed that chemical promoters were more efficient than biological promoters in straw maturity. Pretreatment using sodium hydroxide induced the highest degree of straw maturity. However, its C/N ratio had to be reduced during fermentation. In contrast, the C/N ratio of the urea-pretreated straw was low and was easy to regulate when used as anaerobic digestion material. The biogas slurry pretreatment was followed by pretreatments using four different bacterium agents, among which the effect of the complex microorganism agent (BA4 was more efficient than the others. The current study is significant to the direct and efficient methanation of straw.

  6. Development of a HS-SPME-GC/MS protocol assisted by chemometric tools to study herbivore-induced volatiles in Myrcia splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Silva, Érica A; Saboia, Giovanni; Jorge, Nina C; Hoffmann, Camila; Dos Santos Isaias, Rosy Mary; Soares, Geraldo L G; Zini, Claudia A

    2017-12-01

    A headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed and optimized for extraction and analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC) of leaves and galls of Myrcia splendens. Through a process of optimization of main factors affecting HS-SPME efficiency, the coating divivnilbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/Car/PDMS) was chosen as the optimum extraction phase, not only in terms of extraction efficiency, but also for its broader analyte coverage. Optimum extraction temperature was 30°C, while an extraction time of 15min provided the best compromise between extraction efficiencies of lower and higher molecular weight compounds. The optimized protocol was demonstrated to be capable of sampling plant material with high reproducibility, considering that most classes of analytes met the 20% RSD FDA criterion. The optimized method was employed for the analysis of three classes of M. splendens samples, generating a final list of 65 tentatively identified VOC, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, phenol derivatives, as well as mono and sesquiterpenes. Significant differences were evident amongst the volatile profiles obtained from non-galled leaves (NGL) and leaf-folding galls (LFG) of M. splendens. Several differences pertaining to amounts of alcohols and aldehydes were detected between samples, particularly regarding quantities of green leaf volatiles (GLV). Alcohols represented about 14% of compounds detected in gall samples, whereas in non-galled samples, alcohol content was below 5%. Phenolic derived compounds were virtually absent in reference samples, while in non-galled leaves and galls their content ranged around 0.2% and 0.4%, respectively. Likewise, methyl salicylate, a well-known signal of plant distress, amounted for 1.2% of the sample content of galls, whereas it was only present in trace levels in reference samples. Chemometric analysis based on Heatmap associated

  7. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee

    2015-08-18

    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  8. Beyond protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Branquart, Etienne; Casaer, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment tools for listing invasive alien species need to incorporate all available evidence and expertise. Beyond the wealth of protocols developed to date, we argue that the current way of performing risk analysis has several shortcomings. In particular, lack of data on ecological impact...... information on risk and the exploration of improved methods for decision making on biodiversity management. This is crucial for efficient conservation resource allocation and uptake by stakeholders and the public......., transparency and repeatability of assessments as well as the incorporation of uncertainty should all be explicitly considered. We recommend improved quality control of risk assessments through formalized peer review with clear feedback between assessors and reviewers. Alternatively, a consensus building...

  9. Effectiveness of oxaliplatin desensitization protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo-Cascajares, Susana; Nacle-López, Inmaculada; García-Escobar, Ignacio; Aguilella-Vizcaíno, María José; Herreros-de-Tejada, Alberto; Cortés-Funes Castro, Hernán; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel-Ángel

    2013-03-01

    Hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to antineoplastic drugs can force doctors to stop treatment and seek other alternatives. These alternatives may be less effective, not as well tolerated and/or more expensive. Another option is to use desensitization protocols that induce a temporary state of tolerance by gradually administering small quantities of the antineoplastic drug until the therapeutic dosage is reached. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of oxaliplatin desensitization protocols. A retrospective observational study was carried out between January 2006 and May 2011. The inclusion criteria were patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment with oxaliplatin who had developed an HSR to the drug and who were candidates for continuing the treatment using a desensitization protocol. The patients' clinical records were reviewed and variables were gathered relating to the patient, the treatment, the HSR, and the desensitization protocol administered. The data were analysed using version 18.0 of the statistics program SPSS. A total of 53 desensitization protocols were administered to 21 patients. In 89 % of these cases, no new reactions occurred while the drug was being administered. New reactions of mild severity only occurred in 11 % of cases, and none of these reactions were severe enough for treatment to be stopped. All patients were able to complete the desensitization protocol. This study confirms that oxaliplatin desensitization protocols are safe and effective and allow patients to continue with the treatment that initially caused an HSR.

  10. Study on the Mechanism of mTOR-Mediated Autophagy during Electroacupuncture Pretreatment against Cerebral Ischemic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou-Quan Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigating the association between the electroacupuncture (EA pretreatment-induced protective effect against early cerebral ischemic injury and autophagy. EA pretreatment can protect cerebral ischemic and reperfusion injuries, but whether the attenuation of early cerebral ischemic injury by EA pretreatment was associated with autophagy is not yet clear. This study used the middle cerebral artery occlusion model to monitor the process of ischemic injury. For rats in the EA pretreatment group, EA pretreatment was conducted at Baihui acupoint before ischemia for 30 min for 5 consecutive days. The results suggested that EA pretreatment significantly increased the expression of autophagy in the cerebral cortical area on the ischemic side of rats. But the EA pretreatment-induced protective effects on the brain could be reversed by the specific inhibitor 3-methyladenine of autophagy. Additionally, the Pearson correlation analysis indicated that the impact of EA pretreatment on p-mTOR (2481 was negatively correlated with its impact on autophagy. In conclusion, the mechanism of EA pretreatment at Baihui acupoint against cerebral ischemic injury is mainly associated with the upregulation of autophagy expression, and its regulation of autophagy may depend on mTOR-mediated signaling pathways.

  11. Pretreatment with polyamines alleviate the deleterious effects of diuron in maize leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmuş, Nuran; Bekircan, Tuba

    2015-03-01

    The effects of diuron, a photosystem II inhibiting herbicide, on lipid peroxidation, photosynthetic pigments, soluble protein, proline contents and some antioxidant enzymes in maize leaves were studied and protective effects of polyamines against diuron toxicity were investigated. Diuron significantly increased lipid peroxidation, suggesting oxidative damage in the plants and proline content, while it decreased total chlorophyll, carotenoid and soluble protein levels in the leaves during the experiments. Pretreatment with polyamines statistically decreased lipid peroxidation induced by diuron and spermine (SPM) proved to be the most effective polyamine. Also, pretreatment with polyamines significantly prevented the losses of total chlorophyll, carotenoid and soluble protein induced by diuron. On the other hand, pretreatment with polyamines significantly increased proline contents of the leaves in comparison with the leaves treated with diuron. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities increased in the leaves treated with diuron while catalase (CAT ) activity decreased. Pretreatment with spermidine (SPD) did not change significantly SOD activity at 24 and 72 hrs of diuron treatment but prevented the increase in SOD activity induced by diuron at 48 h. However, pretreatment with SPD increased GPX activity at 24 h and GR activity at 48 and 72 hrs. CAT activity in the leaves pretreated with SPD was similar to that of the leaves treated with diuron. Pretreatment with SPM prevented the increase in SOD activity induced by diuron at 48 h but significantly increased it at 72 h of diuron treatment. However, pretreatment with SPM did not significantly change GPX and GR activities during the experiments but reversed the decrease in CAT activity induced by diuron at 72 h. Pretreatment with putrescine (PUT) prevented the increase in SOD activity induced by diuron at 48 and 72 hrs while it increased GPX and GR activities at 48

  12. Effectiveness of different pre-treatments in recovering pre-burial isotopic ratios of charred plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkkemper, O; Braadbaart, F; van Os, B; van Hoesel, A; van Brussel, A A N; Fernandes, R

    2018-02-15

    Isotopic analysis of archaeological charred plant remains offers useful archaeological information. However, adequate sample pre-treatment protocols may be necessary to provide a contamination-free isotopic signal while limiting sample loss and achieving a high throughput. Under these constraints, research was undertaken to compare the performance of different pre-treatment protocols. Charred archaeological plant material was selected for isotopic analysis (δ 13 C and δ 15 N values) by isotope ratio mass spectrometry from a variety of plant species, time periods and soil conditions. Preservation conditions and the effectiveness of cleaning protocols were assessed through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. An acid-base-acid protocol, successfully employed in radiocarbon dating, was used to define a contamination-free isotopic reference. Acid-base-acid isotopic measurements were compared with those obtained from untreated material and an acid-only protocol. The isotopic signals of untreated material and the acid-only protocol typically did not differ more than 1‰ from those of the acid-base-acid reference. There were no significant isotopic offsets between acid-base-acid and acid-only or untreated samples. Sample losses in the acid-base-acid protocol were on average 50 ± 17% (maximum = 98.4%). Elemental XRF measurements showed promising results in the detection of more contaminated samples albeit with a high rate of false positives. For the large range of preservation conditions described in the study, untreated charred plant samples, water cleaned of sediments, provide reliable stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen. The use of pre-treatments may be necessary under different preservation conditions or more conservative measurement uncertainties should be reported. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  14. Evaluation on ecological stability and biodegradation of dyeing wastewater pre-treated by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Park, C.K.; Yoo, D.H.; Lee, J.K.; Lee, B.J.; Han, B.S.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.

    2005-01-01

    Biological treatment of dye wastewater pre-treated by electron beam has been performed in order to evaluate the biodegradation and ecological stability of effluent. In the process of electron-beam treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. Partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages like as biological processing. Dyeing wastewater contains many kind of pollutants which are difficult to be decomposed completely by microorganisms. In this study, biodegradation with dyeing wastewater pre-treated by electron beams was observed. On the other hand, consideration on public acceptance in terms of ecological stability of biological effluent pre-treated by electron beams was given in this study. The results of laboratory investigations on biodegradation and ecological stability of effluent showed that biodegradation of dye wastewater pre-treated by electron beam was enhanced compared to unirradiated one. In the initial stage of biological oxidation regardless of different HRT, dye wastewater pre-treated by electron beam could be oxidized easily compare to without treated one. More number of survived daphnia magna could be observed in the biological effluent pre-treated by electron beam. This means that biological effluent pre-treated by electron beam can be said 'it is safe on the ecological system'

  15. Switchgrass storage effects on the recovery of carbohydrates after liquid hot water pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Julie Carrier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Perennial grasses that would be used for bioenergy and bioproducts production will need to be stored for various periods of time to ensure a continual feedstock supply to a bioprocessing facility. The effects of storage practices on grass composition and the response of grasses to subsequent bioprocesses such as pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis needs to be understood to develop the most efficient storage protocols. This study examined the effect of outdoor storage of round switchgrass bales on composition before and after liquid hot water pretreatment (LHW and enzymatic hydrolysis. This study also examined the effect of washing LHW pretreated biomass prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. It was determined that switchgrass composition after baling was stable. As expected, glucan and lignin contents increased after LHW due to decreases in xylan and galactan. Washing biomass prior to enzymatic hydrolysis reduced saccharification, especially in samples from the interior of the bale, by at least 5%.

  16. Biomass Deconstruction and Pretreatment | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconstruction and Pretreatment Biomass Deconstruction and Pretreatment Our mission is to transform -cyclohexane hydrocarbons were produced by noble metal and acid zeoloite catalytic upgrading of biomass-derived by mechanical refining process. The left side shows biomass feedstock (represented by brown spheres

  17. An efficient protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheesh, P T; Vineetha, M; Kurup, G Muraleedhara

    2014-06-01

    Algal-based recombinant protein production has gained immense interest in recent years. The development of algal expression system was earlier hindered due to the lack of efficient and cost-effective transformation techniques capable of heterologous gene integration and expression. The recent development of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method is expected to be the ideal solution for these problems. We have developed an efficient protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Pre-treatment of Agrobacterium in TAP induction medium (pH 5.2) containing 100 μM acetosyringone and 1 mM glycine betaine and infection of Chlamydomonas with the induced Agrobacterium greatly improved transformation frequency. This protocol was found to double the number of transgenic events on selection media compared to that of previous reports. PCR was used successfully to amplify fragments of the hpt and GUS genes from transformed cells, while Southern blot confirmed the integration of GUS gene into the genome of C. reinhardtii. RT-PCR, Northern blot and GUS histochemical analyses confirm GUS gene expression in the transgenic cell lines of Chlamydomonas. This protocol provides a quick, efficient, economical and high-frequency transformation method for microalgae.

  18. Innovative pretreatment strategies for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patinvoh, Regina J; Osadolor, Osagie A; Chandolias, Konstantinos; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2017-01-01

    Biogas or biomethane is traditionally produced via anaerobic digestion, or recently by thermochemical or a combination of thermochemical and biological processes via syngas (CO and H 2 ) fermentation. However, many of the feedstocks have recalcitrant structure and are difficult to digest (e.g., lignocelluloses or keratins), or they have toxic compounds (such as fruit flavors or high ammonia content), or not digestible at all (e.g., plastics). To overcome these challenges, innovative strategies for enhanced and economically favorable biogas production were proposed in this review. The strategies considered are commonly known physical pretreatment, rapid decompression, autohydrolysis, acid- or alkali pretreatments, solvents (e.g. for lignin or cellulose) pretreatments or leaching, supercritical, oxidative or biological pretreatments, as well as combined gasification and fermentation, integrated biogas production and pretreatment, innovative biogas digester design, co-digestion, and bio-augmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the production of bioethanol - Comparison of five pretreatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    -assisted pretreatment (PAP) and ball milling (BM), to determine effects of the pretreatment methods on the conversion of C. linum into ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). WO and BM showed the highest ethanol yield of 44. g ethanol/100. g glucan, which was close to the theoretical ethanol......A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma...... yield of 57. g ethanol/100. g glucan. A 64% higher ethanol yield, based on raw material, was reached after pretreatment with WO and BM compared with unpretreated C. linum, however 50% of the biomass was lost during WO. Results indicated that the right combination of pretreatment and marine macroalgae...

  20. Combination of ensiling and fungal delignification as effective wheat straw pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune T.; Londono, Jorge E. G.; Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    straw (WS). This study was undertaken to assess whether a combination of forced ensiling with Lactobacillus buchneri and WRF treatment using a low cellulase fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, could produce a relevant pretreatment effect on WS for bioethanol and biogas production. Results......: A combination of the ensiling and WRF treatment induced efficient pretreatment of WS by reducing lignin content and increasing enzymatic sugar release, thereby enabling an ethanol yield of 66 % of the theoretical max on the WS glucan, i.e. a yield comparable to yields obtained with high-tech, large......-scale pretreatment methods. The pretreatment effect was reached with only a minor total solids loss of 5 % by weight mainly caused by the fungal metabolism. The combination of the biopretreatments did not improve the methane potential of the WS, but improved the initial biogas production rate significantly...

  1. Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment to increase the anaerobic hydrolysis rate of waste activated sludge during anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Guangyin; Lu, Xueqin; Li, Yu-You; Zhao, Youcai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment for improving sludge anaerobic digestion was proposed. • Combined process enhanced the cell lysis, biopolymers releases, and thus sludge disintegration. • Increased solubilization of sludge increased the anaerobic hydrolysis rate. • Increased solubilization does not always induce an improved anaerobic digestion efficiency. - Abstract: Pretreatment can be used prior to anaerobic digestion to improve the efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion. In this study, electrolysis and a commonly used pretreatment method of alkaline (NaOH) solubilization were integrated as a pretreatment method for promoting WAS anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment effectiveness of combined process were investigated in terms of disintegration degree (DD SCOD ), suspended solids (TSS and VSS) removals, the releases of protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS), and subsequent anaerobic digestion as well as dewaterability after digestion. Electrolysis was able to crack the microbial cells trapped in sludge gels and release the biopolymers (PN and PS) due to the cooperation of alkaline solubilization, enhancing the sludge floc disintegration/solubilization, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays showed the highest methane yield was achieved with 5 V plus pH 9.2 pretreatment with up to 20.3% improvement over the non-pretreated sludge after 42 days of mesophilic operation. In contrast, no discernible improvements on anaerobic degradability were observed for the rest of pretreated sludges, probably due to the overmuch leakage of refractory soluble organics, partial chemical mineralization of solubilized compounds and sodium inhibition. The statistical analysis further indicated that increased solubilization induced by electrical-alkali pretreatment increased the first-order anaerobic hydrolysis rate (k hyd ), but had no, or very slight enhancement on WAS ultimate

  2. Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol production. ... Keywords: Lignocellulosic biomass, alkaline pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentable sugars, fermentation. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(31), pp.

  3. Pretreatment with Pancaspase Inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK Delays but Does Not Prevent Intraperitoneal Heat-Killed Group B Streptococcus-Induced Preterm Delivery in a Pregnant Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Equils

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Caspases and apoptosis are thought to play a role in infection-associated preterm-delivery. We have shown that in vitro treatment with pancaspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK protects trophoblasts from microbial antigen-induced apoptosis. Objective. To examine whether in vivo administration of Z-VAD-FMK would prevent infection-induced preterm-delivery. Methods. We injected 14.5 day-pregnant-mice with heat-killed group B streptococcus (HK-GBS. Apoptosis within placentas and membranes was assessed by TUNEL staining. Calpain expression and caspase-3 activation were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Preterm-delivery was defined as expulsion of a fetus within 48 hours after injection. Results. Intrauterine (i.u. or intraperitoneal (i.p. HK-GBS injection led to preterm-delivery and induced apoptosis in placentas and membranes at 14 hours. The expression of calpain, a caspase-independent inducer of apoptosis, was increased in placenta. Treatment with the specific caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK (i.p. prior to HK-GBS (i.p. delayed but did not prevent preterm-delivery. Conclusion. Caspase-dependent apoptosis appears to play a role in the timing but not the occurrence of GBS-induced preterm delivery in the mouse.

  4. Misonidazole radiosensitization in vivo: A therapeutic gain by penicillin pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, P.W.; Clarke, C.; Dawson, K.B.; Simpson, W.; Simmons, D.J.C.; Adams, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    Because intestinal microflora have the potential to metabolize nitroimidazole compounds (possibly to toxic species), the authors investigated their influence on the pharmacological, neurotoxic and radiosensitizing properties of misonidazole (MIS) in mice. This was done by comparing the responses obtained in 'normal' mice to those obtained in mice whose microflora had been depleted by pretreatment for 7-14 days with penicillin (PEN) at the rate of 0.5g/1 of drinking water. Bacteriological studies showed this treatment to C57B1 mice eliminated more than 99% of the flora from the caeca and, furthermore, this efficacy of penicillin was not interfered with by MIS administered IP at 0.3mg/g between days 7-14. This pretreatment resulted not only in the elimination of the caecal flora, but also in an increase in the pharmacokinetic exposure to MIS, an increase in Lewis lung tumour radiosensitization by MIS and a decrease in MIS-induced neurotoxicity. The authors conclude pretreatment with PEN can give a therapeutic gain with MIS radiosensitization. Further, assuming no direct interaction between the PEN and MIS, these findings indicate that the intestinal flora may produce neurotoxic species by their metabolism of MIS

  5. Extrusion Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol has shown environmental, economic and energetic advantages in comparison to bioethanol produced from sugar or starch. However, the pretreatment process for increasing the enzymatic accessibility and improving the digestibility of cellulose is hindered by many physical-chemical, structural and compositional factors, which make these materials difficult to be used as feedstocks for ethanol production. A wide range of pretreatment methods has been developed to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to (enzymatic hydrolysis over the last few decades; however, only a few of them can be used at commercial scale due to economic feasibility. This paper will give an overview of extrusion pretreatment for bioethanol production with a special focus on twin-screw extruders. An economic assessment of this pretreatment is also discussed to determine its feasibility for future industrial cellulosic ethanol plant designs.

  6. Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretreatment of biomass is essential for breaking apart highly ordered and crystalline plant cell walls and loosening the lignin and hemicellulose conjugation to cellulose microfibrills, thereby facilitating enzyme accessibility and adsorption and reducing costs of downstream saccharification proces...

  7. Hydrothermal pretreatments of macroalgal biomass for biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Héctor A.; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M.; Aguedo, Mario

    2015-01-01

    in accordance with the integrated biorefineries. Furthermore, biorefinery concept requires processes that allow efficient utilization of all components of the biomass. The pretreatment step in a biorefinery is often based on hydrothermal principles of high temperatures in aqueous solution. Therefore...

  8. Hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, A.; Gunawan, K. Y.; Hadiwijaya, F. A.

    2017-11-01

    Banana peel is one of food wastes that are rich in carbohydrate. This shows its potential as fermentation substrate including bio-ethanol. This paper presented banana peel alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was intended to prepare banana peel in order to increase hydrolysis performance. The alkaline pretreatment used 10, 20, and 30% w/v NaOH solution and was done at 60, 70 and 80°C for 1 hour. The hydrolysis reaction was conducted using two commercial cellulose enzymes. The reaction time was varied for 3, 5, and 7 days. The best condition for pretreatment process was one conducted using 30% NaOH solution and at 80°C. This condition resulted in cellulose content of 90.27% and acid insoluble lignin content of 2.88%. Seven-day hydrolysis time had exhibited the highest reducing sugar concentration, which was7.2869 g/L.

  9. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhen (ed.) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, YN (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botonical Garden

    2013-02-01

    The first book focused on pretreatment techniques for biofuels contributed by the world's leading experts. Extensively covers the different types of biomass, various pretreatment approaches and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals. In addition to traditional pretreatment methods, novel techniques are also introduced and discussed. An accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries. This book includes 19 chapters contributed by the world's leading experts on pretreatment methods for biomass. It extensively covers the different types of biomass (e.g. molasses, sugar beet pulp, cheese whey, sugarcane residues, palm waste, vegetable oil, straws, stalks and wood), various pretreatment approaches (e.g. physical, thermal, chemical, physicochemical and biological) and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals such as sugars, ethanol, extracellular polysaccharides, biodiesel, gas and oil. In addition to traditional methods such as steam, hot-water, hydrothermal, diluted-acid, organosolv, ozonolysis, sulfite, milling, fungal and bacterial, microwave, ultrasonic, plasma, torrefaction, pelletization, gasification (including biogas) and liquefaction pretreatments, it also introduces and discusses novel techniques such as nano and solid catalysts, organic electrolyte solutions and ionic liquids. This book offers a review of state-of-the-art research and provides guidance for the future paths of developing pretreatment techniques of biomass for biofuels, especially in the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It intends to provide a systematic introduction of pretreatment techniques. It is an accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries.

  11. Metallothionein expression during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in cadmium-pretreated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margeli, A.P. (Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece)); Theocharis, S.E. (Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece)); Yannacou, N.N. (Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece)); Spiliopoulou, C. (Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece)); Koutselinis, A. (Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece))

    1994-10-01

    Metallothionein is a low molecular mass protein inducible mainly by heavy metals, having high affinity for binding cadmium, zinc and copper. In the present study we investigated the expression of metallothionein in regenerating liver, at different time intervals, in cadmium pretreated partially hepatectomized rats. Liver metallothionein is highly expressed during regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy in rats, providing zinc within the rapidly growing tissue. Cadmium pretreatment caused inhibition of the first peak of liver regeneration, while metallothionein expression was markedly more prominent in the liver residues of cadmium-pretreated rats. These results demonstrate that although metallothionein able to bind temporarily metal ions as zinc and cadmium has been highly expressed, the liver regenerative process was inhibited possibly due to the effects of cadmium on other pivotal events necessary to the DNA replication. (orig.)

  12. Microwave heating processing as alternative of pretreatment in second-generation biorefinery: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Reynosa, Alejandra; Romaní, Aloia; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa Ma.; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.; Garrote, Gil; Ruiz, Héctor A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave heating pretreatment for lignocellulosic material. • Fundament of lignocellulosic material fractionation using microwave irradiation. • Energy consumption in microwave pretreatments and microwave reactors description. • Microwave heating as pretreatment in a biorefinery concept. - Abstract: The development of a feasible biorefinery is in need of alternative technologies to improve lignocellulosic biomass conversion by the suitable use of energy. Microwave heating processing (MHP) is emerging as promising unconventional pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials (LCMs). MHP applied as pretreatment induces LCMs breakdown through the molecular collision caused by the dielectric polarization. Polar particles movement generates a quick heating consequently the temperatures and times of process are lower. In this way, MHP has positioned as green technology in comparison with other types of heating. Microwave technology represents an excellent option to obtain susceptible substrates to enzymatic saccharification and subsequently in the production of bioethanol and high-added compounds. However, it is still necessary to study the dielectric properties of materials, and conduct economic studies to achieve development in pilot and industrial scale. This work aims to provide an overview of recent progress and alternative configurations for combining the application of microwave technology on the pretreatment of LCMs in terms of biorefinery.

  13. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  14. Quadri-Pulse Theta Burst Stimulation using Ultra-High Frequency Bursts - A New Protocol to Induce Changes in Cortico-Spinal Excitability in Human Motor Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Nikolai H; Gleich, Bernhard; Gattinger, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Patterned transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) such as theta burst stimulation (TBS) or quadri-pulse stimulation (QPS) can induce changes in cortico-spinal excitability, commonly referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP)-like and long-term depression (LTD)-like effects in human motor cortex (M...... of sinusoidal TMS pulses elicited either a posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP) directed current in M1. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded before and after qTBS to probe changes in cortico-spinal excitability. PA-qTBS at 666 Hz caused a decrease in PA-MEP amplitudes, whereas AP...... in cortico-spinal excitability. Induced current direction in the brain appears to be relevant when qTBS targets I-wave periodicity, corroborating that high-fidelity spike timing mechanisms are critical for inducing bi-directional plasticity in human M1....

  15. Heparin removal by ecteola-cellulose pre-treatment enables the use of plasma samples for accurate measurement of anti-Yellow fever virus neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela; Costa-Pereira, Christiane; Yamamura, Anna Yoshida; Lima, Sheila Maria Barbosa de; Simões, Marisol; Campos, Fernanda Magalhães Freire; de Castro Zacche Tonini, Aline; Lemos, Elenice Moreira; Brum, Ricardo Cristiano; de Noronha, Tatiana Guimarães; Freire, Marcos Silva; Maia, Maria de Lourdes Sousa; Camacho, Luiz Antônio Bastos; Rios, Maria; Chancey, Caren; Romano, Alessandro; Domingues, Carla Magda; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2017-09-01

    Technological innovations in vaccinology have recently contributed to bring about novel insights for the vaccine-induced immune response. While the current protocols that use peripheral blood samples may provide abundant data, a range of distinct components of whole blood samples are required and the different anticoagulant systems employed may impair some properties of the biological sample and interfere with functional assays. Although the interference of heparin in functional assays for viral neutralizing antibodies such as the functional plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT), considered the gold-standard method to assess and monitor the protective immunity induced by the Yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine, has been well characterized, the development of pre-analytical treatments is still required for the establishment of optimized protocols. The present study intended to optimize and evaluate the performance of pre-analytical treatment of heparin-collected blood samples with ecteola-cellulose (ECT) to provide accurate measurement of anti-YFV neutralizing antibodies, by PRNT. The study was designed in three steps, including: I. Problem statement; II. Pre-analytical steps; III. Analytical steps. Data confirmed the interference of heparin on PRNT reactivity in a dose-responsive fashion. Distinct sets of conditions for ECT pre-treatment were tested to optimize the heparin removal. The optimized protocol was pre-validated to determine the effectiveness of heparin plasma:ECT treatment to restore the PRNT titers as compared to serum samples. The validation and comparative performance was carried out by using a large range of serum vs heparin plasma:ECT 1:2 paired samples obtained from unvaccinated and 17DD-YFV primary vaccinated subjects. Altogether, the findings support the use of heparin plasma:ECT samples for accurate measurement of anti-YFV neutralizing antibodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sevoflurane-induced Preconditioning Impact of Protocol and Aprotinin Administration on Infarct Size and Endothelial Nitric-Oxide Synthase Phosphorylation in the Rat Heart In Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fräßdorf, Jan; Huhn, Ragnar; Weber, Nina C.; Ebel, Dirk; Wingert, Nadja; Preckel, Benedikt; Toma, Octavian; Schlack, Wolfgang; Hollmann, Markus W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Sevoflurane induces preconditioning (SevoPC) 1 he effect of aprotinin and the involvement of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) on SevoPC are unknown We investigated (1) whether SevoPC is strengthened by multiple preconditioning cycles (2) whether SevoPC is blocked by aprotinin, and

  17. iTACTIC - implementing Treatment Algorithms for the Correction of Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy: study protocol for a multicentre, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksaas-Aasen, Kjersti; Gall, Lewis; Eaglestone, Simon; Rourke, Claire; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Goslings, J. Carel; Naess, Paal Aksel; van Dieren, Susan; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Stensballe, Jakob; Maegele, Marc; Stanworth, Simon J.; Gaarder, Christine; Brohi, Karim; Johansson, Per I.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Traumatic injury is the fourth leading cause of death globally. Half of all trauma deaths are due to bleeding and most of these will occur within 6 h of injury. Haemorrhagic shock following injury has been shown to induce a clotting dysfunction within minutes, and this early

  18. Superior Long-Term Synaptic Memory Induced by Combining Dual Pharmacological Activation of PKA and ERK with an Enhanced Training Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong-Yu; Neveu, Curtis; Smolen, Paul; Cleary, Leonard J.; Byrne, John H.

    2017-01-01

    Developing treatment strategies to enhance memory is an important goal of neuroscience research. Activation of multiple biochemical signaling cascades, such as the protein kinase A (PKA) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, is necessary to induce long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF), a correlate of long-term memory (LTM).…

  19. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment

  20. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhong; Wang Qunhui; Jiang Zhaohua; Yang Xuexin; Ji Yongzhen

    2007-01-01

    In order to produce lactic acid, from agricultural residues such as soybean straw, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastic production, it is necessary to decompose the soybean straw into soluble sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the methods in common use, while pretreatment is the effective way to increase the hydrolysis rate. The optimal conditions of pretreatment using ammonia and enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean straw were determined. Compared with the untreated straw, cellulose in straw pretreated by ammonia liquor (10%) soaking for 24 h at room temperature increased 70.27%, whereas hemicellulose and lignin in pretreated straw decreased to 41.45% and 30.16%, respectively. The results of infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also showed that the structure and the surface of the straw were changed through pretreatment that is in favor of the following enzymatic hydrolysis. maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 51.22% was achieved at a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v) at 50 deg. C and pH 4.8 using cellulase (50 fpu/g of substrate) for 36 h

  1. Effects of phenobarbital pretreatment on the in vivo metabolism of carbaryl in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, E.V.; Alvares, A.P.; Chin, B.H.

    1987-01-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) pretreatment of animals is known to induce the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes in liver microsomes. Previous studies showed that incubation of carbaryl with microsomes obtained from livers of untreated or PB-treated rats resulted in little or no oxidative metabolism of the substrate. In addition, no spectral interactions were observed when carbaryl was added to hepatic microsomal suspensions. The present study was carried out to determine the effect of PB pretreatment on the in vivo metabolism of carbaryl in rats

  2. The French dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, A.

    1985-01-01

    After a general introduction the protocol is divided in five sections dealing with: determination of the quality of X-ray, γ-ray and electron beams; the measuring instrument; calibration of the reference instrument; determination of the reference absorbed dose in the user's beams; determination of the absorbed dose in water at other points, in other conditions. The French protocol is not essentially different from the Nordic protocol and it is based on the experience gained in using both the American and the Nordic protocols. Therefore, only the main difference with the published protocols are discussed. (Auth.)

  3. The development of an intervention programme to reduce whole-body vibration exposure at work induced by a change in behaviour: a study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemessen, Ivo JH; Hulshof, Carel TJ; Frings-Dresen, Monique HW

    2007-01-01

    Background Whole body vibration (WBV) exposure at work is common and studies found evidence that this exposure might cause low back pain (LBP). A recent review concluded there is a lack of evidence of effective strategies to reduce WBV exposure. Most research in this field is focussed on the technical implications, although changing behaviour towards WBV exposure might be promising as well. Therefore, we developed an intervention programme to reduce WBV exposure in a population of drivers with the emphasis on a change in behaviour of driver and employer. The hypothesis is that an effective reduction in WBV exposure, in time, will lead to a reduction in LBP as WBV exposure is a proxy for an increased risk of LBP. Methods/Design The intervention programme was developed specifically for the drivers of vibrating vehicles and their employers. The intervention programme will be based on the most important determinants of WBV exposure as track conditions, driving speed, quality of the seat, etc. By increasing knowledge and skills towards changing these determinants, the attitude, social influence and self-efficacy (ASE) of both drivers and employers will be affected having an effect on the level of exposure. We used the well-known ASE model to develop an intervention programme aiming at a change or the intention to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The developed programme consists of: individual health surveillance, an information brochure, an informative presentation and a report of the performed field measurements. Discussion The study protocol described is advantageous as the intervention program actively tries to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The near future will show if this intervention program is effective by showing a decrease in WBV exposure. PMID:18005400

  4. The development of an intervention programme to reduce whole-body vibration exposure at work induced by a change in behaviour: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frings-Dresen Monique HW

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole body vibration (WBV exposure at work is common and studies found evidence that this exposure might cause low back pain (LBP. A recent review concluded there is a lack of evidence of effective strategies to reduce WBV exposure. Most research in this field is focussed on the technical implications, although changing behaviour towards WBV exposure might be promising as well. Therefore, we developed an intervention programme to reduce WBV exposure in a population of drivers with the emphasis on a change in behaviour of driver and employer. The hypothesis is that an effective reduction in WBV exposure, in time, will lead to a reduction in LBP as WBV exposure is a proxy for an increased risk of LBP. Methods/Design The intervention programme was developed specifically for the drivers of vibrating vehicles and their employers. The intervention programme will be based on the most important determinants of WBV exposure as track conditions, driving speed, quality of the seat, etc. By increasing knowledge and skills towards changing these determinants, the attitude, social influence and self-efficacy (ASE of both drivers and employers will be affected having an effect on the level of exposure. We used the well-known ASE model to develop an intervention programme aiming at a change or the intention to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The developed programme consists of: individual health surveillance, an information brochure, an informative presentation and a report of the performed field measurements. Discussion The study protocol described is advantageous as the intervention program actively tries to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The near future will show if this intervention program is effective by showing a decrease in WBV exposure.

  5. Temperature Modelling of the Biomass Pretreatment Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Jensen, Jakob M.

    2012-01-01

    In a second generation biorefinery, the biomass pretreatment stage has an important contribution to the efficiency of the downstream processing units involved in biofuel production. Most of the pretreatment process occurs in a large pressurized thermal reactor that presents an irregular temperature...... that captures the environmental temperature differences inside the reactor using distributed parameters. A Kalman filter is then added to account for any missing dynamics and the overall model is embedded into a temperature soft sensor. The operator of the plant will be able to observe the temperature in any...

  6. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Users expect communication systems to guarantee, amongst others, privacy and integrity of their data. These can be ensured by using well-established protocols; the best protocol, however, is useless if not all parties involved in a communication have a correct implementation of the protocol and a...... Generator framework based on the LySatool and a translator from the LySa language into C or Java....... necessary tools. In this paper, we present the Protocol Implementation Generator (PiG), a framework that can be used to add protocol generation to protocol negotiation, or to easily share and implement new protocols throughout a network. PiG enables the sharing, verification, and translation...

  7. Comparison of Different Biomass Pretreatment Techniques and Their Impact on Chemistry and Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Seema; Cheng, Gang; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Wu, Dong; Varanasi, Patanjali; George, Anthe; Balan, Venkatesh; Gao, Xiadi; Kumar, Rajeev; Dale, Bruce E.; Wyman, Charles E.; Simmons, Blake A.

    2015-01-01

    Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a prerequisite to overcome recalcitrance and allow enzyme accessibility to cellulose and maximize product recovery for improved economics of second-generation lignocellulosic bio-refineries. Recently, the three US-DOE funded Bioenergy Research Centers [Joint Bioenergy Institute (JBEI), Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC), and BioEnergy Science Center (BESC)] compared ionic liquid (IL), dilute sulfuric acid (DA), and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX TM ) pretreatments and published comparative data on mass balance, total sugar yields, substrate accessibility, and microbial fermentation [Biotechnology for Biofuels 7: 71; 72 (2014)]. In this study, corn stover solids from IL, DA, and AFEX pretreatments were compared to gain comprehensive, in-depth understanding of induced morphological and chemical changes incorporated to corn stover, and how they overcome the biomass recalcitrance. These studies reveal that biomass recalcitrance is overcome by combination of structural and chemical changes to carbohydrates and lignin after pretreatment. Thermal analysis indicates that AFEX and IL pretreated corn stover showed a lower thermal stability while DA pretreated corn stover showed the opposite. The surface roughness variations measured by small-angle neutron scattering were correlated to the removal and redistribution of biomass components and was consistent with compositional analysis, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal fluorescence imaging results. With AFM and confocal fluorescent microscopy, lignin was found to be re-deposited on cellulose surface with average cellulose fiber width significantly decreased for DA pretreated corn stover (one-third of IL and AFEX). HSQC NMR spectra revealed a ~17.9% reduction of β-aryl ether units after AFEX, ~59.8% reduction after DA, and >98% reduction after IL. Both NMR and size exclusion chromatography showed similar patterns of lignin de-polymerization with highest degree of de

  8. Comparison of Different Biomass Pretreatment Techniques and Their Impact on Chemistry and Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Seema, E-mail: seesing@sandia.gov; Cheng, Gang; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Wu, Dong; Varanasi, Patanjali; George, Anthe [Deconstruction Division, Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Biological and Materials Sciences Center, Livermore, CA (United States); Balan, Venkatesh [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, DOE Great Lakes BioEnergy Research Center (GLBRC), Michigan State University, Lansing, MI (United States); Gao, Xiadi [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Bourns College of Engineering, Riverside, CA (United States); Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT), Bourns College of Engineering, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA (United States); Kumar, Rajeev [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT), Bourns College of Engineering, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA (United States); Dale, Bruce E. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, DOE Great Lakes BioEnergy Research Center (GLBRC), Michigan State University, Lansing, MI (United States); Wyman, Charles E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Bourns College of Engineering, Riverside, CA (United States); Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT), Bourns College of Engineering, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA (United States); Simmons, Blake A. [Deconstruction Division, Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Biological and Materials Sciences Center, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-06

    Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a prerequisite to overcome recalcitrance and allow enzyme accessibility to cellulose and maximize product recovery for improved economics of second-generation lignocellulosic bio-refineries. Recently, the three US-DOE funded Bioenergy Research Centers [Joint Bioenergy Institute (JBEI), Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC), and BioEnergy Science Center (BESC)] compared ionic liquid (IL), dilute sulfuric acid (DA), and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX{sup TM}) pretreatments and published comparative data on mass balance, total sugar yields, substrate accessibility, and microbial fermentation [Biotechnology for Biofuels 7: 71; 72 (2014)]. In this study, corn stover solids from IL, DA, and AFEX pretreatments were compared to gain comprehensive, in-depth understanding of induced morphological and chemical changes incorporated to corn stover, and how they overcome the biomass recalcitrance. These studies reveal that biomass recalcitrance is overcome by combination of structural and chemical changes to carbohydrates and lignin after pretreatment. Thermal analysis indicates that AFEX and IL pretreated corn stover showed a lower thermal stability while DA pretreated corn stover showed the opposite. The surface roughness variations measured by small-angle neutron scattering were correlated to the removal and redistribution of biomass components and was consistent with compositional analysis, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal fluorescence imaging results. With AFM and confocal fluorescent microscopy, lignin was found to be re-deposited on cellulose surface with average cellulose fiber width significantly decreased for DA pretreated corn stover (one-third of IL and AFEX). HSQC NMR spectra revealed a ~17.9% reduction of β-aryl ether units after AFEX, ~59.8% reduction after DA, and >98% reduction after IL. Both NMR and size exclusion chromatography showed similar patterns of lignin de-polymerization with highest degree

  9. Final Technical Report - Consolidating Biomass Pretreatment with Saccharification by Resolving the Spatial Control Mechanisms of Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, Jonathan [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulose combines enzymatic sugar release (saccharification) with fermentation, but pretreatments remain separate and costly. In nature, lignocellulose-degrading brown rot fungi consolidate pretreatment and saccharification, likely using spatial gradients to partition these incompatible reactions. With the field of biocatalysis maturing, reaction partitioning is increasingly reproducible for commercial use. Therefore, my goal was to resolve the reaction partitioning mechanisms of brown rot fungi so that they can be applied to bioconversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Brown rot fungi consolidate oxidative pretreatments with saccharification and are a focus for biomass refining because 1) they attain >99% sugar yield without destroying lignin, 2) they use a simplified cellulase suite that lacks exoglucanase, and 3) their non-enzymatic pretreatment is facilitative and may be accelerated. Specifically, I hypothesized that during brown rot, oxidative pretreatments occur ahead of enzymatic saccharification, spatially, and the fungus partitions these reactions using gradients in pH, lignin reactivity, and plant cell wall porosity. In fact, we found three key results during these experiments for this work: 1) Brown rot fungi have an inducible cellulase system, unlike previous descriptions of a constitutive mechanism. 2) The induction of cellulases is delayed until there is repression of oxidatively-linked genes, allowing the brown rot fungi to coordinate two incompatible reactions (oxidative pretreatment with enzymatic saccharification, to release wood sugars) in the same pieces of wood. 3) This transition is mediated by the same wood sugar, cellobiose, released by the oxidative pretreatment step. Collectively, these findings have been published in excellent journal outlets and have been presented at conferences around the United States, and they offer clear targets for gene discovery en route to making biofuels and biochemicals

  10. Comparison of Different Biomass Pretreatment Techniques and their Impact on Chemistry and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema eSingh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a prerequisite to overcome recalcitrance and allow enzyme accessibility to cellulose and maximize product recovery for improved economics of second-generation lignocellulosic bio-refineries. Recently, the three US-DOE funded Bioenergy Research Centers (Joint Bioenergy Institute (JBEI, Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC, and BioEnergy Science Center (BESC compared ionic liquid (IL, dilute sulfuric acid (DA, and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEXTM pretreatments and published comparative data on mass balance, total sugar yields, substrate accessibility, and microbial fermentation (Biotechnology for Biofuels 7: 71; 72 (2014. In this study, corn stover solids from IL, DA, and AFEX pretreatments were compared to gain comprehensive, in-depth understanding of induced morphological and chemical changes incorporated to corn stover, and how they overcome the biomass recalcitrance. These studies reveal that biomass recalcitrance is overcome by combination of structural and chemical changes to carbohydrates and lignin after pretreatment. Thermal analysis indicates that AFEX and IL pretreated corn stover showed a lower thermal stability while DA pretreated corn stover showed the opposite. The surface roughness variations measured by SANS were correlated to the removal and redistribution of biomass components and was consistent with compositional analysis, AFM and confocal fluorescence imaging results. With AFM and confocal fluorescent microscopy, lignin was found to be re-deposited on cellulose surface with average cellulose fiber width significantly decreased for DA pretreated corn stover (one third of IL and AFEX. HSQC NMR spectra revealed a ~17.9% reduction of β-aryl ether units after AFEX, ~59.8% reduction after DA and >98% reduction after IL. Both NMR and SEC showed similar patterns of lignin depolymerization with highest degree of depolymerization observed for IL followed with DA and AFEX.

  11. In vivo metabolism of CCl4 by rats pretreated with chlordecone, mirex, or phenobarbital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehendale, H.M.; Klingensmith, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The propensity of chlordecone (CD) to potentiate hepatotoxic and lethal effects of CCl4 is well established. Mirex (M), a close structural analogue of CD, or phenobarbital (PB), powerful inducers of hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes, are much weaker potentiators of CCl4 toxicity. The purpose of this study was to test the possibility that CD potentiates the toxicity of CCl4 by increasing the metabolism of CCl4 to a greater degree than either PB or M. We compared the in vivo metabolism of CCl4 in rats pretreated with CD, M, or PB, by measuring the hepatic content of 14CCl4, the expiration of 14CCl4, expiration of 14CCl4-derived 14CO2, and lipid peroxidation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-270 g) were pretreated with a single oral dose of CD (10 mg/kg), M (10 mg/kg), or corn oil vehicle (1 ml/kg). PB pretreatment consisted of an ip injection of sodium PB (80 mg/kg) in saline (0.9%) for 2 successive days. Twenty-four hours later, 14CCl4 (0.1 ml/kg; sp act: 0.04 mCi/mmol) was administered ip in corn oil and the radioactivity present in the expired air was collected for 6 hr. Excretion of the parent compound as represented by the 14C label in the toluene trap was unchanged by any of the pretreatments. Expiration of 14CO2 measured during the 6 hr after CCl4 administration was increased in animals pretreated with PB or CD. In vivo lipid peroxidation measured as diene conjugation in lipids extracted from the livers was increased to a similar extent in animals pretreated with PB and CD, whereas the serum transaminases (ALT, AST) were significantly elevated only in animals pretreated with CD.M did not affect 14CO2 production and was without a significant effect on the lipid peroxidation

  12. Rational design of biophysical imaging protocols to measure the level of intensity of massive delocalized infections under severe HIV-induced immunodeficiency: configuration of novel radioimmunoscintigraphy modalities with single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarea, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    Severe immunosupression brought about by critical depletion of CD4 + -lymphocytes in individuals suffering from HIV infection leads inevitably to the onset of multiple-agent opportunistic infections (ARC: the AIDS-related complex). Such opportunistic infections eventually become heterogeneously delocalized (disseminated) and an idea f their variety and number can be gleaned from the listing under clinical category C of the 1993 CDC Revised Classification System for HIV infections. This causes widespread oxygen free radical (principally superoxide and hydroxyl free radical) burst due to the up-switching of the hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt as a result of the generalized activation, by the massive infection load, of NADPH oxidase, a constitutive enzyme that is present in the cell membranes of all granulocytes and mononuclear phagocytic cells. However the very short (reactive) lifetimes of superoxide and hydroxyl free radicals in the cellular milieu preclude their use as a convenient in vivo biomarkers if the level of phagocytosis (or HMP up-switching) were to be utilized as a correlative measure of the level of intensity of delocalized infections in ARC in any non-invasive whole-body imaging protocol. In the present contribution, we report a rational schema for a molecularly specific an self-consistent correlative measure of the intensity of multiple-agent, delocalized infections arising from severe HIV-induced immunodeficiency. The schema is based on the quantitative parametrization of the level of on-going degranulation activity of neutrophils in the granulocyte population. The rationally designed modalities rest on specificity inherent in radioimmunoscintigraphy, in particular on the ligand of radionuclide-tagged antibodies to the neutrophil proteinases HLE (human leukocytic elastase: EC.3.4.21.37) and cat G (cathepsin G: EC.3.4.21.20). In this work, these molecular probes are specifically configured to lend themselves as convenient in vivo biomarkers both in

  13. The efficacy of the Kampo medicine rikkunshito for chemotherapy-induced anorexia (RICH trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takuya; Takagi, Hironori; Owada, Yuki; Watanabe, Yuzuru; Yamaura, Takumi; Fukuhara, Mitsuro; Muto, Satoshi; Okabe, Naoyuki; Matsumura, Yuki; Hasegawa, Takeo; Osugi, Jun; Hoshino, Mika; Higuchi, Mitsunori; Shio, Yutaka; Yokouchi, Hiroshi; Kanazawa, Kenya; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Fukushima, Takahisa; Munakata, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-18

    Cisplatin is a key drug in lung cancer therapy. However, cisplatin is also well known to induce gastrointestinal disorders, such as chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, anorexia, and weight loss. These symptoms sometimes affect patients' quality of life and make continuation of chemotherapy difficult. Anorexia is a cause of concern for patients with cancer because a persistent loss of appetite progresses to cancer cachexia. Although evidence-based management for chemotherapy has recently been established, there is room for improvement. This placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial will aim to determine the efficacy of the traditional Japanese Kampo medicine rikkunshito (TJ-43) for preventing anorexia caused by cisplatin-including chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer. Patients with lung cancer who plan to receive cisplatin-including chemotherapy will be recruited. Patients who provide written consent will be randomly allocated to receive either TJ-43 (arm A) or placebo (arm B) for one course of chemotherapy (21 or 28 consecutive days). Investigators and patients will be masked to the treatment assignment throughout the trial. The primary endpoint will be evaluated as the change in dietary intake from day 0 (the day before the start of chemotherapy) to day 7 of cisplatin-including chemotherapy. The two arms of the trial will comprise 30 patients each. From November 2014, a total of 60 patients will be recruited, and recruitment for the study is planned to be complete by October 2017. This trial is designed to examine the efficacy of rikkunshito (TJ-43) for reducing anorexia and maintaining food intake caused by cisplatin-including chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer. Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center Clinical Trials Information (JAPIC CTI), trial registration: JAPIC CTI-142747 . Registered on 15 December 2014; the RICH trial.

  14. Synergistic effect of combined transcranial direct current stimulation/constraint-induced movement therapy in children and young adults with hemiparesis: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillick, Bernadette; Menk, Jeremiah; Mueller, Bryon; Meekins, Gregg; Krach, Linda E; Feyma, Timothy; Rudser, Kyle

    2015-11-12

    Perinatal stroke occurs in more than 1 in 2,500 live births and resultant congenital hemiparesis necessitates investigation into interventions which may improve long-term function and decreased burden of care beyond current therapies ( http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/cp/data.html ). Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) is recognized as an effective hemiparesis rehabilitation intervention. Transcranial direct current stimulation as an adjunct treatment to CIMT may potentiate neuroplastic responses and improve motor function. The methodology of a clinical trial in children designed as a placebo-controlled, serial -session, non-invasive brain stimulation trial incorporating CIMT is described here. The primary hypotheses are 1) that no serious adverse events will occur in children receiving non-invasive brain stimulation and 2) that children in the stimulation intervention group will show significant improvements in hand motor function compared to children in the placebo stimulation control group. A randomized, controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. Twenty children and/or young adults (ages 8-21) with congenital hemiparesis, will be enrolled. The intervention group will receive ten 2-hour sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with constraint-induced movement therapy and the control group will receive sham stimulation with CIMT. The primary outcome measure is safety assessment of transcranial direct current stimulation by physician evaluation, vital sign monitoring and symptom reports. Additionally, hand function will be evaluated using the Assisting Hand Assessment, grip strength and assessment of goals using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Neuroimaging will confirm diagnoses, corticospinal tract integrity and cortical activation. Motor cortical excitability will also be examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation techniques. Combining non-invasive brain stimulation and CIMT interventions has the potential to improve motor

  15. Antibacterial effect of surface pretreatment techniques against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial surface pretreatment methods against Streptococcus mutans within the infected dentin surface using a tooth cavity model. Material and Methods: Seventy-two cavities were prepared on caries-free third molars (n = 8). After sterilization, teeth were inoculated ...

  16. Bromine pretreated chitosan for adsorption of lead

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pollution by heavy metals like lead (II) is responsible for health hazards and environmental degradation. Adsorption is a prevalent method applied for removal of heavy metal pollutants from water. This study explored adsorption performances of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan for lead (II) abatement from water. Bromine ...

  17. Effective pretreatment of coal for briquetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunami, Y; Nishioka, K; Sugimoto, Y

    1980-01-01

    The pretreatment of coal for briquetting is considered in an attempt to improve the quality of the briquets produced. Crushing of coal to obtain a size distribution suitable for close packing was found to be effective in improving coking properties while drying of coal was found to be effective in increasing briquet density. (In Japanese)

  18. Biomass Deconstruction and Pretreatment Publications | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis, ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering Eight black-and-white micrograph images of corn Hydrocarbons via Aqueous Phase Hydrodeoxygenation, Green Chemistry Image of a diagram with a curved line Chemistry & Engineering Image of a diagram corn stover pretreatment showing arrows pointing from "

  19. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using Fenton chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretreatment is a necessary step in “biomass to biofuel conversion” due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass. White-rot fungi utilize peroxidases and hydrogen peroxide (in vivo Fenton chemistry) to degrade lignin. In an attempt to mimic this process, solution phase Fenton chemistry ...

  20. Effect of different BNCT protocols on DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal tissues in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, Elisa M.; Aromando, Romina; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Kreimann, Erica L.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Nigg, David W.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported the therapeutic success of different BNCT protocols in the treatment of oral cancer, employing the hamster cheek pouch model. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of these BNCT protocols on DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal tissue in this model and assess the potential lag in the development of second primary tumors in precancerous tissue. The data are relevant to potential control of field cancerized tissue and tolerance of normal tissue. We evaluated DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal pouch tissue 1-30 days post-BNCT mediated by BPA, GB-10 or BPA + GB-10 employing incorporation of bromo-deoxyuridine as an end-point. The BNCT-induced potential lag in the development of second primary tumors in precancerous tissue was monitored. A drastic, statistically significant reduction in DNA synthesis occurred in pacancerous tissue as early as 1 day post-BNCT and was sustained at virtually all time points until 30 days post-BNCT for all protocols. The histological categories evaluated individually within precancerous tissue (dysplasia, hyperplasia and NUMF [no unusual microscopic features]) responded similarly. DNA synthesis in normal tissue treated with BNCT oscillated around the very low pre-treatment values. A BNCT-induced lag in the development of second primary tumors was observed. BNCT induced a drastic fall in DNA synthesis in precancerous tissue that would be associated to the observed lag in the development of second primary tumors. The minimum variations in DNA synthesis in BNCT-treated normal tissue would correlate with the absence of normal tissue radiotoxicity. The present data would contribute to optimize therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of field-cancerized areas. (author)

  1. Pretreatment with ascorbic acid prevents lethal gastrointestinal syndrome in mice receiving a massive amount of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Kinoshita, Manabu; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Hiroi, Sadayuki; Sugasawa, Hidekazu; Majima, Takashi; Seki, Shuhji; Matsushita, Yoshitaro; Saitoh, Daizoh

    2010-01-01

    While bone marrow or stem cell transplantation can rescue bone marrow aplasia in patients accidentally exposed to a lethal radiation dose, radiation-induced irreversible gastrointestinal damage (GI syndrome) is fatal. We investigated the effects of ascorbic acid on radiation-induced GI syndrome in mice. Ascorbic acid (150 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to mice for 3 days, and then the mice underwent whole body irradiation (WBI). Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) 24 h after irradiation rescued mice receiving a WBI dose of less than 12 Gy. No mice receiving 14 Gy-WBI survived, because of radiation-induced GI syndrome, even if they received BMT. However, pretreatment with ascorbic acid significantly suppressed radiation-induced DNA damage in the crypt cells and prevented denudation of intestinal mucosa; therefore, ascorbic acid in combination with BMT rescued mice after 14 Gy-WBI. DNA microarray analysis demonstrated that irradiation up-regulated expressions of apoptosis-related genes in the small intestine, including those related to the caspase-9-mediated intrinsic pathway as well as the caspase-8-mediated extrinsic pathway, and down-regulated expressions of these genes in ascorbic acid-pretreated mice. Thus, pretreatment with ascorbic acid may effectively prevent radiation-induced GI syndrome. (author)

  2. NON-POLLUTING METAL SURFACE FINISHING PRETREATMENT AND PRETREATMENT/CONVERSION COATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklex, a proprietary formulation, is an alterantive to conventional metal surface pretreatments and is claimed not to produce waste or lower production or lower performance. A laboratory program was designed to evaluate Picklex in common, large scale, polluting surface finishin...

  3. Pretreatment of Reed by Wet Oxidation and Subsequent Utilization of the Pretreated Fibers for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szijarto, Nora; Kádár, Zsófia; Varga, Eniko

    2009-01-01

    lignocelluloses usually do. In the present study, wet oxidation was investigated as the pretreatment method to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of reed cellulose to soluble sugars and thus improve the convertibility of reed to ethanol. The most effective treatment increased the digestibility of reed cellulose...... of cellulose to glucose was 82.4%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated solids resulted in a final ethanol concentration as high as 8.7 g/L, yielding 73% of the theoretical....

  4. Efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture with different acupoints for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Hu, Shu-xiang; Liu, Bao-hu; Zhao, Tian-yi; Li, Bo; Liu, Yan; Li, Ming-yue; Pan, Xing-fang; Guo, Yong-ming; Chen, Ze-lin; Guo, Yi

    2015-05-12

    Many patients experience nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy treatment. Evidence demonstrates that electroacupuncture is beneficial for controlling chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). However, the acupoint or matching acupoint with the best efficacy for controlling CINV still remains unidentified. This study consists of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with four parallel arms: a control group and three electroacupuncture groups (one with Neiguan (PC6), one with Zhongwan (CV12), and one with both PC6 and CV12). The control group received standard antiemetic only, while the other three groups received electroacupuncture stimulation with different acupoints besides the standard antiemetic. The intervention is done once daily from the first day (day 1) to the fourth day (day 4) during chemotherapy treatment. The primary outcome measures include frequency of nausea, vomiting and retching. The secondary outcome measures are the grade of constipation and diarrhea, electrogastrogram, assessment of quality of life, assessment of anxiety and depression, and other adverse effects during the chemotherapy. Assessments are scheduled from one day pre-chemotherapy (day 0) to the fifth day of chemotherapy (day 5). Follow-ups are done from day 6 to day 21. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of electro-acupuncture with different acupoints in the management of CINV. The register number of randomized controlled trial is NCT02195908 . The date of registration was 21 July 2014.

  5. The impacts of pretreatment on the fermentability of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass: a comparative evaluation between ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Bruce E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment chemistry is of central importance due to its impacts on cellulosic biomass processing and biofuels conversion. Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX and dilute acid are two promising pretreatments using alkaline and acidic pH that have distinctive differences in pretreatment chemistries. Results Comparative evaluation on these two pretreatments reveal that (i AFEX-pretreated corn stover is significantly more fermentable with respect to cell growth and sugar consumption, (ii both pretreatments can achieve more than 80% of total sugar yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis of washed pretreated solids, and (iii while AFEX completely preserves plant carbohydrates, dilute acid pretreatment at 5% solids loading degrades 13% of xylose to byproducts. Conclusion The selection of pretreatment will determine the biomass-processing configuration, requirements for hydrolysate conditioning (if any and fermentation strategy. Through dilute acid pretreatment, the need for hemicellulase in biomass processing is negligible. AFEX-centered cellulosic technology can alleviate fermentation costs through reducing inoculum size and practically eliminating nutrient costs during bioconversion. However, AFEX requires supplemental xylanases as well as cellulase activity. As for long-term sustainability, AFEX has greater potential to diversify products from a cellulosic biorefinery due to lower levels of inhibitor generation and lignin loss.

  6. Pretreatment HIF-1α and GLUT-1 expressions do not correlate with outcome after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Birgitte Mayland; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Lindebjerg, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) expressions as predictors of response and survival after chemoradiotherapy in pretreatment biopsy specimens from patients with rectal cancer.......The aim of the present study was to investigate hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) expressions as predictors of response and survival after chemoradiotherapy in pretreatment biopsy specimens from patients with rectal cancer....

  7. In vivo pretreatment of Eudrilus eugeniae powder attenuates β-adrenoceptor toxicity mediated by isoproterenol in rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Jaganathan Anitha; Kadarkarai Murugan; Akon Higuchi; Abdullah A. Alarfaj; Murugan A. Munusamy; Giovanni Benelli

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to discover the potential cardioprotective function of earthworm powder (EWP) extracted from Eudrilus eugeniae on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into four groups, with six rats in each group. Certain rats were pretreated with EWP (200 mg/kg bwt) (Group III), and a myocardial infarction was then induced by subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg bwt) (Group II). Oral pretreatment of 200 mg/kg bwt of EW...

  8. The impact of albendazole treatment on the incidence of viral- and bacterial-induced diarrhea in school children in southern Vietnam: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jacqueline M; Hong, Chau Tran Thi; Trung, Nghia Ho Dang; Thi, Hoa Nhu; Minh, Chau Nguyen Ngoc; Thi, Thuy Vu; Hong, Dinh Thanh; Man, Dinh Nguyen Huy; Knowles, Sarah C L; Wolbers, Marcel; Hoang, Nhat Le Thanh; Thwaites, Guy; Graham, Andrea L; Baker, Stephen

    2016-06-06

    Anthelmintics are one of the more commonly available classes of drugs to treat infections by parasitic helminths (especially nematodes) in the human intestinal tract. As a result of their cost-effectiveness, mass school-based deworming programs are becoming routine practice in developing countries. However, experimental and clinical evidence suggests that anthelmintic treatments may increase susceptibility to other gastrointestinal infections caused by bacteria, viruses, or protozoa. Hypothesizing that anthelmintics may increase diarrheal infections in treated children, we aim to evaluate the impact of anthelmintics on the incidence of diarrheal disease caused by viral and bacterial pathogens in school children in southern Vietnam. This is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effects of albendazole treatment versus placebo on the incidence of viral- and bacterial-induced diarrhea in 350 helminth-infected and 350 helminth-uninfected Vietnamese school children aged 6-15 years. Four hundred milligrams of albendazole, or placebo treatment will be administered once every 3 months for 12 months. At the end of 12 months, all participants will receive albendazole treatment. The primary endpoint of this study is the incidence of diarrheal disease assessed by 12 months of weekly active and passive case surveillance. Secondary endpoints include the prevalence and intensities of helminth, viral, and bacterial infections, alterations in host immunity and the gut microbiota with helminth and pathogen clearance, changes in mean z scores of body weight indices over time, and the number and severity of adverse events. In order to reduce helminth burdens, anthelmintics are being routinely administered to children in developing countries. However, the effects of anthelmintic treatment on susceptibility to other diseases, including diarrheal pathogens, remain unknown. It is important to monitor for unintended consequences of drug treatments in

  9. Mechanical Stability of H3PO4-Doped PBI/Hydrophilic-Pretreated PTFE Membranes for High Temperature PEMFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jaehyung; Wang, Liang; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PBI/PTFE membrane was prepared by porous PTFE with hydrophilic surface pretreatment. • The durability of the prepared PBI/PTFE membrane was compared with pure PBI, PBI with untreated PTFE, and PBI-Nafion with untreated PTFE membranes. • Accelerated durability tests and SEM showed improved durability based the PBI/PTFE membrane with pretreated PTFE. - Abstract: A novel polybenzimidazole (PBI)/poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) composite membrane doped with phosphoric acid was fabricated for high temperature operation in a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. A hydrophilic surface pretreatment was applied to the porous PTFE matrix film to improve its interfacial adhesion to the PBI polymer, thereby avoiding the introduction of Nafion ionomer which is traditionally used as a coupling agent. The pretreated PTFE film was embedded within the composite membrane during solution-casting using 5wt% PBI/DMAc solution. The mechanical stability and durability of three types of MEAs assembled with PBI only, PBI with pretreated PTFE, and PBI-Nafion with untreated PTFE membranes were evaluated under an accelerated degradation testing protocol employing extreme temperature cycling. Degradation was characterized by recording polarization curves, hydrogen crossover, and proton resistance. Cross-sections of the membranes were examined before and after thermal cycling by scanning electron microscope. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy verified that the PBI is dispersed homogeneously in the porous PTFE matrix. Results show that the PBI composite membrane with pretreated PTFE has a lower degradation rate than the Nafion/PBI membrane with untreated PTFE. Thus, the hydrophilic pretreatment employed here greatly improved the mechanical stability of the composite membrane, which resulted in improved durability under an extreme thermal cycling regime

  10. Network protocols and sockets

    OpenAIRE

    BALEJ, Marek

    2010-01-01

    My work will deal with network protocols and sockets and their use in programming language C#. It will therefore deal programming network applications on the platform .NET from Microsoft and instruments, which C# provides to us. There will describe the tools and methods for programming network applications, and shows a description and sample applications that work with sockets and application protocols.

  11. Effects of vitamins C and E pretreatments on cadmium- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... Vitamins C and E are potent antioxidative compounds. (Padayatty et al. .... Blood was collected into lithium haparinized bottle, centrifuged at ..... Protein Kinase C and Collagen Synthesis in Rat Osteosarcoma (ROS. 17/2.8) ...

  12. Radiation pretreatment of cellulose for energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rosa, A. M.; Dela Mines, A. S.; Banzon, R. B.; Simbul-Nuguid, Z. F.

    The effect of radiation pretreatment of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated through hydrolytic reactions of cellulose. Gamma irradiation significantly increased the acid hydrolysis of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The yields of reducing sugar were higher with increasing radiation dose in these materials. The observed radiation effect varied with the cellulosic material but it correlated with neither the cellulose content nor the lignin content. Likewise, the radiation pretreatment accelerated the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and rice hull by cellulase. The irradiated rice straw appeared to be a better growth medium for the cellulolytic microorganism, Myrothecium verrucaria, than the non-irradiated material. This was attributed to increased digestibility of the cellulose by the microorganism.

  13. Radiation pretreatment of cellulose for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.M.; Dela Mines, A.S.; Banzon, R.B.; Simbul-Nuguid, Z.F.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of radiation pretreatment of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated through hydrolytic reactions of cellulose. Gamma irradiation significantly increased the acid hydrolysis of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The yields of reducing sugar were higher with increasing radiation dose in these materials. The observed radiation effect varied with the cellulose material but it correlated with neither the cellulose content nor the lignin content. Likewise, the radiation pretreatment accelerated the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and rice hull by cellulase. The irradiated rice straw appeared to be a better growth medium for the cellulolytic microorganism, Myrothecium verrucaria, than the non-irradiated material. This was attributed to increased digestibility of the cellulose by the microorganism. (author)

  14. PRETREATMENT OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doan Thai Hoa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The cost of raw materials continues to be a limiting factor in the production of bio-ethanol from traditional raw materials, such as sugar and starch. At the same time, there are large amount of agricultural residues as well as industrial wastes that are of low or negative value (due to costs of current effluent disposal methods. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of elephant grass and wood residues for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose has been investigated in this study.    Elephant grass (agricultural residue and sawdust (Pulp and Paper Industry waste with a small particulate size were treated using different dilute sulfuric acid concentrations at a temperature  of 140-170°C within 0.5-3 hours. The appropriate pretreatment conditions give the highest yield of soluble saccharides and total reducing sugars.

  15. Apple's dehydration by the irradiation pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie; Chao Yan; Shen Weiqiao; Wang Jun

    2001-01-01

    "6"0 Co γ-ray irradiation was used as a pre-treatment method to dry the apple. The aim of this study was to discover the effect factor concerning the change of the apple cell structure which would affect the speed of drhydration and the relation between the speed of hot air dehydration and the irradiation dose. The results demonstrated that with the increasing of irradiation dose. The damage of apple's vacuole membrane increased. The positive correlation was shown in slice thickness and dehydration rate, the relation of the irradiation dose and the temperature of hot air was negatively correlated. The optimum of pre-treatment was gained for slice thickness, the irradiation dose and dry temperature of hot air. (authors)

  16. Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruse, J.M.; Harrington, R.A.; Quadrel, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the minutes from the Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop sponsored by the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration in Salt Lake City, Utah, February 3--5, 1993. The Efficient Separations and Processing-Integrated Program and the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System were joint participants. This document provides the detailed minutes, including responses to questions asked, an attendance list, reproductions of the workshop presentations, and a revised chart showing technology development activities

  17. Design Criteria for Process Wastewater Pretreatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Stripping Column H13 ’Re Purpose: The purpose of this report, is to provide design criteria for pretreatment needs for ’ I. INTRODUCTION ’". discharge of...which a portion of the vessel is filled with packing. Packing materials vary from corrugated steel to bundles of fibers (Langdon et al., 1972) to beds...concentration(s) using Table 20. Wastewater treatability studies should be considered as a process-screening tool for all wastewater streams for

  18. Pretreatment on Corn Stover with Low Concentration of Formic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    the cellulose easily degraded into sugars and further fermented to ethanol. In this work, hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover at 195 degrees for 15 min with and without lower concentration of formic acid was compared in terms of sugar recoveries and ethanol fermentation. For pretreatment with formic acid...... pretreatment without formic acid. Toxicity tests of liquor parts showed that there were no inhibitions found for both pretreatment conditions. After simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the pretreated corn stover with Baker's yeast, the highest ethanol yield of 76.5% of the theoretical...

  19. Current Sterilization Protocols-An Orthodontic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Vinod Korath

    2010-01-01

    Part I of this article focuses on the working principles of various methods of sterilization with an appraisalof their effects on orthodontic instruments. Additionally,contributory factors of instrument damage is enumerated to emphasis the importance of adhering to precise protocols and manufacturer recommendations as well as in alleviating some misconceptions about sterilization induced instrument damage.

  20. Enzymatic saccharification and structural properties of industrial wood sawdust: Recycled ionic liquids pretreatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxenfans, Thomas; Buchoux, Sébastien; Larcher, Dominique; Husson, Gérard; Husson, Eric; Sarazin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 1-Ethyl-3-metylimidazolium acetate is an effective catalyst for pretreatment of hardwood and softwood sawdust. • Regeneration of cellulosic fraction from ionic liquid is discussed. • 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate can be reused at least 7 times without loss of its efficiency. • Removal of extractives and lignin with slight cellulose and xylan losses were observed. • Better cellulase accessibility to cellulose thanks to the expansion of the powder and the creation of a large porous volume. - Abstract: Wood residues constitute a promising challenge for biochemical processing into bioethanol and chemicals with competitive costs. Here, we report the impacts of pretreatments in a hydrophilic ionic liquid ([C2mim][OAc]), onto the physicochemical properties and enzymatic saccharification of softwood (spruce) and hardwood (oak) sawdust. Enzymatic saccharification of IL- pretreated sawdust is significantly increased (up to 7 times) when compared to untreated ones. Methanol, ethanol or water can be used as polar anti-solvent for the recovery of a cellulose rich fraction after dissolution in IL (i.e regeneration step) without any effect on enzymatic saccharification. Chemical, textural and structural modifications possibly induced by the IL pretreatments have been investigated through various means (Infra-red spectroscopy, NMR, X-ray diffraction) in order to correlate the observed modifications in enzymatic saccharification. This mild pretreatment seemed to mainly act in a breakdown of lignocellulosic organization leading to better cellulase accessibility to cellulose thanks to the expansion of the powder and the creation of a large porous volume (5 times more apparent porous volume). Partial removal of lignin and extractives may also contribute to the best enzymatic performances. The recyclability and reuse up to 7 times of [C2mim][OAc] is shown without the need of strictly anhydrous conditions and any alteration of the pretreatment

  1. Laser surface pretreatment of 100Cr6 bearing steel – Hardening effects and white etching zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buling, Anna; Sändker, Hendrik; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Krupp, Ulrich; Hamann-Steinmeier, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser surface pretreatment of the bearing steel 100Cr6 is performed. • Microstructural changes of the surface are examined by light microscopy and SEM. • Topographical changes are observed using white light interferometry. • Micro-hardness testing show the existence of very hard white etching zones (WEZ). • WEZ are attributed to near-surface reaustenitization and rapid quenching. • Dark etching zones (DEZ) are found at the laser path edges after laser pretreatment. - Abstract: In order to achieve a surface pretreatment of the bearing steel 100Cr6 (1–1.5 wt.% Cr) a laser-based process was used. The obtained modification may result in an optimization of the adhesive properties of the surface with respect to an anticorrosion polymer coating on the basis of PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone), which is applied on the steel surface by a laser melting technique. This work deals with the influence of the laser-based pretreatment regarding the surface microstructure and the micro-hardness of the steel, which has been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy and automated micro-hardness testing. The most suitable parameter set for the laser-based pretreatment leads to the formation of very hard white etching zones (WEZ) with a thickness of 23 μm, whereas this pretreatment also induces topographical changes. The occurrence of the white etching zones is attributed to near-surface re-austenitization and rapid quenching. Moreover, dark etching zones (DEZ) with a thickness of 32 μm are found at the laser path edges as well as underneath the white etching zones (WEZ). In these areas, the hardness is decreased due to the formation of oxides as a consequence of re-tempering.

  2. Laser surface pretreatment of 100Cr6 bearing steel – Hardening effects and white etching zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buling, Anna, E-mail: a.buling@hs-osnabrueck.de [Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Applied Sciences, 49009 Osnabrück (Germany); Sändker, Hendrik; Stollenwerk, Jochen [Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT, Steinbachstrasse 15, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Krupp, Ulrich; Hamann-Steinmeier, Angela [Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Applied Sciences, 49009 Osnabrück (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Laser surface pretreatment of the bearing steel 100Cr6 is performed. • Microstructural changes of the surface are examined by light microscopy and SEM. • Topographical changes are observed using white light interferometry. • Micro-hardness testing show the existence of very hard white etching zones (WEZ). • WEZ are attributed to near-surface reaustenitization and rapid quenching. • Dark etching zones (DEZ) are found at the laser path edges after laser pretreatment. - Abstract: In order to achieve a surface pretreatment of the bearing steel 100Cr6 (1–1.5 wt.% Cr) a laser-based process was used. The obtained modification may result in an optimization of the adhesive properties of the surface with respect to an anticorrosion polymer coating on the basis of PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone), which is applied on the steel surface by a laser melting technique. This work deals with the influence of the laser-based pretreatment regarding the surface microstructure and the micro-hardness of the steel, which has been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy and automated micro-hardness testing. The most suitable parameter set for the laser-based pretreatment leads to the formation of very hard white etching zones (WEZ) with a thickness of 23 μm, whereas this pretreatment also induces topographical changes. The occurrence of the white etching zones is attributed to near-surface re-austenitization and rapid quenching. Moreover, dark etching zones (DEZ) with a thickness of 32 μm are found at the laser path edges as well as underneath the white etching zones (WEZ). In these areas, the hardness is decreased due to the formation of oxides as a consequence of re-tempering.

  3. Cost comparison for REDC pretreatment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Homan, F.J.

    1997-06-01

    This analysis has been prepared to support the planned expenditure to provide the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) with the capability to pretreat their liquid low-level waste (LLLW) before discharging it to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) LLLW system. Pretreatment will remove most of the radioactivity, particularly the transuranic isotopes and Cs-137 from the waste to be discharged. This will render the supernates that accumulate in the storage tanks low-activity Class B low-level wastes rather than high-activity Class B or Class C wastes. The sludges will be Class C rather than remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes. When REDC wastes are commingled with other ORNL LLLW, the present-worth treatment and transport costs are higher by a factor of 1.3 for the no-pretreatment cases. This result is consistent with data from similar studies conducted at other sites. Based on the information presented in this analysis, the recommendation is to proceed with REDC treatment projects

  4. The effect of wastewater pretreatment on nanofiltration membrane performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hashlamon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Membrane fouling is considered a serious obstacle for operation and cost efficiency in wastewater treatment using nanofiltration (NF. However, pretreatment is the most practical way to reduce this prior to NF. In this research, two types of wastewaters were pretreated with different methods prior to NF to examine the effect of pretreatment on membrane fouling in terms of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD and permeate flux. Turbidity and COD were measured to assess solid foulants and organic species in the wastewater, respectively. The first sample was secondary treated sewage, which was pretreated using coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation (CFS only. Steady flux was increased from 24 L/m2h for wastewater without pretreatment to 32.1 L/m2h with pretreatment. COD was also eliminated after CFS/NF, and turbidity was reduced to 0.6 NTU. The second sample was diluted biodiesel wastewater, which was pretreated using a combination of powdered-activated carbon (PAC adsorption and CFS (PAC/CFS. Steady flux was increased from 22.3 L/m2h for wastewater without pretreatment to 28.7 L/m2h with pretreatment; biodiesel wastewater quality also improved. Turbidity was reduced from 12 to 0.6 NTU, and COD was reduced from 526 to 4 mg/L after NF with PAC/CFS pretreatment, while COD was reduced from 526 to 95 mg/L using NF without pretreatment.

  5. Reducing biomass recalcitrance via mild sodium carbonate pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmohamadsadeghi, Safoora; Chen, Zhu; Wan, Caixia

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effects of mild sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of different feedstocks (i.e., corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass). The results showed that sodium carbonate pretreatment markedly enhanced the sugar yields of the tested biomass feedstocks. The pretreated corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass gave the glucose yields of 95.1%, 62.3%, and 81.3%, respectively, after enzymatic hydrolysis. The above glucose yields of pretreated feedstocks were 2-4 times that of untreated ones. The pretreatment also enhanced the xylose yields, 4 times for corn stover and 20 times for both Miscanthus and switchgrass. Sodium carbonate pretreatment removed 40-59% lignin from the tested feedstocks while preserving most of cellulose (sodium carbonate pretreatment was effective for reducing biomass recalcitrance and subsequently improving the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Though active on RINm5F insulinoma cells and cultured pancreatic islets, recombinant IL-22 fails to modulate cytotoxicity and disease in a protocol of streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika eBerner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-22 is a cytokine displaying tissue protective and pro-regenerative functions in various preclinical disease models. Anti-bacterial, pro-proliferative, and anti-apoptotic properties mediated by activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 are key to biological functions of this IL-10 family member. Herein, we introduce RINm5F insulinoma cells as rat ß-cell line that, under the influence of IL-22, displays activation of STAT3 with induction of its downstream gene targets Socs3, Bcl3, and Reg3ß. In addition, IL-22 also activates STAT1 in this cell type. To refine those observations, IL-22 biological activity was evaluated using ex vivo cultivated murine pancreatic islets. In accord with data on RINm5F cells, islet exposure to IL-22 activated STAT3 and upregulation of STAT3-inducible Socs3, Bcl3, and STEAP4 was evident under those conditions. As these observations supported the hypothesis that IL-22 may exert protective functions in toxic ß-cell injury, application of IL-22 was investigated in murine multiple-low-dose streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes. For that purpose, recombinant IL-22 was administered thrice either immediately before and at disease onset (at d4, d6, d8 or closely thereafter (at d8, d10, d12. These two IL-22-treatment periods coincide with two early peaks of ß-cell injury detectable in this model. Notably, none of the two IL-22-treatment strategies affected diabetes incidence or blood glucose levels in STZ-treated mice. Moreover, pathological changes in islet morphology analyzed 28 days after disease induction were not ameliorated by IL-22 administration. Taken together, despite being active on rat RINm5F insulinoma cells and murine pancreatic islets, recombinant IL-22 fails to protect pancreatic ß-cells in the tested protocols from toxic effects of STZ and thus is unable to ameliorate disease in the widely used model of STZ-induced diabetes.

  7. Action of the chlorophyllin (CHLN) on the double breaking induced by gamma radiation in germinal cells of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno M, A.

    2005-01-01

    The chlorophyllin (CHLN) is a derived of the chlorophyll in the one which the atom of Mg is replaced by Cu. It has been broadly used as preservative in those foods, and in the treatment of geriatric patients. The results using different test systems have demonstrated that the CHLN reduces the DNA damage caused by different physical agents or chemical of direct action or insinuation. Another of the properties of the CHLN is it anti carcinogenic action, because it has been that inhibits the carcinogen activity of B1 (AFB1) aflatoxin and it diminishes the incidence of tumors caused for 2-amine-3-methylimidazo [4- 5f] quinoline (IQ) and it inhibits the development of colon cancer during the post-initiation phase. Recently the reports of the activity promoter of the CHLN have been increased on the genetic damage. This effect observed in Salmonella and later on in Drosophila melanogaster using, physical and chemical agents. Presently study determines the action of the CHLN before the genetic effect induced in germinal cells of Drosophila melanogaster by means of the test of the lost one of the X chromosome in ring using two protocols; the first one consisted on pretreatment with CHLN to the male ones and later on to irradiate them and in the second protocol the pretreatment with CHLN administers to the females, in both protocols its were used a litter systems. (Author)

  8. Oxidized LDL Induces Alternative Macrophage Phenotype through Activation of CD36 and PAFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Rios

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OxLDL is recognized by macrophage scavenger receptors, including CD36; we have recently found that Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor (PAFR is also involved. Since PAFR in macrophages is associated with suppressor function, we examined the effect of oxLDL on macrophage phenotype. It was found that the presence of oxLDL during macrophage differentiation induced high mRNA levels to IL-10, mannose receptor, PPARγ and arginase-1 and low levels of IL-12 and iNOS. When human THP-1 macrophages were pre-treated with oxLDL then stimulated with LPS, the production of IL-10 and TGF-β significantly increased, whereas that of IL-6 and IL-8 decreased. In murine TG-elicited macrophages, this protocol significantly reduced NO, iNOS and COX2 expression. Thus, oxLDL induced macrophage differentiation and activation towards the alternatively activated M2-phenotype. In murine macrophages, oxLDL induced TGF-β, arginase-1 and IL-10 mRNA expression, which were significantly reduced by pre-treatment with PAFR antagonists (WEB and CV or with antibodies to CD36. The mRNA expression of IL-12, RANTES and CXCL2 were not affected. We showed that this profile of macrophage activation is dependent on the engagement of both CD36 and PAFR. We conclude that oxLDL induces alternative macrophage activation by mechanisms involving CD36 and PAFR.

  9. Protocol Fuel Mix reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The protocol in this document describes a method for an Electricity Distribution Company (EDC) to account for the fuel mix of electricity that it delivers to its customers, based on the best available information. Own production, purchase and sale of electricity, and certificates trading are taken into account. In chapter 2 the actual protocol is outlined. In the appendixes additional (supporting) information is given: (A) Dutch Standard Fuel Mix, 2000; (B) Calculation of the Dutch Standard fuel mix; (C) Procedures to estimate and benchmark the fuel mix; (D) Quality management; (E) External verification; (F) Recommendation for further development of the protocol; (G) Reporting examples

  10. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  11. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  12. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  13. Isolation and characterization of new lignin streams derived from extractive-ammonia (EA) pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Costa Sousa, Leonardo [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Foston, Marcus [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Bokade, Vijay [National Chemical Lab., Pune (India); Azarpira, Ali [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Lu, Fachuang [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ralph, John [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Dale, Bruce [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Balan, Venkatesh [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-05-05

    One of the key challenges facing lignin conversion to fuels and chemicals is related to the level of carbohydrate and ash impurities found in extracted lignin. Structural modifications of lignin may also occur as a result of biomass pretreatment and harsh lignin extraction protocols. Extractive-Ammonia (EA) is a new pretreatment technology that uses liquid ammonia to cleave lignin–carbohydrate complexes, decrystallize cellulose, solubilize lignin, and selectively extract lignin from lignocellulosic biomass, enabling better utilization of both lignin and carbohydrate components in a biorefinery. The EA-based biorefinery produces two different lignin-rich streams, with different properties, that could potentially be upgraded to fuels and chemicals using green processes. Here, a water/ethanol-based fractionation method was developed to enrich the ammonia-soluble extractives, resulting in a major product stream containing 92% lignin. Detailed characterization of the various streams resulting from EA treatment, including compositional analysis, structural characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry, elemental analysis, molecular weight analysis, and thermo-gravimetric analysis provides a broad evaluation of the EA-derived lignin product stream structures and properties, assessing their potential for commercial applications. In conclusion, EA-derived lignins preserve much of lignin's functionality, including the sensitive β-aryl ether units. Furthermore, we observed nitrogen incorporation in the lignin-rich streams, notably due to the presence of hydroxycinnamoyl amides formed during ammonia pretreatment.

  14. The interplay between ventro striatal BDNF levels and the effects of valproic acid on the acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Manuel Alves; Escudeiro, Sarah Sousa; Vasconcelos, Germana Silva; Matos, Natália Castelo Branco; de Souza, Marcos Romário Matos; Patrocínio, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo; Dantas, Leonardo Pimentel; Macêdo, Danielle; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2017-11-01

    Alcohol addiction is a chronic, relapsing and progressive brain disease with serious consequences for health. Compulsive use of alcohol is associated with the capacity to change brain structures involved with the reward pathway, such as ventral striatum. Recent evidence suggests a role of chromatin remodeling in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence and addictive-like behaviors. In addition, neuroadaptive changes mediated by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to be an interesting pharmacological target for alcoholism treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of the deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) (300mg/kg) on the conditioned rewarding effects of ethanol using conditioned place preference (CPP) (15% v/v; 2g/kg). Ethanol rewarding effect was investigated using a biased protocol of CPP. BDNF levels were measured in the ventral striatum. Ethanol administration induced CPP. VPA pretreatment did not reduce ethanol-CPP acquisition. VPA pretreatment increased BDNF levels when compared to ethanol induced-CPP. VPA pretreatment increased BDNF levels even in saline conditioned mice. Taken together, our results indicate a modulatory effect of VPA on the BDNF levels in the ventral striatum. Overall, this study brings initial insights into the involvement of neurotrophic mechanisms in the ventral striatum in ethanol-induced addictive-like behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The induction of menadione stress tolerance in the marine microalga, Dunaliella viridis, through cold pretreatment and modulation of the ascorbate and glutathione pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadkar Haghjou, Maryam; Colville, Louise; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2014-11-01

    The effect of cold pretreatment on menadione tolerance was investigated in the cells of the marine microalga, Dunaliella viridis. In addition, the involvement of ascorbate and glutathione in the response to menadione stress was tested by treating cell suspensions with l-galactono-1,4-lactone, an ascorbate precursor, and buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. Menadione was highly toxic to non cold-pretreated cells, and caused a large decrease in cell number. Cold pretreatment alleviated menadione toxicity and cold pretreated cells accumulated lower levels of reactive oxygen species, and had enhanced antioxidant capacity due to increased levels of β-carotene, reduced ascorbate and total glutathione compared to non cold-pretreated cells. Cold pretreatment also altered the response to l-galactono-1,4-lactone and buthionine sulfoximine treatments. Combined l-galactono-1,4-lactone and menadione treatment was lethal in non-cold pretreated cells, but in cold-pretreated cells it had a positive effect on cell numbers compared to menadione alone. Overall, exposure of Dunaliella cells to cold stress enhanced tolerance to subsequent oxidative stress induced by menadione. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Mobile Internet Protocol Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brachfeld, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    ...) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet...

  17. Surgery of language-eloquent tumors in patients not eligible for awake surgery: the impact of a protocol based on navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation on presurgical planning and language outcome, with evidence of tumor-induced intra-hemispheric plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Giovanni; Quattropani, Maria C; Scibilia, Antonino; Conti, Alfredo; Angileri, Filippo Flavio; Esposito, Felice; Sindorio, Carmela; Cardali, Salvatore Massimiliano; Germanò, Antonino; Tomasello, Francesco

    2018-05-01

    Awake surgery and intraoperative monitoring represent the gold standard for surgery of brain tumors located in the perisylvian region of the dominant hemisphere due to their ability to map and preserve the language network during surgery. Nevertheless, in some cases awake surgery is not feasible. This could increase the risk of postoperative language deficit. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) and nTMS-based DTI fiber tracking (DTI-FT) provide a preoperative mapping and reconstruction of the cortico-subcortical language network. This can be used to plan and guide the surgical strategy to preserve the language function. The objective if this study is to describe the impact of a non-invasive preoperative protocol for mapping the language network through the nTMS and nTMS-based DTI-FT in patients not eligible for awake surgery and thereby operated under general anesthesia for suspected language-eloquent brain tumors. We reviewed clinical data of patients not eligible for awake surgery and operated under general anaesthesia between 2015 and 2016. All patients underwent nTMS language cortical mapping and nTMS-based DTI-FT of subcortical language fascicles. The nTMS findings were used to plan and guide the maximal safe resection of the tumor. The impact on postoperative language outcome and the accuracy of the nTMS-based mapping in predicting language deficits were evaluated. Twenty patients were enrolled in the study. The nTMS-based reconstruction of the language network was successful in all patients. Interestingly, we observed a significant association between tumor localization and the cortical distribution of the nTMS errors (p = 0.004), thereby suggesting an intra-hemispheric plasticity of language cortical areas, probably induced by the tumor itself. The nTMS mapping disclosed the true-eloquence of lesions in 12 (60%) of all suspected cases. In the remaining 8 cases (40%) the suspected eloquence of the lesion was disproved. The n

  18. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  19. Enhanced dewaterability of sludge during anaerobic digestion with thermal hydrolysis pretreatment: New insights through structure evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingsi; Li, Ning; Dai, Xiaohu; Tao, Wenquan; Jenkinson, Ian R; Li, Zhuo

    2017-12-19

    Comprehensive insights into the sludge digestate dewaterability were gained through porous network structure of sludge. We measured the evolution of digestate dewaterability, represented by the solid content of centrifugally dewatered cake, in high-solids sequencing batch digesters with and without thermal hydrolysis pretreatment (THP). The results show that the dewaterability of the sludge after digestion was improved by 3.5% (±0.5%) for unpretreated sludge and 5.1% (±0.4%) for thermally hydrolyzed sludge. Compared to the unpretreated sludge digestate, thermal hydrolysis pretreatment eventually resulted in an improvement of dewaterability by 4.6% (±0.5%). Smaller particle size and larger surface area of sludge were induced by thermal hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion treatments. The structure strength and compactness of sludge, represented by elastic modulus and fractal dimension respectively, decreased with increase of digestion time. The porous network structure was broken up by thermal hydrolysis pretreatment and was further weakened during anaerobic digestion, which correspondingly improved the dewaterability of digestates. The logarithm of elastic modulus increased linearly with fractal dimension regardless of the pretreatment. Both fractal dimension and elastic modulus showed linear relationship with dewaterability. The rheological characterization combined with the analysis of fractal dimension of sewage sludge porous network structure was found applicable in quantitative evaluation of sludge dewaterability, which depended positively on both thermal hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antisense pre-treatment increases gene therapy efficacy in dystrophic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccate, Cécile; Mollard, Amédée; Le Hir, Maëva; Julien, Laura; McClorey, Graham; Jarmin, Susan; Le Heron, Anita; Dickson, George; Benkhelifa-Ziyyat, Sofia; Piétri-Rouxel, France; Wood, Matthew J; Voit, Thomas; Lorain, Stéphanie

    2016-08-15

    In preclinical models for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, dystrophin restoration during adeno-associated virus (AAV)-U7-mediated exon-skipping therapy was shown to decrease drastically after six months in treated muscles. This decline in efficacy is strongly correlated with the loss of the therapeutic AAV genomes, probably due to alterations of the dystrophic myofiber membranes. To improve the membrane integrity of the dystrophic myofibers at the time of AAV-U7 injection, mdx muscles were pre-treated with a single dose of the peptide-phosphorodiamidate morpholino (PPMO) antisense oligonucleotides that induced temporary dystrophin expression at the sarcolemma. The PPMO pre-treatment allowed efficient maintenance of AAV genomes in mdx muscles and enhanced the AAV-U7 therapy effect with a ten-fold increase of the protein level after 6 months. PPMO pre-treatment was also beneficial to AAV-mediated gene therapy with transfer of micro-dystrophin cDNA into muscles. Therefore, avoiding vector genome loss after AAV injection by PPMO pre-treatment would allow efficient long-term restoration of dystrophin and the use of lower and thus safer vector doses for Duchenne patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Phytochemical screening and analgesic profile of the lyophilized aqueous extract obtained from Chrysobalanus icaco leaves in experimental protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo-Filho, Heitor G; Dias, Jessica Deise Santos; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Santos, Márcio R V; White, Pollyanna A S; Barreto, Rosana S S; Barreto, André S; Estevam, Charles S; Araujo, Silvan S; Almeida, Jackson R G S; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Quintans, Jullyana S S

    2016-12-01

    Chrysobalanus icaco L. (Chrysobalanaceae) has been used for the treatment of abdominal pain and cramps. Assess the chemical and pharmacological profile of the lyophilized aqueous extract from C. icaco leaves (AEC). Chromatographic methods were used to assess compounds from AEC. Mice were treated with vehicle (control group) or AEC (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) (group with 7-8 mice) and the analgesic profile was assessed employing the acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin, hot plate tests and hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan (CG) or tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The animal motor performance was assessed using rota-rod and grip strength tests. The chromatographic profile of AEC demonstrated the presence of terpenoid compounds. The acute pretreatment with AEC, at all doses, produced a significant (p acetic acid-induced writhing test. In the formalin test, AEC were effective in the second phase (p analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. So, these results corroborate the experiments using the AEC in inflammatory pain protocols. Our results suggest that AEC act against inflammatory pain.

  2. Rheological evaluation of pretreated cladding removal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, D.; Chan, M.K.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Cladding removal waste (CRW) contains concentrations of transuranic (TRU) elements in the 80 to 350 nCi/g range. This waste will require pretreatment before it can be disposed of as glass or grout at Hanford. The CRW will be pretreated with a rare earth strike and solids removal by centrifugation to segregate the TRU fraction from the non-TRU fraction of the waste. The centrifuge centrate will be neutralized with sodium hydroxide. This neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) is expected to be suitable for grouting. The TRU solids removed by centrifugation will be vitrified. The goal of the Rheological Evaluation of Pretreated Cladding Removal Waste Program was to evaluate those rheological and transport properties critical to assuring successful handling of the NCRW and TRU solids streams and to demonstrate transfers in a semi-prototypic pumping environment. This goal was achieved by a combination of laboratory and pilot-scale evaluations. The results obtained during these evaluations were correlated with classical rheological models and scaled-up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. The Program used simulated NCRW and TRU solid slurries. Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) provided 150 gallons of simulated CRW and 5 gallons of simulated TRU solid slurry. The simulated CRW was neutralized by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The physical and rheological properties of the NCRW and TRU solid slurries were evaluated in the laboratory. The properties displayed by NCRW allowed it to be classified as a pseudoplastic or yield-pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The TRU solids slurry contained very few solids. This slurry exhibited the properties associated with a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid

  3. Surface pretreatments for medical application of adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Michael

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medical implants and prostheses (artificial hips, tendono- and ligament plasties usually are multi-component systems that may be machined from one of three material classes: metals, plastics and ceramics. Typically, the body-sided bonding element is bone. The purpose of this contribution is to describe developments carried out to optimize the techniques , connecting prosthesis to bone, to be joined by an adhesive bone cement at their interface. Although bonding of organic polymers to inorganic or organic surfaces and to bone has a long history, there remains a serious obstacle in realizing long-term high-bonding strengths in the in vivo body environment of ever present high humidity. Therefore, different pretreatments, individually adapted to the actual combination of materials, are needed to assure long term adhesive strength and stability against hydrolysis. This pretreatment for metal alloys may be silica layering; for PE-plastics, a specific plasma activation; and for bone, amphiphilic layering systems such that the hydrophilic properties of bone become better adapted to the hydrophobic properties of the bone cement. Amphiphilic layering systems are related to those developed in dentistry for dentine bonding. Specific pretreatment can significantly increase bond strengths, particularly after long term immersion in water under conditions similar to those in the human body. The bond strength between bone and plastic for example can be increased by a factor approaching 50 (pealing work increasing from 30 N/m to 1500 N/m. This review article summarizes the multi-disciplined subject of adhesion and adhesives, considering the technology involved in the formation and mechanical performance of adhesives joints inside the human body.

  4. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pretreated Coconut Coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarningrum Fatmawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of concentration and temperature on the cellulose and lignin content, and the reducing sugars produced in the enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut coir. In this research, the coconut coir is pretreated using 3%, 7%, and 11% NaOH solution at 60oC, 80oC, and 100oC. The pretreated coir were assayed by measuring the amount of cellulose and lignin and then hydrolysed using Celluclast and Novozyme 188 under various temperature (30oC, 40oC, 50oC and pH (3, 4, 5. The hydrolysis results were assayed for the reducing sugar content. The results showed that the alkaline delignification was effective to reduce lignin and to increase the cellulose content of the coir. The best delignification condition was observed at 11% NaOH solution and 100oC which removed 14,53% of lignin and increased the cellulose content up to 50,23%. The best condition of the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained at 50oC and pH 4 which produced 7,57 gr/L reducing sugar. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 2nd October 2012; Revised: 31st January 2013; Accepted: 6th February 2013[How to Cite: Fatmawati, A., Agustriyanto, R., Liasari, Y. (2013. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pre-treated Coconut Coir. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 34-39 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39] | View in  |

  5. Energy consumption modeling during dairy sewage pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowski Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in a dairy WWTP located in north-eastern Poland with the average flow of 546 m3d-1 and PE 11500 in 2016. Energy consumption was measured with the help of Lumel 3-phase network parameter transducers installed within the plant. The modeling was conducted based on the quantity and quality of raw sewage, after its screening, averaging and dissolved air flotation. The following parameters were determined: BOD5, COD. N-total and P-total. During the research period. 15 measurement series were carried out. Pollution loads removed in primary treatment varied from 167.0 to 803.5 kgO2d-1 and 1205.9 to 10032 kgO2d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. The energy consumption share during dairy pretreatment in relation to the total energy consumption was in the range from 13.8 to 28.5% with the mean value of 18.7% during the research period. Energy consumption indicators relating to removed pollution loads for primary treatment were established with the mean values of 0.74 and 0.83 kWhkg-1d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. An attempt was made to determine the influence of raw sewage characteristics and pretreatment efficiency on energy consumption of the object. A model of energy consumption during pretreatment was estimated according to the experimental data obtained in the research period. It was modeled using the linear regression model and principal component analysis.

  6. Pretreatment with UV light renders the chromatin in human fibroblasts more susceptible to the DNA-damaging agents bleomycin, gamma radiation and 8-methoxypsoralen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungman, Mats

    1989-01-01

    Confluent human fibroblast cultures were pretreated with either 254 nm UV light (UV) or methyl methanesulphonate (MMS), incubated at 37 0 C and subsequently challenged on ice with bleomycin (BLM), gamma-radiation or 8-methoxy-psoralen (MOP). The resulting number of challenge-induced DNA damages (measured as DNA strand breaks or cross-links) were compared with the numbers induced in similarly challenged but non-pretreated control cells. It was found that the timing of the subsequent challenge of cells pretreated with UV did significantly affect the amount of induced DNA damage. When the challenging agents were administered after a 10-20 min incubation period following UV pretreatment, the amount of induced DNA damage was increased 50% over control cells. In contrast, the timing of the subsequent challenge of cells pretreated with MMS has no influence on the level of challenge-induced damage. It is hypothesized that UV-irradiated chromatin undergoes a time-dependent decondensation that renders it more susceptible to the induction of strand breaks and cross-links by BLM, gamma-radiation and MOP. A possible role for chromatin decondensation in UV-induced excision repair is discussed. (author)

  7. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Deisy Y.

    The performance of soybean hulls and forage sorghum as feedstocks for ethanol production was studied. The main goal of this research was to increase fermentable sugars' yield through high-efficiency pretreatment technology. Soybean hulls are a potential feedstock for production of bio-ethanol due to their high carbohydrate content (≈50%) of nearly 37% cellulose. Soybean hulls could be the ideal feedstock for fuel ethanol production, because they are abundant and require no special harvesting and additional transportation costs as they are already in the plant. Dilute acid and modified steam-explosion were used as pretreatment technologies to increase fermentable sugars yields. Effects of reaction time, temperature, acid concentration and type of acid on hydrolysis of hemicellulose in soybean hulls and total sugar yields were studied. Optimum pretreatment parameters and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for converting soybean hulls into fermentable sugars were identified. The combination of acid (H2SO4, 2% w/v) and steam (140°C, 30 min) efficiently solubilized the hemicellulose, giving a pentose yield of 96%. Sorghum is a tropical grass grown primarily in semiarid and dry parts of the world, especially in areas too dry for corn. The production of sorghum results in about 30 million tons of byproducts mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Forage sorghum such as brown midrib (BMR) sorghum for ethanol production has generated much interest since this trait is characterized genetically by lower lignin concentrations in the plant compared with conventional types. Three varieties of forage sorghum and one variety of regular sorghum were characterized and evaluated as feedstock for fermentable sugar production. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction were used to determine changes in structure and chemical composition of forage sorghum before and after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

  8. Effect of Hot-Pressing Temperature on the Subsequent Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation Performance of SPORL Pretreated Forest Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingzhi Zhang; Andrea Laguna; Craig Clemons; Michael P. Wolcott; Rolland Gleisner; J.Y. Zhu; Xu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Methods to increase the energy density ofbiofuel feedstock for shipment are important towards improving supply chain efficiency in upstream processes. Towards this end, densified pretreated lignocellulosic biomass was produced using hot-pressing. The effects offiber hornification induced by hot-pressing on enzymatic digestibilities of lodgepolepine and poplar NE222...

  9. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS PRETREATMENT ON PYROLYSIS CHARACTERISTICS OF NAPIER GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISAH YAKUB MOHAMMED

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of non-catalytic aqueous pretretment on pyrolysis characteristics of Napier grass was investigated using thermogravimetric analyser. Increasing pretreatment severity (0.0-2.0 improved pyrolysis process. The residual mass at the end of pyrolysis for the pretreated sample was about 50% less compared to the untreated sample. Kinetics of the process was evaluated using order based model and both pretreated and untreated samples followed first order reaction. The activation energy of the pretreated samples was similar and higher than that of the raw sample which was attributed to faster rate of decomposition due removal of hetromaterials (ash, extractives and some hemicellulose in the pretreatment stage. Finally, this pretreatment method has demonstrated effectiveness for the removal of pyrolysis retardants and will improve the quantity and quality of bio-oil yield.

  10. Impact of pretreatment on colour and texture of watermelon rind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaselvi, K.; Alagusundaram, K.; Kavitha, C.; Arumuganathan, T.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of osmotic dehydration pretreatment on water loss, solid gain, colour and textural change was investigated. Watermelon rind 1 x 1 cm size was immersed in sucrose solution of 40, 50 and 60° Brix after pretreatment with microwave and conventional boiling in water for 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively. Water loss and solid gain increased with the time of cooking and sugar concentration. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher water loss and solid gain. Increase in the time of cooking decreased the brightness of all the samples. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher `b' values than conventionally pretreated ones. There was no significant difference (P≤0.05) in texture profile analysis parameters except for hardness. Hardness decreased with increase in time of cooking and sugar concentration. Second order regression model was developed for water loss and solid gain of microwave and conventional pretreated watermelon rind.

  11. The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper pretreated by fungal pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The fungal pretreatment effect on chemical structural and morphological changes of Betung Bamboo was evaluated based on its biomass components after being cultivated by white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor. Betung bamboo powder (15 g was exposed to liquid inoculum of white rot fungi and incubated at 270C for 15, 30 and 45 days. The treated samples were then characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and SEM-EDS analyses. Cultivation for 30 days with 5 and 10% loadings retained greater selectivity compared to that of the other treatments. FTIR spectra demonstrated that the fungus affected the decreasing of functional group quantities without changing the functional groups. The decrease in intensity at wave number of 1246 cm-1 (guaiacyl of lignin was greater than that at wave number of 1328 cm-1 (deformation combination of syringyl and xylan after fungal treatment. X-ray analysis showed the pretreated samples had a higher crystallinity than the untreated ones which might be due to the cleavage of amorphous fractions of cellulose. The pretreated samples have more fragile than the untreated ones confirmed by SEM. Crystalline allomorph calculated by XRD analysis showed that fungus pretreatment for 30 days has transformed triclinic structure of cellulose to monoclinic structure.

  12. Microbial Lipid Production from Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Pecan Nutshell Pretreated by Combined Pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lizhen; Qian, Hanyu; He, Yucai

    2017-12-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel composed of monoalkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids derived from renewable biomass sources. In this study, biomass waste pecan nutshell (PS) was attempted to be converted into microbial oil. For effective utilization of PS, sequential pretreatment with ethylene glycol-H 2 SO 4 -water (78:2:20, wt:wt:wt) at 130 °C for 30 min and aqueous ammonia (25 wt%) at 50 °C for 24 h was used to enhance its enzymatic saccharification. Significant linear correlation was obtained about delignification-saccharification (R 2  = 0.9507). SEM and FTIR results indicated that combination pretreatment could effectively remove lignin and xylan in PS for promoting its enzymatic saccharification. After 72 h, the reducing sugars from the hydrolysis of 50 g/L pretreated PS by combination pretreatment could be obtained at 73.6% yield. Using the recovered PS hydrolysates containing 20 g/L glucose as carbon source, microbial lipids produced from the PS hydrolysates by Rhodococcus opacus ACCC41043. Four fatty acids including palmitic acid (C16:0; 23.1%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1; 22.4%), stearic acid (C18:0; 15.3%), and oleic acid (C18:1; 23.9%) were distributed in total fatty acids. In conclusion, this strategy has potential application in the future.

  13. Electroacupuncture prevents endothelial dysfunction induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury via a cyclooxygenase-2-dependent mechanism: A randomized controlled crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Min Kathy Lee

    Full Text Available Exploring clinically effective methods to reduce ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury in humans is critical. Several drugs have shown protective effects, but studies using other interventions have been rare. Electroacupuncture (EA has induced similar protection in several animal studies but no study has investigated how the effects could be translated and reproduced in humans. This study aimed to explore the potential effect and mechanisms of EA in IR-induced endothelial dysfunction in humans.This is a prospective, randomized, crossover, sham-controlled trial consisting of two protocols. Protocol 1 was a crossover study to investigate the effect of EA on IR-induced endothelial dysfunction. Twenty healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to EA or sham EA (sham. Flow mediated dilation (FMD of the brachial artery (BA, nitroglycerin-mediated endothelial independent dilation, blood pressure before and after IR were measured. In protocol 2, seven volunteers were administered COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (200 mg orally twice daily for five days. After consumption, volunteers underwent FMD before and after IR identical to protocol 1.In protocol 1, baseline BA diameter, Pre-IR BA diameter and FMD were similar between the two groups (p = NS. After IR, sham group showed significantly blunted FMD (Pre-IR: 11.41 ± 3.10%, Post-IR: 4.49 ± 2.04%, p < 0.001. However, EA protected this blunted FMD (Pre-IR: 10.96 ± 5.30%, Post-IR: 9.47 ± 5.23%, p = NS, p < 0.05 compared with sham EA after IR. In protocol 2, this protective effect was completely abolished by pre-treatment with celecoxib (Pre-IR: 11.05 ± 3.27%; Post-IR: 4.20 ± 1.68%, p = 0.001.EA may prevent IR-induced endothelial dysfunction via a COX-2 dependent mechanism.

  14. Electroacupuncture prevents endothelial dysfunction induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury via a cyclooxygenase-2-dependent mechanism: A randomized controlled crossover trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jimin; Woo, Jong Shin; Leem, Jungtae; Park, Jun Hyeong; Lee, Sanghoon; Chung, Hyemoon; Lee, Jung Myung; Kim, Jin-Bae; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Kwon Sam; Kim, Weon

    2017-01-01

    Objective Exploring clinically effective methods to reduce ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in humans is critical. Several drugs have shown protective effects, but studies using other interventions have been rare. Electroacupuncture (EA) has induced similar protection in several animal studies but no study has investigated how the effects could be translated and reproduced in humans. This study aimed to explore the potential effect and mechanisms of EA in IR-induced endothelial dysfunction in humans. Methods This is a prospective, randomized, crossover, sham-controlled trial consisting of two protocols. Protocol 1 was a crossover study to investigate the effect of EA on IR-induced endothelial dysfunction. Twenty healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to EA or sham EA (sham). Flow mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery (BA), nitroglycerin-mediated endothelial independent dilation, blood pressure before and after IR were measured. In protocol 2, seven volunteers were administered COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (200 mg orally twice daily) for five days. After consumption, volunteers underwent FMD before and after IR identical to protocol 1. Results In protocol 1, baseline BA diameter, Pre-IR BA diameter and FMD were similar between the two groups (p = NS). After IR, sham group showed significantly blunted FMD (Pre-IR: 11.41 ± 3.10%, Post-IR: 4.49 ± 2.04%, p < 0.001). However, EA protected this blunted FMD (Pre-IR: 10.96 ± 5.30%, Post-IR: 9.47 ± 5.23%, p = NS, p < 0.05 compared with sham EA after IR). In protocol 2, this protective effect was completely abolished by pre-treatment with celecoxib (Pre-IR: 11.05 ± 3.27%; Post-IR: 4.20 ± 1.68%, p = 0.001). Conclusion EA may prevent IR-induced endothelial dysfunction via a COX-2 dependent mechanism. PMID:28591155

  15. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION TESTING WITH INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM FEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING DL

    2008-01-01

    The fractional crystallization process was developed as a pretreatment method for saltcake waste retrieved from Hanford single-shell tanks (SST). The process separates the retrieved SST waste into a high-level waste stream containing the bulk of the radionuclides and a low-activity waste stream containing the bulk of the nonradioactive sodium salts. The Interim Pretreatment System project shifted the focus on pretreatment planning from SST waste to double-shell tank waste

  16. Cellulose conversion of corn pericarp without pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Orrego, David; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Ladisch, Michael R

    2017-12-01

    We report enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose in unpretreated pericarp at a cellulase loading of 0.25FPU/g pericarp solids using a phenol tolerant Aspergillus niger pectinase preparation. The overall protein added was 5mg/g and gave 98% cellulose conversion in 72h. However, for double the amount of enzyme from Trichoderma reesei, which is significantly less tolerant to phenols, conversion was only 16%. The key to achieving high conversion without pretreatment is combining phenol inhibition-resistant enzymes (such as from A. niger) with unground pericarp from which release of phenols is minimal. Size reduction of the pericarp, which is typically carried out in a corn-to-ethanol process, where corn is first ground to a fine powder, causes release of highly inhibitory phenols that interfere with cellulase enzyme activity. This work demonstrates hydrolysis without pretreatment of large particulate pericarp is a viable pathway for directly producing cellulose ethanol in corn ethanol plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08

  18. Biologically Pre-Treated Habitation Waste Water as a Sustainable Green Urine Pre-Treat Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Thompson, Bret; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Morse, Audra; Meyer, Caitlin; Callahan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The ability to recover water from urine and flush water is a critical process to allow long term sustainable human habitation in space or bases on the moon or mars. Organic N present as urea or similar compounds can hydrolyze producing free ammonia. This reaction results in an increase in the pH converting ammonium to ammonia which is volatile and not removed by distillation. The increase in pH will also cause precipitation reactions to occur. In order to prevent this, urine on ISS is combined with a pretreat solution. While use of a pretreatment solution has been successful, there are numerous draw backs including: storage and use of highly hazardous solutions, limitations on water recovery (less than 85%), and production of brine with pore dewatering characteristics. We evaluated the use of biologically treated habitation wastewaters (ISS and early planetary base) to replace the current pretreat solution. We evaluated both amended and un-amended bioreactor effluent. For the amended effluent, we evaluated "green" pretreat chemicals including citric acid and citric acid amended with benzoic acid. We used a mock urine/air separator modeled after the urine collection assembly on ISS. The urine/air separator was challenged continually for >6 months. Depending on the test point, the separator was challenged daily with donated urine and flushed with amended or un-amended reactor effluent. We monitored the pH of the urine, flush solution and residual pH in the urine/air separator after each urine event. We also evaluated solids production and biological growth. Our results support the use of both un-amended and amended bioreactor effluent to maintain the operability of the urine /air separator. The ability to use bioreactor effluent could decrease consumable cost, reduce hazards associated with current pre-treat chemicals, allow other membrane based desalination processes to be utilized, and improve brine characteristics.

  19. Amelioration of the cyclophosphamide induced genotoxic damage in mice by the ethanolic extract of Equisetum arvense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kour, Jasbir; Ali, Md Niamat; Ganaie, Hilal Ahmad; Tabassum, Nahida

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the potential of the plant E. arvense against the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects induced by cyclophosphamide (chemotherapeutic agent) in the bone marrow cells of mice using the Chromosome assay (CA) and Mitotic index (MI) in vivo as the biomarkers. The study was performed following 3 protocols: pre-treatment, simultaneous treatment and post-treatment with the ethanolic extract of the plant. The results demonstrated that the plant extract was not cytotoxic and mutagenic and has a protective effect against the mutagenicity induced by cyclophosphamide in pre, simultaneous and post treatments and against its cytotoxicity as well. Because of its ability to prevent chromosomal damage , E. arvense is likely to open an interesting field concerning its possible use in clinical applications, most importantly in cancer as a chemopreventive agent or even as a coadjuvant to chemotherapy to reduce the side effects associated with it.

  20. 40 CFR 407.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Vegetables Subcategory § 407.74 Pretreatment standards for existing sources...

  1. The Effect of Ultrasound Pretreatment on Poplar Wood Dimensional Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Qiu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dimensional stability is a key property of wood that significantly affects its applications. The effect of an ultrasound pretreatment on poplar wood (Populous tomentosa dimensional stability was examined. During the pretreatments, wood samples were immersed in distilled water and treated ultrasonically under three different powers and frequencies. The samples were then analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The chemical transformation of the cell-wall material was studied and then associated with the change of water absorption and the swelling coefficient. The results showed that the water absorption decreased after the ultrasonic pretreatment. The axial and radial swelling coefficients of the pretreated samples decreased, while the tangential swelling coefficients increased. The volumetric swelling coefficient of pretreated specimens fluctuated near 4.48% (the volumetric swelling coefficient of untreated wood. Ultrasonic pretreatment increased the number of hydrophilic groups, such as the hydroxyl, acetyl, and uronic ester groups. Meanwhile, the pretreatment also increased the degree of crystallinity and reduced the available polar groups. These two factors together caused the change of the moisture absorption and the swelling coefficient of the pretreated wood. These conclusions suggest that the ultrasonic pretreatment is a promising method for further chemical modification of wood.

  2. 40 CFR 427.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 427.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to...

  4. 40 CFR 417.84 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.84 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source...

  5. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A nonhazardous urine pretreatment system prototype is proposed that will stabilize urine against biological growth or chemical instabilities without using hazardous...

  6. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel urine pretreatment that will prevent biological growth or chemical instabilities in urine without using hazardous chemicals is proposed. Untreated urine...

  7. Feasibility of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Maize Silage for Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    The potential of maize silage as a feedstock to produce bioethanol was evaluated in the present study. The hydrothermal pretreatment with five different pretreatment severity factors (PSF) was employed to pretreat the maize silage and compared in terms of sugar recovery, toxic test, and ethanol...... the liquors from the five conditions were not toxic to the Baker’s yeast. Pretreatment under 195°C for 7 min had the similar PSF with that of 185°C for 15 min, and both gave the higher ethanol concentration of 19.92 and 19.98 g/L, respectively. The ethanol concentration from untreated maize silage was only 7...

  8. In silico toxicology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Glenn J; Ahlberg, Ernst; Akahori, Yumi; Allen, David; Amberg, Alexander; Anger, Lennart T; Aptula, Aynur; Auerbach, Scott; Beilke, Lisa; Bellion, Phillip; Benigni, Romualdo; Bercu, Joel; Booth, Ewan D; Bower, Dave; Brigo, Alessandro; Burden, Natalie; Cammerer, Zoryana; Cronin, Mark T D; Cross, Kevin P; Custer, Laura; Dettwiler, Magdalena; Dobo, Krista; Ford, Kevin A; Fortin, Marie C; Gad-McDonald, Samantha E; Gellatly, Nichola; Gervais, Véronique; Glover, Kyle P; Glowienke, Susanne; Van Gompel, Jacky; Gutsell, Steve; Hardy, Barry; Harvey, James S; Hillegass, Jedd; Honma, Masamitsu; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hughes, Kathy; Johnson, Candice; Jolly, Robert; Jones, David; Kemper, Ray; Kenyon, Michelle O; Kim, Marlene T; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Kulkarni, Sunil A; Kümmerer, Klaus; Leavitt, Penny; Majer, Bernhard; Masten, Scott; Miller, Scott; Moser, Janet; Mumtaz, Moiz; Muster, Wolfgang; Neilson, Louise; Oprea, Tudor I; Patlewicz, Grace; Paulino, Alexandre; Lo Piparo, Elena; Powley, Mark; Quigley, Donald P; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Ruiz, Patricia; Schilter, Benoit; Serafimova, Rositsa; Simpson, Wendy; Stavitskaya, Lidiya; Stidl, Reinhard; Suarez-Rodriguez, Diana; Szabo, David T; Teasdale, Andrew; Trejo-Martin, Alejandra; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vuorinen, Anna; Wall, Brian A; Watts, Pete; White, Angela T; Wichard, Joerg; Witt, Kristine L; Woolley, Adam; Woolley, David; Zwickl, Craig; Hasselgren, Catrin

    2018-04-17

    The present publication surveys several applications of in silico (i.e., computational) toxicology approaches across different industries and institutions. It highlights the need to develop standardized protocols when conducting toxicity-related predictions. This contribution articulates the information needed for protocols to support in silico predictions for major toxicological endpoints of concern (e.g., genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity, acute toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity) across several industries and regulatory bodies. Such novel in silico toxicology (IST) protocols, when fully developed and implemented, will ensure in silico toxicological assessments are performed and evaluated in a consistent, reproducible, and well-documented manner across industries and regulatory bodies to support wider uptake and acceptance of the approaches. The development of IST protocols is an initiative developed through a collaboration among an international consortium to reflect the state-of-the-art in in silico toxicology for hazard identification and characterization. A general outline for describing the development of such protocols is included and it is based on in silico predictions and/or available experimental data for a defined series of relevant toxicological effects or mechanisms. The publication presents a novel approach for determining the reliability of in silico predictions alongside experimental data. In addition, we discuss how to determine the level of confidence in the assessment based on the relevance and reliability of the information. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Effect of pretreatment severity on accumulation of major degradation products from dilute acid pretreated corn stover and subsequent inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Byung-Hwan; van Walsum, G Peter

    2012-09-01

    The concept of reaction severity, which combines residence time and temperature, is often used in the pulp and paper and biorefining industries. The influence of corn stover pretreatment severity on yield of sugar and major degradation products and subsequent effects on enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis was investigated. The pretreatment residence time and temperature, combined into the severity factor (Log R(o)), were varied with constant acid concentration. With increasing severity, increasing concentrations of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) coincided with decreasing yields of oligosaccharides. With further increase in severity factor, the concentrations of furans decreased, while the formation of formic acid and lactic acid increased. For example, from severity 3.87 to 4.32, xylose decreased from 6.39 to 5.26 mg/mL, while furfural increased from 1.04 to 1.33 mg/mL; as the severity was further increased to 4.42, furfural diminished to 1.23 mg/mL as formate rose from 0.62 to 1.83 mg/mL. The effects of dilute acid hydrolyzate, acetic acid, and lignin, in particular, on enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated with a rapid microassay method. The microplate method gave considerable time and cost savings compared to the traditional assay protocol, and it is applicable to a broad range of lignocellulosic substrates.

  10. Free ammonia pre-treatment of secondary sludge significantly increases anaerobic methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Dongbo; Sun, Jing; Wang, Qilin

    2017-07-01

    Energy recovery in the form of methane from sludge/wastewater is restricted by the poor and slow biodegradability of secondary sludge. An innovative pre-treatment technology using free ammonia (FA, i.e. NH 3 ) was proposed in this study to increase anaerobic methane production. The solubilisation of secondary sludge was significantly increased after FA pre-treatment at up to 680 mg NH 3 -N/L for 1 day, under which the solubilisation (i.e. 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS; SCOD: soluble chemical oxygen demand; VS: volatile solids) was >10 times higher than that without FA pre-treatment (i.e. 0.03 mg SCOD/mg VS). Biochemical methane potential assays showed that FA pre-treatment at above 250 mg NH 3 -N/L is effective in improving anaerobic methane production. The highest improvement in biochemical methane potential (B 0 ) and hydrolysis rate (k) was achieved at FA concentrations of 420-680 mg NH 3 -N/L, and was determined as approximately 22% (from 160 to 195 L CH 4 /kg VS added) and 140% (from 0.22 to 0.53 d -1 ) compared to the secondary sludge without pre-treatment. More analysis revealed that the FA induced improvement in B 0 and k could be attributed to the rapidly biodegradable substances rather than the slowly biodegradable substances. Economic and environmental analyses showed that the FA-based technology is economically favourable and environmentally friendly. Since this FA technology aims to use the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) waste (i.e. anaerobic digestion liquor) to enhance methane production from the WWTPs, it will set an example for the paradigm shift of the WWTPs from 'linear economy' to 'circular economy'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adsorption and desorption of Cu2+ on paddy soil aggregates pretreated with different levels of phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jun; Wang, Wenqin; Wu, Wenchen; Gao, Jianbo; Dong, Changxun

    2017-05-01

    Interactions between anions and cations are important for understanding the behaviors of chemical pollutants and their potential risks in the environment. Here we prepared soil aggregates of a yellow paddy soil from the Taihu Lake region, and investigated the effects of phosphate (P) pretreatment on adsorption-desorption of Cu 2+ of soil aggregates, free iron oxyhydrates-removed soil aggregates, goethite, and kaolinite with batch adsorption method. The results showed that Cu 2+ adsorption was reduced on the aggregates pretreated with low concentrations of P, and promoted with high concentrations of P, showing a V-shaped change. Compared with the untreated aggregates, the adsorption capacity of Cu 2+ was reduced when P application rates were lower than 260, 220, 130 and 110mg/kg for coarse, clay, silt and fine sand fractions, respectively. On the contrary, the adsorption capacity of Cu 2+ was higher on P-pretreated soil aggregates than on the control ones when P application rates were greater than those values. However, the desorption of Cu 2+ was enhanced at low levels of P, but suppressed at high levels of P, displaying an inverted V-shaped change over P adsorption. The Cu 2+ adsorption by the aggregate particles with and without P pretreatments was well described by the Freundlich equation. Similar results were obtained on P-pretreated goethite. However, such P effects on Cu 2+ adsorption-desorption were not observed on kaolinite and free iron oxyhydrates-removed soil aggregates. The present results indicate that goethite is one of the main soil substances responsible for the P-induced promotion and inhibition of Cu 2+ adsorption. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. The Retentive Strength of Cemented Zirconium Oxide Crowns after Dentin Pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste Containing 8% Arginine and Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilo, Raphael; Harel, Noga; Nissan, Joseph; Levartovsky, Shifra

    2016-01-01

    The effect of dentin pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate on the retention of zirconium oxide (Y-TZP) crowns was tested. Forty molar teeth were mounted and prepared using a standardized protocol. Y-TZP crowns were produced using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology. The 40 prepared teeth were either pretreated with Desensitizing Paste or not pretreated. After two weeks, each group was subdivided into two groups, cemented with either Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC) or Self Adhesive Resin Cement (SARC)). Prior to cementation, the surface areas of the prepared teeth were measured. After aging, the cemented crown-tooth assemblies were tested for retentive strength using a universal testing machine. The debonded surfaces of the teeth and crowns were examined microscopically at 10× magnification. Pretreating the dentin surfaces with Desensitizing Paste prior to cementation did not affect the retention of the Y-TZP crowns. The retentive values for RMGIC (3.04 ± 0.77 MPa) were significantly higher than those for SARC (2.28 ± 0.58 MPa). The predominant failure modes for the RMGIC and SARC were adhesive cement-dentin and adhesive cement-crown, respectively. An 8.0% arginine and calcium carbonate in-office desensitizing paste can be safely used to reduce post-cementation sensitivity without reducing the retentive strength of Y-TZP crowns. PMID:27023532

  13. The Retentive Strength of Cemented Zirconium Oxide Crowns after Dentin Pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste Containing 8% Arginine and Calcium Carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Pilo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dentin pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate on the retention of zirconium oxide (Y-TZP crowns was tested. Forty molar teeth were mounted and prepared using a standardized protocol. Y-TZP crowns were produced using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM technology. The 40 prepared teeth were either pretreated with Desensitizing Paste or not pretreated. After two weeks, each group was subdivided into two groups, cemented with either Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC or Self Adhesive Resin Cement (SARC. Prior to cementation, the surface areas of the prepared teeth were measured. After aging, the cemented crown-tooth assemblies were tested for retentive strength using a universal testing machine. The debonded surfaces of the teeth and crowns were examined microscopically at 10× magnification. Pretreating the dentin surfaces with Desensitizing Paste prior to cementation did not affect the retention of the Y-TZP crowns. The retentive values for RMGIC (3.04 ± 0.77 MPa were significantly higher than those for SARC (2.28 ± 0.58 MPa. The predominant failure modes for the RMGIC and SARC were adhesive cement-dentin and adhesive cement-crown, respectively. An 8.0% arginine and calcium carbonate in-office desensitizing paste can be safely used to reduce post-cementation sensitivity without reducing the retentive strength of Y-TZP crowns.

  14. Business protocol in integrated Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelová, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The first chapter devotes to definitions of basic terms such as protocol or business protocol, to differences between protocol and etiquette, and between social etiquette and business etiquette. The second chapter focuses on the factors influencing the European business protocol. The third chapter is devoted to the etiquette of business protocol in the European countries. It touches the topics such as punctuality and planning of business appointment, greeting, business cards, dress and appear...

  15. Security Protocols in a Nutshell

    OpenAIRE

    Toorani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Security protocols are building blocks in secure communications. They deploy some security mechanisms to provide certain security services. Security protocols are considered abstract when analyzed, but they can have extra vulnerabilities when implemented. This manuscript provides a holistic study on security protocols. It reviews foundations of security protocols, taxonomy of attacks on security protocols and their implementations, and different methods and models for security analysis of pro...

  16. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  17. Pretreatment with oleic acid accelerates the entrance into the mitotic cycle of EGF-stimulated fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugaza, J L; Casabiell, X A; Bokser, L; Eiras, A; Beiras, A; Casanueva, F F

    1995-07-01

    We have previously demonstrated that pretreatment of several cell lines with cis-unsaturated fatty acids, like oleic acid, blocks epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced early ionic signals, and in particular the [Ca2+]i rise. In the present work we show that this blockade does not alter EGF-stimulated cellular proliferation evaluated by direct cell counting, but induces a powerful enhancement in the pulsed thymidine incorporation assay. The lack of effect of oleic acid on EGF-stimulated cellular proliferation was confirmed by repeated cell counts, cumulative thymidine incorporation, and protein synthesis, but a clear synergistic effect between oleic acid and EGF was again obtained by means of time course experiments with pulsed thymidine. Combined flow cytometry analysis and cell counts at earlier times in EGF-stimulated cells showed that oleic acids accelerates the entrance of cells into the replicative cycle leading to an earlier cell division. Afterward, these oleic acid-pretreated cells became delayed by an unknown compensatory mechanism in such a way that at 48 h post-EGF, the cell count in control and oleic acid-pretreated cells was equal. In conclusion (a) oleic acid accelerates or enhances the EGF mitogenic action and (b) in the long term cells compensate the initial perturbation with respect to untreated cells. As a side observation, the widely employed pulsed thymidine incorporation method as a measure of cell division could be extremely misleading unless experimental conditions are well controlled.

  18. Examining recombinant human TSH primed {sup 131}I therapy protocol in patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma: comparison with the traditional thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rani, Deepa; Kaisar, Sushma; Awasare, Sushma; Kamaldeep; Abhyankar, Amit; Basu, Sandip [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Radiation Medicine Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH)-based protocol is a promising recent development in the management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The objectives of this prospective study were: (1) to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the rhTSH primed {sup 131}I therapy protocol in patients with DTC with distant metastatic disease, (2) to perform lesional dosimetry in this group of patients compared to the traditional protocol, (3) to document the practical advantages (patient symptoms and hospital stay) of the rhTSH protocol compared to the traditional thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol, (4) to document and record any adverse effect of this strategy, (5) to compare the renal function parameters, and (6) to compare the serum TSH values achieved in either of the protocols in this group of patients. The study included 37 patients with metastatic DTC having lung or skeletal metastases or both. A comparison of lesional radiation absorbed dose, hospital stay, renal function tests, and symptom profile was undertaken between the traditional thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol and rhTSH-based therapy protocol. Dosimetric calculations of metastatic lesions were performed using lesion uptake and survey meter readings for calculation of effective half-life. Non-contrast-enhanced CT was used for assessment of tumor volume. Quality of life was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QOL forms. A comparison of pretreatment withdrawal thyroglobulin (TG) was done with the withdrawal TG level 3 months after treatment. The mean effective half-life of {sup 131}I in metastatic lesions was less during the rhTSH protocol (29.49 h) compared to the thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol (35.48 h), but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.056). The mean 24-h % uptake of the lesions during the traditional protocol (4.84 %) was slightly higher than the 24-h % uptake during the rhTSH protocol (3.56 %), but

  19. Memory and mood during MDMA intoxication, with and without memantine pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Heckman, P; de la Torre, R; Farre, M; Ramaekers, J G

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that single doses of MDMA can affect mood and impair memory in humans. The neuropharmacological mechanisms involved in MDMA-induced memory impairment are not clear. Memantine, an NMDA and alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor antagonist, was able to reverse MDMA-induced memory impairment in rats. This study investigated whether treatment with memantine can prevent MDMA-induced memory impairment in humans. 15 subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo controlled, within-subject design. Subjects received both pre-treatment (placebo/memantine 20 mg) (T1) and treatment (placebo/MDMA 75 mg) (T2) on separate test days. T1 preceded T2 by 120 min. Memory function was assessed 90 min after T2 by means of a Visual Verbal Learning Task, a Prospective Memory Task, the Sternberg Memory Task and the Abstract Visual Pattern Learning Task. Profile of Mood State and psychomotor performance were also assessed to control whether MDMA and memantine interactions would selectively pertain to memory or transfer to other domains as well. MDMA significantly impaired performance in the visual verbal learning task and abstract visual pattern learning task. Pre-treatment with memantine did not prevent MDMA-induced memory impairment in these two tasks. Both positive (vigour, arousal, elation) and negative mood effects (anxiety) were increased by MDMA. The responses were not altered by pretreatment with memantine which had no effect on memory or mood when given alone. These preliminary results suggest that memantine does not reverse MDMA-induced memory impairment and mood in humans. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding of alkaline pretreatment parameters for corn stover enzymatic saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research on alkaline pretreatment has mainly focused on optimization of the process parameters to improve substrate digestibility. To achieve satisfactory sugar yield, extremely high chemical loading and enzyme dosages were typically used. Relatively little attention has been paid to reduction of chemical consumption and process waste management, which has proven to be an indispensable component of the bio-refineries. To indicate alkali strength, both alkali concentration in pretreatment solution (g alkali/g pretreatment liquor or g alkali/L pretreatment liquor and alkali loading based on biomass solids (g alkali/g dry biomass have been widely used. The dual approaches make it difficult to compare the chemical consumption in different process scenarios while evaluating the cost effectiveness of this pretreatment technology. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment of corn stover at various combinations of pretreatment conditions. Enzymatic hydrolysis with different enzyme blends was subsequently performed to identify the effects of pretreatment parameters on substrate digestibility as well as process operational and capital costs. Results The results showed that sodium hydroxide loading is the most dominant variable for enzymatic digestibility. To reach 70% glucan conversion while avoiding extensive degradation of hemicellulose, approximately 0.08 g NaOH/g corn stover was required. It was also concluded that alkali loading based on total solids (g NaOH/g dry biomass governs the pretreatment efficiency. Supplementing cellulase with accessory enzymes such as α-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase significantly improved the conversion of the hemicellulose by 6–17%. Conclusions The current work presents the impact of alkaline pretreatment parameters on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover as well as the process operational and capital investment costs. The high chemical consumption for alkaline

  1. Video Game Rehabilitation for Outpatient Stroke (VIGoROUS): protocol for a multi-center comparative effectiveness trial of in-home gamified constraint-induced movement therapy for rehabilitation of chronic upper extremity hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Lynne V; Kane, Chelsea; Borstad, Alexandra; Strahl, Nancy; Uswatte, Gitendra; Taub, Edward; Morris, David; Hall, Alli; Arakelian, Melissa; Mark, Victor

    2017-06-08

    Constraint-Induced Movement therapy (CI therapy) is shown to reduce disability, increase use of the more affected arm/hand, and promote brain plasticity for individuals with upper extremity hemiparesis post-stroke. Randomized controlled trials consistently demonstrate that CI therapy is superior to other rehabilitation paradigms, yet it is available to only a small minority of the estimated 1.2 million chronic stroke survivors with upper extremity disability. The current study aims to establish the comparative effectiveness of a novel, patient-centered approach to rehabilitation utilizing newly developed, inexpensive, and commercially available gaming technology to disseminate CI therapy to underserved individuals. Video game delivery of CI therapy will be compared against traditional clinic-based CI therapy and standard upper extremity rehabilitation. Additionally, individual factors that differentially influence response to one treatment versus another will be examined. This protocol outlines a multi-site, randomized controlled trial with parallel group design. Two hundred twenty four adults with chronic hemiparesis post-stroke will be recruited at four sites. Participants are randomized to one of four study groups: (1) traditional clinic-based CI therapy, (2) therapist-as-consultant video game CI therapy, (3) therapist-as-consultant video game CI therapy with additional therapist contact via telerehabilitation/video consultation, and (4) standard upper extremity rehabilitation. After 6-month follow-up, individuals assigned to the standard upper extremity rehabilitation condition crossover to stand-alone video game CI therapy preceded by a therapist consultation. All interventions are delivered over a period of three weeks. Primary outcome measures include motor improvement as measured by the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), quality of arm use for daily activities as measured by Motor Activity Log (MAL), and quality of life as measured by the Quality of Life in

  2. Saponification pretreatment and solids recirculation as a new anaerobic process for the treatment of slaughterhouse waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affes, R; Palatsi, J; Flotats, X; Carrère, H; Steyer, J P; Battimelli, A

    2013-03-01

    Different configurations of anaerobic process, adapted to the treatment of solid slaughterhouse fatty waste, were proposed and evaluated in this study. The tested configurations are based on the combination of anaerobic digestion with/without waste saponification pretreatment (70 °C during 60 min) and with/without recirculation of the digestate solid fraction (ratio=20% w/w). After an acclimation period of substrate pulses-feeding cycles, the reactors were operated in a semi-continuous feeding mode, increasing organic loading rates along experimental time. The degradation of the raw substrate was shown to be the bottleneck of the whole process, obtaining the best performance and process yields in the reactor equipped with waste pretreatment and solids recirculation. Saponification promoted the emulsification and bioavailability of solid fatty residues, while recirculation of solids minimized the substrate/biomass wash-out and induced microbial adaptation to the treatment of fatty substrates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation; Protocol Monitoring Energiebesparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Mannaerts, H. [Centraal Planburea CPB, Den Haag (Netherlands); Tinbergen, W. [Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Den Haag (Netherlands); Vreuls, H.H.J. [Nederlandse onderneming voor energie en milieu Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wesselink, B. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    On request of the Dutch ministry of Economic Affairs five institutes have collaborated to create a 'Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation', a common method and database to calculate the amount of energy savings realised in past years. The institutes concerned are the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB), the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), the National Agency for Energy and Environment (Novem) and the Netherlands Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). The institutes have agreed upon a clear definition of energy use and energy savings. The demarcation with renewable energy, the saving effects of substitution between energy carriers and the role of import and export of energy have been elaborated. A decomposition method is used to split up the observed change in energy use in a number of effects, on a national and sectoral level. This method includes an analysis of growth effects, effects of structural changes in production and consumption activities and savings on end use or with more efficient conversion processes. To calculate these effects the total energy use is desegregated as much as possible. For each segment a reference energy use is calculated according to the trend in a variable which is supposed to be representative for the use without savings. The difference with the actual energy use is taken as the savings realised. Results are given for the sectors households, industry, agriculture, services and government, transportation and the energy sector; as well as a national figure. A special feature of the protocol method is the application of primary energy use figures in the determination of savings for end users. This means that the use of each energy carrier is increased with a certain amount, according to the conversion losses caused elsewhere in the energy system. The losses concern the base year energy sector and losses abroad for imports of secondary

  4. Improvement in the productivity of xylooligosaccharides from waste medium after mushroom cultivation by hydrothermal treatment with suitable pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuaki; Shinji, Kazunori; Mizuno, Masahiro; Nozaki, Kouichi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Makishima, Satoshi; Shiroishi, Masahiro; Onoda, Takeru; Takahashi, Fumihiro; Kanda, Takahisa; Amano, Yoshihiko

    2010-08-01

    The effective xylooligosaccharides (XOs) production from the waste medium after mushroom cultivation (WM) was investigated. The WM contains rich nutrients (protein, etc.) which induce Maillard reaction with reducing sugars under hydrothermal conditions. To improve the productivity of XOs, the suitable pretreatment combined with washing and grinding was investigated, and subsequently hydrothermal treatment was demonstrated with batch type and continuous flow type reactor. The washing pretreatment with hot water of 60 degrees C was effective to remove nutrients from the WM, and it led to prevent brownish discoloration on the hydrothermal treatment. On the basis of experimental data, industrial XOs production processes consisting of the pretreatment, hydrothermal treatment and purification step was designed. During the designed process, 2.3 kg-dry of the purified XOs was produced from 30 kg-wet of the WM (15% yield as dry basis weight). Theoretical yield of XOs attained to 48% as xylan weight in the WM. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis from ophthalmic products: can pre-treatment with sodium lauryl sulfate increase patch test sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Monica; Virgili, Annarosa

    2005-05-01

    In patients suspected of allergic contact dermatitis because of topical ophthalmic medicaments, patch tests performed with patients' own products are often negative. The irritant anionic surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) may alter the stratum corneum and increase antigen penetration. Pre-treatment of the skin with SLS 0.5% for 24 h was performed in the sites of patch tests with patients' own products in 15 selected patients. In patients previously negative to their own products tested with conventional patch tests, SLS pre-treatment showed 6 new relevant positive reactions and induced a stronger positive reaction in 1 patient. SLS pre-treatment could be proposed as an alternative promising method, which may increase sensitivity of patch tests with patients' own products.

  6. Relating Nanoscale Accessibility within Plant Cell Walls to Improved Enzyme Hydrolysis Yields in Corn Stover Subjected to Diverse Pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Jacob D; Zarger, Rachael A; Hodge, David B

    2017-10-04

    Simultaneous chemical modification and physical reorganization of plant cell walls via alkaline hydrogen peroxide or liquid hot water pretreatment can alter cell wall structural properties impacting nanoscale porosity. Nanoscale porosity was characterized using solute exclusion to assess accessible pore volumes, water retention value as a proxy for accessible water-cell walls surface area, and solute-induced cell wall swelling to measure cell wall rigidity. Key findings concluded that delignification by alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment decreased cell wall rigidity and that the subsequent cell wall swelling resulted increased nanoscale porosity and improved enzyme binding and hydrolysis compared to limited swelling and increased accessible surface areas observed in liquid hot water pretreated biomass. The volume accessible to a 90 Å dextran probe within the cell wall was found to be correlated to both enzyme binding and glucose hydrolysis yields, indicating cell wall porosity is a key contributor to effective hydrolysis yields.

  7. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, fed with dried air (or oxygen-enriched dried air), has been used for the degradation of lignin in wheat straw to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis and to get more fermentable sugars. A fixed bed reactor was used combined...... with a CO2 detector and an online technique for O3 measurement in the fed and exhaust gas allowing continuous measurement of the consumption of O3. This rendered it possible for us to determine the progress of the pretreatment in real time (online analysis). The process time can be adjusted to produce wheat...... straw with desired lignin content because of the online analysis. The O3 consumption of wheat straw and its polymeric components, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a mixture of these, dry as well as with 50% water, were studied. Furthermore, the process parameters dry matter content...

  8. Pre-treatment with intravenous granisetron to alleviate pain on propofol injection: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Propofol is one of the widely used intravenous (i.v. anaesthetics, although pain on injection still remains a considerable concern for the anaesthesiologists. A number of techniques has been tried to minimize propofol-induced pain with variable results. Recently, a 5-HT 3 antagonist, ondansetron pre-treatment, has been shown to reduce propofol-induced pain. The aim of our randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study was to determine whether pre-treatment with intravenous granisetron, which is routinely used in our practice for prophylaxis of post-operative nausea and vomiting, would reduce propofol-induced pain. Methods: Eighty-two women, aged 18-50 years, American society of Anaesthesiologist grading (ASA I-II, scheduled for various surgeries under general anaesthesia were randomly assigned to one of the two groups. One group received 2 mL 0.9% sodium chloride while the other group received 2 mL granisetron (1 mg/mL, and were accompanied by manual venous occlusion for 1 min. Then, 2 mL propofol was injected through the same cannula. Patients were asked by a blinded investigator to score the pain on injection of propofol with a four-point scale: 0=no pain, 1=mild pain, 2=moderate pain, 3=severe pain. Results: Twenty-four patients (60% complained of pain in the group pre-treated with normal saline as compared with six (15% in the group pre-treated with granisetron. Pain was reduced significantly in the granisetron group (P<0.05. Severity of pain was also lesser in the granisetron group compared with the placebo group (2.5% vs. 37.5%. Conclusion: We conclude that pre-treatment with granisetron along with venous occlusion for 1 min for prevention of propofol-induced pain was highly successful.

  9. Structural changes of corn stover lignin during acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Geoffrey; Gaspar, Armindo Ribeiro; Higgins, Don; Xu, Hui

    2012-09-01

    In this study, raw corn stover was subjected to dilute acid pretreatments over a range of severities under conditions similar to those identified by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their techno-economic analysis of biochemical conversion of corn stover to ethanol. The pretreated corn stover then underwent enzymatic hydrolysis with yields above 70 % at moderate enzyme loading conditions. The enzyme exhausted lignin residues were characterized by ³¹P NMR spectroscopy and functional moieties quantified and correlated to enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Results from this study indicated that both xylan solubilization and lignin degradation are important for improving the enzyme accessibility and digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover. At lower pretreatment temperatures, there is a good correlation between xylan solubilization and cellulose accessibility. At higher pretreatment temperatures, lignin degradation correlated better with cellulose accessibility, represented by the increase in phenolic groups. During acid pretreatment, the ratio of syringyl/guaiacyl functional groups also gradually changed from less than 1 to greater than 1 with the increase in pretreatment temperature. This implies that more syringyl units are released from lignin depolymerization of aryl ether linkages than guaiacyl units. The condensed phenolic units are also correlated with the increase in pretreatment temperature up to 180 °C, beyond which point condensation reactions may overtake the hydrolysis of aryl ether linkages as the dominant reactions of lignin, thus leading to decreased cellulose accessibility.

  10. 40 CFR 406.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.26 Section 406.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.26 Pretreatment...

  11. 40 CFR 406.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.34 Section 406.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 406.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that...

  12. 40 CFR 406.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.44 Section 406.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 406.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that...

  13. 40 CFR 406.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.16 Section 406.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.16 Pretreatment...

  14. Pretreatment of Oil Palm Frond (OPF) with Ionic Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, I. S.; Azizan, A.; Salleh, R. Mohd

    2018-05-01

    Pretreatment is the key to unlock the recalcitrance of lignocellulose for cellulosic biofuel production. Increasing attention has been drawn to ionic liquids (ILs) for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass because this approach was considered as a green engineering method over other conventional methods. In this work, Oil palm frond (OPF) was pretreated by using the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [EMIM] Ac at the temperature of 99˚C for 3 hours. The characterization of the untreated and pretreated OPF was conducted by using different techniques which are Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The pretreatment of OPF with [EMIM] Ac was demonstrated to be effective evidenced by the significant reduction of Lateral Order Index (LOI) from FTIR, reduction of Crystallinity Index (CI) based on XRD and the significant morphology changes indicated by SEM. The CI value for the pretreated OPF decreased from 0.47 (untreated sample) to 0.28 while the LOI value decreased from 1.10 to 0.24 after pretreatment with [EMIM]Ac and the SEM morphology showed that the pretreated OPF becomes distorted and disordered.

  15. Environmentally Friendly Pretreatment for Department of Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    Develop an environmentally friendly pretreatment system for multi-material Department of Defense applications ― Free of hexavalent chromium (Cr6...Zn phosphate and chrome wash primer •Two Zirconium pretreatment variations passed the 336 hr and 1000 hr B-117 outlined per MIL-DTL-53022 or MIL

  16. Immunocytochemical methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Javois, Lorette C

    1999-01-01

    ... monoclonal antibodies to study cell differentiation during embryonic development. For a select few disciplines volumes have been published focusing on the specific application of immunocytochemical techniques to that discipline. What distinguished Immunocytochemical Methods and Protocols from earlier books when it was first published four years ago was i...

  17. Critical Response Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Charlene; Roehrig, Gillian; Bakkum, Kris; Dubinsky, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the Critical Response Protocol (CRP), an arts-based technique that engages students in equitable critical discourse and aligns with the "Next Generation Science Standards" vision for providing students opportunities for language learning while advancing science learning (NGSS Lead States 2013). CRP helps teachers…

  18. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification. In r...

  19. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  20. Effects of plasma pretreatment on the process of self-forming Cu–Mn alloy barriers for Cu interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyung Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of plasma pretreatment on the process of a self-forming Cu–Mn alloy barrier on porous low-k dielectrics. To study the effects of plasma on the performance of a self-formed Mn-based barrier, low-k dielectrics were pretreated with H2 plasma or NH3 plasma. Cu–Mn alloy materials on low-k substrates that were subject to pretreatment with H2 plasma exhibited lower electrical resistivity values and the formation of thicker Mn-based interlayers than those on low-k substrates that were subject to pretreatment with NH3 plasma. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS, and thermal stability analyses demonstrated the exceptional performance of the Mn-based interlayer on plasma-pretreated low-k substrates with regard to thickness, chemical composition, and reliability. Plasma treating with H2 gas formed hydrophilic Si–OH bonds on the surface of the low-k layer, resulting in Mn-based interlayers with greater thickness after annealing. However, additional moisture uptake was induced on the surface of the low-k dielectric, degrading electrical reliability. By contrast, plasma treating with NH3 gas was less effective with regard to forming a Mn-based interlayer, but produced a Si–N/C–N layer on the low-k surface, yielding improved barrier characteristics.

  1. Examining recombinant human TSH primed 131I therapy protocol in patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma: comparison with the traditional thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, Deepa; Kaisar, Sushma; Awasare, Sushma; Kamaldeep; Abhyankar, Amit; Basu, Sandip

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH)-based protocol is a promising recent development in the management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The objectives of this prospective study were: (1) to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the rhTSH primed 131 I therapy protocol in patients with DTC with distant metastatic disease, (2) to perform lesional dosimetry in this group of patients compared to the traditional protocol, (3) to document the practical advantages (patient symptoms and hospital stay) of the rhTSH protocol compared to the traditional thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol, (4) to document and record any adverse effect of this strategy, (5) to compare the renal function parameters, and (6) to compare the serum TSH values achieved in either of the protocols in this group of patients. The study included 37 patients with metastatic DTC having lung or skeletal metastases or both. A comparison of lesional radiation absorbed dose, hospital stay, renal function tests, and symptom profile was undertaken between the traditional thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol and rhTSH-based therapy protocol. Dosimetric calculations of metastatic lesions were performed using lesion uptake and survey meter readings for calculation of effective half-life. Non-contrast-enhanced CT was used for assessment of tumor volume. Quality of life was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QOL forms. A comparison of pretreatment withdrawal thyroglobulin (TG) was done with the withdrawal TG level 3 months after treatment. The mean effective half-life of 131 I in metastatic lesions was less during the rhTSH protocol (29.49 h) compared to the thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol (35.48 h), but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.056). The mean 24-h % uptake of the lesions during the traditional protocol (4.84 %) was slightly higher than the 24-h % uptake during the rhTSH protocol (3.56 %), but the

  2. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  3. Pretreatment of Biomass by Aqueous Ammonia for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Gupta, Rajesh; Lee, Y. Y.

    The methods of pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using aqueous ammonia are described. The main effect of ammonia treatment of biomass is delignification without significantly affecting the carbohydrate contents. It is a very effective pretreatment method especially for substrates that have low lignin contents such as agricultural residues and herbaceous feedstock. The ammonia-based pretreatment is well suited for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) because the treated biomass retains cellulose as well as hemicellulose. It has been demonstrated that overall ethanol yield above 75% of the theoretical maximum on the basis of total carbohydrate is achievable from corn stover pretreated with aqueous ammonia by way of SSCF. There are two different types of pretreatment methods based on aqueous ammonia: (1) high severity, low contact time process (ammonia recycle percolation; ARP), (2) low severity, high treatment time process (soaking in aqueous ammonia; SAA). Both of these methods are described and discussed for their features and effectiveness.

  4. Pretreatment of Cellulose By Electron Beam Irradiation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusri, N. A. A.; Azizan, A.; Ibrahim, N.; Salleh, R. Mohd; Rahman, M. F. Abd

    2018-05-01

    Pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) to produce biofuel has been conducted by using various methods including physical, chemical, physicochemical as well as biological. The conversion of bioethanol process typically involves several steps which consist of pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation and separation. In this project, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used in replacement of LCB since cellulose has the highest content of LCB for the purpose of investigating the effectiveness of new pretreatment method using radiation technology. Irradiation with different doses (100 kGy to 1000 kGy) was conducted by using electron beam accelerator equipment at Agensi Nuklear Malaysia. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses were studied to further understand the effect of the suggested pretreatment step to the content of MCC. Through this method namely IRR-LCB, an ideal and optimal condition for pretreatment prior to the production of biofuel by using LCB may be introduced.

  5. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma pretreatment on hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fangmin; Long, Zhouyang; Liu, Sa; Qin, Zhenglong

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was used as a pretreatment method for downstream hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The degree of polymerization (DP) of MCC decreased after it was pretreated by DBD plasma under a carrier gas of air/argon. The effectiveness of depolymerization was found to be influenced by the crystallinity of MCC when under the pretreatment of DBD plasma. With the addition of tert-butyl alcohol in the treated MCC water suspension solution, depolymerization effectiveness of MCC was inhibited. When MCC was pretreated by DBD plasma for 30 min, the total reducing sugar concentration (TRSC) and liquefaction yield (LY) of pretreated-MCC (PMCC) increased by 82.98% and 34.18% respectively compared with those for raw MCC.

  6. Efectos de un protocolo de entrenamiento de alta intensidad sobre marcadores fisiológicos de estrés en ratas. [Physiological effects of the stress induced by a high-intensity exercise protocol in rats].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Medina

    2015-04-01

    rats. Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 experimental groups (n=20: EAI or control (sedentary groups for 12 weeks. Biological, muscle, urinary, plasma, hepatic and renal markers were measured. Food intake (P<0.05, final body weight and carcass weight (both, P<0.001 were significantly lower in the HIT group. Hormonal markers reflected increased levels of corticosterone (P<0.05 and decreased levels of testosterone (P<0.05 in the HIT group. Consequently, the ratio corticosterone/testosterone was higher and the testosterone/corticosterone lower in the HIT group (both, P<0.01. Regarding hepatic lipid profile, the HIT group showed higher liver fat (P<0.01 but lower hepatic triglycerides (P<0.05. Regarding plasma lipid profile, the HIT group showed lower triglycerides concentration (P<0.01 but also higher LDL cholesterol concentrations (P<0.01. Finally, the renal morphology study showed increased kidney connective interstitial tissue (P<0.05. The stress induced by the HIT protocol promoted a catabolism status that could lead to a lower muscular development, a worse hepatic and plasma lipid profile and a renal profile with increased susceptibility to future pathologies. The present study aimed to develop a stress/overtraining protocol that might be carried out in athletes with the purpose to deepen study the effects that this adverse status might induce in the long-term health of the athlete.

  7. Importance of pretreatment for the intensity-modulated radiation therapy of prostate cancer. Examination of nursing care for reproducible bladder filling status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, T.; Nemoto, M.; Hoshino, E.; Shimokura, F.; Murakami, E.; Takahashi, S.; Nakazawa, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    Bladder filling with reproducible volume is important for the radiotherapy in the title (IMRT) with less adverse events. The optimal bladder filling volume, 150 mL, has been reported recently for IMRT, with which as a standard, the pretreatment was retrospectively examined aiming at less patient's pain in this study. Subjects were 10 typical patients among total 98 in total 1,476 irradiations of IMRT during the period Feb. 2008-June 2011, who had been needed for controlling the volume of drinking water and time of bladder filling. Five cases difficult to conduct IMRT with their initial protocol alone were selected from the 10 patients, on whom following 3 items were examined. Here, in authors' hospital, IMRT (46-50 Gy) had been conducted as a booster therapy following the usual irradiation (20-24 Gy). First, the relationship was examined between bladder filling and pretreatment by the ratio, CBCT (cone-beam CT)-volume/plan-volume as an attainment, where the bladder volume was measured just before every therapy with CBCT image together with pretreatment for the drinking water volume and waiting time. Second, measured were volumes of the bladder filling just before the therapy and urinated after. Third, status of urination was heard. The protocol was then improved on results and remaining 5 patients underwent the pretreatment with the improved protocol. It was found that pretreatment for the control of the volume of drinking water and subsequent bladder filling was necessary not only after patient's hospital visit but also before, based on their living cycles. Nursing care chart made here by authors based on the finding above was thought important for IMRT with reproducible bladder filling and less adverse events. (T.T.)

  8. Size effects on acid bisulfite pretreatment efficiency: multiple product yields in spent liquor and enzymatic digestibility of pretreated solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalan Liu; Jinwu Wang; Michael P. Wolcott

    2017-01-01

    Currently, feedstock size effects on chemical pretreatment performance were not clear due to the complexity of the pretreatment process and multiple evaluation standards such as the sugar recovery in spent liquor or enzymatic digestibility. In this study, we evaluated the size effects by various ways: the sugar recovery and coproduct yields in spent liquor, the...

  9. Low temperature lignocellulose pretreatment: effects and interactions of pretreatment pH are critical for maximizing enzymatic monosaccharide yields from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Johansen, Katja S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The recent development of improved enzymes and pentose-using yeast for cellulosic ethanol processes calls for new attention to the lignocellulose pretreatment step. This study assessed the influence of pretreatment pH, temperature, and time, and their interactions on the enzymatic...... alkaline pretreatments. Alkaline pretreatments also solubilized most of the lignin. Conclusions: Pretreatment pH exerted significant effects and factor interactions on the enzymatic glucose and xylose releases. Quite extreme pH values were necessary with mild thermal pretreatment strategies (T...... glucose and xylose yields from mildly pretreated wheat straw in multivariate experimental designs of acid and alkaline pretreatments. Results: The pretreatment pH was the most significant factor affecting both the enzymatic glucose and xylose yields after mild thermal pretreatments at maximum 140 degrees...

  10. Influence of wheat type and pretreatment on fungal growth in solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.; Zhu, Y.; As, H. van; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2001-01-01

    The respiration kinetics of Aspergillus oryzae on different varieties of whole wheat kernels were studied. Six wheat varieties were pretreated in two different ways. Five of the six substrates fermented similarly and independently of the pretreatment method. However, pretreatment affected

  11. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  12. AOM Characterization and Removal Efficiency Using Various SWRO Pretreatment Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Namazi, Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the operation of dual media filter DMF during ambient and simulated algal bloom conditions, and the role of coagulation and dissolved air flotation (DAF) in mitigating the adverse effects of algal blooms on DMF performance. The study also highlights which AOM concentration as a function of biopolymer is critical to organic fouling in DMF pretreatment for Red Sea water desalination with RO. On the other hand, the present study has carried out another experiment on AOM fouling in comparison with bacterial organic matter (BOM) and humic organic matter (HOM) using two different pore sizes of UF ceramic membranes, 5 and 50 kDa. The main aim of this comparison is to examine fouling behavior and mechanism and removal efficiency. The study revealed that AOM can induce organic fouling in DMF during simulated algal bloom conditions at biopolymer concentrations as low as 0.2 mg C/L. DMF performance was strongly affected by AOM concentration as observed by flow rate decline through time. Liquid chromatography – organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis showed higher removal rates of biopolymers than lower molecular weight fractions (i.e., humic substances, building blocks and low molecular weight neutrals) for all pretreatment scenarios. The study also indicated that while DMF performance was enhanced with coagulation and sedimentation, the most significant improvement in performance was observed for DMF operation preceded by coagulation and DAF. Hydraulic performance of DMF correlated well with biopolymers removal, with removal rates of 72%, 53% and 39%, for coagulation/DAF, coagulation/sedimentation, and no coagulation, respectively. For UF ceramic membranes, results showed that more TEP/organics were removed by the 5 kDa membranes compared to the 50 kDa membrane, which is accounted for lower MWCO. The UF 5 kDa membrane also showed low fouling formation than 50 kDa membrane for all of three types of organic matter tested. Analysis of the fouled

  13. Transdermal testosterone pretreatment in poor responders undergoing ICSI: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdou, J K; Venetis, C A; Dafopoulos, K; Zepiridis, L; Chatzimeletiou, K; Anifandis, G; Mitsoli, A; Makedos, A; Messinis, I E; Tarlatzis, B C; Kolibianakis, E M

    2016-05-01

    Does pretreatment with transdermal testosterone increase the number of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) retrieved by more than 1.5 in poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), using recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa)? Testosterone pretreatment failed to increase the number of COCs by more than 1.5 as compared with no pretreatment in poor responders undergoing ICSI (difference between medians: 0.0, 95% CI: -1.0 to +1.0). Androgens are thought to play an important role in early follicular development by enhancing ovarian sensitivity to FSH. In a recent meta-analysis, testosterone pretreatment resulted in an increase of 1.5 COCs as compared with no pretreatment. However, this effect was based on the analysis of only two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including 163 patients. Evidently, there is a need for additional RCTs that will allow firmer conclusions to be drawn. The present RCT was designed to detect a difference of 1.5 COCs (sample size required = 48 patients). From 02/2014 until 04/2015, 50 poor responders fulfilling the Bologna criteria have been randomized (using a randomization list) to either testosterone pretreatment for 21 days ( ITALIC! n = 26) or no pretreatment ( ITALIC! n = 24). All patients underwent a long follicular GnRHa protocol. Recombinant FSH stimulation was started on Day 22 following GnRHa initiation. In the testosterone pretreatment group, a daily dose of 10 mg of testosterone gel was applied transdermally for 21 days starting from GnRHa initiation. Results are expressed as median (interquartile range). No differences in baseline characteristics were observed between the two groups compared. Testosterone levels [median (interquartile range)] were significantly higher in the testosterone pretreatment on the day of initiation of FSH stimulation [114 (99.5) ng/dl versus 20 (20) ng/dl, respectively, ITALIC! P interquartile range)] was similar between

  14. Epistemic Protocols for Distributed Gossiping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof R. Apt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gossip protocols aim at arriving, by means of point-to-point or group communications, at a situation in which all the agents know each other's secrets. We consider distributed gossip protocols which are expressed by means of epistemic logic. We provide an operational semantics of such protocols and set up an appropriate framework to argue about their correctness. Then we analyze specific protocols for complete graphs and for directed rings.

  15. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  16. Pretreatment with Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion Modulates Muscle Leukocyte Chemotaxis in Murine Model of Sublethal Lower Limb Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ming Shih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of a fish oil- (FO- based lipid emulsion on muscle leukocyte chemotaxis and inflammatory responses in a murine model of limb ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury. Mice were assigned randomly to 1 sham (sham group, 2 ischemic groups, and 2 IR groups. The sham group did not undergo the ischemic procedure. The mice assigned to the ischemic or IR groups were pretreated intraperitoneally with either saline or FO-based lipid emulsion for 3 consecutive days. The IR procedure was induced by applying a 4.5 oz orthodontic rubber band to the left thigh above the greater trochanter for 120 min and then cutting the band to allow reperfusion. The ischemic groups were sacrificed immediately while the IR groups were sacrificed 24 h after reperfusion. Blood, IR-injured gastrocnemius, and lung tissues were collected for analysis. The results showed that FO pretreatment suppressed the local and systemic expression of several IR-induced proinflammatory mediators. Also, the FO-pretreated group had lower blood Ly6ChiCCR2hi monocyte percentage and muscle M1/M2 ratio than the saline group at 24 h after reperfusion. These findings suggest that FO pretreatment may have a protective role in limb IR injury by modulating the expression of proinflammatory mediators and regulating the polarization of macrophage.

  17. Diffuse Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (DTES)-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher voltages were needed to induce convulsion in pretreated animals than in normal animals. It is therefore suggestive that DTES-induced hypermotility can be used as an animal model for testing drugs that can be of advantage in the management of non convulsive (petit mal) status epilepticus (SE), and DTES induced ...

  18. Diplomacy and Diplomatic Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Ph.D Oana Iucu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to observe relationships and determining factors between diplomacyand diplomatic protocol as outlined by historical and contextual analyses. The approach is very dynamic,provided that concepts are able to show their richness, antiquity and polyvalence at the level of connotations,semantics, grammatical and social syntax. The fact that this information is up to date determines anattitude of appreciation and a state of positive contamination.

  19. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...

  20. Effects of Pretreatment Methods on Electrodes and SOFC Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Bin Jung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available tapes (anode, electrolyte and paste (cathode were choosen to prepare anode-supported cells for solid oxide fuel cell applications. For both anode-supported cells or electrolyte-supported cells, the anode needs pretreatment to reduce NiO/YSZ to Ni/YSZ to increase its conductivity as well as its catalytic characteristics. In this study, the effects of different pretreatments (open-circuit, closed-circuit on cathode and anodes as well as SOFC performance are investigated. To investigate the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode alone, a Pt cathode is utilized as reference for comparison with the LSM cathode. The characterization of the electrical resistance, AC impedance, and SOFC performance of the resulting electrodes and/or anode-supported cell were carried out. It’s found that the influence of open-circuit pretreatment on the LSM cathode is limited. However, the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on both the LSM cathode and NiO/YSZ anode and the resulting SOFC performance is profound. The effect of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode is attributed to its change of electronic/pore structure as well as catalytic characteristics. With closed-circuit pretreatment, the SOFC performance improved greatly from the change of LSM cathode (and Pt reference compared to the Ni/YSZ anode.

  1. Dilute alkali pretreatment of softwood pine: A biorefinery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Ali; Karimi, Keikhosro; Shafiei, Marzieh

    2017-06-01

    Dilute alkali pretreatment was performed on softwood pine to maximize ethanol and biogas production via a biorefinery approach. Alkali pretreatments were performed with 0-2% w/v NaOH at 100-180°C for 1-5h. The liquid fraction of the pretreated substrates was subjected to anaerobic digestion. The solid fraction of the pretreatment was used for separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. High ethanol yields of 76.9‒78.0% were achieved by pretreatment with 2% (w/v) NaOH at 180°C. The highest biogas yield of 244mL/g volatile solid (at 25°C, 1bar) was achieved by the pretreatment with 1% (w/v) NaOH at 180°C. The highest gasoline equivalent (sum of ethanol and methane) of 197L per ton of pinewood and the lowest ethanol manufacturing cost of 0.75€/L was obtained after pretreatment with 1% NaOH at 180°C for 5h. The manufacturing cost of ethanol from untreated wood was 4.12€/L. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  3. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; da Trindade Duarte, João Marcos; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics. PMID:27074171

  4. Effects of different pretreatment methods on fermentation types and dominant bacteria for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Nan-Qi; Guo, Wan-Qian; Liu, Bing-Feng; Wang, Xing-Zu; Ding, Jie; Chen, Zhao-Bo [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, Heilongjiang (China); Wang, Xiang-Jing; Xiang, Wen-Sheng [Research Center of Life Science and Biotechnology, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2008-08-15

    In order to enrich hydrogen producing bacteria and to establish high-efficient communities of the mixed microbial cultures, inoculum needs to be pretreated before the cultivation. Four pretreatment methods including heat-shock pretreatment, acid pretreatment, alkaline pretreatment and repeated-aeration pretreatment were performed on the seed sludge which was collected from a secondary settling tank of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. In contrast to the control test without any pretreatment, the heat-shock pretreatment, acid pretreatment and repeated-aeration pretreatment completely suppressed the methanogenic activity of the seed sludge, but the alkaline pretreatment did not. Employing different pretreatment methods resulted in the change in fermentation types as butyric-acid type fermentation was achieved by the heat-shock and alkaline pretreatments, mixed-acid type fermentation was achieved by acid pretreatment and the control, and ethanol-type fermentation was observed by repeated-aeration pretreatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles revealed that pretreatment method substantially affected the species composition of microbial communities. The highest hydrogen yield of 1.96 mol/mol-glucose was observed with the repeated-aeration pretreatment method, while the lowest was obtained as the seed sludge was acidified. It is concluded that the pretreatment methods led to the difference in the initial microbial communities which might be directly responsible for different fermentation types and hydrogen yields. (author)

  5. 40 CFR 439.37 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Synthesis... achieve the pretreatment standard for ammonia (as N). (b) The pretreatment standards for cyanide are as...

  6. Estradiol and Antagonist Pretreatment Prior to Microdose Leuprolide in in Vitro Fertilization. Does It Improve IVF Outcomes in Poor Responders as Compared to Oral Contraceptive Pill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elassar, Alyaa; Nulsen, John; Engmann, Lawrence; Benadiva, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    To compare in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in low responders stimulated with microdose leuprolide protocol (ML) following pretreatment with either oral contraceptive pill (OCP) or luteal estradiol (E2) + GnRH antagonist (E2 + antag) for follicular synchronization prior to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). This was a retrospective study of 130 women, who were poor responders, undergoing IVF with either OCP/ML or E2+ antag/ML protocols. The main outcome measures were ongoing pregnancy rates, number of oocytes retrieved, and cancellation rate. Both groups were similar in baseline characteristics. There were no significant differences in gonadotropin requirement, cancellation rate, and number of embryos transferred. Ongoing pregnancy rates (40% vs. 15%) were significantly higher in the OCP/ML group. Trends toward greater number of oocytes retrieved (7.7 ± 3.4 vs. 5.9 ± 4.2) and improved implantation rates (20% vs. 12%) were also noted, but these did not reach statistical significance. E2+antag pretreatment does not appear to improve IVF outcomes in ML protocol when compared to the standard OCP in poor responders. Randomized trials with adequate power to study the optimal method of steroid pretreatments appear justified.

  7. Influence of ultrasound pretreatment on wood physiochemical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhengbin; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zijian; Yi, Songlin; Mu, Jun; Wang, Xiaoxu

    2017-01-01

    As an initial step to increase the use of renewable biomass resources, this study was aimed at investigating the effects of ultrasound pretreatment on structural changes of wood. Samples were pretreated by ultrasound with the power of 300W and frequency of 28kHz in aqueous soda solution, aqueous acetic acid, or distilled water, then pretreated and control samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results shown that ultrasound pretreatment is indeed effective in modifying the physiochemical structure of eucalyptus wood; the pretreatment decreased the quantity of alkali metals (e.g., potassium, calcium and magnesium) in the resulting material. Compared to the control group, the residual char content of samples pretreated in aqueous soda solution increased by 10.08%-20.12% and the reaction temperature decreased from 361°C to 341°C, however, in samples pretreated by ultrasound in acetic solution or distilled water, the residual char content decreased by 12.40%-21.45% and there were no significant differences in reactivity apart from a slightly higher maximum reaction rate. Ultrasound pretreatment increased the samples' crystallinity up to 35.5% and successfully removed cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin from the samples; the pretreatment also increased the exposure of the sample to the treatment solutions, broke down sample pits, and generated collapses and microchannels on sample pits, and removed attachments in the samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Telomerase Repeated Amplification Protocol (TRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    Telomeres are found at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, and proteins that bind to telomeres protect DNA from being recognized as double-strand breaks thus preventing end-to-end fusions (Griffith et al. , 1999). However, due to the end replication problem and other factors such as oxidative damage, the limited life span of cultured cells (Hayflick limit) results in progressive shortening of these protective structures (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex telomerase-consisting of a protein catalytic component hTERT and a functional RNA component hTR or hTERC - counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric repeats to the end of chromosomes in ~90% of primary human tumors and in some transiently proliferating stem-like cells (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). This results in continuous proliferation of cells which is a hallmark of cancer. Therefore, telomere biology has a central role in aging, cancer progression/metastasis as well as targeted cancer therapies. There are commonly used methods in telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) (Mender and Shay, 2015b), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this detailed protocol we describe Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). The TRAP assay is a popular method to determine telomerase activity in mammalian cells and tissue samples (Kim et al. , 1994). The TRAP assay includes three steps: extension, amplification, and detection of telomerase products. In the extension step, telomeric repeats are added to the telomerase substrate (which is actually a non telomeric oligonucleotide, TS) by telomerase. In the amplification step, the extension products are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers (TS upstream primer and ACX downstream primer) and in the detection step, the presence or absence of telomerase is

  9. Ceftriaxone pretreatment reduces the propensity of postpartum depression following stroke during pregnancy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yonghong; Liu, Xianying; Su, Yuetian

    2016-10-06

    Ischemic stroke increases the propensity to develop depression in humans and laboratory animals, and we hypothesized that such an incidence during pregnancy may increase the risk for the development of postpartum depression (PPD). To test this hypothesis, we used bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) to induce transient cerebral ischemia in pregnant rats, and evaluated its effects on subsequent development of PPD in dams. Additionally, we investigated whether ceftriaxone pretreatments before the induction of brain ischemia could alter the propensity of PPD. We found that 15min BCCAO during pregnancy enhanced immobility time and reduced the frequency of swimming or climbing behaviors in the forced swim test, and decreased the sucrose preference in dams at postpartum day 21. Such behavioral alterations were associated with lower level of GLT-1 expression in the medial prefrontal cortical regions (mPFC) of PPD dams. Specifically, mPFC GLT-1 expression levels in dams with ischemia history were correlated with sucrose preference levels at postpartum day 21. Finally, ceftriaxone pretreatment (200mg/kg/day, 5days) before the 15min BCCAO prevented the development of PPD, and prevented the reduction of GLT-1 expression in the mPFC. Taken together, our results suggested that ceftriaxone pretreatment before brain ischemia during pregnancy may reduce the propensity for the development of PPD by preventing the loss of GLT-1 expression in the mPFC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of pomegranate juice pre-treatment on the transport of carbamazepine across rat intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Adukondalu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Many drug substances along with a variety of naturally occurring dietary or herbal components interact with the CYP enzyme system.The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of pomegranate juice pre-treatment on the transport of carbamazepine across the rat intestine "nMethods: The transport of carbamazepine across different parts of rat intestine was studied by everted and non-everted sac methods. The control and pomegranate juice (10 ml Kg-1 for 7 days pre-treated rats were sacrificed and isolated the intestine. The sacs of intestine were prepared, treated with carbamazepine solution and then placed in dulbeccos buffer. Samples were collected periodically and the drug content was estimated using HPLC. Results and conclusion: The results show that there was a significant (p<0.05 difference in the transport of carbamazepine from the intestinal sacs of pretreated with pomegranate juice and control. It seems that pomegranatejuice might have induced CYP3A4enzymes and hence drug is extensively metabolized.

  11. Radiation pretreatments of cellulose materials for the enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Si Mamar, S.; Hadjadj, A.

    1990-01-01

    The conversion of wheat straw agricultural cellulosic wastes to reducing sugars and glucose has been studied by pretreatments by acid hydrolysis and gamma radiolysis over the dose 0-2 MGy. The pretreatment of cellulosic wastes by gamma radiolysis in the presence of sulfuric acid solution shows that the reducing sugars yield increases with the irradiation dose. The effect of radiation degradation on cellulosic wastes between 0.1 MGy and 2 MGy shows the glucose and reducing sugars yields after enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase vary with the dose. In the relatively low dose range, up to about 0.5 MGy, the reducing sugars yields vary slightly. For an acid hydrolysis followed by radiation at dose range below 0.5 MGy the reducing sugars yields are practically insensitive to radiation. On the other hand, the pretreatment by radiation in higher dose range from 0.5 to 2 MGy followed by enzymatic hydrolysis is effective for the conversion of cellulosic wastes into glucose. The radiation induced degradation of cellulose into glucose depends on the type of acid hydrolysis and on the enzymatic hydrolysis time by cellulase. Pre-irradiation in air is more effective than in acid solution. (author)

  12. Radiation pretreatments of cellulose materials for the enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamar, S. Ait Si; Hadjadj, A.

    The conversion of wheat straw agricultural cellulosic wastes to reduning sugars and glucose has been studied by pretreatments by acid hydrolysis and gamma radiolysis over the dose 0-2 MGy. The pretreatment of cellulosic wastes by gamma radiolysis in the presence of sulfuric acid solution shows that the reducing sugars yield increases with the irradiation dose. The effect of radiation degradation on cellulosic wastes between 0.1 MGy and 2 MGy shows the glucose and reducing sugars yields after enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase vary with the dose. In the relatively low dose range, up to about 0.5 MGy, the reducing sugars yields vary slightly. For an acid hydrolysis followed by radiation at dose range below 0.5 MGy the reducing sugars yields are practically insensitive to radiation. On the other hand, the pretreatment by radiation in higher dose range from 0.5 to 2 MGy followed by enzymatic hydrolysis is effective for the conversion of cellulosic wastes into glucose. The radiation induced degradation of cellulose into glucose depends on the type of acid hydrolysis and on the enzymatic hydrolysis time by cellulase. Pre-irradiation in air is more effective than in acid solution.

  13. Efficient conversion of pretreated brewer's spent grain and wheat bran by submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Niklas; Schabronath, Christoph; Schembecker, Gerhard; Merz, Juliane

    2016-12-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG) and wheat bran (WB) are industrial byproducts that accumulate in millions of tons per year and are typically applied as animal feed. Since both byproducts show a great potential as substrates for fermentation, the approach developed in this study consists of utilizing these lignocellulosic byproducts for biomass production of the medicinal fungus Hericium erinaceus through submerged cultivation. To increase the biological efficiency of the bioconversion, acidic pretreatment was applied yielding a bioconversion of 38.6% for pretreated BSG and 34.8% for pretreated WB. This study shows that the complete degradation of (hemi)cellulose into monosaccharides was not required for an efficient bioconversion. The produced fungal biomass was applied in a second fermentation step to induce the secondary metabolite erinacine C production. Thus, biomass was produced as a functional food ingredient with erinacine C contents of 174.8mg/g for BSG and 99.3mg/g for WB based bioconversions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pretreatment of phosphoric acid of Annaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kada, R.

    1990-03-01

    The most important step in the process of uranium recovery from phosphoric acid is the pretreatment operation. In this study, the adsorption of organic matters on activated carbon was carried out in a batch process and in a fixed bed column. First, the chemical and physical characterization of phosphoric acid, activated carbon and gypsum were performed. In addition, the organic matters were qualitatively analysed and a new and original quantitative method was experimented. Next, the various operating parameters such as agitation speed, granulometry, temperature, solid/liquid ratio, initial concentration, acid flowrate, and bed height were optimized. The experimental equilibrium isotherm was compared to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson theoretical isotherms. It was noticed that the three models did not fit the experimental isotherm in the total concentration range. Thus, an original bilinear model was proposed. The influence of the operating conditions on the adsorption kinetics was also investigated. As a result of that, a new mathematical model was proposed to determine both the liquid and solid phases mass transfer and the solid phase diffusion coefficient. Finally, adsorption of organic matters on a fixed bed process allowed computation of the number of transfer units (NTU), the height of adsorption zone and the degree of saturation of activated carbon

  15. Dai-Kenchu-To, a Herbal Medicine, Attenuates Colorectal Distention-induced Visceromotor Responses in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nakaya, Kumi; Nagura, Yohko; Hasegawa, Ryoko; Ito, Hitomi; Fukudo, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, is known to increase gastrointestinal motility and improve ileal function. We tested our hypotheses that (1) pretreatment with DKT would block the colorectal distention-induced visceromotor response in rats, and (2) pretreatment with DKT would attenuate colorectal distention-induced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release and anxiety-related behavior. Methods Rats were pretreated with vehicle or DKT (300 mg/kg/5 m...

  16. Action of the chlorophyllin (CHLN) on the double breaking induced by gamma radiation in germinal cells of Drosophila melanogaster; Accion de la clorofilina (CHLN) sobre los dobles rompimientos inducidos por radiacion gamma en celulas germinales de Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno M, A

    2005-07-01

    The chlorophyllin (CHLN) is a derived of the chlorophyll in the one which the atom of Mg is replaced by Cu. It has been broadly used as preservative in those foods, and in the treatment of geriatric patients. The results using different test systems have demonstrated that the CHLN reduces the DNA damage caused by different physical agents or chemical of direct action or insinuation. Another of the properties of the CHLN is it anti carcinogenic action, because it has been that inhibits the carcinogen activity of B1 (AFB1) aflatoxin and it diminishes the incidence of tumors caused for 2-amine-3-methylimidazo [4- 5f] quinoline (IQ) and it inhibits the development of colon cancer during the post-initiation phase. Recently the reports of the activity promoter of the CHLN have been increased on the genetic damage. This effect observed in Salmonella and later on in Drosophila melanogaster using, physical and chemical agents. Presently study determines the action of the CHLN before the genetic effect induced in germinal cells of Drosophila melanogaster by means of the test of the lost one of the X chromosome in ring using two protocols; the first one consisted on pretreatment with CHLN to the male ones and later on to irradiate them and in the second protocol the pretreatment with CHLN administers to the females, in both protocols its were used a litter systems. (Author)

  17. Combined (alkaline+ultrasonic) pretreatment effect on sewage sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Jeong, Emma; Oh, Sae-Eun; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2010-05-01

    The individual effects of alkaline (pH 8-13) and ultrasonic (3750-45,000kJ/kg TS) pretreatments on the disintegration of sewage sludge were separately tested, and then the effect of combining these two methods at different intensity levels was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). In the combined pretreatment, ultrasonic treatment was applied to the alkali-pretreated sludge. While the solubilization (SCOD/TCOD) increase was limited to 50% in individual pretreatments, it reached 70% in combined pretreatment, and the results clearly showed that preconditioning of sludge at high pH levels played a crucial role in enhancing the disintegration efficiency of the subsequent ultrasonic pretreatment. By applying regression analysis, the disintegration degree (DD) was fitted based on the actual value to a second order polynomial equation: Y=-172.44+29.82X(1)+5.30x10(-3)X(2)-7.53x10(-5)X(1)X(2)-1.10X(1)(2)-1.043x10(-7)X(2)(2), where X(1), X(2), and Y are pH, specific energy input (kJ/kg TS), and DD, respectively. In a 2D contour plot describing the tendency of DD with respect to pH and specific energy input, it was clear that DD increased as pH increased, but it seemed that DD decreased when the specific energy input exceeded about 20,000kJ/kg TS. This phenomenon tells us that there exists a certain point where additional energy input is ineffective in achieving further disintegration. A synergetic disintegration effect was also found in the combined pretreatment, with lower specific energy input in ultrasonic pretreatment yielding higher synergetic effect. Finally, in order to see the combined pretreatment effect in continuous operation, the sludge pretreated with low intensity alkaline (pH 9)/ultrasonic (7500kJ/kg TS) treatment was fed to a 3 L of anaerobic sequencing batch reactor after 70 days of control operation. CH(4) production yield significantly increased from 81.9+/-4.5mL CH(4)/g COD(added) to 127.3+/-5.0mL CH(4)/g COD(added) by pretreatment, and

  18. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Kádár, Zsófia; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2011-01-01

    (0–7 h), e.g., oxalic acid and acetovanillon. Interestingly, washing had no effect on the ethanol production with pretreatment times up to 1 h. Washing improved the glucose availability with pretreatment times of more than 2 h. One hour of ozonisation was found to be optimal for the use of washed...... carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds were found, e.g., vanillic acid, acetic acid, and formic acid. Some components had the highest concentration at the beginning of the ozonisation process (0.5, 1 h), e.g., 4-hydroxybenzladehyde, while the concentration of others increased during the entire pretreatment...

  19. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PRECONCEPTUAL CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH

    2008-08-12

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

  20. Evaluation of wet oxidation pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palonen, H.; Thomsen, A.B.; Tenkanen, M.

    2004-01-01

    The wet oxidation pretreatment (water, oxygen, elevated temperature, and pressure) of softwood (Picea abies) was investigated for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was preliminarily optimized. Six different combinations of reaction time, temperature, and pH were applied......, and the compositions of solid and liquid fractions were analyzed. The solid fraction after wet oxidation contained 58-64% cellulose, 2-16% hemicellulose, and 24-30% lignin. The pretreatment series gave information about the roles of lignin and hemicellulose in the enzymatic hydrolysis. The temperature...

  1. Lignocellulosic biomass-Thermal pretreatment with steam: Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    With the ever rising demand for more energy and the limited availability of depleted world resources, many are beginning to look for alternatives to fossil fuels. Liquid biofuel, in particular, is of key interest to decrease our dependency on fuels produced from imported petroleum. Biomass pre......-treatment remains one of the most pressing challenges in terms of cost-effective production of biofuels. The digestibility of lingo-cellulosic biomass is limited by different factors such as the lignin content, the crystallinity of cellulose, and the available cellulose accessibility to hydrolytic enzymes. A number...

  2. Comparison of aqueous ammonia and dilute acid pretreatment of bamboo fractions: Structure properties and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Donglin; Yang, Zhong; Liu, Feng; Xu, Xueru; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    The effect of two pretreatments methods, aqueous ammonia (SAA) and dilute acid (DA), on the chemical compositions, cellulose crystallinity, morphologic change, and enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo fractions (bamboo yellow, timber, green, and knot) was compared. Bamboo fractions with SAA pretreatment had better hydrolysability than those with DA pretreatment. High crystallinity index resulted in low hydrolysis yield in the conversion of SAA pretreated bamboo fractions, not DA pretreated fractions. The increase of cellulase loading had modestly positive effect in the hydrolysis of both SAA and DA pretreated bamboo fractions, while supplement of xylanase significantly increased the hydrolysis of the pretreated bamboo fractions, especially after SAA pretreatment. The results indicated that SAA pretreatment was more effective than DA pretreatment in conversion of bamboo fractions, and supplementation of xylanase was necessary in effective conversion of the SAA pretreated fractions into fermentable sugars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pretreatments to enhance the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.T.W.M.; Zeeman, G.

    2009-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents a rather unused source for biogas and ethanol production. Many factors, like lignin content, crystallinity of cellulose, and particle size, limit the digestibility of the hemicellulose and cellulose present in the lignocellulosic biomass. Pretreatments have as a

  4. 40 CFR 407.76 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Vegetables Subcategory § 407.76 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source...

  5. 40 CFR 407.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Fruits Subcategory § 407.64 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  6. 40 CFR 407.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Fruits Subcategory § 407.66 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source...

  7. Effects of Pretreatments in Convective Dehydration of Rosehip (Rosa eglanteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Mabellini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to experimentally determine drying curves for thin layer and bed drying of rosehip fruits, with and without pretreatments, to reduce processing times as a function of drying air operating variables, to propose dehydration kinetics of fruits and to determine its kinetic parameters for further use within drying simulation software. Fruits were pre-treated both chemically and mechanically, which included dipping the fruits in NaOH and ethyl oleate solutions; and cutting or perforating the fruit cuticle, respectively. Simulation models were then adopted to fit the kinetics drying data considering fruit volume shrinkage. These simple models minimized the calculation time during the simulation of deep-bed driers. Results show that pre-treatments reduced processing times up to 57%, and evaluated models satisfactorily predicted the drying of rosehip fruit. Effective mass diffusion coefficients were up to 4-fold greater when fruit was submitted to mechanical pretreatments.

  8. Pretreatment Characteristics of Waste Oak Wood by Ammonia Percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Seok; Kim, Hyunjoon; Lee, Jin-Suk; Lee, Joon-Pyo; Park, Soon-Chul

    A log of waste oak wood collected from a Korean mushroom farm has been tested for ammonia percolation pretreatment. The waste log has different physical characteristics from that of virgin oak wood. The density of the waste wood was 30% lower than that of virgin oak wood. However, there is little difference in the chemical compositions between the woods. Due to the difference in physical characteristics, the optimal pretreatment conditions were also quite different. While for waste oak the optimum temperature was determined to be 130°C, for virgin oak wood the optimum pretreatment was only achieved at 170°C. Presoaking for 12 h with ammonia solution before pretreatment was helpful to increase the delignification efficiency.

  9. Tank waste pretreatment issues, alternatives and strategies for resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.C.; Appel, J.; Barton, W.B.; Orme, R.M.; Holton, L.K. Jr.

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of the Hanford Site tank waste. The overall strategy for disposing of tank waste is evolving and initial recommendations on a course of action are expected in March, 1993. Pretreatment of these wastes may be required for one or both of the following reasons: (1) resolution of tank safety issues, and (2) preparation of low level and high level waste fractions for disposal. Pretreatment is faced with several issues that must be addressed by the deployment strategies that are being formulated. These issues are identified. There is also a discussion of several pretreatment deployment strategies and how these strategies address the issues. Finally, the technology alternatives that are being considered for the pretreatment function are briefly discussed

  10. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    for subsequent enzymatic saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose, by using the temperate grass Festulolium Hykor. The method was additionally combined with hydrothermal treatment, in order to decrease the required severity of an industrial applied pretreatment method. The first part of the project...... conditions providing the best possible pretreatment effect. The parameters were biomass composition, varied by ensiling of four seasonal cuts of grass, different dry matter (DM) content at ensiling, and an addition of different lactic acid bacteria species. First of all, the study confirmed that ensiling can...... act as a method of pretreatment and improve the enzymatic cellulose convertibility of grass. Furthermore, low DM ensiling was found to improve the effects of pretreatment due to a higher production of organic acids in the silage. The effect of applied lactic acid bacteria species was, however...

  11. Bioethanol from lignocellulose - pretreatment, enzyme immobilization and hydrolysis kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Chien Tai

    , the cost of enzyme is still the bottle neck, re-using the enzyme is apossible way to reduce the input of enzyme in the process. In the point view of engineering, the prediction of enzymatic hydrolysis kinetics under different substrate loading, enzyme combination is usful for process design. Therefore...... lignocellulose is the required high cellulase enzyme dosages that increase the processing costs. One method to decrease the enzyme dosage is to re-use BG, which hydrolyze the soluble substrate cellobiose. Based on the hypothesis that immobilized BG can be re-used, how many times the enzyme could be recycled...... liquid and pretreatment time can be reduced, the influence of substrate concentration, pretreatment time and temperature were investigated and optimized. Pretreatment of barley straw by [EMIM]Ac, correlative models were constructed using 3 different pretreatment parameters (temperature, time...

  12. Synergistic Effect of Trehalose and Saccharose Pretreatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maintenance of lyophilized human red blood cell (RBC) quality. Methods: RBCs were pre-treated with trehalose and saccharose, and then lyophilized and .... different concentrations of trehalose and saccharose as described above.

  13. Optimization of microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Hongzhang; Kádár, Zsófia

    2011-01-01

    An orthogonal design (L9(34)) was used to optimize the microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production. The orthogonal analysis was done based on the results obtained from the nine pretreatments. The effect of four factors including the ratio of biomass to NaOH solution, pretreatment...... time, microwave power, and the concentration of NaOH solution with three different levels on the chemical composition, cellulose/hemicellulose recoveries and ethanol concentration was investigated. According to the orthogonal analysis, pretreatment with the ratio of biomass to liquid at 80 g kg−1......, the NaOH concentration of 10 kg m−3, the microwave power of 1000 W for 15 min was confirmed to be the optimal condition. The ethanol yield was 148.93 g kg−1 wheat straw at this condition, much higher than that from the untreated material which was only 26.78 g kg−1....

  14. New pentose dimers with bicyclic moieties from pretreated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H.; Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Tanner, David Ackland

    2017-01-01

    In lignocellulosic biorefinery processes involving enzyme catalysed reactions it is a challenge that enzyme inhibiting compounds are generated and liberated during pretreatment of the biomass. In this study the contribution to cellulase inhibition from xylooligosaccharides and newly discovered...... oligophenolic compounds from pilot scale pretreated wheat straw was assessed at two different pretreatment severities. An increase in severity of the pretreatment led to more oligophenol compounds and in turn the total overall cellulase inhibition increased. When the xylooligosaccharides were enzymatically...... degraded prior to cellulose hydrolysis, a relief in cellulase inhibition was observed, but some inhibition remained, suggesting that other components also played a role in inhibition. We propose that these components include dipentoses with bicyclic moieties and feruloylated tripentoses, because LC...

  15. Effect of Pretreatments on Seed Viability During Fruit Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    and petri dishes on moist filter paper, gave 80% germination in variety gabonensis, 20 weeks after fruiting. .... Effect of pretreatments on seed germination of fruits of Irvingia gabonensis plucked from forest ...... A review of the tariff structure and.

  16. 40 CFR 405.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy Desserts Subcategory § 405.86 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  17. Bromine pretreated chitosan for adsorption of lead (II) from water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    isotherm and maximum sorption capacity of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan sorbent was 1·755 g/kg with 85–. 90% lead .... C by applying Lagergren first ... Lead (II) ions concentrations were determined by using an .... following equation.

  18. Effects of embryo induction media and pretreatments in isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... chemical + heat and also the effects of 5 embryo induction media (NPB-99, C17, ... Key words: Hexaploid wheat, haploid, isolated microspore culture, pretreatment, ..... this method is influenced by several mentioned factors.

  19. Improving biogas production from microalgae by enzymatic pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Fabiana; Hom-Diaz, Andrea; Blanquez, Paqui; Vicent, Teresa; Ferrer, Ivet

    2016-01-01

    In this study, enzymatic pretreatment of microalgal biomass was investigated under different conditions and evaluated using biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. Cellulase, glucohydrolase and an enzyme mix composed of cellulase, glucohydrolase and xylanase were selected based on the microalgae cell wall composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and glycoprotein). All of them increased organic matter solubilisation, obtaining high values already after 6h of pretreatment with an enzyme dose of 1% for cellulase and the enzyme mix. BMP tests with pretreated microalgae showed a methane yield increase of 8 and 15% for cellulase and the enzyme mix, respectively. Prospective research should evaluate enzymatic pretreatments in continuous anaerobic reactors so as to estimate the energy balance and economic cost of the process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pretreatment of Miscanthus for hydrogen production by Thermotoga elfii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, de T.; Haas, de G.G.; Tan, G.B.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Pretreatment methods for the production of fermentable substrates from Miscanthus, a lignocellulosic biomass, were investigated. Results demonstrated an inverse relationship between lignin content and the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides. High delignification values were

  1. Pretreatment seizure semiology in childhood absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sudha Kilaru; Shinnar, Shlomo; Cnaan, Avital; Dlugos, Dennis; Conry, Joan; Hirtz, Deborah G; Hu, Fengming; Liu, Chunyan; Mizrahi, Eli M; Moshé, Solomon L; Clark, Peggy; Glauser, Tracy A

    2017-08-15

    To determine seizure semiology in children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy and to evaluate associations with short-term treatment outcomes. For participants enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative-effectiveness trial, semiologic features of pretreatment seizures were analyzed as predictors of treatment outcome at the week 16 to 20 visit. Video of 1,932 electrographic absence seizures from 416 participants was evaluated. Median seizure duration was 10.2 seconds; median time between electrographic seizure onset and clinical manifestation onset was 1.5 seconds. For individual seizures and by participant, the most common semiology features were pause/stare (seizure 95.5%, participant 99.3%), motor automatisms (60.6%, 86.1%), and eye involvement (54.9%, 76.5%). The interrater agreement for motor automatisms and eye involvement was good (72%-84%). Variability of semiology features between seizures even within participants was high. Clustering analyses revealed 4 patterns (involving the presence/absence of eye involvement and motor automatisms superimposed on the nearly ubiquitous pause/stare). Most participants experienced more than one seizure cluster pattern. No individual semiologic feature was individually predictive of short-term outcome. Seizure freedom was half as likely in participants with one or more seizure having the pattern of eye involvement without motor automatisms than in participants without this pattern. Almost all absence seizures are characterized by a pause in activity or staring, but rarely is this the only feature. Semiologic features tend to cluster, resulting in identifiable absence seizure subtypes with significant intraparticipant seizure phenomenologic heterogeneity. One seizure subtype, pause/stare and eye involvement but no motor automatisms, is specifically associated with a worse treatment outcome. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  3. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  4. Sincalide - the final protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, E.A.; Notghi, A.; Hesslewood, S.R.; Harding, L.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: HIDA biliary studies examine the gallbladder (GB) to give a percentage ejection fraction (EF). Porcine CCK was an accepted agent for stimulating the GB prior to being withdrawn in the UK from 1998. Sincalide (a synthetic CCK) was the suggested replacement. We have tried many administration regimes in an attempt to get results comparable with our established CCK protocols. Dose concentration and length of infusion times have been studied. Initially a dose of 10 ngm/kg/min given over 2 minutes (manufacturer's recommended dose) was used. This gave falsely low ejection fractions. The dose was reduced to 3 ngm/kg/min over 3 minutes as it was felt the higher dose may be causing constriction of the sphincter of Oddi. This gave a slight improvement with 22 % of patients having normal EF (>35 %). The length of infusion was extended to 15 minutes and the dose concentration reduced again to 0.6 ngm/kg/min. 62 % of patients had a normal EF. However, on many of the curves the gallbladder was still contracting on completion of the 15 minute infusion and began to refill immediately after stopping Sincalide. A further change of protocol was indicated. The infusion time was extended to 30 minutes and the dose concentration per minute kept the same. Imaging began at 30 minutes post HIDA injection and continued for a total of 50 minutes. Sincalide infusion began at 35 minutes if a GB was visualized. This protocol has been performed on 17 patients. 53 % of these had a normal result (comparable with a normal rate of 40 % previously established with CCK) with a mean EF of 60 %. The mean EF of patients with abnormal studies was 15 %. Curves showed a plateau by 30 minutes in 94 % of patients indicating that gallbladder contraction was complete. No normal range is available so results were compared with ultrasound (US). All patients who had an abnormal US scan also had abnormal HIDA results. Three patients had a normal US scan and abnormal HIDA study. These are currently

  5. Distributed Network Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(II different from Controlting Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) S Office of Naval Research Unclassified...All protocols are extended to networks with changing. topology. S80 8 4 246 DD0I iA 1473 EDITION OF INOV 65 IS OBSOLETE 8 0 24 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...to the netowrk . f) Each node knows its adjacent links, but not necessarily the identity of its neighbors, i.e. the nodes at the other end of the links

  6. Effects of Dexmedetomidine Pretreatment on Central Nervous System Toxicity Induced by Bupivacaine in Rats%预注右美托咪定对布比卡因致大鼠中枢神经系统毒性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛亚菲; 马加海

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine pretreatment on bupivacaine associated toxicity to the central nervous system(CNS) in rats.Methods Thirty SD rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups(n=10 ):bupivacaine group ( B group ) , dexmedetomidine 5μg/kg+bupivacaine group ( DB1 group ) and dexmedetomidine 10μg/kg+bupivacaine group ( DB2 group ) .5μg/kg or 10μg/kg dexmedetomidine was given intravenously respectively in DB1 or DB2 group 10 min before bupivacaine infusion whereas equal volume of normal saline was injected instead in the B group.Rats in 3 groups received continuous infusion of bupivacaine at 2mg/(kg· min).Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate(HR) were monitored.Arterial blood was drawn before the beginning of local anesthetic infusion and at the onset of convulsions to determine blood gas tensions and pH .The amount of bupivacaine infused was ealculat-ed at the onset of convulsion .Results The MAP values were significantly increased and the HR was significantly de-creased at the onset of convulsion in all groups (P<0.05).In the DB1 and DB2 group,the amounts of bupivacaine cau-sing convulsion were(7.7 ±1.4)mg/kg,(7.8 ±1.1)mg/kg respectively,which were significantly higher than those in the B group(5.6 ±1.2mg/kg)(P<0.05).Conclusion Pretreatmaent with dexmedetomidine can raise the threshold for CNS toxicity and reduce toxicity induced by bupivacaine in rats ,whereas the effect is not dose-dependent .%目的:观察右美托咪定对大鼠布比卡因中枢神经系统( CNS )毒性的影响。方法 SD大鼠30只,随机分为3组,每组10只:布比卡因组( B组)、右美托咪定5μg/kg +布比卡因组( DB1组)、右美托咪定10μg/kg +布比卡因组( DB2组)。 DB1,DB2组于输注布比卡因前10min 分别静脉输注右美托咪定5μg/kg,10μg/kg,B组输注等量0.9%氯化钠溶液,其后各组以2mg/(kg· min)速率静脉输注0.75%布比卡因,至大鼠出现惊厥时

  7. Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLAUDIA

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... 120°C. The pretreated blending was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis for 130 h at 80 rpm and 50°C with an enzymatic load of ... pretreatment of 2.5% NaOH for 90 min, 120°C, and a hydrolysis residence time of 130 h. The removal of ...... Programa Estratégico Forestal para el estado de Durango,. México.

  8. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole slurry (Filter cake + filtrate) in SSF were also tested. Except ethanol yields, pretreatment methods were evaluated based on achieved glucose yields, amount of water used, recovery of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The highest ethanol yield obtained was 67% after fermenting the whole slurry produced by WO at 205 °C for 3 min with 12 bar of oxygen gas pressure and featured with presoaking in water. At these conditions after pre-treatment, cellulose and hemicellulose was recovered quantitatively (100%) together with 86% of the lignin. WO treatments of 2–3 min at 205–210 °C with 12 bar of oxygen gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid formation in SSF. -- Highlights: ► Wet Oxidation pretreatment on rape straw for sugar and ethanol production. ► Variables were reaction time, temperature, and oxygen gas pressure. ► Also, other configurations for increase of water and energy efficiency. ► Short Wet oxidation pretreatment (2–3 min) produced highest ethanol yield. ► After these pretreatment conditions recovery of lignin in solids was 86%.

  9. Pretreatment of wheat straw for fermentation to methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of pretreating wheat straw with gamma-ray irradiation, ammonium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide on methane yield, fermentation rate constant, and loss of feedstock constituents were evaluated using laboratory-scale batch fermentors. Results showed that methane yield increased as pretreatment alkali concentration increased, with the highest yield being 37% over untreated straw for the pretreatment consisting of sodium hydroxide dosage of 34 g OH - /kg volatile solids, at 90 0 C for 1 h. Gamma-ray irradiation had no significant effect on methane yield. Alkaline pretreatment temperatures above 100 0 C caused a decrease in methane yield. After more than 100 days of fermentation, all of the hemicellulose and more than 80% of the cellulose were degraded. The loss in cellulose and hemicellulose accounted for 100% of the volatile solids lost. No consistent effect of pretreatments on batch fermentation rates was noted. Semicontinuous fermentations of straw-manure mixtures confirmed the relative effectiveness of sodium- and ammonium-hydroxide pretreatments

  10. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Torres, M.; Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH) 2 ), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH) 2 /L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m 3 CH 4 /kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW

  11. Removal mechanism of tritium by variously pretreated silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, M.; Tachikawa, E.; Saeki, M.; Aratono, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Removal mechanisms of HTO from variously pretreated and non-pretreated silica gel columns were investigated with pulse-loading with tritiated water vapor. With non-pretreated silica gel, the HTO physisorbed on the upper part of the column comes into contact with surface hydroxyl groups while passing downward the column, so that in each equilibration a part of the tritium is incorporated into hydroxyl groups by H/T isotopic exchange reactions. With the silica gel pretreated at a temperature below 400 0 C, most of tritium in the applied HTO is easily incorporated into surface hydroxyl groups in the upper part of the column either by H/T isotopic exchange reactions or by rehydration of the dehydrated surface (siloxyl linkage). In the pretreatment above 400 0 C, essentially all the tritium is trapped by siloxyl groups of various stabilities. The ease of rehydration of siloxyl groups by applied HTO depends on their stabilities, which, in turn, depend on the pretreatment temperature. As a general trend, treatment at higher temperature promotes annealing of the constrained siloxyl groups and thus the rate of rehydration becomes slower. (author)

  12. Optimization and evaluation of alkaline potassium permanganate pretreatment of corncob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijuan; Cui, Youzhi; Cai, Rui; Liu, Xueqiang; Zhang, Cuiying; Xiao, Dongguang

    2015-03-01

    Alkaline potassium permanganate solution (APP) was applied to the pretreatment of corncob with a simple and effective optimization of APP concentration, reaction time, temperature and solid to liquid ratio (SLR). The optimized pretreatment conditions were at 2% (w/v) potassium permanganate with SLR of 1:10 treating for 6h at 50°C. This simple one-step treatment resulted in significant 94.56% of the cellulose and 81.47% of the hemicellulose recoveries and 46.79% of the lignin removal of corncob. The reducing sugar in the hydrolysate from APP-pretreated corncob was 8.39g/L after 12h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was 1.44 and 1.29 folds higher than those from raw and acid pretreated corncobs. Physical characteristics, crystallinity and structure of the pretreated corncob were analyzed and assessed by SEM, XRD and FTIR. The APP pretreatment process was novel and enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose by affecting composition and structural features. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protective effect of bacillopeptidase CFR5 from Bacillus subtilis CFR5 on cerulein-induced pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmila, G R; Venkateswaran, G

    2017-09-16

    Bacillopeptidase is a serine peptidase, known for its fibrinolytic activity. However, a very little information is known about its in vivo inflammatory and/or anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, to understand whether bacillopeptidase incorporation can regulate pancreatitis or not, the cerulein-induced pancreatitis model was used, and the role of bacillopeptidase on pancreatitis was studied. In this study, 46 kDa protein was purified from Bacillus subtilis and identified as bacillopeptidase CFR5 (BPC) through MS/MS analysis. The nutritional prophylactic group was orally fed with two doses of BPC (100 μg/Kg/BW of rat) 6 h before cerulein administration and analyzed for its effect on intestine and pancreas inflammation, cytokines, and pancreatitis marker gene expression. BPC administration significantly reduced the severity of pancreatitis by decreasing serum amylase, lipase, pancreatic edema and myeloperoxidase activity. The pretreatment with BPC suppressed the pancreatic pro-inflammatory and inflammatory cytokines production including IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 in both pancreas and serum samples. Moreover, BPC supplementation restored pancreatitis mediated disruption of intestinal barrier integrity by upregulating tight junction proteins (ZO-1, occludin), antimicrobial peptides (DEFB1, CRAMP), MUC-2, TFF3 expression and by enhancing SCFA's production. Pretreatment with BPC suppressed the intestinal inflammation with reduced cytokines production in the colon and ileal region of cerulein-induced pancreatitis. Thus, BPC based pretreatment protocol is a novel intervention to prevent acute pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving Wojcik's eavesdropping attack on the ping-pong protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanjun; Man Zhongxiao; Li Yong

    2004-01-01

    The eavesdropping scheme proposed by Wojcik [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003) 157901] on the ping-pong protocol [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 187902] is improved by constituting a new set of attack operations. The improved scheme only induces half of the eavesdropping-induced channel loss in Wojcik's scheme, therefore, in a larger domain of the quantum channel transmission efficiency η, i.e., [0,75%], the eavesdropper Eve can attack all the transmitted bits. The improvement of the ping-pong protocol security produced by Wojcik's is also suitable for our eavesdropping attack

  15. Security and SCADA protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igure, V. M.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have replaced discrete wiring for many industrial processes, and the efficiency of the network alternative suggests a trend toward more SCADA networks in the future. This paper broadly considers SCADA to include distributed control systems (DCS) and digital control systems. These networks offer many advantages, but they also introduce potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries. Inter-connectivity exposes SCADA networks to many of the same threats that face the public internet and many of the established defenses therefore show promise if adapted to the SCADA differences. This paper provides an overview of security issues in SCADA networks and ongoing efforts to improve the security of these networks. Initially, a few samples from the range of threats to SCADA network security are offered. Next, attention is focused on security assessment of SCADA communication protocols. Three challenges must be addressed to strengthen SCADA networks. Access control mechanisms need to be introduced or strengthened, improvements are needed inside of the network to enhance security and network monitoring, and SCADA security management improvements and policies are needed. This paper discusses each of these challenges. This paper uses the Profibus protocol as an example to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities that arise within SCADA networks. The example Profibus security assessment establishes a network model and an attacker model before proceeding to a list of example attacks. (authors)

  16. Full utilization of silt density index (SDI) measurements for seawater pre-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2012-07-01

    In order to clarify the fouling mechanism during silt density index (SDI) measurements of seawater in the seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process, 11 runs were conducted under constant-pressure (207kPa) dead-end filtration mode according to the standard protocol for SDI measurement, in which two kinds of 0.45μm membranes of different material and seawater samples from the Mediterranean including raw seawater and seawater pre-treated by coagulation followed by sand filtration (CSF) and coagulation followed by microfiltration (CMF) technologies were tested. Fouling mechanisms based on the constant-pressure filtration equation were fully analyzed. For all runs, only t/(V/A)∼t showed very good linearity (correlation coefficient R 2>0.99) since the first moment of the filtration, indicating that standard blocking rather than cake filtration was the dominant fouling mechanism during the entire filtration process. The very low concentration of suspended solids rejected by MF of 0.45μm in seawater was the main reason why a cake layer was not formed. High turbidity removal during filtration indicated that organic colloids retained on and/or adsorbed in membrane pores governed the filtration process (i.e., standard blocking) due to the important contribution of organic substances to seawater turbidity in this study. Therefore the standard blocking coefficient k s, i.e., the slope of t/(V/A)∼t, could be used as a good fouling index for seawater because it showed good linearity with feed seawater turbidity. The correlation of SDI with k s and feed seawater quality indicated that SDI could be reliably used for seawater with low fouling potential (SDI 15min<5) like pre-treated seawater in this study. From both k s and SDI, the order of fouling potential was raw seawater>seawater pre-treated by CSF>seawater pre-treated by CMF, indicating the better performance of CMF than CSF. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Assessment of corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase as a prognostic indicator in canine lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, A L; Charney, S C; Barger, A M; Schaeffer, D J; Kitchell, B E

    2005-04-01

    To examine the incidence of elevated corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase (sALP) in dogs with lymphoma and to determine if sALP is a reliable prognostic indicator in canine lymphoma. The medical records of 62 canine lymphoma patients treated with a combination chemotherapy protocol from 1994 to 2003 at the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital were examined. Variables assessed with respect to response rate and remission duration included age, bodyweight, sex, breed, World Health Organization stage (I to V), substage (a or b), pretreatment administration of corticosteroid, and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, sALP and alanine aminotransferase. sALP was not statistically significant with respect to response rate or duration of remission, nor was preinduction glucocorticoid administration. Stage was significant with respect to achieving remission. It was found that sALP is not a useful prognostic indicator for response rate and remission duration in dogs with lymphoma.

  18. Investigation of the impacts of thermal pretreatment on waste activated sludge and development of a pretreatment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Gillian; Parker, Wayne

    2013-09-15

    This study investigated the impacts of high pressure thermal hydrolysis (HPTH) pretreatment on the distribution of chemical oxygen demand (COD) species in waste activated sludge (WAS). In the first phase of the project, WAS from a synthetically-fed biological reactor (BR) was fed to an aerobic digester (AD). In the second phase, WAS from the BR was pretreated by HPTH at 150 °C and 3 bars for 30 min prior to being fed to the AD. A range of physical, biochemical and biological properties were regularly measured in each process stream in both phases. The COD of the BR WAS consisted of storage products (XSTO), active heterotrophs (XH) and endogenous decay products (XE). Pretreatment did not increase the extent to which the BR WAS was aerobically digested and hence it was concluded that the unbiodegradable COD fraction, i.e. XE, was unchanged by pretreatment. However, pretreatment did increase the rate of degradation as it converted 36% of XH to readily biodegradable COD (SB) and the remaining XH to slowly biodegradable COD (XB). Furthermore, XSTO was fully converted to SB by pretreatment. Although pretreatment did not change the VSS concentration in the downstream aerobic digester, it did decrease the ISS concentration by 46 ± 11%. This reduced the total mass of solids produced by the digester by 21 ± 8%. A COD-based HPTH pretreatment model was developed and calibrated. When this model was integrated into BioWin 3.1(®), it was able to accurately simulate both the steady state performance of the overall system employed in this study as well as dynamic respirometry results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Techniques and practices for pretreatment of low and intermediate level solid and liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    An overall waste management strategy generally includes several components: pretreatment, treatment, conditioning, transport and disposal. Benefits of pretreatment are improved safety, lower radiation exposures and significantly lower costs in subsequent waste management operations. This publication reviews current practices in the pretreatment of wastes in different countries and may assist the specialist in selection of appropriate pretreatment techniques

  20. Biomass pretreatment affects Ustilago maydis in producing itaconic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klement Tobias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last years, the biotechnological production of platform chemicals for fuel components has become a major focus of interest. Although ligno-cellulosic material is considered as suitable feedstock, the almost inevitable pretreatment of this recalcitrant material may interfere with the subsequent fermentation steps. In this study, the fungus Ustilago maydis was used to produce itaconic acid as platform chemical for the synthesis of potential biofuels such as 3-methyltetrahydrofuran. No studies, however, have investigated how pretreatment of ligno-cellulosic biomass precisely influences the subsequent fermentation by U. maydis. Thus, this current study aims to first characterize U. maydis in shake flasks and then to evaluate the influence of three exemplary pretreatment methods on the cultivation and itaconic acid production of this fungus. Cellulose enzymatically hydrolysed in seawater and salt-assisted organic-acid catalysed cellulose were investigated as substrates. Lastly, hydrolysed hemicellulose from fractionated beech wood was applied as substrate. Results U. maydis was characterized on shake flask level regarding its itaconic acid production on glucose. Nitrogen limitation was shown to be a crucial condition for the production of itaconic acid. For itaconic acid concentrations above 25 g/L, a significant product inhibition was observed. Performing experiments that simulated influences of possible pretreatment methods, U. maydis was only slightly affected by high osmolarities up to 3.5 osmol/L as well as of 0.1 M oxalic acid. The production of itaconic acid was achieved on pretreated cellulose in seawater and on the hydrolysed hemicellulosic fraction of pretreated beech wood. Conclusion The fungus U. maydis is a promising producer of itaconic acid, since it grows as single cells (yeast-like in submerged cultivations and it is extremely robust in high osmotic media and real seawater. Moreover, U. maydis can grow on

  1. [Computerized clinical protocol for occlusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsench, J; Ferrer, J; Nogueras, J

    1988-11-01

    In making a protocol it is necessary that all members of the team who are going to collect information have the same unity of criterion about the different variables that compose it. The drawing up of this document is as much or more necessary than the protocol itself. In this work we all data collected in the protocol and we give the explanations of each concept.

  2. Effect of pretreatment with Ethanol or Ammonium Hydroxide on Helicobacter Pylori colonization in the stomach of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimi F

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Animal models for H.pylori infection have been developed to clarify the pathogenesis, testing new therapies and developing vaccines against human H.pylori infection. Although rats have been used extensively for gastric ulceration and acid secretion studies, the animal is not normally infected with H.pylori.Several chemicals such as ethanol and ammonium hydroxide can induce gastric erosion and interact with gastric mucosal defense mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with the gastroinvasive agents on colonization of H. pylori with the gastroinvasive agents on colonization of H. pylori in not germ-free rats in order to overcome the resistance against H. pylori in rats. After 24 h fasting, the rats were divided into three major groups. Animals in the first group were not pretreated with any chemicals. The two other groups were pretreated with ethanol (60% or ammonium hydroxide (1% before inoculation of 1 mL H. pylori suspension (3×108 cfu/ml. The results showed that H. pylori could not colonize in rats, even with ethanol or ammonium hydroxide pretreatment. An understanding of the mechanism of this resistance can help researchers to develop new therapeutic or preventive drugs against H. pylori and it is recommended to perform more investigation to clarify the reason of this resistance

  3. Effect of Pre-treatment with Moringa oleifera (Drumstick Leaves on Diabetogenesis Produced by Alloxan in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsun Nahar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants constitute an important source of potential therapeutic agents for diabetes. Objective: In the study, we aimed to investigate the pre-treatment effect or preventive effects of Moringa oleifera (MO leaves on blood sugar of rats. Materials and method: This experimental study was carried out in the department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics of Sir Salimullah Medical College in collaboration with Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR, Dhaka. A total 24 long Evans rats were included in this study and divided in to four groups. Hyperglycemia was induced on rats using alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight, intraperitioneally. Blood sample was collected from tail vein by tail tipping method. Pre-treatment effect or preventive role of Moringa oleifera (drumstick leaf powder on diabetogenesis produced by Alloxan in rats was tested by giving 50 mg/rat/day Moringa oleifera leaf powder for 14 days orally as pre-treatment along with standard rat feed. Then alloxan was administered intraperitoneally on 15th day of the experiment and 50mg/rat/day Moringa oleifera leaf powder was given for 7 days as post-treatment. Results: No significant effect of MO on blood glucose level was observed on normal rats and non significant hypoglycaemic effect was found in rats that were pretreated with MO. Conclusion: The present study suggests that Moringa oleifera leaf powder did not produce any significant protective effect in diabetogenesis produced by alloxan though it has hypoglycaemic effect.

  4. Effect of Mucuna pruriens Seed Extract Pretreatment on the Responses of Spontaneously Beating Rat Atria and Aortic Ring to Naja sputatrix (Javan Spitting Cobra) Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Shin Yee; Tan, Nget Hong; Sim, Si Mui; Aguiyi, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens Linn. (velvet bean) has been used by native Nigerians as a prophylactic for snakebite. Rats pretreated with M. pruriens seed extract (MPE) have been shown to protect against the lethal and cardiovascular depressant effects of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) venoms, and the protective effect involved immunological neutralization of the venom toxins. To investigate further the mechanism of the protective effect of MPE pretreatment against cobra venom toxicity, the actions of Naja sputatrix venom on spontaneously beating rat atria and aortic rings isolated from both MPE pretreated and untreated rats were studied. Our results showed that the MPE pretreatment conferred protection against cobra venom-induced depression of atrial contractility and atrial rate in the isolated atrial preparations, but it had no effect on the venom-induced contractile response of aortic ring preparation. These observations suggested that the protective effect of MPE pretreatment against cobra venom toxicity involves a direct protective action of MPE on the heart function, in addition to the known immunological neutralization mechanism, and that the protective effect does not involve action on blood vessel contraction. The results also suggest that M. pruriens seed may contain novel cardioprotective agent with potential therapeutic value. PMID:21785646

  5. Effect of Mucuna pruriens Seed Extract Pretreatment on the Responses of Spontaneously Beating Rat Atria and Aortic Ring to Naja sputatrix (Javan Spitting Cobra Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yee Fung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucuna pruriens Linn. (velvet bean has been used by native Nigerians as a prophylactic for snakebite. Rats pretreated with M. pruriens seed extract (MPE have been shown to protect against the lethal and cardiovascular depressant effects of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra venoms, and the protective effect involved immunological neutralization of the venom toxins. To investigate further the mechanism of the protective effect of MPE pretreatment against cobra venom toxicity, the actions of Naja sputatrix venom on spontaneously beating rat atria and aortic rings isolated from both MPE pretreated and untreated rats were studied. Our results showed that the MPE pretreatment conferred protection against cobra venom-induced depression of atrial contractility and atrial rate in the isolated atrial preparations, but it had no effect on the venom-induced contractile response of aortic ring preparation. These observations suggested that the protective effect of MPE pretreatment against cobra venom toxicity involves a direct protective action of MPE on the heart function, in addition to the known immunological neutralization mechanism, and that the protective effect does not involve action on blood vessel contraction. The results also suggest that M. pruriens seed may contain novel cardioprotective agent with potential therapeutic value.

  6. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  7. Lignocellulosic Biomass Transformations via Greener Oxidative Pretreatment Processes: Access to Energy and Value-Added Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Den

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic climate change, principally induced by the large volume of carbon dioxide emission from the global economy driven by fossil fuels, has been observed and scientifically proven as a major threat to civilization. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has been identified as a future challenge. Lignocellulosic biomass in the form of organic residues appears to be the most promising option as renewable feedstock for the generation of energy and platform chemicals. As of today, relatively little bioenergy comes from lignocellulosic biomass as compared to feedstock such as starch and sugarcane, primarily due to high cost of production involving pretreatment steps required to fragment biomass components via disruption of the natural recalcitrant structure of these rigid polymers; low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of refractory feedstock presents a major challenge. The valorization of lignin and cellulose into energy products or chemical products is contingent on the effectiveness of selective depolymerization of the pretreatment regime which typically involve harsh pyrolytic and solvothermal processes assisted by corrosive acids or alkaline reagents. These unselective methods decompose lignin into many products that may not be energetically or chemically valuable, or even biologically inhibitory. Exploring milder, selective and greener processes, therefore, has become a critical subject of study for the valorization of these materials in the last decade. Efficient alternative activation processes such as microwave- and ultrasound irradiation are being explored as replacements for pyrolysis and hydrothermolysis, while milder options such as advanced oxidative and catalytic processes should be considered as choices to harsher acid and alkaline processes. Herein, we critically abridge the research on chemical oxidative techniques for the pretreatment of lignocellulosics with the explicit aim to rationalize the objectives of the biomass

  8. Lignocellulosic Biomass Transformations via Greener Oxidative Pretreatment Processes: Access to Energy and Value-Added Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den, Walter; Sharma, Virender K.; Lee, Mengshan; Nadadur, Govind; Varma, Rajender S.

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change, principally induced by the large volume of carbon dioxide emission from the global economy driven by fossil fuels, has been observed and scientifically proven as a major threat to civilization. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has been identified as a future challenge. Lignocellulosic biomass in the form of organic residues appears to be the most promising option as renewable feedstock for the generation of energy and platform chemicals. As of today, relatively little bioenergy comes from lignocellulosic biomass as compared to feedstock such as starch and sugarcane, primarily due to high cost of production involving pretreatment steps required to fragment biomass components via disruption of the natural recalcitrant structure of these rigid polymers; low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of refractory feedstock presents a major challenge. The valorization of lignin and cellulose into energy products or chemical products is contingent on the effectiveness of selective depolymerization of the pretreatment regime which typically involve harsh pyrolytic and solvothermal processes assisted by corrosive acids or alkaline reagents. These unselective methods decompose lignin into many products that may not be energetically or chemically valuable, or even biologically inhibitory. Exploring milder, selective and greener processes, therefore, has become a critical subject of study for the valorization of these materials in the last decade. Efficient alternative activation processes such as microwave- and ultrasound irradiation are being explored as replacements for pyrolysis and hydrothermolysis, while milder options such as advanced oxidative and catalytic processes should be considered as choices to harsher acid and alkaline processes. Herein, we critically abridge the research on chemical oxidative techniques for the pretreatment of lignocellulosics with the explicit aim to rationalize the objectives of the biomass pretreatment step and the

  9. Lignocellulosic Biomass Transformations via Greener Oxidative Pretreatment Processes: Access to Energy and Value-Added Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den, Walter; Sharma, Virender K; Lee, Mengshan; Nadadur, Govind; Varma, Rajender S

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change, principally induced by the large volume of carbon dioxide emission from the global economy driven by fossil fuels, has been observed and scientifically proven as a major threat to civilization. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has been identified as a future challenge. Lignocellulosic biomass in the form of organic residues appears to be the most promising option as renewable feedstock for the generation of energy and platform chemicals. As of today, relatively little bioenergy comes from lignocellulosic biomass as compared to feedstock such as starch and sugarcane, primarily due to high cost of production involving pretreatment steps required to fragment biomass components via disruption of the natural recalcitrant structure of these rigid polymers; low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of refractory feedstock presents a major challenge. The valorization of lignin and cellulose into energy products or chemical products is contingent on the effectiveness of selective depolymerization of the pretreatment regime which typically involve harsh pyrolytic and solvothermal processes assisted by corrosive acids or alkaline reagents. These unselective methods decompose lignin into many products that may not be energetically or chemically valuable, or even biologically inhibitory. Exploring milder, selective and greener processes, therefore, has become a critical subject of study for the valorization of these materials in the last decade. Efficient alternative activation processes such as microwave- and ultrasound irradiation are being explored as replacements for pyrolysis and hydrothermolysis, while milder options such as advanced oxidative and catalytic processes should be considered as choices to harsher acid and alkaline processes. Herein, we critically abridge the research on chemical oxidative techniques for the pretreatment of lignocellulosics with the explicit aim to rationalize the objectives of the biomass pretreatment step and the

  10. Enhanced fermentable sugar production from kitchen waste using various pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafid, Halimatun Saadiah; Rahman, Nor'Aini Abdul; Md Shah, Umi Kalsom; Baharudin, Azhari Samsu

    2015-06-01

    The kitchen waste fraction in municipal solid waste contains high organic matter particularly carbohydrate that can contribute to fermentable sugar production for subsequent conversion to bioethanol. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of single and combination pretreatments of kitchen waste by liquid hot water, mild acid pretreatment of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and enzymatic hydrolysis (glucoamylase). The maximum total fermentable sugar produced after combination pretreatment by 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase consisted of 93.25 g/L glucose, 0.542 g/L sucrose, 0.348 g/L maltose, and 0.321 g/L fructose. The glucose released by the combination pretreatment method was 0.79 g glucose/g KW equivalent to 79% of glucose conversion. The effects of the pre-treatment on kitchen waste indicated that the highest solubilization was 40% by the combination method of 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase. The best combination pre-treatment gave concentrations of lactic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid of 11.74 g/L, 6.77 g/L, and 1.02 g/L, respectively. The decrease of aliphatic absorbance bands of polysaccharides at 2851 and 2923 cm(-1) and the increase on structures of carbonyl absorbance bands at 1600 cm(-1) reflects the progress of the kitchen waste hydrolysis to fermentable sugars. Overall, 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase treatment was the most profitable process as the minimum selling price of glucose was USD 0.101/g kitchen waste. Therefore, the combination pretreatment method was proposed to enhance the production of fermentable sugar, particularly glucose from kitchen waste as the feedstock for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Dilute Acid Pretreated Coconut Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Agustriyanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coconut husk is classified as complex lignocellulosic material that contains cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and some other extractive compounds. Cellulose from coconut husk can be used as fermentation substrate after enzymatic hydrolysis. In contrary, lignin content from the coconut husk will act as an inhibitor in this hydrolysis process. Therefore, a pretreatment process is needed to enhance the hydrolysis of cellulose. The objective of this research is to investigate the production of the glucose through dilute acid pretreatment and to obtain its optimum operating conditions. In this study, the pretreatment was done using dilute sulfuric acid in an autoclave reactor. The pretreatment condition were varied at 80°C, 100°C, 120°C and 0.9%, 1.2%, 1.5% for temperature and acid concentration respectively. The acid pretreated coconut husk was then hydrolyzed using commercial cellulase (celluclast and β-glucosidase (Novozyme 188. The hydrolysis time was 72 hours and the operating conditions were varied at several temperature and pH. From the experimental results it can be concluded that the delignification temperature variation has greater influence than the acid concentration. The optimum operating condition was obtained at pH 4 and 50°C which was pretreated at 100°C using 1.5% acid concentration. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved. (Selected Paper from International Conference on Chemical and Material Engineering (ICCME 2012Received: 28th September 2012, Revised: 2nd October 2012, Accepted: 4th October 2012[How to Cite: R. Agustriyanto, A. Fatmawati, Y. Liasari. (2012. Study of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Dilute Acid Pretreated Coconut Husk. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 137-141. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4046.137-141] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4046.137-141 ] | View in 

  12. Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Sigurd Torkel

    This thesis contains research on the theory of secure multi-party computation (MPC). Especially information theoretically (as opposed to computationally) secure protocols. It contains results from two main lines of work. One line on Information Theoretically Secure Oblivious RAMS, and how....... We construct an oblivious RAM that hides the client's access pattern with information theoretic security with an amortized $\\log^3 N$ query overhead. And how to employ a second server that is guaranteed not to conspire with the first to improve the overhead to $\\log^2 N$, while also avoiding...... they are used to speed up secure computation. An Oblivious RAM is a construction for a client with a small $O(1)$ internal memory to store $N$ pieces of data on a server while revealing nothing more than the size of the memory $N$, and the number of accesses. This specifically includes hiding the access pattern...

  13. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Pepe, Alberto; Pepe, Alberto; Yeomans, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should naturally guide authors towards OA publication and CERN wants to help reach a full...

  14. An improved technology for decontaminating ruthenium in uranium purification cycle by hydroxylamine pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Zhanshun; Zhu Zhixuan; Zhang Pilu

    1996-01-01

    The Influences of hydroxylamine concentration, pretreatment time, acidity and the concentration of stabilizer have been studied, and the best pretreatment condition for the improvement of Ru decontamination in uranium purification cycle by hydroxylamine pretreatment has been obtained. The results show that no satisfactory result can be obtained by solely using hydroxylamine as pretreatment agent unless a small amount of hydrazine is added into the pretreatment system as stabilizer

  15. Determination of methyl methanesulfonate pretreatment effect in Drosophila melanogaster larvaes upon repair mechanisms in somatic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Paz, M.

    1992-01-01

    To make evident the existence of SOS repair mecanism in somatic cells, larvaes of drosophila melanogaster with MWH markers for females and FLR markers for males were used. This larvaes received a pretreatment with MMS at concentrations of 0.0007% and 0.0014% during 24 hours and latter a treatment with gamma rays at different dosis. SMART program was used to make stastistical evaluations. Small spots were observed which can have two origins. First could be damage in the last part of third stage in which cells are in last divisions and second could be the damage to larvaes in early stages in shich pretreatment with MMS cause lesions which prevent the reproduction of the cells. Also big spots were observed which presence is due to recombination. It was detected than the bigger the concentration of MMS and radiation dose, the bigger the induced damage. In some groups such observation was impossible may be to technical problems as relative humidity, out of phase in the growth of larvaes giving place that treatment were given in three stages. For this reasons it was impossible to discriminate if drosophila melanogaster is wheter or not capable to induce a repair mechanism (Author)

  16. Increased levels of unscheduled DNA synthesis in UV-irradiated human fibroblasts pretreated with sodium butyrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.I.; Friedberg, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    Pretreatment of growing normal and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) human fibroblasts with sodium butyrate at concentrations of 5-20 mM results in increased levels of DNA repair synthesis measured by autoradiography after exposure of the cells to 254 nm UV radiation in the fluence range 0-25 J/m 2 . The phenomenon manifests as an increased extent and an increased initial rate of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). This experimental result is not due to an artifact of autoradiography related to cell size. Xeroderma pigmentosum cells from complementation groups A, C, D and E and XP variant cells all exhibit increases in the levels of UV-induced UDS in response to sodium butyrate proportional to those observed with normal cells. These UDS increases associated with butyrate pretreatment correlate with demonstrable changes in intracellular thymidine pool size and suggest that sodium butyrate enhances uptake of exogenous radiolabeled thymidine during UV-induced repair synthesis by reducing endogenous levels of thymidine. (author)

  17. Silane pre-treatments on copper and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflorian, F.; Rossi, S.; Fedrizzi, L.

    2006-01-01

    A large part of aluminium products are coated with an organic layer in order to improve the corrosion resistance. Copper surfaces are also sometimes protected with an organic coating to improve the durability or the aesthetic properties. Examples of industrial applications are household appliances and heat exchanger components. For these applications it is not rare to have the industrial need to treat at the same time components made of aluminium and copper. In order to extend the service life of the organic coated copper a specific surface pre-treatment is often required. Nevertheless, probably because of the limited market of this application, no specific pre-treatments for copper are industrially developed, with the exception of cleaning procedures, but simply extensions of existing pre-treatments optimised for other metals (aluminium, zinc) are used. The application of silane pre-treatments as adhesion promoters for organic coated metals is remarkably increasing in the last decade, because silanes offer very good performance together with high environmental compatibility. The idea is therefore to try to develop a specific silane based pre-treatment for copper. The starting point is the existing silane products for aluminium, optimising the composition and the application conditions (concentration, temperature, pH of the bath, etc.) in order to develop a high performance copper alloy pre-treatment increasing the protective properties and the adhesion of a successively applied organic coating. Moreover these pre-treatments could be used for aluminium alloys too and therefore could be suggested for multi-metals components. The deposits were analysed using FTIR spectroscopy and optical and electron microscopic observations. A careful electrochemical characterisation, mainly by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements (EIS) was carried out to highlight the presence of silane and to evaluate the performance of the different deposits. In order to study an

  18. Functionality of colinergic systems in rats pre-treatment with triiodothyronine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, O.M.S. de.

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of experimental hiperthyroidism in the colinergic activity, rats were injected daily, during 1, 5, 19 or 20 days, with triiodothyronine (0 to 100 ug/kg, s.c.). The hiperthyroidism was evaluated by the decrease of the body weight and the increase of the body temperature and serum hormonal levels (T3). After the administration of the cholinergic agonists (pilocarpine and oxotremorine) or a anticholinesterase drug (eserine), the cholinergic behavioural and pharmacologic activity was evaluated recording the rectal temperature, locomotor activity, catalepsy, tremor and cromodacryorrhea. The results suggests that T3 pre-treatment may induce in rats changes in the functionality of the central cholinergic post-sinaptic receptors. However, the administration of this hormone does not seem to induce any alterations in the periferic cholinergic receptors, implicated in cromodacryorrhea effect. (author)

  19. Autohydrolysis pretreatment assessment in ethanol production from agave bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-González, Leopoldo J; Morales-Martínez, Thelma K; Rodríguez-Flores, María F; Rodríguez-De la Garza, José A; Castillo-Quiroz, David; Castro-Montoya, Agustín J; Martinez, Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the autohydrolysis pretreatment of Agave tequilana bagasse for ethanol production. The pretreatment was conducted using a one-liter high pressure Parr reactor under different severity factors (SF) at a 1:6w/v ratio (solid:liquid) and 200rpm. The solids obtained under the selected autohydrolysis conditions were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis with a commercial cellulase cocktail, and the enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results obtained from the pretreatment process showed that the glucan content in the pretreated solid was mostly preserved, and an increase in the digestibility was observed for the case with a SF of 4.13 (190°C, 30min). Enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated solids showed a yield of 74.3%, with a glucose concentration of 126g/L, resulting in 65.26g/L of ethanol after 10h of fermentation, which represent a 98.4% conversion according to the theoretical ethanol yield value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biosorption of heavy metals by pretreated biomass of aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, A.; Bajwa, R.; Manzoor, T.

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports the bio sorption potential of chemically pretreated mycelial biomass of fungus Aspergillus niger van. Tieghem for Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions from aqueous phase. Fungal biomass was pretreated with different types of alkaline/salts (NaOH, NaHCO/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, NaCl and CaCl/sub 2/), acids (HCl and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) and detergent. Pretreatment of biomass with Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and NaOH were proved to increase or maintain adsorption efficiency and capacity in comparison to untreated biomass. Pretreatment with NaHCO/sub 3/, detergent, NaCl and CaCl/sub 2/ significantly reduce (10-40%) metal sequestering efficiency of the adsorbent. Whereas, acid treatments resulted in drastic loss (80%) in metal uptake efficiency of the biomass. Amongst various pretreatments, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ could be use efficiently for the removal of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution using A. niger. (author)

  1. 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride Pretreatment on Malaysia Lignocellulose Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.P.; Nur Hasyareeda Hassan; Muhammad Rahimi Yusop

    2015-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are of great interest as potential solvents for the production of fuels from lignocellulose biomass which is a potential source of bio fuels. To study the effects of pretreatment, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([B mim]Cl) was used to pretreat woody plants, kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) and jelutong (Dyera costulata), and non-woody plants, kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and rice husk (Oryza sativa) at 120 degree Celsius for 24 h. Cellulose was regenerated by the addition of water. The cell wall composition and structure of the lignocellulose bio masses before and after the ILs pretreatment were observed and characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After the pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out to identify the total reducing sugars (TRS) yields using dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method. Regenerated lignocellulose bio masses resulted in high TRS yields compared to their counter-parts which are in agreement with the findings of FESEM, ATR FT-IR and XRD that exhibited regenerated cellulose were less crystalline and more amorphous upon IL pretreatment. Therefore, kempas and jelutong can be alternate sources for the bio fuels production. (author)

  2. Cellulase digestibility of pretreated biomass is limited by cellulose accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeoh, Tina; Ishizawa, Claudia I; Davis, Mark F; Himmel, Michael E; Adney, William S; Johnson, David K

    2007-09-01

    Attempts to correlate the physical and chemical properties of biomass to its susceptibility to enzyme digestion are often inconclusive or contradictory depending on variables such as the type of substrate, the pretreatment conditions and measurement techniques. In this study, we present a direct method for measuring the key factors governing cellulose digestibility in a biomass sample by directly probing cellulase binding and activity using a purified cellobiohydrolase (Cel7A) from Trichoderma reesei. Fluorescence-labeled T. reesei Cel7A was used to assay pretreated corn stover samples and pure cellulosic substrates to identify barriers to accessibility by this important component of cellulase preparations. The results showed cellulose conversion improved when T. reesei Cel7A bound in higher concentrations, indicating that the enzyme had greater access to the substrate. Factors such as the pretreatment severity, drying after pretreatment, and cellulose crystallinity were found to directly impact enzyme accessibility. This study provides direct evidence to support the notion that the best pretreatment schemes for rendering biomass more digestible to cellobiohydrolase enzymes are those that improve access to the cellulose in biomass cell walls, as well as those able to reduce the crystallinity of cell wall cellulose.

  3. Intensification of biogas production using pretreatment based on hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pankaj N; Gogate, Parag R; Csoka, Levente; Dregelyi-Kiss, Agota; Horvath, Miklos

    2016-05-01

    The present work investigates the application of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) for the pretreatment of wheat straw with an objective of enhancing the biogas production. The hydrodynamic cavitation reactor is based on a stator and rotor assembly. The effect of three different speeds of rotor (2300, 2500, 2700 rpm), wheat straw to water ratios (0.5%, 1% and 1.5% wt/wt) and also treatment times as 2, 4 and 6 min have been investigated in the work using the design of experiments (DOE) approach. It was observed that the methane yield of 31.8 ml was obtained with untreated wheat straw whereas 77.9 ml was obtained with HC pre-treated wheat straw confirming the favourable changes during the pre-treatment. The combined pre-treatment using KOH and HC gave maximum yield of biogas as 172.3 ml. Overall, it has been established that significant enhancement in the biogas production can be obtained due to the pretreatment using HC which can also be further intensified by combination with chemical treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancing biogas production of corn stover by fast pyrolysis pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Deli; Wu, Houkai; Yi, Weiming; Fu, Peng; Li, Yongjun; Li, Zhihe

    2016-10-01

    A new thermo-chemical pretreatment by a lower temperature fast pyrolysis (LTFP) was applied to promote anaerobic digestion (AD) efficiency of corn stover (CS). The pretreatment experiment was performed by a fluidized bed pyrolysis reactor at 180, 200 and 220°C with a carrier gas flow rate of 4 and 3m(3)/h. The components characteristics, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images and Crystal Intensity (CrI) of the pretreated CS were tested to explore effectiveness of the pretreatment. The results showed that the cumulative methane production at 180°C for 4 and 3m(3)/h were 199.8 and 200.3mL/g TS, respectively. As compared to the untreated CS, the LTFP pretreatment significantly (a<0.05) increased the methane production by 18.07% and 18.33%, respectively. Methane production was well fitted by the Gompertz models, and the maximum methane potential and AD efficiency was obtained at 180°C for 3m(3)/h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pretreatment of macroalgae for volatile fatty acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Nhan; Um, Youngsoon; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2013-10-01

    In this study, a novel method was proposed for the biological pretreatment of macroalgae (Laminaria japonica, Pachymeniopsis elliptica, and Enteromorpha crinita) for production of volatile fatty acid (VFA) by anaerobic fermentation. The amount of VFA produced from 40 g/L of L. japonica increased from 8.3 g/L (control) to 15.6 g/L when it was biologically pretreated with Vibrio harveyi. The biological treatment of L. japonica with Vibrio spp. was most effective likely due to the alginate lyase activity of Vibrio spp. However, a considerable effect was also observed after biological pretreatment of P. elliptica and E. crinita, which are red and green algae, respectively. Alkaline pretreatment of 40 g/L of L. japonica with 0.5 N NaOH resulted in an increase of VFA production to 12.2 g/L. These results indicate that VFA production from macroalgae can be significantly enhanced using the proposed biological pretreatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of pretreating of host oil on coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajdu, P.E.; Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The principal objective of this research was to determine if coprocessing performance (i.e., coal conversion and oil yield) could be significantly improved by pretreating the heavy resid prior to reacting it with coal. For this purpose, two petroleum vacuum resids (1000{degrees}F+), one from the Amoco Co. and another from the Citgo Co., were used as such and after they had been pretreated by catalytic hydrogenation and hydrocracking reactions. The pretreatments were aimed at improving the host oil by; (1) converting any aromatic structures in the petroleum to hydroaromatic compounds capable of donating hydrogen, (2) cracking the heavy oil to lower molecular weight material that might serve as a better solvent, (3) reducing the coking propensity of the heavy oil through the hydrogenation of polynuclear aromatic compounds, and (4) removing metals and heteroatoms that might poison a coprocessing catalyst. Highly dispersed catalysts, including fine particle Fe- and Mo-based, and dicobalt octacarbonyl, Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}, were used in this study. The untreated and pretreated resids were extensively characterized in order to determine chemical changes brought about by the pretreatments. The modified heavy oils were then coprocessed with an Illinois No. 6 coal as well as with a Wyodak coal, and compared to coprocessing with untreated resids under the same hydroliquefaction conditions. The amount of oil derived from coal was estimated by measuring the level of phenolic oxygen (derived mainly from coal) present in the oil products. Results are presented and discussed.

  7. Activation of glassy carbon electrodes by photocatalytic pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumanli, Onur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, 55139 Samsun (Turkey); Onar, A. Nur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, 55139 Samsun (Turkey)], E-mail: nonar@omu.edu.tr

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes a simple and rapid photocatalytic pretreatment procedure that removes contaminants from glassy carbon (GC) surfaces. The effectiveness of TiO{sub 2} mediated photocatalytic pretreatment procedure was compared to commonly used alumina polishing procedure. Cyclic voltammetric and chronocoulometric measurements were carried out to assess the changes in electrode reactivity by using four redox systems. Electrochemical measurements obtained on photocatalytically treated GC electrodes showed a more active surface relative to polished GC. In cyclic voltammograms of epinephrine, Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} and ferrocene redox systems, higher oxidation and reduction currents were observed. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k{sup o}) were calculated for Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} and ferrocene which were greater for photocatalytic pretreatment. Chronocoulometry was performed in order to find the amount of adsorbed methylene blue onto the electrode and was calculated as 0.34 pmol cm{sup -2} for photocatalytically pretreated GC. The proposed photocatalytic GC electrode cleansing and activating pretreatment procedure was more effective than classical alumina polishing.

  8. Biologic comparison of partial breast irradiation protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstein, Barry S.; Lymberis, Stella C.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the dose/fractionation schedules currently used in ongoing clinical trials of partial breast irradiation (PBI) by comparing their biologically effective dose (BED) values to those of three standard whole breast protocols commonly used after segmental mastectomy in the treatment of breast cancer. Methods and materials: The BED equation derived from the linear-quadratic model for radiation-induced cell killing was used to calculate the BEDs for three commonly used whole breast radiotherapy regimens, in addition to a variety of external beam radiotherapy, as well as high-dose-rate and low-dose-rate brachytherapy, PBI protocols. Results: The BED values of most PBI protocols resulted in tumor control BEDs roughly equivalent to a 50-Gy standard treatment, but consistently lower than the BEDs for regimens in which the tumor bed receives a total dose of either 60 Gy or 66 Gy. The BED values calculated for the acute radiation responses of erythema and desquamation were nearly all lower for the PBI schedules, and the late-response BEDs for most PBI regimens were in a similar range to the BEDs for the standard treatments. Conclusion: Biologically effective dose modeling raises the concern that inadequate doses might be delivered by PBI to ensure optimal in-field tumor control

  9. Gene probes: principles and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino de Muro, Marilena; Rapley, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  10. Developing frameworks for protocol implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Barros Barbosa, C.; de barros Barbosa, C.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a method to develop frameworks for protocol implementation. Frameworks are software structures developed for a specific application domain, which can be reused in the implementation of various different concrete systems in this domain. The use of frameworks support a protocol

  11. Prediction of lung density changes after radiotherapy by cone beam computed tomography response markers and pre-treatment factors for non-small cell lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Hansen, Olfred; Schytte, Tine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study investigates the ability of pre-treatment factors and response markers extracted from standard cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images to predict the lung density changes induced by radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS...... AND MATERIALS: Density changes in follow-up computed tomography scans were evaluated for 135 NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy. Early response markers were obtained by analysing changes in lung density in CBCT images acquired during the treatment course. The ability of pre-treatment factors and CBCT...

  12. Chemical and Physicochemical Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Brodeur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the recalcitrance (resistance of plant cell walls to deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass is a key step in the production of fuels and chemicals. The recalcitrance is due to the highly crystalline structure of cellulose which is embedded in a matrix of polymers-lignin and hemicellulose. The main goal of pretreatment is to overcome this recalcitrance, to separate the cellulose from the matrix polymers, and to make it more accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis. Reports have shown that pretreatment can improve sugar yields to higher than 90% theoretical yield for biomass such as wood, grasses, and corn. This paper reviews different leading pretreatment technologies along with their latest developments and highlights their advantages and disadvantages with respect to subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. The effects of different technologies on the components of biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin are also reviewed with a focus on how the treatment greatly enhances enzymatic cellulose digestibility.

  13. Chemical and physicochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Gary; Yau, Elizabeth; Badal, Kimberly; Collier, John; Ramachandran, K B; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Overcoming the recalcitrance (resistance of plant cell walls to deconstruction) of lignocellulosic biomass is a key step in the production of fuels and chemicals. The recalcitrance is due to the highly crystalline structure of cellulose which is embedded in a matrix of polymers-lignin and hemicellulose. The main goal of pretreatment is to overcome this recalcitrance, to separate the cellulose from the matrix polymers, and to make it more accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis. Reports have shown that pretreatment can improve sugar yields to higher than 90% theoretical yield for biomass such as wood, grasses, and corn. This paper reviews different leading pretreatment technologies along with their latest developments and highlights their advantages and disadvantages with respect to subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. The effects of different technologies on the components of biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) are also reviewed with a focus on how the treatment greatly enhances enzymatic cellulose digestibility.

  14. Fluid mechanics relevant to flow through pretreatment of cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault-Léger, Véronique; Lynd, Lee R

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigates fluid mechanical properties of cellulosic feedstocks relevant to flow through (FT) pretreatment for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass. The results inform identifying conditions for which FT pretreatment can be implemented in a practical context. Measurements of pressure drop across packed beds, viscous compaction and water absorption are reported for milled and not milled sugarcane bagasse, switchgrass and poplar, and important factors impacting viscous flow are deduced. Using biomass knife-milled to pass through a 2mm sieve, the observed pressure drop was highest for bagasse, intermediate for switchgrass and lowest for poplar. The highest pressure drop was associated with the presence of more fine particles, greater viscous compaction and the degree of water absorption. Using bagasse without particle size reduction, the instability of the reactor during pretreatment above 140kg/m(3) sets an upper bound on the allowable concentration for continuous stable flow. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Leachate pretreatment for enhancing organic matter conversion in landfill bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Pinjing; Qu Xian; Shao Liming; Li Guojian; Lee Duujong

    2007-01-01

    Direct recycling of leachate from refuse of high food waste content was shown to ineffectively stabilize the refuse. This work aims at evaluating the effects of three pretreatments of leachate on the refuse stabilization efficiency were investigated. Pretreatment of leachate using an anaerobic upflow filtration bioreactor (UFB) or a well-decomposed waste layer could reduce the COD and provide methanogens, both were beneficial to establish early methanogenesis status. Using an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) to pretreat the leachate could reduce its COD to 1000 mg l -1 , but the fully developed methanogenesis phase would be built up in a later stage. The organic matters in the effluent leachate inhibited both the hydrolysis/acidogenesis and the methanogenesis steps in the refuse. With the dilution and acid neutralization effects by the recycled leachate, a favorable methanogenetic environment could be produced from the column's top, which moved downward along, and finally made the breakthrough of the column

  16. Hazard Analysis for the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Robin S.; Geeting, John GH; Lawrence, Wesley E.; Young, Jonathan

    2008-07-10

    The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) is designed to perform a demonstration on an engineering scale to confirm the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility (PTF) leaching and filtration process equipment design and sludge treatment process. The system will use scaled prototypic equipment to demonstrate sludge water wash, caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, and filtration. Unit operations to be tested include pumping, solids washing, chemical reagent addition and blending, heating, cooling, leaching, filtration, and filter cleaning. In addition, the PEP will evaluate potential design changes to the ultrafiltration process system equipment to potentially enhance leaching and filtration performance as well as overall pretreatment throughput. The skid-mounted system will be installed and operated in the Processing Development Laboratory-West at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

  17. Carbohydrate degradation mechanisms and compounds from pretreated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helena

    The formation of inhibitors during pretreatment of lignocellulosic feedstocks is a persistent problem, and notably the compounds that retard enzymatic cellulose conversion represent an obstacle for achieving optimal enzymatic productivity and high glucose yields. Compounds with many chemical...... pretreated wheat straw after enzymatic treatment. It was found that formation of the oligophenolic degradation compounds were common across biomass sources as sugar cane bagasse and oil palm empty fruit bunches. These findings were in line with that the oligophenolic compounds arise from reactions involving...... functionalities are formed during biomass pretreatment, which gives possibilities for various chemical reactions to take place and hence formation of many new potential inhibitor compounds. This somehow overlooked contemplation formed the basis for the main hypothesis investigated in this work: Hypothesis 1...

  18. Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

  19. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via...... Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole...... gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid...

  20. A xylanase-aided enzymatic pretreatment facilitates cellulose nanofibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lingfeng; Tian, Dong; Hu, Jinguang; Wang, Fei; Saddler, Jack

    2017-11-01

    Although biological pretreatment of cellulosic fiber based on endoglucanases has shown some promise to facilitate cellulose nanofibrillation, its efficacy is still limited. In this study, a xylanase-aided endoglucanase pretreatment was assessed on the bleached hardwood and softwood Kraft pulps to facilitate the downstream cellulose nanofibrillation. Four commercial xylanase preparations were compared and the changes of major fiber physicochemical characteristics such as cellulose/hemicellulose content, gross fiber properties, fiber morphologies, cellulose accessibility/degree of polymerization (DP)/crystallinity were systematically evaluated before and after enzymatic pretreatment. It showed that the synergistic cooperation between endoglucanase and certain xylanase (Biobrite) could efficiently "open up" the hardwood Kraft pulp with limited carbohydrates degradation (cellulose nanofibrillation during mild sonication process (90Wh) with more uniform disintegrated nanofibril products (50-150nm, as assessed by scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pretreatment with quercetin prevents changes in lymphocytes E-NTPDase/E-ADA activities and cytokines secretion in hyperlipidemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Josiane B S; Ruchel, Jader B; Manzoni, Alessandra G; Abdalla, Fátima H; Casalli, Emerson A; Castilhos, Lívia G; Passos, Daniela F; Leal, Daniela B R

    2017-11-29

    Hyperlipidemia (HL) is a condition associated with endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory disorders. Purinergic system ectoenzymes play an important role in modulating the inflammatory and immune response. This study investigated whether the preventive treatment with quercetin is able to prevent changes caused by hyperlipidemia in the purinergic system, through the activities of E-NTPDase and E-ADA in lymphocytes, and quantify the nucleotides and nucleoside, and the secretion of anti- and proinflammatory cytokines. Animals were divided into saline/control, saline/quercetin 5 mg/kg, saline/quercetin 25 mg/kg, saline/quercetin 50 mg/kg, saline/simvastatin (0.04 mg/kg), hyperlipidemia, hyperlipidemia/quercetin 5 mg/kg, hyperlipidemia/quercetin 25 mg/kg, hyperlipidemia/quercetin 50 mg/kg, and hyperlipidemia/simvastatin. Animals were pretreated with quercetin for 30 days and hyperlipidemia was subsequently induced by intraperitoneal administration of 500 mg/kg of poloxamer-407. Simvastatin was administered after the induction of hyperlipidemia. Lymphocytes were isolated and E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities were determined. Serum was separated for the cytokines and nucleotide/nucleoside quantification. E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities were increased in lymphocytes from hyperlipidemic rats and pretreatment with quercetin was able to prevent the increase in the activities of these enzymes caused by hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemic rats when receiving pretreatment with quercetin and treatment with simvastatin showed decreased levels of ATP and ADP when compared to the untreated hyperlipidemic group. The IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokines were increased in the hyperlipidemic group when compared with control group, and decreased when hyperlipidemic rats received the pretreatment with quercetin. However, pretreatment with quercetin was able to prevent the alterations caused by hyperlipidemia probably by regulating the inflammatory process. We can suggest that the quercetin is a

  2. Fungal pretreatment of straw for enhanced biogas yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xinmei; Pilar Castillo, Maria del; Schnuerer, Anna

    2013-07-01

    Among lignocellulosic materials from the agricultural sector, straw is considered to have the biggest potential as a biofuel and therefore also represents a big potential for biogas production. However, the degradation of lignocellulosic materials is somewhat restricted due to the high content of lignin that binds cellulose and hemicellulose and makes them unavailable for microbial degradation. Consequently, low methane yields are achieved. The biodegradability of the lignocellulosic material can be increased by a pretreatment. Optimally the pre-treatment should give an increase in the formation of sugars while avoiding the degradation or loss of carbohydrates and the formation of inhibitory by-products. The treatment should also be cost-effective. Different methods for pre-treatment of lignocellulosic material have been explored, for example thermal, acid, alkaline and oxidative pretreatments. However, they often have a high energy demand. Biological treatment with fungi represents an alternative method for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials that could be comparably more environmentally friendly, easier to operate and with low energy input. The fungal groups of interest for lignocellulose degradation are the wood decaying fungi, such as the white-, brown-rot and cellulose degraders. The purpose with this work was to increase the biogas potential of straw by using a pretreatment with fungi. Straw was incubated with fungi at aerobic conditions under certain periods of time. The growth and colonization of the straw by the fungi was expected to increase the availability of the lignocellulosic structure of the straw and thus positively affect the biogas potential. In addition also, the spent lignocellulosic material from the cultivation of edible fungi was investigated. We hypothesized that also growth of edible fungi could give a more accessible material and thus give higher biogas potential compared to the substrate before fungal growth.

  3. Pre-treating Seed to Enhance Germination of Desert Shrubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. K. Ostler; D. C. Anderson; D. J. Hansen

    2002-06-01

    Creosotebush [Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cav.] and white bursage [Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) W.W. Payne] seeds were subjected to pre-treatments of rinsing and soaking in water and thiourea to enhance germination in laboratory experiments. The effects of darkness, temperature, seed source, and soil moisture were also evaluated in the laboratory. The best pre-treatment from the laboratory experiments, rinsing with water for 36 hours followed by drying, was field-tested at Fort Irwin, California. Two sites and two seeding dates (early March and mid April) were determined for each site. Five mulch treatments (no mulch, straw, gravel, chemical stabilizer, and plastic) were evaluated in combination with the seed pre-treatments. Field emergence was greatly enhanced with the seed pre-treatment for white bursage during the March (18-42% increase in germination) and April seedings (16-23% increase in germination). Creosotebush showed poor germination during March (2-5%) when soil temperatures averaged 15 C, but germination increased during the April trials (6-43%) when soil temperatures averaged 23 C. The seed pre-treatment during the April trials increased germination from 16-23%. The plastic mulch treatment increased germination dramatically during both the March and April trials. The plastic mulch increased soil temperatures (8-10 C)and maintained high humidity during germination. Both the chemical stabilizer and the gravel mulches improved germination over the control while the straw mulch decreased germination. These results suggest that seed pre-treatments combined with irrigation and mulch are effective techniques to establish these two dominant Mojave Desert species from seed.

  4. Deep Eutectic Solvents pretreatment of agro-industrial food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procentese, Alessandra; Raganati, Francesca; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Rehmann, Lars; Marzocchella, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Waste biomass from agro-food industries are a reliable and readily exploitable resource. From the circular economy point of view, direct residues from these industries exploited for production of fuel/chemicals is a winning issue, because it reduces the environmental/cost impact and improves the eco-sustainability of productions. The present paper reports recent results of deep eutectic solvent (DES) pretreatment on a selected group of the agro-industrial food wastes (AFWs) produced in Europe. In particular, apple residues, potato peels, coffee silverskin, and brewer's spent grains were pretreated with two DESs, (choline chloride-glycerol and choline chloride-ethylene glycol) for fermentable sugar production. Pretreated biomass was enzymatic digested by commercial enzymes to produce fermentable sugars. Operating conditions of the DES pretreatment were changed in wide intervals. The solid to solvent ratio ranged between 1:8 and 1:32, and the temperature between 60 and 150 °C. The DES reaction time was set at 3 h. Optimal operating conditions were: 3 h pretreatment with choline chloride-glycerol at 1:16 biomass to solvent ratio and 115 °C. Moreover, to assess the expected European amount of fermentable sugars from the investigated AFWs, a market analysis was carried out. The overall sugar production was about 217 kt yr -1 , whose main fraction was from the hydrolysis of BSGs pretreated with choline chloride-glycerol DES at the optimal conditions. The reported results boost deep investigation on lignocellulosic biomass using DES. This investigated new class of solvents is easy to prepare, biodegradable and cheaper than ionic liquid. Moreover, they reported good results in terms of sugars' release at mild operating conditions (time, temperature and pressure).

  5. Bioethanol production: Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengborg, Charlotte

    2000-05-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis process can be used to produce bioethanol from softwood, which are the dominating raw material in the Northern hemisphere. This thesis deals with the development of the process focusing on the pretreatment and the enzymatic hydrolysis stages. The influence of pretreatment conditions on sugar yield, and the effect of inhibitors on the ethanol yield, were investigated for spruce and pine. The maximum yields of hemicellulose sugars and glucose were obtained under different pretreatment conditions. This indicates that two-stage pretreatment may be preferable. The added catalysts, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and SO{sub 2}, resulted in similar total sugar yields about 40 g/100 g dry raw material. However, the fermentability of SO{sub 2}-impregnated material was better. This pretreatment resulted in the formation of inhibitors to the subsequent process steps, e.g. sugar and lignin degradation products. The glucose yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis stage was affected by various parameters such as enzyme loading, temperature, pH, residence time, substrate concentration, and agitation. To decrease the amount of fresh water used and thereby waste water produced, the sugar-rich prehydrolysate from the pretreatment step was included in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fraction, resulting in a reduction in the cellulose conversion of up to 36%. Different prehydrolysate detoxification methods, such as treatment with Ca(OH){sub 2}, laccase, and fermentation using yeast, were investigated. The latter was shown to be very efficient. The amount of fresh water used can be further reduced by recycling various process streams. This was simulated experimentally in a bench-scale process. A reduction in fresh water demand of 50% was obtained without any further negative effects on either hydrolysis or fermentation.

  6. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SWITCHGRASS AND COASTAL BERMUDA GRASS PRETREATED USING DIFFERENT CHEMICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiele Xu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of biomass feedstock and pretreatment method on the enzyme requirement during hydrolysis, swichgrass and coastal Bermuda grass pretreated using H2SO4, NaOH, and Ca(OH2 at the optimal conditions were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using two enzyme combinations: NS 50013 + NS 50010 and Cellic CTec + Cellic HTec. The enzyme loadings were optimized, and correlations between feedstock property, pretreatment strategy, and enzyme usage were evaluated. The results show that pretreatment methods resulting in greater lignin contents in the pretreated biomass were generally associated with higher enzyme requirements. More sugars could be recovered from alkaline-pretreated biomass during enzymatic hydrolysis due to the better carbohydrate preservation achieved at mild pretreatment temperatures. The cellulase enzyme, Cellic CTec, was more efficient in catalyzing the hydrolysis of coastal Bermuda grass, a feedstock more digestible than the pretreated swichgrass, following pretreatment with NaOH or Ca(OH2.

  7. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, A.; Yeomans, J.

    2007-10-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should guide authors naturally towards OA publication, and CERN wants to help reach a full open access publishing environment for the particle physics community and related sciences in the next few years.

  8. Permitting plan for project W-236B, initial pretreatment module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollefson, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System pretreatment process mission is to separate high-level and low-level waste fractions. A comprehensive review of environmental regulations has indicated that several environmental reviews, permits, and approvals are required before construction and operation of the facility. This revised document provides a summary of permit application data requirements, alternative strategies for permit completion and approval, as well as the probability of success for each alternative for the Initial Pretreatment Module resulting from recent revisions to the Tri-Party Agreement

  9. GSDO Program Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives: Final Pretreatments Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Hexavalent chrome free pretreatments should be considered for use on Ground Support Equipment (OSE) and Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EOSE). Both of the hexavalent chrome free pretreatments (Metalast TCP HF and SurTec 650C) evaluated by this project met, and in some instances exceeded, the requirements ofMIL-DTL-5541 "Chemical Conversion Coatings on Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys". For DC resistance measurements, both Metalast TCP HF and SurTec (!50C met initial requirements following assembly and in many cases continued to maintain passing readings for the duration of testing.

  10. Direct ethanol conversion of pretreated straw by Fusarium oxysporum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christakopoulos, P.; Koullas, D.P.; Kekos, D.; Koukios, E.G.; Macris, B.J. (National Technical Univ., Athens (GR). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Factors affecting the direct conversion of alkali pretreated straw to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum F3 were investigated and the alkali level used for pretreatment and the degree of delignification of straw were found to be the most important. A linear correlation between ethanol yield and both the degree of straw delignification and the alkali level was observed. At optimum delignified straw concentration (4% w/v), a maximum ethanol yield of 0.275 g ethanol g{sup -1} of straw was obtained corresponding to 67.8% of the theoretical yield. (author).

  11. Pretreatment of sawdust and its hydrolysis with immobilised enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1988-01-01

    The pretreatment of sawdust by radiation and its hydrolysis with immobilised cellulase were studied. The sawdust was irradiated with a number of different irradiation doses and crushed with two kinds of crusher; pulveriser and ball mill. In ball-mill crushing, the crushing time to get a fine powder was reduced by radiation treatment and the conversion yield of cellulose to glucose in the enzyme hydrolysis was increased. It was found that sawdust pretreated by radiation and subsequent crushing was efficiently hydrolysed by immobilised cellulase which itself was obtained by a radiation polymerisation technique. (author)

  12. TWRS tank waste pretreatment process development hot test siting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, G.F.; Banning, D.L.; Dodd, D.A.; Smith, D.A.; Stevens, P.F.; Hansen, R.I.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report is the sixth in a series that have assessed the hot testing requirements for TWRS pretreatment process development and identified the hot testing support requirements. This report, based on the previous work, identifies specific hot test work packages, matches those packages to specific hot cell facilities, and provides recommendations of specific facilities to be employed for the pretreatment hot test work. Also identified are serious limitations in the tank waste sample retrieval and handling infrastructure. Recommendations are provided for staged development of 500 mL, 3 L, 25 L and 4000 L sample recovery systems and specific actions to provide those capabilities

  13. Development and application of free pretreatment container steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Han, B.; Wei, B.; Wang, S. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Due to economic and environmental advantages pre-treatment containers have good big development prospects, which can avoid shot blasting processes, and decrease the noise and dust pollution. By analyzing requirements of the container steel surface quality, target oxide scale structure of free pretreatment container steel has been determined. Trial process was carried out, and test results showed that the oxide scale achieved the desired objects, oxide scale with outer thin Fe3O4 layer and inner eutectoid α-Fe+Fe3O4. Salt spray test, second adhesion test, and modeling performance basically corroborated the container feasibility.

  14. Study on the Pretreating Approaches for the Potato Straws

    OpenAIRE

    An Yumin; Wang Jukui; Huang Ye; Xu Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to pretreat the potato straws. Specifically, potato straws are handled using various kinds of chemical solutions, including HCI, H2SO4, NaOH and NaOH+H2O2, under different concentrations. For each kind of solution, particular indicators, such as the cellulose content as well as scarification ratio of the treated straws, are studied in the paper. Based on orthogonal experiments, the best pretreatment effect is obtained by using the solution of 4% NaOH under temp...

  15. Mitochondrial Targeted Endonuclease III DNA Repair Enzyme Protects against Ventilator Induced Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Hashizume

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial targeted DNA repair enzyme, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, was previously reported to protect against mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA damage and ventilator induced lung injury (VILI. In the present study we determined whether mitochondrial targeted endonuclease III (EndoIII which cleaves oxidized pyrimidines rather than purines from damaged DNA would also protect the lung. Minimal injury from 1 h ventilation at 40 cmH2O peak inflation pressure (PIP was reversed by EndoIII pretreatment. Moderate lung injury due to ventilation for 2 h at 40 cmH2O PIP produced a 25-fold increase in total extravascular albumin space, a 60% increase in W/D weight ratio, and marked increases in MIP-2 and IL-6. Oxidative mtDNA damage and decreases in the total tissue glutathione (GSH and the GSH/GSSH ratio also occurred. All of these indices of injury were attenuated by mitochondrial targeted EndoIII. Massive lung injury caused by 2 h ventilation at 50 cmH2O PIP was not attenuated by EndoIII pretreatment, but all untreated mice died prior to completing the two hour ventilation protocol, whereas all EndoIII-treated mice lived for the duration of ventilation. Thus, mitochondrial targeted DNA repair enzymes were protective against mild and moderate lung damage and they enhanced survival in the most severely injured group.

  16. Anti-glycophorin C induces mitochondrial membrane depolarization and a loss of extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 protein kinase activity that is prevented by pretreatment with cytochalasin D: implications for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn caused by anti-Ge3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micieli, Jonathan A; Wang, Duncheng; Denomme, Gregory A

    2010-08-01

    Anti-glycophorin C (GPC), blood group antibodies of which cause hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), is a potent inhibitor of erythroid progenitor cell growth. The cellular mechanism for growth inhibition has not been characterized. K562 cells were incubated in the presence of either anti-GPC, an immunoglobulin G isotype control, an inhibitor of actin polymerization called cytochalasin D with anti-GPC, or cytochalasin D alone. The JC-1 cationic dye was used to detect mitochondrial depolarization and the activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinases was assessed by Western blotting. Anti-GPC inhibits the activity of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 within 10 minutes but does not alter the activity of p38 or c-Jun N-terminal kinase. After 24 hours there was a significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential compared to isotype control–treated cells. Both the ERK1/2 inhibition and the loss of mitochondrial potential were prevented by pretreatment with cytochalasin D. A cell surface antibody can cause anemia by altering the signaling pathways in erythroid cells by promoting depolarization of mitochondria via cytoskeletal rearrangement. The observation that neonates with anti-GPC HDFN are unresponsive to erythropoietin can be explained by the antibody inhibiting a protein kinase through which this hematopoietic growth factor achieves its effects.

  17. Protective effect of preconditioning and adenosine pretreatment in experimental skeletal muscle reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, S; Estdale, S E; Homer-Vanniasinkam, S; Mathie, R T

    1999-07-01

    Prolonged ischaemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) of skeletal muscle results in significant tissue injury. Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC), achieved by repeated brief periods of I/R before prolonged ischaemia or adenosine pretreatment, can prevent I/R injury in cardiac muscle. The aim of this study was to ascertain in a rodent model if damage to skeletal muscle due to global hindlimb tourniquet-induced I/R could be similarly attenuated. Anaesthetized rats were randomized (n = 6-10 per group) to five groups: sham-operated controls; I/R (4 h of ischaemia, 2 h of reperfusion); IPC (three cycles of 10 min of ischaemia/10 min of reperfusion) alone; IPC immediately preceding I/R; or adenosine 1000 microg/kg immediately before I/R. At the end of reperfusion, biopsies were taken from the left gastrocnemius muscle for measurement of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Before ischaemia and at the end of reperfusion, blood samples were taken for measurement of nitric oxide metabolites, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 2. IPC before I/R resulted in lower levels of MPO (P < 0.001) and TNF-alpha (P = 0.004), and higher levels of GSH (P < 0.001) and nitric oxide metabolites (P = 0.002) than I/R alone. Adenosine had effects comparable to IPC pretreatment (P < 0.001 for MPO, P = 0.002 for GSH, P = 0.02 for nitric oxide metabolites and P = 0.001 for TNF-alpha). There was no difference in the blood pressure or the MIP-2 concentration among the groups. IPC or pretreatment with adenosine ameliorates the I/R injury of skeletal muscle.

  18. Cisplatin toxicity reduced in human cultured renal tubular cells by oxygen pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeidi, Ayat; Rasoulian, Bahram; Hajializadeh, Zahra; Pourkhodadad, Soheila; Rezaei, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin is an effective and widely used chemotherapy agent and its side effects, particularly nephrotoxicity, limit its usage and related platinum-based drugs. Cisplatin nephrotoxicity is mainly due to extremely increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation leading to kidney tubular cell death. Preconditioning with oxidative stress has been demonstrated to stimulate the cellular adaptation to subsequent severe oxidative stress. Short term oxygen pre-exposure as a mild oxidative stress may enhance some endogenous defense mechanisms, so its effect on Cisplatin induced cell death was investigated in present research. We studied the effects of hyperoxic environment pre-exposure on Cisplatin toxicity in an in-vitro model of cultured human embryonic tubular epithelial cells (AD293). Viability of AD293 cells, as evaluated by MTT-assay, was affected by Cisplatin in a time (1-4 h) dependent model. Biochemical markers of cell apoptosis were evaluated using immunoblotting. Pretreatment with nearly pure oxygen (≥90%) for 2 h significantly reduced the level of cell damage. Activated caspase 3 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio were significantly increased in Cisplatin-treated cells. Oxygen pretreatment inhibited caspase 3 activation and decreased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Oxygen pre-treatment itself not showed any cytotoxicity in exposure times up to 3 h. Our data indicate that hyperoxic preconditioning reduces Cisplatin toxicity in cultured human tubular epithelial cells. The exact mechanism of protection is unclear, though enhancement of some endogenous defense mechanisms and subsequently scavenging of free oxygen radicals may play an important role.

  19. Effect of isoproturon pretreatment on the biochemical toxicodynamics of anilofos in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, A; Sarkar, S N

    2001-08-28

    Anilofos and isoproturon are important herbicides of organophosphorus and substituted phenylurea groups, respectively. Isoproturon is an inducer of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes. Animals and humans have the potential to be exposed to the mixture of these intentionally introduced environmental xenobiotics, but toxicological interactions between these herbicides are not known. Effects of isoproturon pretreatment (675 mg/kg/day for 3 consecutive days) on the toxic actions of anilofos administered orally as a single dose (850 mg/kg) were evaluated by determining some biochemical attributes in blood (erythrocyte/plasma), brain and liver of rats. Anilofos or isoproturon alone or in combination failed to produce any noticeable signs of cholinergic hyperactivity and behavioural alterations. Isoproturon did not potentiate the anticholinesterase action of anilofos in blood and liver. Inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase was significantly protected. No significant alteration in anilofos-mediated production of lipid peroxidation was observed in erythrocyte and brain of isoproturon-pretreated rats, but it was significantly increased in liver. Anilofos did not affect GSH and GST. The isoproturon-mediated increase in GSH levels of brain (threefold) and liver (3.6-fold) was also not affected following combined administration. GST activity was increased in liver of rats given isoproturon alone (fourfold) or in combination with anilofos (2.8-fold). Activities of total ATPase, Mg2+-ATPase and Na+-K+-ATPase were not affected in rats given either anilofos alone or herbicides in sequence. With these treatments, there were no alterations in the protein content of plasma, brain and liver. Overall findings of the study indicate that isoproturon pretreatment does not alter the toxicity of anilofos, the GSH-GST metabolic pathway may not have a significant implication in the detoxification of anilofos and the production of a reactive oxygen species may be a factor in mediating

  20. Comparison of 2 comprehensive Class II treatment protocols including the bonded Herbst and headgear appliances: a double-blind study of consecutively treated patients at puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Stahl, Franka

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this clinical trial was to compare the effects of 2 protocols for single-phase comprehensive treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion (bonded Herbst followed by fixed appliances [BH + FA] vs headgear followed by fixed appliances and Class II elastics [HG + FA]) at the pubertal growth spurt. Fifty-six Class II patients were enrolled in the trial and allocated by personal choice to 2 practices, where they underwent 1 of 2 treatment protocols (28 patients were treated consecutively with BH + FA, and 28 patients were treated consecutively with HG + FA). All patients started treatment at puberty (cervical stage [CS] 3 or CS 4) and completed treatment after puberty (CS 5 or CS 6). Lateral cephalograms were taken before therapy and 6 months after the end of comprehensive therapy, with an average interval of 28 months. Longitudinal observations of a matched group of 28 subjects with untreated Class II malocclusions were compared with the 2 treated groups. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc tests was used for statistical comparisons. Discriminant analysis was applied to identify preferential candidates for the BH + FA protocol on the basis of profile changes (advancement of the soft tissues of the chin). The success rate (full occlusal correction of the malocclusion after treatment) was 92.8% in both treatment groups. The BH + FA group showed a significant increase in mandibular protrusion. The increase in effective mandibular length (Co-Gn) was significantly greater in both treatment groups when compared with natural growth changes in the Class II controls. Significantly greater improvement in sagittal maxillomandibular relationships was found in the BH + FA group. Retrusion of maxillary incisors and mesial movement of mandibular molars were significant in the HG + FA group. The BH + FA group showed significantly greater forward movements of soft-tissue B-point and pogonion compared with both the HG + FA and the control groups. Two pretreatment

  1. Factors affecting seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic date palm residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Chuanji; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Frankaer, Christian Grundahl

    2017-01-01

    Seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is an innovative process at research stage. With respect to process optimization, factors affecting seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic date palm residues were studied for the first time in this paper. Pretreatment temperature (180...... °C–210 °C), salinity of seawater (0 ppt–50 ppt), and catalysts (H2SO4, Na2CO3, and NaOH) were investigated. The results showed that pretreatment temperature exerted the largest influence on seawater-based pretreatment in terms of the enzymatic digestibility and fermentability of pretreated solids...

  2. Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with carbonate-containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Raymond

    2012-11-06

    Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with an acidic solution and then a carbonate-containing solution to produce a pretreated cellulosic material are provided. The pretreated material may then be further treated in a pulping process, for example, a soda-anthraquinone pulping process, to produce a cellulose pulp. The pretreatment solutions may be extracted from the pretreated cellulose material and selectively re-used, for example, with acid or alkali addition, for the pretreatment solutions. The resulting cellulose pulp is characterized by having reduced lignin content and increased yield compared to prior art treatment processes.

  3. Techno-economic analysis of organosolv pretreatment process from lignocellulosic biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues Gurgel da Silva, Andrè; Errico, Massimiliano; Rong, Ben-Guang

    2018-01-01

    data, we propose a feasible process flowsheet for organosolv pretreatment. Simulation of the pretreatment process provided mass and energy balances for a techno-economic analysis, and the values were compared with the most prevalent and mature pretreatment method: diluted acid. Organosolv pretreatment...... required more energy, 578.1 versus 213.8 MW for diluted acid pretreatment, but resulted in a higher ethanol concentration after the biomass fermentation, 11.1% compared to 5.4%. Total annual costs (TACs) calculations showed advantages for diluted acid pretreatment, but future improvements explored...

  4. Pretreatment method for radioactive iodine-containing liquid wastes and pretreatment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakaida, Yasuo.

    1996-01-01

    Heretofore, radioactive iodine-containing liquid wastes have been discharged directly to a storing and decaying storage vessel to conduct a water draining treatment. In the present invention, the radioactive iodine-containing liquid wastes to be discharged are not discharged to the storage vessel directly but injected to a filling tank, as a pretreatment, to distinguish whether proteins are mixed in the liquid wastes or not. When proteins are mixed, miscellaneous materials such as proteins are recovered and removed by a protein processing system. When proteins are not mixed, radioactive iodine is recovered and removed directly by an iodine processing system. With such procedures, water draining treatment in the storing and decaying storage vessel is mitigated, and even when the amount of the radioactive iodine-containing liquid wastes is increased, the existent maintaining and decaying storage vessel can be used as it is. Accordingly, a safe water draining treatment with good efficiency can be conducted relative to radioactive iodine-containing liquid wastes at a reduced cost. (T.M.)

  5. Deterministic secure communication protocol without using entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-yu

    2003-01-01

    We show a deterministic secure direct communication protocol using single qubit in mixed state. The security of this protocol is based on the security proof of BB84 protocol. It can be realized with current technologies.

  6. SIP protocol model for OMNET++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kucerak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes our new SIP protocol implementation for the OMNeT++ simulation framework. OMNeT++ simulation framework provides an extensive support of IP related protocols, nevertheless a working SIP protocol implementation is missing. Real measurements were also done using a SIPp traffic generator and the results are compared to those obtained by our new SIP model. Since this work is a part of bigger project concerned strictly on measuring "first response times" over networks with a faulty transmission links, the actually collected statistics are focused only this way.

  7. The HPA photon protocol and proposed electron protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitchford, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Hospital Physicists Association (HPA) photon dosimetry protocol has been produced and was published in 1983. Revised values of some components of Csub(lambda) and refinements introduced into the theory in the last few years have enabled new Csub(lambda) values to be produced. The proposed HPA electron protocol is at present in draft form and will be published shortly. Both protocels are discussed. (Auth.)

  8. Impact of contamination and pre-treatment on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of charred plant remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiglova, Petra; Snoeck, Christophe; Nitsch, Erika; Bogaard, Amy; Lee-Thorp, Julia

    2014-12-15

    Stable isotope analysis of archaeological charred plants has become a useful tool for interpreting past agricultural practices and refining ancient dietary reconstruction. Charred material that lay buried in soil for millennia, however, is susceptible to various kinds of contamination, whose impact on the grain/seed isotopic composition is poorly understood. Pre-treatment protocols have been adapted in distinct forms from radiocarbon dating, but insufficient research has been carried out on evaluating their effectiveness and necessity for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis. The effects of previously used pre-treatment protocols on the isotopic composition of archaeological and modern sets of samples were investigated. An archaeological sample was also artificially contaminated with carbonates, nitrates and humic acid and subjected to treatment aimed at removing the introduced contamination. The presence and removal of the contamination were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and δ(13)C and δ(15)N values. The results show a ca 1‰ decrease in the δ(15)N values of archaeological charred plant material caused by harsh acid treatments and ultra-sonication. This change is interpreted as being caused by mechanical distortion of the grains/seeds rather than by the removal of contamination. Furthermore, specific infrared peaks have been identified that can be used to detect the three types of contaminants studied. We argue that it is not necessary to try to remove humic acid contamination for stable isotope analysis. The advantages and disadvantages of crushing the grains/seeds before pre-treatment are discussed. We recommend the use of an acid-only procedure (0.5 M HCl for 30 min at 80 °C followed by three rinses in distilled water) for cleaning charred plant remains. This study fills an important gap in plant stable isotope research that will enable future researchers to evaluate potential sources of isotopic change and pre-treat

  9. Matrine pretreatment improves cardiac function in rats with diabetic cardiomyopathy via suppressing ROS/TLR-4 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-wei; Wang, Jun-kui; Qiu, Chuan; Guan, Gong-chang; Liu, Xin-hong; Li, Shang-jian; Deng, Zheng-rong

    2015-03-01

    Matrine is an alkaloid from Sophora alopecuroides L, which has shown a variety of pharmacological activities and potential therapeutic value in cardiovascular diseases. In this study we examined the protective effects of matrine against diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in rats. Male SD rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce DCM. One group of DCM rats was pretreated with matrine (200 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) for 10 consecutive days before STZ injection. Left ventricular function was evaluated using invasive hemodynamic examination, and myocardiac apoptosis was assessed. Primary rat myocytes were used for in vitro experiments. Intracellular ROS generation, MDA content and GPx activity were determined. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to detect the expression of relevant mRNAs and proteins. DCM rats exhibited abnormally elevated non-fasting blood glucose levels at 4 weeks after STZ injection, and LV function impairment at 16 weeks. The cardiac tissues of DCM rats showed markedly increased apoptosis, excessive ROS production, and activation of TLR-4/MyD-88/caspase-8/caspase-3 signaling. Pretreatment with matrine significantly decreased non-fasting blood glucose levels and improved LV function in DCM rats, which were associated with reducing apoptosis and ROS production, and suppressing TLR-4/MyD-88/caspase-8/caspase-3 signaling in cardiac tissues. Incubation in a high-glucose medium induced oxidative stress and activation of TLR-4/MyD-88 signaling in cultured myocytes in vitro, which were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine. Excessive ROS production in DCM activates the TLR-4/MyD-88 signaling, resulting in cardiomyocyte apoptosis, whereas pretreatment with matrine improves cardiac function via suppressing ROS/TLR-4 signaling pathway.

  10. Intermittent Fasting Pretreatment Prevents Cognitive Impairment in a Rat Model of Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuan; Yang, Ying; Zhang, Miao; Deng, Min; Zhang, Jun-Jian

    2017-07-01

    Background: Whether intermittent fasting (IF) pretreatment can prevent vascular cognitive dysfunction remains unknown to our knowledge. Objective: We investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of IF pretreatment on cognitive dysfunction in a permanent 2-vessel occlusion (2VO) vascular dementia rat model. Methods: Male Wistar rats weighing 200 g were subjected to either IF or ad libitum feeding for 12 wk before 2VO surgery. Rats in the IF protocol underwent alternative-day feed deprivation (FD). Memory of the animals was assessed by using the Morris water maze (MWM) and the novel object recognition (NOR) test 6 wk after the surgery. After behavioral testing, malondialdehyde and glutathione concentrations, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, gene expression of antioxidative enzymes, inflammatory protein concentrations, and microglia density were determined in the hippocampus of rats. Results: 2-vessel occlusion operation ad libitum (2VO-AL) rats had significantly longer escape latencies on day 4 of the training phase and spent a lower percentage of time in the target quadrant (25% compared with 38% and 41%) in the MWM, and had lower discrimination ratios (47% compared with 65% and 67%) in the NOR test than 2-vessel operation and alternate-day feed deprivation (2VO-FD) and sham operation ad libitum (Sham-AL) rats, respectively ( P < 0.05). This indicates that IF helps to prevent vascular cognitive deficits. 2VO-AL rats also had higher malondialdehyde (3.54 compared with 2.15 and 1.66 nmol/mg protein) and lower glutathione concentrations (53.25 compared with 66.41 and 91.71 nmol/mg protein), lower SOD activity (100.1 compared with 133.3 and 138.5 U/mg protein), lower gene expression of antioxidative enzymes, higher expression of inflammatory proteins, and higher microglia density in the hippocampus than 2VO-FD and Sham-AL rats, respectively ( P < 0.05). This suggests that IF has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Conclusions: IF pretreatment provided

  11. Occurrence and elimination of in-plane misoriented crystals in AlN epilayers on sapphire via pre-treatment control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hu; Xiong Hui; Wu Zhi-Hao; Yu Chen-Hui; Tian Yu; Dai Jiang-Nan; Fang Yan-Yan; Zhang Jian-Bao; Chen Chang-Qing

    2014-01-01

    AlN epilayers are grown directly on sapphire (0001) substrates each of which has a low temperature AlN nucleation layer. The effects of pretreatments of sapphire substrates, including exposures to NH 3 /H 2 and to H 2 only ambients at different temperatures, before the growth of AlN epilayers is investigated. In-plane misoriented crystals occur in N-polar AlN epilayers each with pretreatment in a H 2 only ambient, and are characterized by six 60°-apart peaks with splits in each peak in (101-bar 2) phi scan and two sets of hexagonal diffraction patterns taken along the [0001] zone axis in electron diffraction. These misoriented crystals can be eliminated in AlN epilayers by the pretreatment of sapphire substrates in the NH 3 /H 2 ambient. AlN epilayers by the pretreatment of sapphire substrates in the NH 3 /H 2 ambient are Al-polar. Our results show the pretreatments and the nucleation layers are responsible for the polarities of the AlN epilayers. We ascribe these results to the different strain relaxation mechanisms induced by the lattice mismatch of AlN and sapphire. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  12. Low-dose radiation pretreatment improves survival of human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) under hypoxia via HIF-1 alpha and MMP-2 induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Naoki; Kubota, Yoshitaka; Kosaka, Kentarou; Akita, Shinsuke; Sasahara, Yoshitarou; Kira, Tomoe; Kuroda, Masayuki; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Bujo, Hideaki; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2015-01-01

    Poor survival is a major problem of adipocyte transplantation. We previously reported that VEGF and MMPs secreted from transplanted adipocytes are essential for angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Pretreatment with low-dose (5 Gy) radiation (LDR) increased VEGF, MMP-2, and HIF-1 alpha mRNA expression in human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (hccdPAs). Gene expression after LDR differed between adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and hccdPAs. Pretreatment with LDR improved the survival of hccdPAs under hypoxia, which is inevitable in the early stages after transplantation. Upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 after LDR in hccdPAs is mediated by HIF-1 alpha expression. Our results suggest that pretreatment with LDR may improve adipocyte graft survival in a clinical setting through upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 via HIF-1 alpha. - Highlights: • Ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) react to radiation. • Low-dose radiation (LDR) pretreatment improves survival of ccdPAs under hypoxia. • Gene expression after LDR differs between ccdPAs and adipose-derived stem cells. • LDR-induced increase in MMP-2 and VEGF is dependent on HIF-1 alpha induction. • LDR pretreatment may improve the adipocyte graft survival rate in clinical settings

  13. Low-dose radiation pretreatment improves survival of human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) under hypoxia via HIF-1 alpha and MMP-2 induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Naoki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kubota, Yoshitaka, E-mail: kubota-cbu@umin.ac.jp [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kosaka, Kentarou; Akita, Shinsuke; Sasahara, Yoshitarou; Kira, Tomoe [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kuroda, Masayuki [Center for Advanced Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Bujo, Hideaki [Department of Clinical-Laboratory and Experimental-Research Medicine, Toho University, Sakura Medical Center, 564-1 Shimoshizu, Sakura-shi, Chiba, #285-8741 (Japan); Satoh, Kaneshige [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Poor survival is a major problem of adipocyte transplantation. We previously reported that VEGF and MMPs secreted from transplanted adipocytes are essential for angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Pretreatment with low-dose (5 Gy) radiation (LDR) increased VEGF, MMP-2, and HIF-1 alpha mRNA expression in human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (hccdPAs). Gene expression after LDR differed between adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and hccdPAs. Pretreatment with LDR improved the survival of hccdPAs under hypoxia, which is inevitable in the early stages after transplantation. Upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 after LDR in hccdPAs is mediated by HIF-1 alpha expression. Our results suggest that pretreatment with LDR may improve adipocyte graft survival in a clinical setting through upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 via HIF-1 alpha. - Highlights: • Ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) react to radiation. • Low-dose radiation (LDR) pretreatment improves survival of ccdPAs under hypoxia. • Gene expression after LDR differs between ccdPAs and adipose-derived stem cells. • LDR-induced increase in MMP-2 and VEGF is dependent on HIF-1 alpha induction. • LDR pretreatment may improve the adipocyte graft survival rate in clinical settings.

  14. Influence of pre-treatments on the desorption isotherm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of pre-treatments on the desorption isotherm characteristics of plaintain. P-N T Johnson. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjs.v39i1.15851 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  15. 40 CFR 407.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 407.14 Section 407.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  16. 40 CFR 407.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 407.34 Section 407.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  17. 40 CFR 407.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 407.24 Section 407.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  18. 40 CFR 407.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 407.26 Section 407.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple...

  19. 40 CFR 407.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 407.16 Section 407.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple...