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Sample records for pretreatment engineering platform-reducing

  1. Hazard Analysis for the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Robin S.; Geeting, John GH; Lawrence, Wesley E.; Young, Jonathan

    2008-07-10

    The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) is designed to perform a demonstration on an engineering scale to confirm the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility (PTF) leaching and filtration process equipment design and sludge treatment process. The system will use scaled prototypic equipment to demonstrate sludge water wash, caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, and filtration. Unit operations to be tested include pumping, solids washing, chemical reagent addition and blending, heating, cooling, leaching, filtration, and filter cleaning. In addition, the PEP will evaluate potential design changes to the ultrafiltration process system equipment to potentially enhance leaching and filtration performance as well as overall pretreatment throughput. The skid-mounted system will be installed and operated in the Processing Development Laboratory-West at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

  2. Pretreatment Engineering Platform Phase 1 Final Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, Dean E.; Hanson, Brady D.; Minette, Michael J.; Baldwin, David L.; Rapko, Brian M.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Daniel, Richard C.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Huckaby, James L.; Billing, Justin M.; Sundar, Parameshwaran S.; Josephson, Gary B.; Toth, James J.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Baer, Ellen BK; Barnes, Steven M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Rassat, Scot D.; Brown, Christopher F.; Geeting, John GH; Sevigny, Gary J.; Casella, Amanda J.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Sundaram, S. K.; Pires, Richard P.; Wells, Beric E.; Bredt, Ofelia P.

    2009-12-23

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project, Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to conduct testing to demonstrate the performance of the WTP Pretreatment Facility (PTF) leaching and ultrafiltration processes at an engineering-scale. In addition to the demonstration, the testing was to address specific technical issues identified in Issue Response Plan for Implementation of External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) Recommendations - M12, Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.( ) Testing was conducted in a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of the PTF ultrafiltration system, the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP). Parallel laboratory testing was conducted in various PNNL laboratories to allow direct comparison of process performance at an engineering-scale and a laboratory-scale. This report presents and discusses the results of those tests.

  3. Technical Basis of Scaling Relationships for the Pretreatment Engineering Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, William L.; Arm, Stuart T.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Rassat, Scot D.

    2008-07-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities. The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) is being designed and constructed as part of a plan to respond to an issue raised by the WTP External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) entitled “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” and numbered M12. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching process using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The approach for scaling PEP performance data to predict WTP performance is critical to the successful resolution of the EFRT issue. This report describes the recommended PEP scaling approach, PEP data interpretation and provides recommendations on test conduct and data requirements.

  4. Statement of work for architect-engineer services, initial pretreatment module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, K.B.

    1994-01-01

    This Statement of Work describes the Architect-Engineer services to be provided by Raytheon/BNFL in providing a conceptual design (Contract TGW-SVV-063869) for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM), Project W-236B, at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington. The IPM Project, a radiochemical process facility, will be designed and constructed for an initial phase of waste pretreatment, which will be for the removal of cesium from supernatant wastes to produce a Low-level waste (LLW) stream to a vitrification facility. The design shall also accommodate side streams of High-Level Waste (HLW) fractions that will be directed to suitable, existing storage tanks where they will be recombined with an additional high-activity waste fraction generated from pretreatment of the tank waste sludges and solids. This combined high-activity waste fraction will be immobilized as glass and disposed in a geological repository

  5. Synthesis of three advanced biofuels from ionic liquid-pretreated switchgrass using engineered Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokinsky, Gregory; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P.; George, Anthe; Holmes, Bradley M.; Steen, Eric J.; Dietrich, Jeffrey; Soon Lee, Taek; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle; Voigt, Christopher A.; Simmons, Blake A.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2011-01-01

    One approach to reducing the costs of advanced biofuel production from cellulosic biomass is to engineer a single microorganism to both digest plant biomass and produce hydrocarbons that have the properties of petrochemical fuels. Such an organism would require pathways for hydrocarbon production and the capacity to secrete sufficient enzymes to efficiently hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose. To demonstrate how one might engineer and coordinate all of the necessary components for a biomass-degrading, hydrocarbon-producing microorganism, we engineered a microorganism naïve to both processes, Escherichia coli, to grow using both the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of several types of plant biomass pretreated with ionic liquids. Our engineered strains express cellulase, xylanase, beta-glucosidase, and xylobiosidase enzymes under control of native E. coli promoters selected to optimize growth on model cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates. Furthermore, our strains grow using either the cellulose or hemicellulose components of ionic liquid-pretreated biomass or on both components when combined as a coculture. Both cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains were further engineered with three biofuel synthesis pathways to demonstrate the production of fuel substitutes or precursors suitable for gasoline, diesel, and jet engines directly from ionic liquid-treated switchgrass without externally supplied hydrolase enzymes. This demonstration represents a major advance toward realizing a consolidated bioprocess. With improvements in both biofuel synthesis pathways and biomass digestion capabilities, our approach could provide an economical route to production of advanced biofuels. PMID:22123987

  6. Pretreatment of Small Four-Stroke Engine Components for No-Oil Hot Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Talluri, Srikrishna

    2000-01-01

    "Hot-tests" form a vital facet towards the end of the production line of modern automotive plants, where the condition of the engine is checked by running it for a short period of time, to ensure its performance under standard operating conditions. The duration of hot-tests for small engines varies from 20-75 seconds. In the conventional procedure, about 10-30 grams of lubricant (for pre-coating) is used with about 650ml of standard oil for engine testing. However, about 1-3 oz. of oil is...

  7. Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) Integrated Test B Run Report--Caustic and Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geeting, John GH; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Josephson, Gary B.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.

    2009-12-10

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  8. Production of acetoin from hydrothermally pretreated oil mesocarp fiber using metabolically engineered Escherichia coli in a bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Yusoff, Mohd Zulkhairi; Akita, Hironaga; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Fujimoto, Shinji; Yoshida, Masaru; Nakashima, Nobutaka; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2017-12-01

    Acetoin is used in the biochemical, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Several effective methods for acetoin production from petroleum-based substrates have been developed, but they all have an environmental impact and do not meet sustainability criteria. Here we describe a simple and efficient method for acetoin production from oil palm mesocarp fiber hydrolysate using engineered Escherichia coli. An optimization of culture conditions for acetoin production was carried out using reagent-grade chemicals. The final concentration reached 29.9gL -1 with a theoretical yield of 79%. The optimal pretreatment conditions for preparing hydrolysate with higher sugar yields were then determined. When acetoin was produced using hydrolysate fortified with yeast extract, the theoretical yield reached 97% with an acetoin concentration of 15.5gL -1 . The acetoin productivity was 10-fold higher than that obtained using reagent-grade sugars. This approach makes use of a compromise strategy for effective utilization of oil palm biomass towards industrial application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Engineering and two-stage evolution of a lignocellulosic hydrolysate-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for anaerobic fermentation of xylose from AFEX pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreiras, Lucas S; Breuer, Rebecca J; Avanasi Narasimhan, Ragothaman; Higbee, Alan J; La Reau, Alex; Tremaine, Mary; Qin, Li; Willis, Laura B; Bice, Benjamin D; Bonfert, Brandi L; Pinhancos, Rebeca C; Balloon, Allison J; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Liu, Tongjun; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Ong, Irene M; Li, Haibo; Pohlmann, Edward L; Serate, Jose; Withers, Sydnor T; Simmons, Blake A; Hodge, David B; Westphall, Michael S; Coon, Joshua J; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh; Keating, David H; Zhang, Yaoping; Landick, Robert; Gasch, Audrey P; Sato, Trey K

    2014-01-01

    The inability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment xylose effectively under anaerobic conditions is a major barrier to economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Although genetic approaches have enabled engineering of S. cerevisiae to convert xylose efficiently into ethanol in defined lab medium, few strains are able to ferment xylose from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the absence of oxygen. This limited xylose conversion is believed to result from small molecules generated during biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis, which induce cellular stress and impair metabolism. Here, we describe the development of a xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain with tolerance to a range of pretreated and hydrolyzed lignocellulose, including Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). We genetically engineered a hydrolysate-resistant yeast strain with bacterial xylose isomerase and then applied two separate stages of aerobic and anaerobic directed evolution. The emergent S. cerevisiae strain rapidly converted xylose from lab medium and ACSH to ethanol under strict anaerobic conditions. Metabolomic, genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that a missense mutation in GRE3, which was acquired during the anaerobic evolution, contributed toward improved xylose conversion by reducing intracellular production of xylitol, an inhibitor of xylose isomerase. These results validate our combinatorial approach, which utilized phenotypic strain selection, rational engineering and directed evolution for the generation of a robust S. cerevisiae strain with the ability to ferment xylose anaerobically from ACSH.

  10. Engineering and two-stage evolution of a lignocellulosic hydrolysate-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for anaerobic fermentation of xylose from AFEX pretreated corn stover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas S Parreiras

    Full Text Available The inability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment xylose effectively under anaerobic conditions is a major barrier to economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Although genetic approaches have enabled engineering of S. cerevisiae to convert xylose efficiently into ethanol in defined lab medium, few strains are able to ferment xylose from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the absence of oxygen. This limited xylose conversion is believed to result from small molecules generated during biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis, which induce cellular stress and impair metabolism. Here, we describe the development of a xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain with tolerance to a range of pretreated and hydrolyzed lignocellulose, including Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH. We genetically engineered a hydrolysate-resistant yeast strain with bacterial xylose isomerase and then applied two separate stages of aerobic and anaerobic directed evolution. The emergent S. cerevisiae strain rapidly converted xylose from lab medium and ACSH to ethanol under strict anaerobic conditions. Metabolomic, genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that a missense mutation in GRE3, which was acquired during the anaerobic evolution, contributed toward improved xylose conversion by reducing intracellular production of xylitol, an inhibitor of xylose isomerase. These results validate our combinatorial approach, which utilized phenotypic strain selection, rational engineering and directed evolution for the generation of a robust S. cerevisiae strain with the ability to ferment xylose anaerobically from ACSH.

  11. Engineering and Two-Stage Evolution of a Lignocellulosic Hydrolysate-Tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain for Anaerobic Fermentation of Xylose from AFEX Pretreated Corn Stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreiras, Lucas S.; Breuer, Rebecca J.; Avanasi Narasimhan, Ragothaman; Higbee, Alan J.; La Reau, Alex; Tremaine, Mary; Qin, Li; Willis, Laura B.; Bice, Benjamin D.; Bonfert, Brandi L.; Pinhancos, Rebeca C.; Balloon, Allison J.; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Liu, Tongjun; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Ong, Irene M.; Li, Haibo; Pohlmann, Edward L.; Serate, Jose; Withers, Sydnor T.; Simmons, Blake A.; Hodge, David B.; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.; Dale, Bruce E.; Balan, Venkatesh; Keating, David H.; Zhang, Yaoping; Landick, Robert; Gasch, Audrey P.; Sato, Trey K.

    2014-01-01

    The inability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment xylose effectively under anaerobic conditions is a major barrier to economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Although genetic approaches have enabled engineering of S. cerevisiae to convert xylose efficiently into ethanol in defined lab medium, few strains are able to ferment xylose from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the absence of oxygen. This limited xylose conversion is believed to result from small molecules generated during biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis, which induce cellular stress and impair metabolism. Here, we describe the development of a xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain with tolerance to a range of pretreated and hydrolyzed lignocellulose, including Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). We genetically engineered a hydrolysate-resistant yeast strain with bacterial xylose isomerase and then applied two separate stages of aerobic and anaerobic directed evolution. The emergent S. cerevisiae strain rapidly converted xylose from lab medium and ACSH to ethanol under strict anaerobic conditions. Metabolomic, genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that a missense mutation in GRE3, which was acquired during the anaerobic evolution, contributed toward improved xylose conversion by reducing intracellular production of xylitol, an inhibitor of xylose isomerase. These results validate our combinatorial approach, which utilized phenotypic strain selection, rational engineering and directed evolution for the generation of a robust S. cerevisiae strain with the ability to ferment xylose anaerobically from ACSH. PMID:25222864

  12. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  13. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of aqueous ammonia pretreated corn stover with an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae SyBE005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Qing; Qin, Lei; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2014-10-01

    Co-fermentation of glucose and xylose from lignocelluloses is an efficient approach to increasing ethanol production. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of corn stover pretreated with aqueous ammonia was performed using engineered yeast with xylose utilization pathway. Thus far, the effect of the several key factors on SSCF was investigated, including temperature, inoculation size, pre-hydrolysis and pH. Ethanol concentration was achieved to 36.5 g/L during SSCF process with 6% glucan loading. The addition of Tween 20 reduced enzyme loading, i.e., from 15 to 7.5 FPU/gglucan with the same final ethanol concentration. The ethanol concentration was achieved to 70.1g/L at 12% glucan loading. Yeast feeding, combined with substrate and enzyme feeding, was proved to be an efficient approach for SSCF with high solid loading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment

  15. Methods for pretreating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2017-05-09

    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  16. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    1995-01-01

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  17. Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhen (ed.) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, YN (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botonical Garden

    2013-02-01

    The first book focused on pretreatment techniques for biofuels contributed by the world's leading experts. Extensively covers the different types of biomass, various pretreatment approaches and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals. In addition to traditional pretreatment methods, novel techniques are also introduced and discussed. An accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries. This book includes 19 chapters contributed by the world's leading experts on pretreatment methods for biomass. It extensively covers the different types of biomass (e.g. molasses, sugar beet pulp, cheese whey, sugarcane residues, palm waste, vegetable oil, straws, stalks and wood), various pretreatment approaches (e.g. physical, thermal, chemical, physicochemical and biological) and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals such as sugars, ethanol, extracellular polysaccharides, biodiesel, gas and oil. In addition to traditional methods such as steam, hot-water, hydrothermal, diluted-acid, organosolv, ozonolysis, sulfite, milling, fungal and bacterial, microwave, ultrasonic, plasma, torrefaction, pelletization, gasification (including biogas) and liquefaction pretreatments, it also introduces and discusses novel techniques such as nano and solid catalysts, organic electrolyte solutions and ionic liquids. This book offers a review of state-of-the-art research and provides guidance for the future paths of developing pretreatment techniques of biomass for biofuels, especially in the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It intends to provide a systematic introduction of pretreatment techniques. It is an accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries.

  18. GREET Pretreatment Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from cellulosic biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. Process simulations of dilute acid and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment processes and subsequent hydrolysis were developed in Aspen Plus for four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar). This processing yields sugars that can be subsequently converted to biofuels or biochemical. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in a new Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREETTM) pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  19. Advances in aluminum pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudour, Michel; Maintier, Philippe [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Simpson, Mark [PPG Industries Inc., 1200 Piedmont Troy, Michigan 48083 (United States); Quaglia, Paolo [PPG Industries Italia, Via Garavelli 21, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    As automotive manufacturers continue to look for ways to reduce vehicle weight, aluminum is finding more utility as a body panel component. The substitution of cold-rolled steel and zinc-coated substrates with aluminum has led to new challenges in vehicle pretreatment. As a result, changes to traditional pretreatment chemistries and operating practices are necessary in order to produce an acceptable coating on aluminum body panels. These changes result in increased sludging and other undesirable characteristics. In addition to the chemistry changes, there are also process-related problems to consider. Many existing automotive pretreatment lines simply were not designed to handle aluminum and its increased demands on filtration and circulation equipment. To retrofit such a system is capital intensive and in addition to requiring a significant amount of downtime, may not be totally effective. Thus, the complexities of pre-treating aluminum body panels have actually had a negative effect on efforts to introduce more aluminum into new vehicle design programs. Recent research into ways of reducing the negative effects has led to a new understanding of the nature of zinc phosphate bath -aluminum interactions. Many of the issues associated with the pretreatment of aluminum have been identified and can be mitigated with only minor changes to the zinc phosphate bath chemistry. The use of low levels of soluble Fe ions, together with free fluoride, has been shown to dramatically improve the efficiency of a zinc phosphate system processing aluminum. Appearance of zinc phosphate coatings, coating weights and sludge are all benefited by this chemistry change. (authors)

  20. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  1. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  2. Cost comparison for REDC pretreatment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Homan, F.J.

    1997-06-01

    This analysis has been prepared to support the planned expenditure to provide the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) with the capability to pretreat their liquid low-level waste (LLLW) before discharging it to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) LLLW system. Pretreatment will remove most of the radioactivity, particularly the transuranic isotopes and Cs-137 from the waste to be discharged. This will render the supernates that accumulate in the storage tanks low-activity Class B low-level wastes rather than high-activity Class B or Class C wastes. The sludges will be Class C rather than remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes. When REDC wastes are commingled with other ORNL LLLW, the present-worth treatment and transport costs are higher by a factor of 1.3 for the no-pretreatment cases. This result is consistent with data from similar studies conducted at other sites. Based on the information presented in this analysis, the recommendation is to proceed with REDC treatment projects

  3. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  4. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pretreated Coconut Coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarningrum Fatmawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of concentration and temperature on the cellulose and lignin content, and the reducing sugars produced in the enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut coir. In this research, the coconut coir is pretreated using 3%, 7%, and 11% NaOH solution at 60oC, 80oC, and 100oC. The pretreated coir were assayed by measuring the amount of cellulose and lignin and then hydrolysed using Celluclast and Novozyme 188 under various temperature (30oC, 40oC, 50oC and pH (3, 4, 5. The hydrolysis results were assayed for the reducing sugar content. The results showed that the alkaline delignification was effective to reduce lignin and to increase the cellulose content of the coir. The best delignification condition was observed at 11% NaOH solution and 100oC which removed 14,53% of lignin and increased the cellulose content up to 50,23%. The best condition of the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained at 50oC and pH 4 which produced 7,57 gr/L reducing sugar. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 2nd October 2012; Revised: 31st January 2013; Accepted: 6th February 2013[How to Cite: Fatmawati, A., Agustriyanto, R., Liasari, Y. (2013. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pre-treated Coconut Coir. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 34-39 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39] | View in  |

  5. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  6. Pretreatment Solution for Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Chemical pretreatments are used to produce usable water by treating a water source with a chemical pretreatment that contains a hexavalent chromium and an acid to generate a treated water source, wherein the concentration of sulfate compounds in the acid is negligible, and wherein the treated water source remains substantially free of precipitates after the addition of the chemical pretreatment. Other methods include reducing the pH in urine to be distilled for potable water extraction by pretreating the urine before distillation with a pretreatment solution comprising one or more acid sources selected from a group consisting of phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, and nitric acid, wherein the urine remains substantially precipitate free after the addition of the pretreatment solution. Another method described comprises a process for reducing precipitation in urine to be processed for water extraction by mixing the urine with a pretreatment solution comprising hexavalent chromium compound and phosphoric acid.

  7. Enzymatic digestion of alkaline-sulfite pretreated sugar cane bagasse and its correlation with the chemical and structural changes occurring during the pretreatment step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fernanda M; Laurito, Debora F; Bazzeggio, Mariana; Ferraz, André; Milagres, Adriane M F

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse is recalcitrant to enzymatic digestion, which hinders the efficient conversion of its polysaccharides into fermentable sugars. Alkaline-sulfite pretreatment was used to overcome the sugar cane bagasse recalcitrance. Chemical and structural changes that occurred during the pretreatment were correlated with the efficiency of the enzymatic digestion of the polysaccharides. The first 30 min of pretreatment, which removed approximately half of the initial lignin and 30% of hemicellulose seemed responsible for a significant enhancement of the cellulose conversion level, which reached 64%. After the first 30 min of pretreatment, delignification increased slightly, and hemicellulose removal was not enhanced; however, acid groups continued to be introduced into the residual lignin. Water retention values were 145% to the untreated bagasse and 210% to the bagasse pretreated for 120 min and fiber widths increased from 10.4 to 30 μm, respectively. These changes were responsible for an additional increase in the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose, which reached 92% with the 120 min pretreated sample. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  8. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee

    2015-08-18

    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  9. Biocommodity Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd; Wyman; Gerngross

    1999-10-01

    The application of biotechnology to the production of commodity products (fuels, chemicals, and materials) offering benefits in terms of sustainable resource supply and environmental quality is an emergent area of intellectual endeavor and industrial practice with great promise. Such "biocommodity engineering" is distinct from biotechnology motivated by health care at multiple levels, including economic driving forces, the importance of feedstocks and cost-motivated process engineering, and the scale of application. Plant biomass represents both the dominant foreseeable source of feedstocks for biotechnological processes as well as the only foreseeable sustainable source of organic fuels, chemicals, and materials. A variety of forms of biomass, notably many cellulosic feedstocks, are potentially available at a large scale and are cost-competitive with low-cost petroleum whether considered on a mass or energy basis, and in terms of price defined on a purchase or net basis for both current and projected mature technology, and on a transfer basis for mature technology. Thus the central, and we believe surmountable, impediment to more widespread application of biocommodity engineering is the general absence of low-cost processing technology. Technological and research challenges associated with converting plant biomass into commodity products are considered relative to overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass (converting cellulosic biomass into reactive intermediates) and product diversification (converting reactive intermediates into useful products). Advances are needed in pretreatment technology to make cellulosic materials accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis, with increased attention to the fundamental chemistry operative in pretreatment processes likely to accelerate progress. Important biotechnological challenges related to the utilization of cellulosic biomass include developing cellulase enzymes and microorganisms to produce them, fermentation of

  10. Uncertainty and approximate reasoning in waste pretreatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnew, S.F.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.

    1998-01-01

    Waste pretreatment process planning within the DOE complex must consider many different outcomes in order to perform the tradeoffs necessary to accomplish this important national mission. One of the difficulties encountered by many who assess these tradeoffs is that the complexity of this problem taxes the abilities of any single person or small group of individuals. For example, uncertainties in waste composition as well as process efficiency are well known yet incompletely considered in the search for optimum solutions. This paper describes a tool, the pre-treatment Process Analysis Tool (PAT), for evaluating tank waste pretreatment options at Hanford, Oak Ridge, Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory, and Savannah River Sites. The PAT propagates uncertainty in both tank waste composition and process partitioning into a set of ten outcomes. These outcomes are, for example, total cost, Cs-137 in iLAW, iHLW MT, and so on. Tradeoffs among outcomes are evaluated or scored by means of an approximate reasoning module that uses linguistic bases to evaluate tradeoffs for each process based on user valuations of outcomes

  11. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  12. Pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the production of bioethanol - Comparison of five pretreatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    -assisted pretreatment (PAP) and ball milling (BM), to determine effects of the pretreatment methods on the conversion of C. linum into ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). WO and BM showed the highest ethanol yield of 44. g ethanol/100. g glucan, which was close to the theoretical ethanol......A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma...... yield of 57. g ethanol/100. g glucan. A 64% higher ethanol yield, based on raw material, was reached after pretreatment with WO and BM compared with unpretreated C. linum, however 50% of the biomass was lost during WO. Results indicated that the right combination of pretreatment and marine macroalgae...

  13. Comparisons of five Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haifeng; Lan, Tianqing; Dien, Bruce S; Hector, Ronald E; Zhu, J Y

    2014-01-01

    The performances of five yeast strains under three levels of toxicity were evaluated using hydrolysates from lodgepole pine pretreated by Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL). The highest level of toxicity was represented by the whole pretreated biomass slurry, while intermediate toxicity was represented by the hydrolysate with partial loading of pretreatment spent liquor. The zero toxicity was represented using the enzymatic hydrolysate produced from thoroughly washed SPORL lodgepole pine solids. The results indicate that strains D5A and YRH400 can tolerate the whole pretreated biomass slurry to produce 90.1 and 73.5% theoretical ethanol yield. Strains Y1528, YRH403, and FPL450 did not grow in whole hydrolysate cultures and were observed to have lower ethanol productivities than D5A and YRH400 on the hydrolysate with intermediate toxicity. Both YRH400 and YRH403 were genetically engineered for xylose fermentation but were not able to consume xylose efficiently in hydrolysate. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Electrostatic fuel conditioning of internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, P. I.

    1982-01-01

    Diesel engines were tested to determine if they are influenced by the presence of electrostatic and magnetic fields. Field forces were applied in a variety of configurations including pretreatment of the fuel and air, however, no affect on engine performance was observed.

  15. Impact of Pretreatment Technologies on Saccharification and Isopentenol Fermentation of Mixed Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jian; George, Kevin W.; Sun, Ning; He, Wei; Li, Chenlin; Stavila, Vitalie; Keasling, Jay D.; Simmons, Blake A.; Lee, Taek Soon; Singh, Seema

    2015-02-28

    In order to enable the large-scale production of biofuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, a consistent and affordable year-round supply of lignocellulosic feedstocks is essential. Feedstock blending and/or densification offers one promising solution to overcome current challenges on biomass supply, i.e., low energy and bulk densities and significant compositional variations. Therefore, it is imperative to develop conversion technologies that can process mixed pelleted biomass feedstocks with minimal negative impact in terms of overall performance of the relevant biorefinery unit operations: pretreatment, fermentable sugar production, and fuel titers. We processed the mixture of four feedstocks—corn stover, switchgrass, lodgepole pine, and eucalyptus (1:1:1:1 on dry weight basis)—in flour and pellet form using ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, dilute sulfuric acid (DA), and soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatments. Commercial enzyme mixtures, including cellulases and hemicellulases, were then applied to these pretreated feedstocks at low to moderate enzyme loadings to determine hydrolysis efficiency. Results show significant variations on the chemical composition, crystallinity, and enzymatic digestibility of the pretreated feedstocks across the different pretreatment technologies studied. The advanced biofuel isopentenol was produced during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of pretreated feedstocks using an engineered Escherichia coli strain. Results show that IL pretreatment liberates the most sugar during enzymatic saccharification, and in turn led to the highest isopentenol titer as compared to DA and SAA pretreatments. This study provides insights on developing biorefinery technologies that produce advanced biofuels based on mixed feedstock streams.

  16. Integrated analysis of hydrothermal flow through pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archambault-Leger Veronique

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of hydrothermal flowthrough (FT pretreatment severity on pretreatment and solubilization performance metrics was evaluated for three milled feedstocks (corn stover, bagasse, and poplar and two conversion systems (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using yeast and fungal cellulase, and fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum. Results Compared to batch pretreatment, FT pretreatment consistently resulted in higher XMG recovery, higher removal of non-carbohydrate carbon and higher glucan solubilization by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF. XMG recovery was above 90% for FT pretreatment below 4.1 severity but decreased at higher severities, particularly for bagasse. Removal of non-carbohydrate carbon during FT pretreatment increased from 65% at low severity to 80% at high severity for corn stover, and from 40% to 70% for bagasse and poplar. Solids obtained by FT pretreatment were amenable to high conversion for all of the feedstocks and conversion systems examined. The optimal time and temperature for FT pretreatment on poplar were found to be 16 min and 210°C. At these conditions, SSF glucan conversion was about 85%, 94% of the XMG was removed, and 62% of the non carbohydrate mass was solubilized. Solubilization of FT-pretreated poplar was compared for C. thermocellum fermentation (10% inoculum, and for yeast-fungal cellulase SSF (5% inoculum, cellulase loading of 5 and 10 FPU/g glucan supplemented with β-glucosidase at 15 and 30 U/g glucan. Under the conditions tested, which featured low solids concentration, C. thermocellum fermentation achieved faster rates and more complete conversion of FT-pretreated poplar than did SSF. Compared to SSF, solubilization by C. thermocellum was 30% higher after 4 days, and was over twice as fast on ball-milled FT-pretreated poplar. Conclusions XMG removal trends were similar between feedstocks whereas glucan conversion trends were significantly

  17. Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretreatment of biomass is essential for breaking apart highly ordered and crystalline plant cell walls and loosening the lignin and hemicellulose conjugation to cellulose microfibrills, thereby facilitating enzyme accessibility and adsorption and reducing costs of downstream saccharification proces...

  18. Extrusion Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol has shown environmental, economic and energetic advantages in comparison to bioethanol produced from sugar or starch. However, the pretreatment process for increasing the enzymatic accessibility and improving the digestibility of cellulose is hindered by many physical-chemical, structural and compositional factors, which make these materials difficult to be used as feedstocks for ethanol production. A wide range of pretreatment methods has been developed to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to (enzymatic hydrolysis over the last few decades; however, only a few of them can be used at commercial scale due to economic feasibility. This paper will give an overview of extrusion pretreatment for bioethanol production with a special focus on twin-screw extruders. An economic assessment of this pretreatment is also discussed to determine its feasibility for future industrial cellulosic ethanol plant designs.

  19. Hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, A.; Gunawan, K. Y.; Hadiwijaya, F. A.

    2017-11-01

    Banana peel is one of food wastes that are rich in carbohydrate. This shows its potential as fermentation substrate including bio-ethanol. This paper presented banana peel alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was intended to prepare banana peel in order to increase hydrolysis performance. The alkaline pretreatment used 10, 20, and 30% w/v NaOH solution and was done at 60, 70 and 80°C for 1 hour. The hydrolysis reaction was conducted using two commercial cellulose enzymes. The reaction time was varied for 3, 5, and 7 days. The best condition for pretreatment process was one conducted using 30% NaOH solution and at 80°C. This condition resulted in cellulose content of 90.27% and acid insoluble lignin content of 2.88%. Seven-day hydrolysis time had exhibited the highest reducing sugar concentration, which was7.2869 g/L.

  20. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biodelignification of lignocellulose substrates: An intrinsic and sustainable pretreatment strategy for clean energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Anuj K; Gonçalves, Bruna C M; Strap, Janice L; da Silva, Silvio S

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass (LB) is a promising sugar feedstock for biofuels and other high-value chemical commodities. The recalcitrance of LB, however, impedes carbohydrate accessibility and its conversion into commercially significant products. Two important factors for the overall economization of biofuel production is LB pretreatment to liberate fermentable sugars followed by conversion into ethanol. Sustainable biofuel production must overcome issues such as minimizing water and energy usage, reducing chemical usage and process intensification. Amongst available pretreatment methods, microorganism-mediated pretreatments are the safest, green, and sustainable. Native biodelignifying agents such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pycnoporous cinnabarinus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Cyathus stercoreus can remove lignin, making the remaining substrates amenable for saccharification. The development of a robust, integrated bioprocessing (IBP) approach for economic ethanol production would incorporate all essential steps including pretreatment, cellulase production, enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation of the released sugars into ethanol. IBP represents an inexpensive, environmentally friendly, low energy and low capital approach for second-generation ethanol production. This paper reviews the advancements in microbial-assisted pretreatment for the delignification of lignocellulosic substrates, system metabolic engineering for biorefineries and highlights the possibilities of process integration for sustainable and economic ethanol production.

  2. Optimization of alkaline pretreatment of coffee pulp for production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Evandro G T; do Carmo, Juliana R; Alves, José Guilherme L F; Menezes, Aline G T; Guimarães, Isabela C; Queiroz, Fabiana; Pimenta, Carlos J

    2014-01-01

    The use of lignocellulosic raw materials in bioethanol production has been intensively investigated in recent years. However, for efficient conversion to ethanol, many pretreatment steps are required prior to hydrolysis and fermentation. Coffee stands out as the most important agricultural product in Brazil and wastes such as pulp and coffee husk are generated during the wet and dry processing to obtain green grains, respectively. This work focused on the optimization of alkaline pretreatment of coffee pulp with the aim of making its use in the alcoholic fermentation. A central composite rotatable design was used with three independent variables: sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide concentrations and alkaline pretreatment time, totaling 17 experiments. After alkaline pretreatment the concentration of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin remaining in the material, the subsequent hydrolysis of the cellulose component and its fermentation of substrate were evaluated. The results indicated that pretreatment using 4% (w/v) sodium hydroxide solution, with no calcium hydroxide, and 25 min treatment time gave the best results (69.18% cellulose remaining, 44.15% hemicelluloses remaining, 25.19% lignin remaining, 38.13 g/L of reducing sugars, and 27.02 g/L of glucose) and produced 13.66 g/L of ethanol with a yield of 0.4 g ethanol/g glucose. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment

  4. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  5. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhong; Wang Qunhui; Jiang Zhaohua; Yang Xuexin; Ji Yongzhen

    2007-01-01

    In order to produce lactic acid, from agricultural residues such as soybean straw, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastic production, it is necessary to decompose the soybean straw into soluble sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the methods in common use, while pretreatment is the effective way to increase the hydrolysis rate. The optimal conditions of pretreatment using ammonia and enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean straw were determined. Compared with the untreated straw, cellulose in straw pretreated by ammonia liquor (10%) soaking for 24 h at room temperature increased 70.27%, whereas hemicellulose and lignin in pretreated straw decreased to 41.45% and 30.16%, respectively. The results of infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also showed that the structure and the surface of the straw were changed through pretreatment that is in favor of the following enzymatic hydrolysis. maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 51.22% was achieved at a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v) at 50 deg. C and pH 4.8 using cellulase (50 fpu/g of substrate) for 36 h

  6. Temperature Modelling of the Biomass Pretreatment Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Jensen, Jakob M.

    2012-01-01

    In a second generation biorefinery, the biomass pretreatment stage has an important contribution to the efficiency of the downstream processing units involved in biofuel production. Most of the pretreatment process occurs in a large pressurized thermal reactor that presents an irregular temperature...... distribution. Therefore, an accurate temperature model is critical for observing the biomass pretreatment. More than that, the biomass is also pushed with a constant horizontal speed along the reactor in order to ensure a continuous throughput. The goal of this paper is to derive a temperature model...... that captures the environmental temperature differences inside the reactor using distributed parameters. A Kalman filter is then added to account for any missing dynamics and the overall model is embedded into a temperature soft sensor. The operator of the plant will be able to observe the temperature in any...

  7. Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product Pretreatment Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Niklas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation & Selection task is to identify the optimal combination of personal hygiene products, crew activities, and pretreatment strategies to provide the crew with sustainable life support practices and a comfortable habitat. Minimal energy, mass, and crew time inputs are desired to recycle wastewater during long duration missions. This document will provide a brief background on the work this past year supporting the ELS Distillation Comparison Test, issues regarding use of the hygiene products originally chosen for the test, methods and results used to select alternative products, and lessons learned from testing.

  8. Fermentation of pretreated corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effect of unknown fermentation inhibitors in corncob hemicellulose acid hydrolysate processed by pretreatment and detoxification on fermentation, corncob hemicellulose acid hydrolysate and artificially prepared hydrolysate were fermented in parallel by Candida shehatae YHFK-2. The results show that ...

  9. Antibacterial effect of surface pretreatment techniques against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (CFU/ml), respectively, among the groups evaluated (P < 0.05). Er:YAG laser irradiation and its combinations with other antibacterial surface pretreatment applications also inhibited the bacterial growth with, respectively, 1444, 406, and 294 CFU/ml bacterial recovery being more efficient than KTP laser irradiation and ozone ...

  10. Antibacterial Effect of Surface Pretreatment Techniques against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... of dentin chips were obtained from the cavity walls, and the number of bacteria recovered was counted. Kruskal–Wallis ... Keywords: Antibacterial effect, cavity surface pretreatment techniques, cavity preparation, dental, dental ... wavelengths for removing oral soft and dental hard tissues without pain relief, ...

  11. Bromine pretreated chitosan for adsorption of lead

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pollution by heavy metals like lead (II) is responsible for health hazards and environmental degradation. Adsorption is a prevalent method applied for removal of heavy metal pollutants from water. This study explored adsorption performances of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan for lead (II) abatement from water. Bromine ...

  12. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  13. Functions and requirements for Project W-236B, Initial Pretreatment Module: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Hanford Site tank waste supernatants will be pretreated to separate the low-level and high-level fractions. The low-level waste fraction, containing the bulk of the chemical constituents, must be processed into a vitrified waste product which will be disposed of onsite, in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost effective manner. The high-level waste fraction separated during supernatant pretreatment (primarily cesium) will be recombined with an additional high-level waste fraction generated from pretreatment of the tank waste sludges and solids. This combined high-level waste fraction will be immobilized as glass and disposed in a geological repository. The purpose of this document is to establish the functional requirements baseline for Project W-236B, Initial Pretreatment Module, by defining the level 5 and 6 functions and requirements for the project. A functional analysis approach has been used to break down the program functions and associated physical requirements that each function must meet. As the systems engineering process evolves, the design requirements document will replace this preliminary functions and requirements document. The design requirements document (DRD) will identify key decisions and associated uncertainties that impact the project. A revision of this document to a DRD is not expected to change the performance requirements or open issues. However, additional requirements and issues may be identified

  14. Pretreatment of Latent Prints for Laser Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, E R

    1989-06-01

    The pretreatment procedures for laser detection of latent fingerprints is reviewed. The general features of laser detection and the operational aspects of the examination of physical evidence for laser fingerprint detection are enumerated in the initial sections. The literature review is divided into various pretreatment approaches. Cited studies prior to 1981 are primarily concerned with the demonstration of the viability of laser fingerprint detection, whereas work post-1981 addresses issues of compatibility with the traditional methods of fingerprint development, examination of difficult surfaces, and the routine implementation of laser detection by law enforcement agencies. Related topics of research, review articles, conference reports, case examinations, the research support climate, and future trends are also briefly addressed. Copyright © 1989 Central Police University.

  15. Pretreatment of Dioscorea zingiberensis for Microbial Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxiang Zheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The influences of five pretreatments on fungal growth and enzyme production during microbial transformation of Dioscorea zingiberensis (DZW were studied. The biomass, α-rhamnase and β-glucosidase activities in the fermentation system were employed in the study to determine how each method affected the efficiency of microbial transformation. The fungal strain grew better on the substrate which contained easily utilized carbon source. While lack of carbon source induced the strain produce more glucosidase. Among five pretreatment methods, complex enzymatic hydrolyzation can remove 84.3% starch and 76.5% fibre from DZW in form of sugar, which resulted in high α-rhamnase activity of 2.89 IU/mL and β-glucosidase activity of 8.17 IU/mL in fermentation broth.

  16. Pretreatment Capabilities and Benefits of Electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    4.1.1.2 Oil-Water Emulsions – Mock Solutions ………………… 20 4.1.1.3 Tannin and Humic Acid Mixture – Mock Solutions …….. 35 4.1.1.4 Silt – Mock...water Influent/ effluent water control Industrial wastewater Pre-treatment for drinking water Oil emulsion breaking Medical waste

  17. Hydrothermal pretreatments of macroalgal biomass for biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Héctor A.; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M.; Aguedo, Mario

    2015-01-01

    ecently, macroalgal biomass is gaining wide attention as an alternative in the production of biofuels (as bioetanol and biogas) and compounds with high added value with specific properties (antioxidants, anticoagulants, anti–inflammatories) for applications in food, medical and energy industries...... in accordance with the integrated biorefineries. Furthermore, biorefinery concept requires processes that allow efficient utilization of all components of the biomass. The pretreatment step in a biorefinery is often based on hydrothermal principles of high temperatures in aqueous solution. Therefore...

  18. Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruse, J.M.; Harrington, R.A.; Quadrel, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the minutes from the Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop sponsored by the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration in Salt Lake City, Utah, February 3--5, 1993. The Efficient Separations and Processing-Integrated Program and the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System were joint participants. This document provides the detailed minutes, including responses to questions asked, an attendance list, reproductions of the workshop presentations, and a revised chart showing technology development activities

  19. Layered Systems Engineering Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Overman, Marvin J.

    2009-01-01

    A notation is described for depicting the relationships between multiple, contemporaneous systems engineering efforts undertaken within a multi-layer system-of-systems hierarchy. We combined the concepts of remoteness of activity from the end customer, depiction of activity on a timeline, and data flow to create a new kind of diagram which we call a "Layered Vee Diagram." This notation is an advance over previous notations because it is able to be simultaneously precise about activity, level of granularity, product exchanges, and timing; these advances provide systems engineering managers a significantly improved ability to express and understand the relationships between many systems engineering efforts. Using the new notation, we obtain a key insight into the relationship between project duration and the strategy selected for chaining the systems engineering effort between layers, as well as insights into the costs, opportunities, and risks associated with alternate chaining strategies.

  20. Pretreatment of Agave americana stalk for enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Pan, Xuejun

    2012-12-01

    Agave americana is one of commonly grown agave species but currently less valuable because its large flower stalk cannot be used for producing alcoholic beverage. In the present study, the stalk was pretreated with dilute acid (DA), sulfite (SPORL), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to preliminarily assess its potential as feedstock for bioethanol production. The changes of cell wall components during the pretreatments, enzymatic digestibility of the pretreated stalks, and the adsorption of cellulases on the substrates were investigated. Results indicated that the pretreatments significantly improved the enzymatic digestibility of the agave stalk. SPORL pretreatment gave higher substrate and sugar yields, while NaOH pretreated stalk had better digestibility under the investigated conditions. The better hydrolysability of NaOH-pretreated stalk was attributed to low lignin and hemicellulose content and high affinity to cellulases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Engineer Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-15

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  2. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  3. Pretreatment of Reed by Wet Oxidation and Subsequent Utilization of the Pretreated Fibers for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szijarto, Nora; Kádár, Zsófia; Varga, Eniko

    2009-01-01

    lignocelluloses usually do. In the present study, wet oxidation was investigated as the pretreatment method to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of reed cellulose to soluble sugars and thus improve the convertibility of reed to ethanol. The most effective treatment increased the digestibility of reed cellulose...... by cellulases more than three times compared to the untreated control. During this wet oxidation, 51.7% of the hemicellulose and 58.3% of the lignin were solubilized, whereas 87.1% of the cellulose remained in the solids. After enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated fibers from the same treatment, the conversion...... of cellulose to glucose was 82.4%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated solids resulted in a final ethanol concentration as high as 8.7 g/L, yielding 73% of the theoretical....

  4. Lignin monomer composition affects Arabidopsis cell-wall degradability after liquid hot water pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladisch Michael

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignin is embedded in the plant cell wall matrix, and impedes the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic feedstocks. To investigate whether enzymatic digestibility of cell wall materials can be improved by altering the relative abundance of the two major lignin monomers, guaiacyl (G and syringyl (S subunits, we compared the degradability of cell wall material from wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana with a mutant line and a genetically modified line, the lignins of which are enriched in G and S subunits, respectively. Results Arabidopsis tissue containing G- and S-rich lignins had the same saccharification performance as the wild type when subjected to enzyme hydrolysis without pretreatment. After a 24-hour incubation period, less than 30% of the total glucan was hydrolyzed. By contrast, when liquid hot water (LHW pretreatment was included before enzyme hydrolysis, the S-lignin-rich tissue gave a much higher glucose yield than either the wild-type or G-lignin-rich tissue. Applying a hot-water washing step after the pretreatment did not lead to a further increase in final glucose yield, but the initial hydrolytic rate was doubled. Conclusions Our analyses using the model plant A. thaliana revealed that lignin composition affects the enzymatic digestibility of LHW pretreated plant material. Pretreatment is more effective in enhancing the saccharification of A. thaliana cell walls that contain S-rich lignin. Increasing lignin S monomer content through genetic engineering may be a promising approach to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of biomass to biofuel conversion.

  5. Physiochemical Characterization of Lignocellulosic Biomass Dissolution by Flowthrough Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Lishi; Pu, Yunqiao; Bowden, Mark; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yang, Bin

    2016-01-04

    Comprehensive understanding of biomass solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of valorizing biomass to fermentable sugars and lignin for biofuels production. In this study, poplar wood was flowthrough pretreated by water-only or 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid at different temperatures (220-270 °C), flow rate (25 mL/min), and reaction times (8-90 min), resulting in significant disruption of the lignocellulosic biomass. Ion chromatography (IC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and solid state cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were applied to characterize the pretreated biomass whole slurries in order to reveal depolymerization as well as solubilization mechanism and identify unique dissolution structural features during these pretreatments. Results showed temperature-dependent cellulose decrystallization in flowthrough pretreatment. Crystalline cellulose was completely disrupted, and mostly converted to amorphous cellulose and oligomers by water-only operation at 270 °C for 10 min and by 0.05 wt % H2SO4 flowthrough pretreatment at 220 °C for 12 min. Flowthrough pretreatment with 0.05% (w/w) H2SO4 led to a greater disruption of structures in pretreated poplar at a lower temperature compared to water-only pretreatment.

  6. Pretreatment on corn stover with low concentration of formic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-08-01

    Bioethanol derived from lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to replace gasoline. Cellulose is naturally recalcitrant to enzymatic attack, and it also surrounded by the matrix of xylan and lignin, which enhances the recalcitrance. Therefore, lignocellulosic materials must be pretreated to make the cellulose easily degraded into sugars and further fermented to ethanol. In this work, hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover at 195 degrees for 15 min with and without lower concentration of formic acid was compared in terms of sugar recoveries and ethanol fermentation. For pretreatment with formic acid, the overall glucan recovery was 89% and pretreatment without formic acid yielded the recovery of 94%. Compared with glucan, xylan was more sensitive to the pretreatment condition. The lowest xylan recovery of 55% was obtained after pretreatment with formic acid and the highest of 75% found following pretreatment without formic acid. Toxicity tests of liquor parts showed that there were no inhibitions found for both pretreatment conditions. After simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the pretreated corn stover with Baker's yeast, the highest ethanol yield of 76.5% of the theoretical was observed from corn stover pretreated at 195 degrees for 15 min with formic acid.

  7. Process Improvements to Biomass Pretreatment of Fuels and Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teymouri, Farzaneh [Michigan Biotechnology Inst., Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-05-30

    MBI, a 501c(3) company focusing on de-risking and scaling up bio-based technologies, has teamed with Michigan State University and the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and demonstrate process improvements to the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment process. The logistical hurdles of biomass handling are well known, and the regional depot concept - in which small, distributed bioprocessing operations collect, preprocess, and densify biomass before shipping to a centralized refinery - is a promising alternative to centralized collection. AFEXTM (AFEX is a trademark of MBI) has unique features among pretreatments that would make it desirable as a pretreatment prior to densification at the depot scale. MBI has developed a novel design, using a packed bed reactor for the AFEX process that can be scaled down economically to the depot scale at a lower capital cost as compared to the traditional design (Pandia type reactor). Thus, the purpose of this project was to develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and improve this novel design The key challenges are the recovery of ammonia, consistent and complete pretreatment performance, and the overall throughput of the reactor. In this project an engineering scale packed bed AFEX system with 1-ton per day capacity was installed at MBI’s building. The system has been operational since mid-2013. During that time, MBI has demonstrated the robustness, reliability, and consistency of the process. To date, nearly 500 runs have been performed in the reactors. There have been no incidences of plugging (i.e., inability to remove ammonia from biomass after the treatment), nor has there been any instance of a major ammonia release into the atmosphere. Likewise, the sugar released via enzyme hydrolysis has remained consistent throughout these runs. Our economic model shows a 46% reduction in AFEX capital cost at the 100 ton/day scale compared to the traditional design of AFEX (Pandia type reactor). The key performance factors were

  8. Rheological evaluation of pretreated cladding removal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, D.; Chan, M.K.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Cladding removal waste (CRW) contains concentrations of transuranic (TRU) elements in the 80 to 350 nCi/g range. This waste will require pretreatment before it can be disposed of as glass or grout at Hanford. The CRW will be pretreated with a rare earth strike and solids removal by centrifugation to segregate the TRU fraction from the non-TRU fraction of the waste. The centrifuge centrate will be neutralized with sodium hydroxide. This neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) is expected to be suitable for grouting. The TRU solids removed by centrifugation will be vitrified. The goal of the Rheological Evaluation of Pretreated Cladding Removal Waste Program was to evaluate those rheological and transport properties critical to assuring successful handling of the NCRW and TRU solids streams and to demonstrate transfers in a semi-prototypic pumping environment. This goal was achieved by a combination of laboratory and pilot-scale evaluations. The results obtained during these evaluations were correlated with classical rheological models and scaled-up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. The Program used simulated NCRW and TRU solid slurries. Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) provided 150 gallons of simulated CRW and 5 gallons of simulated TRU solid slurry. The simulated CRW was neutralized by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The physical and rheological properties of the NCRW and TRU solid slurries were evaluated in the laboratory. The properties displayed by NCRW allowed it to be classified as a pseudoplastic or yield-pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The TRU solids slurry contained very few solids. This slurry exhibited the properties associated with a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid

  9. Energy consumption modeling during dairy sewage pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Żyłka, Radosław; Malinowski, Paweł; Boruszko, Dariusz

    2017-11-01

    The research was conducted in a dairy WWTP located in north-eastern Poland with the average flow of 546 m3d-1 and PE 11500 in 2016. Energy consumption was measured with the help of Lumel 3-phase network parameter transducers installed within the plant. The modeling was conducted based on the quantity and quality of raw sewage, after its screening, averaging and dissolved air flotation. The following parameters were determined: BOD5, COD. N-total and P-total. During the research period. 15 measurement series were carried out. Pollution loads removed in primary treatment varied from 167.0 to 803.5 kgO2d-1 and 1205.9 to 10032 kgO2d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. The energy consumption share during dairy pretreatment in relation to the total energy consumption was in the range from 13.8 to 28.5% with the mean value of 18.7% during the research period. Energy consumption indicators relating to removed pollution loads for primary treatment were established with the mean values of 0.74 and 0.83 kWhkg-1d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. An attempt was made to determine the influence of raw sewage characteristics and pretreatment efficiency on energy consumption of the object. A model of energy consumption during pretreatment was estimated according to the experimental data obtained in the research period. It was modeled using the linear regression model and principal component analysis.

  10. Energy consumption modeling during dairy sewage pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowski Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in a dairy WWTP located in north-eastern Poland with the average flow of 546 m3d-1 and PE 11500 in 2016. Energy consumption was measured with the help of Lumel 3-phase network parameter transducers installed within the plant. The modeling was conducted based on the quantity and quality of raw sewage, after its screening, averaging and dissolved air flotation. The following parameters were determined: BOD5, COD. N-total and P-total. During the research period. 15 measurement series were carried out. Pollution loads removed in primary treatment varied from 167.0 to 803.5 kgO2d-1 and 1205.9 to 10032 kgO2d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. The energy consumption share during dairy pretreatment in relation to the total energy consumption was in the range from 13.8 to 28.5% with the mean value of 18.7% during the research period. Energy consumption indicators relating to removed pollution loads for primary treatment were established with the mean values of 0.74 and 0.83 kWhkg-1d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. An attempt was made to determine the influence of raw sewage characteristics and pretreatment efficiency on energy consumption of the object. A model of energy consumption during pretreatment was estimated according to the experimental data obtained in the research period. It was modeled using the linear regression model and principal component analysis.

  11. Surface pretreatments for medical application of adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Michael

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medical implants and prostheses (artificial hips, tendono- and ligament plasties usually are multi-component systems that may be machined from one of three material classes: metals, plastics and ceramics. Typically, the body-sided bonding element is bone. The purpose of this contribution is to describe developments carried out to optimize the techniques , connecting prosthesis to bone, to be joined by an adhesive bone cement at their interface. Although bonding of organic polymers to inorganic or organic surfaces and to bone has a long history, there remains a serious obstacle in realizing long-term high-bonding strengths in the in vivo body environment of ever present high humidity. Therefore, different pretreatments, individually adapted to the actual combination of materials, are needed to assure long term adhesive strength and stability against hydrolysis. This pretreatment for metal alloys may be silica layering; for PE-plastics, a specific plasma activation; and for bone, amphiphilic layering systems such that the hydrophilic properties of bone become better adapted to the hydrophobic properties of the bone cement. Amphiphilic layering systems are related to those developed in dentistry for dentine bonding. Specific pretreatment can significantly increase bond strengths, particularly after long term immersion in water under conditions similar to those in the human body. The bond strength between bone and plastic for example can be increased by a factor approaching 50 (pealing work increasing from 30 N/m to 1500 N/m. This review article summarizes the multi-disciplined subject of adhesion and adhesives, considering the technology involved in the formation and mechanical performance of adhesives joints inside the human body.

  12. Acetic acid pretreatment improves the hardness of cooked potato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenlin; Shehzad, Hussain; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang

    2017-08-01

    The effects of acetic acid pretreatment on the texture of cooked potato slices were investigated in this work. Potato slices were pretreated with acetic acid immersion (AAI), distilled water immersion (DWI), or no immersion (NI). Subsequently, the cell wall material of the pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to evaluate changes in the monosaccharide content and molar mass (MM), and the hardness and microscopic structure of the potato slices in different pretreatments before and after cooking were determined. The results showed that the highest firmness was obtained with more intact structure of the cell wall for cooked potato slices with AAI pretreatment. Furthermore, the MM and sugar ratio demonstrated that the AAI pretreated potato slices contained a higher content of the small molecular polysaccharides of cell walls, especially in the hemicellulose fraction. This work may provide a reference for potato processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of pretreatment on colour and texture of watermelon rind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaselvi, K.; Alagusundaram, K.; Kavitha, C.; Arumuganathan, T.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of osmotic dehydration pretreatment on water loss, solid gain, colour and textural change was investigated. Watermelon rind 1 x 1 cm size was immersed in sucrose solution of 40, 50 and 60° Brix after pretreatment with microwave and conventional boiling in water for 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively. Water loss and solid gain increased with the time of cooking and sugar concentration. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher water loss and solid gain. Increase in the time of cooking decreased the brightness of all the samples. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher `b' values than conventionally pretreated ones. There was no significant difference (P≤0.05) in texture profile analysis parameters except for hardness. Hardness decreased with increase in time of cooking and sugar concentration. Second order regression model was developed for water loss and solid gain of microwave and conventional pretreated watermelon rind.

  14. Lignocellulosic biomass-Thermal pretreatment with steam: Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    technologies; thermal pre-treatment with steam. The Norwegian company CAMBI developed a process for treatment of sludge from waste water treatment plants, and the idea was based on the experience that cooking sludge under pressure at temperature from 150oC to 180oC improved the digestibility and at the same...

  15. The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper pretreated by fungal pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The fungal pretreatment effect on chemical structural and morphological changes of Betung Bamboo was evaluated based on its biomass components after being cultivated by white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor. Betung bamboo powder (15 g was exposed to liquid inoculum of white rot fungi and incubated at 270C for 15, 30 and 45 days. The treated samples were then characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and SEM-EDS analyses. Cultivation for 30 days with 5 and 10% loadings retained greater selectivity compared to that of the other treatments. FTIR spectra demonstrated that the fungus affected the decreasing of functional group quantities without changing the functional groups. The decrease in intensity at wave number of 1246 cm-1 (guaiacyl of lignin was greater than that at wave number of 1328 cm-1 (deformation combination of syringyl and xylan after fungal treatment. X-ray analysis showed the pretreated samples had a higher crystallinity than the untreated ones which might be due to the cleavage of amorphous fractions of cellulose. The pretreated samples have more fragile than the untreated ones confirmed by SEM. Crystalline allomorph calculated by XRD analysis showed that fungus pretreatment for 30 days has transformed triclinic structure of cellulose to monoclinic structure.

  16. IMPROVING THE GRAVITATIONAL PROPERTIES OF SEWAGE SLUDGE BY PRETREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Nowicka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of sludge is an inevitable consequence of wastewater treatment processes. Their disposal and utilization requires knowledge on technology and engineering. The application of pretreatment processes/conditioning allows to obtain better mechanical properties of sludge. In the last decade a lot of research from around the world focused on new methods of conditioning of sludge can be noticed, i.e. The processes of disintegration, of which the destruction of the mechanical, chemical and biological. Despite different activities of each method (introduced energy, thermal phenomena, chemical reactions, mechanical, their common goal is the destruction of activated sludge floc structure and micro-organisms, which result in changes of properties in sediment and supernatant liquid. The influence of the disintegration of the microwave and freezing/thawing dry ice on selected properties of gravitational surplus activated sludge were presented. Characteristic parameters determined sludge sedimentation processes, i.e. the rate of descent and compaction density index sediment and sludge volume index and changes in the supernatant liquid. The study showed the efficacy of selected methods of sludge disintegration with regard to improving the properties of gravity and becoming a contribution to the determination of the effective methods of deposits’ preconditioning.

  17. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION TESTING WITH INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM FEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING DL

    2008-01-01

    The fractional crystallization process was developed as a pretreatment method for saltcake waste retrieved from Hanford single-shell tanks (SST). The process separates the retrieved SST waste into a high-level waste stream containing the bulk of the radionuclides and a low-activity waste stream containing the bulk of the nonradioactive sodium salts. The Interim Pretreatment System project shifted the focus on pretreatment planning from SST waste to double-shell tank waste

  18. Cellulose conversion of corn pericarp without pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Orrego, David; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Ladisch, Michael R

    2017-12-01

    We report enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose in unpretreated pericarp at a cellulase loading of 0.25FPU/g pericarp solids using a phenol tolerant Aspergillus niger pectinase preparation. The overall protein added was 5mg/g and gave 98% cellulose conversion in 72h. However, for double the amount of enzyme from Trichoderma reesei, which is significantly less tolerant to phenols, conversion was only 16%. The key to achieving high conversion without pretreatment is combining phenol inhibition-resistant enzymes (such as from A. niger) with unground pericarp from which release of phenols is minimal. Size reduction of the pericarp, which is typically carried out in a corn-to-ethanol process, where corn is first ground to a fine powder, causes release of highly inhibitory phenols that interfere with cellulase enzyme activity. This work demonstrates hydrolysis without pretreatment of large particulate pericarp is a viable pathway for directly producing cellulose ethanol in corn ethanol plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biologically Pre-Treated Habitation Waste Water as a Sustainable Green Urine Pre-Treat Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Thompson, Bret; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Morse, Audra; Meyer, Caitlin; Callahan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The ability to recover water from urine and flush water is a critical process to allow long term sustainable human habitation in space or bases on the moon or mars. Organic N present as urea or similar compounds can hydrolyze producing free ammonia. This reaction results in an increase in the pH converting ammonium to ammonia which is volatile and not removed by distillation. The increase in pH will also cause precipitation reactions to occur. In order to prevent this, urine on ISS is combined with a pretreat solution. While use of a pretreatment solution has been successful, there are numerous draw backs including: storage and use of highly hazardous solutions, limitations on water recovery (less than 85%), and production of brine with pore dewatering characteristics. We evaluated the use of biologically treated habitation wastewaters (ISS and early planetary base) to replace the current pretreat solution. We evaluated both amended and un-amended bioreactor effluent. For the amended effluent, we evaluated "green" pretreat chemicals including citric acid and citric acid amended with benzoic acid. We used a mock urine/air separator modeled after the urine collection assembly on ISS. The urine/air separator was challenged continually for >6 months. Depending on the test point, the separator was challenged daily with donated urine and flushed with amended or un-amended reactor effluent. We monitored the pH of the urine, flush solution and residual pH in the urine/air separator after each urine event. We also evaluated solids production and biological growth. Our results support the use of both un-amended and amended bioreactor effluent to maintain the operability of the urine /air separator. The ability to use bioreactor effluent could decrease consumable cost, reduce hazards associated with current pre-treat chemicals, allow other membrane based desalination processes to be utilized, and improve brine characteristics.

  20. Feasibility of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Maize Silage for Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    The potential of maize silage as a feedstock to produce bioethanol was evaluated in the present study. The hydrothermal pretreatment with five different pretreatment severity factors (PSF) was employed to pretreat the maize silage and compared in terms of sugar recovery, toxic test, and ethanol...... the liquors from the five conditions were not toxic to the Baker’s yeast. Pretreatment under 195°C for 7 min had the similar PSF with that of 185°C for 15 min, and both gave the higher ethanol concentration of 19.92 and 19.98 g/L, respectively. The ethanol concentration from untreated maize silage was only 7...

  1. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A nonhazardous urine pretreatment system prototype is proposed that will stabilize urine against biological growth or chemical instabilities without using hazardous...

  2. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel urine pretreatment that will prevent biological growth or chemical instabilities in urine without using hazardous chemicals is proposed. Untreated urine...

  3. Pretreatment of spent mushroom substrate for enhancing the conversion of fermentable sugar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wu, S.; Lan, Y.; Wu, Z.; Peng, Y.; Chen, S.; Huang, Z.; Xu, L.; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, X.; Zhang, L.; Zou, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 148, NOV 9 (2013), s. 596-600 ISSN 0960-8524 Grant - others:National High Technology Research and Development Program 863(CN) 2011AA10A203; National Natural Science Foundation of China(CN) 31301724; Forestry University(CN) xjq201203; China National Engineering Research Center of Juncao Technology(CN) JCJJ13021 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * high performace liquid chromatography * pretreatment Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy Impact factor: 5.039, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960852413013734#

  4. Saccharification and ethanol fermentation from cholinium ionic liquid-pretreated bagasse with a different number of post-pretreatment washings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Omote, Sayuri; Ogino, Chiaki; Kuroda, Kosuke; Noguchi, Mana; Endo, Takatsugu; Kakuchi, Ryohei; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Takahashi, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Choline acetate (ChOAc), a cholinium ionic liquid (IL), was compared with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimOAc) with regard to biomass pretreatment, inhibition on cellulase and yeast, residuals in pretreated biomass, and saccharification and fermentation of pretreated biomass. Irrespective of ChOAc and EmimOAc, cellulose and hemicellulose saccharification of the IL-pretreated bagasse were over 90% and 60%, respectively. Median effective concentrations (EC50) based on cellulase activity were 32 wt% and 16 wt% for ChOAc and EmimOAc, respectively. The EC50 based on yeast growth were 3.1 wt% and 0.3 wt% for ChOAc and EmimOAc respectively. The residuals in IL-pretreated bagasse were 10% and 23% for ChOAc and EmimOAc, respectively, when washed 2 times after pretreatment. Ethanol yield on a bagasse basis were 60% and 24% for ChOAc and EmimOAc, respectively, in the saccharification and fermentation of IL-pretreated bagasse when washed 2 times. ChOAc-pretreated bagasse could be saccharified and fermented with fewer wash times than EmimOAc-pretreated bagasse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Darbyshire, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Alan Darbyshire's best-selling text book provides five-star high quality content to a potential audience of 13,000 engineering students. It explains the most popular specialist units of the Mechanical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and Operations & Maintenance Engineering pathways of the new 2010 BTEC National Engineering syllabus. This challenging textbook also features contributions from specialist lecturers, ensuring that no stone is left unturned.

  6. Glycerol carbonate as green solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a prerequisite for effective saccharification to produce fermentable sugars. In this study, “green” solvent systems based on acidified mixtures of glycerol carbonate (GC) and glycerol were used to treat sugarcane bagasse and the roles of each solvent in deconstructing biomass were determined. Results Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 90°C for only 30 min with acidified GC produced a solid residue having a glucan digestibility of 90% and a glucose yield of 80%, which were significantly higher than a glucan digestibility of 16% and a glucose yield of 15% obtained for bagasse pretreated with acidified ethylene carbonate (EC). Biomass compositional analyses showed that GC pretreatment removed more lignin than EC pretreatment (84% vs 54%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that fluffy and size-reduced fibres were produced from GC pretreatment whereas EC pretreatment produced compact particles of reduced size. The maximal glucan digestibility and glucose yield of GC/glycerol systems were about 7% lower than those of EC/ethylene glycol (EG) systems. Replacing up to 50 wt% of GC with glycerol did not negatively affect glucan digestibility and glucose yield. The results from pretreatment of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) showed that (1) pretreatment with acidified alkylene glycol (AG) alone increased enzymatic digestibility compared to pretreatments with acidified alkylene carbonate (AC) alone and acidified mixtures of AC and AG, (2) pretreatment with acidified GC alone slightly increased, but with acidified EC alone significantly decreased, enzymatic digestibility compared to untreated MCC, and (3) there was a good positive linear correlation of enzymatic digestibility of treated and untreated MCC samples with congo red (CR) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Acidified GC alone was a more effective solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse than acidified EC alone. The higher glucose yield obtained

  7. Understanding of alkaline pretreatment parameters for corn stover enzymatic saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research on alkaline pretreatment has mainly focused on optimization of the process parameters to improve substrate digestibility. To achieve satisfactory sugar yield, extremely high chemical loading and enzyme dosages were typically used. Relatively little attention has been paid to reduction of chemical consumption and process waste management, which has proven to be an indispensable component of the bio-refineries. To indicate alkali strength, both alkali concentration in pretreatment solution (g alkali/g pretreatment liquor or g alkali/L pretreatment liquor and alkali loading based on biomass solids (g alkali/g dry biomass have been widely used. The dual approaches make it difficult to compare the chemical consumption in different process scenarios while evaluating the cost effectiveness of this pretreatment technology. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment of corn stover at various combinations of pretreatment conditions. Enzymatic hydrolysis with different enzyme blends was subsequently performed to identify the effects of pretreatment parameters on substrate digestibility as well as process operational and capital costs. Results The results showed that sodium hydroxide loading is the most dominant variable for enzymatic digestibility. To reach 70% glucan conversion while avoiding extensive degradation of hemicellulose, approximately 0.08 g NaOH/g corn stover was required. It was also concluded that alkali loading based on total solids (g NaOH/g dry biomass governs the pretreatment efficiency. Supplementing cellulase with accessory enzymes such as α-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase significantly improved the conversion of the hemicellulose by 6–17%. Conclusions The current work presents the impact of alkaline pretreatment parameters on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover as well as the process operational and capital investment costs. The high chemical consumption for alkaline

  8. Evaluation of High Solids Alkaline Pretreatment of Rice Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Zheng, Yi; Yu, Chao Wei; Dooley, Todd M.; Jenkins, Bryan M.

    2010-01-01

    Fresh-harvested, air-dried rice straw was pretreated at a water content of 5 g H2O/g straw using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and compared to pretreatment at 10 g H2O/g straw by hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2). Full factorial experiments including parallel wash-only treatments were completed with both sources of alkali. The experiments were designed to measure the effects of alkaline loading and pretreatment time on delignification and sugar yield upon enzymatic hydrolysis. Reaction temperature was held constant at 95°C for lime pretreatment and 55°C for NaOH pretreatment. The range of delignification was 13.1% to 27.0% for lime pretreatments and was 8.6% to 23.1% for NaOH pretreatments. Both alkaline loading and reaction time had significant positive effects (p delignification under the design conditions, but only alkaline loading had a significant positive effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. Treatment at higher temperature also improved delignification; delignification with water alone ranged from 9.9% to 14.5% for pretreatment at 95°C, but there was little effect observed at 55°C. Post-pretreatment washing of biomass was not necessary for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum glucose yields were 176.3 mg/g dried biomass (48.5% conversion efficiency of total glucose) in lime-pretreated and unwashed biomass and were 142.3 mg/g dried biomass (39.2% conversion efficiency of total glucose) in NaOH-pretreated and unwashed biomass. PMID:20440580

  9. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, fed with dried air (or oxygen-enriched dried air), has been used for the degradation of lignin in wheat straw to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis and to get more fermentable sugars. A fixed bed reactor was used combined...... with a CO2 detector and an online technique for O3 measurement in the fed and exhaust gas allowing continuous measurement of the consumption of O3. This rendered it possible for us to determine the progress of the pretreatment in real time (online analysis). The process time can be adjusted to produce wheat...... straw with desired lignin content because of the online analysis. The O3 consumption of wheat straw and its polymeric components, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a mixture of these, dry as well as with 50% water, were studied. Furthermore, the process parameters dry matter content...

  10. Quality evaluation of beverage produced from pre-treated tigernut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beverage samples from pretreated and untreated tigernut were evaluated for physical and chemical properties. Sensory evaluation of the beverage samples were carried out and the best preferred tigernutbeverage was compared with a popularly consumed beverage, soymilk. All the pre-treatments, except germination, ...

  11. Effects of magnetic fields pretreatment of mungbean seeds on sprout ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of magnetic fields pretreatment of mungbean seeds on sprout yield and quality. Yi-Ping Chen, Jun-Min He, Ran Li. Abstract. The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of magnetic field pretreatment of mungbean seeds on the yield and quality of sprout. The sprout elongation, biomass and nutrition ...

  12. Wet explosion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2014-01-01

    Wet explosion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse was investigated in pilot-scale with the aim of obtaining the highest possible sugar yield after pretreatment. The temperatures used were 155, 170, 185 and 200 C with or without addition of oxygen (0.6 MPa pressure). Enzymatic hydrolysis of washed...

  13. Synergistic Effect of Trehalose and Saccharose Pretreatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the synergistic effect of trehalose and saccharose pretreatment on maintenance of lyophilized human red blood cell (RBC) quality. Methods: RBCs were pre-treated with trehalose and saccharose, and then lyophilized and re-hydrated. Prior to lyophilization and after re hydration, RBC parameters, ...

  14. 40 CFR 406.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.26 Section 406.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.26 Pretreatment...

  15. 40 CFR 406.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.34 Section 406.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 406.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that...

  16. 40 CFR 406.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.44 Section 406.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 406.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that...

  17. 40 CFR 406.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.16 Section 406.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.16 Pretreatment...

  18. Effect of chemical pretreatment of some lignocellulosic wastes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highest cellulase activity (0.06777 IU/ml/min) was display d by the organism grown on bagasse substrate pretreated with 2M NaOH for one hour. The proximate analysis of the cellulosic residues differed from one substrate to another, with the bagasse being the best. Pulverized substrates syndicated with alkali pretreatment ...

  19. Influence of Chemical Pretreatment on the Quality of Dried Whole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical pretreatment of vegetables prior to drying is widely used to improve colour, texture and overall acceptability. Thus, this study investigated the effect of chemical pretreatment on some physico-chemical properties, colour and rehydration properties of dried red bell pepper. Fresh samples of whole red bell peppers ...

  20. Organosolv pretreatment of olive tree biomass for fermentable sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M.J.; Cara, C.; Castro, E. [Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, Campus Las Lagunillas, University of Jaen, Jaen (Spain); Huijgen, W.J.J.; Van der Laan, R.R.; Reith, J.H. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Olive tree pruning biomass is one of the main agricultural residues available in Mediterranean countries and is currently lacking commercial applications. To take advantage of its sugar content, a pretreatment is necessary to enhance enzyme accessibility of the cellulose fraction of the residue. This paper describes for the first time the use of organosolv pretreatment in this regard. The main process variables such as pretreatment temperature, residence time, and solvent composition (aqueous ethanol) are studied. Results show that organosolv pretreatment causes delignification and hydrolysis of hemicelluloses and improves the enzymatic digestibility of olive tree pruning biomass. A higher pretreatment severity and ethanol content of the solvent were found to increase delignification (up to 64% at 66% w/w aqueous ethanol, 210C, 60 min). By contrast, xylan hydrolysis was promoted by a lower ethanol content (maximum 92%). The highest enzymatic hydrolysis yield (90% of the structural glucan present in the raw material) has been obtained after pretreatment with 43% w/w aqueous ethanol at 210C for 15 min. Organosolv pretreatment was found to be the most effective pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of olive tree pruning biomass.

  1. Effect of combination pre-treatment on physicochemical, sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of combination pre-treatment on physicochemical, sensory and microbial characteristics of fresh aerobically stored minced goat (Black Bengal) meat organs. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... However, acetic acid and glucose pretreatment controlled the fungal growth in meat samples most effectively. The

  2. 40 CFR 427.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 427.86 Section 427.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... Textiles Subcategory § 427.86 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject to this...

  3. Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLAUDIA

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... form of branches and tree tops are left on the field. Part of this residue is cut into ..... Table 3. Chemical composition of the solids from pretreated and hydrolyzed biomass and black and white liquors obtained in the pretreatment during the enzymatic .... (2000) employed Oak wood lignocellulosic biomass ...

  4. Development of pretreatment of empty fruit bunches for enhanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heating, boiling and steaming are among the physical agents and different concentrations of nitric acid, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were the chemical agents used for the pretreatment of EFB to enhance the enzymatic saccharification of EFB. NaOH was proved to be the best among all the pretreatment ...

  5. Structural Analysis of Alkaline Pretreated Rice Straw for Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paripok Phitsuwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw (RS is an abundant, readily available agricultural waste, which shows promise as a potential feedstock for Asian ethanol production. To enhance release of glucose by enzymatic hydrolysis, RS was pretreated with aqueous ammonia (27% w/w at two pretreatment temperatures: room temperature and 60°C. Statistical analysis indicated similarity of enzymatic glucose production at both pretreatment temperatures after 3-day incubation. Chemical composition, FTIR, and EDX analyses confirmed the retention of glucan and xylan in the pretreated solid, but significant reduction of lignin (60.7% removal and silica. SEM analysis showed the disorganized surfaces and porosity of the pretreated RS fibers, thus improving cellulose accessibility for cellulase. The crystallinity index increased from 40.5 to 52.3%, indicating the higher exposure of cellulose. With 10% (w/v solid loadings of pretreated RS, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation yielded a final ethanol concentration of 24.6 g/L, corresponding to 98% of maximum theoretical yield. Taken together, aqueous ammonia pretreatment is an effective method to generate highly digestible pretreated RS for bioethanol production and demonstrates potential application in biorefinery industry.

  6. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma pretreatment on hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fangmin; Long, Zhouyang; Liu, Sa; Qin, Zhenglong

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was used as a pretreatment method for downstream hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The degree of polymerization (DP) of MCC decreased after it was pretreated by DBD plasma under a carrier gas of air/argon. The effectiveness of depolymerization was found to be influenced by the crystallinity of MCC when under the pretreatment of DBD plasma. With the addition of tert-butyl alcohol in the treated MCC water suspension solution, depolymerization effectiveness of MCC was inhibited. When MCC was pretreated by DBD plasma for 30 min, the total reducing sugar concentration (TRSC) and liquefaction yield (LY) of pretreated-MCC (PMCC) increased by 82.98% and 34.18% respectively compared with those for raw MCC.

  7. Pretreatment of Biomass by Aqueous Ammonia for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Gupta, Rajesh; Lee, Y. Y.

    The methods of pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using aqueous ammonia are described. The main effect of ammonia treatment of biomass is delignification without significantly affecting the carbohydrate contents. It is a very effective pretreatment method especially for substrates that have low lignin contents such as agricultural residues and herbaceous feedstock. The ammonia-based pretreatment is well suited for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) because the treated biomass retains cellulose as well as hemicellulose. It has been demonstrated that overall ethanol yield above 75% of the theoretical maximum on the basis of total carbohydrate is achievable from corn stover pretreated with aqueous ammonia by way of SSCF. There are two different types of pretreatment methods based on aqueous ammonia: (1) high severity, low contact time process (ammonia recycle percolation; ARP), (2) low severity, high treatment time process (soaking in aqueous ammonia; SAA). Both of these methods are described and discussed for their features and effectiveness.

  8. Preparation of Reducing Sugar Hydrolyzed from High-Lignin Coconut Coir Dust Pretreated by the Recycled Ionic Liquid [mmim][dmp] and Combination with Alkaline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanny Frans Sangian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to produce reducing sugar hydrolyzed from substrate, coconut coir dust pretreated by recycled ionic liquid and its combination with alkaline. The 1H NMR and FTIR were performed to ver-ify the synthesized ionic liquid methylmethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate ([mmim][dmp]. The structure of pretreated substrates was analyzed by XRD measurement. The used ionic liquid was recy-cled twice to re-employ for substrate pretreatment. The treated- and untreated-coconut coir dust were hydrolyzed into sugars using pure cellulase. The reaction, which called an enzymatic hydrolysis, was conducted at 60 °C, pH 3, for 48 h. The yields of sugar hydrolyzed from fresh IL-pretreated, 1R*IL-pretreated and 2R*IL-pretreated substrates were of 0.19, 0.15 and 0.15 g sugar / g cellu-lose+hemicellulose, respectively. Pretreatment with NaOH or the combination of NaOH+IL resulted in yields of reducing sugars of 0.25, 0.28 g/g, respectively. When alkaline combined with the recycled ionic liquids, NaOH+1R*IL, NaOH+2R*IL in the pretreatment, the yields of sugar were relatively similar to those obtained using alkaline followed by fresh ionic liquid. If the mixture enzymes, cellu-lase+xylanase, used to liberate sugars from fresh IL-pretreated, or recycled IL-pretreated substrates, the amount of sugar (concentration or yield increased slightly compared to that employing a single cel-lulase. These findings showed that recycled IL pretreatment of the high-lignin lignocellulose, coconut coir dust, is a new prospect for the economical manufacture of fermentable sugars and biofuel in the coming years. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 1st July 2014; Revised: 5th September 2014; Accepted: 5th September 2014 How to Cite: Sangian, H.F., Kristian, J., Rahma, S., Dewi, H., Puspasari, D., Agnesty, S., Gunawan, S., Widjaja, A. (2015. Preparation of Reducing Sugar Hydrolyzed from High-Lignin Coconut Coir Dust Pretreated by the Recycled Ionic Liquid [mmim

  9. Low temperature lignocellulose pretreatment: effects and interactions of pretreatment pH are critical for maximizing enzymatic monosaccharide yields from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Johansen, Katja S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The recent development of improved enzymes and pentose-using yeast for cellulosic ethanol processes calls for new attention to the lignocellulose pretreatment step. This study assessed the influence of pretreatment pH, temperature, and time, and their interactions on the enzymatic...... alkaline pretreatments. Alkaline pretreatments also solubilized most of the lignin. Conclusions: Pretreatment pH exerted significant effects and factor interactions on the enzymatic glucose and xylose releases. Quite extreme pH values were necessary with mild thermal pretreatment strategies (T...... glucose and xylose yields from mildly pretreated wheat straw in multivariate experimental designs of acid and alkaline pretreatments. Results: The pretreatment pH was the most significant factor affecting both the enzymatic glucose and xylose yields after mild thermal pretreatments at maximum 140 degrees...

  10. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  11. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  12. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  13. Engineering _ litteraturliste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Daugbjerg, Peer; Nielsen, Keld

    2017-01-01

    Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”......Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”...

  14. Increased viability of fibroblasts when pretreated with ceria nanoparticles during serum deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genier FS

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Francielli S Genier,1 Maximilian Bizanek,1 Thomas J Webster,1,2 Amit K Roy1,2 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering (WIBE, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Conditions of cellular stress are often the cause of cell death or dysfunction. Sustained cell stress can lead to several health complications, such as extensive inflammatory responses, tumor growth, and necrosis. To prevent disease and protect human tissue during these conditions and to avoid medication side effects, nanomaterials with unique characteristics have been applied to biological systems. This paper introduces the pretreatment in human dermal fibroblasts with cerium oxide nanoparticles during nutritional stress. For this purpose, human dermal fibroblast cells received cell culture media with concentrations of 250 µg/mL and 500 µg/mL of nano-cerium oxide before being exposed to 24, 48, and 72 hours of serum starvation. Contrast images demonstrated higher cell confluence and cell integrity in cells pretreated with ceria nanoparticles compared to untreated cells. It was confirmed by MTS assay after 72 hours of serum starvation that higher cell viability was achieved with ceria nanoparticles. The results demonstrate the potential of cerium oxide nanoparticles as protective agents during cellular starvation. Keywords: cerium oxide, nanoparticles, serum starvation, human dermal fibroblasts

  15. Engineering Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Nicole; Stanley, Wendy; Bieniek, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    For many teachers, engineering can be intimidating; teachers receive little training in engineering, particularly those teaching early elementary students. In addition, the necessity of differentiating for students with special needs can make engineering more challenging to teach. This article describes a professional development program…

  16. Experiences on Pretreatment and Pelletizing of Forestry Residues in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, L. [Univ. of Vigo (Spain). Dept. of Natural Resources and Environment

    2006-07-15

    The aim of this work is to assess the technical possibilities in order to use typical wastes from the Spanish forests so that to produce high quality Pellets as well as to study the technical problems in some specific by-products. One of the main barriers the Spanish market faces in order to consolidate the pelletizing technologies is the fact that there are very few industrial experiences of massive production using forestry residues biomass. Instead, industrial wastes such as sawdust and shavings have been more commonly used, to-day. To that purpose, a series of experiences on pretreatment and pelletizing of forestry residues are shown in this work, using to that end typical biomass forestry residues from the Mediterranean countries and making forced-drying studies, granulometric reduction and densifying experiences for the very first time in Spain. The engineering data were obtained from experiences with a trommel type dryer of about 1,000 Kg/h using pine wastes (P. pinaster), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) and furze (Ulex europeaeus) as a raw material. Besides, the consumption in chipping and milling from wastes obtained from different parts of trees such as coniferous bark, branches, etc., are also analyzed, using to that end a pilot plant about 200 Kg/h. Finally, studies on pelletizing in a plant of 2,500 Kg/h capacity have been carried out. These in-depth studies try to determine the perspectives for forestry biomass management. Likewise, we also aim at pinning down the limits in using hard materials like the eucalyptus bark, as well as to grasp the potential of this type of wastes that have not been used in Spain yet.

  17. Lime pretreatment and fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline C

    2013-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was subjected to lime (calcium hydroxide) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for second-generation ethanol production. A central composite factorial design was performed to determine the best combination of pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading, as well as to evaluate the influence of enzymatic loadings on hydrolysis conversion. The influence of increasing solids loading in the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis stages was also determined. The hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and continuous mode. In the continuous fermentation, the hydrolysates were concentrated with molasses. Lime pretreatment significantly increased the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse without the need for prior particle size reduction. In the optimal pretreatment conditions (90 h, 90 °C, 0.47 glime/g bagasse) and industrially realistic conditions of hydrolysis (12.7 FPU/g of cellulase and 7.3 CBU/g of β-glucosidase), 139.6 kglignin/ton raw bagasse and 126.0 kg hemicellulose in the pretreatment liquor per ton raw bagasse were obtained. The hydrolysate from lime pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented low amounts of inhibitors, leading to ethanol yield of 164.1 kgethanol/ton raw bagasse.

  18. Enhanced enzymatic conversion with freeze pretreatment of rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ken-Lin; Thitikorn-amorn, Jitladda; Ou, Bay-Ming; Chen, Shan-He; Huang, Po-Jung [Institute of Biological Chemistry and Genomics Research Center Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115 (China); Hsieh, Jung-Feng [Department of Food Science, Fu Jen Catholic University, Xin Zhuang, Taipei 242 (China); Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok [School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Chen, Shui-Tein [Institute of Biological Chemistry and Genomics Research Center Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115 (China); Institute of Biochemical Sciences, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Production of bioethanol by the conversion of lignocellulosic waste has attracted much interest in recent years, because of its low cost and great potential availability. The pretreatment process is important for increasing the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic materials. Enzymatic conversion with freeze pretreatment of rice straw was evaluated in this study. The freeze pretreatment was found to significantly increase the enzyme digestibility of rice straw from 48% to 84%. According to the results, enzymatic hydrolysis of unpretreated rice straw with 150 U cellulase and 100 U xylanase for 48 h yielded 226.77 g kg{sup -1} and 93.84 g kg{sup -1} substrate-reducing sugars respectively. However, the reducing sugar yields from freeze pretreatment under the same conditions were 417.27 g kg{sup -1} and 138.77 g kg{sup -1} substrate, respectively. In addition, hydrolyzates analysis showed that the highest glucose yield obtained during the enzymatic hydrolysis step in the present study was 371.91 g kg{sup -1} of dry rice straw, following pretreatment. Therefore, the enhanced enzymatic conversion with freeze pretreatment of rice straw was observed in this study. This indicated that freeze pretreatment was highly effective for enzymatic hydrolysis and low environmental impact. (author)

  19. Understanding the impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on eucalyptus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centikol, Ozgul [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Dibble, Dean [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; Knierim, Manfred [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The development of cost-competitive biofuels necessitates the realization of advanced biomass pretreatment technologies. Ionic liquids provide a basis for one of the most promising pretreatment technologies and are known to allow effective processing of cellulose and some biomass species. Here, we demonstrate that the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate, [C2mim][OAc], induces structural changes at the molecular level in the cell wall of Eucalyptus globulus. Deacetylation of xylan, acetylation of the lignin units, selective removal of guaiacyl units (increasing the syringyl:guaiacyl ratio) and decreased {beta}-ether content were the most prominent changes observed. Scanning electron microscopy images of the plant cell wall sections reveal extensive swelling during [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate a change in cellulose crystal structure from cellulose I to cellulose II after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated material produced increased sugar yields and improved hydrolysis kinetics after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. These results provide new insight into the mechanism of ionic liquid pretreatment and reaffirm that this approach may be promising for the production of cellulosic biofuels from woody biomass.

  20. Effects of Pretreatment Methods on Electrodes and SOFC Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Bin Jung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available tapes (anode, electrolyte and paste (cathode were choosen to prepare anode-supported cells for solid oxide fuel cell applications. For both anode-supported cells or electrolyte-supported cells, the anode needs pretreatment to reduce NiO/YSZ to Ni/YSZ to increase its conductivity as well as its catalytic characteristics. In this study, the effects of different pretreatments (open-circuit, closed-circuit on cathode and anodes as well as SOFC performance are investigated. To investigate the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode alone, a Pt cathode is utilized as reference for comparison with the LSM cathode. The characterization of the electrical resistance, AC impedance, and SOFC performance of the resulting electrodes and/or anode-supported cell were carried out. It’s found that the influence of open-circuit pretreatment on the LSM cathode is limited. However, the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on both the LSM cathode and NiO/YSZ anode and the resulting SOFC performance is profound. The effect of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode is attributed to its change of electronic/pore structure as well as catalytic characteristics. With closed-circuit pretreatment, the SOFC performance improved greatly from the change of LSM cathode (and Pt reference compared to the Ni/YSZ anode.

  1. Dilute alkali pretreatment of softwood pine: A biorefinery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Ali; Karimi, Keikhosro; Shafiei, Marzieh

    2017-06-01

    Dilute alkali pretreatment was performed on softwood pine to maximize ethanol and biogas production via a biorefinery approach. Alkali pretreatments were performed with 0-2% w/v NaOH at 100-180°C for 1-5h. The liquid fraction of the pretreated substrates was subjected to anaerobic digestion. The solid fraction of the pretreatment was used for separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. High ethanol yields of 76.9‒78.0% were achieved by pretreatment with 2% (w/v) NaOH at 180°C. The highest biogas yield of 244mL/g volatile solid (at 25°C, 1bar) was achieved by the pretreatment with 1% (w/v) NaOH at 180°C. The highest gasoline equivalent (sum of ethanol and methane) of 197L per ton of pinewood and the lowest ethanol manufacturing cost of 0.75€/L was obtained after pretreatment with 1% NaOH at 180°C for 5h. The manufacturing cost of ethanol from untreated wood was 4.12€/L. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 40 CFR 439.37 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Synthesis... achieve the pretreatment standard for ammonia (as N). (b) The pretreatment standards for cyanide are as...

  3. Effects of different pretreatment methods on fermentation types and dominant bacteria for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Nan-Qi; Guo, Wan-Qian; Liu, Bing-Feng; Wang, Xing-Zu; Ding, Jie; Chen, Zhao-Bo [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, Heilongjiang (China); Wang, Xiang-Jing; Xiang, Wen-Sheng [Research Center of Life Science and Biotechnology, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2008-08-15

    In order to enrich hydrogen producing bacteria and to establish high-efficient communities of the mixed microbial cultures, inoculum needs to be pretreated before the cultivation. Four pretreatment methods including heat-shock pretreatment, acid pretreatment, alkaline pretreatment and repeated-aeration pretreatment were performed on the seed sludge which was collected from a secondary settling tank of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. In contrast to the control test without any pretreatment, the heat-shock pretreatment, acid pretreatment and repeated-aeration pretreatment completely suppressed the methanogenic activity of the seed sludge, but the alkaline pretreatment did not. Employing different pretreatment methods resulted in the change in fermentation types as butyric-acid type fermentation was achieved by the heat-shock and alkaline pretreatments, mixed-acid type fermentation was achieved by acid pretreatment and the control, and ethanol-type fermentation was observed by repeated-aeration pretreatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles revealed that pretreatment method substantially affected the species composition of microbial communities. The highest hydrogen yield of 1.96 mol/mol-glucose was observed with the repeated-aeration pretreatment method, while the lowest was obtained as the seed sludge was acidified. It is concluded that the pretreatment methods led to the difference in the initial microbial communities which might be directly responsible for different fermentation types and hydrogen yields. (author)

  4. Hygroscopic properties of Diesel engine soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Burtscher, H. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    The hygroscopic properties of combustion particles, freshly emitted from a Diesel engine were investigated. It was found that these particles start to grow by water condensation at a relative humidity (RH)>80%. The hygroscopicity of these particles was enhanced when the sulfur content of the fuel was increased or when the particles were artificially aged (i.e. particles were subjected to an ozone or UV pre-treatment). (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  5. Influence of ultrasound pretreatment on wood physiochemical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhengbin; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zijian; Yi, Songlin; Mu, Jun; Wang, Xiaoxu

    2017-01-01

    As an initial step to increase the use of renewable biomass resources, this study was aimed at investigating the effects of ultrasound pretreatment on structural changes of wood. Samples were pretreated by ultrasound with the power of 300W and frequency of 28kHz in aqueous soda solution, aqueous acetic acid, or distilled water, then pretreated and control samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results shown that ultrasound pretreatment is indeed effective in modifying the physiochemical structure of eucalyptus wood; the pretreatment decreased the quantity of alkali metals (e.g., potassium, calcium and magnesium) in the resulting material. Compared to the control group, the residual char content of samples pretreated in aqueous soda solution increased by 10.08%-20.12% and the reaction temperature decreased from 361°C to 341°C, however, in samples pretreated by ultrasound in acetic solution or distilled water, the residual char content decreased by 12.40%-21.45% and there were no significant differences in reactivity apart from a slightly higher maximum reaction rate. Ultrasound pretreatment increased the samples' crystallinity up to 35.5% and successfully removed cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin from the samples; the pretreatment also increased the exposure of the sample to the treatment solutions, broke down sample pits, and generated collapses and microchannels on sample pits, and removed attachments in the samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of Pleurotus ostreatus pretreatment on switchgrass for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavens, Shelyn Gehle

    Fungal pretreatment using the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus on switchgrass for ethanol production was studied. In a small-scale storage study, small switchgrass bales were inoculated with fungal spawn and automatically watered to maintain moisture. Sampled at 25, 53, and 81 d, the switchgrass composition was determined and liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment was conducted. Fungal pretreatment significantly decreased the xylan and lignin content; glucan was not significantly affected by fungal loading. The glucan, xylan, and lignin contents significantly decreased with increased fungal pretreatment time. The effects of the fungal pretreatment were not highly evident after the LHW pretreatment, showing only changes based on sampling time. Although other biological activity within the bales increased cellulose degradation, the fungal pretreatment successfully reduced the switchgrass lignin and hemicellulose contents. In a laboratory-scale nutrient supplementation study, copper, manganese, glucose, or water was added to switchgrass to induce production of ligninolytic enzymes by P. ostreatus. After 40 d, ligninolytic enzyme activities and biomass composition were determined and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was conducted to determine ethanol yield. Laccase activity was similar for all supplements and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity was significantly less in copper-treated samples than in the other fungal-inoculated samples. The fungal pretreatment reduced glucan, xylan, and lignin content, while increasing extractable sugars content. The lowest lignin contents occurred in the water-fungal treated samples and produced the greatest ethanol yields. The greatest lignin contents occurred in the copper-fungal treated samples and produced the lowest ethanol yields. Manganese-fungal and glucose-fungal treated samples had similar, intermediate lignin contents and produced similar, intermediate ethanol yields. Ethanol yields from switchgrass

  7. Computational engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book presents state-of-the-art works in computational engineering. Focus is on mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experimental validation and visualization in engineering sciences. In particular, the following topics are presented: constitutive models and their implementation into finite element codes, numerical models in nonlinear elasto-dynamics including seismic excitations, multiphase models in structural engineering and multiscale models of materials systems, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering structures, the application of scientific computing in urban water management and hydraulic engineering, and the application of genetic algorithms for the registration of laser scanner point clouds.

  8. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PRECONCEPTUAL CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH

    2008-08-12

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

  9. Evaluation of wet oxidation pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palonen, H.; Thomsen, A.B.; Tenkanen, M.

    2004-01-01

    , and the compositions of solid and liquid fractions were analyzed. The solid fraction after wet oxidation contained 58-64% cellulose, 2-16% hemicellulose, and 24-30% lignin. The pretreatment series gave information about the roles of lignin and hemicellulose in the enzymatic hydrolysis. The temperature...... of the pretreatment, the residual hemicellulose content of the substrate, and the type of the commercial cellulase preparation used were the most important factors affecting the enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest sugar yield in a 72-h hydrolysis, 79% of theoretical, was obtained using a pretreatment of 200degrees...

  10. Architectural Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    engineering is addresses from two perspectives – as an educational response and an occupational constellation. Architecture and engineering are two of the traditional design professions and they frequently meet in the occupational setting, but at educational institutions they remain largely estranged....... The paper builds on a multi-sited study of an architectural engineering program at the Technical University of Denmark and an architectural engineering team within an international engineering consultancy based on Denmark. They are both responding to new tendencies within the building industry where...... the role of engineers and architects increasingly overlap during the design process, but their approaches reflect different perceptions of the consequences. The paper discusses some of the challenges that design education, not only within engineering, is facing today: young designers must be equipped...

  11. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  12. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole...... slurry (Filter cake + filtrate) in SSF were also tested. Except ethanol yields, pretreatment methods were evaluated based on achieved glucose yields, amount of water used, recovery of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.The highest ethanol yield obtained was 67% after fermenting the whole slurry...... produced by WO at 205 °C for 3 min with 12 bar of oxygen gas pressure and featured with presoaking in water. At these conditions after pre-treatment, cellulose and hemicellulose was recovered quantitatively (100%) together with 86% of the lignin. WO treatments of 2–3 min at 205–210 °C with 12 bar of oxygen...

  13. Effects of Pretreatments in Convective Dehydration of Rosehip (Rosa eglanteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Mabellini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to experimentally determine drying curves for thin layer and bed drying of rosehip fruits, with and without pretreatments, to reduce processing times as a function of drying air operating variables, to propose dehydration kinetics of fruits and to determine its kinetic parameters for further use within drying simulation software. Fruits were pre-treated both chemically and mechanically, which included dipping the fruits in NaOH and ethyl oleate solutions; and cutting or perforating the fruit cuticle, respectively. Simulation models were then adopted to fit the kinetics drying data considering fruit volume shrinkage. These simple models minimized the calculation time during the simulation of deep-bed driers. Results show that pre-treatments reduced processing times up to 57%, and evaluated models satisfactorily predicted the drying of rosehip fruit. Effective mass diffusion coefficients were up to 4-fold greater when fruit was submitted to mechanical pretreatments.

  14. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    an efficient production of ethanol. Lastly, the conversion of xylan was extremely low in both grass and grass silage. Optimization of the enzymatic saccharification of grass was attempted through improvement of the hemicellulase content in the enzyme blend. However, neither additional xylanases (Cellic HTec2......Development of sound technologies of biomass conversion will be increasingly important for many years to come as planetary bounderies drive the development towards a biobased society. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is, in this regard, an essential technology. Current pretreatment methods...... method with low cost and low energy requirements, plus brings about multiple advantages with regards to agricultural management. However, the pretreatment effect of ensiling, and the overall effects for further conversion are limited. In this study, ensiling was evaluated as a method of pretreatment...

  15. Optimization of microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Hongzhang; Kádár, Zsófia

    2011-01-01

    An orthogonal design (L9(34)) was used to optimize the microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production. The orthogonal analysis was done based on the results obtained from the nine pretreatments. The effect of four factors including the ratio of biomass to NaOH solution, pretreatment...... time, microwave power, and the concentration of NaOH solution with three different levels on the chemical composition, cellulose/hemicellulose recoveries and ethanol concentration was investigated. According to the orthogonal analysis, pretreatment with the ratio of biomass to liquid at 80 g kg−1......, the NaOH concentration of 10 kg m−3, the microwave power of 1000 W for 15 min was confirmed to be the optimal condition. The ethanol yield was 148.93 g kg−1 wheat straw at this condition, much higher than that from the untreated material which was only 26.78 g kg−1....

  16. Effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on emulsion polymerization of styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Daichi; Horie, Takafumi; Hongo, Chizuru; Ohmura, Naoto

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of pretreatment of ultrasonic irradiation on emulsion polymerization of styrene to propose a process intensification method which gives high conversion, high reaction rate, and high energy efficiency. The solution containing styrene monomer was irradiated by a horn mounted on the ultrasonic transducer with the diameter of 5mm diameter and the frequency of 28 kHz before starting polymerization. The pretreatment of ultrasound irradiation as short as 1 min drastically improved monomer dispersion and increased reaction rate even under the agitation condition with low rotational speed of impeller. Furthermore, the ultrasonic pretreatment resulted in higher monomer concentration in polymer particles and produced larger polymer particles than conventional polymerization without ultrasonic pretreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pretreatment of microalgae to improve biogas production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Fabiana; Uggetti, Enrica; Carrère, Hélène; Ferrer, Ivet

    2014-11-01

    Microalgae have been intensively studied as a source of biomass for replacing conventional fossil fuels in the last decade. The optimization of biomass production, harvesting and downstream processing is necessary for enabling its full-scale application. Regarding biofuels, biogas production is limited by the characteristics of microalgae, in particular the complex cell wall structure of most algae species. Therefore, pretreatment methods have been investigated for microalgae cell wall disruption and biomass solubilization before undergoing anaerobic digestion. This paper summarises the state of the art of different pretreatment techniques used for improving microalgae anaerobic biodegradability. Pretreatments were divided into 4 categories: (i) thermal; (ii) mechanical; (iii) chemical and (iv) biological methods. According to experimental results, all of them are effective at increasing biomass solubilization and methane yield, pretreatment effect being species dependent. Pilot-scale research is still missing and would help evaluating the feasibility of full-scale implementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 40 CFR 417.134 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitations. BOD5 Do. TSS Do. Oil and grease Do... subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment...

  19. 40 CFR 417.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. BOD5 Do. TSS Do. Oil and grease Do. COD Do. [39... this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must...

  20. 40 CFR 417.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. BOD5 Do. TSS Do. Oil and grease Do. COD Do. [40... this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must...

  1. 40 CFR 408.206 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55787... subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply...

  2. 40 CFR 408.104 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. Oil and grease Do. TSS Do... source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned...

  3. 40 CFR 408.226 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do... subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment...

  4. 40 CFR 408.144 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. BOD5 Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 6439, Feb. 11... this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must...

  5. 40 CFR 408.294 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do... subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment...

  6. 40 CFR 408.316 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55798... subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply...

  7. 40 CFR 408.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. Oil and grease Do. TSS Do. [40 FR... subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment...

  8. 40 CFR 417.124 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. BOD5 Do. TSS Do. Oil and grease Do. COD Do... this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must...

  9. 40 CFR 408.94 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. Oil and grease Do. TSS Do... source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned...

  10. 40 CFR 417.84 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. BOD5 Do. TSS Do. Oil and grease Do... subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment...

  11. 40 CFR 408.236 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55790... subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply...

  12. 40 CFR 408.154 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55781... this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must...

  13. 40 CFR 408.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. Oil and grease Do. TSS Do... source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned...

  14. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. Oil and grease Do. TSS Do... existing source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned...

  15. 40 CFR 408.306 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55797... subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply...

  16. 40 CFR 408.334 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55800... this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must...

  17. 40 CFR 417.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. BOD5 Do. TSS Do. Oil and grease Do. COD Do. [40... this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must...

  18. 40 CFR 408.284 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55795... this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must...

  19. 40 CFR 408.256 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do... subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment...

  20. 40 CFR 408.286 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55795, Dec. 1, 1975, as... introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part...

  1. 40 CFR 408.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. Oil and grease Do. TSS Do... existing source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned...

  2. 40 CFR 408.156 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55781, Dec. 1, 1975, as... introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part...

  3. 40 CFR 408.186 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do... subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment...

  4. 40 CFR 417.104 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. BOD5 Do. TSS Do. Oil and grease Do... subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment...

  5. 40 CFR 408.246 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55791... subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply...

  6. 40 CFR 408.176 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55783... this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must...

  7. 40 CFR 417.114 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. BOD5 Do. TSS Do. Oil and grease Do... subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment...

  8. 40 CFR 408.326 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55799... this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must...

  9. 40 CFR 408.166 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55781... this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must...

  10. 40 CFR 408.304 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do... subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment...

  11. 40 CFR 408.336 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55800, Dec. 1, 1975, as... introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part...

  12. 40 CFR 417.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. BOD5 Do. TSS Do. Oil and grease Do... subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment...

  13. 40 CFR 408.296 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55796... subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply...

  14. 40 CFR 408.276 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55794... this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must...

  15. 40 CFR 408.244 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do... subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment...

  16. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. Oil and grease Do. TSS Do... existing source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned...

  17. 40 CFR 417.94 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. BOD5 Do. TSS Do. Oil and grease Do... subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment...

  18. 40 CFR 408.196 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55786... this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must...

  19. Pretreatment Characteristics of Waste Oak Wood by Ammonia Percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Seok; Kim, Hyunjoon; Lee, Jin-Suk; Lee, Joon-Pyo; Park, Soon-Chul

    A log of waste oak wood collected from a Korean mushroom farm has been tested for ammonia percolation pretreatment. The waste log has different physical characteristics from that of virgin oak wood. The density of the waste wood was 30% lower than that of virgin oak wood. However, there is little difference in the chemical compositions between the woods. Due to the difference in physical characteristics, the optimal pretreatment conditions were also quite different. While for waste oak the optimum temperature was determined to be 130°C, for virgin oak wood the optimum pretreatment was only achieved at 170°C. Presoaking for 12 h with ammonia solution before pretreatment was helpful to increase the delignification efficiency.

  20. Pretreatment of Miscanthus for hydrogen production by Thermotoga elfii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, de T.; Haas, de G.G.; Tan, G.B.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Pretreatment methods for the production of fermentable substrates from Miscanthus, a lignocellulosic biomass, were investigated. Results demonstrated an inverse relationship between lignin content and the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides. High delignification values were

  1. Carbohydrate degradation mechanisms and compounds from pretreated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helena

    The formation of inhibitors during pretreatment of lignocellulosic feedstocks is a persistent problem, and notably the compounds that retard enzymatic cellulose conversion represent an obstacle for achieving optimal enzymatic productivity and high glucose yields. Compounds with many chemical......, reduced the level of oligophenolic compounds with 73 % compared to the original pretreatment and 41 % compared to the control. When pretreatment severity was increased the amount of xylooligosaccharides decreased whereas the amount of oligophenolic compounds increased. No new degradation compounds were...... pretreated wheat straw after enzymatic treatment. It was found that formation of the oligophenolic degradation compounds were common across biomass sources as sugar cane bagasse and oil palm empty fruit bunches. These findings were in line with that the oligophenolic compounds arise from reactions involving...

  2. Pretreatment cardiometabolic status in youth with early-onset psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten G.; Correll, Christoph U.; Rudå, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe pretreatment cardiometabolic constitution in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis (FEP). Methods: Baseline cardiometabolic assessment was performed in youths aged 12-17 years with FEP entering the Tolerability and Efficacy of Antipsychotics (TEA) trial...

  3. Green liquor pretreatment for improving enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feng; Yang, Linfeng; Jin, Yongcan; Han, Qiang; Chang, Hou-min; Jameel, Hasan; Phillips, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Green liquor consists of sodium carbonate and sodium sulfide and is readily available in any kraft mills. The green liquor pretreatment process for bioethanol production was developed for wood chips. This process uses only proven technology and equipment currently used in a kraft pulp mill and has several additional advantages such as high sugar recovery and concentration, no inhibitive substances produced, as compared to acid-based pretreatment methods. The liquor was used to pretreat corn stover for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis in bioethanol production. Pulp yield of 70% with 45% lignin removal was achieved under optimized conditions (8% total titratable alkali, 40% sulfidity and 140°C). About 70% of the original polysaccharides were converted into fermentable sugars, using 20 FPU/g-pulp of enzyme in the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. The result indicates that green liquor is a feasible pretreatment to improve the enzymatic saccharification of corn stover for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pretreatment of bituminous coal for hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer, H.

    1943-03-29

    Bituminous coal became plastic at certain temperature ranges and swelled, causing plugging of preheater tubes. With few exceptions, this problem was encountered only when hydrogenating bituminous coal. This swelling often appeared in the coking of coals, and for the majority of the cases it was found that efforts to reduce the baking ability of bituminous coal also reduced the swelling of coal paste in the preheater tubes. Three methods of pretreatment to reduce swelling were preheating, oxidation (anoxidation), and sulfur treatment. The preheating by hot nitrogen at 250 atm for 3 hours showed no improvement in swelling characteristics, but produced a greater asphalt content and a lower amount of gasification. Absorption of oxygen was shown to increase the viscosity of the coal paste, while preheating in a vacuum showed no effects. Oxidation (anoxidation) increased the splitting and gasification and gave higher asphalt content. The baking ability of Saar coal could be destroyed by addition of 2.5% sulfur and heating for 1/sup 1///sub 2/ hours at 110/sup 0/C, in a stream of H/sub 2/S. The volatile content dropped significantly when the same coal was heated to 200/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C. When neutralized Saar coal was dried under a stream of H/sub 2/S, only slight deterioration of the yield was noted with equal degree of gasification. It was concluded that a more or less distinct improvement would be observed from the absorption of sulfur, but that residue processing would have to be altered to account for the sulfur content.

  5. Pretreatment seizure semiology in childhood absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sudha Kilaru; Shinnar, Shlomo; Cnaan, Avital; Dlugos, Dennis; Conry, Joan; Hirtz, Deborah G; Hu, Fengming; Liu, Chunyan; Mizrahi, Eli M; Moshé, Solomon L; Clark, Peggy; Glauser, Tracy A

    2017-08-15

    To determine seizure semiology in children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy and to evaluate associations with short-term treatment outcomes. For participants enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative-effectiveness trial, semiologic features of pretreatment seizures were analyzed as predictors of treatment outcome at the week 16 to 20 visit. Video of 1,932 electrographic absence seizures from 416 participants was evaluated. Median seizure duration was 10.2 seconds; median time between electrographic seizure onset and clinical manifestation onset was 1.5 seconds. For individual seizures and by participant, the most common semiology features were pause/stare (seizure 95.5%, participant 99.3%), motor automatisms (60.6%, 86.1%), and eye involvement (54.9%, 76.5%). The interrater agreement for motor automatisms and eye involvement was good (72%-84%). Variability of semiology features between seizures even within participants was high. Clustering analyses revealed 4 patterns (involving the presence/absence of eye involvement and motor automatisms superimposed on the nearly ubiquitous pause/stare). Most participants experienced more than one seizure cluster pattern. No individual semiologic feature was individually predictive of short-term outcome. Seizure freedom was half as likely in participants with one or more seizure having the pattern of eye involvement without motor automatisms than in participants without this pattern. Almost all absence seizures are characterized by a pause in activity or staring, but rarely is this the only feature. Semiologic features tend to cluster, resulting in identifiable absence seizure subtypes with significant intraparticipant seizure phenomenologic heterogeneity. One seizure subtype, pause/stare and eye involvement but no motor automatisms, is specifically associated with a worse treatment outcome. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Invisible Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Hideo

    Questionnaire to ask “mention three names of scientists you know” and “three names of engineers you know” was conducted and the answers from 140 adults were analyzed. The results indicated that the image of scientists is represented by Nobel laureates and that of engineers by great inventors like Thomas Edison and industry founders like Soichiro Honda. In order to reveal the image of engineers among young generation, questionnaire was conducted for pupils in middle and high schools. Answers from 1,230 pupils were analyzed and 226 names mentioned as engineers were classified. White votes reached 60%. Engineers who are neither big inventors nor company founders collected less than 1% of named votes. Engineers are astonishingly invisible from young generation. Countermeasures are proposed.

  7. Engineering mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Schröder, Jörg; Wall, Wolfgang A; Rajapakse, Nimal

    Statics is the first volume of a three-volume textbook on Engineering Mechanics. The authors, using a time-honoured straightforward and flexible approach, present the basic concepts and principles of mechanics in the clearest and simplest form possible to advanced undergraduate engineering students of various disciplines and different educational backgrounds. An important objective of this book is to develop problem solving skills in a systematic manner. Another aim of this volume is to provide engineering students as well as practising engineers with a solid foundation to help them bridge the gap between undergraduate studies on the one hand and advanced courses on mechanics and/or practical engineering problems on the other. The book contains numerous examples, along with their complete solutions. Emphasis is placed upon student participation in problem solving. The contents of the book correspond to the topics normally covered in courses on basic engineering mechanics at universities and colleges. Now in i...

  8. Pretreatment of Cottage Cheese to Enhance Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhya Prabhudessai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the possibility of pretreating selected solid fraction of an anaerobic digester treating food waste to lower the hydraulic retention time and increase the methane production. The study investigated the effect of different pretreatments (thermal, chemical, thermochemical and enzymatic for enhanced methane production from cottage cheese. The most effective pretreatments were thermal and enzymatic. Highest solubilisation of COD was observed in thermal pretreatment, followed by thermochemical. In single enzyme systems, lipase at low concentration gave significantly higher methane yield than for the experiments without enzyme additions. The highest lipase dosages decreased methane yield from cottage cheese. However, in case of protease enzyme an increase in concentration of the enzyme showed higher methane yield. In the case of mixed enzyme systems, pretreatment at 1 : 2 ratio of lipase : protease showed higher methane production in comparison with 1 : 1 and 2 : 1 ratios. Methane production potentials for different pretreatments were as follows: thermal 357 mL/g VS, chemical 293 mL/g VS, and thermochemical 441 mL/g VS. The average methane yield from single enzyme systems was 335 mL/g VS for lipase and 328 mL/g VS for protease. Methane potentials for mixed enzyme ratios were 330, 360, and 339 mL/g VS for 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 lipase : protease, respectively.

  9. Coagulation pretreatment of highly concentrated acrylonitrile wastewater from petrochemical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dongju; Qin, Lin; Wang, Tao; Ren, Xiaojing; Zhang, Zhongguo; Li, Jiding

    2014-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) wastewater is a heavily polluted and a likely hazardous liquid that is generated during the production of AN. Several chemical methods for the pretreatment of AN wastewater are available in laboratory scale. However, the harsh reaction conditions and high operational cost make these methods undesirable. Until now, four-effect evaporation is the only pretreatment method used for AN wastewater in industry despite its huge energy consumption and high cost. It is difficult to find an energy-saving pretreatment technique from the perspective of industrial application. In this study, a safe and low-cost coagulation technique was developed for the pretreatment of AN wastewater. Three types of inorganic coagulant and three types of polymer coagulant were investigated for the coagulation treatment of highly concentrated AN wastewater from petrochemical plants. The effects of coagulant type, dosage, and coagulation conditions on the pretreatment efficiency of AN wastewater were investigated. The results show that a combination of inorganic and polymer coagulants is effective for the pretreatment of AN wastewater.

  10. Influence of pretreatment of cotton yarns prior to biopolishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulson de Souza, A A; Ferreira, F C S; Guelli U Souza, S M A

    2013-04-02

    Cellulase is one of the enzymes most commonly used in the textile industry for the biopolishing process. The appropriate choice of pretreatment is a possible route to promoting enzymatic attack in situations in which this is not favored due to the effects of packing. In order to evaluate the influence of pretreatment the yarn was maintained in water for 24h before biopolishing to promote greater spacing between the chains. In the tensile testing the pretreated Combed 13/1 yarn showed a greater percentage reduction in the maximum breaking force following biopolishing, evidencing a stronger enzymatic attack. Also, the Combed 13/1 and OE 14/1 yarns without pretreatment had an approximately 22% reduction in the shrinkage and after pretreatment the Carded 13/1 yarn had the best shrinkage reduction values (18%). These data demonstrate that the introduction of the pretreatment promotes a change in the access of the enzyme to the fiber. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. New prospects in pretreatment of cotton fabrics using microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, M; Taleb, M Abou; El-Shall, F N; Haggag, K

    2014-03-15

    As microwaves are known to give fast and rapid volume heating, the present study is undertaken to investigate the use of microwave heating for pretreatment cotton fabrics to reduce the pretreatment time, chemicals and water. The onset of the microwave heating technique on the physicochemical and performance properties of desized, scoured and bleached cotton fabric is elucidated and compared with those obtained on using conventional thermal heating. Combined one-step process for desizing, scouring and bleaching of cotton fabric under microwave heating was also investigated. The dual effect of adding urea, (as microwave absorber and hydrogen peroxide activator) has been exploiting to accelerate the pretreatment reaction of cotton fabric. DSC, FT-IR and SEM have been used to investigate the onset of microwave on the morphological and chemical change of cotton cellulose after pretreatment and bleaching under microwave heating. Results obtained show that, a complete fabric preparation was obtained in just 5 min on using microwave in pretreatments process and the fabric properties were comparable to those obtained in traditional pretreatment process which requires 2.5-3h for completion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Torres, M.; Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH) 2 ), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH) 2 /L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m 3 CH 4 /kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW

  13. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of sunflower stalks for sugar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Encarnación; Romero, Inmaculada; Moya, Manuel; Cara, Cristóbal; Vidal, Juan D; Castro, Eulogio

    2013-07-01

    In this work the pretreatment of sunflower stalks by dilute sulfuric acid is studied. Pretreatment temperature and the concentration of acid solution were selected as operation variables and modified according to a central rotatable composite experimental design. Based on previous studies pretreatment time was kept constant (5 min) while the variation range for temperature and acid concentration was centered at 175°C and 1.25% (w/v) respectively. Following pretreatment the insoluble solids were separated by filtration and further submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis, while liquid fractions were analyzed for sugars and inhibitors. Response surface methodology was applied to analyze results based on the combined severity of pretreatment experiments. Optimized results show that up to 33 g of glucose and xylose per 100g raw material (65% of the glucose and xylose present in the raw material) may be available for fermentation after pretreatment at 167°C and 1.3% sulfuric acid concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Human engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Hwan; Park, Bum; Gang, Yeong Sik; Gal, Won Mo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Choe, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Dae Sung

    2006-07-01

    This book mentions human engineering, which deals with introduction of human engineering, Man-Machine system like system design, and analysis and evaluation of Man-Machine system, data processing and data input, display, system control of man, human mistake and reliability, human measurement and design of working place, human working, hand tool and manual material handling, condition of working circumstance, working management, working analysis, motion analysis working measurement, and working improvement and design in human engineering.

  15. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The ninth edition of Software Engineering presents a broad perspective of software engineering, focusing on the processes and techniques fundamental to the creation of reliable, software systems. Increased coverage of agile methods and software reuse, along with coverage of 'traditional' plan-driven software engineering, gives readers the most up-to-date view of the field currently available. Practical case studies, a full set of easy-to-access supplements, and extensive web resources make teaching the course easier than ever.

  16. Information engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  17. Engineering Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Yun

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.

  18. Neural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Neural Engineering, 2nd Edition, contains reviews and discussions of contemporary and relevant topics by leading investigators in the field. It is intended to serve as a textbook at the graduate and advanced undergraduate level in a bioengineering curriculum. This principles and applications approach to neural engineering is essential reading for all academics, biomedical engineers, neuroscientists, neurophysiologists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in this emerging field.

  19. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon; Batchelor, A W; Batchelor, Andrew W

    2005-01-01

    As with the previous edition, the third edition of Engineering Tribology provides a thorough understanding of friction and wear using technologies such as lubrication and special materials. Tribology is a complex topic with its own terminology and specialized concepts, yet is vitally important throughout all engineering disciplines, including mechanical design, aerodynamics, fluid dynamics and biomedical engineering. This edition includes updated material on the hydrodynamic aspects of tribology as well as new advances in the field of biotribology, with a focus throughout on the engineering ap

  20. Techniques and practices for pretreatment of low and intermediate level solid and liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    An overall waste management strategy generally includes several components: pretreatment, treatment, conditioning, transport and disposal. Benefits of pretreatment are improved safety, lower radiation exposures and significantly lower costs in subsequent waste management operations. This publication reviews current practices in the pretreatment of wastes in different countries and may assist the specialist in selection of appropriate pretreatment techniques

  1. Pretreatment of woody biomass for biofuel production: energy efficiency, technologies, and recalcitrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; Xuejun Pan; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny

    2010-01-01

    This mini review discusses several key technical issues associated with cellulosic ethanol production from woody biomass: energy consumption for woody biomass pretreatment, pretreatment energy efficiency, woody biomass pretreatment technologies, and quantification of woody biomass recalcitrance. Both total sugar yield and pretreatment energy efficiency, defined as the...

  2. Woody biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production : technology and energy consumption evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; X.J. Pan

    2010-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the key technical issues in woody biomass pretreatment: barriers to efficient cellulose saccharification, pretreatment energy consumption, in particular energy consumed for wood-size reduction, and criteria to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment. A post-chemical pretreatment size-reduction approach is proposed...

  3. Biomass pretreatment affects Ustilago maydis in producing itaconic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klement Tobias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last years, the biotechnological production of platform chemicals for fuel components has become a major focus of interest. Although ligno-cellulosic material is considered as suitable feedstock, the almost inevitable pretreatment of this recalcitrant material may interfere with the subsequent fermentation steps. In this study, the fungus Ustilago maydis was used to produce itaconic acid as platform chemical for the synthesis of potential biofuels such as 3-methyltetrahydrofuran. No studies, however, have investigated how pretreatment of ligno-cellulosic biomass precisely influences the subsequent fermentation by U. maydis. Thus, this current study aims to first characterize U. maydis in shake flasks and then to evaluate the influence of three exemplary pretreatment methods on the cultivation and itaconic acid production of this fungus. Cellulose enzymatically hydrolysed in seawater and salt-assisted organic-acid catalysed cellulose were investigated as substrates. Lastly, hydrolysed hemicellulose from fractionated beech wood was applied as substrate. Results U. maydis was characterized on shake flask level regarding its itaconic acid production on glucose. Nitrogen limitation was shown to be a crucial condition for the production of itaconic acid. For itaconic acid concentrations above 25 g/L, a significant product inhibition was observed. Performing experiments that simulated influences of possible pretreatment methods, U. maydis was only slightly affected by high osmolarities up to 3.5 osmol/L as well as of 0.1 M oxalic acid. The production of itaconic acid was achieved on pretreated cellulose in seawater and on the hydrolysed hemicellulosic fraction of pretreated beech wood. Conclusion The fungus U. maydis is a promising producer of itaconic acid, since it grows as single cells (yeast-like in submerged cultivations and it is extremely robust in high osmotic media and real seawater. Moreover, U. maydis can grow on

  4. White-rot fungi pretreatment combined with alkaline/oxidative pretreatment to improve enzymatic saccharification of industrial hemp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chunliang; Gong, Wenbing; Yang, Qi; Zhu, Zuohua; Yan, Li; Hu, Zhenxiu; Peng, Yuande

    2017-11-01

    White-rot fungi combined with alkaline/oxidative (A/O) pretreatments of industrial hemp woody core were proposed to improve enzymatic saccharification. In this study, hemp woody core were treated with only white rot fungi, only A/O and combined with the two methods. The results showed that Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii) was the most effective fungus for pretreatment. Reducing sugars yield was 329mg/g with 30 Filter Paper Unit (FPU)/g cellulase loading when treated 21day. In the A/O groups, the results showed that when treated with 3% NaOH and 3% H 2 O 2 , the yield of reducing sugars was 288mg/g with 30FPU/g cellulase loading. After combination pretreatment with P. eryngii and A/O pretreatment, the reducing sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis of combined sample increased 1.10-1.29-fold than that of bio-treated or A/O pretreatment sample at the same conditions, suggesting that P. eryngii combined with A/O pretreatment was an effective method to improve enzyme hydrolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling of pretreatment condition of extrusion-pretreated prairie cordgrass and corn stover with poly (oxyethylen)20 sorbitan monolaurate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckard, Anahita Dehkhoda; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gibbons, William

    2012-05-01

    Extrusion processing has shown potential to be used as a pretreatment method for second-generation bioethanol production. Furthermore, surfactants have been shown to reduce enzyme deactivation and increase the efficiency of hydrolysis. Therefore, a sequential pretreatment technique was developed for corn stover (CS) and prairie cordgrass (PCG) in which a single screw extruder was used for the first pretreatment according to a previously optimized condition using 70-180 °C for feed, barrel, and die zones with 65-155 rpm screw speed. The second pretreatment was optimized in this study at 45-55 °C, 1-4 h, 0.15-0.6 g Tween 20/g glucan according to response surface methodology. Optimization of surfactant pretreatment facilitated the estimation of interaction and higher-order effects for major factors involved in surfactant treatment (temperature, time, surfactant loading). Using 8.6 FPU/g glucan cellulase, the optimum conditions found by fitting appropriate quadratic models to the data increased glucose and xylose yield by 27.5 and 33% for CS and by 21.5 and 27% for PCG, respectively. Tween 20 concentrations and pretreatment temperature were the most significant factors affecting sugar yield (p value <0.05). Studies of SDS concentration at and beyond critical micelle concentration (5.2-100 mM) demonstrated a decrease in sugar yield compared to control.

  6. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  7. Corrosion Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  8. Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  9. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  10. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  11. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  12. Emotional engineering

    CERN Document Server

    In an age of increasing complexity, diversification and change, customers expect services that cater to their needs and to their tastes. Emotional Engineering vol 2. describes how their expectations can be satisfied and managed throughout the product life cycle, if producers focus their attention more on emotion. Emotional engineering provides the means to integrate products to create a new social framework and develops services beyond product realization to create of value across a full lifetime.  14 chapters cover a wide range of topics that can be applied to product, process and industry development, with special attention paid to the increasing importance of sensing in the age of extensive and frequent changes, including: • Multisensory stimulation and user experience  • Physiological measurement • Tactile sensation • Emotional quality management • Mental model • Kansei engineering.   Emotional Engineering vol 2 builds on Dr Fukuda’s previous book, Emotional Engineering, and provides read...

  13. Tailoring Wet Explosion Process Parameters for the Pretreatment of Cocksfoot Grass for High Sugar Yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is crucial for efficient subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. In this study, wet explosion (WEx) pretreatment was applied to cocksfoot grass and pretreatment conditions were tailored for maximizing the sugar yields using response su...... when applying less severe pretreatment conditions C (160 °C, 5 min, 0.2 % dilute sulfuric acid). Therefore, the choice of the most suitable pretreatment conditions is depending on the main target product, i.e., hexose or pentose sugars....

  14. A study of the effect of surface pretreatment on atomic layer deposited Al2O3 interface with GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianyi; Li, Wenwen; Mandal, Saptarshi; Chowdhury, Srabanti

    2017-08-01

    Al2O3 has been an attractive gate dielectric for GaN power devices owing to its large conduction band offset with GaN ( 2.13eV), relatively high dielectric constant ( 9.0) and high breakdown electric field ( 10 MV/cm). Due to exceptional control over film uniformity and deposition rate, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been widely used for Al2O3 deposition. The major obstacle to ALD Al2O3 on GaN is its high interface-state density (Dit) caused by incomplete chemical bonds, native oxide layer and impurities at the Al2O3/GaN interface. Therefore, an appropriate surface pretreatment prior to deposition is essential for obtaining high-quality interface. In this study, we investigated the effect of TMA, H2O and Ar/N2 plasma pretreatment on Dit and border traps (Nbt). 5 cycles of TMA purge, 5 cycles of H2O purge and Ar/N2 plasma pretreatment were conducted on GaN prior to deposition of ALD Al2O3. Al2O3/GaN metaloxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) were fabricated for the characterization of Dit and Nbt using UV-assisted capacitance-voltage (C-V) technique. The results show that TMA and H2O pretreatment had trivial effects on interface engineering whereas Ar/N2 plasma pretreatment slightly reduced Dit and significantly reduced Nbt.

  15. Silane pre-treatments on copper and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflorian, F.; Rossi, S.; Fedrizzi, L.

    2006-01-01

    A large part of aluminium products are coated with an organic layer in order to improve the corrosion resistance. Copper surfaces are also sometimes protected with an organic coating to improve the durability or the aesthetic properties. Examples of industrial applications are household appliances and heat exchanger components. For these applications it is not rare to have the industrial need to treat at the same time components made of aluminium and copper. In order to extend the service life of the organic coated copper a specific surface pre-treatment is often required. Nevertheless, probably because of the limited market of this application, no specific pre-treatments for copper are industrially developed, with the exception of cleaning procedures, but simply extensions of existing pre-treatments optimised for other metals (aluminium, zinc) are used. The application of silane pre-treatments as adhesion promoters for organic coated metals is remarkably increasing in the last decade, because silanes offer very good performance together with high environmental compatibility. The idea is therefore to try to develop a specific silane based pre-treatment for copper. The starting point is the existing silane products for aluminium, optimising the composition and the application conditions (concentration, temperature, pH of the bath, etc.) in order to develop a high performance copper alloy pre-treatment increasing the protective properties and the adhesion of a successively applied organic coating. Moreover these pre-treatments could be used for aluminium alloys too and therefore could be suggested for multi-metals components. The deposits were analysed using FTIR spectroscopy and optical and electron microscopic observations. A careful electrochemical characterisation, mainly by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements (EIS) was carried out to highlight the presence of silane and to evaluate the performance of the different deposits. In order to study an

  16. Activation of glassy carbon electrodes by photocatalytic pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumanli, Onur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, 55139 Samsun (Turkey); Onar, A. Nur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, 55139 Samsun (Turkey)], E-mail: nonar@omu.edu.tr

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes a simple and rapid photocatalytic pretreatment procedure that removes contaminants from glassy carbon (GC) surfaces. The effectiveness of TiO{sub 2} mediated photocatalytic pretreatment procedure was compared to commonly used alumina polishing procedure. Cyclic voltammetric and chronocoulometric measurements were carried out to assess the changes in electrode reactivity by using four redox systems. Electrochemical measurements obtained on photocatalytically treated GC electrodes showed a more active surface relative to polished GC. In cyclic voltammograms of epinephrine, Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} and ferrocene redox systems, higher oxidation and reduction currents were observed. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k{sup o}) were calculated for Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} and ferrocene which were greater for photocatalytic pretreatment. Chronocoulometry was performed in order to find the amount of adsorbed methylene blue onto the electrode and was calculated as 0.34 pmol cm{sup -2} for photocatalytically pretreated GC. The proposed photocatalytic GC electrode cleansing and activating pretreatment procedure was more effective than classical alumina polishing.

  17. ALA Pretreatment Improves Waterlogging Tolerance of Fig Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyan An

    Full Text Available 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, a natural and environmentally friendly plant growth regulator, can improve plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, whether ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of ALA pretreatment on the waterlogging-induced damage of fig (Ficus carica Linn. plants, which often suffer from waterlogging stress. ALA pretreatment significantly alleviated stress-induced morphological damage, increased leaf relative water content (RWC, and reduced leaf superoxide anion ([Formula: see text] production rate and malonaldehyde (MDA content in fig leaves, indicating ALA mitigates waterlogging stress of fig plants. We further demonstrated that ALA pretreatment largely promoted leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic electron transfer ability, and photosynthetic performance index, indicating ALA significantly improves plant photosynthetic efficiency under waterlogging stress. Moreover, ALA pretreatment significantly increased activities of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD, root vigor, and activities of root alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, indicating ALA also significantly improves antioxidant ability and root function of fig plants under waterlogging stress. Taken together, ALA pretreatment improves waterlogging tolerance of fig plants significantly, and the promoted root respiration, leaf photosynthesis, and antioxidant ability may contribute greatly to this improvement. Our data firstly shows that ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance.

  18. Autohydrolysis pretreatment assessment in ethanol production from agave bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-González, Leopoldo J; Morales-Martínez, Thelma K; Rodríguez-Flores, María F; Rodríguez-De la Garza, José A; Castillo-Quiroz, David; Castro-Montoya, Agustín J; Martinez, Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the autohydrolysis pretreatment of Agave tequilana bagasse for ethanol production. The pretreatment was conducted using a one-liter high pressure Parr reactor under different severity factors (SF) at a 1:6w/v ratio (solid:liquid) and 200rpm. The solids obtained under the selected autohydrolysis conditions were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis with a commercial cellulase cocktail, and the enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results obtained from the pretreatment process showed that the glucan content in the pretreated solid was mostly preserved, and an increase in the digestibility was observed for the case with a SF of 4.13 (190°C, 30min). Enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated solids showed a yield of 74.3%, with a glucose concentration of 126g/L, resulting in 65.26g/L of ethanol after 10h of fermentation, which represent a 98.4% conversion according to the theoretical ethanol yield value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Specific pretreatments reduce curing period of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, R V; Roohie, K; Venkatachalam, L; Narayan, M S; Bhagyalakshmi, N

    2007-04-18

    With the aiming of reducing the curing period, effects of pretreatments on flavor formation in vanilla beans during accelerated curing at 38 degrees C for 40 days were studied. Moisture loss, change in texture, levels of flavoring compounds, and activities of relevant enzymes were compared among various pretreatments as well as the commercial sample. Use of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 5 mg/L) or Ethrel (1%) with blanching pretreatment resulted in 3-fold higher vanillin on the 10th day. Other flavoring compounds-vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde-fluctuated greatly, showing no correlation with the pretreatments. Scarification of beans resulted in nearly 4- and 3.6-fold higher vanillin formations on the 10th day in NAA- and Ethrel-treated beans, respectively, as compared to control with a significant change in texture. When activities of major relevant enzymes were followed, addition of NAA or Ethrel helped to retain higher levels of cellulase throughout the curing period and higher levels of beta-glucosidase on the 20th day that correlated with higher vanillin content during curing and subsequent periods. Peroxidase, being highest throughout, did not correlate with the change in levels of major flavoring compounds. The pretreatment methods of the present study may find importance for realizing higher flavor formation in a shorter period because the major quality parameters were found to be comparable to those of a commercial sample.

  20. Effect of pretreating of host oil on coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajdu, P.E.; Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The principal objective of this research was to determine if coprocessing performance (i.e., coal conversion and oil yield) could be significantly improved by pretreating the heavy resid prior to reacting it with coal. For this purpose, two petroleum vacuum resids (1000{degrees}F+), one from the Amoco Co. and another from the Citgo Co., were used as such and after they had been pretreated by catalytic hydrogenation and hydrocracking reactions. The pretreatments were aimed at improving the host oil by; (1) converting any aromatic structures in the petroleum to hydroaromatic compounds capable of donating hydrogen, (2) cracking the heavy oil to lower molecular weight material that might serve as a better solvent, (3) reducing the coking propensity of the heavy oil through the hydrogenation of polynuclear aromatic compounds, and (4) removing metals and heteroatoms that might poison a coprocessing catalyst. Highly dispersed catalysts, including fine particle Fe- and Mo-based, and dicobalt octacarbonyl, Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}, were used in this study. The untreated and pretreated resids were extensively characterized in order to determine chemical changes brought about by the pretreatments. The modified heavy oils were then coprocessed with an Illinois No. 6 coal as well as with a Wyodak coal, and compared to coprocessing with untreated resids under the same hydroliquefaction conditions. The amount of oil derived from coal was estimated by measuring the level of phenolic oxygen (derived mainly from coal) present in the oil products. Results are presented and discussed.

  1. Breakdown of cell wall nanostructure in dilute acid pretreated biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Urban, Volker S; Heller, William T; McGaughey, Joseph; O'Neill, Hugh; Foston, Marcus; Myles, Dean A; Ragauskas, Arthur; Evans, Barbara R

    2010-09-13

    The generation of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass holds great promise for renewable and clean energy production. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms of lignocellulose breakdown during various pretreatment methods is needed to realize this potential in a cost and energy efficient way. Here we use small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to characterize morphological changes in switchgrass lignocellulose across molecular to submicrometer length scales resulting from the industrially relevant dilute acid pretreatment method. Our results demonstrate that dilute acid pretreatment increases the cross-sectional radius of the crystalline cellulose fibril. This change is accompanied by removal of hemicellulose and the formation of R(g) ∼ 135 A lignin aggregates. The structural signature of smooth cell wall surfaces is observed at length scales larger than 1000 A, and it remains remarkably invariable during pretreatment. This study elucidates the interplay of the different biomolecular components in the breakdown process of switchgrass by dilute acid pretreatment. The results are important for the development of efficient strategies of biomass to biofuel conversion.

  2. Ohmic heating pretreatment of algal slurry for production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodsuwan, Natthawut; Kamonpatana, Pitiya; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote

    2018-02-10

    Suspensions of the model microalga Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 were pretreated by ohmic heating to facilitate release of lipids from the cells in subsequent extraction and lipase-mediated transesterification to biodiesel. After ohmic pretreatment, the moist biomass was suspended in a system of water, hexane, methanol and immobilized lipase for extraction of lipids and simultaneous conversion to biodiesel. The ohmic pretreatment was optimized using an experimental design based on Taguchi method to provide treated biomass that maximized the biodiesel yield in subsequent extraction-transesterification operation. The experimental factors were the frequency of electric current (5-10 5  Hz), the processing temperature (50-70 °C), the algal biomass concentration in the slurry (algal fresh weight to water mass ratio of 1-3) and the incubation time (1-3 min). Extraction-transesterification of the pretreated biomass was carried out at 40 °C for 24 h using a reaction systems of a fixed composition (i.e. biomass, hexane, methanol, water and immobilized enzyme). Compared to control (i.e. untreated biomass), the ohmic pretreatment under optimal conditions (5 Hz current frequency, 70 °C, 1:2 mass ratio of biomass to water, incubation time of 2-min) increased the rate of subsequent transesterification by nearly 2-fold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Requirements Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Elizabeth; Dick, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Written for those who want to develop their knowledge of requirements engineering process, whether practitioners or students.Using the latest research and driven by practical experience from industry, Requirements Engineering gives useful hints to practitioners on how to write and structure requirements. It explains the importance of Systems Engineering and the creation of effective solutions to problems. It describes the underlying representations used in system modeling and introduces the UML2, and considers the relationship between requirements and modeling. Covering a generic multi-layer r

  4. Glycosylation Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H.; Steentoft, Catharina

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the cellular pathways of glycosylation across phylogeny provides opportunities for designing glycans via genetic engineering in a wide variety of cell types including bacteria, fungi, plant cells, and mammalian cells. The commercial demand for glycosylation engineering is broad......, including production of biological therapeutics with defined glycosylation (Chapter 57). This chapter describes how knowledge of glycan structures and their metabolism (Parts I–III of this book) has led to the current state of glycosylation engineering in different cell types. Perspectives for rapid...

  5. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to the core mathematics required for engineering study and practiceNow in its seventh edition, Engineering Mathematics is an established textbook that has helped thousands of students to succeed in their exams.John Bird's approach is based on worked examples and interactive problems. This makes it ideal for students from a wide range of academic backgrounds as the student can work through the material at their own pace. Mathematical theories are explained in a straightforward manner, being supported by practical engineering examples and applications in order to ensure

  6. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  7. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2016-01-01

    For courses in computer science and software engineering The Fundamental Practice of Software Engineering Software Engineering introduces readers to the overwhelmingly important subject of software programming and development. In the past few years, computer systems have come to dominate not just our technological growth, but the foundations of our world's major industries. This text seeks to lay out the fundamental concepts of this huge and continually growing subject area in a clear and comprehensive manner. The Tenth Edition contains new information that highlights various technological updates of recent years, providing readers with highly relevant and current information. Sommerville's experience in system dependability and systems engineering guides the text through a traditional plan-based approach that incorporates some novel agile methods. The text strives to teach the innovators of tomorrow how to create software that will make our world a better, safer, and more advanced place to live.

  8. Nuclear Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Nuclear Engineering Division is engaged in both teaching and research. Staff members teach both graduate and undergraduate courses at the UPR Mayaguez Campus and direct the thesis work of nuclear engineering students. They do research on their own projects and assist the staff of other PRNC divisions as the need arises. The scientists on the Division's staff all hold joint appointments at PRNC and UPR, and they make up the faculty of the UPR Nuclear Engineering Department, the Head of the PRNC Division being also the Chairman of the UPR Department. The Division provides the classrooms, offices, laboratories and equipment, and most of the administrative personnel required for the education and training of the graduate students at the UPR Nuclear Engineering Department

  9. Harmonic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  10. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  11. Engineering personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskievici, W.

    The expansion of nuclear power is taxing human, material, and capital resources in developed and developing countries. This paper explores the human resources as represented by employment, graduation statistics, and educational curricula for nuclear engineers. (E.C.B.)

  12. Crystal Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nangia (2002). “Today, research areas under the wide umbrella of crystal engineering include: supramolecular synthesis; nanotechnology; separation science and catalysis; supramolecular materials and devices; polymorphism; cocrystals, crystal structure prediction; drug design and ligand–protein binding.”

  13. Enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse pretreated with acid or alkali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Cristina Pietrobon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of enzymatic hydrolysis of acid or alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse for the production of fermentable sugars. The first step consisted of selection of commercial enzymes presenting the highest cellulolytic activities. After selection of four enzymes: HPL, CL, P1 and P4, their performances were tested in the bagasse pretreated with acid and alkali. The sugar content of the hydrolysates was analyzed by anion exchange liquid chromatography. Data showed that the joint action of 0.5% acid pretreatment, 121ºC, 30 minutes and enzyme CL provides the best results, 67.25 g of hexose and 148.13g of pentose per kg of dry bagasse.

  14. Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

  15. New pentose dimers with bicyclic moieties from pretreated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H.; Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Tanner, David Ackland

    2017-01-01

    degraded prior to cellulose hydrolysis, a relief in cellulase inhibition was observed, but some inhibition remained, suggesting that other components also played a role in inhibition. We propose that these components include dipentoses with bicyclic moieties and feruloylated tripentoses, because LC......-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of these components in the liquid from hydrothermal pretreated wheat straw after enzymatic treatment. The reaction mechanisms for synthesis of the new dipentoses having hydroxylated oxane bicyclic residues are considered and they are proposed to be formed as reaction products...... from either xylose or glucose reacting with glyceraldehyde during pretreatment. The data show that the main cellulase inhibition from hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw liquors is due to xylooligosaccharides followed by oligophenolic compounds and the newly discovered dipentose with bicyclic...

  16. Pretreatment attrition and childhood social phobia: Parental concerns about medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brennan J; Beidel, Deborah C; Turner, Samuel M; Ammerman, Robert T; McGraw, Kelly; Coaston, Susannah C

    2006-01-01

    Pretreatment attrition, the systematic self-exclusion of potential participants during the recruitment phase of a study, poses a significant threat to the external validity of randomized clinical trials. Very little is known about the factors that contribute to pretreatment attrition, especially among families seeking treatment for a child. The current study assessed pretreatment attrition in a randomized clinical trial of behavior therapy, fluoxetine, and placebo for child and adolescent social phobia. Reluctance toward medication treatment accounted for 44.7% of study refusals and was disproportionately common among ethnic minority families. Parents were particularly worried about the potential for side effects or physical/psychological dependency upon the medication. Results are discussed in terms of the implications for external validity in future psychopharmacological clinical trials.

  17. A xylanase-aided enzymatic pretreatment facilitates cellulose nanofibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lingfeng; Tian, Dong; Hu, Jinguang; Wang, Fei; Saddler, Jack

    2017-11-01

    Although biological pretreatment of cellulosic fiber based on endoglucanases has shown some promise to facilitate cellulose nanofibrillation, its efficacy is still limited. In this study, a xylanase-aided endoglucanase pretreatment was assessed on the bleached hardwood and softwood Kraft pulps to facilitate the downstream cellulose nanofibrillation. Four commercial xylanase preparations were compared and the changes of major fiber physicochemical characteristics such as cellulose/hemicellulose content, gross fiber properties, fiber morphologies, cellulose accessibility/degree of polymerization (DP)/crystallinity were systematically evaluated before and after enzymatic pretreatment. It showed that the synergistic cooperation between endoglucanase and certain xylanase (Biobrite) could efficiently "open up" the hardwood Kraft pulp with limited carbohydrates degradation (cellulose nanofibrillation during mild sonication process (90Wh) with more uniform disintegrated nanofibril products (50-150nm, as assessed by scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Geoenvironmental engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eun Cheol; Park, Jeong Jun

    2009-08-01

    This book deals with definition of soil and scope of clean-up of soil, trend of geoenvironmental engineering at home and foreign countries, main concern of geoenvironmental engineering in domestic and abroad, design and building of landfills such as summary, trend of landfill policy in Korea, post management of landfill facilities, stabilizing and stability of landfill, research method and soil pollution source, restoration technology of soil pollution like restoration technique of oil pollution with thermal processing.

  19. Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong

    1992-07-01

    This book is about reliability engineering, which describes definition and importance of reliability, development of reliability engineering, failure rate and failure probability density function about types of it, CFR and index distribution, IFR and normal distribution and Weibull distribution, maintainability and movability, reliability test and reliability assumption in index distribution type, normal distribution type and Weibull distribution type, reliability sampling test, reliability of system, design of reliability and functionality failure analysis by FTA.

  20. Microwave engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pozar, David M

    2012-01-01

    The 4th edition of this classic text provides a thorough coverage of RF and microwave engineering concepts, starting from fundamental principles of electrical engineering, with applications to microwave circuits and devices of practical importance.  Coverage includes microwave network analysis, impedance matching, directional couplers and hybrids, microwave filters, ferrite devices, noise, nonlinear effects, and the design of microwave oscillators, amplifiers, and mixers. Material on microwave and RF systems includes wireless communications, radar, radiometry, and radiation hazards. A large

  1. Pretreatment of food waste with high voltage pulse discharge towards methane production enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lianpei; Ma, Chaonan; Liu, Jianyong; Li, Mingfei; Ye, Min; Qian, Guangren

    2016-12-01

    Anaerobic batch tests were performed to investigate the methane production enhancement and solid transformation rates from food waste (FW) by high voltage pulse discharge (HVPD) pretreatment. The total cumulative methane production with HVPD pretreatment was 134% higher than that of the control. The final volatile solids transformation rates of FW with and without HVPD pretreatment were 54.3% and 32.3%, respectively. Comparison study on HVPD pretreatment with acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreatments showed that the methane production and COD removal rates of FW pretreated with HVPD were more than 100% higher than the control, but only about 50% higher can be obtained with other pretreatments. HVPD pretreatment could be a promising pretreatment method in the application of energy recovery from FW. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pretreatment of woody biomass for biofuel production: energy efficiency, technologies, and recalcitrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J Y; Pan, Xuejun; Zalesny, Ronald S

    2010-07-01

    This mini review discusses several key technical issues associated with cellulosic ethanol production from woody biomass: energy consumption for woody biomass pretreatment, pretreatment energy efficiency, woody biomass pretreatment technologies, and quantification of woody biomass recalcitrance. Both total sugar yield and pretreatment energy efficiency, defined as the total sugar recovery divided by total energy consumption for pretreatment, should be used to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment process. A post-chemical pretreatment wood size-reduction approach was proposed to significantly reduce energy consumption. The review also emphasizes using a low liquid-to-wood ratio (L/W) to reduce thermal energy consumption for any thermochemical/physical pretreatment in addition to reducing pretreatment temperature.

  3. Deep Eutectic Solvents pretreatment of agro-industrial food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procentese, Alessandra; Raganati, Francesca; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Rehmann, Lars; Marzocchella, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Waste biomass from agro-food industries are a reliable and readily exploitable resource. From the circular economy point of view, direct residues from these industries exploited for production of fuel/chemicals is a winning issue, because it reduces the environmental/cost impact and improves the eco-sustainability of productions. The present paper reports recent results of deep eutectic solvent (DES) pretreatment on a selected group of the agro-industrial food wastes (AFWs) produced in Europe. In particular, apple residues, potato peels, coffee silverskin, and brewer's spent grains were pretreated with two DESs, (choline chloride-glycerol and choline chloride-ethylene glycol) for fermentable sugar production. Pretreated biomass was enzymatic digested by commercial enzymes to produce fermentable sugars. Operating conditions of the DES pretreatment were changed in wide intervals. The solid to solvent ratio ranged between 1:8 and 1:32, and the temperature between 60 and 150 °C. The DES reaction time was set at 3 h. Optimal operating conditions were: 3 h pretreatment with choline chloride-glycerol at 1:16 biomass to solvent ratio and 115 °C. Moreover, to assess the expected European amount of fermentable sugars from the investigated AFWs, a market analysis was carried out. The overall sugar production was about 217 kt yr -1 , whose main fraction was from the hydrolysis of BSGs pretreated with choline chloride-glycerol DES at the optimal conditions. The reported results boost deep investigation on lignocellulosic biomass using DES. This investigated new class of solvents is easy to prepare, biodegradable and cheaper than ionic liquid. Moreover, they reported good results in terms of sugars' release at mild operating conditions (time, temperature and pressure).

  4. Effect of nitrogen oxide pretreatments on enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrevik, R.K.; Wilke, C.R.; Brink, D.L.

    1978-09-01

    This work considers the effect of nitrogen oxide pretreatments on the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis by Trichoderma viride cellulase of the cellulose occurring in wheat straw; Triticum Aestivum-L, em. Thell. In the pretreatment scheme the straw is first reacted with nitric oxide and air, and then extracted in aqueous solution. In this way, overall sugar yields increased from 17% for the case of no pretreatment to 70%. The glucose yield increased from 20 to 60%. The yield of glucose during enzymatic hydrolysis is dependent on the reaction time of the gas phase reaction. For a 24 hour reaction the yield is 60%, but drops to 45% for a reaction time of 2 hours. Xylose, a potentially valuable side product of the pretreatment, is obtained by dilute acid hydrolysis during the extraction stage in yields of 90 to 96%. In acidic media, the kinetics of both the rate of formation and destruction of xylose were found to follow the first-order rate laws reported in the literature. These were determined to be 4.5 (liter/gmole)(hr./sup -1/) and 0.03 hr./sup -1/, respectively. However, the rate of formation is much greater (20.4 (liter/gmole) (hr./sup -1/)) when the extraction liquor is recycled. The most likely explanation for this is that the increased total acidity of the recycled liquor compensates for diffusional limitations. A preliminary design and cost analysis of the pretreatment-hydrolysis scheme indicates that glucose can be produced at 10.86 cents per pound, exclusive of straw cost. The corresponding cost per pound of total sugars produced is 5.0 cents. Sensitivity analyses indicate that 42% of the pretreatment cost (excluding hydrolysis) can be attributed to nitric oxide production, and the high yield of sugar obtained is advantageous when considering the cost of straw.

  5. Fungal pretreatment of straw for enhanced biogas yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xinmei; Pilar Castillo, Maria del; Schnuerer, Anna

    2013-07-01

    Among lignocellulosic materials from the agricultural sector, straw is considered to have the biggest potential as a biofuel and therefore also represents a big potential for biogas production. However, the degradation of lignocellulosic materials is somewhat restricted due to the high content of lignin that binds cellulose and hemicellulose and makes them unavailable for microbial degradation. Consequently, low methane yields are achieved. The biodegradability of the lignocellulosic material can be increased by a pretreatment. Optimally the pre-treatment should give an increase in the formation of sugars while avoiding the degradation or loss of carbohydrates and the formation of inhibitory by-products. The treatment should also be cost-effective. Different methods for pre-treatment of lignocellulosic material have been explored, for example thermal, acid, alkaline and oxidative pretreatments. However, they often have a high energy demand. Biological treatment with fungi represents an alternative method for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials that could be comparably more environmentally friendly, easier to operate and with low energy input. The fungal groups of interest for lignocellulose degradation are the wood decaying fungi, such as the white-, brown-rot and cellulose degraders. The purpose with this work was to increase the biogas potential of straw by using a pretreatment with fungi. Straw was incubated with fungi at aerobic conditions under certain periods of time. The growth and colonization of the straw by the fungi was expected to increase the availability of the lignocellulosic structure of the straw and thus positively affect the biogas potential. In addition also, the spent lignocellulosic material from the cultivation of edible fungi was investigated. We hypothesized that also growth of edible fungi could give a more accessible material and thus give higher biogas potential compared to the substrate before fungal growth.

  6. Bioethanol production: Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengborg, Charlotte

    2000-05-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis process can be used to produce bioethanol from softwood, which are the dominating raw material in the Northern hemisphere. This thesis deals with the development of the process focusing on the pretreatment and the enzymatic hydrolysis stages. The influence of pretreatment conditions on sugar yield, and the effect of inhibitors on the ethanol yield, were investigated for spruce and pine. The maximum yields of hemicellulose sugars and glucose were obtained under different pretreatment conditions. This indicates that two-stage pretreatment may be preferable. The added catalysts, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and SO{sub 2}, resulted in similar total sugar yields about 40 g/100 g dry raw material. However, the fermentability of SO{sub 2}-impregnated material was better. This pretreatment resulted in the formation of inhibitors to the subsequent process steps, e.g. sugar and lignin degradation products. The glucose yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis stage was affected by various parameters such as enzyme loading, temperature, pH, residence time, substrate concentration, and agitation. To decrease the amount of fresh water used and thereby waste water produced, the sugar-rich prehydrolysate from the pretreatment step was included in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fraction, resulting in a reduction in the cellulose conversion of up to 36%. Different prehydrolysate detoxification methods, such as treatment with Ca(OH){sub 2}, laccase, and fermentation using yeast, were investigated. The latter was shown to be very efficient. The amount of fresh water used can be further reduced by recycling various process streams. This was simulated experimentally in a bench-scale process. A reduction in fresh water demand of 50% was obtained without any further negative effects on either hydrolysis or fermentation.

  7. Pre-treating Seed to Enhance Germination of Desert Shrubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. K. Ostler; D. C. Anderson; D. J. Hansen

    2002-06-01

    Creosotebush [Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cav.] and white bursage [Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) W.W. Payne] seeds were subjected to pre-treatments of rinsing and soaking in water and thiourea to enhance germination in laboratory experiments. The effects of darkness, temperature, seed source, and soil moisture were also evaluated in the laboratory. The best pre-treatment from the laboratory experiments, rinsing with water for 36 hours followed by drying, was field-tested at Fort Irwin, California. Two sites and two seeding dates (early March and mid April) were determined for each site. Five mulch treatments (no mulch, straw, gravel, chemical stabilizer, and plastic) were evaluated in combination with the seed pre-treatments. Field emergence was greatly enhanced with the seed pre-treatment for white bursage during the March (18-42% increase in germination) and April seedings (16-23% increase in germination). Creosotebush showed poor germination during March (2-5%) when soil temperatures averaged 15 C, but germination increased during the April trials (6-43%) when soil temperatures averaged 23 C. The seed pre-treatment during the April trials increased germination from 16-23%. The plastic mulch treatment increased germination dramatically during both the March and April trials. The plastic mulch increased soil temperatures (8-10 C)and maintained high humidity during germination. Both the chemical stabilizer and the gravel mulches improved germination over the control while the straw mulch decreased germination. These results suggest that seed pre-treatments combined with irrigation and mulch are effective techniques to establish these two dominant Mojave Desert species from seed.

  8. Production of isoprene, one of the high-density fuel precursors, from peanut hull using the high-efficient lignin-removal pretreatment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sumeng; Wang, Zhaobao; Wang, Yongchao; Nie, Qingjuan; Yi, Xiaohua; Ge, Wei; Yang, Jianming; Xian, Mo

    2017-01-01

    Isoprene as the feedstock can be used to produce renewable energy fuels, providing an alternative to replace the rapidly depleting fossil fuels. However, traditional method for isoprene production could not meet the demands for low-energy consumption and environment-friendliness. Moreover, most of the previous studies focused on biofuel production out of lignocellulosic materials such as wood, rice straw, corn cob, while few studies concentrated on biofuel production using peanut hull (PH). As is known, China is the largest peanut producer in the globe with an extremely considerable amount of PH to be produced each year. Therefore, a novel, renewable, and environment-friendly pretreatment strategy to increase the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of cellulose and reduce the inhibitors generation was developed to convert PH into isoprene. The optimal pretreatment conditions were 100 °C, 60 min, 10% (w/v) solid loading with a 2:8 volume ratio of phosphoric acid and of hydrogen peroxide. In comparison with the raw PH, the hemicellulose and lignin were reduced to 85.0 and 98.0%, respectively. The cellulose-glucose conversion of pretreated PH reached up to 95.0% in contrast to that of the raw PH (19.1%). Only three kinds of inhibitors including formic acid, levulinic acid, and a little furfural were formed during the pretreatment process, whose concentrations were too low to inhibit the isoprene yield for Escherichia coli fermentation. Moreover, compared with the isoprene yield of pure glucose fermentation (298 ± 9 mg/L), 249 ± 6.7 and 294 ± 8.3 mg/L of isoprene were produced using the pretreated PH as the carbon source by the engineered strain via separate hydrolysis and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) methods, respectively. The isoprene production via SSF had a 9.8% glucose-isoprene conversion which was equivalent to 98.8% of isoprene production via the pure glucose fermentation. The optimized phosphoric acid

  9. Pre-treated bioactive composite in rat soft tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirri, T.; Jaakkola, T.; Naerhi, T.; Yli-Urpo, A. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Biomaterials Research and Inst. of Dentistry; Rich, J.; Seppaelae, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    2001-07-01

    Effect of in vitro formed calcium phosphate surface on a bioactive composite was studied in rat subcutaneous tissue. Pre-treatment in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 14 days resulted in the formation of calcium phosphate deposites on the composite surface whereas no formation was observed on the copolymer without bioactive glass. Pre-treatment had no effect on short term soft tissue reactions around the copolymer without bioactive glass granules whereas the calcium phosphate surface formed on the composite resulted in delayed healing of the surgical wound. This may be due to mechanical stress caused by rough calcium phosphate surface. (orig.)

  10. Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Niklas; Carrier, Chris; Vega, Leticia; Casteel, Michael; Verostko, chuck; Pickering, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation & Selection task is to identify the optimal combination of personal hygiene products, crew activities, and pretreatment strategies to provide the crew with sustainable life support practices and a comfortable habitat. Minimal energy, mass, and crew time inputs are desired to recycle wastewater during long duration missions. This document will provide a brief background on the work this past year supporting the ELS Distillation Comparison Test, issues regarding use of the hygiene products originally chosen for the test, methods and results used to select alternative products, and lessons learned from testing.

  11. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Kádár, Zsófia; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2011-01-01

    , while lignin was degraded up to 95% by O3. The loss of biomass after washing could be explained by the amount of lignin degraded. The washing water of pretreated samples (0–7 h) was analyzed for potential fermentation inhibitors. Approximately 30 lignin degradation products and a number of simple...... carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds were found, e.g., vanillic acid, acetic acid, and formic acid. Some components had the highest concentration at the beginning of the ozonisation process (0.5, 1 h), e.g., 4-hydroxybenzladehyde, while the concentration of others increased during the entire pretreatment...

  12. GSDO Program Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives: Final Pretreatments Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Hexavalent chrome free pretreatments should be considered for use on Ground Support Equipment (OSE) and Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EOSE). Both of the hexavalent chrome free pretreatments (Metalast TCP HF and SurTec 650C) evaluated by this project met, and in some instances exceeded, the requirements ofMIL-DTL-5541 "Chemical Conversion Coatings on Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys". For DC resistance measurements, both Metalast TCP HF and SurTec (!50C met initial requirements following assembly and in many cases continued to maintain passing readings for the duration of testing.

  13. Fungal cellulase/xylanase production and corresponding hydrolysis using pretreated corn stover as substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ruan, Zhenhua; Liu, Ying; Niu, Xiaorui; Yue, Zhengbo; Li, Zhimin; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Three pretreated corn stover (ammonia fiber expansion, dilute acid, and dilute alkali) were used as carbon source to culture Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 for cellulase and xylanase production. The results indicated that the cultures on ammonia fiber expansion and alkali pretreated corn stover had better enzyme production than the acid pretreated ones. The consequent enzymatic hydrolysis was performed applying fungal enzymes on pretreated corn stover samples. Tukey's statistical comparisons exhibited that there were significant differences on enzymatic hydrolysis among different combination of fungal enzymes and pretreated corn stover. The higher sugar yields were achieved by the enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute alkali pretreated corn stover.

  14. Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with carbonate-containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Raymond

    2012-11-06

    Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with an acidic solution and then a carbonate-containing solution to produce a pretreated cellulosic material are provided. The pretreated material may then be further treated in a pulping process, for example, a soda-anthraquinone pulping process, to produce a cellulose pulp. The pretreatment solutions may be extracted from the pretreated cellulose material and selectively re-used, for example, with acid or alkali addition, for the pretreatment solutions. The resulting cellulose pulp is characterized by having reduced lignin content and increased yield compared to prior art treatment processes.

  15. Effect of moisture on pretreatment efficiency for anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, M; Astals, S; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2015-12-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of moisture in low-temperature and ultrasound pretreatment on lignocellulosic substrates anaerobic biodegradability, where brewer's spent grain was used as model substrate. Besides moisture content, low-temperature pretreatment was also evaluated in terms of temperature (60-80°C) and exposure time (12-72 h). Likewise, ultrasonication was also evaluated in terms of specific energy (1000-50,000 kJ kg TS(-1)). In addition, the effect of substrate particle size reduction by milling pretreatment was also considered. The results clearly demonstrated that substrate moisture (total solid concentration) is a significant parameter for pretreatment performance, although it has been rarely considered in pretreatment optimisation. Specifically, moisture optimisation increased the methane yield of brewer's spent grain by 6% for low-temperature pretreatment (60°C), and by 14% for ultrasound pretreatment (1000 kJ kg TS(-1)) towards the control (without pretreatment). In both pretreatments, the experimental optimum total solid concentration was 100 gTS kg(-1). Thus, lowering substrate moisture, a strategy suggested attaining energetic pretreatment feasibility, needs to be analysed as another pretreatment variable since it might have limited correlation. Finally, a preliminary energetic balance of the pretreatments under study showed that the extra methane production could not cover the energetic pretreatment expenses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tank Focus Area Pretreatment Program. FY 1995 Program Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.I.; McGinnis, C.P.; Wilkenson, W.T.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    This program management plan (PMP) describes the FY 1995 project plans for the Pretreatment Program of the Tank Focus Area. The Tank Focus Area is one of five areas of environmental concerns originally identified by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Technology Development (EM-50). Projects in the Tank Focus Area relate to the remediation of liquid waste stored in underground storage tanks at various US Department of Energy sites. The Pretreatment Program is an organizational unit performing work within the Tank Focus Area. The function of the Pretreatment Program is to develop, test, evaluate, and demonstrate new technologies, with emphasis on separations. The 11 Pretreatment Program projects for FY 1995 are (1) Cesium Extraction Testing, (2) Comprehensive Supernate Treatment, (3) Hot Cell Studies, (4) Cesium Removal Demonstration, (5) Out-of-Tank Evaporator Demonstration, (6) Crossflow Filtration, (7) Technical Interchange with CEA, (8) TRUEX Applications, (9) NAC/NAG Process Studies (conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory), (10) NAC/NAG Process and Waste Form Studies (conducted at Florida International University), and (11) Program Management. Section 2 of this PMP contains a separate subsection for each FY 1995 project. A brief description of the project, a schedule of major milestones, and a breakdown of costs are provided for each project. The PMP also contains sections that describe the project controls that are in place. Quality assurance, document control, the project management system, and the management organization are described in these sections

  17. 40 CFR 418.76 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... properties controlled by this section which may be discharged to a publicly owned treatment works by a new source subject to the provisions of this subpart: Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitations. TSS Do. pH Do. Ammonia (as N) 30 mg/l. Nitrate (as N) Do. Total phosphorus (as P...

  18. Bromine pretreated chitosan for adsorption of lead (II) from water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lead; 30% bromine pretreated chitosan; water; adsorption; langmuir; Freundlich. 1. Introduction. Many toxic heavy metals like lead, copper, zinc, mercury, chromium, arsenic and cadmium etc are either contami- nated as natural constituents in earth crust (sediments deposit as metal salts) or enter owing to urbanization and ...

  19. Synergistic Effect of Trehalose and Saccharose Pretreatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2). Osmotic fragility is an important factor in the maintenance of RBC integrity and normal functions [23]. Trehalose and saccharose pretreatment synergistically decreased lyophilization-rehydration-induced damage on. RBC osmotic fragility by reducing the osmotic fragility (Fig. 3). PS is only distributed in the internal side of ...

  20. Effects of glycyrrhizin pre-treatment on transient ischemic brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of glycyrrhizin pre-treatment on transient ischemic brain injury in mice. ... on transient ischemic brain injury in mice. Chiyeon Lim, Sehyun Lim, Young-Jun Lee, Bokcheul Kong, Byoungho Lee, Chang-Hyun Kim, Buyeo Kim, Suin Cho ... induced brain damage. Keywords: Glycyrrhizin, licorice, stroke, apoptosis ...

  1. Bromine pretreated chitosan for adsorption of lead (II) from water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pollution by heavy metals like lead (II) is responsible for health hazards and environmental degradation. Adsorption is a prevalent method applied for removal of heavy metal pollutants from water. This study explored adsorption performances of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan for lead (II) abatement from water. Bromine ...

  2. Effects of Chloramphenicol Pretreatment on Xylazine/ketamine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keyword: Chloramphenicol, xylazine, ketamine, anaesthesia, cats. The effect of pretreatment with a single intramuscular (im) dose of chloramphenicol (10mg/kg) on the anaethesia induced with im injection of ketamine (25mg/kg) was investigated in five cats premedicated with im xylazine (1.0mg/kg) and atropine ...

  3. The Use of Clay-Polymer Nanocomposites in Wastewater Pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwo, Giora

    2012-01-01

    Some agricultural effluents are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants: their pretreatment is necessary to avoid clogging of the filtering devices by colloidal matter. The colloidal stability of the effluents is mainly due to mutual repulsive forces that keep charged particles in suspension. Pretreatment processes are based on two separate stages: (a) neutralization of the charges (“coagulation”) and (b) bridging between several small particles to form larger aggregates that sink, leaving clarified effluent (“flocculation”). The consequent destabilization of the colloidal suspension lowers total suspended solids (TSSs), turbidity, and other environmental quality parameters, making the treatments that follow more efficient. Clay-based materials have been widely used for effluent pretreatment and pollutant removal. This study presents the use of nanocomposites, comprised of an anchoring particle and a polymer, as “coagoflocculants” for the efficient and rapid reduction of TSS and turbidity in wastewater with a high organic load. The use of such particles combines the advantages of coagulant and flocculant by neutralizing the charge of the suspended particles while bridging between them and anchoring them to a denser particle (the clay mineral), enhancing their precipitation. Very rapid and efficient pretreatment is achieved in one single treatment step. PMID:22454607

  4. 40 CFR 406.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.36 Section 406.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.36...

  5. 40 CFR 406.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.14 Section 406.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.14...

  6. 40 CFR 406.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.46 Section 406.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.46...

  7. 40 CFR 406.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.24 Section 406.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.24...

  8. Pretreatment on Corn Stover with Low Concentration of Formic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    Bioethanol derived from lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to replace gasoline. Cellulose is naturally recalcitrant to enzymatic attack, and it also surrounded by the matrix of xylan and lignin, which enhances the recalcitrance. Therefore, lignocellulosic materials must be pretreated to make...

  9. Effect of Pretreatments on Seed Viability During Fruit Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    foil and incubated for 4 h after which the embryos were then washed and observed for red colouration. The coloured embryos were counted as viable. Percentage viability from five replicates were recorded (Demir & Ellis, 1992). Seed pretreatments and germination tests. Five seeds from each seed lots of the two harvests ...

  10. Effect of Kaempferol Pretreatment on Myocardial Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Anamika; Singh, Thakur Uttam; Rungsung, Soya; Kumar, Tarun; Kandasamy, Arunvikram; Parida, Subhashree; Lingaraju, Madhu Cholenahalli; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Asok; Kumar, Dinesh

    2018-01-20

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of kaempferol in isoprenaline (ISP)-induced myocardial injury in rats. ISP was administered subcutaneously for two subsequent days to induce myocardial injury. Assessment of myocardial injury was done by estimation of hemodynamic functions, myocardial infarcted area, cardiac injury markers, lipid profile, oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and histopathology of heart and liver. Rats pretreated with kaempferol showed reduction in the myocardial infarcted area and heart rate. However, no improvement was observed in change in body weight, mean arterial, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Kaempferol showed significant decrease in serum LDH, CK-MB, troponin-I and lipid profile. However, highest dose of kaempferol did not reduce the serum triglyceride level. Further, antioxidant enzymes, SOD and catalase, were also higher. However, reduced glutathione, serum SGOT and creatinine did not show any improvement. Kaempferol showed reduction in MDA level. Kaempferol at highest dose showed reduction in pro-MMP-2 expression and MMP-9 level. mRNA expression level of TNF-α was not different in kaempferol-pretreated myocardial injured rats with ISP-alone group. Pretreatment with kaempferol at highest dose showed mild mononuclear infiltration and degenerative changes in heart tissue section of myocardial injured rats. Rats pretreated with kaempferol at higher concentration showed normal cordlike arrangement of hepatocytes with moderate swelling of hepatocytes (vacuolar degeneration) around the central vein. Study suggests that kaempferol attenuated lipid profile, infarcted area and oxidative stress in ISP-induced myocardial injury in rats.

  11. Effect of pretreatments on seed viability during fruit development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies to identify the stage at which developing fruits of Irvingia gabonensis (var. excelsa and var. gabonensis), picked from standing trees and/or forest floors, attain maximum viability and germinability were conducted in two harvesting seasons in 2000 and 2001. Some pretreatment methods were used as a means of ...

  12. Separations/pretreatment considerations for Hanford privatization phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.D.; McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.

    1998-05-01

    The Tank Focus Area is funded to develop, demonstrate, and deploy technologies that will assist in the treatment and closure of its nuclear waste tanks. Pretreatment technologies developed to support the privatization effort by the Department of Energy are reviewed. Advancements in evaporation, solid-liquid separation, sludge treatment, solids controls, sodium management, and radionuclide removal are considered.

  13. Influence of pretreatment of agriculture residues on phytase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phytase production. Pretreatment of agriculture residues with water to remove excess inorganic phosphate has significantly enhanced the phytase activity in case of de-oiled rice bran, wheat bran, peanut cake (low and high oil) and coconut cake. Maximum increase of 20.3 times in phytase activity was observed in case of ...

  14. Pretreatment of lignocellulose with biological acid recycling (the Biosulfurol process)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, van J.; Hazewinkel, O.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2006-01-01

    A biomass pretreatment process is being developed based on contacting lignocellulosic biomass with 70% sulfuric acid and subsequent hydrolysis by adding water. In this process, the hydrolysate can be fermented yielding ethanol, while the sulfuric acid is partly recovered by anion-selective membranes

  15. Effect of lime pre-treatment mellowing duration on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of lime pre-treatment duration on some geotechnical properties of shale treated with cement for use as flexible pavement material was studied. Atterberg's limits, compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were conducted on the natural shale and shale pre-treated ...

  16. Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol production. Claudia Elena Soto Alvarez, Javier López Miranda, Gustavo Pérez Verdín, Mario A. Rodríguez Pérez, Isaías Chairez Hernández ...

  17. Fuel ethanol production from alkaline peroxide pretreated corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn stover (CS) has the potential to serve as an abundant low-cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. Due to heterogeneous complexity and recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks, pretreatment is required to break the lignin seal and/or disrupt the structure of crystalline cellulose to in...

  18. Efficient Fuel Pretreatment: Simultaneous Torrefaction and Grinding of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, Suriyati Binti; Hansen, Brian Brun; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    Combining torrefaction and grinding of biomass in one reactor may be an attractive fuel pretreatment process. A combined laboratory torrefaction and ball mill reactor has been constructed for studies of the influence of temperature and residence time on the product yields and particle size...

  19. Influence of pre-treatments on the desorption isotherm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of pre-treatments on the desorption isotherm characteristics of plaintain. P-N T Johnson. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjs.v39i1.15851 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  20. Sugar cane bagasse pretreatment: An attempt to enhance the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    +1.5%NaOH. The pretreatment of bagasse with 2.0% H2O2 along with 1.5% NaOH enhanced the biosynthesis of cellulases by H. insolens. Production rate was also optimized with different parameters like thickness of fermentation medium, ...

  1. The Use of Clay-Polymer Nanocomposites in Wastewater Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giora Rytwo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some agricultural effluents are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants: their pretreatment is necessary to avoid clogging of the filtering devices by colloidal matter. The colloidal stability of the effluents is mainly due to mutual repulsive forces that keep charged particles in suspension. Pretreatment processes are based on two separate stages: (a neutralization of the charges (“coagulation” and (b bridging between several small particles to form larger aggregates that sink, leaving clarified effluent (“flocculation”. The consequent destabilization of the colloidal suspension lowers total suspended solids (TSSs, turbidity, and other environmental quality parameters, making the treatments that follow more efficient. Clay-based materials have been widely used for effluent pretreatment and pollutant removal. This study presents the use of nanocomposites, comprised of an anchoring particle and a polymer, as “coagoflocculants” for the efficient and rapid reduction of TSS and turbidity in wastewater with a high organic load. The use of such particles combines the advantages of coagulant and flocculant by neutralizing the charge of the suspended particles while bridging between them and anchoring them to a denser particle (the clay mineral, enhancing their precipitation. Very rapid and efficient pretreatment is achieved in one single treatment step.

  2. 40 CFR 405.96 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 405.96 Section 405.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Condensed Milk Subcategory § 405.96...

  3. 40 CFR 405.94 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 405.94 Section 405.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Condensed Milk...

  4. Microalgal biomass pretreatment for bioethanol production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Velazquez-Lucio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels derived from microalgae biomass have received a great deal of attention owing to their high potentials as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Microalgae have a high capacity of CO2 fixation and depending on their growth conditions, they can accumulate different quantities of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. Microalgal biomass can, therefore, represent a rich source of fermentable sugars for third generation bioethanol production. The utilization of microalgal carbohydrates for bioethanol production follows three main stages: i pretreatment, ii saccharification, and iii fermentation. One of the most important stages is the pretreatment, which is carried out to increase the accessibility to intracellular sugars, and thus plays an important role in improving the overall efficiency of the bioethanol production process. Diverse types of pretreatments are currently used including chemical, thermal, mechanical, biological, and their combinations, which can promote cell disruption, facilitate extraction, and result in the modification the structure of carbohydrates as well as the production of fermentable sugars. In this review, the different pretreatments used on microalgae biomass for bioethanol production are presented and discussed. Moreover, the methods used for starch and total carbohydrates quantification in microalgae biomass are also briefly presented and compared.

  5. 40 CFR 464.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alternate monitoring) 0.363 0.121 (c) Die Casting Operations. PSNS Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464... CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for new sources. (a) Casting Cleaning...

  6. 40 CFR 464.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 0.093 0.0304 Oil and grease (for alternate monitoring) 1.34 0.446 (b) Die Casting Operations. PSNS... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.46... and achieve the following pretreatment standards for new sources. (a) Casting Quench Operations. PSNS...

  7. [DNA quantification of blood samples pre-treated with pyramidon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chuan-Hong; Zheng, Dao-Li; Ni, Rao-Zhi; Wang, Hai-Sheng; Ning, Ping; Fang, Hui; Liu, Yan

    2014-06-01

    To study DNA quantification and STR typing of samples pre-treated with pyramidon. The blood samples of ten unrelated individuals were anticoagulated in EDTA. The blood stains were made on the filter paper. The experimental groups were divided into six groups in accordance with the storage time, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24h after pre-treated with pyramidon. DNA was extracted by three methods: magnetic bead-based extraction, QIAcube DNA purification method and Chelex-100 method. The quantification of DNA was made by fluorescent quantitative PCR. STR typing was detected by PCR-STR fluorescent technology. In the same DNA extraction method, the sample DNA decreased gradually with times after pre-treatment with pyramidon. In the same storage time, the DNA quantification in different extraction methods had significant differences. Sixteen loci DNA typing were detected in 90.56% of samples. Pyramidon pre-treatment could cause DNA degradation, but effective STR typing can be achieved within 24 h. The magnetic bead-based extraction is the best method for STR profiling and DNA extraction.

  8. 40 CFR 408.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a... provisions of this subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. Oil and grease Do. TSS Do. [40 FR 6438, Feb. 11, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33941, June 29, 1995] ...

  9. 40 CFR 408.274 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55794, Dec. 1, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33947, June 29, 1995] ...

  10. 40 CFR 408.266 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... new source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned... subpart: Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55793, Dec. 1, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33947, June 29, 1995] ...

  11. 40 CFR 408.234 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55790, Dec. 1, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33946, June 29, 1995] ...

  12. 40 CFR 408.164 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... existing source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55781, Dec. 1, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33944, June 29, 1995] ...

  13. 40 CFR 408.314 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55798, Dec. 1, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33948, June 29, 1995] ...

  14. 40 CFR 417.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... existing source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. BOD5 Do. TSS Do. Oil and grease Do. COD Do. [40 FR 6442, Feb. 11, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33952, June 29, 1995] ...

  15. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. BOD5 Do. TSS Do. Oil and grease Do. COD Do. Surfactants Do. [40 FR 6443, Feb. 11, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33956, June 29, 1995] ...

  16. 40 CFR 408.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a... provisions of this subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. Oil and grease Do. TSS Do. [40 FR 6438, Feb. 11, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33942, June 29, 1995] ...

  17. 40 CFR 408.214 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... existing source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55788, Dec. 1, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33945, June 29, 1995] ...

  18. 40 CFR 408.114 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a... provisions of this subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. Oil and grease Do. TSS Do. [40 FR 6439, Feb. 11, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33942, June 29, 1995] ...

  19. 40 CFR 417.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. BOD5 Do. TSS Do. Oil and grease Do. COD Do. [40 FR 6442, Feb. 11, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33952, June 29, 1995] ...

  20. 40 CFR 408.184 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... existing source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55784, Dec. 1, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33944, June 29, 1995] ...

  1. 40 CFR 408.204 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55787, Dec. 1, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33945, June 29, 1995] ...

  2. 40 CFR 408.324 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55799, Dec. 1, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33949, June 29, 1995] ...

  3. 40 CFR 408.216 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned... subpart: Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55788, Dec. 1, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33945, June 29, 1995] ...

  4. 40 CFR 408.134 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a... provisions of this subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. Oil and grease Do. TSS Do. [40 FR 6439, Feb. 11, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33943, June 29, 1995] ...

  5. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55786, Dec. 1, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33945, June 29, 1995] ...

  6. 40 CFR 408.174 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55783, Dec. 1, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33944, June 29, 1995] ...

  7. 40 CFR 407.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned... this subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. Oil and grease Do. [41 FR 16281, Apr. 16, 1976, as amended at 60 FR 33939, June 29, 1995] ...

  8. 40 CFR 408.224 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... existing source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do. [40 FR 55789, Dec. 1, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33946, June 29, 1995] ...

  9. 40 CFR 417.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. BOD5 Do. TSS Do. Oil and grease Do. COD Do. [40 FR 6442, Feb. 11, 1975, as amended at 60 FR 33953, June 29, 1995] ...

  10. Delignification kinetics of corn stover in lime pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sehoon; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2006-03-01

    Corn stover was pretreated with excess calcium hydroxide (0.5 g Ca(OH)(2)/g raw biomass) in non-oxidative and oxidative conditions at 25, 35, 45, and 55 degrees C. The delignification kinetic model of corn stover used three first-order reactions with following forms: W(L) = 0.09 x exp(-infinity x t) + 0.28 x exp(-k(2) x t) + 0.63 x exp(-k(3) x t) in non-oxidative pretreatment; W(L) = 0.16 x exp(-infinity x t) + 0.27 x exp(-k(2) x t) + 0.57 x exp(-k(3) x t) in oxidative pretreatment. The first term corresponds to the initial phase, which is essentially infinite at the time scale of the reaction (weeks). The second and third terms correspond to the bulk and residual phases of delignification. The activation energies for delignification in the oxidative lime pretreatment reactions were estimated as 50.15 and 54.21 kJ/mol in the bulk and residual phases, respectively, which are similar to the Kraft delignification of bagasse, but much less than in Kraft delignification of wood.

  11. Bromine pretreated chitosan for adsorption of lead (II) from water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Pollution by heavy metals like lead (II) is responsible for health hazards and environmental degradation. Adsorption is a prevalent method applied for removal of heavy metal pollutants from water. This study explored adsorption performances of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan for lead (II) abatement from water.

  12. Anaerobic digestion of fungally pre-treated wine distillery wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The COD removal efficiency after fungal pre-treatment reached 53.3%. During digestion, pH buffering was achieved using CaCO3 and K2HPO4. This provided a stable environment inside digester for efficient and time-independent COD removal. The total COD removal efficiency reached 99.5%, and the system proved able ...

  13. Effects of magnetic fields pretreatment of mungbean seeds on sprout ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tony

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... control, magnetic field pretreatment caused an increase by 12% in the concentration of spouts protein, by 5.1% in the concentration of ... been reported by many researches. The first studies were conducted ... For protein extraction, 0.5 g mungbean sprouts (fresh weight) were homogenized at 0°C with 2.5 ...

  14. 40 CFR 428.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.66 Section 428.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded...

  15. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  16. Engineering physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherji, Uma

    2015-01-01

    ENGINEERING PHYSICS is designed as a textbook for first year engineering students of a two semester course in Applied Physics according to new revised syllabus. However the scope of this book is not only limited to undergraduate engineering students and science students, it can also serve as a reference book for practicing scientists.Advanced technological topics like LCD, Squid, Maglev system, Electron microscopes, MRI, Photonics - Photonic fibre, Nano-particles, CNT, Quantum computing etc., are explained with basic underlying principles of Physics.This text explained following topics with numerous solved, unsolved problems and questions from different angles. Part-I contains crystal structure, Liquid crystal, Thermo-electric effect, Thermionic emission, Ultrasonic, Acoustics, semiconductor and magnetic materials. Whereas Part-2 contains Optics, X-rays, Electron optics, Dielectric materials, Quantum Physics and Schrodinger wave equation, Laser, Fibre-optics and Holography, Radio-activity, Super-conductivity,...

  17. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  18. Mini-review of the geotechnical parameters of municipal solid waste: Mechanical and biological pre-treated versus raw untreated waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Igor

    2016-09-01

    The most viable option for biostabilisation of old sanitary landfills, filled with raw municipal solid waste, is the so-called bioreactor landfill. Even today, bioreactor landfills are viable options in many economically developing countries. However, in order to reduce the biodegradable component of landfilled waste, mechanical and biological treatment has become a widely accepted waste treatment technology, especially in more prosperous countries. Given that mechanical and biological treatment alters the geotechnical properties of raw waste material, the design of sanitary landfills which accepts mechanically and biologically treated waste, should be carried out with a distinct set of geotechnical parameters. However, under the assumption that 'waste is waste', some design engineers might be tempted to use geotechnical parameters of untreated raw municipal solid waste and mechanical and biological pre-treated municipal solid waste interchangeably. Therefore, to provide guidelines for use and to provide an aggregated source of this information, this mini-review provides comparisons of geotechnical parameters of mechanical and biological pre-treated waste and raw untreated waste at various decomposition stages. This comparison reveals reasonable correlations between the hydraulic conductivity values of untreated and mechanical and biological pre-treated municipal solid waste. It is recognised that particle size might have a significant influence on the hydraulic conductivity of both municipal solid waste types. However, the compression ratios and shear strengths of untreated and pre-treated municipal solid waste do not show such strong correlations. Furthermore, another emerging topic that requires appropriate attention is the recovery of resources that are embedded in old landfills. Therefore, the presented results provide a valuable tool for engineers designing landfills for mechanical and biological pre-treated waste or bioreactor landfills for untreated raw

  19. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to

  20. Micro Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Kimura, F.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products. The implica......The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products...

  1. Biochemistry engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ho Nam

    1993-01-01

    This deals with biochemistry engineering with nine chapters. It explains bionics on development and prospect, basics of life science on classification and structure, enzyme and metabolism, fundamentals of chemical engineering on viscosity, shear rate, PFR, CSTR, mixing, dispersion, measurement and response, Enzyme kinetics, competitive inhibition, pH profile, temperature profile, stoichiometry and fermentation kinetics, bio-reactor on Enzyme-reactor and microorganism-reactor, measurement and processing on data acquisition and data processing, separation and purification, waste water treatment and economics of bionics process.

  2. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thorin, Marc

    1985-01-01

    Software Engineering describes the conceptual bases as well as the main methods and rules on computer programming. This book presents software engineering as a coherent and logically built synthesis and makes it possible to properly carry out an application of small or medium difficulty that can later be developed and adapted to more complex cases. This text is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental notions of entities, actions, and programming. The next two chapters elaborate on the concepts of information and consistency domains and show that a proc

  3. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Tribology, 4th Edition is an established introductory reference focusing on the key concepts and engineering implications of tribology. Taking an interdisciplinary view, the book brings together the relevant knowledge from different fields needed to achieve effective analysis and control of friction and wear. Updated to cover recent advances in tribology, this new edition includes new sections on ionic and mesogenic lubricants, surface texturing, and multiscale characterization of 3D surfaces and coatings. Current trends in nanotribology are discussed, such as those relating to

  4. Bonding effectiveness to different chemically pre-treated dental zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokoshi, Masanao; Poitevin, André; De Munck, Jan; Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different chemical pre-treatments on the bond durability to dental zirconia. Fully sintered IPS e.max ZirCAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) blocks were subjected to tribochemical silica sandblasting (CoJet, 3M ESPE). The zirconia samples were additionally pre-treated using one of four zirconia primers/adhesives (Clearfil Ceramic Primer, Kuraray Noritake; Monobond Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent; Scotchbond Universal, 3M ESPE; Z-PRIME Plus, Bisco). Finally, two identically pre-treated zirconia blocks were bonded together using composite cement (RelyX Ultimate, 3M ESPE). The specimens were trimmed at the interface to a cylindrical hourglass and stored in distilled water (7 days, 37 °C), after which they were randomly tested as is or subjected to mechanical ageing involving cyclic tensile stress (10 N, 10 Hz, 10,000 cycles). Subsequently, the micro-tensile bond strength was determined, and SEM fractographic analysis performed. Weibull analysis revealed the highest Weibull scale and shape parameters for the 'Clearfil Ceramic Primer/mechanical ageing' combination. Chemical pre-treatment of CoJet (3M ESPE) sandblasted zirconia using Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) and Monobond Plus (Ivoclar Vivadent) revealed a significantly higher bond strength than when Scotchbond Universal (3M ESPE) and Z-PRIME Plus (Bisco) were used. After ageing, Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) revealed the most stable bond durability. Combined mechanical/chemical pre-treatment, the latter with either Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) or Monobond Plus (Ivoclar Vivadent), resulted in the most durable bond to zirconia. As a standard procedure to durably bond zirconia to tooth tissue, the application of a combined 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate/silane ceramic primer to zirconia is clinically highly recommended.

  5. Lignocellulose pretreatment severity – relating pH to biomatrix opening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    different pH values, temperatures, types of catalysts, and holding times. The consequences of the pretreatment on lignocellulosic biomass are described with special emphasis on the chemical alterations of the biomass during pretreatment, especially highlighting the significance of the pretreatment pH. We...... present a new illustration of the pretreatment effects encompassing the differential responses to the pH and temperature. A detailed evaluation of the use of severity factor calculations for pretreatment comparisons signifies that the multiple effects of different pretreatment factors on the subsequent...... the hydrolysis yields (glucose, xylose) and the pretreatment pH, but no correlation with the pretreatment temperature (90–200 °C). A better recognition and understanding of the factors affecting biomatrix opening, and use of more standardized evaluation protocols, will allow for the identification of new...

  6. Literature review of physical and chemical pretreatment processes for lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Huijgen, W.; Bermudez, L.; Bakker, R.

    2010-01-01

    Different pretreatment technologies published in public literature are described in terms of the mechanisms involved, advantages and disadvantages, and economic assessment. Pretreatment technologies for lignocellulosic biomass include biological, mechanical, chemical methods and various combinations

  7. Sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) for robust enzymatic saccharification of hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. S. Wang; X. J. Pan; Junyong Zhu; Roland Gleisner; D. Rockwood

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrates sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) for robust bioconversion of hardwoods. With only about 4% sodium bisulfite charge on aspen and 30-min pretreatment at temperature 180[...

  8. Comparison of dilute mineral and organic acid pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Beeftink, H.H.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiencies of fumaric, maleic, and sulfuric acid in wheat straw pretreatment were compared. As a measure for pretreatment efficiency, enzymatic digestibility of the lignocellulose was determined. Monomeric glucose and xylose concentrations were measured after subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis,

  9. The assessment of advanced pre-treatment chains. TO2 Advanced pre-treatment of biomass; Task A3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, K.P.H.; Annevelink, E.; Keijsers, E.R.P.

    2016-01-01

    The overall objective of the TO2 project ‘Advanced pre-treatment of biomass’ was to design optimal energy-driven refinery chains for the susta inable valorization of non-woody biomass to biobased commodities. Therefore optimal combination s need to be found of upstream biorefining and the production

  10. Pretreating wheat straw by the concentrated phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP): Investigations on pretreatment conditions and structure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Hu, Jinguang; Shen, Fei; Mei, Zili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Hu, Yaodong; Zhang, Jing; Deng, Shihuai

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by PHP (the concentrated H3PO4 plus H2O2) to clarify effects of temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion on hemicellulose removal, delignification, cellulose recovery and enzymatic digestibility. Overall, hemicellulose removal was intensified by PHP comparing to the concentrated H3PO4. Moreover, efficient delignification specially happened in PHP pretreatment. Hemicellulose removal and delignification by PHP positively responded to temperature and time. Increasing H3PO4 proportion in PHP can promote hemicellulose removal, however, decrease the delignification. Maximum hemicellulose removal and delignification were achieved at 100% and 83.7% by PHP. Enzymatic digestibility of PHP-pretreated wheat straw was greatly improved by increasing temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion, and complete hydrolysis can be achieved consequently. As temperature of 30-40°C, time of 2.0 h and H3PO4 proportion of 60% were employed, more than 92% cellulose was retained in the pretreated wheat straw, and 29.1-32.6g glucose can be harvested from 100g wheat straw. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synergistic benefits of ionic liquid and alkaline pretreatments of poplar wood. Part 1: effect of integrated pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tong-Qi; Wang, Wei; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-09-01

    An environmentally friendly pretreatment process was developed to fractionate hemicelluloses and lignin from poplar wood by ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment coupled with mild alkaline extraction. Hemicellulosic and lignin fractions were obtained in high yields, amounting to 59.3% and 74.4%, respectively, which can served as raw materials for production of value-added products. The yield of glucose for the integrated pretreated poplar wood was 99.2%, while it was just 19.2% for the untreated material. The synergistic benefits of the removal of lignin and hemicelluloses, the increase of the cellulose surface area, and the conversion of cellulose fibers from the cellulose I to the cellulose II crystal phase resulted in the high glucose yield for the integrated pretreated substrate. Therefore, the IL based biorefining strategy proposed can integrate biofuels production into a biorefinery scheme in which the major components of poplar wood can be converted into value-added products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Combustion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ragland, Kenneth W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Combustion Engineering The Nature of Combustion Combustion Emissions Global Climate Change Sustainability World Energy Production Structure of the Book   Section I: Basic Concepts Fuels Gaseous Fuels Liquid Fuels Solid Fuels Problems Thermodynamics of Combustion Review of First Law Concepts Properties of Mixtures Combustion StoichiometryChemical EnergyChemical EquilibriumAdiabatic Flame TemperatureChemical Kinetics of CombustionElementary ReactionsChain ReactionsGlobal ReactionsNitric Oxide KineticsReactions at a Solid SurfaceProblemsReferences  Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized FuelsFlamesLaminar Premixed FlamesLaminar Flame TheoryTurbulent Premixed FlamesExplosion LimitsDiffusion FlamesGas-Fired Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Balance and EfficiencyFuel SubstitutionResidential Gas BurnersIndustrial Gas BurnersUtility Gas BurnersLow Swirl Gas BurnersPremixed-Charge Engine CombustionIntroduction to the Spark Ignition EngineEngine EfficiencyOne-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-...

  13. Metabolic Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    and in vitro to be able to alter properties of the encoded enzyme, and (6) assemble an array of genes for their expression inside the host cell. Although bacteria and yeast are the pioneering hosts for metabolic engineering, other organisms such as fungi, animal as well as plant cells are also used nowadays for similar experi ...

  14. Metabolic Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Metabolic engineering is a process for modulating the me- tabolism of the organisms so as to produce the required amounts of the desired metabolite through genetic manipula- tions. Considering its advantages over the other chemical synthesis routes, this area of biotechnology is likely to revolu- tionize the way in which ...

  15. Sound engineer

    CERN Document Server

    Mara, Wil

    2015-01-01

    "Readers will learn what it takes to succeed as a sound engineer. The book also explains the necessary educational steps, useful character traits, potential hazards, and daily job tasks related to this career. Sidebars include thought-provoking trivia. Questions in the backmatter ask for text-dependent analysis. Photos, a glossary, and additional resources are included."-- Provided by publisher.

  16. The Impact of Post-Pretreatment Conditioning on Enzyme Accessibility and Water Interactions in Alkali Pretreated Rice Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuna, Nardrapee

    Rice straw, a high-abundance lignocellulosic residue from rice production has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biofuel production in California. In this study, the impact of post-alkali pretreatment conditioning schemes on enzyme saccharification efficiency was examined, particularly focusing on understanding resulting biomass compositional impacts on water interactions with the biomass and enzyme accessibility to the cellulose fraction. Rice straw was pretreated with sodium hydroxide and subsequently washed by two different conditions: 1) by extensive washing with distilled water to reduce the pH to the optimum for cellulases which is pH 5--6, and 2) immediate pH adjustment to pH 5--6 with hydrochloric acid before extensive washing with distilled water. The two post-pretreatment conditions gave significant differences in ash, acid-insoluble lignin, glucan and xylan compositions. Alkali pretreatment improved cellulase digestibility of rice straw, and water washing improved enzymatic digestibility more than neutralization. Hydrolysis reactions with a purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A, a reducing-end specific cellulase, demonstrated that the differences in saccharification are likely due to differences in the accessibility of the cellulose fraction to the cellulolytic enzymes. Further analyses were conducted to study the mobility of the water associated with the rice straw samples by measuring T2 relaxation times of the water protons by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxometry. Results showed significant changes in water association with the rice straw due to the pretreatment and due to the two different post-pretreatment conditions. Pretreatment increased the amount of water at the surface of the rice straw samples as indicated by increased amplitude of the shortest T2 time peaks in the relaxation spectra. Moreover, the amount of water in the first T2 pool in the water washed sample was significantly greater than in the neutralized sample. These

  17. 40 CFR 455.46 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pretreated at the facility. The Control Authority may waive pretreatment for these two wastewaters only if... Authority at the time of renewing or modifying its individual control mechanism or pretreatment agreement of... Authority an initial certification statement as described in § 455.41(a); (3) The discharger will submit to...

  18. Comparisons of five Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from SPORL pretreated lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haifeng Zhou; Tianqing Lan; Bruce S. Dien; Ronald E. Hector; J.Y. Zhu

    2014-01-01

    The performances of five yeast strains under three levels of toxicity were evaluated using hydrolysates from lodgepole pine pretreated by Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL). The highest level of toxicity was represented by the whole pretreated biomass slurry, while intermediate toxicity was represented by the...

  19. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan B. Kristensen; G. Thygesen Lisbeth; Claus Felby; Henning Jorgensen; Thomas Elder

    2008-01-01

    Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw...

  20. Methods for producing extracted and digested products from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo Da Costa; Cheh, Albert M.; Balan; , Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce

    2017-05-16

    Methods for producing extracted and digested products from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass are provided. The methods include converting native cellulose I.sub..beta. to cellulose III.sub.I by pretreating the lignocellulosic biomass with liquid ammonia under certain conditions, and performing extracting or digesting steps on the pretreated/converted lignocellulosic biomass.

  1. Biological pretreatment of corn stover with white-rot fungus for improved enzymatic hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass by white-rot fungus can represent a low-cost and eco-friendly alternative to harsh physical, chemical or physico-chemical pretreatment methods to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis. However, fungal pretreatment can cause carbohydrate loss and it is, th...

  2. Factors affecting seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic date palm residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Chuanji; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Frankaer, Christian Grundahl

    2017-01-01

    Seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is an innovative process at research stage. With respect to process optimization, factors affecting seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic date palm residues were studied for the first time in this paper. Pretreatment temperature (180...

  3. Comparisons of five Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for ethanol production from SPORL pretreated lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performances of 5 yeast strains under three levels of toxicity were evaluated using hydrolysates from lodgepole pine pretreated by Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL). The highest level of toxicity was represented by the whole pretreated biomass slurry, ...

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability of corn stover pretreated by lactic acid and/or acetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    Four different pretreatments with and without addition of low concentration organic acids were carried out on corn stover at 195 °C for 15 min. The highest xylan recovery of 81.08% was obtained after pretreatment without acid catalyst and the lowest of 58.78% after pretreatment with both acetic...

  5. Substrate-Specific Development of Thermophilic Bacterial Consortia by Using Chemically Pretreated Switchgrass

    OpenAIRE

    Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Joshua, Chijioke; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities that deconstruct plant biomass have broad relevance in biofuel production and global carbon cycling. Biomass pretreatments reduce plant biomass recalcitrance for increased efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. We exploited these chemical pretreatments to study how thermophilic bacterial consortia adapt to deconstruct switchgrass (SG) biomass of various compositions. Microbial communities were adapted to untreated, ammonium fiber expansion (AFEX)-pretreated, and ionic-liqui...

  6. Comparisons of SPORL and dilute acid pretreatments for sugar and ethanol productions from aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Tian; W. Zhu; Roland Gleisner; X.J. Pan; Junyong Zhu

    2011-01-01

    This study reports comparative evaluations of sugar and ethanol production from a native aspen (Populus tremuloides) between sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) and dilute acid (DA) pretreatments. All aqueous pretreatments were carried out in a laboratory wood pulping digester using wood chips at 170°C with a liquid to...

  7. Comparative study of SPORL and dilute-acid pretreatments of spruce for cellulosic ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Shuai; Q. Yang; Junyong Zhu; F.C. Lu; P.J. Weimer; J. Ralph; X.L. Pan

    2010-01-01

    The performance of two pretreatment methods, sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) and dilute acid (DA), was compared in pretreating softwood (spruce) for fuel ethanol production at 180C for 30 min with a sulfuric acid loading of 5% on oven-dry wood and a 5:1 liquor to-wood ratio. SPORL was supplemented with 9% sodium...

  8. Comparison of gamma irradiation and steam explosion pretreatment for ethanol production from agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke-qin; Xiong, Xing-yao; Chen, Jing-ping; Chen, Liang; Su, Xiaojun; Liu, Yun

    2012-01-01

    It was evaluated the influence of gamma irradiation and steam explosion pretreatment on the components and the water-soluble sugars of rice straw. Compared with the steam explosion pretreated rice straw, cellucose, hemicellucose and lignin for irradiation pretreated rice sample were much more greatly degraded and the relative content of glucose was significantly enhanced from 6.58% to 47.44%. Interestingly, no glucuronide acid was detected in irradiation pretreated rice straw, while glucuronide acid with the content from 8.5 mg/g to 9.2 mg/g was obtained in steam explosion pretreated sample. Followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, higher concentration of reducing sugars (including glucose and xylose) of irradiation pretreated rice sample (90.3 mg/g) was obtained, which was approximately 2.4- and 1.1- fold higher of the unpretreated (37.2 mg/g) and of steam explosion pretreated sample (85.4 mg/g). To further verify the effectiveness of irradiation pretreatment, characterizations of rice straw, corn stalk and bagasse by an integrated process of dilute acid/enzymatic hydrolysis and irradiation pretreatment were also investigated. -- Highlights: ► We compare irradiation and steam explosion pretreatments for bioethanol production. ► We examine changes in compositions of the components and the water-soluble sugars. ► No glucuronide acid was detected in gamma irradiation pretreated rice straw. ► We evaluate an integrated method of acid/enzyme-hydrolyzed irradiation pretreatment.

  9. Engineering Review Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  10. Engine Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    air seal for long life turbine engine. AIAA - 81 - 1440 4.- STEWART P.A.E., BRASNETT K.A., The contribution of dynamic x - ray to gas turbine air...trio exigeant A ce nivoau. Los calculo 4’int~gration du syotime adjoint sont trio p~nalisanto en tempo de calcul. LuA vatu g.aeh d & apt~If adjoint

  11. Robot engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-01

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  12. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  13. Web Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Bebo

    2003-06-23

    Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper gives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: (a) why is it needed? (b) what is its domain of operation? (c) how does it help and what should it do to improve Web application development? and (d) how should it be incorporated in education and training? The paper discusses the significant differences that exist between Web applications and conventional software, the taxonomy of Web applications, the progress made so far and the research issues and experience of creating a specialization at the master's level. The paper reaches a conclusion that Web Engineering at this stage is a moving target since Web technologies are constantly evolving, making new types of applications possible, which in turn may require innovations in how they are built, deployed and maintained.

  14. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  15. Biomass torrefaction: A promising pretreatment technology for biomass utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, ZhiWen; Wang, Mingfeng; Ren, Yongzhi; Jiang, Enchen; Jiang, Yang; Li, Weizhen

    2018-02-01

    Torrefaction is an emerging technology also called mild pyrolysis, which has been explored for the pretreatment of biomass to make the biomass more favorable for further utilization. Dry torrefaction (DT) is a pretreatment of biomass in the absence of oxygen under atmospheric pressure and in a temperature range of 200-300 degrees C, while wet torrrefaction (WT) is a method in hydrothermal or hot and high pressure water at the tempertures within 180-260 degrees C. Torrrefied biomass is hydrophobic, with lower moisture contents, increased energy density and higher heating value, which are more comparable to the characteristics of coal. With the improvement in the properties, torrefied biomass mainly has three potential applications: combustion or co-firing, pelletization and gasification. Generally, the torrefaction technology can accelerate the development of biomass utilization technology and finally realize the maximum applications of biomass energy.

  16. Apple's dehydration by the irradiation pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie; Chao Yan; Shen Weiqiao; Wang Jun

    2001-01-01

    60 Co γ-ray irradiation was used as a pre-treatment method to dry the apple. The aim of this study was to discover the effect factor concerning the change of the apple cell structure which would affect the speed of drhydration and the relation between the speed of hot air dehydration and the irradiation dose. The results demonstrated that with the increasing of irradiation dose. The damage of apple's vacuole membrane increased. The positive correlation was shown in slice thickness and dehydration rate, the relation of the irradiation dose and the temperature of hot air was negatively correlated. The optimum of pre-treatment was gained for slice thickness, the irradiation dose and dry temperature of hot air. (authors)

  17. Feasibilities of consolidated bioprocessing microbes: from pretreatment to biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisutham, Vinuselvi; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Sung Kuk

    2014-06-01

    Lignocelluloses are rich sugar treasures, which can be converted to useful commodities such as biofuel with the help of efficient combination of enzymes and microbes. Although several bioprocessing approaches have been proposed, biofuel production from lignocelluloses is limited because of economically infeasible technologies for pretreatment, saccharification and fermentation. Use of consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) microbes is the most promising method for the cost-effective production of biofuels. However, lignocelluloses are obtained from highly diverse environment and hence are heterogeneous in nature. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and integrate tailor-designed pretreatment processes and efficient microbes that can thrive on many different kinds of biomass. In this review, the progress towards the construction of consolidated bioprocessing microbes, which can efficiently convert heterogeneous lignocellulosic biomass to bioenergy, has been discussed; in addition, the potential and constraints of current bioprocessing technologies for cellulosic biofuel production have been discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chitosan pretreatment for cotton dyeing with black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, J.; Díaz-García, P.; Montava, I.; Bonet-Aracil, M.; Bou-Belda, E.

    2017-10-01

    Chitosan is used in a wide range of applications due to its intrinsic properties. Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin and among their most important aspects highlights its bonding with cotton and its antibacterial properties. In this study two different molecular weight chitosan are used in the dyeing process of cotton with black tea to evaluate its influence. In order to evaluate the effect of the pretreatment with chitosan, DSC and reflection spectrophotometer analysis are performed. The curing temperature is evaluated by the DSC analysis of cotton fabric treated with 15 g/L of chitosan, whilst the enhancement of the dyeing is evaluated by the colorimetric coordinates and the K/S value obtained spectrophotometrically. This study shows the extent of improvement of the pretreatment with chitosan in dyeing with natural products as black tea.

  19. Microwave Pretreatment for Thiourea Leaching for Gold Concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nag-Choul Choi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we studied the use of microwave pretreatment to enhance the efficiency of Au leaching from gold concentrate. The gold concentrate was pretreated using microwaves with different irradiation time. The sample temperature was increased up to 950 °C by the microwave irradiation. A scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer showed the evolution of microcracks and the reduction of sulfur on the mineral surface. X-ray diffraction data also showed the mineral phase shift from pyrite to hematite or pyrrhotite. A leaching test was conducted for the microwave-treated and untreated gold concentrates using thiourea. Although the thiourea leaching recovered 80% of Au from the untreated concentrate, from the treated concentration, the Au could be recovered completely. Au leaching efficiency increased as the microwave irradiation time increased, as well as with a higher composition of thiourea.

  20. PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Janušić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is today most commonly produced from corn grain and sugar cane. It is expected that there will be limits to the supply of these raw materials in the near future. Therefore, lignocellulosic biomass, namely agricultural and forest waste, is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of ethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass consists of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Indeed, complexicity of the lignocellulosic biomass structure causes a pretreatment to be applied prior to cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis into fermentable sugars. Pretreatment technologies can be physical (mechanical comminution, pyrolysis, physico-chemical (steam explosion, ammonia fiber explosion, CO2 explosion, chemical (ozonolysis, acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis, oxidative delignification, organosolvent process and biological ones.

  1. Pretreatment Technologies of Lignocellulosic Materials in Bioethanol Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Rusdi Hidayat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is one type of biofuel that developed significantly. The utilization of bioethanol is not only limited for fuel, but also could be used as material for various industries such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food. With wide utilization and relatively simple production technology has made bioethanol as the most favored biofuel currently. The use of lignocellulosic biomass, microalgae, seaweeds, even GMO (Genetically modified organisms as substrates for bioethanol production has been widely tested. Differences in the materials eventually led to change in the production technology used. Pretreatment technology in the bioethanol production using lignocellulosic currently experiencing rapid development. It is a key process and crucial for the whole next steps. Based on the advantages and disadvantages from all methods, steam explotion and liquid hot water methods are the most promising  pretreatment technology available.

  2. Saccharification of gamma-ray and alkali pretreated lignocellulosics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, A.; Choudhury, N.

    1988-01-01

    Enzymic saccharification of gamma ray and alkali pretreated sawdust, rice straw, and sugar cane bagasse showed higher release of reducing sugar from pretreated substrates. By gamma ray treatment alone (500 kGy) reducing sugar release of 2.8, 9.2, and 10 g/l was obtained from 7.5% (w/v) sawdust, rice straw, and bagasse and the same substrates showed reducing sugar release of 4.2, 30, and 20 g/l respectively when treated with alkali (0.1 g/g). Combination of gamma ray with alkali treatment further increased the reducing sugar release to 10.2, 33, and 36 g/l from sawdust, rice straw, and bagasse respectively. The effects of gamma ray and alkali treatment on saccharification varied with the nature of the substrate

  3. A real explosion: the requirement of steam explosion pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhengdao; Zhang, Bailiang; Yu, Fuqiang; Xu, Guizhuan; Song, Andong

    2012-10-01

    The severity factor is a common term used in steam explosion (SE) pretreatment that describes the combined effects of the temperature and duration of the pretreatment. However, it ignores the duration of the explosion process. This paper describes a new parameter, the explosion power density (EPD), which is independent of the severity factor. Furthermore, we present the adoption of a 5m(3) SE model for a catapult explosion mode, which completes the explosion within 0.0875 s. The explosion duration ratio of this model to a conventional model of the same volume is 1:123. The comparison between the two modes revealed a qualitative change by explosion speed, demonstrating that this real explosion satisfied the two requirements of consistency, and suggested a guiding mechanism for the design of SE devices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrolytic pretreatment of oily wastewater by immobilized lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeganathan, Jeganaesan; Nakhla, George; Bassi, Amarjeet

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydrolysis of wastewater with high oil and grease (O and G) concentration from a pet food industry using immobilized lipase (IL) as a pretreatment step for anaerobic treatment through batch and continuous-flow experiments. The intrinsic Michaelis constant (K m ) and maximum reaction rate (V max ) were estimated experimentally and the K m value of IL (22.5 g O and G/L) was six-folds higher than that of the free lipase (FL) (3.6 g O and G/L), whereas V max of both FL (31.3 mM/g min) and IL (33.1 mM/g min) were similar. Preliminary batch anaerobic respirometric experiments showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) and O and G reduction were 49 and 45% without pretreatment and 65 and 64% with IL pretreatment respectively, while the maximum growth rate (μ max ) for pretreated wastewater (0.17 d -1 ) was 3.4-folds higher than that of raw wastewater (0.05 d -1 ) with similar Monod half-saturation constants (K s ∼ 2.7 g COD/L). The continuous-flow experimental study showed the feasibility of employing the hybrid packed bed reactor (PBR)-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system for the treatment of high-strength oily wastewater, as reflected by its ability to operate at an oil loading rate (LR) of 4.9 kg O and G/m 3 d (to the PBR) without any problems for a period of 100 days. During pseudo-steady-state conditions, the hybrid UASB produced relatively higher biogas compared to the control UASB, The effluent COD and O and G concentrations of hybrid system were 100 mg/L lower than that of the control UASB reactor and no foam production was observed in the hybrid UASB compared to the control UASB reactor

  5. Improving methane production using hydrodynamic cavitation as pre-treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsson, Louise

    2016-01-01

    To develop anaerobic digestion (AD), innovative solutions to increase methane yields in existing AD processes are needed. In particular, the adoption of low energy pre-treatments to enhance biomass biodegradability is needed to provide efficient digestion processes increasing profitability. To obtain these features, hydrodynamic cavitation has been evaluated as an innovative solutions for AD of waste activated sludge (WAS), food waste (FW), macro algae and grass, in comparison with steam expl...

  6. Hydrolytic pretreatment of oily wastewater by immobilized lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeganathan, Jeganaesan; Nakhla, George; Bassi, Amarjeet

    2007-06-25

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydrolysis of wastewater with high oil and grease (O&G) concentration from a pet food industry using immobilized lipase (IL) as a pretreatment step for anaerobic treatment through batch and continuous-flow experiments. The intrinsic Michaelis constant (K(m)) and maximum reaction rate (V(max)) were estimated experimentally and the K(m) value of IL (22.5g O&G/L) was six-folds higher than that of the free lipase (FL) (3.6gO&G/L), whereas V(max) of both FL (31.3mM/gmin) and IL (33.1mM/gmin) were similar. Preliminary batch anaerobic respirometric experiments showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) and O&G reduction were 49 and 45% without pretreatment and 65 and 64% with IL pretreatment respectively, while the maximum growth rate (micromax) for pretreated wastewater (0.17d(-1)) was 3.4-folds higher than that of raw wastewater (0.05d(-1)) with similar Monod half-saturation constants (K(s) approximately 2.7gCOD/L). The continuous-flow experimental study showed the feasibility of employing the hybrid packed bed reactor (PBR)-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system for the treatment of high-strength oily wastewater, as reflected by its ability to operate at an oil loading rate (LR) of 4.9kgO&G/m(3)d (to the PBR) without any problems for a period of 100days. During pseudo-steady-state conditions, the hybrid UASB produced relatively higher biogas compared to the control UASB, The effluent COD and O&G concentrations of hybrid system were 100mg/L lower than that of the control UASB reactor and no foam production was observed in the hybrid UASB compared to the control UASB reactor.

  7. Low intensity surplus activated sludge pretreatment before anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suschka Jan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge (municipal, or industrial treatment is still a problem in so far that it is not satisfactorily resolved in terms of cost and final disposal. Two common forms of sludge disposal are possible; the first being direct disposal on land (including agriculture and the second being incineration (ash production, although neither of these methods are universally applied. Simplifying the issue, direct sludge disposal on land is seldom applied for sanitary and environmental reasons, while incineration is not popular for financial (high costs reasons. Very often medium and large wastewater treatment plants apply anaerobic digestion for sludge hygiene principles, reducing the amount to be disposed and for biogas (energy production. With the progress in sewage biological treatment aiming at nutrient removal, primary sludge has been omitted in the working processes and only surplus activated sludge requires handling. Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS is more difficult due to the presence of microorganisms, the decomposition of which requires a relatively long time for hydrolysis. In order to upgrade the hydrolysis effects, several different pre-treatment processes have already been developed and introduced. The additional pre-treatment processes applied are aimed at residual sludge bulk mass minimization, shortening of the anaerobic digestion process or higher biogas production, and therefore require additional energy. The water-energy-waste Nexus (treads of of the benefits and operational difficulties, including energy costs are discussed in this paper. The intensity of pre-treatment processes to upgrade the microorganism’s hydrolysis has crucial implications. Here a low intensity pre-treatment process, alkalisation and hydrodynamic disintegration - hybrid process - were presented in order to achieve sufficient effects of WAS anaerobic digestion. A sludge digestion efficiency increase expressed as 45% biogas additional

  8. Pre-treatment of oil palm fronds biomass for gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Shaharin Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil Palm Fronds (OPF has been proven as one of the potential types of biomass feedstock for power generation. The low ash content and high calorific value are making OPF an attractive source for gasification. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of pre-treatments of OPF residual on gasification. The pre-treatments included the briquetting process and extensive drying of OPF which are studied separately. In briquetting process, the OPF were mixed with some portions of paper as an additives, leaflets, and water, to form a soupy slurry. The extensive drying of OPF needs to cut down OPF in 4–6 cm particle size and left to dry in the oven at 150°C for 24 hours. Gasification process was carried out at the end of each of the pre-treated processes. It was found that the average gas composition obtained from briquetting process was 8.07%, 2.06%, 0.54%,and 11.02% for CO, H2, CH4, and CO2 respectively. A good composition of syngas was produced from extensive dried OPF, as 16.48%, 4.03%, 0.91%,and 11.15% for CO, H2, CH4, and CO2 contents respectively. It can be concluded that pre-treatments improved the physical characteristics of biomass. The bulk density of biomass can be increased by briquetting but the stability of the structure is depending on the composition of briquette formulation. Furthermore, the stability of gasification process also depended on briquette density, mechanical strength, and formulation.

  9. ON THE NECESSITY OF MINOR ORAL SURGERY PRETREATMENT ORTHODONTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta Zegan; Daniela Anistoroaei; Loredana Golovcencu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the frequency of some minor oral surgery performed on both teeth and on the soft tissues, before any orthodontic treatment. The sample group included 587 patients (240 boys and 347 girls), divided into 3 categories. The data base was created wtih patient records, the statistical analyses being performed with the SPSS 17.0 software for Windows. The frequency of malocclusions with minor oral surgery pretreatment orthodontics was of 2...

  10. Hydrocyclones for the separation of impurities in pretreated biowaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, Anna; Müller, Wolfgang; Waldhuber, Sebastian; Gerke, Frédéric; Ebner, Christian; Bockreis, Anke

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the mechanical pretreatment in case of anaerobic digestion of biowaste is to produce a substrate without impurities. To facilitate a failure free operation of the anaerobic digestion process even small impurities like stones or sand should be separated. As a result of an insufficient pretreatment or impurities separation, plant malfunctions, increased equipment wear or pipe clogging are reported. Apart from grit chambers or pulper systems, a hydrocyclone is a cost-efficient and space-saving option to remove impurities. The aim of this work was to investigate the efficiency of hydrocyclones for the separation of impurities. Two hydrocyclones at two different plants were investigated regarding their capability to separate the small inert impurities from pretreated source separated biowaste. In plant A, the hydrocyclone is part of the digester system. In plant B, the hydrocyclone is part of the biowaste pretreatment line (after milling and sieving the biowaste) before digestion. Separation rates of inert impurities such as stones, glass and sand were determined as well as the composition of the concentrated solids separated by the hydrocyclone. Due to the heterogeneity of the biowaste the impurity separation rates showed variations, therefore the following mean results were obtained in average: the investigated hydrocyclones of plant B, part of the biowaste treatment, separated more than 80% of the inert impurities in the waste stream before anaerobic digestion. These impurities had a size range of 0.5-4mm. The hydrocyclone integrated in the digester system of plant A showed separation rates up to 80% only in the size range of 2-4mm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Techno-economic analysis of organosolv pretreatment process from lignocellulosic biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues Gurgel da Silva, Andrè; Errico, Massimiliano; Rong, Ben-Guang

    2018-01-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol is a promising alternative to replace liquid fossil fuels for the transportation sector in the near future. Organosolv pretreatment has been tested as a method for separating lignin from the biomass and commercializing it as a biopolymer. Based on published laboratory scale...... data, we propose a feasible process flowsheet for organosolv pretreatment. Simulation of the pretreatment process provided mass and energy balances for a techno-economic analysis, and the values were compared with the most prevalent and mature pretreatment method: diluted acid. Organosolv pretreatment...

  12. Making lignin accessible for anaerobic digestion by wet-explosion pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Biswas, Rajib; Ahamed, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    of lignin during anaerobic digestion processes. The pretreatment of feedlot manure was performed in a 10 L reactor at 170 C for 25 min using 4 bars oxygen and the material was fed to a continuous stirred tank reactor operated at 55 C for anaerobic digestion. Methane yield of untreated and pretreated...... material was 70 ± 27 and 320 ± 36 L/kg-VS/day, respectively, or 4.5 times higher yield as a result of the pretreatment. Aliphatic acids formed during the pretreatment were utilized by microbes. 44.4% lignin in pretreated material was actually converted in the anaerobic digestion process compared to 12...

  13. Engineered CVD Diamond Coatings for Machining and Tribological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumpala, Ravikumar; Chandran, Maneesh; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2015-07-01

    Diamond is an allotropes of carbon and is unique because of its extreme hardness (~100 GPa), low friction coefficient (WC-Co) substrates were discussed with an emphasis on WC-Co grade selection, substrate pretreatment, nanocrystallinity and microcrystallinity of the coating, mechanical and tribological characteristics, coating architecture, and interfacial adhesion integrity. Engineered coating substrate architecture is essential for CVD diamond coatings to perform well under harsh and highly abrasive machining and tribological conditions.

  14. Microstructural study of pre-treated and enzymatic hydrolyzed bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funsho O. KOLAWOLE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo was used as biomass feedstock which was pre-treated using dilute acid hydrolysis followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The bamboo was mechanical ground to particle sizes 212–500µm, followed by pre-treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at a concentration of 0.5 and 1.0 (%v/v at temperatures of 25, 110, 120, 150 and 200°C with time intervals of 2 and 4 hours. Pre-hydrolyzate was later analyzed for reducing sugar using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Under the above conditions, a maximum glucose yield of 153.1 mg/g was obtained at 200°C and acid concentrations of 1% for 4 hours. Water insoluble solids obtained were subsequently hydrolyzed with Celluclast (Trichoderma reesi and β-glucosidase (Novozyme 188 for 72 hours. Optical Microscope and ESEM images of bamboo samples were obtained at various stages of pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Result reveals a breakdown in the ligno-cellulosic structure of the bamboo during exposure to dilute acid and enzymatic hydrolysis.

  15. Ultrasound pretreatment of filamentous algal biomass for enhanced biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwanyong; Chantrasakdakul, Phrompol; Kim, Daegi; Kong, Mingeun; Park, Ki Young

    2014-06-01

    The filamentous alga Hydrodictyon reticulatum harvested from a bench-scale wastewater treatment pond was used to evaluate biogas production after ultrasound pretreatment. The effects of ultrasound pretreatment at a range of 10-5000 J/mL were tested with harvested H. reticulatum. Cell disruption by ultrasound was successful and showed a higher degree of disintegration at a higher applied energy. The range of 10-5000 J/mL ultrasound was able to disintegrated H. reticulatum and the soluble COD was increased from 250 mg/L to 1000 mg/L at 2500 J/mL. The disintegrated algal biomass was digested for biogas production in batch experiments. Both cumulative gas generation and volatile solids reduction data were obtained during the digestion. Cell disintegration due to ultrasound pretreatment increased the specific biogas production and degradation rates. Using the ultrasound approach, the specific methane production at a dose of 40 J/mL increased up to 384 mL/g-VS fed that was 2.3 times higher than the untreated sample. For disintegrated samples, the volatile solids reduction was greater with increased energy input, and the degradation increased slightly to 67% at a dose of 50 J/mL. The results also indicate that disintegration of the algal cells is the essential step for efficient anaerobic digestion of algal biomass. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Misonidazole radiosensitization in vivo: A therapeutic gain by penicillin pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, P.W.; Clarke, C.; Dawson, K.B.; Simpson, W.; Simmons, D.J.C.; Adams, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    Because intestinal microflora have the potential to metabolize nitroimidazole compounds (possibly to toxic species), the authors investigated their influence on the pharmacological, neurotoxic and radiosensitizing properties of misonidazole (MIS) in mice. This was done by comparing the responses obtained in 'normal' mice to those obtained in mice whose microflora had been depleted by pretreatment for 7-14 days with penicillin (PEN) at the rate of 0.5g/1 of drinking water. Bacteriological studies showed this treatment to C57B1 mice eliminated more than 99% of the flora from the caeca and, furthermore, this efficacy of penicillin was not interfered with by MIS administered IP at 0.3mg/g between days 7-14. This pretreatment resulted not only in the elimination of the caecal flora, but also in an increase in the pharmacokinetic exposure to MIS, an increase in Lewis lung tumour radiosensitization by MIS and a decrease in MIS-induced neurotoxicity. The authors conclude pretreatment with PEN can give a therapeutic gain with MIS radiosensitization. Further, assuming no direct interaction between the PEN and MIS, these findings indicate that the intestinal flora may produce neurotoxic species by their metabolism of MIS

  17. Pretreatment of textile dyeing wastewater using an anoxic baffled reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Huoliang; Wu, Huifang

    2008-11-01

    A study on pretreatment of textile dyeing wastewater was carried out using an anoxic baffled reactor (ABR) at wastewater temperatures of 5-31.1 degrees C. When hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 8h, the color of outflow of ABR was only 40 times at 5 degrees C and it could satisfy the professional discharge standard (grade-1) of textile and dyeing industry of China (GB4287-92). The total COD removal efficiency of ABR was 34.6%, 47.5%, 50.0%, 53.3%, 54.7% and 58.1% at 5, 9.7, 14.9, 19.7, 23.5 and 31.1 degrees C, respectively. Besides, after the wastewater being pre-treated by ABR when HRT was 6h and 8h, the BOD5/COD value rose from 0.30 of inflow to 0.46 of outflow and from 0.30 of inflow to 0.40 of outflow, respectively. Experimental results indicated that ABR was a very feasible process to decolorize and pre-treat the textile dyeing wastewater at ambient temperature. Moreover, a kinetic simulation of organic matter degradation in ABR at six different wastewater temperatures was carried through. The kinetic analysis showed the organic matter degradation was a first-order reaction. The reaction activation energy was 19.593 kJ mol(-1) and the temperature coefficient at 5-31.1 degrees C was 1.028.

  18. The pretreatment cost of a pyroprocess facility in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. K.; Youn, S. R.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. J.; Ko, W. I.

    2015-01-01

    Shale gas still has many disadvantages such as significant technological difficulties and high costs even when the fracking technology is used to extract shale gas since shale gas is dispersed widely. Moreover, it is estimated that the shale gas can be used for about 60 years, which is comparable to the period estimated for oil deposits. Another concern is that the climate may change due to the discharge of harmful gas produced during the gas extraction process. PRIDE facility producing 10 ton/year uranium ingot was set as the cost object for the cost estimation, and it was possible to increase cost calculation's accuracy level since labor cost and expenses incurred in this facility were the costs incurred in actuality. In the end, First-In, First Out process costing method was used to calculate the pretreatment cost of pyroprocess. According to the cost calculation results, the pretreatment cost was estimated as $195/kgHM and the cost share of the pretreatment of pyroprocess was calculated as 20%. Accordingly, electrochemical reduction process is the process requires most cost, followed by the cost of electro-winning process

  19. Technological pretreatment of the synchysite non-oxidized ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkhtsetseg, B.; Burmaa, G.

    2013-06-01

    Mongolia has rich deposits of rare, precious, and poly-metallic ores. Nowadays, it is important to research separation of rare earth elements oxides concentrates from the ores, analyze their unique physical chemical characteristics, and purified it. Our investigation on raw materials focuses on rare earth non-oxidized ores. Main mineral in this rock sample is Synchysite (LnCa(CO3)2F. We did technological and thermal pretreatment: direct sulphurization (H2SO4), sulphurization with subsequent roasting (800°C+H2SO4), sulphurization prior to roasting (H2SO4+650°C). Sulphurization method based on dissolution of rare earth mineral into sulfuric acid (93%) according to the reaction. The amount of rare earth element oxides is almost 10 times greater (29.16%) after direct sulphurization process, almost 8 times greater (21.14%) after sulphurization with subsequent roasting, and almost 20 times greater (44.62%) after sulphurization prior to roasting process. After those technological pretreatment raw material's micro elements Thorium and Uranium contents are reduced as follows: H2SO4>800°C+H2SO4>H2SO4+650°C. These results show that cerium group rare earth elements have very good solubility in water at +2°C temperature and decreasing micro elements content uranium and thorium good pretreatment condition is prior to roasting (H2SO4+650°C) of synchysite non-oxidized ore.

  20. [Advances in research on mechanisms of seed pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Liu, Juan; Liu, Qian; Gao, Ya Ni; Wang, Quan Zhen

    2016-11-18

    Seeds play a vital role in nature and agro-ecosystems. The success of seed germination and the establishment of a normal seedling determine the propagation and survival of a plant species, but seed vigor is often seriously damaged because of seed aging, dormancy and the deterioration of natural habitat. Thus, exploring methods for improving germination quality is of great significance to ecology and the economy. Based on the latest international reports, seed pre-treatments are the most practical and effective methods for improving plant performance, increasing yields and enhancing stress resistance. This review provided a summary of the current pre-sowing treatment technologies and the physiological and biochemical responses of plants to these methods by addressing gene expression, cytological effects, enzyme system activities, material and energy metabolism, antioxidation mechanisms and signal transduction pathways. We also interpreted the mechanisms of the seed pre-treatment methods from aspects of seed germination acceleration and stress resistance enhancement. The bottleneck in seed pre-treatments at the cytological and molecular levels and the problems involved in their application were also discussed. Thus far, most studies had largely focused on the partial reaction alterations of plant biochemistry and enzyme activities, and they had generally been characterized by a lack of systematic and holistic study for applications to crop production. Finally, we proposed an outlook for further study in an attempt to provide a prospective and scientific reference for plant germplasm conservation, high-efficiency organic agriculture development and ecological environment re-construction.

  1. Description of waste pretreatment and interfacing systems dynamic simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbrick, D.J.; Zimmerman, B.D.

    1995-05-01

    The Waste Pretreatment and Interfacing Systems Dynamic Simulation Model was created to investigate the required pretreatment facility processing rates for both high level and low level waste so that the vitrification of tank waste can be completed according to the milestones defined in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). In order to achieve this objective, the processes upstream and downstream of the pretreatment facilities must also be included. The simulation model starts with retrieval of tank waste and ends with vitrification for both low level and high level wastes. This report describes the results of three simulation cases: one based on suggested average facility processing rates, one with facility rates determined so that approximately 6 new DSTs are required, and one with facility rates determined so that approximately no new DSTs are required. It appears, based on the simulation results, that reasonable facility processing rates can be selected so that no new DSTs are required by the TWRS program. However, this conclusion must be viewed with respect to the modeling assumptions, described in detail in the report. Also included in the report, in an appendix, are results of two sensitivity cases: one with glass plant water recycle steams recycled versus not recycled, and one employing the TPA SST retrieval schedule versus a more uniform SST retrieval schedule. Both recycling and retrieval schedule appear to have a significant impact on overall tank usage.

  2. Mechanism of melphalan crosslink enhancement by misonidazole pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Y.C.; Sawyer, J.M.; Hsu, B.; Brown, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Sensitization of Chinese hamster ovary cells to melphalan (L-PAM) toxicity by prior treatment with misonidazole is associated with increased levels of DNA crosslinks believed to be the critical lesion for bifunctional alkylating agent toxicity. Enhanced L-PAM crosslinking of DNA could occur by a variety of mechanisms in MISO-pretreated cells including: (1) increased transport or binding of L-PAM, (2) decreased repair of L-PAM monoadducts which would allow more time for their conversion to crosslinks, (3) decreased crosslink repair (unhooking of one arm), or (4) chemical modification of the DNA structure, presumably by bound MISO derivatives, such that crosslink formation is facilitated. Previous studies have eliminated mechanisms (1) and (3). Mechanism (4) was investigated by following MISO-pretreatments of whole cells with L-PAM treatments of the isolated DNA from these cells. Treatment of bare DNA with L-PAM modeled very well the crosslinking behavior in whole cells although it was somewhat more efficient. In the presence of double stranded DNA and absence of repair systems during and after the L-PAM exposure, it was determined that MISO-pretreatments did not increase the crosslinking efficiency of L-PAM

  3. Acid Pretreatment of Sago Wastewater for Biohydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illi Mohamad Puad, Noor; Rahim, Nurainin Farhan Abd; Suhaida Azmi, Azlin

    2018-03-01

    Biohydrogen has been recognized to be one of the future renewable energy sources and has the potential in solving the greenhouse effects. In this study, Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogenes) was used as the biohydrogen producer via dark fermentation process using sago wastewater as the substrate. However, pretreatment of sago wastewater is required since it consists of complex sugars that cannot be utilized directly by the bacteria. This study aimed to use acid pretreatment method to produce high amount of glucose from sago wastewater. Three different types of acid: sulfuric acid (H2SO4); hydrochloric acid (HCl) and nitric acid (HNO3) were screened for the best acid in producing a maximum amount of glucose. H2SO4 gave the highest amount of glucose which was 9.406 g/L. Design of experiment was done using Face-centred Central Composite Design (FCCCD) tool under Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in Design Expert 9 software. The maximum glucose (9.138 g/L) was recorded using 1 M H2SO4 at 100 °C for 60 min. A batch dark fermentation using E. aerogenes was carried out and it was found that pretreated sago wastewater gave a higher hydrogen concentration (1700 ppm) compared to the raw wastewater (410 ppm).

  4. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on delignification of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Umar; Irfan, Muhammad; Iram, Mehvish; Huma, Zile; Nelofer, Rubina; Nadeem, Muhammad; Syed, Quratulain

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyse structural changes through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) after alkaline pretreatment of wheat straw for optimum steaming period. During the study, 2 mm size of substrate was soaked in 2.5% NaOH for 1 h at room temperature and then autoclaved at 121°C for various steaming time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Results revealed that residence time of 90 min at 121°C has strong effect on substrate, achieving a maximum cellulose content of 83%, delignification of 81% and hemicellulose content of 10.5%. Further SEM and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed structural modification caused by alkaline pretreatment in substrate. Maximum saccharification yield of 52.93% was achieved with 0.5% enzyme concentration using 2.5% substrate concentration for 8 h of incubation at 50°C. This result indicates that the above-mentioned pretreatment conditions create accessible areas for enzymatic hydrolysis.

  5. Effects of carbon pretreatment for oxygen reduction in alkaline electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjamali, Massoud; Kiros, Yohannes

    The effects of different media on carbon pretreatments for oxygen reduction in alkaline electrolyte without application of active electrocatalysts were examined. Low surface area Vulcan XC-72 and high surface area Ketjenblack EC-300 were subjected to aqueous acid (flouric or formic), gaseous (H 2, N 2 or CO 2) and thermal treatments at 600 or 900 °C. Though non-scrubbed air was used, as a result of which carbonate build-up was high and peroxide concentration increased due to the electrode reaction, some of the electrodes resulted in life-tests of more than 2000 h at 65 °C, 6 M KOH with a constant load of 50 mA cm -2 and intermittent polarisations at higher current densities. BET-surface areas and pH changes of more than 60% and weight losses of up to 15% of the carbon blacks were observed after the pretreatment steps. Electrochemical characterisation of the carbons showed that pretreatment steps of the carbon blacks have a significant effect on the long-term stability and activity of the gas diffusion electrodes in alkaline electrolyte.

  6. Dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of cattails for cellulose conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Lijun; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Diallo, Oumou; Whitmore, Allante

    2011-10-01

    The use of aquatic plant cattails to produce biofuel will add value to land and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by replacing petroleum products. Dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of cattails was studied using a Dionex accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) varying acid concentration (0.1-1%), treatment temperature (140-180 °C), and residence time (5-10 min). The highest total glucose yield for both the pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis stages (97.1% of the cellulose) was reached at a temperature of 180 °C, a sulfuric acid concentration of 0.5%, and a time of 5 min. Cattails pretreated with 0.5% sulfuric acid are digestible with similar results at enzyme loadings above 15 FPU/g glucan. Glucose from cattails cellulose can be efficiently fermented to ethanol with an approximately 90% of the theoretical yield. The results in this study indicate that cattails are a promising source of feedstock for advanced renewable fuel production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Woody biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production: Technology and energy consumption evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J Y; Pan, X J

    2010-07-01

    This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the key technical issues in woody biomass pretreatment: barriers to efficient cellulose saccharification, pretreatment energy consumption, in particular energy consumed for wood-size reduction, and criteria to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment. A post-chemical pretreatment size-reduction approach is proposed to significantly reduce mechanical energy consumption. Because the ultimate goal of biofuel production is net energy output, a concept of pretreatment energy efficiency (kg/MJ) based on the total sugar recovery (kg/kg wood) divided by the energy consumption in pretreatment (MJ/kg wood) is defined. It is then used to evaluate the performances of three of the most promising pretreatment technologies: steam explosion, organosolv, and sulfite pretreatment to overcome lignocelluloses recalcitrance (SPORL) for softwood pretreatment. The present study found that SPORL is the most efficient process and produced highest sugar yield. Other important issues, such as the effects of lignin on substrate saccharification and the effects of pretreatment on high-value lignin utilization in woody biomass pretreatment, are also discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman 99164-6120, WA (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-12-15

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. - Highlights: • Pre-treatments reduce ash, extractives, alkalines and hemicellulose from biomass. • Torrefaction of Douglas fir yields more solid product than hybrid poplar. • Salt pretreatment significantly increases the activation energy of biomass. • Acid and salt pretreatment bestows thermal stability in biomass.

  9. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K.

    2015-01-01

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. - Highlights: • Pre-treatments reduce ash, extractives, alkalines and hemicellulose from biomass. • Torrefaction of Douglas fir yields more solid product than hybrid poplar. • Salt pretreatment significantly increases the activation energy of biomass. • Acid and salt pretreatment bestows thermal stability in biomass.

  10. Comparison of microwave and conduction-convection heating autohydrolysis pretreatment for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Reynosa, Alejandra; Romaní, Aloia; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Garrote, Gil; Ruiz, Héctor A

    2017-11-01

    This work describes the application of two forms of heating for autohydrolysis pretreatment on isothermal regimen: conduction-convection heating and microwave heating processing using corn stover as raw material for bioethanol production. Pretreatments were performed using different operational conditions: residence time (10-50 min) and temperature (160-200°C) for both pretreatments. Subsequently, the susceptibility of pretreated solids was studied using low enzyme loads, and high substrate loads. The highest conversion was 95.1% for microwave pretreated solids. Also solids pretreated by microwave heating processing showed better ethanol conversion in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (92% corresponding to 33.8g/L). Therefore, microwave heating processing is a promising technology in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Low-energy biomass pretreatment with deep eutectic solvents for bio-butanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procentese, Alessandra; Raganati, Francesca; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Rehmann, Lars; Marzocchella, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    Waste lettuce leaves - from the "fresh cut vegetable" industry - were pretreated with the deep eutectic solvent (DES) made of choline chloride - glycerol. Reaction time (3-16h) and the operation temperature (80-150°C) were investigated. Enzymatic glucose and xylose yields of 94.9% and 75.0%, respectively were obtained when the biomass was pretreated at 150°C for 16h. Sugars contained in the biomass hydrolysate were fermented in batch cultures of Clostridium acetobutylicum DSMZ 792. The energy consumption and the energy efficiency related to the DES pretreatment were calculated and compared to the most common lignocellulosic pretreatment processes reported in the literature. The DES pretreatment process was characterized by lower energy required (about 28% decrease and 72% decrease) than the NAOH pretreatment and steam explosion process respectively. The Net Energy Ratio (NER) value related to butanol production via DES biomass pretreatment was assessed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Microwave Pretreatment on Extraction Yield and Quality of Catfish Oil in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimsook Thitiphan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwave pretreatment of catfish processing waste on oil recovery and quality was investigated. Fish oil was extracted using the enzymatic hydrolysis using alcalase enzyme after the microwave pretreatment. The effect of microwave power and microwave pretreatment times was evaluated. The results revealed that a highest yield of 9.25% when catfish waste was treated at 110 W for 60 s. This condition was found as the most appropriate condition of microwave pretreatment since it decreased the extraction time from 150 min to up to 30 min. Analysis of oil quality indices (e.g. acid value, p-anisidine value, peroxide value extracted by microwave pretreatment and non-pretreatment indicated that catfish oil from both processes has comparatively similar fatty acids composition. In addition, catfish oil was extracted by microwave pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis had lower lipid oxidation compared to several standards.

  13. Impact of surfactant type for ionic liquid pretreatment on enhancing delignification of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ken-Lin; Chen, Xi-Mei; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Han, Ye-Ju; Potprommanee, Laddawan; Liu, Jing-Yong; Liao, Yu-Ling; Ning, Xun-An; Sun, Shui-Yu; Huang, Qing

    2017-03-01

    This work describes an environmentally friendly method for pretreating rice straw by using 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl) as an ionic liquid (IL) assisted by surfactants. The impacts of surfactant type (including nonionic-, anionic-, cationic- and bio-surfactant) on the ionic liquid pretreatment were investigated. The bio-surfactant+IL-pretreated rice straw showed significant lignin removal (26.14%) and exhibited higher cellulose conversion (36.21%) than the untreated (16.16%) rice straw. The cellulose conversion of the rice straw pretreated with bio-surfactant+IL was the highest and the lowest was observed for pretreated with cationic-surfactant+IL. Untreated and pretreated rice straw was thoroughly characterized through SEM and AFM. In conclusion, the results provided an effective and environmental method for pretreating lignocellulosic substrates by using green solvent (ionic liquid) and biodegradable bio-surfactant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by chemical pretreatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Luo, Gang; Xie, Li

    2013-01-01

    Acid and alkaline pretreatments for enhanced hydrogen production from cassava stillage were investigated in the present study. The result showed that acid pretreatment was suitable for enhancement of soluble carbohydrate while alkaline pretreatment stimulated more soluble total organic carbon...... that the increase of all factors increased the soluble carbohydrate production, whereas hydrogen production was inhibited when the factors exceeded their optimal values. The optimal conditions for hydrogen production were pretreatment temperature 89.5 °C, concentration 1.4% and time 69 min for the highest hydrogen...... production from cassava stillage. Acid pretreatment thereby has higher capacity to promote hydrogen production compared with alkaline pretreatment. Effects of pretreatment temperature, time and acid concentration on hydrogen production were also revealed by response surface methodology. The results showed...

  15. Tween 40 pretreatment of unwashed water-insoluble solids of reed straw and corn stover pretreated with liquid hot water to obtain high concentrations of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Li, Xuezhi; Yang, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo

    2013-11-09

    Liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment is an effective and environmentally friendly method to produce bioethanol with lignocellulosic materials. In our previous study, high ethanol concentration and ethanol yield were obtained from water-insoluble solids (WIS) of reed straw and corn stover pretreated with LHW by using fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (S-SSF). However, high cellulase loading and the large amount of wash water possibly limit the practical application of LHW pretreatment. To decrease cellulase loading and the amount of wash water, we performed Tween 40 pretreatment before WIS was subjected to bioethanol fermentation. Results showed that the optimum conditions of Tween 40 pretreatment were as follows: Tween 40 concentration of 1.5%, WIS-to-Tween 40 ratio of 1:10 (w/v), and pretreatment time of 1 hour at ambient temperature. After Tween 40 pretreatment, cellulase loading could be greatly reduced. After Tween 40 pretreatment, the residual liquid could be recycled for utilization but slightly affected ethanol concentration and yield. The unwashed WIS could obtain a high ethanol concentration of 56.28 g/L (reed straw) and 52.26 g/L (corn stover) by Tween 40 pretreatment using fed-batch S-SSF. Ethanol yield reached a maximum of 69.1% (reed straw) and 71.1% (corn stover). Tween 40 pretreatment was a very effective and less costly method with unwashed WIS. This pretreatment could greatly reduce cellulase loading and save wash water. Higher ethanol concentration was obtained almost without reducing ethanol yield.

  16. Engineering justice transforming engineering education and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leydens, Jon A

    2018-01-01

    Using social justice as a catalyst for curricular transformation, Engineering Justice presents an examination of how politics, culture, and other social issues are inherent in the practice of engineering. It aims to align engineering curricula with socially just outcomes, increase enrollment among underrepresented groups, and lessen lingering gender, class, and ethnicity gaps by showing how the power of engineering knowledge can be explicitly harnessed to serve the underserved and address social inequalities. This book is meant to transform the way educators think about engineering curricula through creating or transforming existing courses to attract, retain, and motivate engineering students to become professionals who enact engineering for social justice. Engineering Justice offers thought-provoking chapters on: why social justice is inherent yet often invisible in engineering education and practice; engineering design for social justice; social justice in the engineering sciences; social justice in human...

  17. Microprocessor engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Holdsworth, B

    2013-01-01

    Microprocessor Engineering provides an insight in the structures and operating techniques of a small computer. The book is comprised of 10 chapters that deal with the various aspects of computing. The first two chapters tackle the basic arithmetic and logic processes. The third chapter covers the various memory devices, both ROM and RWM. Next, the book deals with the general architecture of microprocessor. The succeeding three chapters discuss the software aspects of machine operation, while the last remaining three chapters talk about the relationship of the microprocessor with the outside wo

  18. Internet Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Fatmaa El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou

    2004-01-01

    A general study about the internet search engines, the study deals main 7 points; the differance between search engines and search directories, components of search engines, the percentage of sites covered by search engines, cataloging of sites, the needed time for sites appearance in search engines, search capabilities, and types of search engines.

  19. Pretreating lignocellulosic biomass by the concentrated phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP) for enzymatic hydrolysis: evaluating the pretreatment flexibility on feedstocks and particle sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Zhanghong; Shen, Fei; Hu, Jinguang; Sun, Fubao; Lin, Lili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai

    2014-08-01

    In order to seek a high-efficient pretreatment path for converting lignocellulosic feedstocks to fermentable sugars by enzymatic hydrolysis, the concentrated H₃PO₄ plus H₂O₂ (PHP) was attempted to pretreat different lignocellulosic biomass for evaluating the pretreatment flexibility on feedstocks. Meanwhile, the responses of pretreatment to particle sizes were also evaluated. When the PHP-pretreatment was employed (final H₂O₂ and H₃PO₄ concentration of 1.77% and 80.0%), 71-96% lignin and more than 95% hemicellulose in various feedstocks (agricultural residues, hardwood, softwood, bamboo, and their mixture, and garden wastes mixture) can be removed. Consequently, more than 90% glucose conversion was uniformly achieved indicating PHP greatly improved the pretreatment flexibility to different feedstocks. Moreover, when wheat straw and oak chips were PHP-pretreated with different sizes, the average glucose conversion reached 94.9% and 100% with lower coefficient of variation (7.9% and 0.0%), which implied PHP-pretreatment can significantly weaken the negative effects of feedstock sizes on subsequent conversion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Robust cellulosic ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine using an adapted strain Saccharomyces cervisiae without detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Tian; X.L. Luo; X.S. Yang; J.Y. Zhu

    2010-01-01

    This study reports an ethanol yield of 270 L/ton wood from lodgepole pine pretreated with sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) using an adapted strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5, without detoxification. The enzymatic hydrolysate produced from pretreated cellulosic solids substrate was combined with pretreatment hydrolysate before...

  1. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of rapeseed straw for enhancing bioethanol production by Same Vessel Saccharification and Co-Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagöz, Pinar; Vaitkeviciute-Rocha, Indre; Özkan, Melek

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of rapeseed straw was evaluated for conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. After pretreatment, a liquid phase called pretreatment liquid and a solid phase were separated by filtration. The neutralized pretreatment liquids were used in a co...... pretreatment combination with respect to overall ethanol production. At this condition, 5.73g ethanol was obtained from pretreatment liquid and 14.07g ethanol was produced by co-fermentation of solid fraction with P. stipitis. Optimum delignification was observed when 0.5M MgSO4 was included...... in the pretreatment mixture, and it resulted in 0.92% increase in ethanol production efficiency....

  2. An engineering context for software engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Riehle, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    New engineering disciplines are emerging in the late Twentieth and early Twenty-first Century. One such emerging discipline is software engineering. The engineering community at large has long harbored a sense of skepticism about the validity of the term software engineering. During most of the fifty-plus years of software practice, that skepticism was probably justified. Professional education of software developers often fell short of the standard expected for conventional engineers; so...

  3. Promise of combined hydrothermal/chemical and mechanical refining for pretreatment of woody and herbaceous biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Min; Dien, Bruce S; Singh, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Production of advanced biofuels from woody and herbaceous feedstocks is moving into commercialization. Biomass needs to be pretreated to overcome the physicochemical properties of biomass that hinder enzyme accessibility, impeding the conversion of the plant cell walls to fermentable sugars. Pretreatment also remains one of the most costly unit operations in the process and among the most critical because it is the source of chemicals that inhibit enzymes and microorganisms and largely determines enzyme loading and sugar yields. Pretreatments are categorized into hydrothermal (aqueous)/chemical, physical, and biological pretreatments, and the mechanistic details of which are briefly outlined in this review. To leverage the synergistic effects of different pretreatment methods, conducting two or more pretreatments consecutively has gained attention. Especially, combining hydrothermal/chemical pretreatment and mechanical refining, a type of physical pretreatment, has the potential to be applied to an industrial plant. Here, the effects of the combined pretreatment (combined hydrothermal/chemical pretreatment and mechanical refining) on energy consumption, physical structure, sugar yields, and enzyme dosage are summarized.

  4. Optimization of Saccharification Conditions of Lignocellulosic Biomass under Alkaline Pre-Treatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Łukajtis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pre-treatment is a significant step in the production of second-generation biofuels from waste lignocellulosic materials. Obtaining biofuels as a result of fermentation processes requires appropriate pre-treatment conditions ensuring the highest possible degree of saccharification of the feed material. An influence of the following process parameters were investigated for alkaline pre-treatment of Salix viminalis L.: catalyst concentration (NaOH, temperature, pre-treatment time and granulation. For this purpose, experiments were carried out in accordance to the Box-Behnken design for four factors. In the saccharification process of the pre-treated biomass, cellulolytic enzymes immobilized on diatomaceous earth were used. Based on the obtained results, a mathematical model for the optimal conditions of alkaline pre-treatment prediction is proposed. The optimal conditions of alkaline pre-treatment are established as follows: granulation 0.75 mm, catalyst concentration 7%, pre-treatment time 6 h and temperature 65 °C if the saccharification efficiency and cost analysis are considered. An influence of the optimized pre-treatment on both the chemical composition and structural changes for six various lignocellulosic materials (energetic willow, energetic poplar, beech, triticale, meadow grass, corncobs was investigated. SEM images of raw and pre-treated biomass samples are included in order to follow the changes in the biomass structure during hydrolysis.

  5. Enhanced biogas production from rice straw with various pretreatment : a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahriya Puspita Sari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is one of organic material that can be used for sustainable production of bioenergy and biofuels such as biogas (about 50-75% CH4 and 25-50% CO2. Out of all bioconversion technologies for biogas production, anaerobic digestion (AD is a most cost-effective bioconversion technology that has been implemented worldwide for commercial production of electricity, heat, and compressed natural gas (CNG from organic materials. However, the utilization of rice straw for biogas production via anaerobic digestion has not been widely adopted because the complicated structure of the plant cell wall makes it resistant to microbial attack. Pretreatment of recalcitrant rice straw is essential to achieve high biogas yield in the AD process. A number of different pretreatment techniques involving using physical pretreatment (hydrothermal and freeze, chemical pretreatment (sodium carbonate – sodium sulfite, hydrogen peroxide, NMMO, alkaline, and dilute acid and biological pretreatment (fungal pretreatment also combined pretretment (microwave irradiation and chemical approaches have been investigated, but there is no report that systematically compares the performance of these pretreatment methods for application on rice straw for biogas production. This paper reviews the methods that have been studied for pretreatment of rice straw for delignification, reducing sugar, and conversion to biogas. It describes the AD process, structural and compositional properties of rice straw, and various pretreatment techniques, including the pretreatment process, parameters, performance, and advantages vs. drawbacks.

  6. Biochemical degradation and physical migration of polyphenolic compounds in osmotic dehydrated blueberries with pulsed electric field and thermal pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Jin, Tony Z; Fan, Xuetong; Wu, Jijun

    2018-01-15

    Fresh blueberries were pretreated by pulsed electric fields (PEF) or thermal pretreatment and then were subject to osmotic dehydration. The changes in contents of anthocyanins, predominantly phenolic acids and flavonols, total phenolics, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and antioxidant activity in the blueberry samples during pretreatment and osmotic dehydration were investigated. Biochemical degradation and physical migration of these nutritive compounds from fruits to osmotic solutions were observed during the pretreatments and osmotic dehydration. PEF pretreated samples had the least degradation loss but the most migration loss of these compounds compared to thermally pretreated and control samples. Higher rates of water loss and solid gain during osmotic dehydration were also obtained by PEF pretreatment, reducing the dehydration time from 130 to 48h. PEF pretreated and dehydrated fruits showed superior appearance to thermally pretreated and control samples. Therefore, PEF pretreatment is a preferred technology that balances nutritive quality, appearance, and dehydration rate. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...

  8. Engineering viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez-Lemini, Danton

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Viscoelasticity covers all aspects of the thermo- mechanical response of viscoelastic substances that a practitioner in the field of viscoelasticity would need to design experiments, interpret test data, develop stress-strain models, perform stress analyses, design structural components, and carry out research work. The material in each chapter is developed from the elementary to the advanced, providing the background in mathematics and mechanics that are central to understanding the subject matter being presented. The book examines how viscoelastic materials respond to the application of loads, and provides practical guidelines to use them in the design of commercial, military and industrial applications. This book also: ·         Facilitates conceptual understanding by progressing in each chapter from elementary to challenging material ·         Examines in detail both differential and integral constitutive equations, devoting full chapters to each type and using both forms in ...

  9. Mechanical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Division provides the other NAC divisions with design and construction services. Items of special mechanical significance are discussed here. The projects which received major design attention during the past year were: a coupling capacitor for SPC2; a bending magnet and solenoid for ECR ion source; a scanner for outer orbits of the SSC; a scattering chamber for an experimental beamline; a beam swinger; a rotary target magazine for isotope production; a robot arm for isotope production; an isotope transport system and a target cooling system for isotope production. The major projects that were under construction are: a magnetic spectrometer; a second injector cyclotron (SPC2) and extensions to the high-energy beamlines. 4 figs

  10. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    of tools and processes to guide the design of educational science exhibits. The guiding paradigm for this development is design-based research, which is characterised by an iterative cycle of design, enactment, and analysis. In the design phase, an educational intervention is planned and carried out based......) a synthesis of the findings from the first two studies with findings from the literature to generate two types of results: a coherent series of suggestions for a design iteration of the studied exhibit as well as a more general normative model for exhibit engineering. Finally, another perspective......Science museums define the objectives of their exhibitions in terms of visitor learning outcomes. Yet, exhibit designers lack theoretical and empirical research findings on which to base the creation of such educational environments. Here, this shortcoming is addressed through the development...

  11. Regenerative engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Laurencin, Cato T

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative Engineering: The Future of Medicine Saadiq F. El-Amin III , MD , PhD; Joylene W.L. Thomas, MD ; Ugonna N. Ihekweazu, MD ; Mia D. Woods, MS; and Ashim Gupta, MSCell Biology Gloria Gronowicz, PhD and Karen Sagomonyants, DMDStem Cells and Tissue Regeneration Kristen Martins-Taylor, PhD; Xiaofang Wang, MD , PhD; Xue-Jun Li, PhD; and Ren-He Xu, MD , PhDIntroduction to Materials Science Sangamesh G. Kumbar, PhD and Cato T. Laurencin, MD , PhDBiomaterials A. Jon Goldberg, PhD and Liisa T. Kuhn, PhDIn Vitro Assessment of Cell-Biomaterial Interactions Yong Wang, PhDHost Response to Biomate

  12. Using high pressure processing (HPP) to pretreat sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañón-Rodríguez, J F; Torrestiana-Sánchez, B; Montero-Lagunes, M; Portilla-Arias, J; Ramírez de León, J A; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2013-10-15

    High pressure processing (HPP) technology was used to modify the structural composition of sugarcane bagasse. The effect of pressure (0, 150 and 250 MPa), time (5 and 10 min) and temperature (25 and 50 °C) as well as the addition of phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid and NaOH during the HPP treatment were assessed in terms of compositional analysis of the lignocellulosic fraction, structural changes and crystallinity of the bagasse. The effect of HPP pretreatment on the bagasse structure was also evaluated on the efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis of bagasse. Results showed that 68.62 and 45.84% of the hemicellulose fraction was degraded by pretreating at 250 MPa with sulfuric and phosphoric acids, respectively. The removal of lignin (54.10%) was higher with the HPP-NaOH treatment. The compacted lignocellulosic structure of the raw bagasse was modified by the HPP treatments and showed few cracks, tiny holes and some fragments flaked off from the surface. Structural changes were higher at 250 MPa and 50 °C. The X ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the raw bagasse showed a major diffraction peak of the cellulose crystallographic 2θ planes ranging between 22 and 23°. The distribution of the crystalline structure of cellulose was affected by increasing the pressure level. The HPP treatment combined with NaOH 2% led to the higher glucose yield (25 g/L) compared to the combination of HPP with water and acids (>5 g/L). Results from this work suggest that HPP technology may be used to pretreat sugarcane bagasse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Kinetic studies of cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis from pretreated corn cob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanie, Jeannie; Kartawiria, Irvan; Abimanyu, Haznan

    2017-01-01

    Successful utilization of corn cob biomass as raw material in bioethanol production is depending on the hydrolysis process where high level of β-cellulose is converted into glucose. Enzymatic hydrolysis is the common process for this purpose. This study is focusing on the evaluation of hydrolysis of pre-treated corn cob using Novozymes Cellic ® C-Tec2 and H-Tec2 enzymes to obtain the optimum reaction condition and its general reaction kinetics. The corn cob used was pretreated using 10% of NaOH solution. Hydrolysis reactions were conducted in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask for 72 hour using mixture of C-Tec2 and H-Tec2 enzymes at the fixed ratio of 5:1 and glucose concentration were measured using HPLC. Reaction temperature of 40°C and quantity of 0.5 ml enzyme solution per gram substrate gives the highest reaction rate (0.0123 gram of glucose/gram sample.h) with the glucose yield being 0.089 g glucose/ g substrate. Total conversion of cellulose observed was 11.91 %. Corn cob hydrolysis using C-Tec2 and H-Tec2 enzymes also result in xylose (0.0202 g/g substrate), which can also contribute to bioethanol productivity in further fermentation process. The reaction is following zero order kinetics for the first 8 hours and reaches maximum yield within 10 hours; significantly shorter compared to previous studies of cellulosic material hydrolysis that may take up to 72 hour to complete. Prolonging the hydrolysis of pre-treated corn cob more than 24 hour gives no significant increase in glucose conversion and yield. Hydrolysis temperature range of 40°C to 60°C is in accordance with the manufacturer recommendation for the purpose; however the decrease of reaction rate is observable at temperature 50°C or higher.

  14. Ultrasound pretreatment for enhanced biogas production from olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Nilgun Ayman; Uzun, Alev Cagla

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates applicability of low frequency ultrasound technology to olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) as a pretreatment step prior to anaerobic batch reactors to improve biogas production and methane yield. OMWs originating from three phase processes are characterized with high organic content and complex nature. The treatment of the wastewater is problematic and alternative treatment options should be investigated. In the first part of the study, OMW samples were subjected to ultrasound at a frequency of 20kHz with applied powers varying between 50 and 100W under temperature controlled conditions for different time periods in order to determine the most effective sonication conditions. The level of organic matter solubilization at ultrasound experiments was assessed by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand/total chemical oxygen demand (SCOD/TCOD). The results revealed that the optimum ultrasonic condition for diluted OMW is 20kHz, 0.4W/mL for 10min. The application of ultrasound to OMW increased SCOD/TCOD ratio from 0.59 to 0.79. Statistical analysis (Friedman's tests) show that ultrasound was significantly effective on diluted OMW (p0.05). For raw OMW, this increase has been found to be limited due to high concentration of suspended solids (SS). In the second part of the study, biogas and methane production rates of anaerobic batch reactor fed with the ultrasound pretreated OMW samples were compared with the results of control reactor fed with untreated OMW in order to determine the effect of sonication. A nonparametric statistical procedure, Mann-Whitney U test, was used to compare biogas and methane production from anaerobic batch reactors for control and ultrasound pretreated samples. Results showed that application of low frequency ultrasound to OMW significantly improved both biogas and methane production in anaerobic batch reactor fed with the wastewater (pbiogas and methane compared with the untreated one (control reactor). The

  15. Predictors of pretreatment CA125 at ovarian cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babic, Ana; Cramer, Daniel W; Kelemen, Linda E

    2017-01-01

    in CA125 between studies and linear regression to estimate the association between epidemiologic factors and tumor characteristics and pretreatment CA125 levels. RESULTS: In age-adjusted models, older age, history of pregnancy, history of tubal ligation, family history of breast cancer, and family...... history of ovarian cancer were associated with higher CA125 levels while endometriosis was associated with lower CA125 levels. After adjusting for tumor-related characteristics (stage, histology, grade), body mass index (BMI) higher than 30 kg/m2was associated with 10% (95% CI 2, 19%) higher CA125 levels...

  16. PEI detoxification of pretreated spruce for high solids ethanol fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David; Sveding, Per Viktor; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    . In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), up to 76% cellulose to ethanol conversion was achieved resulting in a concentration of 51 g/kg of ethanol. Key to obtaining this high ethanol yield at these conditions was the use of a detoxification technology based on applying a soluble...... ethanol production from spruce performing the whole process, from pretreatment to hydrolysis and fermentation, at 30% dry matter (equivalent to similar to 20% WIS). Hydrolysis and fermentation was performed in a horizontal free fall mixing reactor enabling efficient mixing at high solids loadings...

  17. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated barley and wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    feeding strategy to increase the substrate loading in the hydrolysis reaction. The substrate for the enzymatic hydrolysis was primarily steam pretreated wheat and barley straw since these substrates were the primary feedstocks for the Babilafuente Bioethanol process. The initial work showed...... addition of hemicellulase activities to complement the cellulase activities found in Celluclast. Further improving the hydrolysis process in relation to the Babilafuente Bioethanol process might be achieved applying a substrate fed-batch strategy, if optimised in relation to timing of the substrate...

  18. Pretreatment of Hanford purex plant first-cycle waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, M.W.; Gerboth, D.M.; Peters, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    A process has been developed to pretreat neutralized, first-cycle high-level waste from the fuels reprocessing facility (PUREX Plant) at the Hanford Site. The process separates solids from the supernate liquid, which contains soluble salts. The solids, including most of the fission products and transuranic elements, may then be vitrified for disposal, while the low-level supernate stream may be processed into a less expensive grout waste form. The process also includes ion exchange treatment of the separated supernate stream to remove radiocesium. A flow sheet based on these operations was completed to support a planned demonstration of the process in the Hanford site B Plant canyon facility

  19. Removal of micropollutants during physicochemical pretreatment of Hospital Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, S.; Omil, F.; Lema, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The fate and occurrence of micro-pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, hormones or cosmetic ingredients, has attracted an increasing attention in environmental research. The main sources for such compounds in the environment include domestic sewage. hospital effluents and discharges from the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry. The aim of the presented work was to analyse the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation and flotation processes for the pre-treatment of hospital wastewaters, focusing on the removal of 12 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs), including musk fragrances, anti-epileptics, tranquillisers, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and one iodinated contras media. (Author)

  20. Effect of pretreatments on electrodeposited epoxy coatings for electronic industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sironmani Palraj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne epoxy coatings were prepared on aluminium (Al surfaces by cathodic electro-deposition on the pretreated surface of pickling, phosphating, chromating and anodizing. The electro-deposition experiments were done at two different voltages, 15 V and 25 V at room temperature in 10% epoxy coating formulations. Corrosion and thermal behavior of these coatings were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. The coating exhibits better corrosion resistance in anodized Al surface than the other. But, TGA studies show that the thermal stability is higher in anodized and chromated Al surfaces. The surface morphology of these coatings were analyzed by SEM and AFM studies.

  1. Comparison of Microwave and Ozonolysis Effect as Pretreatment on Sugarcane Bagasse Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Eqra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from agricultural residues is one of the promising methods. Pretreatment is the most important step in this type of bioethanol production. In this study, the saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse was investigated after two types of pretreatments including ozone steaming and microwave. Microwave pretreatment was studied with two factors of microwave radiation (170, 450, and 850 w and microwave duration (2, 6, and 10 min. The ozonolysis (ozone steaming pretreatment was surveyed with two factors of moisture content of bagasse (30, 40, and 50% and ozonolysis time (1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 hr. After hydrolysis, the Saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse increased to 57.2% and 67.06% with microwave and ozonolysis pretreatments, respectively; compare to 20.85% in non-ozonated bagasse. It can be concluded that the ozonolysis is the most effective pretreatment regarding to saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse.

  2. Comparison of Ultrasonic and CO2 Laser Pretreatment Methods on Enzyme Digestibility of Corn Stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Zuo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To decrease the cost of bioethanol production, biomass recalcitrance needs to be overcome so that the conversion of biomass to bioethanol becomes more efficient. CO2 laser irradiation can disrupt the lignocellulosic physical structure and reduce the average size of fiber. Analyses with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, specific surface area, and the microstructure of corn stover were used to elucidate the enhancement mechanism of the pretreatment process by CO2 laser irradiation. The present work demonstrated that the CO2 laser had potential to enhance the bioconversion efficiency of lignocellulosic waste to renewable bioethanol. The saccharification rate of the CO2 laser pretreatment was significantly higher than ultrasonic pretreatment, and reached 27.75% which was 1.34-fold of that of ultrasonic pretreatment. The results showed the impact of CO2 laser pretreatment on corn stover to be more effective than ultrasonic pretreatment.

  3. Enhanced biogas production from penicillin bacterial residue by thermal-alkaline pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Weizhang; Li, Guixia; Gao, Yan; Li, Zaixing; Geng, Xiaoling; Li, Yubing; Yang, Jingliang; Zhou, Chonghui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the orthogonal experimental design was used to determine the optimum conditions for the effect of thermal alkaline; pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of penicillin bacterial residue. The biodegradability of the penicillin; bacterial residue was evaluated by biochemical methane potential tests in laboratory. The optimum values of temperature,; alkali concentration, pretreatment time and moisture content for the thermal-alkaline pretreatment were determined as; 70 °C, 6% (w/v), 30 min, and 85%, respectively. Thermal-alkaline pretreatment could significantly enhance the soluble; chemical oxygen demand solubilization, the suspended solid solubilization and the biodegradability. Biogas production; was enhanced by the thermal-alkaline pretreatment, probably as a result of the breakdown of cell walls and membranes of; micro-organisms, which may facilitate the contact between organic molecules and anaerobic microorganisms.; Keywords: penicillin bacterial residue; anaerobic digestion; biochemical methane potential tests; pretreatment

  4. Ultrasonic and thermal pretreatments to enhance the anaerobic bioconversion of olive husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianico, A; Braguglia, C M; Mescia, D; Mininni, G

    2013-11-01

    Olive husks, typical solid by-products from the olive oil industry, were selected to carry out anaerobic digestion tests. Before digestion, olive husks were subjected to ultrasonic or thermal pretreatments in order to release the organic matter into solution. Both sonication and thermal pretreatment allowed to solubilize the particulate matter with 22% and 72% increase in soluble organics of olive husks, respectively. Nevertheless, such pretreatments caused the release of unwanted molecules in solution, with the related risks of inhibition of the methanogenic process. Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests on olive husks mixed with olive-mill wastewater and dairy wastewater, either pretreated or not, showed that ultrasound pretreatment resulted in 15% increase in volatile solids reduction and a 13% increase in biogas production, while after thermal pretreatment no benefits were observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel fungal consortium pretreatment of waste oat straw to enhance economic and efficient biohydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bio-pretreatment using a fungal consortium to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored.  A fungal consortium comprised of T. viride and P. chrysosporium as microbial inoculum was compared with untreated and single-species-inoculated samples. Fungal bio-pretreatment was carried out at atmospheric conditions with limited external energy input.  The effectiveness of the pretreatment is evaluated according to its lignin removal and digestibility. Enhancement of biohydrogen production is observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. Fungal consortium pretreatment effectively degraded oat straw lignin (by >47% in 7 days leading to decomposition of cell-wall structure as revealed in SEM images, increasing biohydrogen yield. The hydrogen produced from the fungal consortium pretreated straw increased by 165% 6 days later, and was more than produced from either a single fungi species of T. viride or P. chrysosponium pretreated straw (94% and 106%, respectively. No inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed.

  6. Comparative data on effects of leading pretreatments and enzyme loadings and formulations on sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyman, Charles [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Balan, Venkatech [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Dale, Bruce E. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Elander, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Falls, Matthew [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Hames, Bonnie [Ceres Corporation, Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Holtzapple, Mark [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ladisch, Michael R. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Lee, Y. Y. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Mosier, Nathan [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Pallapolu, Venkata R. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Shi, Jian [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Warner, Ryan E. [Genencor, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2011-06-16

    Dilute sulfuric acid (DA), sulfur dioxide (SO2), liquid hot water (LHW), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), and lime pretreatments were applied to Alamo, Dacotah, and Shawnee switchgrass. Application of the same analytical methods and material balance approaches facil-itated meaningful comparisons of glucose and xylose yields from combined pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Use of a common supply of cellulase, beta-glucosidase, and xylanase also eased comparisons. All pretreatments enhanced sugar recovery from pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis substantially compared to untreated switchgrass. Adding beta-glucosidase was effective early in enzy-matic hydrolysis while cellobiose levels were high but had limited effect on longer term yields at the enzyme loadings applied. Adding xylanase improved yields most for higher pH pretreatments where more xylan was left in the solids. Harvest time had more impact on performance than switchgrass variety, and microscopy showed changes in different features could impact performance by different pretreatments.

  7. Advances in paper-based sample pretreatment for point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui Hua; Yang, Hui; Choi, Jane Ru; Gong, Yan; Feng, Shang Sheng; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Huang, Qing Sheng; Shi, Jun Ling; Mei, Qi Bing; Xu, Feng

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, paper-based point-of-care testing (POCT) has been widely used in medical diagnostics, food safety and environmental monitoring. However, a high-cost, time-consuming and equipment-dependent sample pretreatment technique is generally required for raw sample processing, which are impractical for low-resource and disease-endemic areas. Therefore, there is an escalating demand for a cost-effective, simple and portable pretreatment technique, to be coupled with the commonly used paper-based assay (e.g. lateral flow assay) in POCT. In this review, we focus on the importance of using paper as a platform for sample pretreatment. We firstly discuss the beneficial use of paper for sample pretreatment, including sample collection and storage, separation, extraction, and concentration. We highlight the working principle and fabrication of each sample pretreatment device, the existing challenges and the future perspectives for developing paper-based sample pretreatment technique.

  8. Comparison of ultrasonic and CO₂laser pretreatment methods on enzyme digestibility of corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shuang-Qi; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Zi-Luan; Zuo, Li-Li

    2012-01-01

    To decrease the cost of bioethanol production, biomass recalcitrance needs to be overcome so that the conversion of biomass to bioethanol becomes more efficient. CO(2) laser irradiation can disrupt the lignocellulosic physical structure and reduce the average size of fiber. Analyses with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, specific surface area, and the microstructure of corn stover were used to elucidate the enhancement mechanism of the pretreatment process by CO(2) laser irradiation. The present work demonstrated that the CO(2) laser had potential to enhance the bioconversion efficiency of lignocellulosic waste to renewable bioethanol. The saccharification rate of the CO(2) laser pretreatment was significantly higher than ultrasonic pretreatment, and reached 27.75% which was 1.34-fold of that of ultrasonic pretreatment. The results showed the impact of CO(2) laser pretreatment on corn stover to be more effective than ultrasonic pretreatment.

  9. Effect of surfactants on separate hydrolysis fermentation and simultaneous saccharification fermentation of pretreated lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Maobing; Zhang, Xiao; Paice, Mike; McFarlane, Paul; Saddler, Jack N

    2009-01-01

    The effects of surfactants addition on enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation of steam exploded lodgepole pine (SELP) and ethanol pretreated lodgepole pine (EPLP) were investigated in this study. Supplementing Tween 80 during cellulase hydrolysis of SELP resulted in a 32% increase in the cellulose-to-glucose yield. However, little improvement was obtained from hydrolyzing EPLP in the presence of the same amount of surfactant. The positive effect of surfactants on SELP hydrolysis led to an increase in final ethanol yield after the fermentation. It was found that the addition of surfactant led to a substantial increase in the amount of free enzymes in the 48 h hydrolysates derived from both substrates. The effect of surfactant addition on final ethanol yield of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was also investigated by using SELP in the presence of additional furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The results showed that the surfactants slightly increased the conversion rates of furfural and HMF during SSF process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The presence of furfural and HMF at the experimental concentrations did not affect the final ethanol concentration either. The strategy of applying surfactants in cellulase recycling to reduce enzyme cost is presented. (c) 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009.

  10. Engineers and Bildung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    What is an engineer? Or maybe better: how are engineers, and how are they “gebilded” in order to be able to be called engineers? In order to shed some light on this question we could ask: How is the relation between engineering and the making of an engineer, or the relation between engineering...... and Bildung. In this chapter, this relation in investigated. In the first part, I present three engineers and their careers. In the second part, the concept of Bildung is analyzed, and in the third part, it is the conceptual relation between Bildung, engineers, and engineering work that is of concern....

  11. Analysis of by-product formation and sugar monomerization in sugarcane bagasse pretreated at pilot plant scale: differences between autohydrolysis, alkaline and acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pol, Edwin; Bakker, Rob; van Zeeland, Alniek; Sanchez Garcia, David; Punt, Arjen; Eggink, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is an interesting feedstock for the biobased economy since a large fraction is polymerized sugars. Autohydrolysis, alkaline and acid pretreatment conditions combined with enzyme hydrolysis were used on lignocellulose rich bagasse to acquire monomeric. By-products found after pretreatment included acetic, glycolic and coumaric acid in concentrations up to 40, 21 and 2.5 g/kg dry weight bagasse respectively. Alkaline pretreated material contained up to 45 g/kg bagasse DW of sodium. Acid and autohydrolysis pretreatment results in a furan formation of 14 g/kg and 25 g/kg DW bagasse respectively. Enzyme monomerization efficiencies of pretreated solid material after 72 h were 81% for acid pretreatment, 77% for autohydrolysis and 57% for alkaline pretreatment. Solid material was washed with superheated water to decrease the amount of by-products. Washing decreased organic acid, phenol and furan concentrations in solid material by at least 60%, without a major sugar loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microwave-assisted co-pyrolysis of pretreated lignin and soapstock for upgrading liquid oil: Effect of pretreatment parameters on pyrolysis behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Dengle; Ruan, Roger; Lei, Hanwu; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yunpu; Zhang, Yayun; Zhao, Yunfeng; Dai, Leilei; Wu, Qiuhao; Zhang, Shumei

    2018-06-01

    The co-pyrolysis of pretreated lignin and soapstock was carried out to upgrade vapors under microwave irradiation. Results showed that the yield of 29.92-42.21 wt% of upgraded liquid oil was achieved under varied pretreatment conditions. Char yield decreased from 32.44 wt% for untreated control to 24.35 wt% for the 150 °C pretreated samples. The increased temperature, irradiation time and acid concentration were conducive to decrease the relative contents of phenols and oxygenates in liquid oils. The main components of the liquid oil were gasoline fraction (mono-aromatics and C5-C12 aliphatics), which ranged from 57.38 to 71.98% under various pretreatment conditions. Meanwhile, the diesel fraction (C12+ aliphatics) ranged from 13.16 to 22.62% from co-pyrolysis of pretreated lignin and soapstock, comparing with 10.18% of C12+ aliphatics from co-pyrolysis of non-pretreated lignin and soapstock. A possible mechanism was proposed for co-pyrolysis of pretreated lignin and soapstock for upgraded liquid oils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enzymatic pre-treatment increases the protein bioaccessibility and extractability in dulse (Palmaria palmata)

    OpenAIRE

    Mæhre, Hanne K; Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik

    2016-01-01

    Several common protein extraction protocols have been applied on seaweeds, but extraction yields have been limited. The aims of this study were to further develop and optimize existing extraction protocols and to examine the effect of enzymatic pre-treatment on bioaccessibility and extractability of seaweed proteins. Enzymatic pre-treatment of seaweed samples resulted in a three-fold increase in amino acids available for extraction. Combining enzymatic pre-treatment with a...

  14. Municipal Solid Waste: Pre-Treatment Options and Benefits on Landfill Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Bakare Babatunde Femi

    2011-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) comprises of a wide range of heterogeneous materials generated by individual, household or organization and may include food waste, garden wastes, papers, textiles, rubbers, plastics, glass, ceramics, metals, wood wastes, construction wastes but it is not limited to the above mentioned fractions. The most common Municipal Solid Waste pretreatment method in use is thermal pretreatment (incineration) and Mechanical Biological pretreatment. This p...

  15. Methods for producing and using densified biomass products containing pretreated biomass fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E.; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2015-05-26

    A process is provided comprising subjecting a quantity of plant biomass fibers to a pretreatment to cause at least a portion of lignin contained within each fiber to move to an outer surface of said fiber, wherein a quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers is produced; and densifying the quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers to produce one or more densified biomass particulates, wherein said biomass fibers are densified without using added binder.

  16. The pretreatment of corn stover with Gloeophyllum trabeum KU-41 for enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ziqing

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass for bio-ethanol production. The dominant concern in this step is how to decrease the high cost of pretreatment while achieving a high sugar yield. Fungal pretreatment of biomass was previously reported to be effective, with the advantage of having a low energy requirement and requiring no application of additional chemicals. In this work, Gloeophyllum trabeum KU-41 was chosen for corn stover pretreatment through screening with 40 strains of wood-rot fungi. The objective of the current work is to find out which characteristics of corn stover pretreated with G. trabeum KU-41 determine the pretreatment method to be successful and worthwhile to apply. This will be done by determining the lignin content, structural carbohydrate, cellulose crystallinity, initial adsorption capacity of cellulase and specific surface area of pretreated corn stover. Results The content of xylan in pretreated corn stover was decreased by 43% in comparison to the untreated corn stover. The initial cellulase adsorption capacity and the specific surface area of corn stover pretreated with G. trabeum were increased by 7.0- and 2.5-fold, respectively. Also there was little increase in the cellulose crystallinity of pretreated corn stover. Conclusion G. trabeum has an efficient degradation system, and the results indicated that the conversion of cellulose to glucose increases as the accessibility of cellulose increases due to the partial removal of xylan and the structure breakage of the cell wall. This pretreatment method can be further explored as an alternative to the thermochemical pretreatment method.

  17. Two-Step Sequential Pretreatment for the Enhanced Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Coffee Spent Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Swarna; Abu-ghannam, Nissreen; Jaiswal, Amit

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, eight different pretreatments of varying nature (physical, chemical and physico-chemical) followed by a sequential, combinatorial pretreatment strategy was applied to spent coffee waste to attain maximum sugar yield. Pretreated samples were analysed for total reducing sugar, individual sugars and generation of inhibitory compounds such as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) which can hinder microbial growth and enzyme activity. Native spent coffee waste was high in...

  18. Effect of copper surface pre-treatment on the properties of CVD grown graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Sik Kim; Jeong-Min Woo; Dae-Myeong Geum; J. R. Rani; Jae-Hyung Jang

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the synthesis of high quality monolayer graphene on the pre-treated copper (Cu) foil by chemical vapor deposition method. The pre-treatment process, which consists of pre-annealing in a hydrogen ambient, followed by diluted nitric acid etching of Cu foil, helps in removing impurities. These impurities include native copper oxide and rolling lines that act as a nucleation center for multilayer graphene. Raman mapping of our graphene grown on pre-treated Cu foil primarily consis...

  19. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  20. Department of Civil Engineering,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra, Malaysia,. Selangor, Malaysia. 2. Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti. Putra, Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia. 3. Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Technology, ...

  1. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  2. USE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY PRE-TREATMENT IN AUTOMOTIVE PAINTING LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Nei Carvalho Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current safety requirements, environmental impacts and performance have been ledding the automotive industry to search for new alternatives, not just for new car bodies materials, also for new sheet surface treatments as well, used in the painting process in order to fit simultaneous, environmental requirements and corrosion resistance maintenance, that are the key feature guarantees offered by automakers and are also vital to the durability of the vehicle. This fact is of great importance considering that, besides the various types of steels and their metalic coatings, another factor that directly influences the corrosion resistance is the painting system used. Within this context, the GMB, in partnership with CSN, has been performing several works by adding the knowledge of the supplier to automotive technology. An example of this partnership we have the present study, which aimed to, comparatively, evaluate the corrosion resistance of two systems of painted galvanized steel, the first one with pre-treatment based on a traditional phosphate, and the another one based on a nano-ceramic film. In this study, was found out that materials with pre-treatment based on results of nanotechnology showed similar corrosion resistance comparing the phosphatized materials in a traditional way.

  3. Acrylamide generation in pre-treated potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    to reach a final moisture content of 1.8 g water/100g ( wet basis). Prior to frying, potato slices were treated in one of the following ways: (i) Raw slices without any pre-treatment were considered as the control; (ii) Blanching: which was accomplished in 2 temperature-time combinations: 60 degrees C....... Acrylamide content in potato chips was determined after frying at 170 or 190 degrees C. Frying at 190 degrees C increased by almost 130 percent the acrylamide content of all the pre-treated samples ( average value) fried at 170 degrees C. Soaking of blanched potato slices in the 3 g/100 g of NaCl solution...... per 5 min at 25 degrees C, reduces acrylamide formation in potato chips by 11 percent after frying at 170 degrees C. However when the slices are blanched directly in the 3 g/100g of NaCl solution at 60 degrees C for 30 min, their acrylamide formation increased surprisingly by similar to 90 percent...

  4. Sludge pre-treatment with pulsed electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopplow, O.; Barjenbruch, M.; Heinz, V.

    2003-07-01

    The anaerobic stabilization process depends - among others - on the bio-availability of organic carbon. Through pre-treatment of the sludge which leads to the destruction of micro-organisms and to the setting-free of cell content substances (disintegration), the carbon can be microbially converted better and faster. Moreover, effects on the digestion are likely. However, only little experience is available in the sludge treatment with pulsed electric fields. Laboratory-scale digestion tests have been run to analyse the influence of pulsed electric fields on the properties of sludge, anaerobic degradation, sludge water reload and foaming of digesters. The results will be compared with those of other disintegration methods (high pressure homogenise, thermal treatment). The effect of pre-treatment on the sludge is shown by the COD release. Degrees of disintegration have been achieved up to 20%. The specific energy input was high. The energy consumption has been decreased by initial improvements (pre-heating to 55{sup o}C). The filament bacteria were partially destroyed. The foam reduction in the digesters was marginal. The anaerobic degradation performance has been improved in every case. The degradation rate of organic matter increased about 9%. Due to the increase of degradation, there is a higher reload of the sludge-water with COD and nitrogen compounds. (author)

  5. Evaluation of pretreatment options for a complex liquid matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFelice, K.A.; Erickson, D.C.; Klein, M.D.; Myers, N.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of selected physical and chemical unit treatment processes for the removal of metals, radionuclides, and other inorganic contaminants from a complex liquid matrix (waste-pit liquid) prior to a biological treatment step. The waste-pit liquid that was used in the bench- and pilot-scale treatability study program was collected from wells installed in a landfill formerly used for co-disposal of municipal and liquid industrial waste. The waste-pit liquid has a high organic content (as quantified by biological oxygen demand and total organic carbon, which were 2500 mg/L and 2800 mg/day, respectively) and a high total dissolved solids content (greater than 15,000 mg/L) and contains metals and low levels of radionuclides. The unit processes evaluated for pretreatment of the waste-pit liquid included centrifugation, membrane filtration, conventional filtration, precoat filtration, dissolved air flotation, and chemical precipitation. Lime-soda softening, which is a chemical precipitation process, provided the best overall removal for metals, radionuclides, and other inorganics and was therefore selected for pretreatment of the waste-pit liquid prior to biological treatment

  6. Pretreatment biomarkers predicting PTSD psychotherapy outcomes: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvonen, Peter J; Glassman, Lisa H; Crocker, Laura D; Buttner, Melissa M; Orff, Henry; Schiehser, Dawn M; Norman, Sonya B; Afari, Niloofar

    2017-04-01

    Although our understanding of the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), brain structure and function, neural networks, stress-related systems, and genetics is growing, there is considerably less attention given to which biological markers predict evidence-based PTSD psychotherapy outcomes. Our systematic PRISMA-informed review of 20 studies examined biomarkers as predictors of evidence-based PTSD psychotherapy outcomes. Results provide preliminary evidence that specific structural and functional neural systems (involved in information processing), glucocorticoid sensitivity and metabolism (part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the response to stress), heart rate (involved with fear habituation), gene methylation, and certain genotypes (associated with serotonin and glucocorticoids) predicted positive response to PTSD treatment. These pre-treatment biomarkers are associated with processes integral to PTSD treatment, such as those affecting fear learning and extinction, cognitive restructuring, information processing, emotional processing, and interoceptive monitoring. Identifying pre-treatment biomarkers that predict treatment response may offer insight into the mechanisms of psychological treatment, provide a foundation for improving the pharmaceutical augmentation of treatment, and inform treatment matching. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. A pretreatment method for grain size analysis of red mudstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zaixing; Liu, Li'an

    2011-11-01

    Traditional sediment disaggregation methods work well for loose mud sediments, but not for tightly cemented mudstones by ferric oxide minerals. In this paper, a new pretreatment method for analyzing the grain size of red mudstones is presented. The experimental samples are Eocene red mudstones from the Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin. The red mudstones are composed mainly of clay minerals, clastic sediments and ferric oxides that make the mudstones red and tightly compacted. The procedure of the method is as follows. Firstly, samples of the red mudstones were crushed into fragments with a diameter of 0.6-0.8 mm in size; secondly, the CBD (citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite) treatment was used to remove ferric oxides so that the cementation of intra-aggregates and inter-aggregates became weakened, and then 5% dilute hydrochloric acid was added to further remove the cements; thirdly, the fragments were further ground with a rubber pestle; lastly, an ultrasonicator was used to disaggregate the samples. After the treatment, the samples could then be used for grain size analysis or for other geological analyses of sedimentary grains. Compared with other pretreatment methods for size analysis of mudstones, this proposed method is more effective and has higher repeatability.

  8. ON THE NECESSITY OF MINOR ORAL SURGERY PRETREATMENT ORTHODONTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Zegan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish the frequency of some minor oral surgery performed on both teeth and on the soft tissues, before any orthodontic treatment. The sample group included 587 patients (240 boys and 347 girls, divided into 3 categories. The data base was created wtih patient records, the statistical analyses being performed with the SPSS 17.0 software for Windows. The frequency of malocclusions with minor oral surgery pretreatment orthodontics was of 24%, out of which the surgical interventions on teeth represented 85.41% (serial extractions – 21.87%, orthodontic extractions – 41.66%, enucleation of third molars – 18.75%, discovery of impacted teeth – 2.08% and teeth enucleation – 1.04% and the surgical interventions on the soft tissues represented 14.59% (labial frenectomy: 12.60%, lingual frenectomy: 1.04% and discovery of pericoronal tissues: 1.04% The minor oral surgery pretreatment orthodontics upon both teeth and soft tissues are not quite frequent, yet they are necessary for a partial preparation of the patient for orthodontic therapy.

  9. Improvement of sugar yields from corn stover using sequential hot water pretreatment and disk milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Min; Dien, Bruce S; Tumbleson, M E; Rausch, Kent D; Singh, Vijay

    2016-09-01

    Efficient pretreatment is essential for economic conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks into monosaccharides for biofuel production. To realize high sugar yields with low inhibitor concentrations, hot water or dilute acid pretreatment followed by disk milling is proposed. Corn stover at 20% solids was pretreated with hot water at 160-200°C for 4-8min with and without subsequent milling. Hot water pretreatment and disk milling acted synergistically to improve glucose and xylose yields by 89% and 134%, respectively, compared to hot water pretreatment alone. Hot water pretreated (180°C for 4min) and milled samples had the highest glucose and xylose yields among all hot water pretreated and milled samples, which were comparable to samples pretreated with 0.55% dilute acid at 160°C for 4min. However, samples pretreated with 1% dilute acid at 150°C for 4min and disk milled had the highest observed glucose (87.3%) and xylose yields (83.4%). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Enhanced enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by combining O2 and NaOH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Shuaizhu; Peng, Lincai; Chen, Keli; Zhu, Zhengliang

    2016-08-01

    Sugarcane bagasse pretreated by combining O2 and NaOH with different variables was conducted to improve its enzymatic digestibility and sugar recovery, and the results were compared with sole NaOH pretreatment. Lignin removal for O2-NaOH pretreatment was around 10% higher than that for sole NaOH pretreatment under the same conditions, and O2-NaOH pretreatment resulted in higher glucan recovery in the solid remain. Subsequently, O2-NaOH pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented more efficient enzymatic digestibility than sole NaOH pretreatment. Under the moderate pretreatment conditions of combining 1% NaOH and 0.5MPa O2 at 80°C for 120min, a high glucan conversion of 95% was achieved after 48h enzymatic hydrolysis. Coupled with the operations of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, an admirable total sugar recovery of 89% (glucose recovery of 93% and xylose recovery of 84%) was obtained. The susceptibility of the substrates to enzymatic digestibility was explained by their physical and chemical characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimization of H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of rapeseed straw for bioconversion to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Lu; Zhang, Y.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    measured to evaluate the optimal pretreatment conditions for maximizing ethanol production. The results showed that acid concentration and treatment time were more significant than solid content for optimization of xylose release and cellulose recovery. Pretreatment with 1% sulfuric acid and 20% solid...... content for 10 min at 180 degrees C was found to be the most optimal condition for pretreatment of rapeseed straw for ethanol production. After pretreatment at the optimal condition and enzymatic hydrolysis, 75.12% total xylan and 63.17% total glucan were converted to xylose and glucose, respectively....... Finally, 66.79% of theoretical ethanol yielded after fermentation....

  12. Potential of potassium hydroxide pretreatment of switchgrass for fermentable sugar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajat; Palled, Vijaykumar; Sharma-Shivappa, Ratna R; Osborne, Jason

    2013-02-01

    Chemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass has been extensively investigated for sugar generation and subsequent fuel production. Alkaline pretreatment has emerged as one of the popular chemical pretreatment methods, but most attempts thus far have utilized NaOH for the pretreatment process. This study aimed at investigating the potential of potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a viable alternative alkaline reagent for lignocellulosic pretreatment based on its different reactivity patterns compared to NaOH. Performer switchgrass was pretreated at KOH concentrations of 0.5-2% for varying treatment times of 6-48 h, 6-24 h, and 0.25-1 h at 21, 50, and 121 °C, respectively. The pretreatments resulted in the highest percent sugar retention of 99.26% at 0.5%, 21 °C, 12 h while delignification up to 55.4% was observed with 2% KOH, 121 °C, 1 h. Six pretreatment conditions were selected for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis with Cellic CTec2® for sugar generation. The pretreatment condition of 0.5% KOH, 24 h, 21 °C was determined to be the most effective as it utilized the least amount of KOH while generating 582.4 mg sugar/g raw biomass for a corresponding percent carbohydrate conversion of 91.8%.

  13. Pretreatment of radiata pine using two white rot fungal strains Stereum hirsutum and Trametes versicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkavand, Ehsan; Baroutian, Saeid; Gapes, Daniel J.; Young, Brent R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fungal pretreatment by two New Zealand native white rot fungi was proposed. • Trametes versicolor was more efficient in selective degradation of pine wood chips. • Both fungal strains significantly decreased crystallinity index of biomass only after week 7 of degradation. • Structural analysis showed that Trametes versicolor and Stereum hirsutum increased porous surface area of woody biomass. - Abstract: Stereum hirsutum and Trametes versicolor, were studied over a period of 3–7 weeks for pretreatment of radiata pine wood chips. Chemical analysis of pretreated biomass showed that the two studied strains were able to selectively degrade lignin. Selective lignin degradation was greater in week 3 of the pretreatment by Trametes versicolor compared to the other strain. Lengthening pretreatment time increased both lignin and cellulose losses which caused a reduction in selective lignin degradation for both strains. X-ray diffractometry showed that after seven weeks of pretreatment, the crystallinity of the woody biomass was decreased significantly. It decreased from 46% for untreated wood chips to 37% and 44% for Stereum hirsutum and Trametes versicolor treated biomass, respectively. The pretreatment with these two white rot fungi showed that 3-week pretreatment provided a cellulose rich biomass with the minimum cellulose loss compared to the other time of pretreatment.

  14. Flow-through pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with inorganic nanoporous membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhave, Ramesh R.; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2018-04-03

    A process for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is provided. The process generally includes flowing water through a pretreatment reactor containing a bed of particulate ligno-cellulosic biomass to produce a pressurized, high-temperature hydrolyzate exit stream, separating solubilized compounds from the hydrolyzate exit stream using an inorganic nanoporous membrane element, fractionating the retentate enriched in solubilized organic components and recycling the permeate to the pretreatment reactor. The pretreatment process provides solubilized organics in concentrated form for the subsequent conversion into biofuels and other chemicals.

  15. Evaluation of ultrasound assisted potassium permanganate pre-treatment of spent coffee waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Swarna; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, novel pre-treatment for spent coffee waste (SCW) has been proposed which utilises the superior oxidising capacity of alkaline KMnO 4 assisted by ultra-sonication. The pre-treatment was conducted for different exposure times (10, 20, 30 and 40min) using different concentrations of KMnO 4 (1, 2, 3, 4, 5%w/v) at room temperature with solid/liquid ratio of 1:10. Pretreating SCW with 4% KMnO 4 and exposing it to ultrasound for 20min resulted in 98% cellulose recovery and a maximum lignin removal of 46%. 1.7 fold increase in reducing sugar yield was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of KMnO 4 pretreated SCW as compared to raw. SEM, XRD and FTIR analysis of the pretreated SCW revealed the various effects of pretreatment. Thermal behaviour of the pretreated substrate against the native biomass was also studied using DSC. Ultrasound-assisted potassium permanganate oxidation was found to be an effective pretreatment for SCW, and can be a used as a potential feedstock pretreatment strategy for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Thermal and Bacterial Pretreatment of Microalgae on Biogas Production in Mesophilic and Thermophilic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Beti; Marinšek Logar, Romana; Panjičko, Mario; Fanedl, Lijana

    2017-01-01

    Microalgae biomass has a great potential in search for new alternative energy sources. They can be used as a substrate for the biogas production in anaerobic digestion. When using microalgae, the efficiency of this process is hampered due to the resistant cell wall. In order to accelerate the hydrolysis of cell wall and increase the efficiency of biogas production we applied two different pretreatments - biological and thermal under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. During biological pretreatment we incubated microalgae with anaerobic hydrolytic bacteria Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans Mz5T. In thermal pretreatment we incubated microalgae at 90 °C. We also tested a combined thermal and biological pretreatment in which we incubated P. xylanivorans Mz5T with thermally pretreated microalgae. Thermal pretreatment in mesophilic and thermophilic process has increased methane production by 21% and 6%, respectively. Biological pretreatment of microalgae has increased methane production by 13%, but only under thermophilic conditions (pretreatment under mesophilic conditions showed no effect on methane production). Thermal-biological pretreatment increased methane production by 12% under thermophilic conditions and by 6% under mesophilic conditions.

  17. 40 CFR 425.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 403, and achieve the following pretreatment standards: Pollutant or pollutant property PSES Maximum...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Save, Chrome Tan...

  18. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of catalytic ultrasound oxidation and membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Hou, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted to investigate a novel system integrating catalytic ultrasound oxidation (CUO) with membrane bioreactor (CUO-MBR) on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater. Results indicated that CUO with catalyst of FeOx/SBAC (sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) represented high efficiencies in eliminating TOC as well as improving the biodegradability. The integrated CUO-MBR system with low energy intensity and high frequency was more effective in eliminating COD, BOD5, TOC and reducing transmembrane pressure than either conventional MBR or ultrasound oxidation integrated MBR. The enhanced hydroxyl radical oxidation, facilitation of substrate diffusion and improvement of cell enzyme secretion were the mechanisms for CUO-MBR performance. Therefore, the integrated CUO-MBR was the promising technology for advanced treatment in engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous Fenton oxidation and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Xu, Chunyan; Wang, Dexin

    2015-04-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted in order to investigate a novel system integrating heterogeneous Fenton oxidation (HFO) with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that HFO with the prepared catalyst (FeOx/SBAC, sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) played a key role in eliminating COD and COLOR as well as in improving the biodegradability of raw wastewater. The surface reaction and hydroxyl radicals (OH) oxidation were the mechanisms for FeOx/SBAC catalytic reaction. Compared with ANMBBR-BAF process, the integrated system was more effective in abating COD, BOD5, total phenols (TPs), total nitrogen (TN) and COLOR and could shorten the retention time. Therefore, the integrated system was a promising technology for engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modular Engineering Concept at Novo Nordisk Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moelgaard, Gert; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the concept of a new engineering method at Novo Nordisk Engineering: Modular Engineering (ME). Three tools are designed to support project phases with different levels of detailing and abstraction. ME supports a standard, cross-functional breakdown of projects that facilitates...

  1. Environmental Engineering in Mining Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamud-Lopez, Manuel Maria; Menendez-Aguado, Juan Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the current profile of the environmental engineer and the programming of the subject "Environmental Engineering and Technology" corresponding to the studies of Mining Engineering at the University of Oviedo in Spain, is discussed. Professional profile, student knowledge prior to and following instruction as well as…

  2. Magical Engineering Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-01

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  3. Evaluation of lime and hydrothermal pretreatments for efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of raw sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Maira Prearo; Marques, Marina Paganini; Laluce, Cecília; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud; Sponchiado, Sandra Regina Pombeiro

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse requires a pretreatment step to disrupt the cellulose-hemicellulose-lignin complex and to increase biomass digestibility, thus allowing the obtaining of high yields of fermentable sugars for the subsequent fermentation. Hydrothermal and lime pretreatments have emerged as effective methods in preparing the lignocellulosic biomass for bioconversion. These pretreatments are advantageous because they can be performed under mild temperature and pressure conditions, resulting in less sugar degradation compared with other pretreatments, and also are cost-effective and environmentally sustainable. In this study, we evaluated the effect of these pretreatments on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of raw sugarcane bagasse obtained directly from mill without prior screening. In addition, we evaluated the structure and composition modifications of this bagasse after lime and hydrothermal pretreatments. The highest cellulose hydrolysis rate (70 % digestion) was obtained for raw sugarcane bagasse pretreated with lime [0.1 g Ca(OH)2/g raw] for 60 min at 120 °C compared with hydrothermally pretreated bagasse (21 % digestion) under the same time and temperature conditions. Chemical composition analyses showed that the lime pretreatment of bagasse promoted high solubilization of lignin (30 %) and hemicellulose (5 %) accompanied by a cellulose accumulation (11 %). Analysis of pretreated bagasse structure revealed that lime pretreatment caused considerable damage to the bagasse fibers, including rupture of the cell wall, exposing the cellulose-rich areas to enzymatic action. We showed that lime pretreatment is effective in improving enzymatic digestibility of raw sugarcane bagasse, even at low lime loading and over a short pretreatment period. It was also demonstrated that this pretreatment caused alterations in the structure and composition of raw bagasse, which had a pronounced effect on the enzymes accessibility to the

  4. Engine Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center's Engine Test Facility (ETF) test cells are used for development and evaluation testing of propulsion systems for...

  5. Advanced Metasearch Engine Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Weiyi

    2010-01-01

    Among the search tools currently on the Web, search engines are the most well known thanks to the popularity of major search engines such as Google and Yahoo!. While extremely successful, these major search engines do have serious limitations. This book introduces large-scale metasearch engine technology, which has the potential to overcome the limitations of the major search engines. Essentially, a metasearch engine is a search system that supports unified access to multiple existing search engines by passing the queries it receives to its component search engines and aggregating the returned

  6. Contemporary engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chan S

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Engineering Economics, 5/e, is intended for undergraduate engineering students taking introductory engineering economics while appealing to the full range of engineering disciplines for which this course is often required: industrial, civil, mechanical, electrical, computer, aerospace, chemical, and manufacturing engineering, as well as engineering technology. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated while continuing to adopt a contemporary approach to the subject, and teaching, of engineering economics. This text aims not only to build a sound and comprehensive coverage of engineering economics, but also to address key educational challenges, such as student difficulty in developing the analytical skills required to make informed financial decisions.

  7. [Enhancement of anaerobic digestion of excess sludge by acid-alkali pretreatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guang-Huan; Zhou, Xing-Qiu; Wu, Jian-Dong

    2012-06-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of anaerobic digestion of excess sludge, acid-alkali pretreatment method was studied. Three different pretreatment methods (alkali alone,acid-alkali, alkali-acid) were compared to investigate their impacts on hydrolysis and acidification of activated sludge. In addition, their influences on methane-producing in subsequent anaerobic digestion process were also studied. The results showed that the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of alkaline treatment alone was about 16% higher than the combining of acid and alkali treatment, SCOD concentration increased to 5406.1 mg x L(-1) after 8 d pretreatment. After treated by acid (pH 4.0, 4 d) and alkali (pH 10.0, 4 d), the acetic acid production and its content in short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were higher than other pretreatment methods. And the acetic acid production (as COD/VSS) could reach 74.4 mg x g(-1), accounting for 60.5% of SCFAs. After acid-alkali pretreatment, the C: N ratio of the sludge mixed liquor was about 25, and the C: P ratio was between 35-40, which was more favorable than C: N and C: P ratio of alkali alone and alkali-acid to subsequent anaerobic digestion. The control experiments showed that, after acid-alkali pretreatment, anaerobic digestion cumulative methane yield (CH4/VSS(in)) reached to 136.1 mL x g(-1) at 15 d, which was about 2.5-, 1.6-, and 1.7-fold of the blank (unpretreated), alkali alone pretreatment and alkali-acid pretreatment, respectively. After acid-alkali pretreatment for 8 d and anaerobic digestion for 15 d, the removal efficiency of VSS was about 60.9%, and the sludge reduction effect was better than other pretreatments. It is obvious that the acid-alkali pretreatment method was more favorable to anaerobic digestion and sludge reduction.

  8. EVALUATION OF SUPPLEMENTAL PRE-TREATMENT DEVELOPMENT REQUIREMENTS TO MEET TRL 6 ROTARY MICROFILTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUBER HJ

    2011-10-03

    In spring 2011, the Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) for the Supplemental Treatment Project (RPP-PLAN-49827, Rev. 0), Technology Maturation Plan for the Treatment Project (T4S01) was developed. This plan contains all identified actions required to reach technical maturity for a field-deployable waste feed pretreatment system. The supplemental pretreatment system has a filtration and a Cs-removal component. Subsequent to issuance of the TMP, rotary microfiltration (RMF) has been identified as the prime filtration technology for this application. The prime Cs-removal technology is small column ion exchange (ScIX) using spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) as the exchange resin. During fiscal year 2011 (FY2011) some of the tasks identified in the TMP have been completed. As of September 2011, the conceptual design package has been submitted to DOE as part of the critical decision (CD-1) process. This document describes the remaining tasks identified in the TMP to reach technical maturity and evaluates the validity of the proposed tests to fill the gaps as previously identified in the TMP. The potential vulnerabilities are presented and the completed list of criteria for the DOE guide DOE G 413.3-4 different technology readiness levels are added in an attachment. This evaluation has been conducted from a technology development perspective - all programmatic and manufacturing aspects were excluded from this exercise. Compliance with the DOE G 413.3-4 programmatic and manufacturing requirements will be addressed directly by the Treatment Project during the course of engineering design. The results of this evaluation show that completion of the proposed development tasks in the TMP are sufficient to reach TRL 6 from a technological point of view. The tasks involve actual waste tests using the current baseline configuration (2nd generation disks, 40 psi differential pressure, 30 C feed temperature) and three different simulants - the PEP, an AP-Farm and an S

  9. Systems metabolic engineering in an industrial setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagt, Cees M J

    2013-03-01

    Systems metabolic engineering is based on systems biology, synthetic biology, and evolutionary engineering and is now also applied in industry. Industrial use of systems metabolic engineering focuses on strain and process optimization. Since ambitious yields, titers, productivities, and low costs are key in an industrial setting, the use of effective and robust methods in systems metabolic engineering is becoming very important. Major improvements in the field of proteomics and metabolomics have been crucial in the development of genome-wide approaches in strain and process development. This is accompanied by a rapid increase in DNA sequencing and synthesis capacity. These developments enable the use of systems metabolic engineering in an industrial setting. Industrial systems metabolic engineering can be defined as the combined use of genome-wide genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics to modify strains or processes. This approach has become very common since the technology for generating large data sets of all levels of the cellular processes has developed quite fast into robust, reliable, and affordable methods. The main challenge and scope of this mini review is how to translate these large data sets in relevant biological leads which can be tested for strain or process improvements. Experimental setup, heterogeneity of the culture, and sample pretreatment are important issues which are easily underrated. In addition, the process of structuring, filtering, and visualization of data is important, but also, the availability of a genetic toolbox and equipment for medium/high-throughput fermentation is a key success factor. For an efficient bioprocess, all the different components in this process have to work together. Therefore, mutual tuning of these components is an important strategy.

  10. Using Collaborative Engineering to Inform Collaboration Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration is a critical competency for modern organizations as they struggle to compete in an increasingly complex, global environment. A large body of research on collaboration in the workplace focuses both on teams, investigating how groups use teamwork to perform their task work, and on the use of information systems to support team processes ("collaboration engineering"). This research essay presents collaboration from an engineering perspective ("collaborative engineering"). It uses examples from professional and student engineering teams to illustrate key differences in collaborative versus collaboration engineering and investigates how challenges in the former can inform opportunities for the latter.

  11. Pre-treating water with non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Rabinovich, Alexander; Cho, Daniel J.

    2017-07-04

    The present invention consists of a method of pre-treatment of adulterated water for distillation, including adulterated water produced during hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") of shale rock during natural gas drilling. In particular, the invention is directed to a method of treating adulterated water, said adulterated water having an initial level of bicarbonate ion in a range of about 250 ppm to about 5000 ppm and an initial level of calcium ion in a range of about 500 ppm to about 50,000 ppm, said method comprising contacting the adulterated water with a non-thermal arc discharge plasma to produce plasma treated water having a level of bicarbonate ion of less than about 100 ppm. Optionally, the plasma treated water may be further distilled.

  12. Pretreatment of americium/curium solutions for vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to the heavy isotope programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Prior to vitrification, an in-tank oxalate precipitation and a series of oxalic/nitric acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Pretreatment development experiments were performed to understand the behavior of the lanthanides and the metal impurities during the oxalate precipitation and properties of the precipitate slurry. The results of these experiments will be used to refine the target glass composition allowing optimization of the primary processing parameters and design of the solution transfer equipment

  13. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose modifies dietary weight loss maintenance success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) were studied as diet-specific prognostic markers for successful weight loss maintenance in participants with overweight. METHODS: After losing ≥ 8% of body weight, participants received one of three ad libitum diets for 6...... months: (1) a moderate-fat diet high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA); (2) a low-fat, high-fiber diet (Nordic Nutrition Recommendations [NNR]); and (3) the Average Danish Diet (ADD). Participants were categorized as having low (....12 to -0.43]; P = 0.020). The addition of FI strengthened these associations. CONCLUSIONS: Slightly elevated pretreatment FPG determined success in dietary weight loss maintenance among overweight patients on ad libitum diets differing in macronutrient and fiber content....

  14. Simulation of the ozone pretreatment of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Sujala; Bottenus, Danny; Ivory, Cornelius F; Gao, Allan Haiming; Bule, Mahesh; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Chen, Shulin

    2015-11-01

    Wheat straw is a potential feedstock in biorefinery for sugar production. However, the cellulose, which is the major source of sugar, is protected by lignin. Ozonolysis deconstructs the lignin and makes cellulose accessible to enzymatic digestion. In this study, the change in lignin concentration with different ozonolysis times (0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60min) was fit to two different kinetic models: one using the model developed by Garcia-Cubero et al. (2012) and another including an outer mass transfer barrier or "cuticle" region where ozone mass transport is reduced in proportion to the mass of unreacted insoluble lignin in the cuticle. The kinetic parameters of two mathematical models for predicting the soluble and insoluble lignin at different pretreatment time were determined. The results showed that parameters derived from the cuticle-based model provided a better fit to experimental results compared to a model without a cuticle layer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pre-treatment processes for automotive applications in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubach, P. [Oakite Products, Inc., Berkeley Heights, NJ (United States); Gehmecker, H. [Chemetall GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    Pre-treatment processes for automotive applications in Europe are optimized firstly due to the increasing use of aluminum and coated steel for car bodies and parts and secondly due to environmental issues. Prephosphated coated steel, mainly electrogalvanized steel with a trication zinc phosphate layer applied in the steel mill is used by many car manufacturers. Several R and D projects are under way to coat aluminum sheet with inorganic or organic layers to enhance forming, welding and joining properties. Environmental aspects initiated the development of cleaners with biodegradable and alkylphenolethoxylate-free surfactants, liquid grain refiners with longer bath life-time, nickel or nitrite-free zinc phosphate products and chrome-free passivations. All of these products are in use in many automotive body lines except the nickel-free phosphating process which is being tested in OEM parts lines. Details of the processes in a phosphating line are described including a section on phosphating of aluminum.

  16. Enzymatic pretreatment of low-grade oils for biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordblad, Mathias; Pedersen, Anders K.; Rancke-Madsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The alkaline process for making biodiesel (fatty acidmethyl esters, or FAME) is highly efficient at the transesterification of glycerides. However, its performance is poor when it comes to using oil that contain significant amounts of free fatty acids (FFA).The traditional approach to such feed...... stocks is to employ acid catalysis, which is slow and requires a large excess of methanol, orto evaporate FFA and convert that in a separate process. An attractive option would be to convert the FFA in oil feedstocks to FAME, before introducing it into the alkaline process. The high selectivity of enzyme......, an assessment of process stability in a continuous packed bed system indicates that as much as 15m3 oil could potentially be pretreated by 1 kg of biocatalyst at the given process conditions....

  17. Pretreated Butterfly Wings for Tuning the Selective Vapor Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszter, Gábor; Kertész, Krisztián; Bálint, Zsolt; Biró, László Péter

    2016-01-01

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in the scales of Blue butterflies are responsible for their vivid blue wing coloration. These nanoarchitectures are quasi-ordered nanocomposites which are constituted from a chitin matrix with embedded air holes. Therefore, they can act as chemically selective sensors due to their color changes when mixing volatile vapors in the surrounding atmosphere which condensate into the nanoarchitecture through capillary condensation. Using a home-built vapor-mixing setup, the spectral changes caused by the different air + vapor mixtures were efficiently characterized. It was found that the spectral shift is vapor-specific and proportional with the vapor concentration. We showed that the conformal modification of the scale surface by atomic layer deposition and by ethanol pretreatment can significantly alter the optical response and chemical selectivity, which points the way to the efficient production of sensor arrays based on the knowledge obtained through the investigation of modified butterfly wings. PMID:27618045

  18. Pretreatment of wood flour slurries prior to liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanasse, C.; Lemonnier, J.P.; Eugene, D.; Chornet, E.

    1988-02-01

    As a part of a solvolytic approach to wood fractionation and liquefaction known as UDES-S, a pretreatment stage has been developed using a fed batch technique to produce high solids content slurries. By using a combination of temperature and shear stress across homogenizing valves, wood flour slurries of poplar or aspen having concentrations of 20-32% by weight in both paraffin oil and ethylene glycol have been produced. Optical and scanning electron microscopy have shown that the recirculation loop and homogenizing valve cause structural degradation, defibration and defibrillation of the original particles as well as partial solubilization of the wood components. The maximum wood flour concentration, attainable before plugging was observed in the small scale system used, was just below 36% by weight. High concentration slurries are a prerequisite in order to obtain realistic reactor space velocities in biomass liquefaction processes. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Pretreatment Mitochondrial Priming Correlates with Clinical Response to Cytotoxic Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonghaile, Triona Ni; Sarosiek, Kristopher A.; Vo, Thanh-Trang; Ryan, Jeremy A.; Tammareddi, Anupama; Moore, Victoria Del Gaizo; Deng, Jing; Anderson, Ken; Richardson, Paul; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Mitsiades, Constantine S.; Matulonis, Ursula A.; Drapkin, Ronny; Stone, Richard; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; McConkey, David J.; Sallan, Stephen E.; Silverman, Lewis; Hirsch, Michelle S.; Carrasco, Daniel Ruben; Letai, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy targets elements common to all nucleated human cells, such as DNA and microtubules, yet it selectively kills tumor cells. Here we show that clinical response to these drugs correlates with, and may be partially governed by, the pre-treatment proximity of tumor cell mitochondria to the apoptotic threshold, a property called mitochondrial priming. We used BH3 profiling to measure priming in tumor cells from patients with multiple myeloma, acute myelogenous and lymphoblastic leukemia, and ovarian cancer. This assay measures mitochondrial response to peptides derived from pro-apoptotic BH3 domains of proteins critical for death signaling to mitochondria. Patients with highly primed cancers exhibited superior clinical response to chemotherapy. In contrast, chemoresistant cancers and normal tissues were poorly primed. Manipulation of mitochondrial priming might enhance the efficacy of cytotoxic agents. PMID:22033517

  20. Effect of various pretreatment conditions on enzymatic saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the delignification of wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse with different pretreatmenttechniques followed by saccharification with commercial and indigenously produced cellulase enzymes. 100 g of sugar canebagasse and whaet straw were treated with various concentrations of H2O2 (1-5% v/v and its combination with 2% NaOHfor one hour under steam at 30 psi. Sugarcane bagasse was 88% delignified with 5% H2O2 + 2% NaOH whereas wheat strawshowed 51% delignification with 3% H2O2 + 2% NaOH. Moreover the saccharification with commercial cellulase enzyme wasfound to be 33.6% and 63.3% with pretreated wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, respectively. However, very low levels ofsaccharification (6-14% were found with indigenously produced cellulase enzyme.

  1. Ozone pretreatment and fermentative hydrolysis of wheat straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben'ko, E. M.; Chukhchin, D. G.; Lunin, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    Principles of the ozone pretreatment of wheat straw for subsequent fermentation into sugars are investigated. The optimum moisture contents of straw in the ozonation process are obtained from data on the kinetics of ozone absorbed by samples with different contents of water. The dependence of the yield of reducing sugars in the fermentative reaction on the quantity of absorbed ozone is established. The maximum conversion of polysaccharides is obtained at ozone doses of around 3 mmol/g of biomass, and it exceeds the value for nonozonated samples by an order of magnitude. The yield of sugar falls upon increasing the dose of ozone. The process of removing lignin from the cell walls of straw during ozonation is visualized by means of scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose modifies dietary weight loss maintenance success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) were studied as diet-specific prognostic markers for successful weight loss maintenance in participants with overweight. METHODS: After losing ≥ 8% of body weight, participants received one of three ad libitum diets for 6.......12 to -0.43]; P = 0.020). The addition of FI strengthened these associations. CONCLUSIONS: Slightly elevated pretreatment FPG determined success in dietary weight loss maintenance among overweight patients on ad libitum diets differing in macronutrient and fiber content....... regained 2.73 kg (95% CI 1.33 to 4.13; P weight regain on NNR compared to ADD (-4.21 kg [95% CI -6.83 to -1.59]; P = 0.002) and MUFA (95% CI -2.77 kg [-5...

  3. Macromolecular structure analysis and effective liquefaction pretreatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suuberg, E.M.; Yun, Y.; Lilly, W.D.; Leung, K.; Gates, T.; Otake, Y.; Deevi, S.C.

    1994-07-01

    This project was concerned with characterizing the changes in coal macromolecular structure, that are of significance for liquefaction pretreatments of coal. The macromolecular structure of the insoluble portion of coal is difficult to characterize. Techniques that do so indirectly (based upon, for example, NMR and FTIR characterizations of atomic linkages) are not particularly sensitive for this purpose. Techniques that characterize the elastic structure (such as solvent swelling) are much more sensitive to subtle changes in the network structure. It is for this reason that we focused upon these techniques. The overall objective involved identifying pretreatments that reduce the crosslinking (physical or chemical) of the network structure, and thus lead to materials that can be handled to a greater extent by traditional liquid-phase processing techniques. These techniques tend to be inherently more efficient at producing desirable products. This report is divided into seven chapters. Chapter II summarizes the main experimental approaches used throughout the project, and summarizes the main findings on the Argonne Premium coal samples. Chapter III considers synergistic effects of solvent pairs. It is divided into two subsections. The first is concerned with mixtures of CS{sub 2} with electron donor solvents. The second subsection is concerned with aromatic hydrocarbon - alcohol or hydrocarbon - alcohol mixtures, as might be of interest for preliquefaction delivery of catalysts into bituminous coals. Chapter IV deals with questions of how oxidation might influence the results that are obtained. Chapter V briefly details what conclusions may be drawn concerning the elastic behavior of coals, and the effects of thermal treatments on this behavior. Chapter VI is concerned with theories to describe the action of solvents that are capable of dissociating non-covalent crosslinks. Finally, Chapter VII discusses the practical implications of the study.

  4. Pretreatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME Using Magnetic Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a natural organic polyelectrolyte of high molecular weight and charge density; obtained from deacetylation of chitin. This study explored the potential and effectiveness of applying chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite particles as a primary coagulant and flocculent, in comparison with chitosan for pre-treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME. A series of batch coagulation processes with chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite particles and chitosan under different conditions, i.e. dosage and pH were conducted, in order to determine their optimum conditions. The performance was assessed in terms of turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS and chemical oxygen demand (COD reductions. Chitosan-magnetite particles showed better parameter reductions with much lower dosage consumption, compared to chitosan, even at the original pH of POME, i.e. 4.5. At pH 6, the optimum chitosan-magnetite dosage of 250 mg/L was able to reduce turbidity, TSS and COD levels by 98.8%, 97.6% and 62.5% respectively. At this pH, the coagulation of POME by chitosan-magnetite was brought by the combination of charge neutralization and polymer bridging mechanism. On the other hand, chitosan seems to require much higher dosage, i.e. 370 mg/L to achieve the best turbidity, TSS and COD reductions, which were 97.7%, 91.7% and 42.70%, respectively. The synergistic effect of cationic character of both the chitosan amino group and the magnetite ion in the pre-treatment process for POME brings about enhanced performance for effective agglomeration, adsorption and coagulation.

  5. Seawater pretreatment for reverse osmosis: chemistry, contaminants, and coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edzwald, James K; Haarhoff, Johannes

    2011-11-01

    The paper addresses the effects of salinity and temperature on the chemistry of important parameters affecting coagulation pretreatment including the ion product of water, acid-base chemistry, dissolved metal speciation, and precipitation reactions for aluminum and iron coagulants. The ion product of seawater is greater than for freshwaters and affects chemical hydrolysis and metal-hydroxide solubility reactions. Inorganic carbon is the main cause of seawater alkalinity and buffer intensity but borate B(OH)(4)(1-) also contributes. Buffer intensity is an important parameter in assessing coagulation pH adjustment. Mineral particles are relatively unstable in seawater from electrical double layer compression, and when present these particles are easily coagulated. Algal-particle stability is affected by steric effects and algal motility. Dissolved natural organic matter from algae and humic substances causes fouling of RO membranes and pretreatment removal is essential. Aluminum coagulants are not recommended, and not used, because they are too soluble in seawater. Ferric coagulants are preferred and used. The equilibrium solubility of Fe with amorphous ferric hydroxide in seawater is low over a wide range of pH and temperature conditions. Ferric chloride dosing guidelines are presented for various raw seawater quality characteristics. The effect of pH on coagulant dose and the role of buffer intensity are addressed. A dual coagulation strategy is recommended for treating seawater with moderate to high concentrations of algae or seawater with humic matter. This involves a low and constant dose with high charge-density cationic polymers using Fe as the main coagulant where it is varied in response to raw water quality changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse for hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.; Vrije, de G.J.; Koukios, E.G.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse, an energy crop residue, with NaOH for the production of fermentable substrates, was investigated. Optimal conditions for the alkaline pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse were realized at 10% NaOH (w/w dry matter). A delignification of 46% was then observed,

  7. Improved methane production from corn straw by microaerobic pretreatment with a pure bacteria system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanying; Fu, Shanfei; Yang, Zhiman; Lu, Jun; Guo, Rongbo

    2018-07-01

    Thermophilic microaerobic pretreatment has been proved to be efficient in improving methane production of corn straw in previous studies. In this study, the effect of mesophilic (37 °C) microaerobic pretreatment using Bacillus Subtilis on the anaerobic digestion of corn straw was explored. Microaerobic pretreatment with a pure bacteria system was beneficial for the anaerobic digestion of corn straw, which obviously improved the methane yield. The maximum methane yield of 270.8 mL/g VS was obtained at the oxygen load of 5 mL/g VS, which was 17.35% higher than that of untreated group. Groups with mesophilic microaerobic pretreatment obtained higher glucose and VFAs concentrations, as well as higher peroxidase activities after 24 h pretreatment. In addition, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis displayed the crystallinity indexes of pretreated groups were also decreased. Therefore, microaerobic pretreatment with a pure bacteria system (Bacillus Subtilis) is an efficient pretreatment method to enhance the anaerobic digestion efficiency of cellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Organic acid pretreatment of oil palm trunk: effect on enzymatic saccharification and ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaporn, Kittipong; Tantayotai, Prapakorn; Phusantisampan, Theerawut; Pornwongthong, Peerapong; Sriariyanun, Malinee

    2018-04-01

    Effective lignocellulosic biomass saccharification is one of the crucial requirements of biofuel production via fermentation process. Organic acid pretreatments have been gained much interests as one of the high potential methods for promoting enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials due to their lower hazardous properties and lower production of inhibitory by-products of fermentation than typical chemical pretreatment methods. In this study, three organic acids, including acetic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, were examined for improvement of enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol production from oil palm trunk biomass. Based on response surface methodology, oxalic acid pretreated biomass released the maximum reducing sugar of 144 mg/g-pretreated biomass at the optimum condition, which was higher than untreated samples for 2.30 times. The released sugar yield of oil palm trunk also corresponded to the results of FT-IR analysis, which revealed the physical modification of cellulose and hemicellulose surface structures of pretreated biomass. Nevertheless, citric acid pretreatment is the most efficient pretreatment method to improve bioethanol fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TISTR 5606 at 1.94 times higher than untreated biomass. These results highlighted the selection of organic acid pretreatment as a potential method for biofuel production from oil palm trunk feedstocks.

  9. Fundamental characteristics of microwave explosion pretreatment of wood. I, Properties of temperature development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian-jun Li; Ke-yang Lu; Lan-ying Lin; Yong-dong Zhou; Zhi-yong Cai; Feng Fu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of microwave radiation intensity, radiation time and initial wood moisture content (MC) on the properties of temperature development in Eucalyptus urophylla wood samples during the microwave explosion pretreatment have been investigated using a new microwave pretreatment equipment. The results show that 1) with the increase of microwave...

  10. Chemical characterization and hydrothermal pretreatment of Salicornia bigelovii straw for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cybulska, Iwona; Chaturvedi, Tanmay; Brudecki, Grzegorz P.

    2014-01-01

    to hydrothermal pretreatment, producing highly digestible (up to 92% glucan-to-glucose conversion) and fermentable (up to 100% glucose-to-ethanol conversion) fiber fractions. Liquid fractions obtained in the pretreatment did not show inhibition towards Saccharomyces cerevisiae. No significant differences among...

  11. Effective of Microwave-KOH Pretreatment on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiqiang Li; Zehui Jiang; Yan Yu; Zhiyong Cai

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo, with its advantages of fast growth, short renovation, easy propagation and rich in cellulose and hemicellulose, is a potential feedstock for bioethanol or other biofuels production. The objective of this study was to examine the fea- sibility of microwave assistant KOH pretreatments to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo. Pretreatment was car- ried out by...

  12. Ethanol production from hydrothermal pretreated corn stover with a loop reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Hydrothermal pretreatment on raw corn stover (RCS) with a loop reactor was investigated at 195 °C for different times varying between 10 min and 30 min. After pretreatment, the slurry was separated into water-insoluble solid (WIS) and liquid phase. Glucan and xylan were found in the both phases...

  13. Hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of mixed green and woody lignocellulosics from arid regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Tahir; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2017-01-01

    on the yields from hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis was analyzed by mixing three different lignocellulosic residues — Bermuda grass, Jasmine hedges, and date palm fronds. Results showed that the individual and the mixed lignocellulosics gave same yields when treated under similar conditions...... of hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. It indicates that this mixture can be a suitable feedstock for lignocellulosic biorefinery....

  14. Recovery of arabinan in acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Hedegaard, Mette Christina; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    Acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment was done on corn stover under 195 °C, 15 min with the acetic acid ranging from 5 × 10−3 to 0.2 g g−1 corn stover. After pretreatment, the water-insoluble solids (WISs) and liquors were collected respectively. Arabinan recoveries from both WIS...

  15. Investigation of acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Acetic acid (AA)-catalyzed liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatments on raw corn stover (RCS) were carried out at 195 °C at 15 min with the acetic acid concentrations between 0 and 400 g/kg RCS. After pretreatment, the liquor fractions and water-insoluble solids (WIS) were collected separately and tes...

  16. The design of a novel, environmentally improved cotton pre-treatment proces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, G.H. (Gerrit)

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this thesis of Gerrit Bouwhuis, lecturer at Saxion Research Centre for Design and Technology in Enschede is the development of a new industrial applicable pre-treatment process for cotton based on catalysis. The pre-treatment generally consists of desizing, scouring and bleaching. These

  17. Biological pretreatment of corn stover with white-rot fungus for enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretreatment, as the first step towards conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to biofuels and/or chemicals remains one of the main barriers to commercial success. Typically, harsh methods are used to pretreat lignocellulosic biomass prior to its breakdown to sugars by enzymes, which also result ...

  18. Chemical pretreatment of Arundo donax L. for second-generation ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silva Lemões

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Alkaline pretreatment was essential for obtaining high concentrations of glucose and xylose. The application of an alkaline pretreatment alone resulted in high glucose and xylose concentrations. This result is very significant as it allows a cost reduction by eliminating one step.

  19. Synthetic activity enhancement of membrane-bound lipase from Rhizopus chinensis by pretreatment with isooctane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Xu, Yan; Teng, Yun

    2007-05-01

    The cell-bound lipase from Rhizopus chinensis CCTCC M201021 with high catalysis ability for ester synthesis was located as a membrane-bound lipase by the treatments of Yatalase firstly. In order to improve its synthetic activity in non-aqueous phase, the pretreatments of this enzyme with various organic solvents were investigated. The pretreatment with isooctane improved evidently the lipase synthetic activity, resulting in about 139% in relative synthetic activity and 115% in activity recovery. The morphological changes of mycelia caused by organic solvent pretreatments could influence the exposure of the membrane-bound enzyme from mycelia and the exhibition of the lipase activity. The pretreatment conditions with isooctane and acetone were further investigated, and the optimum effect was obtained by the isooctane pretreatment at 4 degrees C for 1 h, resulting in 156% in relative synthetic activity and 126% in activity recovery. When the pretreated lipases were employed as catalysts for the esterification production of ethyl hexanoate in heptane, higher initial reaction rate and higher final molar conversion were obtained using the lipase pretreated with isooctane, compared with the untreated lyophilized one. This result suggested that the pretreatment of the membrane-bound lipase with isooctane could be an effective method to substitute the lyophilization for preparing biocatalysts used in non-aqueous phase reactions.

  20. 40 CFR 430.26 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... respect to each fiber line operated by an indirect discharger subject to this section, unless the indirect... it uses exclusively TCF bleaching processes at that fiber line. These pretreatment standards must be... following pretreatment standards apply with respect to each fiber line operated by an indirect discharger...