WorldWideScience

Sample records for pretreatment electronic resource

  1. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  2. Pretreatment of Cellulose By Electron Beam Irradiation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusri, N. A. A.; Azizan, A.; Ibrahim, N.; Salleh, R. Mohd; Rahman, M. F. Abd

    2018-05-01

    Pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) to produce biofuel has been conducted by using various methods including physical, chemical, physicochemical as well as biological. The conversion of bioethanol process typically involves several steps which consist of pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation and separation. In this project, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used in replacement of LCB since cellulose has the highest content of LCB for the purpose of investigating the effectiveness of new pretreatment method using radiation technology. Irradiation with different doses (100 kGy to 1000 kGy) was conducted by using electron beam accelerator equipment at Agensi Nuklear Malaysia. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses were studied to further understand the effect of the suggested pretreatment step to the content of MCC. Through this method namely IRR-LCB, an ideal and optimal condition for pretreatment prior to the production of biofuel by using LCB may be introduced.

  3. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  4. Evaluation on ecological stability and biodegradation of dyeing wastewater pre-treated by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Park, C.K.; Yoo, D.H.; Lee, J.K.; Lee, B.J.; Han, B.S.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.

    2005-01-01

    Biological treatment of dye wastewater pre-treated by electron beam has been performed in order to evaluate the biodegradation and ecological stability of effluent. In the process of electron-beam treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. Partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages like as biological processing. Dyeing wastewater contains many kind of pollutants which are difficult to be decomposed completely by microorganisms. In this study, biodegradation with dyeing wastewater pre-treated by electron beams was observed. On the other hand, consideration on public acceptance in terms of ecological stability of biological effluent pre-treated by electron beams was given in this study. The results of laboratory investigations on biodegradation and ecological stability of effluent showed that biodegradation of dye wastewater pre-treated by electron beam was enhanced compared to unirradiated one. In the initial stage of biological oxidation regardless of different HRT, dye wastewater pre-treated by electron beam could be oxidized easily compare to without treated one. More number of survived daphnia magna could be observed in the biological effluent pre-treated by electron beam. This means that biological effluent pre-treated by electron beam can be said 'it is safe on the ecological system'

  5. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  6. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  7. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  8. Effect of pretreatments on electrodeposited epoxy coatings for electronic industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sironmani Palraj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne epoxy coatings were prepared on aluminium (Al surfaces by cathodic electro-deposition on the pretreated surface of pickling, phosphating, chromating and anodizing. The electro-deposition experiments were done at two different voltages, 15 V and 25 V at room temperature in 10% epoxy coating formulations. Corrosion and thermal behavior of these coatings were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. The coating exhibits better corrosion resistance in anodized Al surface than the other. But, TGA studies show that the thermal stability is higher in anodized and chromated Al surfaces. The surface morphology of these coatings were analyzed by SEM and AFM studies.

  9. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system

  10. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration

  11. PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT FORMATION EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Ю Заславская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  12. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  13. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out some of the possible dangers of embarking in electronic resources without a proper focus at hand. Thus, it calls for today's librarians and policy makers to brainstorm and come up with working policies suitable to ...

  14. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  15. Discrimination of Rice with Different Pretreatment Methods by Using a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an application of a voltammetric electronic tongue for discrimination and prediction of different varieties of rice was investigated. Different pretreatment methods were selected, which were subsequently used for the discrimination of different varieties of rice and prediction of unknown rice samples. To this aim, a voltammetric array of sensors based on metallic electrodes was used as the sensing part. The different samples were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry with two sample-pretreatment methods. Discriminant Factorial Analysis was used to visualize the different categories of rice samples; however, radial basis function (RBF artificial neural network with leave-one-out cross-validation method was employed for prediction modeling. The collected signal data were first compressed employing fast Fourier transform (FFT and then significant features were extracted from the voltammetric signals. The experimental results indicated that the sample solutions obtained by the non-crushed pretreatment method could efficiently meet the effect of discrimination and recognition. The satisfactory prediction results of voltammetric electronic tongue based on RBF artificial neural network were obtained with less than five-fold dilution of the sample solution. The main objective of this study was to develop primary research on the application of an electronic tongue system for the discrimination and prediction of solid foods and provide an objective assessment tool for the food industry.

  16. In vacuo substrate pretreatments for enhancing nanodiamond formation in electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teii, Kungen; Kouzuma, Yutaka; Uchino, Kiichiro

    2006-01-01

    Substrate pretreatment conditions at low pressures have been examined for enhancing nanocrystalline diamond formation on silicon in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. Three kinds of pretreatments (I) exposure to an ECR H 2 plasma with application of a substrate bias from -100 to +30 V (II) hot-filament heating in H 2 gas, and (III) hot-filament heating in vacuum, were used alone or followed by carburization prior to a two-step process of ion-enhanced nucleation in an ECR plasma and subsequent growth in a hot-filament system. The number density of diamond particles after the final growth step was greatly increased up to the order of 10 7 -10 8 cm -2 when applying pretreatment (I) at the bias of 0 V corresponding to the ion-bombardment energy of around 10 eV. In this treatment, a clean and smooth surface with minimal damage was made by the dominance of anisotropic etching by hydrogen ions over isotropic etching by hydrogen atoms. The number density of diamond particles was still more increased when applying pretreatment (II), but the treated surface was unfavorably contaminated and roughened

  17. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  18. use of electronic resources by graduate students of the department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respondent's access electronic resources from the internet via Cybercafé .There is a high ... KEY WORDS: Use, Electronic Resources, Graduate Students, Cybercafé. INTRODUCTION ... Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Uyo. Olu Olat ...

  19. Tribological Behavior of Coating Cr Layer on 40Cr after Surface Electron Beam Pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J. J.; Wang, J.; Jiang, P.; Xu, H. B.; Li, H.; Hou, T. F.

    2017-12-01

    In this study,the friction and wear behavior of PVD coatings which were treated by 5 different processes,based on gear material-40Cr. Analyzing the effects of treating the gear material with electron beam in combination with magnetron sputtering on it,for dry friction and wear properties.The result showed that the electron beam pretreated substrate was useful to improve the tribological performance of coating material.Furthermore, the surface roughness of coating, the bonding force between substrate and coating as well as the load are the main factors affecting the tribological performance of this coating. Most importantly, the contribution of plowing effect on friction coefficient should be considered when the surface roughness is high.

  20. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  1. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings the study concluded that access and use of electronic information resources creates a “social digital divide” along gender lines. The study ... Finally, the library needs to change its marketing strategies on the availability of electronic information resources to increase awareness of these resources.

  2. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  3. Electronic human resource management: Enhancing or entrancing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Poisat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM by means of a qualitative content analysis. Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for successful e-HRM, are examined. Research purpose: The purpose of the article was to determine the status of e-HRM and examine the studies that report on the link between e-HRM and organisational productivity. Motivation for the study: e-HRM has the capacity to improve organisational efficiency and leverage the role of human resources (HR as a strategic business partner. Main findings: The notion that the implementation of e-HRM will lead to improved organisational productivity is commonly assumed; however, empirical evidence in this regard was found to be limited. Practical/managerial implications: From the results of this investigation it is evident that more research is required to gain a greater understanding of the influence of e-HRM on organisational productivity, as well as to develop measures for assessing this influence. Contribution: This article proposes additional areas to research and measure when investigating the effectiveness of e-HRM. It provides a different lens from which to view e-HRM assessment whilst keeping it within recognised HR measurement parameters (the HR value chain. In addition, it not only provides areas for measuring e-HRM’s influence but also provides important clues as to how the measurements may be approached.

  4. Relationship to reducing sugar production and scanning electron microscope structure to pretreated hemp hurd biomass (Cannabis sativa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Reinu E.; Barrow, Colin J.; Puri, Munish

    2013-11-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a highly rigid and recalcitrant structure which requires pretreatment to loosen chemical bonds to make accessible monomeric sugars for biofuel production. In this study, locally available biomass, that is hemp (Cannabis sativa), a low cost feedstock for ethanol production, has been used for the production of fermentable sugars. Hemp hurd biomass (HHB) was exposed to five different pretreatments which included dilute acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), alkaline (NaOH), alkaline peroxide, hot water and one stage dilute acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). Different pretreatments resulted in loosening and degradation of HHB structure thus facilitating enzymatic saccharification at optimized parameters (pH–4.8 and 50 °C). The changes in the reactive groups (hydroxyl or acetyl) of the HHB were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to characterize the surface morphology of untreated and treated HHB. Finally, enzymatic saccharification demonstrated maximum yield of total sugars (743 mg g{sup −1}) that are suitable for biofuel production. -- Highlights: • Hemp hurd biomass (HHB) was used for producing fermentable sugars. • Alkaline pretreatment resulted in loosening and degradation of hemp structure. • Pretreated HHB was characterized using FTIR studies. • SEM studies evaluated the opening of fiber bundles in pretreatment, thereby increasing cellulose access to enzymes. • Enzymatic saccharification of pretreated HHB demonstrated maximum yield of reducing sugars.

  5. Relationship to reducing sugar production and scanning electron microscope structure to pretreated hemp hurd biomass (Cannabis sativa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, Reinu E.; Barrow, Colin J.; Puri, Munish

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a highly rigid and recalcitrant structure which requires pretreatment to loosen chemical bonds to make accessible monomeric sugars for biofuel production. In this study, locally available biomass, that is hemp (Cannabis sativa), a low cost feedstock for ethanol production, has been used for the production of fermentable sugars. Hemp hurd biomass (HHB) was exposed to five different pretreatments which included dilute acid (H 2 SO 4 ), alkaline (NaOH), alkaline peroxide, hot water and one stage dilute acid (H 2 SO 4 ). Different pretreatments resulted in loosening and degradation of HHB structure thus facilitating enzymatic saccharification at optimized parameters (pH–4.8 and 50 °C). The changes in the reactive groups (hydroxyl or acetyl) of the HHB were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to characterize the surface morphology of untreated and treated HHB. Finally, enzymatic saccharification demonstrated maximum yield of total sugars (743 mg g −1 ) that are suitable for biofuel production. -- Highlights: • Hemp hurd biomass (HHB) was used for producing fermentable sugars. • Alkaline pretreatment resulted in loosening and degradation of hemp structure. • Pretreated HHB was characterized using FTIR studies. • SEM studies evaluated the opening of fiber bundles in pretreatment, thereby increasing cellulose access to enzymes. • Enzymatic saccharification of pretreated HHB demonstrated maximum yield of reducing sugars

  6. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  7. Electron beam irradiation pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of used newsprint and paper mill wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.W.; Labrie, J.-P.; McKeown, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Electron beam pretreatment of used newsprint, pulp, as well as pulp recovered from clarifier sludge and paper mill sludge, caused the dissociation of cellulose from lignin, and rendered them suitable for enzymatic hydrolysis. A maximum dose of 1 MGy for newsprint and 1.5-2.0 MGy for pulp and paper mill sludge was required to render cellulose present in them in a form which, could be enzymatically saccharified to 90% of completion. Saccharification approaching the theoretical yield was obtained in 2 days with a cellulolytic enzyme system obtained from Trichoderma reesei. As a result of irradiation, water soluble lignin breakdown products, NaOH- soluble lignin, free cellobiose, glucose, mannose, xylose and their polymers, and acetic acid were produced from these materials. (author)

  8. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated users satisfaction on the use of electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ABU & UNIBEN. Two objectives and one null hypotheses were formulated and tested with respect to the users' satisfaction on electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ...

  9. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  10. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined.

  11. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  12. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, ... web pages articles from magazines, encyclopedias, pamphlets and other .... of Nigerian university libraries have Internet connectivity, some of the system.

  13. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  14. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  15. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  16. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  17. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using the advanced oxidation process by electron beam for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Marcia Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The sugar cane bagasse is a renewable energy source and a raw material promise in the biofuel production, once represents about 30% of glucose contained in the plant with the potential to be hydrolyzed and then converted to ethanol. The bagasse is composed of cellulose, straight chain of glucose, of hemicellulose, an amorphous polymer consisting of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose, and of lignin, a complex polymer consisting of fenilpropan units that acts as waterproof coating on the fibers, which is hard to remove due its recalcitrant nature. The aim of this work was to study the electron beam processing as a pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse is one of the most important steps to make this material economically viable and competitive on the energy production. As a pretreatment the electron beam processing can weak the hemicellulose and lignin structures by the action highly reactive radicals that breaks the links, reducing the degree of polymerization fibers. It was evaluated the chemical and structural modifications on fibers caused by the irradiation, the enzymatic hydrolysis of electron beam as the only pretreatment and combined to steam explosion. For enzymatic hydrolysis it was used the commercial enzymes from Novozymes. The radiation processing promotes changes in structure and composition of sugarcane bagasse, increasing the solubility, that is related to hemicellulose and cellulose cleavage, and also increasing the enzymatic conversion yield. In the case of exploded bagasse there is no changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis yield, however the electron beam processing promoted a 67% reduction of furfural, that is formed in the steam explosion process. (author)

  18. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  19. Phosphomolybdic acid and ferric iron as efficient electron mediators for coupling biomass pretreatment to produce bioethanol and electricity generation from wheat straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Ding; Bo Du; Xuebing Zhao; J.Y. Zhu; Dehua Liu

    2017-01-01

    Phosphomolybdic acid (PMo12) was used as an electron mediator and proton carrier to mediate biomass pretreatment for ethanol production and electricity generation from wheat straw. In the pretreatment, lignin was oxidized anaerobically by PMo12 with solubilization of a fraction of hemicelluloses, and the PMo12...

  20. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  1. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  2. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  3. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  4. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  5. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  6. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  7. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  8. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  9. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  10. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  11. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  12. Influence of surface pre-treatment on the electronic levels in silicon MaWCE nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Giulia; Castaldini, Antonio; Schleusener, Alexander; Sivakov, Vladimir; Cavallini, Anna

    2015-05-15

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) was performed on n-doped silicon nanowires grown by metal-assisted wet chemical etching (MaWCE) with gold as the catalyst in order to investigate the energetic scheme inside the bandgap. To observe the possible dependence of the level scheme on the processing temperature, DLTS measurements were performed on the nanowires grown on a non-treated Au/Si surface and on a thermally pre-treated Au/Si surface. A noticeable modification of the configuration of the energy levels was observed, induced by the annealing process. Based on our results on these MaWCE nanowires and on literature data about deep levels in bulk silicon, some hypotheses were advanced regarding the identification of the defects responsible of the energy levels revealed.

  13. Compositional changes in industrial hemp biomass (Cannabis sativa L.) induced by electron beam irradiation Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Yong Joo [Department of Biobased Materials, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Soo-Jeong [Department of Wood and Paper Science, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical decomposition of industrial hemp biomass were evaluated at doses of 150, 300, and 450 kGy. The quantity of decomposed components was indirectly estimated by measuring changes in alkaline extraction. The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation doses resulted in larger amounts of alkaline extract. Carbohydrate compositional analysis using {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the polysaccharides of the industrial hemp. The xylose peak intensity in the NMR spectra decreased with increasing electron irradiation dose, indicating that xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose. -- Highlights: {yields} The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation. {yields} Carbohydrate analysis was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the industrial hemp. {yields} Xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose.

  14. Compositional changes in industrial hemp biomass (Cannabis sativa L.) induced by electron beam irradiation Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Yong Joo; Shin, Soo-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical decomposition of industrial hemp biomass were evaluated at doses of 150, 300, and 450 kGy. The quantity of decomposed components was indirectly estimated by measuring changes in alkaline extraction. The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation doses resulted in larger amounts of alkaline extract. Carbohydrate compositional analysis using 1 H-NMR spectroscopy was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the polysaccharides of the industrial hemp. The xylose peak intensity in the NMR spectra decreased with increasing electron irradiation dose, indicating that xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose. -- Highlights: → The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation. → Carbohydrate analysis was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the industrial hemp. → Xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose.

  15. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  16. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  17. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  18. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  19. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  20. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  1. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  2. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  3. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  4. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  5. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  6. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... faced by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, ... Resources, Access, Use, Postgraduat, Students, University, Technology, Nigeria ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  7. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  8. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    ... Julita Nawe. University of Dar Es Salaam Library, P.O. Box 35092, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .... significantly, while 28.3% observed that quality of service to the community had improved .... resources and evaluate them is an important area.

  9. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  10. Electronic conferencing for continuing medical education: a resource survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, R J

    1986-10-01

    The use of electronic technologies to link participants for education conferences is an option for providers of Continuing Medical Education. In order to profile the kinds of electronic networks currently offering audio- or videoteleconferences for physician audiences, a survey was done during late 1985. The information collected included range of services, fees, and geographic areas served. The results show a broad diversity of providers providing both interactive and didactic programming to both physicians and other health care professionals.

  11. PILOT TESTING: PRETREATMENT OPTIONS TO ALLOW RE-USE OF FRAC FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED BRINE FOR GAS SHALE RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, David

    2012-12-31

    The goal of the A&M DOE NETL Project No. DE-FE0000847 was to develop a mobile, multifunctional water treatment capability designed specifically for “pre-treatment” of field waste brine. The project consisted of constructing s mobile “field laboratory” incorporating new technology for treating high salinity produced water and using the lab to conduct a side-by-side comparison between this new technology and that already existing in field operations. A series of four field trials were performed utilizing the mobile unit to demonstrate the effectiveness of different technology suitable for use with high salinity flow back brines and produced water. The design of the mobile unit was based on previous and current work at the Texas A&M Separation Sciences Pilot Plant. The several treatment techniques which have been found to be successful in both pilot plant and field tests had been tested to incorporate into a single multifunctional process train. Eight different components were evaluated during the trials, two types of oil and grease removal, one BTEX removal step, three micro-filters, and two different nanofilters. The performance of each technique was measured by its separation efficiency, power consumption, and ability to withstand fouling. The field trials were a success. Four different field brines were evaluated in the first trial in New York. Over 16,000 gallons of brine were processed. Using a power cost of $.10 per kWh, media pretreatment power use averaged $0.004 per barrel, solids removal $.04 per barrel and brine “softening” $.84 per barrel. Total power cost was approximately $1.00 per barrel of fluid treated. In Pennsylvania, brines collected from frac ponds were tested in two additional trials. Each of the brines was converted to an oil-free, solids-free brine with no biological activity. Brines were stable over time and would be good candidates for use as a make-up fluid in a subsequent fracturing fluid design. Reports on all of the field

  12. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  13. Pretreatment techniques of biodegradable municipal wastewater for sustainable development of surface and groundwater resources: a survey/case studies (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, A.; Sajjad, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Water being a scarce commodity, recharge of groundwater with clean surface water is important to maintain good quality water resources. This paper reviews and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different techniques for the treatment of municipal wastewater's in developing countries. Different processes discussed include from simple stabilization ponds and land treatment to aerated lagoons and oxidation ditches. More sophisticated techniques of activated sludge and anaerobic digestion are also discussed. The feasibility of these techniques in terms of cost, land area, removal of pathogens, effluent quality and need of technical expertise is discussed. (author)

  14. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  15. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  16. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  17. Analysis of Pedagogic Potential of Electronic Educational Resources with Elements of Autodidactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in recent years didactic properties of electronic educational resources undergo considerable changes, nevertheless, the question of studying of such complete phenomenon as “an electronic educational resource with autodidactics elements” remains open, despite sufficient scientific base of researches of the terms making this concept. Article purpose – determination of essence of electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements. Materials and Methods: the main method of research was the theoretical analysis of the pedagogical and psychological literature on the problem under study. We used the theoretical (analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization methods, the method of interpretation, pedagogical modeling, and empirical methods (observation, testing, conversation, interview, analysis of students’ performance, pedagogical experiment, peer review. Results: we detected the advantages of electronic educational resources in comparison with traditional ones. The concept of autodidactics as applied to the subject of research is considered. Properties of electronic educational resources with a linear and nonlinear principle of construction are studied.The influence of the principle of construction on the development of the learners’ qualities is shown. We formulated an integral definition of electronic educational resources with elements of autodidactics, namely, the variability, adaptivity and cyclicity of training. A model of the teaching-learning process with electronic educational resources is developed. Discussion and Conclusions: further development of a problem will allow to define whether electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements pedagogical potential for realization of educational and self-educational activity of teachers have, to modify technological procedures taking into account age features of students, their specialties and features of the organization of process of training of

  18. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  19. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  20. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  1. Influence of ultrasound pretreatment on wood physiochemical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhengbin; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zijian; Yi, Songlin; Mu, Jun; Wang, Xiaoxu

    2017-01-01

    As an initial step to increase the use of renewable biomass resources, this study was aimed at investigating the effects of ultrasound pretreatment on structural changes of wood. Samples were pretreated by ultrasound with the power of 300W and frequency of 28kHz in aqueous soda solution, aqueous acetic acid, or distilled water, then pretreated and control samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results shown that ultrasound pretreatment is indeed effective in modifying the physiochemical structure of eucalyptus wood; the pretreatment decreased the quantity of alkali metals (e.g., potassium, calcium and magnesium) in the resulting material. Compared to the control group, the residual char content of samples pretreated in aqueous soda solution increased by 10.08%-20.12% and the reaction temperature decreased from 361°C to 341°C, however, in samples pretreated by ultrasound in acetic solution or distilled water, the residual char content decreased by 12.40%-21.45% and there were no significant differences in reactivity apart from a slightly higher maximum reaction rate. Ultrasound pretreatment increased the samples' crystallinity up to 35.5% and successfully removed cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin from the samples; the pretreatment also increased the exposure of the sample to the treatment solutions, broke down sample pits, and generated collapses and microchannels on sample pits, and removed attachments in the samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization and Identification of Gamma-Irradiated Kimchi Cabbage and Broccoli by Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy using Different Sample Pre-treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, J.Y.; Ahn, J.J.; Kashif Akram; Kim, G.R.; Kwon, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy of gamma-irradiated fresh broccoli and kimchi cabbage was conducted to identify their irradiation history. Different pretreatments, such as freeze-drying (FD), oven-drying (OD), alcoholic-drying (ALD), and water-washing and alcoholic-drying (WAD) were used to lower the moisture contents of the samples prior to ESR analysis. The non-irradiated samples exhibited a single central signal (g 0 = 2.0007) with clear effect of Mn 2+ , especially in kimchi cabbage. Upon irradiation, there was an increase in the intensity of the central signal, and two side peaks, mutually spaced at 6 mT, were also observed. These side peaks with g 1 (left) = 2.023 and g 2 (right) = 1.985 were attributed to radiation-induced cellulose radicals. Leaf and stem in broccoli, and root and stem in kimchi cabbage provided good ESR signal responses upon irradiation. The signal noise was reduced in case of ALD and WAD pretreatments, particularly due to Mn 2+ signals. The ALD treatment was found most feasible to detect the improved ESR spectra in the irradiated samples. (author)

  3. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  4. Effects of Pretreatment on the Electronic Properties of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Hetero-Epitaxial Graphene Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian-Chang; Shi, Zhi-Wen; Yang, Rong; Huang, Jian

    2014-09-01

    Quasi-monolayer graphene is successfully grown by the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition heteroepitaxial method we reported previously. To measure its electrical properties, the prepared graphene is fabricated into Hall ball shaped devices by the routine micro-fabrication method. However, impurity molecules adsorbed onto the graphene surface will impose considerable doping effects on the one-atom-thick film material. Our experiment demonstrates that pretreatment of the device by heat radiation baking and electrical annealing can dramatically influence the doping state of the graphene and consequently modify the electrical properties. While graphene in the as-fabricated device is highly p-doped, as confirmed by the position of the Dirac point at far more than +60 V, baking treatment at temperatures around 180°C can significantly lower the doping level and reduce the conductivity. The following electrical annealing is much more efficient to desorb the extrinsic molecules, as confirmed by the in situ measurement, and as a result, further modify the doping state and electrical properties of the graphene, causing a considerable drop of the conductivity and a shifting of Dirac point from beyond +60 V to 0 V.

  5. A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarnio Matti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

  6. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  7. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L

    2015-09-01

    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education.

  8. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  9. Optimisation of electronic interface properties of a-Si:H/c-Si hetero-junction solar cells by wet-chemical surface pre-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angermann, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Abt. Siliziumphotovoltaik, Kekulestrasse 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: angermann@hmi.de; Korte, L.; Rappich, J.; Conrad, E.; Sieber, I.; Schmidt, M. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Abt. Siliziumphotovoltaik, Kekulestrasse 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Huebener, K.; Hauschild, J. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, FB Physik, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2008-08-30

    The relation between structural imperfections at structured silicon surfaces, energetic distribution of interface state densities, recombination loss at a-Si:H/c-Si interfaces and solar cell characteristics have been intensively investigated using non-destructive, surface sensitive techniques, surface photovoltage (SPV) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron microscopy (SEM). Sequences of wet-chemical oxidation and etching steps were optimised with respect to the etching behaviour of Si(111) pyramids. Special wet-chemical smoothing and oxide removal procedures for structured substrates were developed, in order to reduce the preparation-induced surface micro-roughness and density of electronically active defects. H-termination and passivation by wet-chemical oxides were used to inhibit surface contamination and native oxidation during the technological process. We achieved significantly lower micro-roughness, densities of surface states D{sub it}(E) and recombination loss at a-Si:H/c-Si interfaces on wafers with randomly distributed pyramids, compared to conventional pre-treatments. For amorphous-crystalline hetero-junction solar cells (ZnO/a-Si:H/c-Si/BSF/Al), the c-Si surface becomes part of the a-Si:H/c-Si interface, whose recombination activity determines cell performance. With textured substrates, the smoothening procedure results in a significant increase of short circuit current, fill factor and efficiency.

  10. Optimisation of electronic interface properties of a-Si:H/c-Si hetero-junction solar cells by wet-chemical surface pre-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angermann, H.; Korte, L.; Rappich, J.; Conrad, E.; Sieber, I.; Schmidt, M.; Huebener, K.; Hauschild, J.

    2008-01-01

    The relation between structural imperfections at structured silicon surfaces, energetic distribution of interface state densities, recombination loss at a-Si:H/c-Si interfaces and solar cell characteristics have been intensively investigated using non-destructive, surface sensitive techniques, surface photovoltage (SPV) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron microscopy (SEM). Sequences of wet-chemical oxidation and etching steps were optimised with respect to the etching behaviour of Si(111) pyramids. Special wet-chemical smoothing and oxide removal procedures for structured substrates were developed, in order to reduce the preparation-induced surface micro-roughness and density of electronically active defects. H-termination and passivation by wet-chemical oxides were used to inhibit surface contamination and native oxidation during the technological process. We achieved significantly lower micro-roughness, densities of surface states D it (E) and recombination loss at a-Si:H/c-Si interfaces on wafers with randomly distributed pyramids, compared to conventional pre-treatments. For amorphous-crystalline hetero-junction solar cells (ZnO/a-Si:H/c-Si/BSF/Al), the c-Si surface becomes part of the a-Si:H/c-Si interface, whose recombination activity determines cell performance. With textured substrates, the smoothening procedure results in a significant increase of short circuit current, fill factor and efficiency

  11. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-02-01

    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.

  12. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  13. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  14. The Electron Microscopy Outreach Program: A Web-based resource for research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, G E; Baker, T S; Hand, G; Ellisman, M H

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a centralized World Wide Web (WWW)-based environment that serves as a resource of software tools and expertise for biological electron microscopy. A major focus is molecular electron microscopy, but the site also includes information and links on structural biology at all levels of resolution. This site serves to help integrate or link structural biology techniques in accordance with user needs. The WWW site, called the Electron Microscopy (EM) Outreach Program (URL: http://emoutreach.sdsc.edu), provides scientists with computational and educational tools for their research and edification. In particular, we have set up a centralized resource containing course notes, references, and links to image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction software for investigators wanting to learn about EM techniques either within or outside of their fields of expertise. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  16. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  17. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables

  18. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  19. GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the causes of insufficient effective use of electronic learning resources and sets out the guidelines on ways to solve the aforementioned problems. The set of didactic, methodical, psychological, pedagogical, design and ergonomic quality requirements is considered for evaluation, selection and application of information and communication technologies in the educational process. The most appropriate mechanisms for the ICT introduction into the learning process are disclosed as it should meet the specific learning needs of the student and the objectives of the educational process. The guidance for psycho-educational assessment of quality of electronic educational resources is provided. It is argued that the effectiveness of the ICT use is to be improved by means of quality evaluation mechanisms involved into the educational process.

  20. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Loban; D. A. Lovtsov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with elec...

  1. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  2. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  3. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using the advanced oxidation process by electron beam for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose; Pre-tratamento do bagaco de cana utilizando o processo de oxidacao avancada por feixe de eletrons para hidrolise enzimatica da celulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Marcia Almeida

    2013-07-01

    The sugar cane bagasse is a renewable energy source and a raw material promise in the biofuel production, once represents about 30% of glucose contained in the plant with the potential to be hydrolyzed and then converted to ethanol. The bagasse is composed of cellulose, straight chain of glucose, of hemicellulose, an amorphous polymer consisting of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose, and of lignin, a complex polymer consisting of fenilpropan units that acts as waterproof coating on the fibers, which is hard to remove due its recalcitrant nature. The aim of this work was to study the electron beam processing as a pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse is one of the most important steps to make this material economically viable and competitive on the energy production. As a pretreatment the electron beam processing can weak the hemicellulose and lignin structures by the action highly reactive radicals that breaks the links, reducing the degree of polymerization fibers. It was evaluated the chemical and structural modifications on fibers caused by the irradiation, the enzymatic hydrolysis of electron beam as the only pretreatment and combined to steam explosion. For enzymatic hydrolysis it was used the commercial enzymes from Novozymes. The radiation processing promotes changes in structure and composition of sugarcane bagasse, increasing the solubility, that is related to hemicellulose and cellulose cleavage, and also increasing the enzymatic conversion yield. In the case of exploded bagasse there is no changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis yield, however the electron beam processing promoted a 67% reduction of furfural, that is formed in the steam explosion process. (author)

  4. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  5. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  6. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  7. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  8. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  9. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  10. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  11. Impact of co-pretreatment of calcium hydroxide and steam explosion on anaerobic digestion efficiency with corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jinli; Zhang, Jiyu; Yang, Liutianyi; He, Yanfeng; Zhang, Ruihong; Liu, Guangqing; Chen, Chang

    2017-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an effective way to utilize the abundant resource of corn stover (CS). In this light, Ca(OH) 2 pretreatment alone, steam explosion (SE) pretreatment alone, and co-pretreatment of Ca(OH) 2 and SE were applied to improve the digestion efficiency of CS. Results showed that AD of co-pretreated CS with 1.0% Ca(OH) 2 and SE at 1.5 MPa achieved the highest cumulative methane yield of [Formula: see text], which was 61.54% significantly higher (p < .01) than untreated CS. The biodegradability value of CS after co-pretreatment enhanced from 43.03% to 69.52%. Methane yield could be well fitted by the first-order model and the modified Gompertz model. In addition, composition and structural changes of CS after pretreatment were analyzed by a fiber analyzer, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The validated results indicated that co-pretreatment of Ca(OH) 2 and SE was efficient to improve the digestion performance of CS and might be a suitable method for agricultural waste pretreatment in the future AD industry.

  12. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing ...

  13. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  14. Success criteria for electronic medical record implementations in low-resource settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Fleur; Tilahun, Binyam; Dugas, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have the potential of supporting clinical work by providing the right information at the right time to the right people and thus make efficient use of resources. This is especially important in low-resource settings where reliable data are also needed to support public health and local supporting organizations. In this systematic literature review, our objectives are to identify and collect literature about success criteria of EMR implementations in low-resource settings and to summarize them into recommendations. Our search strategy relied on PubMed queries and manual bibliography reviews. Studies were included if EMR implementations in low-resource settings were described. The extracted success criteria and measurements were summarized into 7 categories: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical, and training. We collected 381 success criteria with 229 measurements from 47 articles out of 223 articles. Most papers were evaluations or lessons learned from African countries, published from 1999 to 2013. Almost half of the EMR systems served a specific disease area like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The majority of criteria that were reported dealt with the functionality, followed by organizational issues, and technical infrastructures. Sufficient training and skilled personnel were mentioned in roughly 10%. Political, ethical, and financial considerations did not play a predominant role. More evaluations based on reliable frameworks are needed. Highly reliable data handling methods, human resources and effective project management, as well as technical architecture and infrastructure are all key factors for successful EMR implementation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  16. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Beam irradiation pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Hah Young; Choi, Han Suk; Yang, Soo Jeong; Lee, Ja Hyun; Kim, Sung Bong; Jung, Da Un; Kim, Seung Wook

    2013-01-01

    As a renewable energy resource, lignocellulosic biomass has become great attention these days. Miscanthus is considered as one of the best feed stock for sugar production due to its high carbohydrate conversion, more efficient pretreatment process was necessary for removal of enzymatic hydrolysis barriers. In this study, electron beam irradiation pretreatment was utilized to Miscanthus straw for the enhancement of sugar conversion. The prepared samples were exposed 20 ∼ 500 kGy of doses and 5 ∼ 100 kGy of dose rate under 1 MeV of energy. Optimum irradiation conditions were 300 kGy of doses, 10 kGy of doses rate and 7.4 mA of current. Finally, compared with untreated Miscanthus, the glucose conversion was 2 fold increased under optimal conditions

  18. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  19. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  20. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  2. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  3. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  4. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  5. Opportunities for utilization of non-conventional energy sources for biomass pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rawel; Krishna, Bhavya B; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2016-01-01

    The increasing concerns over the depletion of fossil resources and its associated geo-political issues have driven the entire world to move toward sustainable forms of energy. Pretreatment is the first step in any biochemical conversion process for the production of valuable fuels/chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass to eliminate the lignin and produce fermentable sugars by hydrolysis. Conventional techniques have several limitations which can be addressed by using them in tandem with non-conventional methods for biomass pretreatment. Electron beam and γ (gamma)-irradiation, microwave and ultrasound energies have certain advantages over conventional source of energy and there is an opportunity that these energies can be exploited for biomass pretreatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  7. Electronic Human Resources Management (e-HRM Adoption Studies: Past and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarto Winarto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic human resource management (e-HRM systems become more widely used by profit and non-profit organization. However, the field currently lacks sound theoretical frameworks that can be useful in addressing a key issue concerning the implementation of e-HRM systems, in particular to obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of e-HRM systems. The objective of this paper is to provide a foundation towards the development of a theoretical framework for the implementation of e-HRM systems and develop a conceptual model that would reflect the nature of e-HRM systems’ adoption through systematic literature review. Adopting Crossan and Apaydin’s procedure of systematic review, this paper investigated 21 empirical papers of electronics human resources management, then categorized them into 4 characteristics which influence the adoption; System and technology characteristics; Organizational characteristics; User/individual characteristics, and Environmental and contextual characteristics. Finally, the e-HRM adoption research framework is drawn and based on the framework; avenues for future research are discussed.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik (selanjutnya disebut dengan e-HRM semakin banyak digunakan oleh organisasi profit dan nonprofit. Namun, bidang dan topik ini belum memiliki kerangka teori yang mapan, yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis isu-isu terkait penerapan e-HRM, terutama mengenai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi sistem e-HRM. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan landasan bagi pengembangan kerangka teoritis untuk implementasi sistem e-HRM dan mengembangkan model konseptual yang akan menggambarkan adopsi sistem e-HRM melalui tinjauan literatur sistematis. Mengadopsi prosedur dan metode Crossan dan Apaydin untuk melakukan telaah literatur secara sistematis, paper ini menyelidiki 21 publikasi empiris manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik dari 2

  8. Methods for pretreating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2017-05-09

    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  9. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  10. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  11. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  13. Modeling antecedents of electronic medical record system implementation success in low-resource setting hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing implementation of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMR) in developing countries, there is a growing need to identify antecedents of EMR success to measure and predict the level of adoption before costly implementation. However, less evidence is available about EMR success in the context of low-resource setting implementations. Therefore, this study aims to fill this gap by examining the constructs and relationships of the widely used DeLone and MacLean (D&M) information system success model to determine whether it can be applied to measure EMR success in those settings. A quantitative cross sectional study design using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from 384 health professionals working in five governmental hospitals in Ethiopia. The hospitals use a comprehensive EMR system since three years. Descriptive and structural equation modeling methods were applied to describe and validate the extent of relationship of constructs and mediating effects. The findings of the structural equation modeling shows that system quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.32, P quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.44, P service quality has strong significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.36, P effect of EMR use on user satisfaction was not significant. Both EMR use and user satisfaction have significant influence on perceived net-benefit (β = 0.31, P mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and EMR use (P effect on perceived net-benefit of health professionals. EMR implementers and managers in developing countries are in urgent need of implementation models to design proper implementation strategies. In this study, the constructs and relationships depicted in the updated D&M model were found to be applicable to assess the success of EMR in low resource settings. Additionally, computer literacy was found to be a mediating factor in EMR use and user satisfaction of

  14. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  15. Determination of CT number and density profile of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using computed tomography imaging and electron density phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd; Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah

    2015-01-01

    Plug density phantoms were constructed in accordance to CT density phantom model 062M CIRS using binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. particleboards. The Rhizophora Spp. plug phantoms were scanned along with the CT density phantom using Siemens Somatom Definition AS CT scanner at three CT energies of 80, 120 and 140 kVp. 15 slices of images with 1.0 mm thickness each were taken from the central axis of CT density phantom for CT number and CT density profile analysis. The values were compared to water substitute plug phantom from the CT density phantom. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest value of CT number to water substitute at 80 and 120 kVp CT energies with χ 2 value of 0.011 and 0.014 respectively while the binderless Rhizphora Spp. gave the nearest CT number to water substitute at 140 kVp CT energy with χ 2 value of 0.023. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest CT density profile to water substitute at all CT energies. This study indicated the suitability of Rhizophora Spp. particleboard as phantom material for the use in CT imaging studies

  16. Determination of CT number and density profile of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using computed tomography imaging and electron density phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd, E-mail: mfahmi@usm.my; Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Bauk, Sabar [School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Hashim, Rokiah [School of Industrial Technologies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Plug density phantoms were constructed in accordance to CT density phantom model 062M CIRS using binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. particleboards. The Rhizophora Spp. plug phantoms were scanned along with the CT density phantom using Siemens Somatom Definition AS CT scanner at three CT energies of 80, 120 and 140 kVp. 15 slices of images with 1.0 mm thickness each were taken from the central axis of CT density phantom for CT number and CT density profile analysis. The values were compared to water substitute plug phantom from the CT density phantom. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest value of CT number to water substitute at 80 and 120 kVp CT energies with χ{sup 2} value of 0.011 and 0.014 respectively while the binderless Rhizphora Spp. gave the nearest CT number to water substitute at 140 kVp CT energy with χ{sup 2} value of 0.023. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest CT density profile to water substitute at all CT energies. This study indicated the suitability of Rhizophora Spp. particleboard as phantom material for the use in CT imaging studies.

  17. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  18. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  19. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  20. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  1. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  2. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  3. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  4. Pre-treatment verification of RapidArc® using Electronic Portal Imaging Device; Verificacao pre-tratamento de RapidArc® utilizando Dispositivo Eletronico de Imagem Porta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Marilia B.; Ferreira, Anne Caroline M.; Bittencourt, Guilherme R.; Pirani, Luis F.; Silveira, Thiago B., E-mail: mbeckerlima@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    The RapidArc® is a novel but widespread technique to achieve intensity modulated beams. One of the major challenges concerning this technique is the pretreatment verification process. The aim of this paper was to analyze the viability of the Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) used to perform the verification of RapidArc® using the Sun Nuclear SNC Patient software enable to EPID dose conversion (EPIDose license) and compare its results with punctual dose measurements against a low volume ion chamber. There were analyze five RapidArc® planning, evaluating, separately, planar and punctual doses for each arc. For punctual measurements was used a 0,15 cm³ volume ion chamber and the planar distributions, in Calibration Units (CU), were acquired using the EPID and then converted to absolute dose in centigray through EPIDose. The predicted doses were calculated using the AAA algorithm in Eclipse treatment planning system, version 8.6. The planar comparisons, performed in SNC Patient, employed the Gamma Index tool with a 4% dose difference, 4 mm distance to agreement and 20% threshold. The evaluation of punctual dose was defined by calculating deviations between predicted and measured doses. The mean approval percentage in planar distributions was 94.8% and the average deviation in punctual dose was -1.2%. The use of EPID for RapidArc® pre-treatment verification proved to be feasible and showed good sensibility, because of its high spatial resolution. However one must consider the uncertainty of the method. (author)

  5. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  6. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  7. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  8. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  9. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  10. GREET Pretreatment Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from cellulosic biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. Process simulations of dilute acid and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment processes and subsequent hydrolysis were developed in Aspen Plus for four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar). This processing yields sugars that can be subsequently converted to biofuels or biochemical. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in a new Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREETTM) pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  11. PRETREATING THORIUM FOR ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, J.G.; Schaer, G.R.

    1959-07-28

    A method is presented for pretreating a thorium surface prior to electroplating the surface. The pretreatment steps of the invention comprise cleaning by vapor blasting the surface, anodically pickling in a 5 to 15% by volume aqueous hydrochloric acid bath with a current of 125 to 250 amp/sq ft for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, chemically pickling the surface in a 5 to 15% by volume of aqueous sulfuric acid for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, and rinsing the surface with water.

  12. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  13. Sample pretreatment optimization for the analysis of short chain chlorinated paraffins in soil with gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Laiguo; Huang, Yumei; Han, Shuang; Feng, Yongbin; Jiang, Guo; Tang, Caiming; Ye, Zhixiang; Zhan, Wei; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Sukun

    2013-01-25

    Accurately quantifying short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in soil samples with gas chromatograph coupled with electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) is difficult because many other polychlorinated pollutants are present in the sample matrices. These pollutants (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and toxaphene) can cause serious interferences during SCCPs analysis with GC-MS. Four main columns packed with different adsorbents, including silica gel, Florisil and alumina, were investigated in this study to determine their performance for separating interfering pollutants from SCCPs. These experimental results suggest that the optimum cleanup procedure uses a silica gel column and a multilayer silica gel-Florisil composite column. This procedure completely separated 22 PCB congeners, 23 OCPs and three toxaphene congeners from SCCPs. However, p,p'-DDD, cis-nonachlor and o,p'-DDD were not completely removed and only 53% of the total toxaphene was removed. This optimized method was successfully and effectively applied for removing interfering pollutants from real soil samples. SCCPs in 17 soil samples from different land use areas within a suburban region were analyzed with the established method. The concentrations of SCCPs in these samples were between 7 and 541 ng g(-1) (mean: 84 ng g(-1)). Similar homologue SCCPs patterns were observed between the soil samples collected from different land use areas. In addition, lower chlorinated (Cl(6/7)) C(10)- and C(11)- SCCPs were the dominant congeners. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhong; Wang Qunhui; Jiang Zhaohua; Yang Xuexin; Ji Yongzhen

    2007-01-01

    In order to produce lactic acid, from agricultural residues such as soybean straw, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastic production, it is necessary to decompose the soybean straw into soluble sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the methods in common use, while pretreatment is the effective way to increase the hydrolysis rate. The optimal conditions of pretreatment using ammonia and enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean straw were determined. Compared with the untreated straw, cellulose in straw pretreated by ammonia liquor (10%) soaking for 24 h at room temperature increased 70.27%, whereas hemicellulose and lignin in pretreated straw decreased to 41.45% and 30.16%, respectively. The results of infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also showed that the structure and the surface of the straw were changed through pretreatment that is in favor of the following enzymatic hydrolysis. maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 51.22% was achieved at a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v) at 50 deg. C and pH 4.8 using cellulase (50 fpu/g of substrate) for 36 h

  15. Development and evolution of The Knowledge Hub for Pathology and related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred

    2011-06-01

    The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  17. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  18. Designing a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Seyednaghavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available : In the first phase of this study a model for electronic human resource management in government agencies based on new public services was explored by using software MAXQDA, then in the second phase, relationship between the elements of the theory were tested using software Smart PLS2. So the aim of this study is to design a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. In this regard, according to Strauss and Corbin’s structured plan, five hypotheses were tested. Quantitative data analysis indicates that the pressures of the policies and global perspectives cause to move toward e-HRM. Among the contextual conditions macro structural mechanisms, considerations of actors, governance considerations have a significant impact on the strategy of new public services and therefore lead to the consequences of its implementation in public organizations. The findings suggest that e-HRM does not have a positive and meaningful impact on new public services, and in our country, although the recent political developments have somehow removed the gap between public policy makers, administrators, and the public, but there is still a long way to go.

  19. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  20. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  1. Electronic medical records in diabetes consultations: participants' gaze as an interactional resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Penny; Small, Neil; Rowley, Emma; Langdon, Mark; Ariss, Steven; Wright, John

    2008-09-01

    Two routine consultations in primary care diabetes clinics are compared using extracts from video recordings of interactions between nurses and patients. The consultations were chosen to present different styles of interaction, in which the nurse's gaze was either primarily toward the computer screen or directed more toward the patient. Using conversation analysis, the ways in which nurses shift both gaze and body orientation between the computer screen and patient to influence the style, pace, content, and structure of the consultation were investigated. By examining the effects of different levels of engagement between the electronic medical record and the embodied patient in the consultation room, we argue for the need to consider the contingent nature of the interface of technology and the person in the consultation. Policy initiatives designed to deliver what is considered best-evidenced practice are modified in the micro context of the interactions of the consultation.

  2. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  3. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  4. Pretreatment of Oil Palm Frond (OPF) with Ionic Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, I. S.; Azizan, A.; Salleh, R. Mohd

    2018-05-01

    Pretreatment is the key to unlock the recalcitrance of lignocellulose for cellulosic biofuel production. Increasing attention has been drawn to ionic liquids (ILs) for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass because this approach was considered as a green engineering method over other conventional methods. In this work, Oil palm frond (OPF) was pretreated by using the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [EMIM] Ac at the temperature of 99˚C for 3 hours. The characterization of the untreated and pretreated OPF was conducted by using different techniques which are Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The pretreatment of OPF with [EMIM] Ac was demonstrated to be effective evidenced by the significant reduction of Lateral Order Index (LOI) from FTIR, reduction of Crystallinity Index (CI) based on XRD and the significant morphology changes indicated by SEM. The CI value for the pretreated OPF decreased from 0.47 (untreated sample) to 0.28 while the LOI value decreased from 1.10 to 0.24 after pretreatment with [EMIM]Ac and the SEM morphology showed that the pretreated OPF becomes distorted and disordered.

  5. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  6. The management of online resources and long-term saving of electronic documents by transfer into the digital space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Daniel MAREŞ

    2011-12-01

    The electronic archive refers to the electronic storage system, along with the totality of electronic-type stored documents, while using as storage support any environment that can support storing and from which an electronic document can be presented.

  7. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  8. Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment Using AFEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E.

    Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

  9. Development of an Electronic Medical Record Based Alert for Risk of HIV Treatment Failure in a Low-Resource Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (pART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044

  10. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  11. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  12. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  13. Effect of plasma pretreatment on the structure and emission characteristics of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uh, Hyung Soo; Lee, Soo Myun; Choi, Seok Rim; Park, Sang Sik; Cho, Euo Sik; Lee, Jong Duk; Kwon, Sang Jik

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown on Ni-coated TiN/Si substrates by using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition with a gas mixture of H 2 /CH 4 at a low temperature of 500 .deg. C. The effect of H 2 plasma pretreatment on the diameter of grown CNTs was investigated. We found that the average diameter of CNTs could be easily controlled by using the H 2 -plasma pretreatment time before CNTs growth and varied from 36 nm to 26 nm as the pretreatment time changed from 5 min to 15 min. However, any further increase in the pretreatment time gave rise to a rapid decrease in CNTs growth. After 25 min of the plasma pretreatment, scanning electron microscopy observation exhibited the destruction of the CNTs. The impact of the plasma pretreatment time on the emission behavior of CNTs was also investigated in a diode-type electron-emission configuration. The variation of the CNT diameter due to the plasma pretreatment caused a drastic change in emission properties. The turn-on voltages of CNT emitters varied from 3.5 V/μm to 9 V/μm, depending on the hydrogen-plasma pretreatment conditions. The close relationship between the electron-emission characteristics and the pretreatment time indicates that the pretreatment condition may be a key process parameter in CNTs growth for field-emission displays and should be optimized.

  14. Effects of Pretreatment Methods on Electrodes and SOFC Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Bin Jung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available tapes (anode, electrolyte and paste (cathode were choosen to prepare anode-supported cells for solid oxide fuel cell applications. For both anode-supported cells or electrolyte-supported cells, the anode needs pretreatment to reduce NiO/YSZ to Ni/YSZ to increase its conductivity as well as its catalytic characteristics. In this study, the effects of different pretreatments (open-circuit, closed-circuit on cathode and anodes as well as SOFC performance are investigated. To investigate the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode alone, a Pt cathode is utilized as reference for comparison with the LSM cathode. The characterization of the electrical resistance, AC impedance, and SOFC performance of the resulting electrodes and/or anode-supported cell were carried out. It’s found that the influence of open-circuit pretreatment on the LSM cathode is limited. However, the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on both the LSM cathode and NiO/YSZ anode and the resulting SOFC performance is profound. The effect of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode is attributed to its change of electronic/pore structure as well as catalytic characteristics. With closed-circuit pretreatment, the SOFC performance improved greatly from the change of LSM cathode (and Pt reference compared to the Ni/YSZ anode.

  15. The electronic Rothamsted Archive (e-RA), an online resource for data from the Rothamsted long-term experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Sarah A M; Castells-Brooke, Nathalie I D; Glendining, Margaret J; Goulding, Keith W T; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Macdonald, Andy J; Ostler, Richard J; Poulton, Paul R; Rawlings, Christopher J; Scott, Tony; Verrier, Paul J

    2018-05-15

    The electronic Rothamsted Archive, e-RA (www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk) provides a permanent managed database to both securely store and disseminate data from Rothamsted Research's long-term field experiments (since 1843) and meteorological stations (since 1853). Both historical and contemporary data are made available via this online database which provides the scientific community with access to a unique continuous record of agricultural experiments and weather measured since the mid-19 th century. Qualitative information, such as treatment and management practices, plans and soil information, accompanies the data and are made available on the e-RA website. e-RA was released externally to the wider scientific community in 2013 and this paper describes its development, content, curation and the access process for data users. Case studies illustrate the diverse applications of the data, including its original intended purposes and recent unforeseen applications. Usage monitoring demonstrates the data are of increasing interest. Future developments, including adopting FAIR data principles, are proposed as the resource is increasingly recognised as a unique archive of data relevant to sustainable agriculture, agroecology and the environment.

  16. Principles of formation of the content of an educational electronic resource on the basis of general and didactic patterns of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Заславская

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the development of technical means of teaching on the effectiveness of educational and methodical resources. Modern opportunities of information and communication technologies allow creating electronic educational resources that represent educational information that automates the learning process, provide information assistance, if necessary, collect and process statistical information on the degree of development of the content of the school material by schoolchildren, set an individual trajectory of learning, and so on. The main principle of data organization is the division of the training course into separate sections on the thematic elements and components of the learning process. General regularities include laws that encompass the entire didactic system, and in specific (particular cases, those whose actions extend to a separate component (aspect of the system. From the standpoint of the existence of three types of electronic training modules in the aggregate content of the electronic learning resource - information, control and module of practical classes - the principles of the formation of the electronic learning resource, in our opinion, should regulate all these components. Each of the certain principles is considered in the groups: scientific orientation, methodological orientation, systemic nature, accounting of interdisciplinary connections, fundamentalization, systematic and dosage sequence, rational use of study time, accessibility, minimization, operationalization of goals, unified identification diagnosis.

  17. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  18. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  19. Hydrogen storage in graphite nanofibers: effect of synthesis catalyst and pretreatment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueking, Angela D; Yang, Ralph T; Rodriguez, Nelly M; Baker, R Terry K

    2004-02-03

    A series of graphite nanofibers (GNFs) that were subjected to various pretreatments were used to determine how modifications in the carbon structure formed during either synthesis or pretreatment steps results in active or inactive materials for hydrogen storage. The nanofibers possessing a herringbone structure and a high degree of defects were found to exhibit the best performance for hydrogen storage. These materials were exposed to several pretreatment procedures, including oxidative, reductive, and inert environments. Significant hydrogen storage levels were found for several in situ pretreatments. Examination of the nanofibers by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after pretreatment and subsequent hydrogen storage revealed the existence of edge attack and an enhancement in the generation of structural defects. These findings suggest that pretreatment in certain environments results in the creation of catalytic sites that are favorable toward hydrogen storage. The best pretreatment resulted in a 3.8% hydrogen release after exposure at 69 bar and room temperature.

  20. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K.

    2015-01-01

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. - Highlights: • Pre-treatments reduce ash, extractives, alkalines and hemicellulose from biomass. • Torrefaction of Douglas fir yields more solid product than hybrid poplar. • Salt pretreatment significantly increases the activation energy of biomass. • Acid and salt pretreatment bestows thermal stability in biomass.

  1. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman 99164-6120, WA (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-12-15

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. - Highlights: • Pre-treatments reduce ash, extractives, alkalines and hemicellulose from biomass. • Torrefaction of Douglas fir yields more solid product than hybrid poplar. • Salt pretreatment significantly increases the activation energy of biomass. • Acid and salt pretreatment bestows thermal stability in biomass.

  2. Fermentative hydrogen production from pretreated biomass: A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.; Budde, M.A.W.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of employing biomass resources from different origin as feedstocks for fermentative hydrogen production. Mild-acid pretreated and hydrolysed barley straw (BS) and corn stalk (CS), hydrolysed barley grains (BG) and corn grains (CG), and sugar beet

  3. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  4. Ni/YSZ anode – Effect of pre-treatments on cell degradation and microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Brodersen, Karen

    2011-01-01

    ,TPB) was decreased to ¼ or less for the pre-treated and fuel cell tested cells when compared with a non-pre-treated reference tested cell; all operated at the same fuel cell test conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and image analyses for the non-pre-treated reference tested cell and selected pre-treated cells...

  5. Effects of Pretreatment on the Structure And Properties of Electroless Nickel Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Deng, Hong

    1994-01-01

    The pretreatment process can significantly affect the corrosion resistance of electroless nickel (EN) coatings One of the most important reasons is that different pretreatment processes can give different surface morphologies of the substrate. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the scanni...

  6. Advances in paper-based sample pretreatment for point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui Hua; Yang, Hui; Choi, Jane Ru; Gong, Yan; Feng, Shang Sheng; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Huang, Qing Sheng; Shi, Jun Ling; Mei, Qi Bing; Xu, Feng

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, paper-based point-of-care testing (POCT) has been widely used in medical diagnostics, food safety and environmental monitoring. However, a high-cost, time-consuming and equipment-dependent sample pretreatment technique is generally required for raw sample processing, which are impractical for low-resource and disease-endemic areas. Therefore, there is an escalating demand for a cost-effective, simple and portable pretreatment technique, to be coupled with the commonly used paper-based assay (e.g. lateral flow assay) in POCT. In this review, we focus on the importance of using paper as a platform for sample pretreatment. We firstly discuss the beneficial use of paper for sample pretreatment, including sample collection and storage, separation, extraction, and concentration. We highlight the working principle and fabrication of each sample pretreatment device, the existing challenges and the future perspectives for developing paper-based sample pretreatment technique.

  7. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  8. Evaluation of three electronic report processing systems for preparing hydrologic reports of the U.S Geological Survey, Water Resources Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiltner, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey undertook three pilot projects to evaluate electronic report processing systems as a means to improve the quality and timeliness of reports pertaining to water resources investigations. The three projects selected for study included the use of the following configuration of software and hardware: Ventura Publisher software on an IBM model AT personal computer, PageMaker software on a Macintosh computer, and FrameMaker software on a Sun Microsystems workstation. The following assessment criteria were to be addressed in the pilot studies: The combined use of text, tables, and graphics; analysis of time; ease of learning; compatibility with the existing minicomputer system; and technical limitations. It was considered essential that the camera-ready copy produced be in a format suitable for publication. Visual improvement alone was not a consideration. This report consolidates and summarizes the findings of the electronic report processing pilot projects. Text and table files originating on the existing minicomputer system were successfully transformed to the electronic report processing systems in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. Graphics prepared using a proprietary graphics software package were transferred to all the electronic report processing software through the use of Computer Graphic Metafiles. Graphics from other sources were entered into the systems by scanning paper images. Comparative analysis of time needed to process text and tables by the electronic report processing systems and by conventional methods indicated that, although more time is invested in creating the original page composition for an electronically processed report , substantial time is saved in producing subsequent reports because the format can be stored and re-used by electronic means as a template. Because of the more compact page layouts, costs of printing the reports were 15% to 25

  9. Novel fungal consortium pretreatment of waste oat straw to enhance economic and efficient biohydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bio-pretreatment using a fungal consortium to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored.  A fungal consortium comprised of T. viride and P. chrysosporium as microbial inoculum was compared with untreated and single-species-inoculated samples. Fungal bio-pretreatment was carried out at atmospheric conditions with limited external energy input.  The effectiveness of the pretreatment is evaluated according to its lignin removal and digestibility. Enhancement of biohydrogen production is observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. Fungal consortium pretreatment effectively degraded oat straw lignin (by >47% in 7 days leading to decomposition of cell-wall structure as revealed in SEM images, increasing biohydrogen yield. The hydrogen produced from the fungal consortium pretreated straw increased by 165% 6 days later, and was more than produced from either a single fungi species of T. viride or P. chrysosponium pretreated straw (94% and 106%, respectively. No inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed.

  10. Transformation of Starchy Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol using Ragi Tapai Synergized with Microwave Irradiation Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Cheang Diong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production strategy was studied using multiple strain microbes from microwave irradiation (MI pretreated sago waste. Sago waste (SW was MI-pretreated for reducing sugars production using 2 heating media (water and sulfuric acid under pretreatment conditions including MI power, pretreatment duration, and solid loading. When water was used, the pretreatment parameters were optimized using Box-Behnken Design (BBD. However, gelatinized starch and charring of SW led to an insignificant quadratic model. To mitigate the gelatinization problem while determining the best MI pretreatment conditions, water was substituted by sulfuric acid using single factor method. The highest reducing sugar yield of 261.5 mg/g SW was achieved at 7.5% solid loading, 6 min pretreatment duration, and 300 W MI power. The effectiveness of the pretreatment was ascertained by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and chemical-composition analysis. When fermenting MI-pretreated SW using ragi tapai, simultaneous saccharification of starch and ethanol production was evidenced from the sugar/ethanol profile. A resulted yield of 7.24 g ethanol/100 g SW confirmed the fermentability of MI-pretreated SW. The ethanol production was well fitted into the modified Gompertz model.

  11. Electronic resources of the rare books and valuable editions department of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University: open access for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. К. Журавльова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes tasks that electronic collections of rare books fulfill: broad access for readers to rare and valuable editions providing, preservation of ensuring of the original. On the example of the electronic collection of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University – «eScriptorium: electronic archive of rare books and manuscripts for research and education» the possibility of the full-text resources of the valuable editions using is shown. The principles of creation, structure, chronological frameworks, directions of adding the documents to the archive are represented. The perspectives of the project development are outlined as well as examples of the digital libraries of the European countries and Ukraine are provided, the actual task of preserving the originals of the rare books of the country is raised, the innovative approaches to serving users with electronic resources are considered. The evidences of cooperation of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University with the largest world digital libraries: World Digital Library and Europeana are provided.

  12. The use of quality benchmarking in assessing web resources for the dermatology virtual branch library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, M N; Roudsari, A V; Gordon, C; Muir Gray, J A

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health. They aim at creating online knowledge based communities, each concerned with some specific clinical and other health-related topics. This study is about the envisaged Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries of the National electronic Library for Health. It aims at selecting suitable dermatology Web resources for inclusion in the forthcoming Virtual Branch Libraries after establishing preliminary quality benchmarking rules for this task. Psoriasis, being a common dermatological condition, has been chosen as a starting point. Because quality is a principal concern of the National electronic Library for Health, the study includes a review of the major quality benchmarking systems available today for assessing health-related Web sites. The methodology of developing a quality benchmarking system has been also reviewed. Aided by metasearch Web tools, candidate resources were hand-selected in light of the reviewed benchmarking systems and specific criteria set by the authors. Over 90 professional and patient-oriented Web resources on psoriasis and dermatology in general are suggested for inclusion in the forthcoming Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries. The idea of an all-in knowledge-hallmarking instrument for the National electronic Library for Health is also proposed based on the reviewed quality benchmarking systems. Skilled, methodical, organized human reviewing, selection and filtering based on well-defined quality appraisal criteria seems likely to be the key ingredient in the envisaged National electronic Library for

  13. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  14. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  15. The use of raw and acid-pretreated bivalve mollusk shells to remove metals from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Sun Changbin; Xu Jin; Li Youzhi

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metal removal from industrial wastewater is not only to protect living organisms in the environment but also to conserve resources such as metals and water by enabling their reuse. To overcome the disadvantage of high cost and secondary pollution by the conventional physico-chemical treatment techniques, environmentally benign and low-cost adsorbents are in demand. In this study, the use of raw and acid-pretreated bivalve mollusk shells (BMSs) to remove metals from aqueous solutions with single or mixed metal was evaluated at different BMSs doses, pH and temperatures in batch shaking experiments in laboratory conditions. When the BMSs were used to treat CuSO 4 .5H 2 O solution, the copper sorption capacities of the raw and acid-pretreated BMSs were approximately 38.93 mg/g and 138.95 mg/g, respectively. The copper removal efficiency (CRE) of the raw BMSs became greatly enhanced with increasing initial pH, reaching 99.51% at the initial pH 5. Conversely, the CRE of the acid-pretreated BMSs was maintained at 99.48-99.52% throughout the pH range of 1-5. Furthermore, the CRE values of the raw and acid-pretreated BMSs were not greatly changed when the temperature was varied from 15 deg. C to 40 deg. C. In addition, the CRE value of the raw BMSs was maintained for 12 cycles of sorption-desorption with a CRE of 98.4% being observed in the final cycle. Finally, when the BMSs were used to treat electroplating wastewater, the removal efficiencies (REs) of the raw BMSs were 99.97%, 98.99% and 87% for Fe, Zn and Cu, respectively, whereas the REs of the acid-pretreated BMSs were 99.98%, 99.43% and 92.13%, respectively. Ion exchange experiments revealed that one of mechanisms for metal sorption by the BMSs from aqueous solution is related to ion exchange, especially between the metal ions in the treated solution and Ca 2+ from BMSs. Infrared absorbance spectra analysis indicated that the acid pretreatment led to occurrence of the groups (i.e. -OH, -NH, C=O and S=O) of

  16. The use of raw and acid-pretreated bivalve mollusk shells to remove metals from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Changbin; Xu, Jin; Li, Youzhi

    2009-08-30

    Heavy metal removal from industrial wastewater is not only to protect living organisms in the environment but also to conserve resources such as metals and water by enabling their reuse. To overcome the disadvantage of high cost and secondary pollution by the conventional physico-chemical treatment techniques, environmentally benign and low-cost adsorbents are in demand. In this study, the use of raw and acid-pretreated bivalve mollusk shells (BMSs) to remove metals from aqueous solutions with single or mixed metal was evaluated at different BMSs doses, pH and temperatures in batch shaking experiments in laboratory conditions. When the BMSs were used to treat CuSO(4)x5H(2)O solution, the copper sorption capacities of the raw and acid-pretreated BMSs were approximately 38.93 mg/g and 138.95 mg/g, respectively. The copper removal efficiency (CRE) of the raw BMSs became greatly enhanced with increasing initial pH, reaching 99.51% at the initial pH 5. Conversely, the CRE of the acid-pretreated BMSs was maintained at 99.48-99.52% throughout the pH range of 1-5. Furthermore, the CRE values of the raw and acid-pretreated BMSs were not greatly changed when the temperature was varied from 15 degrees C to 40 degrees C. In addition, the CRE value of the raw BMSs was maintained for 12 cycles of sorption-desorption with a CRE of 98.4% being observed in the final cycle. Finally, when the BMSs were used to treat electroplating wastewater, the removal efficiencies (REs) of the raw BMSs were 99.97%, 98.99% and 87% for Fe, Zn and Cu, respectively, whereas the REs of the acid-pretreated BMSs were 99.98%, 99.43% and 92.13%, respectively. Ion exchange experiments revealed that one of mechanisms for metal sorption by the BMSs from aqueous solution is related to ion exchange, especially between the metal ions in the treated solution and Ca(2+) from BMSs. Infrared absorbance spectra analysis indicated that the acid pretreatment led to occurrence of the groups (i.e. -OH, -NH, C=O and S

  17. Lignocellulosic biomass-Thermal pretreatment with steam: Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    With the ever rising demand for more energy and the limited availability of depleted world resources, many are beginning to look for alternatives to fossil fuels. Liquid biofuel, in particular, is of key interest to decrease our dependency on fuels produced from imported petroleum. Biomass pre......-treatment remains one of the most pressing challenges in terms of cost-effective production of biofuels. The digestibility of lingo-cellulosic biomass is limited by different factors such as the lignin content, the crystallinity of cellulose, and the available cellulose accessibility to hydrolytic enzymes. A number...

  18. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment

  19. A xylanase-aided enzymatic pretreatment facilitates cellulose nanofibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lingfeng; Tian, Dong; Hu, Jinguang; Wang, Fei; Saddler, Jack

    2017-11-01

    Although biological pretreatment of cellulosic fiber based on endoglucanases has shown some promise to facilitate cellulose nanofibrillation, its efficacy is still limited. In this study, a xylanase-aided endoglucanase pretreatment was assessed on the bleached hardwood and softwood Kraft pulps to facilitate the downstream cellulose nanofibrillation. Four commercial xylanase preparations were compared and the changes of major fiber physicochemical characteristics such as cellulose/hemicellulose content, gross fiber properties, fiber morphologies, cellulose accessibility/degree of polymerization (DP)/crystallinity were systematically evaluated before and after enzymatic pretreatment. It showed that the synergistic cooperation between endoglucanase and certain xylanase (Biobrite) could efficiently "open up" the hardwood Kraft pulp with limited carbohydrates degradation (cellulose nanofibrillation during mild sonication process (90Wh) with more uniform disintegrated nanofibril products (50-150nm, as assessed by scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of process parameters of various pretreatments on enzymatic hydrolysability of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (Kapok) fibre: A response surface methodology study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tye, Ying Ying; Lee, Keat Teong; Wan Abdullah, Wan Nadiah; Leh, Cheu Peng

    2015-01-01

    Kapok fibre is a promising raw material to produce sugar by enzymatic hydrolysis. In this work, effects of water, acid and alkaline pretreatments on the enzymatic sugar yield were studied through response surface methodology (RSM) and supported by the analysis of chemical compositions and physical structure of the fibre. For water pretreatment, reaction temperature and time were the independent variables while chemical concentration was also used as the third independent variable for acid and alkaline pretreatments. For all pretreatments, the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were kept constant. The structure of pretreated fibre was also examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results showed that water and acid pretreatments effectively dissolved hemicellulose of the fibre with the latter unveiled better results. The alkaline pretreatment resulted in the highest total glucose yield (g/kg of untreated fibre) as compared to water and acid pretreatments. SEM analysis illustrated that water and acid pretreatments led severe destruction of fibre structure; however, both of these pretreatments exhibited lower enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysability of kapok fibre as compared to that observed in alkaline pretreatment. - Highlights: • Effect of pretreatments on sugar yield was studied by response surface methodology. • Glucose yield was highly related to the chemical compositions of pretreated fibers. • Pretreatments altered the physical structure of kapok fibers. • Enzymatic hydrolysability of fibre was improved the most by alkaline treatment. • Over 94% cellulose of the pretreated fibres was converted to glucose

  1. 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride Pretreatment on Malaysia Lignocellulose Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.P.; Nur Hasyareeda Hassan; Muhammad Rahimi Yusop

    2015-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are of great interest as potential solvents for the production of fuels from lignocellulose biomass which is a potential source of bio fuels. To study the effects of pretreatment, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([B mim]Cl) was used to pretreat woody plants, kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) and jelutong (Dyera costulata), and non-woody plants, kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and rice husk (Oryza sativa) at 120 degree Celsius for 24 h. Cellulose was regenerated by the addition of water. The cell wall composition and structure of the lignocellulose bio masses before and after the ILs pretreatment were observed and characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After the pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out to identify the total reducing sugars (TRS) yields using dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method. Regenerated lignocellulose bio masses resulted in high TRS yields compared to their counter-parts which are in agreement with the findings of FESEM, ATR FT-IR and XRD that exhibited regenerated cellulose were less crystalline and more amorphous upon IL pretreatment. Therefore, kempas and jelutong can be alternate sources for the bio fuels production. (author)

  2. ALA Pretreatment Improves Waterlogging Tolerance of Fig Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyan An

    Full Text Available 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, a natural and environmentally friendly plant growth regulator, can improve plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, whether ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of ALA pretreatment on the waterlogging-induced damage of fig (Ficus carica Linn. plants, which often suffer from waterlogging stress. ALA pretreatment significantly alleviated stress-induced morphological damage, increased leaf relative water content (RWC, and reduced leaf superoxide anion ([Formula: see text] production rate and malonaldehyde (MDA content in fig leaves, indicating ALA mitigates waterlogging stress of fig plants. We further demonstrated that ALA pretreatment largely promoted leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic electron transfer ability, and photosynthetic performance index, indicating ALA significantly improves plant photosynthetic efficiency under waterlogging stress. Moreover, ALA pretreatment significantly increased activities of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD, root vigor, and activities of root alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, indicating ALA also significantly improves antioxidant ability and root function of fig plants under waterlogging stress. Taken together, ALA pretreatment improves waterlogging tolerance of fig plants significantly, and the promoted root respiration, leaf photosynthesis, and antioxidant ability may contribute greatly to this improvement. Our data firstly shows that ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance.

  3. Enhancing biogas production of corn stover by fast pyrolysis pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Deli; Wu, Houkai; Yi, Weiming; Fu, Peng; Li, Yongjun; Li, Zhihe

    2016-10-01

    A new thermo-chemical pretreatment by a lower temperature fast pyrolysis (LTFP) was applied to promote anaerobic digestion (AD) efficiency of corn stover (CS). The pretreatment experiment was performed by a fluidized bed pyrolysis reactor at 180, 200 and 220°C with a carrier gas flow rate of 4 and 3m(3)/h. The components characteristics, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images and Crystal Intensity (CrI) of the pretreated CS were tested to explore effectiveness of the pretreatment. The results showed that the cumulative methane production at 180°C for 4 and 3m(3)/h were 199.8 and 200.3mL/g TS, respectively. As compared to the untreated CS, the LTFP pretreatment significantly (a<0.05) increased the methane production by 18.07% and 18.33%, respectively. Methane production was well fitted by the Gompertz models, and the maximum methane potential and AD efficiency was obtained at 180°C for 3m(3)/h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Activation of glassy carbon electrodes by photocatalytic pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumanli, Onur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, 55139 Samsun (Turkey); Onar, A. Nur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, 55139 Samsun (Turkey)], E-mail: nonar@omu.edu.tr

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes a simple and rapid photocatalytic pretreatment procedure that removes contaminants from glassy carbon (GC) surfaces. The effectiveness of TiO{sub 2} mediated photocatalytic pretreatment procedure was compared to commonly used alumina polishing procedure. Cyclic voltammetric and chronocoulometric measurements were carried out to assess the changes in electrode reactivity by using four redox systems. Electrochemical measurements obtained on photocatalytically treated GC electrodes showed a more active surface relative to polished GC. In cyclic voltammograms of epinephrine, Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} and ferrocene redox systems, higher oxidation and reduction currents were observed. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k{sup o}) were calculated for Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} and ferrocene which were greater for photocatalytic pretreatment. Chronocoulometry was performed in order to find the amount of adsorbed methylene blue onto the electrode and was calculated as 0.34 pmol cm{sup -2} for photocatalytically pretreated GC. The proposed photocatalytic GC electrode cleansing and activating pretreatment procedure was more effective than classical alumina polishing.

  5. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Deisy Y.

    The performance of soybean hulls and forage sorghum as feedstocks for ethanol production was studied. The main goal of this research was to increase fermentable sugars' yield through high-efficiency pretreatment technology. Soybean hulls are a potential feedstock for production of bio-ethanol due to their high carbohydrate content (≈50%) of nearly 37% cellulose. Soybean hulls could be the ideal feedstock for fuel ethanol production, because they are abundant and require no special harvesting and additional transportation costs as they are already in the plant. Dilute acid and modified steam-explosion were used as pretreatment technologies to increase fermentable sugars yields. Effects of reaction time, temperature, acid concentration and type of acid on hydrolysis of hemicellulose in soybean hulls and total sugar yields were studied. Optimum pretreatment parameters and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for converting soybean hulls into fermentable sugars were identified. The combination of acid (H2SO4, 2% w/v) and steam (140°C, 30 min) efficiently solubilized the hemicellulose, giving a pentose yield of 96%. Sorghum is a tropical grass grown primarily in semiarid and dry parts of the world, especially in areas too dry for corn. The production of sorghum results in about 30 million tons of byproducts mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Forage sorghum such as brown midrib (BMR) sorghum for ethanol production has generated much interest since this trait is characterized genetically by lower lignin concentrations in the plant compared with conventional types. Three varieties of forage sorghum and one variety of regular sorghum were characterized and evaluated as feedstock for fermentable sugar production. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction were used to determine changes in structure and chemical composition of forage sorghum before and after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

  6. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  7. Self-Paced Interactive Multimedia Courseware: A Learning Support Resource for Enhancing Electronic Theses and Dissertations Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essel, Harry Barton; Osei-Poku, Patrick; Tachie-Menson, Akosua; Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia

    2016-01-01

    Submission of Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs) by postgraduate students has become a common phenomenon in learning environments globally. The purpose of ETDs is to train postgraduate students as knowledge workers in online publishing and also extend their skills beyond word processing. The challenge however, is that many postgraduate…

  8. Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource…

  9. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  10. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  11. Silane pre-treatments on copper and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflorian, F.; Rossi, S.; Fedrizzi, L.

    2006-01-01

    A large part of aluminium products are coated with an organic layer in order to improve the corrosion resistance. Copper surfaces are also sometimes protected with an organic coating to improve the durability or the aesthetic properties. Examples of industrial applications are household appliances and heat exchanger components. For these applications it is not rare to have the industrial need to treat at the same time components made of aluminium and copper. In order to extend the service life of the organic coated copper a specific surface pre-treatment is often required. Nevertheless, probably because of the limited market of this application, no specific pre-treatments for copper are industrially developed, with the exception of cleaning procedures, but simply extensions of existing pre-treatments optimised for other metals (aluminium, zinc) are used. The application of silane pre-treatments as adhesion promoters for organic coated metals is remarkably increasing in the last decade, because silanes offer very good performance together with high environmental compatibility. The idea is therefore to try to develop a specific silane based pre-treatment for copper. The starting point is the existing silane products for aluminium, optimising the composition and the application conditions (concentration, temperature, pH of the bath, etc.) in order to develop a high performance copper alloy pre-treatment increasing the protective properties and the adhesion of a successively applied organic coating. Moreover these pre-treatments could be used for aluminium alloys too and therefore could be suggested for multi-metals components. The deposits were analysed using FTIR spectroscopy and optical and electron microscopic observations. A careful electrochemical characterisation, mainly by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements (EIS) was carried out to highlight the presence of silane and to evaluate the performance of the different deposits. In order to study an

  12. Deep Eutectic Solvents pretreatment of agro-industrial food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procentese, Alessandra; Raganati, Francesca; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Rehmann, Lars; Marzocchella, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Waste biomass from agro-food industries are a reliable and readily exploitable resource. From the circular economy point of view, direct residues from these industries exploited for production of fuel/chemicals is a winning issue, because it reduces the environmental/cost impact and improves the eco-sustainability of productions. The present paper reports recent results of deep eutectic solvent (DES) pretreatment on a selected group of the agro-industrial food wastes (AFWs) produced in Europe. In particular, apple residues, potato peels, coffee silverskin, and brewer's spent grains were pretreated with two DESs, (choline chloride-glycerol and choline chloride-ethylene glycol) for fermentable sugar production. Pretreated biomass was enzymatic digested by commercial enzymes to produce fermentable sugars. Operating conditions of the DES pretreatment were changed in wide intervals. The solid to solvent ratio ranged between 1:8 and 1:32, and the temperature between 60 and 150 °C. The DES reaction time was set at 3 h. Optimal operating conditions were: 3 h pretreatment with choline chloride-glycerol at 1:16 biomass to solvent ratio and 115 °C. Moreover, to assess the expected European amount of fermentable sugars from the investigated AFWs, a market analysis was carried out. The overall sugar production was about 217 kt yr -1 , whose main fraction was from the hydrolysis of BSGs pretreated with choline chloride-glycerol DES at the optimal conditions. The reported results boost deep investigation on lignocellulosic biomass using DES. This investigated new class of solvents is easy to prepare, biodegradable and cheaper than ionic liquid. Moreover, they reported good results in terms of sugars' release at mild operating conditions (time, temperature and pressure).

  13. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  14. Success factors for implementing and sustaining a mature electronic medical record in a low-resource setting: a case study of iSanté in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRiel, E; Puttkammer, N; Hyppolite, N; Diallo, J; Wagner, S; Honoré, J G; Balan, J G; Celestin, N; Vallès, J S; Duval, N; Thimothé, G; Boncy, J; Coq, N R L; Barnhart, S

    2018-03-01

    Electronic health information systems, including electronic medical records (EMRs), have the potential to improve access to information and quality of care, among other things. Success factors and challenges for novel EMR implementations in low-resource settings have increasingly been studied, although less is known about maturing systems and sustainability. One systematic review identified seven categories of implementation success factors: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical and training. This case study applies this framework to iSanté, Haiti's national EMR in use in more than 100 sites and housing records for more than 750 000 patients. The author group, consisting of representatives of different agencies within the Haitian Ministry of Health (MSPP), funding partner the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Haiti, and implementing partner the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), identify successes and lessons learned according to the seven identified categories, and propose an additional cross-cutting category, sustainability. Factors important for long-term implementation success of complex information systems are balancing investments in hardware and software infrastructure upkeep, user capacity and data quality control; designing and building a system within the context of the greater eHealth ecosystem with a plan for interoperability and data exchange; establishing system governance and strong leadership to support local system ownership and planning for system financing to ensure sustainability. Lessons learned from 10 years of implementation of the iSanté EMR system are relevant to sustainability of a full range of increasingly interrelated information systems (e.g. for laboratory, supply chain, pharmacy and human resources) in the health sector in low-resource settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  15. Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment processes and disposal of sewage sludges. Topics include resource and energy recovery operations, land disposal, composting, ocean disposal, and incineration. Digestion, dewatering, and disinfection are among the pretreatment processes discussed. Environmental aspects, including the effects on soils, plants, and animals, are also presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Enzymatic hydrolsis of pretreated rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasenko, E.Y.; Shoemaker, S.P. [California Inst. of Food and Agricultural Research, Davis, CA (United States); Ding, H. [California Univ., Davis (Canada). Dept. of Food Science and Technology; Labavitch, J.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Pomology

    1997-02-01

    California rice straw is being evaluated as a feedstock for production of power and fuel. This paper examines the initial steps in the process: pretreatment of rice straw and enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides in the pretreated material to soluble sugars. Rice straw was subjected to three distinct pretreatment procedures: acid-catalyzed steam explosion (Swan Biomass Company), acid hydrolysis (U.S. DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory), and ammonia fiber explosion or AFEX (Texas A and M University). Standard conditions for each pretreatment were used, but none was optimized for rice straw specifically. Six commercial cellulases, products of Genencor International (USA), Novo (Denmark), Iogen (Canada) and Fermtech (Russia) were used for hydrolysis. The Swan- and the acid-pretreatments effectively removed hemicellulose from rice straw, providing high yields of fermentable sugars. The AFEX-pretreatment was distinctly different from other pretreatments in that it did not significantly solubilize hemicellulose. All three pretreatment procedures substantially increased enzymatic digestibility of rice straw. Three commercial Trichoderma-reesei-derived enzyme preparations: Cellulase 100L (Iogen), Spezyme CP (Genencor), and Al (Fermtech), were more active on pretreated rice straw compared than others tested. Conditions for hydrolysis of rice straw using Cellulase 100L were evaluated. The supplementation of this enzyme preparation with cellobiase (Novozyme 188) significantly improved the parameters of hydrolysis for the Swan- and the acid-pretreated materials, but did not affect the hydrolysis of the AFEX-pretreated rice straw. (Author)

  17. Pretreatment Solution for Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Chemical pretreatments are used to produce usable water by treating a water source with a chemical pretreatment that contains a hexavalent chromium and an acid to generate a treated water source, wherein the concentration of sulfate compounds in the acid is negligible, and wherein the treated water source remains substantially free of precipitates after the addition of the chemical pretreatment. Other methods include reducing the pH in urine to be distilled for potable water extraction by pretreating the urine before distillation with a pretreatment solution comprising one or more acid sources selected from a group consisting of phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, and nitric acid, wherein the urine remains substantially precipitate free after the addition of the pretreatment solution. Another method described comprises a process for reducing precipitation in urine to be processed for water extraction by mixing the urine with a pretreatment solution comprising hexavalent chromium compound and phosphoric acid.

  18. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  19. Influence of ethylene glycol pretreatment on effectiveness of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of polyethylene fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Ying; Li Ranxing; Cai Fang; Fu Kun; Peng Shujing; Jiang Qiuran; Yao Lan; Qiu Yiping

    2010-01-01

    For atmospheric pressure plasma treatments, the results of plasma treatments may be influenced by liquids adsorbed into the substrate. This paper studies the influence of ethylene glycol (EG) pretreatment on the effectiveness of atmospheric plasma jet (APPJ) treatment of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers with 0.31% and 0.42% weight gain after soaked in EG/water solution with concentration of 0.15 and 0.3 mol/l for 24 h, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the surface of fibers pretreated with EG/water solution does not have observable difference from that of the control group. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that the oxygen concentration on the surface of EG-pretreated fibers is increased less than the plasma directly treated fibers. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of plasma directly treated fibers to epoxy is increased almost 3 times compared with the control group while that of EG-pretreated fibers to epoxy does not change except for the fibers pretreated with lower EG concentration and longer plasma treatment time. EG pretreatment reduces the water contact angle of UHMWPE fibers. In conclusion, EG pretreatment can hamper the effect of plasma treatment of UHMWPE fibers and therefore longer plasma treatment duration is required for fibers pretreated with EG.

  20. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  1. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee

    2015-08-18

    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  2. Elucidating the role of ferrous ion cocatalyst in enhancing dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hui

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigation of the mechanisms that result in this enhancement. Results During dilute acid and ferrous ion cocatalyst pretreatments, we observed concomitant increases in solubilized sugars in the hydrolysate and reducing sugars in the (insoluble biomass residues. We also observed enhancements in sugar release during subsequent enzymatic saccharification of iron cocatalyst-pretreated biomass. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy showed that major peaks representing the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose are significantly attenuated by iron cocatalyst pretreatment. Imaging using Prussian blue staining indicated that Fe2+ ions associate with both cellulose/xylan and lignin in untreated as well as dilute acid/Fe2+ ion-pretreated corn stover samples. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural details of biomass after dilute acid/Fe2+ ion pretreatment, in which delamination and fibrillation of the cell wall were observed. Conclusions By using this multimodal approach, we have revealed that (1 acid-ferrous ion-assisted pretreatment increases solubilization and enzymatic digestion of both cellulose and xylan to monomers and (2 this pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose.

  3. Comprehensive evaluation of electronic medical record system use and user satisfaction at five low-resource setting hospitals in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-05-25

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional's satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an agreement with the system and information

  4. Microwave Pretreatment for Thiourea Leaching for Gold Concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nag-Choul Choi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we studied the use of microwave pretreatment to enhance the efficiency of Au leaching from gold concentrate. The gold concentrate was pretreated using microwaves with different irradiation time. The sample temperature was increased up to 950 °C by the microwave irradiation. A scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer showed the evolution of microcracks and the reduction of sulfur on the mineral surface. X-ray diffraction data also showed the mineral phase shift from pyrite to hematite or pyrrhotite. A leaching test was conducted for the microwave-treated and untreated gold concentrates using thiourea. Although the thiourea leaching recovered 80% of Au from the untreated concentrate, from the treated concentration, the Au could be recovered completely. Au leaching efficiency increased as the microwave irradiation time increased, as well as with a higher composition of thiourea.

  5. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Henning

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional chemicals. In the current work, the effect of the pretreatment on the straw cell-wall matrix and its components are characterised microscopically (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopically (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in order to understand this increase in digestibility. Results The hydrothermal pretreatment does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes profound lignin re-localisation. Results from the current work indicate that wax has been removed and hemicellulose has been partially removed. Similar changes were found in wheat straw pretreated by steam explosion. Conclusion Results indicate that hydrothermal pretreatment increases the digestibility by increasing the accessibility of the cellulose through a re-localisation of lignin and a partial removal of hemicellulose, rather than by disruption of the cell wall.

  6. Randomized Controlled Trial of Electronic Care Plan Alerts and Resource Utilization by High Frequency Emergency Department Users with Opioid Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Rathlev, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of literature supporting the use of electronic alerts for patients with high frequency emergency department (ED use. We sought to measure changes in opioid prescribing and administration practices, total charges and other resource utilization using electronic alerts to notify providers of an opioid-use care plan for high frequency ED patients. Methods: This was a randomized, non-blinded, two-group parallel design study of patients who had 1 opioid use disorder and 2 high frequency ED use. Three affiliated hospitals with identical electronic health records participated. Patients were randomized into “Care Plan” versus “Usual Care groups”. Between the years before and after randomization, we compared as primary outcomes the following: 1 opioids (morphine mg equivalents prescribed to patients upon discharge and administered to ED and inpatients; 2 total medical charges, and the numbers of; 3 ED visits, 4 ED visits with advanced radiologic imaging (computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] studies, and 5 inpatient admissions. Results: A total of 40 patients were enrolled. For ED and inpatients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 15.7%, while in the “Care Plan” group the proportion received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 4.5% (ratio=0.29, 95% CI [0.07-1.12]; p=0.07. For discharged patients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents prescribed in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 25.7% while in the “Care Plan” group, the proportion prescribed in the post-period compared to the pre-period was 2.9%. The “Care Plan” group showed an 89% greater proportional change over the periods compared with the “Usual Care” group (ratio=0.11, 95% CI [0.01-0.092]; p=0.04. Care plans did not change the total charges, or, the numbers

  7. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  8. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  9. Biomass Deconstruction and Pretreatment | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconstruction and Pretreatment Biomass Deconstruction and Pretreatment Our mission is to transform -cyclohexane hydrocarbons were produced by noble metal and acid zeoloite catalytic upgrading of biomass-derived by mechanical refining process. The left side shows biomass feedstock (represented by brown spheres

  10. Global application of disorders of sex development-related electronic resources: e-learning, e-consultation and e-information sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Miriam; Kranenburg-van Koppen, Laura; Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, Kalinka; Drop, Stenvert L S

    2014-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen proliferation of electronic (e) resources that promote improved understanding of disorders of sex development (DSD): e-learning for physicians and trainees, e-consultation between clinicians, and e-information for families and affected individuals. Recent e-learning advances have emerged from the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology's online learning portal for current physicians and trainees. Developed with attention to developing clinical competencies incorporating learning theory, and presenting material that represents international best practice, this e-learning portal offers advances in training, making information more accessible for clinicians and trainees. Multiple levels of instruction, authentic case examples, collaborative forums for physicians and trainees, individualized feedback and user-friendly tools represent advances in trainee and physician learning that can take place in any location. e-consultation is an emerging tool that aims to connect physicians with specialists experienced in DSD care. Although it faces logistical challenges, e-consultation carries the potential to improve DSD care, especially in remote areas with limited access to DSD specialists. e-information for families and patients of all ages is widely accessible online, often with focus on DSD biology, medical care, and psychological and social support. e-information tools aid self-management and support of those affected by DSD. Efforts to improve these resources should aim to map information to individual users, incorporate optimally clear nomenclature, and continue as a 'shared enterprise' of clinicians, affected individuals, families and researchers. Improving the quality of DSD-related e-learning and e-information and developing e-consultation carries the potential to transform DSD care and support for patients, families and physicians worldwide. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Screening and optimization of pretreatments for Parthenium hysterophorus as feedstock for alcoholic biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shuchi; Khanna, Swati; Moholkar, Vijayanand S.; Goyal, Arun

    2014-01-01

    on biomass structure and complexity were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Comparative assessment of the results with pretreatment and hydrolysis of other conventional agro- and forest residues shows that P. hysterophorus has same potential for being the feedstock for biofuels. These results conclusively demonstrate the utility of P. hysterophorus for sustainable biofuels production

  12. Innovative pretreatment strategies for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patinvoh, Regina J; Osadolor, Osagie A; Chandolias, Konstantinos; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2017-01-01

    Biogas or biomethane is traditionally produced via anaerobic digestion, or recently by thermochemical or a combination of thermochemical and biological processes via syngas (CO and H 2 ) fermentation. However, many of the feedstocks have recalcitrant structure and are difficult to digest (e.g., lignocelluloses or keratins), or they have toxic compounds (such as fruit flavors or high ammonia content), or not digestible at all (e.g., plastics). To overcome these challenges, innovative strategies for enhanced and economically favorable biogas production were proposed in this review. The strategies considered are commonly known physical pretreatment, rapid decompression, autohydrolysis, acid- or alkali pretreatments, solvents (e.g. for lignin or cellulose) pretreatments or leaching, supercritical, oxidative or biological pretreatments, as well as combined gasification and fermentation, integrated biogas production and pretreatment, innovative biogas digester design, co-digestion, and bio-augmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ranking Medical Terms to Support Expansion of Lay Language Resources for Patient Comprehension of Electronic Health Record Notes: Adapted Distant Supervision Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinying; Jagannatha, Abhyuday N; Fodeh, Samah J; Yu, Hong

    2017-10-31

    Medical terms are a major obstacle for patients to comprehend their electronic health record (EHR) notes. Clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems that link EHR terms to lay terms or definitions allow patients to easily access helpful information when reading through their EHR notes, and have shown to improve patient EHR comprehension. However, high-quality lay language resources for EHR terms are very limited in the public domain. Because expanding and curating such a resource is a costly process, it is beneficial and even necessary to identify terms important for patient EHR comprehension first. We aimed to develop an NLP system, called adapted distant supervision (ADS), to rank candidate terms mined from EHR corpora. We will give EHR terms ranked as high by ADS a higher priority for lay language annotation-that is, creating lay definitions for these terms. Adapted distant supervision uses distant supervision from consumer health vocabulary and transfer learning to adapt itself to solve the problem of ranking EHR terms in the target domain. We investigated 2 state-of-the-art transfer learning algorithms (ie, feature space augmentation and supervised distant supervision) and designed 5 types of learning features, including distributed word representations learned from large EHR data for ADS. For evaluating ADS, we asked domain experts to annotate 6038 candidate terms as important or nonimportant for EHR comprehension. We then randomly divided these data into the target-domain training data (1000 examples) and the evaluation data (5038 examples). We compared ADS with 2 strong baselines, including standard supervised learning, on the evaluation data. The ADS system using feature space augmentation achieved the best average precision, 0.850, on the evaluation set when using 1000 target-domain training examples. The ADS system using supervised distant supervision achieved the best average precision, 0.819, on the evaluation set when using only 100 target

  14. Pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the production of bioethanol - Comparison of five pretreatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    -assisted pretreatment (PAP) and ball milling (BM), to determine effects of the pretreatment methods on the conversion of C. linum into ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). WO and BM showed the highest ethanol yield of 44. g ethanol/100. g glucan, which was close to the theoretical ethanol......A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma...... yield of 57. g ethanol/100. g glucan. A 64% higher ethanol yield, based on raw material, was reached after pretreatment with WO and BM compared with unpretreated C. linum, however 50% of the biomass was lost during WO. Results indicated that the right combination of pretreatment and marine macroalgae...

  15. Effect of steam pretreatment on oil palm empty fruit bunch for the production of sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsudin, Saleha; Md Shah, Umi Kalsom; Zainudin, Huzairi; Abd-Aziz, Suraini; Mustapa Kamal, Siti Mazlina; Shirai, Yoshihito; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2012-01-01

    Lignocellulose into fuel ethanol is the most feasible conversion route strategy in terms of sustainability. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) generated from palm oil production is a huge source of cellulosic material and represents a cheap renewable feedstock which awaits further commercial exploitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using steam at 0.28 MPa and 140 °C generated from the palm oil mill boiler as a pretreatment to enhance the digestibility of EFB for sugars production. The effects of steam pretreatment or autohydrolysis on chemical composition changes, polysaccharide conversion, sugar production and morphology alterations of four different types of EFB namely fresh EFB (EFB1), sterilized EFB (EFB2), shredded EFB (EFB3) and ground EFB (EFB4) were evaluated. In this study, the effects of steam pretreatment showed major alterations in the morphology of EFB as observed under the scanning electron microscope. Steam pretreated EFB2 was found to have the highest total conversion of 30% to sugars with 209 g kg −1 EFB. This production was 10.5 fold higher than for EFB1 and 1.6 fold and 1.7 fold higher than EFB3 and EFB4, respectively. The results suggested that pretreatment of EFB by autohydrolysis using steam from the mill boiler could be considered as being a suitable pretreatment process for the production of sugars. These sugars can be utilized as potential substrates for the production of various products such as fuel ethanol. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the feasibility of steam pretreatment to enhance digestibility of EFB. ► Steam pretreatment increased sugars to 3.4 fold and caused major alteration in EFB morphology under SEM. ► Autohydrolysis which does not require the addition of chemicals is an attractive pretreatment approach to EFB.

  16. Optimization of Alkaline and Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Agave Bagasse by Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Lara, Abimael I.; Camberos-Flores, Jesus N.; Mendoza-Pérez, Jorge A.; Messina-Fernández, Sarah R.; Saldaña-Duran, Claudia E.; Jimenez-Ruiz, Edgar I.; Sánchez-Herrera, Leticia M.; Pérez-Pimienta, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of lignocellulosic materials for the production of value-added chemicals or biofuels generally requires a pretreatment process to overcome the recalcitrance of the plant biomass for further enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation stages. Two of the most employed pretreatment processes are the ones that used dilute acid (DA) and alkaline (AL) catalyst providing specific effects on the physicochemical structure of the biomass, such as high xylan and lignin removal for DA and AL, respectively. Another important effect that need to be studied is the use of a high solids pretreatment (≥15%) since offers many advantaged over lower solids loadings, including increased sugar and ethanol concentrations (in combination with a high solids saccharification), which will be reflected in lower capital costs; however, this data is currently limited. In this study, several variables, such as catalyst loading, retention time, and solids loading, were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a factorial central composite design of DA and AL pretreatment on agave bagasse using a range of solids from 3 to 30% (w/w) to obtain optimal process conditions for each pretreatment. Subsequently enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and HTec2 presented as total reducing sugar (TRS) yield. Pretreated biomass was characterized by wet-chemistry techniques and selected samples were analyzed by calorimetric techniques, and scanning electron/confocal fluorescent microscopy. RSM was also used to optimize the pretreatment conditions for maximum TRS yield. The optimum conditions were determined for AL pretreatment: 1.87% NaOH concentration, 50.3 min and 13.1% solids loading, whereas DA pretreatment: 2.1% acid concentration, 33.8 min and 8.5% solids loading. PMID:26442260

  17. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quispe Jose A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  18. Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. January 1980-February 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Feb 92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment processes and disposal of sewage sludges. Topics include resource and energy recovery operations, land disposal, composting, ocean disposal, and incineration. Digestion, dewatering, and disinfection are among the pretreatment processes discussed. Environmental aspects, including the effects on soils, plants, and animals, are also presented. (Contains 181 citations with title list and subject index.)

  19. Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol production. ... Keywords: Lignocellulosic biomass, alkaline pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentable sugars, fermentation. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(31), pp.

  20. Evaluation of Alkali-Pretreated Soybean Straw for Lignocellulosic Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghun Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean straw is a renewable resource in agricultural residues that can be used for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. To enhance enzymatic digestibility and fermentability, the biomass was prepared with an alkali-thermal pretreatment (sodium hydroxide, 121°C, 60 min. The delignification yield was 34.1~53%, in proportion to the amount of sodium hydroxide, from 0.5 to 3.0 M. The lignin and hemicellulose contents of the pretreated biomass were reduced by the pretreatment process, whereas the proportion of cellulose was increased. Under optimal condition, the pretreated biomass consisted of 74.0±0.1% cellulose, 10.3±0.1% hemicellulose, and 10.1±0.6% lignin. During enzymatic saccharification using Cellic® CTec2 cellulase, 10% (w/v of pretreated soybean straw was hydrolyzed completely and converted to 67.3±2.1 g/L glucose and 9.4±0.5 g/L xylose with a 90.9% yield efficiency. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the pretreated biomass by Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A produced 30.5±1.2 g/L ethanol in 0.5 L fermented medium containing 10% (w/v pretreated biomass after 72 h. The ethanol productivity was 0.305 g ethanol/g dry biomass and 0.45 g ethanol/g glucose after fermentation, with a low concentration of organic acid metabolites. Also, 82% of fermentable sugar was used by the yeast for ethanol fermentation. These results show that the combination of alkaline pretreatment and biomass hydrolysate is useful for enhancing bioethanol productivity using delignified soybean straw.

  1. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  2. Analytical Methods for Biomass Characterization during Pretreatment and Bioconversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Yunqiao [ORNL; Meng, Xianzhi [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Yoo, Chang Geun; Li, Mi; Ragauskas, Arthur J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been introduced as a promising resource for alternative fuels and chemicals because of its abundance and complement for petroleum resources. Biomass is a complex biopolymer and its compositional and structural characteristics largely vary depending on its species as well as growth environments. Because of complexity and variety of biomass, understanding its physicochemical characteristics is a key for effective biomass utilization. Characterization of biomass does not only provide critical information of biomass during pretreatment and bioconversion, but also give valuable insights on how to utilize the biomass. For better understanding biomass characteristics, good grasp and proper selection of analytical methods are necessary. This chapter introduces existing analytical approaches that are widely employed for biomass characterization during biomass pretreatment and conversion process. Diverse analytical methods using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for biomass characterization are reviewed. In addition, biomass accessibility methods by analyzing surface properties of biomass are also summarized in this chapter.

  3. Extrusion Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol has shown environmental, economic and energetic advantages in comparison to bioethanol produced from sugar or starch. However, the pretreatment process for increasing the enzymatic accessibility and improving the digestibility of cellulose is hindered by many physical-chemical, structural and compositional factors, which make these materials difficult to be used as feedstocks for ethanol production. A wide range of pretreatment methods has been developed to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to (enzymatic hydrolysis over the last few decades; however, only a few of them can be used at commercial scale due to economic feasibility. This paper will give an overview of extrusion pretreatment for bioethanol production with a special focus on twin-screw extruders. An economic assessment of this pretreatment is also discussed to determine its feasibility for future industrial cellulosic ethanol plant designs.

  4. Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretreatment of biomass is essential for breaking apart highly ordered and crystalline plant cell walls and loosening the lignin and hemicellulose conjugation to cellulose microfibrills, thereby facilitating enzyme accessibility and adsorption and reducing costs of downstream saccharification proces...

  5. Hydrothermal pretreatments of macroalgal biomass for biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Héctor A.; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M.; Aguedo, Mario

    2015-01-01

    in accordance with the integrated biorefineries. Furthermore, biorefinery concept requires processes that allow efficient utilization of all components of the biomass. The pretreatment step in a biorefinery is often based on hydrothermal principles of high temperatures in aqueous solution. Therefore...

  6. Hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, A.; Gunawan, K. Y.; Hadiwijaya, F. A.

    2017-11-01

    Banana peel is one of food wastes that are rich in carbohydrate. This shows its potential as fermentation substrate including bio-ethanol. This paper presented banana peel alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was intended to prepare banana peel in order to increase hydrolysis performance. The alkaline pretreatment used 10, 20, and 30% w/v NaOH solution and was done at 60, 70 and 80°C for 1 hour. The hydrolysis reaction was conducted using two commercial cellulose enzymes. The reaction time was varied for 3, 5, and 7 days. The best condition for pretreatment process was one conducted using 30% NaOH solution and at 80°C. This condition resulted in cellulose content of 90.27% and acid insoluble lignin content of 2.88%. Seven-day hydrolysis time had exhibited the highest reducing sugar concentration, which was7.2869 g/L.

  7. Efficient sugar release by acetic acid ethanol-based organosolv pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongdan; Wu, Shubin

    2014-12-03

    Acetic acid ethanol-based organosolv pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse was performed to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. The effect of different parameters (including temperature, reaction time, solvent concentration, and acid catalyst dose) on pretreatment prehydrolyzate and subsequent enzymatic digestibility was determined. During the pretreatment process, 11.83 g of xylose based on 100 g of raw material could be obtained. After the ethanol-based pretreatment, the enzymatic hydrolysis was enhanced and the highest glucose yield of 40.99 g based on 100 g of raw material could be obtained, representing 93.8% of glucose in sugar cane bagasse. The maximum total sugar yields occurred at 190 °C, 45 min, 60:40 ethanol/water, and 5% dosage of acetic acid, reaching 58.36 g (including 17.69 g of xylose and 40.67 g of glucose) based on 100 g of raw material, representing 85.4% of total sugars in raw material. Furthermore, characterization of the pretreated sugar cane bagasse using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses were also developed. The results suggested that ethanol-based organosolv pretreatment could enhance enzymatic digestibilities because of the delignification and removal of xylan.

  8. A Sequential Combination of Laccase Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Glucose Production from Furfural Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Yu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Furfural residues (FRs were pretreated with laccase or a laccase-mediator (1-hydroxybenzotriazole, HBT system to produce fermentable sugar for bioethanol production. Compared to laccase-only pretreatment, laccase-mediator pretreatment dissolved more lignin. Approximately 10.5% of the initially present lignin was removed when FRs were treated with a laccase loading of 100 U/g of dry substrate in 1% (w/w HBT at 48 °C for 24 h in an acetate buffer (pH 4.8. The enzymatic saccharification process was carried out by a combined laccase or laccase-mediator pretreatment without washing of the treated solids. The results showed that active laccase had a negative effect on the rate and yield of enzymatic hydrolysis. Laccase-oxidized HBT seriously reduced glucose yield. However, non-oxidized HBT increased glucose yield when laccase was deactivated at 121 °C for 20 min prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest glucose yield, 80.9%, was obtained from the substrate pretreated with 100 U/g of dry substrate laccase and 1% (w/w HBT at 48 °C for 24 h in an acetate buffer (pH 4.8. Furthermore, the structures of FRs before and after laccase-mediator pretreatment were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR.

  9. Interactive Electronic Decision Trees for the Integrated Primary Care Management of Febrile Children in Low Resource Settings - Review of existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Kristina; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2018-04-20

    The lack of effective, integrated diagnostic tools pose a major challenge to the primary care management of febrile childhood illnesses. These limitations are especially evident in low-resource settings and are often inappropriately compensated by antimicrobial over-prescription. Interactive electronic decision trees (IEDTs) have the potential to close these gaps: guiding antibiotic use and better identifying serious disease. This narrative review summarizes existing IEDTs, to provide an overview of their degree of validation, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge and prospects for future innovation. Structured literature review in PubMed and Embase complemented by google search and contact with developers. Six integrated IEDTs were identified: three (eIMCI, REC, and Bangladesh digital IMCI) based on Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI); four (SL eCCM, MEDSINC, e-iCCM, and D-Tree eCCM) on Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM); two (ALMANACH, MSFeCARE) with a modified IMCI content; and one (ePOCT) that integrates novel content with biomarker testing. The types of publications and evaluation studies varied greatly: the content and evidence-base was published for two (ALMANACH and ePOCT), ALMANACH and ePOCT were validated in efficacy studies. Other types of evaluations, such as compliance, acceptability were available for D-Tree eCCM, eIMCI, ALMANACH. Several evaluations are still ongoing. Future prospects include conducting effectiveness and impact studies using data gathered through larger studies to adapt the medical content to local epidemiology, improving the software and sensors, and Assessing factors that influence compliance and scale-up. IEDTs are valuable tools that have the potential to improve management of febrile children in primary care and increase the rational use of diagnostics and antimicrobials. Next steps in the evidence pathway should be larger effectiveness and impact studies (including cost analysis) and

  10. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhen (ed.) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, YN (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botonical Garden

    2013-02-01

    The first book focused on pretreatment techniques for biofuels contributed by the world's leading experts. Extensively covers the different types of biomass, various pretreatment approaches and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals. In addition to traditional pretreatment methods, novel techniques are also introduced and discussed. An accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries. This book includes 19 chapters contributed by the world's leading experts on pretreatment methods for biomass. It extensively covers the different types of biomass (e.g. molasses, sugar beet pulp, cheese whey, sugarcane residues, palm waste, vegetable oil, straws, stalks and wood), various pretreatment approaches (e.g. physical, thermal, chemical, physicochemical and biological) and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals such as sugars, ethanol, extracellular polysaccharides, biodiesel, gas and oil. In addition to traditional methods such as steam, hot-water, hydrothermal, diluted-acid, organosolv, ozonolysis, sulfite, milling, fungal and bacterial, microwave, ultrasonic, plasma, torrefaction, pelletization, gasification (including biogas) and liquefaction pretreatments, it also introduces and discusses novel techniques such as nano and solid catalysts, organic electrolyte solutions and ionic liquids. This book offers a review of state-of-the-art research and provides guidance for the future paths of developing pretreatment techniques of biomass for biofuels, especially in the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It intends to provide a systematic introduction of pretreatment techniques. It is an accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries.

  12. Characterization of lignin during oxidative and hydrothermal pre-treatment processes of wheat straw and corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Felby, Claus

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize and map changes in lignin during hydrothermal and wet explosion pre-treatments of wheat straw and corn stover. Chemical composition, microscopic (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) and spectroscopic (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ATR-FTIR) analyses were performed. Results showed that both pre-treatments improved the cellulose and lignin content with substantial removal of hemicellulose in the pre-treated biomasses. These values were slightly higher for hydrothermal compared to wet explosion pre-treatment. ATR-FTIR analyses also confirmed these results. Microscopic analysis showed that pre-treatments affected the biomass by partial difibration. Lignin deposition on the surface of the hydrothermally pre-treated fibre was very distinct while severe loss of fibril integrity was noticed with wet exploded fibre. The present study thus revealed that the lignin cannot be removed by the studied pre-treatments. However, both pre-treatments improved the accessibility of the biomass towards enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of pretreating technologies on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion property of Zn coated NdFeB specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pengjie; Xu, Guangqing; Liu, Jiaqin; Yi, Xiaofei; Wu, Yucheng; Chen, JingWu

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Zn coated NdFeB specimens pretreated with different technologies possess different adhesive strengths and anticorrosion properties. And the combined technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s) achieves the best comprehensive performance. - Highlights: • Zn coated NdFeB specimens are achieved with different pretreating technologies. • Combined technology possesses the highest adhesive strength. • Combined technology possesses excellent anticorrosion property. - Abstract: Zinc coated NdFeB specimens were prepared with different pretreating technologies, such as polishing, pickling (50 s), sandblasting and combined technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s). Morphologies of the NdFeB substrates pretreated with different technologies were observed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer and an atomic force microscope. The tensile test was performed to measure the adhesive strength between Zn coating and NdFeB substrate. The self-corrosion behavior of the NdFeB specimen was characterized by potentiodynamic polarization curve. The anticorrosion properties of Zn coated NdFeB specimens were characterized by neutral salt spray tests. The pretreating technologies possess obvious impact on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion property of Zn coated NdFeB specimens. Combined pretreating technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s) achieves the highest adhesive strength (25.56 MPa) and excellent anticorrosion property (average corrosion current density of 21 μA/cm 2 ) in the four pretreating technologies. The impacting mechanisms of the pretreating technology on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion properties are deeply discussed.

  14. Allograft pretreatment for the repair of sciatic nerve defects: green tea polyphenols versus radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-hu Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment of nerve allografts by exposure to irradiation or green tea polyphenols can eliminate neuroimmunogenicity, inhibit early immunological rejection, encourage nerve regeneration and functional recovery, improve tissue preservation, and minimize postoperative infection. In the present study, we investigate which intervention achieves better results. We produced a 1.0 cm sciatic nerve defect in rats, and divided the rats into four treatment groups: autograft, fresh nerve allograft, green tea polyphenol-pretreated (1 mg/mL, 4°C nerve allograft, and irradiation-pretreated nerve allograft (26.39 Gy/min for 12 hours; total 19 kGy. The animals were observed, and sciatic nerve electrophysiology, histology, and transmission electron microscopy were carried out at 6 and 12 weeks after grafting. The circumference and structure of the transplanted nerve in rats that received autografts or green tea polyphenol-pretreated nerve allografts were similar to those of the host sciatic nerve. Compared with the groups that received fresh or irradiation-pretreated nerve allografts, motor nerve conduction velocity in the autograft and fresh nerve allograft groups was greater, more neurites grew into the allografts, Schwann cell proliferation was evident, and a large number of new blood vessels was observed; in addition, massive myelinated nerve fibers formed, and abundant microfilaments and microtubules were present in the axoplasm. Our findings indicate that nerve allografts pretreated by green tea polyphenols are equivalent to transplanting autologous nerves in the repair of sciatic nerve defects, and promote nerve regeneration. Pretreatment using green tea polyphenols is better than pretreatment with irradiation

  15. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  16. Lignocellulose pretreatment technologies affect the level of enzymatic cellulose oxidation by LPMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Cannella, David; de Campos Giordano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    of the cellulose oxidizing enzyme lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO). The highest activity of LPMO was observed for the hydrothermally pretreated biomasses, which also contained the highest level of lignin. All hydrolysis were done at high dry matter levels, using a commercial enzyme preparation containing......Sugarcane bagasse, corn stover, and wheat straw are among the most available resources for production of cellulosic ethanol. For these biomasses we study the influence of pre-treatment methods on the chemical composition, as well as on the subsequent reactions of enzymatic hydrolysis and oxidation...

  17. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  18. Pretreatment technologies for industrial effluents: Critical review on bioenergy production and environmental concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakar, Desika; Suvetha K, Subha; Manimudi, Varshini T; Mathimani, Thangavel; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Rene, Eldon R; Pugazhendhi, Arivalagan

    2018-07-15

    The implementation of different pretreatment techniques and technologies prior to effluent discharge is a direct result of the inefficiency of several existing wastewater treatment methods. A majority of the industrial sectors have known to cause severe negative effects on the environment. The five major polluting industries are the paper and pulp mills, coal manufacturing facilities, petrochemical, textile and the pharmaceutical sectors. Pretreatment methods have been widely used in order to lower the toxicity levels of effluents and comply with environmental standards. In this review, the possible environmental benefits and concerns of adopting different pretreatment technologies for renewable energy production and product/resource recovery has been reviewed and discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment

  20. Effect of mucolytic pretreatment on gastric mucosal coating with barium sulfate in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, I.; Nevalainen, T.; Maeki, J.; Soederstroem, K.-O.

    1980-01-01

    Freshly prepared isolated rat stomachs were used to examine the adherence of barium sulfate particles to the mucosal surface by scanning electron microscopy. The stomachs were pretreated with sodium bicarbonate alone or in connection with N-acetyl-L-cysteine and then treated with barium sulfate specially designed for double contrast examination of the stomach. The best adhesion of the contrast medium was obtained when the mucosa was pretreated with both the alkaline and mucolytic agent indicating that, for the optimum adherence of the contrast medium, the mucosal surface must be as clean as possible. (Auth.)

  1. Ultrastructural characterization of rice husk submitted to different pretreatments to optimize its fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhoneux, B de; Gerlache, L; Clemente, A; Roda-Santos, M L; Menaia, J A.G.; Fernandes, T H

    1988-01-01

    Silica distribution in rice husk was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Silica appeared as a solid structure in the outer epidermis and as a dispersed system inside the husk. Pretreatments (steam autoclaving, water autoclaving, alkaline leaching, gamma irradiation, and ultra sound) were applied in order to achieve an improvement in rice husk digestibility. Alkaline leaching removed a significant part of the silica structure, therefore allowing a larger area of exposure of the cell wall polymers to the degrading enzymes. Among the pretreatments, alkaline leaching appeared to be the most useful, while others seemed not to be very successful in attaining the desired effect.

  2. Development of an integrated pretreatment fractionation process for fermentable sugars and lignin: Application to almond (Prunus dulcis) shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Dachun; Holtman, Kevin M.; Franqui-Espiet, Diana; Orts, William J.; Zhao, Ruming

    2011-01-01

    An environmentally friendly pretreatment process was developed to fractionate cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin from almond (Prunus dulcis) shells, consisting of hot water pretreatment (HWP) coupled with organic solvent (organosolv) pretreatment of water/ethanol (OWEP). This integrated pretreatment process proved more effective on the basis of yield of fermentable sugar and lignin separation compared with HWP alone, dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), ammonia pretreatment (AP), lime pretreatment LP, organosolv water/ethanol pretreatment (OWEP), and organosolv water/acetone pretreatment (OWAP). In the coupled hot water-organosolv process, hemicellulose sugars were recovered in the first residual liquid while varying amounts of cellulose was retained in the residual solid. The lignin fraction was obtained by simply adjusting the pH from the second liquid. The optimal two-stage process consisted of first HWP stage at 195 o C for 30 min, resulting in w glucose = 95.4% glucose recovery yield and w xylose = 92.2% xylose removal. The second organosolv OWEP stage was operated at 195 o C for 20 min, in ethanol in water mixtures of ethanol = 50% and resulted in nearly w glucose = 100% glucose recovery yield, w xylose = 90% xylose and w lignin = 61% lignin removal. After enzymatic hydrolysis, glucose yield was up to w glucose = 95%, compared to 61% yield from untreated almond. Images obtained via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) highlighted the differences in almond structure from the varying pretreatment methods during biomass fractionation. -- Highlights: → Almond shells are an under-utilized agriculture byproduct available in the world. → Almond shells are particularly attractive as bioenergy feedstock. → We have developed a new fractionation process for the almond shell. → The new process combined the HWP with OWEP. → The fractionation process has potential in the utilization of almond shell.

  3. Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment to increase the anaerobic hydrolysis rate of waste activated sludge during anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Guangyin; Lu, Xueqin; Li, Yu-You; Zhao, Youcai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment for improving sludge anaerobic digestion was proposed. • Combined process enhanced the cell lysis, biopolymers releases, and thus sludge disintegration. • Increased solubilization of sludge increased the anaerobic hydrolysis rate. • Increased solubilization does not always induce an improved anaerobic digestion efficiency. - Abstract: Pretreatment can be used prior to anaerobic digestion to improve the efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion. In this study, electrolysis and a commonly used pretreatment method of alkaline (NaOH) solubilization were integrated as a pretreatment method for promoting WAS anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment effectiveness of combined process were investigated in terms of disintegration degree (DD SCOD ), suspended solids (TSS and VSS) removals, the releases of protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS), and subsequent anaerobic digestion as well as dewaterability after digestion. Electrolysis was able to crack the microbial cells trapped in sludge gels and release the biopolymers (PN and PS) due to the cooperation of alkaline solubilization, enhancing the sludge floc disintegration/solubilization, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays showed the highest methane yield was achieved with 5 V plus pH 9.2 pretreatment with up to 20.3% improvement over the non-pretreated sludge after 42 days of mesophilic operation. In contrast, no discernible improvements on anaerobic degradability were observed for the rest of pretreated sludges, probably due to the overmuch leakage of refractory soluble organics, partial chemical mineralization of solubilized compounds and sodium inhibition. The statistical analysis further indicated that increased solubilization induced by electrical-alkali pretreatment increased the first-order anaerobic hydrolysis rate (k hyd ), but had no, or very slight enhancement on WAS ultimate

  4. Influence of alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment on shrub wood Tamarix ramosissima: Characteristics of degraded lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Ling-Ping; Bai, Yuan-Yuan; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Lu, Qiang; Sun, Run-Cang

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of alkaline hydrothermal (AH) pretreatment on the physicochemical properties of the degraded lignins, attempt to upgrade the potential of lignin for value-added chemicals and fuel production. For this purpose, shrub wood Tamarix ramosissima lignin was fractionated using a two-stage process based on an AH pretreatment followed by an alkaline ethanol post-treatment. The recovered lignin fractions were investigated by comparison with milled wood lignin (MWL) in terms of fractionation yield, carbohydrate composition, gel permeation chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 13 C and 2D heteronuclear single quantum correlation nuclear magnetic resonance, as well as pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The result showed that AH pretreatment led to the degradation of β-O-4 linkages and consequently the increased severity caused a release of more S-units lignin fractions with molecular weights between 1300 and 2500 g/mol in the liquid but higher molecular weights (3000–4400 g/mol) in the residues. Moreover, it was found that the lignin syringyl-to-guaiacyl (S/G) ratios from analytical pyrolysis slightly changed after AH pretreatment (S/G, 1.8–2.3) but higher than those of MWL (S/G, 1.7). Overall, the present study demonstrates that these lignins dissolved during AH pretreatment and those recovered from the solid residues isolated with alkaline ethanol post-treatment could be profitably exploited as feedstock in integrated forest biorefineries, rather than traditional use as low-value energy sources.- Highlights: • Alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment and alkaline ethanol post-treatment were proposed. • The influence of AH pretreatment on the lignin structural changes was characterized. • Aryl-O-ether linkages of lignin were extensively cleaved. • Lignin recovered from solid residue is a potential resource for the production of value-added chemicals

  5. The Use of Quality Benchmarking in Assessing Web Resources for the Dermatology Virtual Branch Library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH)

    OpenAIRE

    Boulos, MN Kamel; Roudsari, AV; Gordon, C; Gray, JA Muir

    2001-01-01

    Background In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health . They aim at creating online kno...

  6. COMPARISON OF TWO CHEMICAL PRETREATMENTS OF RICE STRAW FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilin Song,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is considered the most abundant renewable resource that has the potential to contribute remarkably in the supply of biofuel. Previous studies have shown that chemical pretreatment prior to anaerobic digestion (AD can increase the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass and methane yield. In the present study, the effect of rice straw pretreatment using ammonium hydroxide (NH3•H2O and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the biogasification performance through AD was investigated. A self-designed, laboratory-scale, and continuous anaerobic biogas digester was used for the evaluation. Results showed that the contents of the rice straw, i.e. the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose were degraded significantly after the NH3•H2O and H2O2 treatments, and that biogas production from all pretreated rice straw increased. In addition, the optimal treatments for biogas production were the 4% and 3% H2O2 treatments (w/w, which yielded 327.5 and 319.7 mL/gVS, biogas, respectively, higher than the untreated sample. Biogas production from H2O2 pretreated rice straw was more favorable than rice straw pretreated with same concentration of ammonia, ranking in the order of 4% ≈ 3% > 2% > 1%. The optimal amount of H2O2 treatment for rice straw biogas digestion is 3% when economics and biogas yields are considered.

  7. Pretreatment costs of care and time to initial treatment for patients with cancer of unknown primary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark S; Weinstein, Laura; Luo, Roger; Marino, Ingrid

    2018-06-01

    Time to treatment and pretreatment costs may be affected by unknown primary tumor site. This retrospective study used electronic medical record data from patients in ten US community oncology practices. Eligible patients were ≥18 years, diagnosed with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) or known metastatic solid tumor, and presented between 1 January 2012 and 30 June 2014. Patients with CUP (n = 294) had a longer interval than non-CUP patients (n = 92) from presentation to treatment initiation (1.18 vs 0.49 months, p < 0.0001), and had higher pretreatment costs (US$27,882 vs US$20,449, p = 0.0075). When analyzed as monthly cost, the difference between groups in log-cost per month was nonsignificant. Higher pretreatment costs in CUP patients appeared attributable to significantly longer time to initiation of therapy.

  8. Improving bioavailability of fruit wastes using organic acid: An exploratory study of biomass pretreatment for fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Shouvik; Kurade, Mayur B.; El-Dalatony, Marwa M.; Chatterjee, Pradip K.; Lee, Dae Sung; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Maximum sugar recovery was achieved with 100 °C/1 h treatment in 0.2 M acetic acid. • C/N ratios (41–47) were retained in all FPWs after the acetic acid treatment. • Combined severity (−0.83) of acetic acid enhanced the bioavailability of the FPWs. • Acetic acid pretreatment is advantageous over mineral acid to curtail sugar loss. • Estimated methane yields are promising for the industrial feasibility. - Abstract: Maximizing the bioavailability of fermentable biomass components is a key challenge in biomass pretreatment due to the loss of sugars during conventional pretreatment approaches. Pretreatment of fruit peels and wastes (FPWs) with dilute acetic acid assisted in maximizing sugar recovery. Optimized conditions (0.2 M acetic acid, 100 °C, 1 h) at 10% substrate loading resulted in enhanced sugar recovery from banana peels (99.9%), pineapple wastes (99.1%), grape pomace (98.8%), and orange peels (97.9%). These high sugar recoveries retained the high C/N ratios (41–47) suitable for effective bioenergy production through the fermentation of these pretreated biomasses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated considerable disruption of biomass structural integrity during acetic acid treatment, enhancing the surface area available for better microbial attachment. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the acetic acid pretreatment yielded only minor changes to the functional groups in the biomasses, strongly suggesting minimal loss of fermentable sugars. Thus, acetic acid pretreatment aids in enhancing the bioavailability of fermentable sugars from these FPWs biomass, enabling improvements in bioenergy production.

  9. Structural changes in lignin during organosolv pretreatment of Liriodendron tulipifera and the effect on enzymatic hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Bon-Wook; Min, Byeong-Cheol; Gwak, Ki-Seob; Lee, Soo-Min; Choi, Joon-Weon; Yeo, Hwanmyeong; Choi, In-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    Although organosolv pretreatment removed substantial amounts of lignin and xylan, the yield of glucan which is a major sugar source for fermentation to ethanol is more than 90% in most conditions of the organosolv pretreatment. Relative lignin contents of all pretreated biomass were more than 200 g kg −1 , however enzymatic conversions were increased dramatically comparing to untreated biomass. Therefore the correlation between lignin and enzymatic hydrolysis could not be explained just by lignin content, and other changes resulting from lignin removal affected enzymatic hydrolysis. Results on enzymatic conversion and sugar recovery suggested that the critical temperature improving enzymatic hydrolysis significantly was between 120 °C and 130 °C. Microscopic analysis using Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) showed that structural lignin changes happened through organosolv pretreatment. Lignins were isolated from lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) at the initial stage and then migrated to the surface of biomass. The isolated and migrated lignins were finally redistributed onto surface. These structural changes formed droplets on surface and increased pore volume in pretreated biomass. The increase in pore volume also increased available surface area and enzyme adsorption at initial stage, and thus enzymatic conversion increased significantly through organosolv pretreatment. It was verified that the droplets were mainly composed of lignin and the lignin droplets inhibited enzymatic hydrolysis through adsorption with cellulase. -- Highlights: ► Just lignin contents cannot explain a correlation with enzymatic hydrolysis. ► Several changes resulted from lignin removal must affect enzymatic hydrolysis. ► Droplets are formed by structural changes in lignin during organosolv pretreatment. ► Formation of the lignin droplet increases the pore volume in biomass. ► The increase in pore volume enhances the enzymatic hydrolysis.

  10. Temperature Modelling of the Biomass Pretreatment Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Jensen, Jakob M.

    2012-01-01

    In a second generation biorefinery, the biomass pretreatment stage has an important contribution to the efficiency of the downstream processing units involved in biofuel production. Most of the pretreatment process occurs in a large pressurized thermal reactor that presents an irregular temperature...... that captures the environmental temperature differences inside the reactor using distributed parameters. A Kalman filter is then added to account for any missing dynamics and the overall model is embedded into a temperature soft sensor. The operator of the plant will be able to observe the temperature in any...

  11. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasure of Domestic Electronic Commerce Logistics in the Internet Age——Based on Resource Dependence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiapeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.

  12. Influence of thin film nickel pretreatment on catalytic thermal chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiggelaar, R.M. [Mesoscale Chemical Systems, MESA" + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Thakur, D.B.; Nair, H.; Lefferts, L.; Seshan, K. [Catalytic Processes and Materials, MESA" + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Gardeniers, J.G.E., E-mail: j.g.e.gardeniers@utwente.nl [Mesoscale Chemical Systems, MESA" + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2013-05-01

    Nickel and other metal nanoparticles are known to be active as catalysts in the synthesis of carbon nanofibers. In this paper we investigate how dewetting and break-up of nickel thin films depends on film thickness, film–substrate interaction and pretreatment conditions. This is evaluated for films evaporated on oxidized silicon and fused silica substrates with or without tantalum coating, which were subsequently exposed to different pretreatment atmospheres (vacuum, nitrogen, air and hydrogen; 1 h, 650 °C). Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were used to characterize the films. Pretreated Ni films were subjected to a thermal catalytic chemical vapor deposition procedure with brief ethylene exposures (0.5–3 min, 635 °C). It was found that only on the spherical nanoparticles originating from a hydrogen pretreatment of a Ni film with Ta adhesion layer, homogeneously distributed, randomly-oriented, well-attached, and semi-crystalline carbon nanofibers be synthesized. - Highlights: • On the formation of nanoparticles required for carbon nanofiber (CNF) synthesis • Various evaporated thin films on oxidized silicon and fused silica: Ni and Ni/Ta • Pretreatment of nickel-based thin films in vacuum, nitrogen, air and hydrogen • Only on reduced Ni/Ta fast – within 3 min – initiation of CNF nucleation and growth.

  13. One-Bath Pretreatment for Enhanced Color Yield of Ink-Jet Prints Using Reactive Inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to facilely increase the color yield of ink-jet prints using reactive inks, one-bath pretreatment of cotton fabrics with pretreatment formulation containing sodium alginate, glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTA, sodium hydroxide, and urea is designed for realizing sizing and cationization at the same time. The pretreatment conditions, including the concentrations of GTA and alkali, baking temperature, and time are optimized based on the result of thecolor yield on cationic cotton for magenta ink. The mechanism for color yield enhancement on GTA-modified fabrics is discussed and the stability of GTA in the print paste is investigated. Scanning electron microscopey, tear strength, and thermogravimetric analysis of the modified and unmodified cotton are studied and compared. Using the optimal pretreatment conditions, color yield on the cationic cotton for magenta, cyan, yellow, and black reactive inks are increased by 128.7%, 142.5%, 71.0%, and 38.1%, respectively, compared with the corresponding color yield on the uncationized cotton. Much less wastewater is produced using this one-bath pretreatment method. Colorfastness of the reactive dyes on the modified and unmodified cotton is compared and boundary clarity between different colors is evaluated by ink-jet printing of colorful patterns.

  14. Microbiological test results using three urine pretreatment regimes with 316L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    1993-01-01

    Three urine pretreatments, (1) Oxone (Dupont) and sulfuric acid, (2) sodium hypochlorite and sulfuric acid, (3) and ozone, were studied for their ability to reduce microbial levels in urine and minimize surface attachment to 316L stainless steel coupons. Urine samples inoculated with Bacillus insolitus and a filamentous mold, organisms previously recovered from the vapor compression distillation subsystem of NASA Space Station Freedom water recovery test were tested in glass corrosion cells containing base or weld metal coupons. Microbial levels, changes in pH, color, turbidity, and odor of the fluid were monitored over the course of the 21-day test. Specimen surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy at completion of the test for microbial attachment. Ozonated urine samples were less turbid and had lower microbial levels than controls or samples receiving other pretreatments. Base metal coupons receiving pretreatment were relatively free of attached bacteria. However, well-developed biofilms were found in the heat-affected regions of welded coupons receiving Oxone and hypochlorite pretreatments. Few bacteria were observed in the same regions of the ozone pretreatment sample.

  15. Enhanced glucose yield and structural characterization of corn stover by sodium carbonate pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilgook; Rehman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Han, Jong-In

    2014-01-01

    Na2CO3 was employed as an efficient yet cheap alkaline catalyst for the pretreatment of corn stover. To systematically obtain an optimal condition, the effects of critical pretreatment parameters including Na2CO3 concentration (2-6%), temperature (120-160 °C), and reaction time (10-30 min) on glucose yield were evaluated in lab-scale using response surface methodology. The best conditions were found to be Na2CO3 of 4.1%, temperature of 142.6 °C, and reaction time of 18.0 min, under which glucose yield reached to 267.5 g/kg biomass. Physical properties, based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imagery, surface area, pore volume and size, and crystallinity of pretreated corn stover, were examined. The Na2CO3 pretreatment apparently damaged the surface and altered structural features of corn stover, which resulted in the enhancement of enzymatic of hydrolysis. These results evidently support that Na2CO3 is indeed a robust and feasible catalyst for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibacterial effect of surface pretreatment techniques against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial surface pretreatment methods against Streptococcus mutans within the infected dentin surface using a tooth cavity model. Material and Methods: Seventy-two cavities were prepared on caries-free third molars (n = 8). After sterilization, teeth were inoculated ...

  17. Bromine pretreated chitosan for adsorption of lead

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pollution by heavy metals like lead (II) is responsible for health hazards and environmental degradation. Adsorption is a prevalent method applied for removal of heavy metal pollutants from water. This study explored adsorption performances of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan for lead (II) abatement from water. Bromine ...

  18. Effective pretreatment of coal for briquetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunami, Y; Nishioka, K; Sugimoto, Y

    1980-01-01

    The pretreatment of coal for briquetting is considered in an attempt to improve the quality of the briquets produced. Crushing of coal to obtain a size distribution suitable for close packing was found to be effective in improving coking properties while drying of coal was found to be effective in increasing briquet density. (In Japanese)

  19. Biomass Deconstruction and Pretreatment Publications | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis, ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering Eight black-and-white micrograph images of corn Hydrocarbons via Aqueous Phase Hydrodeoxygenation, Green Chemistry Image of a diagram with a curved line Chemistry & Engineering Image of a diagram corn stover pretreatment showing arrows pointing from "

  20. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using Fenton chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretreatment is a necessary step in “biomass to biofuel conversion” due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass. White-rot fungi utilize peroxidases and hydrogen peroxide (in vivo Fenton chemistry) to degrade lignin. In an attempt to mimic this process, solution phase Fenton chemistry ...

  1. Solar assisted alkali pretreatment of garden biomass: Effects on lignocellulose degradation, enzymatic hydrolysis, crystallinity and ultra-structural changes in lignocellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S.P.M. Prince; Vaidya, Atul N.; Das, Sera; Wate, Satish R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SAAP is an efficient and economic means of pretreatment. • SAAP was found to be efficient in lignin and hemicellulose removal. • SAAP enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis. • FTIR, XRD and SEM provided vivid understanding about the mode of action of SAAP. • Mass balance closer of 98% for pretreated GB confirmed the reliability of SAAP. - Abstract: A comprehensive study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of solar assisted alkali pretreatment (SAAP) on garden biomass (GB). The pretreatment efficiency was assessed based on lignocellulose degradation, conversion of cellulose into reducing sugars, changes in the ultra-structure and functional groups of lignocellulose and impact on the crystallinity of cellulose, etc. SAAP was found to be efficient for the removal of lignin and hemicellulose that facilitated enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. FTIR and XRD studies provided details on the effectiveness of SAAP on lignocellulosic moiety and crystallinity of cellulose. Scanning electron microscopic analysis showed ultra-structural disturbances in the microfibrils of GB as a result of pretreatment. The mass balance closer of 97.87% after pretreatment confirmed the reliability of SAAP pretreatment. Based on the results, it is concluded that SAAP is not only an efficient means of pretreatment but also economical as it involved no energy expenditure for heat generation during pretreatment

  2. NON-POLLUTING METAL SURFACE FINISHING PRETREATMENT AND PRETREATMENT/CONVERSION COATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklex, a proprietary formulation, is an alterantive to conventional metal surface pretreatments and is claimed not to produce waste or lower production or lower performance. A laboratory program was designed to evaluate Picklex in common, large scale, polluting surface finishin...

  3. Pretreatment of Reed by Wet Oxidation and Subsequent Utilization of the Pretreated Fibers for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szijarto, Nora; Kádár, Zsófia; Varga, Eniko

    2009-01-01

    lignocelluloses usually do. In the present study, wet oxidation was investigated as the pretreatment method to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of reed cellulose to soluble sugars and thus improve the convertibility of reed to ethanol. The most effective treatment increased the digestibility of reed cellulose...... of cellulose to glucose was 82.4%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated solids resulted in a final ethanol concentration as high as 8.7 g/L, yielding 73% of the theoretical....

  4. Pretreatment of different waste streams for improvement in biogas production; Foerbehandlingsteknikers betydelse foer oekat biogasutbyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvari Horvath, Ilona (Hoegskolan i Boraas (Sweden)); del Pilar Castillo, Maria (JTI (Sweden)); Loren, Anders; Brive, Lena; Ekendahl, Susanne; Nordman, Roger (SP, Boraas (Sweden)); Kanerot, Mija (Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    Biological breakdown of organic municipal and industrial waste to biogas is already in use today. The technology is of outmost importance to attain the environmental goals that our society has set regarding to sustainable development. Of decisive economic importance is the ability to obtain an increased amount of biogas from the same amount of substrate. Alternative resources for biogas production are at the same time of great interest in order to enable a large expansion of biogas production. The goal of applying a suitable pre-treatment step before anaerobic digestion is to open up the molecular structure of inaccessible biopolymers in order to facilitate access to the carbon for microorganisms involved in biological breakdown and fermentation to biogas. Our study shows that introducing a pretreatment step opens new perspectives for biogas production. Treatment of paper residuals by steam explosion increased methane production up to 400 Nm3/ton dry matter, to a double amount of methane yield compared to that of untreated paper. A novel method for pretreatment with an environment-friendly solvent N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) was also tested on lignocellulose-rich waste fractions from forest and agricultural. The NMMO-treatment increased the methane yields of spruce chips and triticale straw by 25 times (250 Nm3/ton dry matter), and by 6 times (200 Nm3/ton dry matter), respectively, compared to that of the untreated materials. Keratin-rich feather waste yielded around 200 Nm3 methane/ton dry matter, which could be increased to 450 Nm3/ton after enzymatic treatment and to 360 Nm3/ton after either chemical treatment with lime, or after biological treatment with a recombinant bacterial strain of Bacillus megaterium. However, the gain in increased amount of methane after a pretreatment step should be weighted against a possible increase in energy usage generated by the pretreatment. We have therefore performed a case study in which the energy balance for a biogas

  5. Ozone pretreatment and fermentative hydrolysis of wheat straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben'ko, E. M.; Chukhchin, D. G.; Lunin, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    Principles of the ozone pretreatment of wheat straw for subsequent fermentation into sugars are investigated. The optimum moisture contents of straw in the ozonation process are obtained from data on the kinetics of ozone absorbed by samples with different contents of water. The dependence of the yield of reducing sugars in the fermentative reaction on the quantity of absorbed ozone is established. The maximum conversion of polysaccharides is obtained at ozone doses of around 3 mmol/g of biomass, and it exceeds the value for nonozonated samples by an order of magnitude. The yield of sugar falls upon increasing the dose of ozone. The process of removing lignin from the cell walls of straw during ozonation is visualized by means of scanning electron microscopy.

  6. How Students Learn: Ways of Thinking about "Good Learning" in HE. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, one of a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. The topic of this first issues paper is a conceptual framework that can help members of a project (information resource)…

  7. Enhancement of biogas production in anaerobic co-digestion by ultrasonic pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Shuzhen; Wang, Xiaojiao; Chen, Yuanlin; Wan, Haiwen; Feng, Yongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrasonic pretreatment changed physical structure of samples. • Ultrasonic pretreatment improved biogas production via changing environment before and during anaerobic digestion process. • The main factors affecting biogas production differ in different pretreated samples. - Abstract: This paper optimized the anaerobic digestion (AD) pretreatment process and identified the influence of pretreatment on the co-digestion of maize straw (MS) and dairy manure (DM). In the study, ultrasonic was used to pretreat MS and DM prior to digestion, with power intensities of 0, 189.39, 284.09, and 378.79 kJ at 0, 20, 30, and 40 min, respectively. Changes in the surface structures of MS and DM were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and factor analysis was used to analyze the main factors affecting biogas production in the AD process. The result showed that the structure of DM was distributed and that the structure of MS became more roughness following the ultrasonic pretreatment (UP). The highest total biogas production of co-digestion (240.32 mL/g VS_f_e_d) was obtained when MS was pretreated for 30 min without DM pretreatment (MS_3_0DM_0). This was significantly higher than that of the untreated sample (CK) (141.65 mL/g VS_f_e_d). The cellulose activity (CA), reducing sugar (RS) content, volatile fatty acid (VFA) content and pH in the digester feed, and their maximum and minimum values in the AD process was affected by UP. Factor 1 of MS_3_0DM_0 was determined by RS content, pH and VFA content that they had the most influence on biogas production on days 6, 18, 24 and 30. Factor 2 of it was determined by CA, and it had most influence on days 0, 12, 36 and 42 in the AD process, The result of the factor analysis indicated that the main factors affecting biogas production were affected by UP and they differ according to the different digestion stages. This research concluded that UP improved total biogas production via changing the initial

  8. Current Pretreatment Technologies for the Development of Cellulosic Ethanol and Biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marcos Henrique Luciano; Morais, Ana Rita C; da Costa Lopes, Andre M; Olekszyszen, Drielly Nayara; Bogel-Łukasik, Rafał; Andreaus, Jürgen; Pereira Ramos, Luiz

    2015-10-26

    Lignocellulosic materials, such as forest, agriculture, and agroindustrial residues, are among the most important resources for biorefineries to provide fuels, chemicals, and materials in such a way to substitute for, at least in part, the role of petrochemistry in modern society. Most of these sustainable biorefinery products can be produced from plant polysaccharides (glucans, hemicelluloses, starch, and pectic materials) and lignin. In this scenario, cellulosic ethanol has been considered for decades as one of the most promising alternatives to mitigate fossil fuel dependence and carbon dioxide accumulation in the atmosphere. However, a pretreatment method is required to overcome the physical and chemical barriers that exist in the lignin-carbohydrate composite and to render most, if not all, of the plant cell wall components easily available for conversion into valuable products, including the fuel ethanol. Hence, pretreatment is a key step for an economically viable biorefinery. Successful pretreatment method must lead to partial or total separation of the lignocellulosic components, increasing the accessibility of holocellulose to enzymatic hydrolysis with the least inhibitory compounds being released for subsequent steps of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Each pretreatment technology has a different specificity against both carbohydrates and lignin and may or may not be efficient for different types of biomasses. Furthermore, it is also desirable to develop pretreatment methods with chemicals that are greener and effluent streams that have a lower impact on the environment. This paper provides an overview of the most important pretreatment methods available, including those that are based on the use of green solvents (supercritical fluids and ionic liquids). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The impacts of pretreatment on the fermentability of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass: a comparative evaluation between ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Bruce E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment chemistry is of central importance due to its impacts on cellulosic biomass processing and biofuels conversion. Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX and dilute acid are two promising pretreatments using alkaline and acidic pH that have distinctive differences in pretreatment chemistries. Results Comparative evaluation on these two pretreatments reveal that (i AFEX-pretreated corn stover is significantly more fermentable with respect to cell growth and sugar consumption, (ii both pretreatments can achieve more than 80% of total sugar yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis of washed pretreated solids, and (iii while AFEX completely preserves plant carbohydrates, dilute acid pretreatment at 5% solids loading degrades 13% of xylose to byproducts. Conclusion The selection of pretreatment will determine the biomass-processing configuration, requirements for hydrolysate conditioning (if any and fermentation strategy. Through dilute acid pretreatment, the need for hemicellulase in biomass processing is negligible. AFEX-centered cellulosic technology can alleviate fermentation costs through reducing inoculum size and practically eliminating nutrient costs during bioconversion. However, AFEX requires supplemental xylanases as well as cellulase activity. As for long-term sustainability, AFEX has greater potential to diversify products from a cellulosic biorefinery due to lower levels of inhibitor generation and lignin loss.

  10. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis

  11. Application of electronic learning tools for training of specialists in the field of information technologies for enterprises of mineral resources sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. В. Катунцов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the advantages of using modern electronic learning tools in the training of specialists for the mineral and raw materials complex and considers the basic principles of organizing training using these tools. The experience of using electronic learning tools using foreign teaching materials and involving foreign professors is described. A special attention is given to the electronic learning environment of the Cisco Networking Academy – Cisco NetAcad. The experience of teaching at the Networking Academy of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University is described. Details are given to modern virtual environments for laboratory work, such as Cisco Packet Tracer, GNS3 and Emulated Virtual Environment. The experience of using electronic learning technologies at the University of Economics of Bratislava is considered. It actively cooperates with a number of universities of other countries, such as the University of International Business (Almaty, the Eurasian National University named after LN Gumilyov (Astana and the Institute of Social and Humanitarian Knowledge (Kazan.

  12. Laser surface pretreatment of 100Cr6 bearing steel – Hardening effects and white etching zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buling, Anna; Sändker, Hendrik; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Krupp, Ulrich; Hamann-Steinmeier, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser surface pretreatment of the bearing steel 100Cr6 is performed. • Microstructural changes of the surface are examined by light microscopy and SEM. • Topographical changes are observed using white light interferometry. • Micro-hardness testing show the existence of very hard white etching zones (WEZ). • WEZ are attributed to near-surface reaustenitization and rapid quenching. • Dark etching zones (DEZ) are found at the laser path edges after laser pretreatment. - Abstract: In order to achieve a surface pretreatment of the bearing steel 100Cr6 (1–1.5 wt.% Cr) a laser-based process was used. The obtained modification may result in an optimization of the adhesive properties of the surface with respect to an anticorrosion polymer coating on the basis of PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone), which is applied on the steel surface by a laser melting technique. This work deals with the influence of the laser-based pretreatment regarding the surface microstructure and the micro-hardness of the steel, which has been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy and automated micro-hardness testing. The most suitable parameter set for the laser-based pretreatment leads to the formation of very hard white etching zones (WEZ) with a thickness of 23 μm, whereas this pretreatment also induces topographical changes. The occurrence of the white etching zones is attributed to near-surface re-austenitization and rapid quenching. Moreover, dark etching zones (DEZ) with a thickness of 32 μm are found at the laser path edges as well as underneath the white etching zones (WEZ). In these areas, the hardness is decreased due to the formation of oxides as a consequence of re-tempering.

  13. Laser surface pretreatment of 100Cr6 bearing steel – Hardening effects and white etching zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buling, Anna, E-mail: a.buling@hs-osnabrueck.de [Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Applied Sciences, 49009 Osnabrück (Germany); Sändker, Hendrik; Stollenwerk, Jochen [Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT, Steinbachstrasse 15, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Krupp, Ulrich; Hamann-Steinmeier, Angela [Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Applied Sciences, 49009 Osnabrück (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Laser surface pretreatment of the bearing steel 100Cr6 is performed. • Microstructural changes of the surface are examined by light microscopy and SEM. • Topographical changes are observed using white light interferometry. • Micro-hardness testing show the existence of very hard white etching zones (WEZ). • WEZ are attributed to near-surface reaustenitization and rapid quenching. • Dark etching zones (DEZ) are found at the laser path edges after laser pretreatment. - Abstract: In order to achieve a surface pretreatment of the bearing steel 100Cr6 (1–1.5 wt.% Cr) a laser-based process was used. The obtained modification may result in an optimization of the adhesive properties of the surface with respect to an anticorrosion polymer coating on the basis of PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone), which is applied on the steel surface by a laser melting technique. This work deals with the influence of the laser-based pretreatment regarding the surface microstructure and the micro-hardness of the steel, which has been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy and automated micro-hardness testing. The most suitable parameter set for the laser-based pretreatment leads to the formation of very hard white etching zones (WEZ) with a thickness of 23 μm, whereas this pretreatment also induces topographical changes. The occurrence of the white etching zones is attributed to near-surface re-austenitization and rapid quenching. Moreover, dark etching zones (DEZ) with a thickness of 32 μm are found at the laser path edges as well as underneath the white etching zones (WEZ). In these areas, the hardness is decreased due to the formation of oxides as a consequence of re-tempering.

  14. Evaluation of efficient glucose release using sodium hydroxide and phosphoric acid as pretreating agents from the biomass of Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers.: A fast growing tree legume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mund, Nitesh K; Dash, Debabrata; Barik, Chitta R; Goud, Vaibhav V; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Mishra, Prasannajit; Nayak, Nihar R

    2017-07-01

    Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers. is one of the fast growing tree legumes having the efficiency to produce around 50tha -1 above ground dry matters in a year. In this study, biomass of 2years old S. grandiflora was selected for the chemical composition, pretreatments and enzymatic hydrolysis studies. The stem biomass with a wood density of 3.89±0.01gmcm -3 contains about 38% cellulose, 12% hemicellulose and 28% lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass revealed that phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) pretreated samples even at lower cellulase loadings [1 Filter Paper Units (FPU)], could efficiently convert about 86% glucose, while, even at higher cellulase loadings (60FPU) alkali pretreated biomass could convert only about 58% glucose. The effectiveness of phosphoric acid pretreatment was also supported by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An operational utility assessment [electronic resource]: measuring the effectiveness of the Joint Concept Technology Demonstration (JCTD), Joint Forces Protection Advance Security System (JFPASS)

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, Mark; Mayor, Jeffrey D.; Symmes, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    MBA Professional Report Planning modern military operations requires an accurate intelligence assessment of potential threats, combined with a detailed assessment of the physical theater of operations. This information can then be combined with equipment and manpower resources to set up a logistically supportable operation that mitigates as much of the enemy threat as possible. Given such a daunting challenge, military planners often turn to intelligent software agents to support their...

  16. Radiation pretreatment of cellulose for energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rosa, A. M.; Dela Mines, A. S.; Banzon, R. B.; Simbul-Nuguid, Z. F.

    The effect of radiation pretreatment of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated through hydrolytic reactions of cellulose. Gamma irradiation significantly increased the acid hydrolysis of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The yields of reducing sugar were higher with increasing radiation dose in these materials. The observed radiation effect varied with the cellulosic material but it correlated with neither the cellulose content nor the lignin content. Likewise, the radiation pretreatment accelerated the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and rice hull by cellulase. The irradiated rice straw appeared to be a better growth medium for the cellulolytic microorganism, Myrothecium verrucaria, than the non-irradiated material. This was attributed to increased digestibility of the cellulose by the microorganism.

  17. Radiation pretreatment of cellulose for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.M.; Dela Mines, A.S.; Banzon, R.B.; Simbul-Nuguid, Z.F.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of radiation pretreatment of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated through hydrolytic reactions of cellulose. Gamma irradiation significantly increased the acid hydrolysis of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The yields of reducing sugar were higher with increasing radiation dose in these materials. The observed radiation effect varied with the cellulose material but it correlated with neither the cellulose content nor the lignin content. Likewise, the radiation pretreatment accelerated the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and rice hull by cellulase. The irradiated rice straw appeared to be a better growth medium for the cellulolytic microorganism, Myrothecium verrucaria, than the non-irradiated material. This was attributed to increased digestibility of the cellulose by the microorganism. (author)

  18. PRETREATMENT OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doan Thai Hoa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The cost of raw materials continues to be a limiting factor in the production of bio-ethanol from traditional raw materials, such as sugar and starch. At the same time, there are large amount of agricultural residues as well as industrial wastes that are of low or negative value (due to costs of current effluent disposal methods. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of elephant grass and wood residues for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose has been investigated in this study.    Elephant grass (agricultural residue and sawdust (Pulp and Paper Industry waste with a small particulate size were treated using different dilute sulfuric acid concentrations at a temperature  of 140-170°C within 0.5-3 hours. The appropriate pretreatment conditions give the highest yield of soluble saccharides and total reducing sugars.

  19. Apple's dehydration by the irradiation pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie; Chao Yan; Shen Weiqiao; Wang Jun

    2001-01-01

    "6"0 Co γ-ray irradiation was used as a pre-treatment method to dry the apple. The aim of this study was to discover the effect factor concerning the change of the apple cell structure which would affect the speed of drhydration and the relation between the speed of hot air dehydration and the irradiation dose. The results demonstrated that with the increasing of irradiation dose. The damage of apple's vacuole membrane increased. The positive correlation was shown in slice thickness and dehydration rate, the relation of the irradiation dose and the temperature of hot air was negatively correlated. The optimum of pre-treatment was gained for slice thickness, the irradiation dose and dry temperature of hot air. (authors)

  20. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected

  1. Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruse, J.M.; Harrington, R.A.; Quadrel, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the minutes from the Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop sponsored by the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration in Salt Lake City, Utah, February 3--5, 1993. The Efficient Separations and Processing-Integrated Program and the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System were joint participants. This document provides the detailed minutes, including responses to questions asked, an attendance list, reproductions of the workshop presentations, and a revised chart showing technology development activities

  2. Design Criteria for Process Wastewater Pretreatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Stripping Column H13 ’Re Purpose: The purpose of this report, is to provide design criteria for pretreatment needs for ’ I. INTRODUCTION ’". discharge of...which a portion of the vessel is filled with packing. Packing materials vary from corrugated steel to bundles of fibers (Langdon et al., 1972) to beds...concentration(s) using Table 20. Wastewater treatability studies should be considered as a process-screening tool for all wastewater streams for

  3. Pretreatment on Corn Stover with Low Concentration of Formic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    the cellulose easily degraded into sugars and further fermented to ethanol. In this work, hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover at 195 degrees for 15 min with and without lower concentration of formic acid was compared in terms of sugar recoveries and ethanol fermentation. For pretreatment with formic acid...... pretreatment without formic acid. Toxicity tests of liquor parts showed that there were no inhibitions found for both pretreatment conditions. After simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the pretreated corn stover with Baker's yeast, the highest ethanol yield of 76.5% of the theoretical...

  4. Radioprotection of mice following garlic pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Abraham, S.K.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    Freshly prepared aqueous extract of garlic was tested in mice for its possible in vivo protective effect against gamma-radiation-induced chromosomal damage. In the same animals, the changes in the sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity were evaluated. Three doses of garlic extract [125, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 body weight (bw)] were administered orally for five consecutive days and the animals were exposed to 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy gamma-radiation 2 h after the final feeding. The results of the bone marrow micronucleus test revealed that pretreatment with garlic extract was effective in reducing gamma-radiation-induced chromosomal damage. Against 0.25 Gy gamma-radiation, a high dose of 500 mg kg-1 bw garlic extract was required to significantly reduce the chromosomal damage. All the three doses of garlic extract were effective in exerting a protective effect against 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy gamma-radiation. However a dose-related effect was observed only against 2.0 Gy. The sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity registered a significant increase after either pretreatment with garlic with extract or irradiation. In the garlic extract pretreated irradiated animals, a significant reduction was observed in the sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity

  5. Cost comparison for REDC pretreatment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Homan, F.J.

    1997-06-01

    This analysis has been prepared to support the planned expenditure to provide the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) with the capability to pretreat their liquid low-level waste (LLLW) before discharging it to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) LLLW system. Pretreatment will remove most of the radioactivity, particularly the transuranic isotopes and Cs-137 from the waste to be discharged. This will render the supernates that accumulate in the storage tanks low-activity Class B low-level wastes rather than high-activity Class B or Class C wastes. The sludges will be Class C rather than remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes. When REDC wastes are commingled with other ORNL LLLW, the present-worth treatment and transport costs are higher by a factor of 1.3 for the no-pretreatment cases. This result is consistent with data from similar studies conducted at other sites. Based on the information presented in this analysis, the recommendation is to proceed with REDC treatment projects

  6. The effect of wastewater pretreatment on nanofiltration membrane performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hashlamon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Membrane fouling is considered a serious obstacle for operation and cost efficiency in wastewater treatment using nanofiltration (NF. However, pretreatment is the most practical way to reduce this prior to NF. In this research, two types of wastewaters were pretreated with different methods prior to NF to examine the effect of pretreatment on membrane fouling in terms of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD and permeate flux. Turbidity and COD were measured to assess solid foulants and organic species in the wastewater, respectively. The first sample was secondary treated sewage, which was pretreated using coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation (CFS only. Steady flux was increased from 24 L/m2h for wastewater without pretreatment to 32.1 L/m2h with pretreatment. COD was also eliminated after CFS/NF, and turbidity was reduced to 0.6 NTU. The second sample was diluted biodiesel wastewater, which was pretreated using a combination of powdered-activated carbon (PAC adsorption and CFS (PAC/CFS. Steady flux was increased from 22.3 L/m2h for wastewater without pretreatment to 28.7 L/m2h with pretreatment; biodiesel wastewater quality also improved. Turbidity was reduced from 12 to 0.6 NTU, and COD was reduced from 526 to 4 mg/L after NF with PAC/CFS pretreatment, while COD was reduced from 526 to 95 mg/L using NF without pretreatment.

  7. Optimization study on the hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and production of bioethanol from seaweed Ulva prolifera biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinping; Cui, Jiefen; Zhang, Gaoli; Liu, Zhengkun; Guan, Huashi; Hwang, Hueymin; Aker, Winfred G; Wang, Peng

    2016-08-01

    The seaweed Ulva prolifera, distributed in inter-tidal zones worldwide, contains a large percentage of cellulosic materials. The technical feasibility of using U. prolifera residue (UPR) obtained after extraction of polysaccharides as a renewable energy resource was investigated. An environment-friendly and economical pretreatment process was conducted using hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide pretreatment improved the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. The resulting yield of reducing sugar reached a maximum of 0.42g/g UPR under the optimal pretreatment condition (hydrogen peroxide 0.2%, 50°C, pH 4.0, 12h). The rate of conversion of reducing sugar in the concentrated hydrolysates to bioethanol reached 31.4% by Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation, which corresponds to 61.7% of the theoretical maximum yield. Compared with other reported traditional processes on Ulva biomass, the reducing sugar and bioethanol yield are substantially higher. Thus, hydrogen peroxide pretreatment is an effective enhancement of the process of bioethanol production from the seaweed U. prolifera. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol production from Cynara cardunculus pretreated by steam explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria C; Ferro, Miguel D; Paulino, Ana F C; Mendes, Joana A S; Gravitis, Janis; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Xavier, Ana M R B

    2015-06-01

    The correct choice of the specific lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment allows obtaining high biomass conversions for biorefinery implementations and cellulosic bioethanol production from renewable resources. Cynara cardunculus (cardoon) pretreated by steam explosion (SE) was involved in second-generation bioethanol production using separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes. Steam explosion pretreatment led to partial solubilisation of hemicelluloses and increased the accessibility of residual polysaccharides towards enzymatic hydrolysis revealing 64% of sugars yield against 11% from untreated plant material. Alkaline extraction after SE pretreatment of cardoon (CSEOH) promoted partial removal of degraded lignin, tannins, extractives and hemicelluloses thus allowing to double glucose concentration upon saccharification step. Bioethanol fermentation in SSF mode was faster than SHF process providing the best results: ethanol concentration 18.7 g L(-1), fermentation efficiency of 66.6% and a yield of 26.6g ethanol/100 g CSEOH or 10.1 g ethanol/100 g untreated cardoon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reducing biomass recalcitrance via mild sodium carbonate pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmohamadsadeghi, Safoora; Chen, Zhu; Wan, Caixia

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effects of mild sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of different feedstocks (i.e., corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass). The results showed that sodium carbonate pretreatment markedly enhanced the sugar yields of the tested biomass feedstocks. The pretreated corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass gave the glucose yields of 95.1%, 62.3%, and 81.3%, respectively, after enzymatic hydrolysis. The above glucose yields of pretreated feedstocks were 2-4 times that of untreated ones. The pretreatment also enhanced the xylose yields, 4 times for corn stover and 20 times for both Miscanthus and switchgrass. Sodium carbonate pretreatment removed 40-59% lignin from the tested feedstocks while preserving most of cellulose (sodium carbonate pretreatment was effective for reducing biomass recalcitrance and subsequently improving the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  11. Effect of pretreating technologies on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion property of Zn coated NdFeB specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengjie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co. Ltd., Hefei (China); Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials, Hefei (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials (Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co., Ltd.), Hefei (China); Xu, Guangqing, E-mail: gqxu1979@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Liu, Jiaqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Yi, Xiaofei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co. Ltd., Hefei (China); Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials, Hefei (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials (Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co., Ltd.), Hefei (China); Wu, Yucheng, E-mail: ycwu@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Chen, JingWu [Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co. Ltd., Hefei (China); Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials, Hefei (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials (Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co., Ltd.), Hefei (China)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Zn coated NdFeB specimens pretreated with different technologies possess different adhesive strengths and anticorrosion properties. And the combined technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s) achieves the best comprehensive performance. - Highlights: • Zn coated NdFeB specimens are achieved with different pretreating technologies. • Combined technology possesses the highest adhesive strength. • Combined technology possesses excellent anticorrosion property. - Abstract: Zinc coated NdFeB specimens were prepared with different pretreating technologies, such as polishing, pickling (50 s), sandblasting and combined technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s). Morphologies of the NdFeB substrates pretreated with different technologies were observed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer and an atomic force microscope. The tensile test was performed to measure the adhesive strength between Zn coating and NdFeB substrate. The self-corrosion behavior of the NdFeB specimen was characterized by potentiodynamic polarization curve. The anticorrosion properties of Zn coated NdFeB specimens were characterized by neutral salt spray tests. The pretreating technologies possess obvious impact on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion property of Zn coated NdFeB specimens. Combined pretreating technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s) achieves the highest adhesive strength (25.56 MPa) and excellent anticorrosion property (average corrosion current density of 21 μA/cm{sup 2}) in the four pretreating technologies. The impacting mechanisms of the pretreating technology on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion properties are deeply discussed.

  12. Curing kinetics and mechanical behavior of natural rubber reinforced with pretreated carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, G.; Zhong, W.H.; Yang, X.P.; Yu, Y.H.

    2008-01-01

    To significantly improve the performance of rubber materials, fundamental studies on rubber nanocomposites are necessary. The curing kinetics and vulcanizate properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/natural rubber (NR) nanocomposites were analyzed in this paper. The pretreatment of CNTs was carried out by acid bath followed by ball milling with HRH bonding systems in experiments. The CNT/NR nanocomposites were prepared through solvent mixing on the basis of pretreatment of CNTs. The surface characteristic of CNTs and physical interaction between CNTs and NR macromolecules were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The vulcanization kinetics of CNT/NR nanocomposites were studied contrasting with the neat NR. The quality of the NR vulcanizates was assessed through static and dynamic mechanical property tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Curing kinetic parameters of the neat NR and CNT/NR nanocomposites were obtained from experiments; the results indicated that the presence of CNTs affects the curing process of the NR, and additional heating is required to cure CNT/NR nanocomposites due to its higher active energy. The dispersion of pretreated CNTs in the rubber matrix and interfacial adhesion between them were obviously improved. The physical and mechanical properties of the CNT/NR nanocomposites showed considerable increases by incorporation of the pretreated CNTs compared to the neat NR and untreated CNTs-filled NR nanocomposites

  13. Phosphoric acid pretreatment of Achyranthes aspera and Sida acuta weed biomass to improve enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siripong, Premjet; Duangporn, Premjet; Takata, Eri; Tsutsumi, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    Achyranthes aspera and Sida acuta, two types of weed biomass are abundant and waste in Thailand. We focus on them as novel feedstock for bio-ethanol production because they contain high-cellulose content (45.9% and 46.9%, respectively) and unutilized material. Phosphoric acid (70%, 75%, and 80%) was employed for the pretreatment to improve by enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment process removed most of the xylan and a part of the lignin from the weeds, while most of the glucan remained. The cellulose conversion to glucose was greater for pretreated A. aspera (86.2 ± 0.3%) than that of the pretreated S. acuta (82.2 ± 1.1%). Thus, the removal of hemicellulose significantly affected the efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis. The scanning electron microscopy images showed the exposed fibrous cellulose on the cell wall surface, and this substantial change of the surface structure contributed to improving the enzyme accessibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation pre-treating straw hydrolyzed by cellulase resulted from immobilized Trichoderma reesei growing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhaoxin; Minoru Kumakura

    1992-01-01

    Wheat and rice straw was irradiated by electron beam with different dose at the presence of 4% NaOH or without 4% NaOH. The powder fraction above 200 meshes in pretreated rice straw increased with increasing doses and it was more at presence of 4% NaOH than that without 4% NaOH. The pretreated straw was hydrolyzed with 1% cellulase at 40 degree C for 48 h. The glucose yield (%) was given a rise with the increase of irradiation dose and it was 70% and 80% over that of un-pretreated rice and wheat straw, respectively. At the presence of 4% NaOH, the glucose yield increased as the irradiation dose increased from 0 to 5 x 10 5 Gy, reaching a maximum, 35% for wheat straw and 36.6% for rice straw, which increased by about 2.5 times in comparison with un-pretreated straw, then decrease with increasing the irradiation dose to 10 x 10 5 Gy. The glucose yield reached 19% and 22% for rice and wheat straw in 6 days of hydrolysis, respectively

  15. Optimization of pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation for more efficient ethanol production by Jerusalem artichoke stalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Qin, Jin-Cheng; Liu, Chen-Guang; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2016-12-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is a potential energy crop for biorefinery due to its unique agronomic traits such as resistance to environmental stresses and high biomass yield in marginal lands. Although JA tubers have been explored for inulin extraction and biofuels production, there is little concern on its stalk (JAS). In this article, the pretreatment of JAS by alkaline hydrogen peroxide was optimized using the response surface methodology to improve sugars yield and reduce chemicals usage. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis were applied to characterize the structures of the pretreated JAS to evaluate the effectiveness of the pretreatment. Furthermore, the feeding of the pretreated JAS and cellulase was performed for high solid uploading (up to 30%) to increase ethanol titer, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with 55.6g/L ethanol produced, 36.5% more than that produced through separate hydrolysis and fermentation, was validated to be more efficient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Curing kinetics and mechanical behavior of natural rubber reinforced with pretreated carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, G. [Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105 (United States); Zhong, W.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105 (United States)], E-mail: Katie.Zhong@ndsu.edu; Yang, X.P.; Yu, Y.H. [Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2008-06-25

    To significantly improve the performance of rubber materials, fundamental studies on rubber nanocomposites are necessary. The curing kinetics and vulcanizate properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/natural rubber (NR) nanocomposites were analyzed in this paper. The pretreatment of CNTs was carried out by acid bath followed by ball milling with HRH bonding systems in experiments. The CNT/NR nanocomposites were prepared through solvent mixing on the basis of pretreatment of CNTs. The surface characteristic of CNTs and physical interaction between CNTs and NR macromolecules were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The vulcanization kinetics of CNT/NR nanocomposites were studied contrasting with the neat NR. The quality of the NR vulcanizates was assessed through static and dynamic mechanical property tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Curing kinetic parameters of the neat NR and CNT/NR nanocomposites were obtained from experiments; the results indicated that the presence of CNTs affects the curing process of the NR, and additional heating is required to cure CNT/NR nanocomposites due to its higher active energy. The dispersion of pretreated CNTs in the rubber matrix and interfacial adhesion between them were obviously improved. The physical and mechanical properties of the CNT/NR nanocomposites showed considerable increases by incorporation of the pretreated CNTs compared to the neat NR and untreated CNTs-filled NR nanocomposites.

  17. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  18. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  19. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic investigation of the role of alkaline pre-treatment in corrosion resistance of a silane coating on magnesium alloy, ZE41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty Banerjee, P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); CAST Cooperative Research Centre, Hawthorn, VIC-3122 (Australia); Singh Raman, R.K., E-mail: raman.singh@eng.monash.edu.a [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    The protective performance of the coatings of bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl) ethane (BTSE) on ZE41 magnesium alloy with different surface pre-treatments were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution. Electrical equivalent circuits were developed based upon hypothetical corrosion mechanisms and simulated to correspond to the experimental data. The morphology and cross section of the alloy subjected to different pre-treatments and coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscope. A specific alkaline pre-treatment of the substrate prior to the coating has been found to improve the corrosion resistance of the alloy.

  20. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic investigation of the role of alkaline pre-treatment in corrosion resistance of a silane coating on magnesium alloy, ZE41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty Banerjee, P.; Singh Raman, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    The protective performance of the coatings of bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl) ethane (BTSE) on ZE41 magnesium alloy with different surface pre-treatments were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution. Electrical equivalent circuits were developed based upon hypothetical corrosion mechanisms and simulated to correspond to the experimental data. The morphology and cross section of the alloy subjected to different pre-treatments and coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscope. A specific alkaline pre-treatment of the substrate prior to the coating has been found to improve the corrosion resistance of the alloy.

  1. Enzymatic conversion of pretreated biomass into fermentable sugars for biorefinery operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dahai

    2011-12-01

    Depleting petroleum reserves and potential climate change caused by fossil fuel consumption have attracted significant attention towards the use of alternative renewable resources for production of fuels and chemicals. Lignocellulosic biomass provides a plentiful resource for the sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals and could serve as an important contributor to the world energy portfolio in the near future. Successful biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass requires an efficient and economical pretreatment method, high glucose/xylose yields during enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of both hexose and pentose to ethanol. High enzyme loading is a major economic bottleneck for the commercial processing of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass to produce fermentable sugars. Optimizing the enzyme cocktail for specific types of pretreated biomass allows for a significant reduction in enzyme loading without sacrificing hydrolysis yield. Core glycosyl hydrolases were isolated and purified from various sources to help rationally optimize an enzyme cocktail to digest ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) treated corn stover. The four core cellulases were endoglucanase I (EG I), cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II) and beta-Glucosidase (betaG). The two core hemicellulases were an endoxylanase (EX) and a beta-xylosidase (betaX). A diverse set of accessory hemicellulases from bacterial sources was found necessary to enhance the synergistic action of cellulases hydrolysing AFEX pretreated corn stover. High glucose (around 80%) and xylose (around 70%) yields were achieved with a moderate enzyme loading (˜20 mg protein/g glucan) using an in-house developed enzyme cocktail and this cocktail was compared to commercial enzyme. Studying the binding properties of cellulases to lignocellulosic substrates is critical to achieving a fundamental understanding of plant cell wall saccharification. Lignin auto-fluorescence and degradation products

  2. Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of the Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics project is to evaluate and test pretreatment coating systems not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders.

  3. Rheological evaluation of pretreated cladding removal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, D.; Chan, M.K.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Cladding removal waste (CRW) contains concentrations of transuranic (TRU) elements in the 80 to 350 nCi/g range. This waste will require pretreatment before it can be disposed of as glass or grout at Hanford. The CRW will be pretreated with a rare earth strike and solids removal by centrifugation to segregate the TRU fraction from the non-TRU fraction of the waste. The centrifuge centrate will be neutralized with sodium hydroxide. This neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) is expected to be suitable for grouting. The TRU solids removed by centrifugation will be vitrified. The goal of the Rheological Evaluation of Pretreated Cladding Removal Waste Program was to evaluate those rheological and transport properties critical to assuring successful handling of the NCRW and TRU solids streams and to demonstrate transfers in a semi-prototypic pumping environment. This goal was achieved by a combination of laboratory and pilot-scale evaluations. The results obtained during these evaluations were correlated with classical rheological models and scaled-up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. The Program used simulated NCRW and TRU solid slurries. Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) provided 150 gallons of simulated CRW and 5 gallons of simulated TRU solid slurry. The simulated CRW was neutralized by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The physical and rheological properties of the NCRW and TRU solid slurries were evaluated in the laboratory. The properties displayed by NCRW allowed it to be classified as a pseudoplastic or yield-pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The TRU solids slurry contained very few solids. This slurry exhibited the properties associated with a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid

  4. Surface pretreatments for medical application of adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Michael

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medical implants and prostheses (artificial hips, tendono- and ligament plasties usually are multi-component systems that may be machined from one of three material classes: metals, plastics and ceramics. Typically, the body-sided bonding element is bone. The purpose of this contribution is to describe developments carried out to optimize the techniques , connecting prosthesis to bone, to be joined by an adhesive bone cement at their interface. Although bonding of organic polymers to inorganic or organic surfaces and to bone has a long history, there remains a serious obstacle in realizing long-term high-bonding strengths in the in vivo body environment of ever present high humidity. Therefore, different pretreatments, individually adapted to the actual combination of materials, are needed to assure long term adhesive strength and stability against hydrolysis. This pretreatment for metal alloys may be silica layering; for PE-plastics, a specific plasma activation; and for bone, amphiphilic layering systems such that the hydrophilic properties of bone become better adapted to the hydrophobic properties of the bone cement. Amphiphilic layering systems are related to those developed in dentistry for dentine bonding. Specific pretreatment can significantly increase bond strengths, particularly after long term immersion in water under conditions similar to those in the human body. The bond strength between bone and plastic for example can be increased by a factor approaching 50 (pealing work increasing from 30 N/m to 1500 N/m. This review article summarizes the multi-disciplined subject of adhesion and adhesives, considering the technology involved in the formation and mechanical performance of adhesives joints inside the human body.

  5. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pretreated Coconut Coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarningrum Fatmawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of concentration and temperature on the cellulose and lignin content, and the reducing sugars produced in the enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut coir. In this research, the coconut coir is pretreated using 3%, 7%, and 11% NaOH solution at 60oC, 80oC, and 100oC. The pretreated coir were assayed by measuring the amount of cellulose and lignin and then hydrolysed using Celluclast and Novozyme 188 under various temperature (30oC, 40oC, 50oC and pH (3, 4, 5. The hydrolysis results were assayed for the reducing sugar content. The results showed that the alkaline delignification was effective to reduce lignin and to increase the cellulose content of the coir. The best delignification condition was observed at 11% NaOH solution and 100oC which removed 14,53% of lignin and increased the cellulose content up to 50,23%. The best condition of the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained at 50oC and pH 4 which produced 7,57 gr/L reducing sugar. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 2nd October 2012; Revised: 31st January 2013; Accepted: 6th February 2013[How to Cite: Fatmawati, A., Agustriyanto, R., Liasari, Y. (2013. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pre-treated Coconut Coir. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 34-39 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39] | View in  |

  6. Energy consumption modeling during dairy sewage pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowski Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in a dairy WWTP located in north-eastern Poland with the average flow of 546 m3d-1 and PE 11500 in 2016. Energy consumption was measured with the help of Lumel 3-phase network parameter transducers installed within the plant. The modeling was conducted based on the quantity and quality of raw sewage, after its screening, averaging and dissolved air flotation. The following parameters were determined: BOD5, COD. N-total and P-total. During the research period. 15 measurement series were carried out. Pollution loads removed in primary treatment varied from 167.0 to 803.5 kgO2d-1 and 1205.9 to 10032 kgO2d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. The energy consumption share during dairy pretreatment in relation to the total energy consumption was in the range from 13.8 to 28.5% with the mean value of 18.7% during the research period. Energy consumption indicators relating to removed pollution loads for primary treatment were established with the mean values of 0.74 and 0.83 kWhkg-1d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. An attempt was made to determine the influence of raw sewage characteristics and pretreatment efficiency on energy consumption of the object. A model of energy consumption during pretreatment was estimated according to the experimental data obtained in the research period. It was modeled using the linear regression model and principal component analysis.

  7. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  8. Study on the pre-treatment of oxidized zinc ore prior to flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong-sheng; Chen, Yun; Xiang, Ping; Yu, Zheng-jun; Potgieter, J. H.

    2018-02-01

    The pre-treatment of zinc oxide bearing ores with high slime content is important to ensure that resources are utilized optimally. This paper reports an improved process using hydrocyclone de-sliming, dispersion reagents, and magnetic removal of iron minerals for the pre-treatment of zinc oxide ore with a high slime and iron content, and the benefits compared to traditional technologies are shown. In addition, this paper investigates the damage related to fine slime and iron during zinc oxide flotation, the necessity of using hydrocyclone de-sliming together with dispersion reagents to alleviate the influence of slime, and interactions among hydrocyclone de-sliming, reagent dispersion, and magnetic iron removal. Results show that under optimized operating conditions the entire beneficiation technology results in a flotation concentrate with a Zn grade of 34.66% and a recovery of 73.41%.

  9. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS PRETREATMENT ON PYROLYSIS CHARACTERISTICS OF NAPIER GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISAH YAKUB MOHAMMED

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of non-catalytic aqueous pretretment on pyrolysis characteristics of Napier grass was investigated using thermogravimetric analyser. Increasing pretreatment severity (0.0-2.0 improved pyrolysis process. The residual mass at the end of pyrolysis for the pretreated sample was about 50% less compared to the untreated sample. Kinetics of the process was evaluated using order based model and both pretreated and untreated samples followed first order reaction. The activation energy of the pretreated samples was similar and higher than that of the raw sample which was attributed to faster rate of decomposition due removal of hetromaterials (ash, extractives and some hemicellulose in the pretreatment stage. Finally, this pretreatment method has demonstrated effectiveness for the removal of pyrolysis retardants and will improve the quantity and quality of bio-oil yield.

  10. Impact of pretreatment on colour and texture of watermelon rind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaselvi, K.; Alagusundaram, K.; Kavitha, C.; Arumuganathan, T.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of osmotic dehydration pretreatment on water loss, solid gain, colour and textural change was investigated. Watermelon rind 1 x 1 cm size was immersed in sucrose solution of 40, 50 and 60° Brix after pretreatment with microwave and conventional boiling in water for 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively. Water loss and solid gain increased with the time of cooking and sugar concentration. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher water loss and solid gain. Increase in the time of cooking decreased the brightness of all the samples. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher `b' values than conventionally pretreated ones. There was no significant difference (P≤0.05) in texture profile analysis parameters except for hardness. Hardness decreased with increase in time of cooking and sugar concentration. Second order regression model was developed for water loss and solid gain of microwave and conventional pretreated watermelon rind.

  11. The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper pretreated by fungal pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The fungal pretreatment effect on chemical structural and morphological changes of Betung Bamboo was evaluated based on its biomass components after being cultivated by white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor. Betung bamboo powder (15 g was exposed to liquid inoculum of white rot fungi and incubated at 270C for 15, 30 and 45 days. The treated samples were then characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and SEM-EDS analyses. Cultivation for 30 days with 5 and 10% loadings retained greater selectivity compared to that of the other treatments. FTIR spectra demonstrated that the fungus affected the decreasing of functional group quantities without changing the functional groups. The decrease in intensity at wave number of 1246 cm-1 (guaiacyl of lignin was greater than that at wave number of 1328 cm-1 (deformation combination of syringyl and xylan after fungal treatment. X-ray analysis showed the pretreated samples had a higher crystallinity than the untreated ones which might be due to the cleavage of amorphous fractions of cellulose. The pretreated samples have more fragile than the untreated ones confirmed by SEM. Crystalline allomorph calculated by XRD analysis showed that fungus pretreatment for 30 days has transformed triclinic structure of cellulose to monoclinic structure.

  12. Microbial Lipid Production from Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Pecan Nutshell Pretreated by Combined Pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lizhen; Qian, Hanyu; He, Yucai

    2017-12-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel composed of monoalkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids derived from renewable biomass sources. In this study, biomass waste pecan nutshell (PS) was attempted to be converted into microbial oil. For effective utilization of PS, sequential pretreatment with ethylene glycol-H 2 SO 4 -water (78:2:20, wt:wt:wt) at 130 °C for 30 min and aqueous ammonia (25 wt%) at 50 °C for 24 h was used to enhance its enzymatic saccharification. Significant linear correlation was obtained about delignification-saccharification (R 2  = 0.9507). SEM and FTIR results indicated that combination pretreatment could effectively remove lignin and xylan in PS for promoting its enzymatic saccharification. After 72 h, the reducing sugars from the hydrolysis of 50 g/L pretreated PS by combination pretreatment could be obtained at 73.6% yield. Using the recovered PS hydrolysates containing 20 g/L glucose as carbon source, microbial lipids produced from the PS hydrolysates by Rhodococcus opacus ACCC41043. Four fatty acids including palmitic acid (C16:0; 23.1%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1; 22.4%), stearic acid (C18:0; 15.3%), and oleic acid (C18:1; 23.9%) were distributed in total fatty acids. In conclusion, this strategy has potential application in the future.

  13. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION TESTING WITH INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM FEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING DL

    2008-01-01

    The fractional crystallization process was developed as a pretreatment method for saltcake waste retrieved from Hanford single-shell tanks (SST). The process separates the retrieved SST waste into a high-level waste stream containing the bulk of the radionuclides and a low-activity waste stream containing the bulk of the nonradioactive sodium salts. The Interim Pretreatment System project shifted the focus on pretreatment planning from SST waste to double-shell tank waste

  14. Cellulose conversion of corn pericarp without pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Orrego, David; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Ladisch, Michael R

    2017-12-01

    We report enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose in unpretreated pericarp at a cellulase loading of 0.25FPU/g pericarp solids using a phenol tolerant Aspergillus niger pectinase preparation. The overall protein added was 5mg/g and gave 98% cellulose conversion in 72h. However, for double the amount of enzyme from Trichoderma reesei, which is significantly less tolerant to phenols, conversion was only 16%. The key to achieving high conversion without pretreatment is combining phenol inhibition-resistant enzymes (such as from A. niger) with unground pericarp from which release of phenols is minimal. Size reduction of the pericarp, which is typically carried out in a corn-to-ethanol process, where corn is first ground to a fine powder, causes release of highly inhibitory phenols that interfere with cellulase enzyme activity. This work demonstrates hydrolysis without pretreatment of large particulate pericarp is a viable pathway for directly producing cellulose ethanol in corn ethanol plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08

  16. Stabilization of Pb(II) accumulated in biomass through phosphate-pretreated pyrolysis at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Saijun; Zhang, Tao; Li, Jianfa, E-mail: ljf@usx.edu.cn; Shi, Lingna; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Lü, Jinhong; Li, Yimin

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Phosphate-pretreated pyrolysis can stabilize Pb(II) accumulated in biomass. • More than 95% of Pb(II) in celery and wood biomass was stabilized. • Pb from biomass was almost totally retained in char. • Most Pb was transformed into phosphates according to XRD and SEM/EDX analyses. - Abstract: The remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil and water using plant biomass is considered to be a green technological approach, although the harmless disposal of biomass accumulated with heavy metals remains a challenge. A potential solution to this problem explored in this work involves combining phosphate pretreatment with pyrolysis. Pb(II) was accumulated in celery biomass with superior sorption capacity and also in ordinary wood biomass through biosorption. The Pb(II)-impregnated biomass was then pretreated with phosphoric acid or calcium dihydrogen phosphate (CaP) and pyrolyzed at 350 or 450 °C. Pb(II) from biomass was in turn almost totally retained in chars, and the percentage of DTPA-extractable Pb(II) was reduced to less than 5% of total Pb(II) in chars through CaP pretreatment. Pb(II) stabilization was further confirmed through a sequential extraction test, which showed that more than 95% of Pb(II) was converted into stable species composed mainly of lead phosphates according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) analyses. Overall, phosphate-pretreated pyrolysis can stabilize both Pb(II) and degradable biomass, so as to control efficiently the hazards of heavy metal-contaminated biomass.

  17. Biologically Pre-Treated Habitation Waste Water as a Sustainable Green Urine Pre-Treat Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Thompson, Bret; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Morse, Audra; Meyer, Caitlin; Callahan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The ability to recover water from urine and flush water is a critical process to allow long term sustainable human habitation in space or bases on the moon or mars. Organic N present as urea or similar compounds can hydrolyze producing free ammonia. This reaction results in an increase in the pH converting ammonium to ammonia which is volatile and not removed by distillation. The increase in pH will also cause precipitation reactions to occur. In order to prevent this, urine on ISS is combined with a pretreat solution. While use of a pretreatment solution has been successful, there are numerous draw backs including: storage and use of highly hazardous solutions, limitations on water recovery (less than 85%), and production of brine with pore dewatering characteristics. We evaluated the use of biologically treated habitation wastewaters (ISS and early planetary base) to replace the current pretreat solution. We evaluated both amended and un-amended bioreactor effluent. For the amended effluent, we evaluated "green" pretreat chemicals including citric acid and citric acid amended with benzoic acid. We used a mock urine/air separator modeled after the urine collection assembly on ISS. The urine/air separator was challenged continually for >6 months. Depending on the test point, the separator was challenged daily with donated urine and flushed with amended or un-amended reactor effluent. We monitored the pH of the urine, flush solution and residual pH in the urine/air separator after each urine event. We also evaluated solids production and biological growth. Our results support the use of both un-amended and amended bioreactor effluent to maintain the operability of the urine /air separator. The ability to use bioreactor effluent could decrease consumable cost, reduce hazards associated with current pre-treat chemicals, allow other membrane based desalination processes to be utilized, and improve brine characteristics.

  18. 40 CFR 407.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Vegetables Subcategory § 407.74 Pretreatment standards for existing sources...

  19. The Effect of Ultrasound Pretreatment on Poplar Wood Dimensional Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Qiu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dimensional stability is a key property of wood that significantly affects its applications. The effect of an ultrasound pretreatment on poplar wood (Populous tomentosa dimensional stability was examined. During the pretreatments, wood samples were immersed in distilled water and treated ultrasonically under three different powers and frequencies. The samples were then analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The chemical transformation of the cell-wall material was studied and then associated with the change of water absorption and the swelling coefficient. The results showed that the water absorption decreased after the ultrasonic pretreatment. The axial and radial swelling coefficients of the pretreated samples decreased, while the tangential swelling coefficients increased. The volumetric swelling coefficient of pretreated specimens fluctuated near 4.48% (the volumetric swelling coefficient of untreated wood. Ultrasonic pretreatment increased the number of hydrophilic groups, such as the hydroxyl, acetyl, and uronic ester groups. Meanwhile, the pretreatment also increased the degree of crystallinity and reduced the available polar groups. These two factors together caused the change of the moisture absorption and the swelling coefficient of the pretreated wood. These conclusions suggest that the ultrasonic pretreatment is a promising method for further chemical modification of wood.

  20. 40 CFR 427.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 427.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 417.84 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.84 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source...

  3. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A nonhazardous urine pretreatment system prototype is proposed that will stabilize urine against biological growth or chemical instabilities without using hazardous...

  4. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel urine pretreatment that will prevent biological growth or chemical instabilities in urine without using hazardous chemicals is proposed. Untreated urine...

  5. Feasibility of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Maize Silage for Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    The potential of maize silage as a feedstock to produce bioethanol was evaluated in the present study. The hydrothermal pretreatment with five different pretreatment severity factors (PSF) was employed to pretreat the maize silage and compared in terms of sugar recovery, toxic test, and ethanol...... the liquors from the five conditions were not toxic to the Baker’s yeast. Pretreatment under 195°C for 7 min had the similar PSF with that of 185°C for 15 min, and both gave the higher ethanol concentration of 19.92 and 19.98 g/L, respectively. The ethanol concentration from untreated maize silage was only 7...

  6. Real-world health outcomes in adults with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the United States: a population study using electronic health records to examine patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, medication use, and healthcare resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Foster, Shonda A; Comer, Brian S; Lin, Chen-Yen; Malatestinic, William; Burge, Russel; Goldblum, Orin

    2018-06-28

    Little is known regarding real-world health outcomes data among US psoriasis patients, but electronic health records (EHR) that collect structured data at point-of-care may provide opportunities to investigate real-world health outcomes among psoriasis patients. Our objective was to investigate patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, patterns of medication use (duration, switching, and/or discontinuation), healthcare resource utilization, and medication costs using real-world data from psoriasis patients. Data for adults (≥18-years) with a dermatology provider-given diagnosis of psoriasis from 9/2014-9/2015 were obtained from dermatology practices using a widely used US dermatology-specific EHR containing over 500,000 psoriasis patients. Disease severity was captured by static physician's global assessment and body surface area. Patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was assessed by a pre-defined question. Treatment switching and duration were documented. Reasons for discontinuations were assessed using pre-defined selections. Healthcare resource utilization was defined by visit frequency and complexity. From 82,621 patients with psoriasis during the study period, patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was investigated in 2200 patients. The proportion of patients reporting "strongly agree" when asked if their treatment was effective was highest for biologics (73%) and those reporting treatment adherence (55%). In 16,000 patients who received oral systemics and 21,087 patients who received biologics, median treatment duration was longer for those who received biologics (160 vs. 113 days, respectively). Treatment switching was less frequent among patients on systemic monotherapies compared to those on combination therapies. The most common reason for discontinuing biologics was loss of efficacy; the most common reason for discontinuing orals was side effects. In 28,754 patients, higher disease severity was associated with increased healthcare resource

  7. Microscopic structure and properties changes of cassava stillage residue pretreated by mechanical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhengda; Huang, Zuqiang; Hu, Huayu; Zhang, Yanjuan; Tan, Yunfang

    2011-09-01

    This study has focused on the pretreatment of cassava stillage residue (CSR) by mechanical activation (MA) using a self-designed stirring ball mill. The changes in surface morphology, functional groups and crystalline structure of pretreated CSR were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) under reasonable conditions. The results showed that MA could significantly damage the crystal structure of CSR, resulting in the variation of surface morphology, the increase of amorphous region ratio and hydrogen bond energy, and the decrease in crystallinity and crystalline size. But no new functional groups generated during milling, and the crystal type of cellulose in CSR still belonged to cellulose I after MA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiation pretreatment of cellulosic wastes and immobilization of cells producing cellulase for their conversion to glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1988-01-01

    Radiation pretreatment of cellulosic wastes such as saw dust and chaff was studied by using electron beam accelerator, in which irradiation effect was increased by increasing irradiation dose and dose rate, by after heating irradiated materials at 100∼140deg C, and by irradiation in the addition of alkaline solution. Trichoderma reesei cells producing cellulase were immobilized by using fibrous porous carrier obtained from radiation polymerization. The filter paper, cellobiose, and CMC activities in the immobilized growing cells were higher than those in free cells. The activity in the immobilized cells obtained with hydrophobic carrier was higher than that obtained with hydrophilic one. Durability of the immobilized cells was examined by repeated batch culture. It was found that the enzyme solution produced in the culture of the immobilized cells can hydrolyze effectively saw dust pretreated by radiation. (author)

  9. The effect of pretreatment with fluoride on the tensile strength of orthodontic bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.N.; Sheen, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    White spot decalcifications and caries occurring adjacent to bonded orthodontic brackets have long been a concern to orthodontists. One procedure suggested to overcome this problem is fluoride treatment prior to bonding. The purpose of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of orthodontic self-cured resin from Concise on teeth rinsed 4 minutes in 1.23% APF with untreated controls. Measurements were made on an Instron machine. Debonding interfaces were observed with a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry. Distributions were calculated. The tensile bond strengths of the fluoride-treated teeth and the untreated teeth were not significantly different. The debonding interfaces between resin and bracket base, within the resin itself, and between enamel and resin were similar in the two experimental groups. However, greater enamel detachment was seen within the fluoride pretreatment group. So while fluoride pretreatment does not significantly affect tensile bond strength, it may cause enamel detachment after debonding

  10. Fibrillation of Aspen by Alkaline Cold Pre-treatment and Vibration Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt KÄRNER

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article an attempt to fibrillate aspen bleached chemi-thermo mechanical pulp (BCTMP fibre in an environmentally friendly way is reported. The effects of various NaOH, KOH, urea and ethanol aqueous solutions at lowered temperature were tested for pre-treatment. The pre-treatment was followed by vibration milling aiming to peel off outer cell wall layers and to fibrillate S2 layer of the aspen wood fibre. The effects of the treatments were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that it is possible to fibrillate BCTMP aspen fibres by using alkaline aqueous solutions at low temperatures followed by a mechanical treatment. A strong dependence on fibrillation of cellulose on temperature, time and alkali concentration was established.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.7412

  11. Surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates pretreated by alkali hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueping; Jiang, Yan; Rong, Xianjian; Wei, Wei; Wang, Shuangfei; Nie, Shuangxi

    2016-09-01

    The surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates by alkali hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHPP) were investigated in this study. The results tended to manifest that AHPP prior to enzymatic and chemical treatment was potential for improving accessibility and reactivity of bamboo substrates. The inorganic components, organic solvent extractives and acid-soluble lignin were effectively removed by AHPP. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the surface of bamboo chips had less lignin but more carbohydrate after pre-treatment. Fiber surfaces became etched and collapsed, and more pores and debris on the substrate surface were observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Brenauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results showed that both of pore volume and surface area were increased after AHPP. Although XRD analysis showed that AHPP led to relatively higher crystallinity, pre-extraction could overall enhance the accessibility of enzymes and chemicals into the bamboo structure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  13. Mechanical Stability of H3PO4-Doped PBI/Hydrophilic-Pretreated PTFE Membranes for High Temperature PEMFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jaehyung; Wang, Liang; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PBI/PTFE membrane was prepared by porous PTFE with hydrophilic surface pretreatment. • The durability of the prepared PBI/PTFE membrane was compared with pure PBI, PBI with untreated PTFE, and PBI-Nafion with untreated PTFE membranes. • Accelerated durability tests and SEM showed improved durability based the PBI/PTFE membrane with pretreated PTFE. - Abstract: A novel polybenzimidazole (PBI)/poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) composite membrane doped with phosphoric acid was fabricated for high temperature operation in a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. A hydrophilic surface pretreatment was applied to the porous PTFE matrix film to improve its interfacial adhesion to the PBI polymer, thereby avoiding the introduction of Nafion ionomer which is traditionally used as a coupling agent. The pretreated PTFE film was embedded within the composite membrane during solution-casting using 5wt% PBI/DMAc solution. The mechanical stability and durability of three types of MEAs assembled with PBI only, PBI with pretreated PTFE, and PBI-Nafion with untreated PTFE membranes were evaluated under an accelerated degradation testing protocol employing extreme temperature cycling. Degradation was characterized by recording polarization curves, hydrogen crossover, and proton resistance. Cross-sections of the membranes were examined before and after thermal cycling by scanning electron microscope. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy verified that the PBI is dispersed homogeneously in the porous PTFE matrix. Results show that the PBI composite membrane with pretreated PTFE has a lower degradation rate than the Nafion/PBI membrane with untreated PTFE. Thus, the hydrophilic pretreatment employed here greatly improved the mechanical stability of the composite membrane, which resulted in improved durability under an extreme thermal cycling regime

  14. Effect of EDTA and phosphoric Acid pretreatment on the bonding effectiveness of self-etch adhesives to ground enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ihab M; Elkassas, Dina W; Yousry, Mai M

    2010-10-01

    This in vitro study determined the effect of enamel pretreatment with phosphoric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the bond strength of strong, intermediary strong, and mild self-etching adhesive systems. Ninety sound human premolars were used. Resin composite cylinders were bonded to flat ground enamel surfaces using three self-etching adhesive systems: strong Adper Prompt L-Pop (pH=0.9-1.0), intermediary strong AdheSE (pH=1.6-1.7), and mild Frog (pH=2). Adhesive systems were applied either according to manufacturer instructions (control) or after pretreatment with either phosphoric acid or EDTA (n=10). After 24 hours, shear bond strength was tested using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/minute. Ultra-morphological characterization of the surface topography and resin/enamel interfaces as well as representative fractured enamel specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Neither surface pretreatment statistically increased the mean shear bond strength values of either the strong or the intermediary strong self-etching adhesive systems. However, phosphoric acid pretreatment significantly increased the mean shear bond strength values of the mild self-etching adhesive system. SEM examination of enamel surface topography showed that phosphoric acid pretreatment deepened the same etching pattern of the strong and intermediary strong adhesive systems but converted the irregular etching pattern of the mild self-etching adhesive system to a regular etching pattern. SEM examination of the resin/enamel interface revealed that deepening of the etching pattern was consistent with increase in the length of resin tags. EDTA pretreatment had a negligible effect on ultra-morphological features. Use of phosphoric acid pretreatment can be beneficial with mild self-etching adhesive systems for bonding to enamel.

  15. Understanding of alkaline pretreatment parameters for corn stover enzymatic saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research on alkaline pretreatment has mainly focused on optimization of the process parameters to improve substrate digestibility. To achieve satisfactory sugar yield, extremely high chemical loading and enzyme dosages were typically used. Relatively little attention has been paid to reduction of chemical consumption and process waste management, which has proven to be an indispensable component of the bio-refineries. To indicate alkali strength, both alkali concentration in pretreatment solution (g alkali/g pretreatment liquor or g alkali/L pretreatment liquor and alkali loading based on biomass solids (g alkali/g dry biomass have been widely used. The dual approaches make it difficult to compare the chemical consumption in different process scenarios while evaluating the cost effectiveness of this pretreatment technology. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment of corn stover at various combinations of pretreatment conditions. Enzymatic hydrolysis with different enzyme blends was subsequently performed to identify the effects of pretreatment parameters on substrate digestibility as well as process operational and capital costs. Results The results showed that sodium hydroxide loading is the most dominant variable for enzymatic digestibility. To reach 70% glucan conversion while avoiding extensive degradation of hemicellulose, approximately 0.08 g NaOH/g corn stover was required. It was also concluded that alkali loading based on total solids (g NaOH/g dry biomass governs the pretreatment efficiency. Supplementing cellulase with accessory enzymes such as α-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase significantly improved the conversion of the hemicellulose by 6–17%. Conclusions The current work presents the impact of alkaline pretreatment parameters on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover as well as the process operational and capital investment costs. The high chemical consumption for alkaline

  16. Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. Leaflets and Rachis to Enhance Enzymatic Digestibility and Bioethanol Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanji Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Date palm residues are one of the most promising lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production in the Middle East. In this study, leaflets and rachis were subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of the biomass for enzymatic conversion. Evident morphological, structural, and chemical changes were observed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy after pretreatment. High glucan (>90% for both leaflets and rachis and xylan (>75% for leaflets and >79% for rachis recovery were achieved. Under the optimal condition of hydrothermal pretreatment (210°C/10 min highly digestible (glucan convertibility, 100% to leaflets, 78% to rachis and fermentable (ethanol yield, 96% to leaflets, 80% to rachis solid fractions were obtained. Fermentability test of the liquid fractions proved that no considerable inhibitors to Saccharomyces cerevisiae were produced in hydrothermal pretreatment. Given the high sugar recovery, enzymatic digestibility, and ethanol yield, production of bioethanol by hydrothermal pretreatment could be a promising way of valorization of date palm residues in this region.

  17. Effects of plasma pretreatment on the process of self-forming Cu–Mn alloy barriers for Cu interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyung Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of plasma pretreatment on the process of a self-forming Cu–Mn alloy barrier on porous low-k dielectrics. To study the effects of plasma on the performance of a self-formed Mn-based barrier, low-k dielectrics were pretreated with H2 plasma or NH3 plasma. Cu–Mn alloy materials on low-k substrates that were subject to pretreatment with H2 plasma exhibited lower electrical resistivity values and the formation of thicker Mn-based interlayers than those on low-k substrates that were subject to pretreatment with NH3 plasma. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS, and thermal stability analyses demonstrated the exceptional performance of the Mn-based interlayer on plasma-pretreated low-k substrates with regard to thickness, chemical composition, and reliability. Plasma treating with H2 gas formed hydrophilic Si–OH bonds on the surface of the low-k layer, resulting in Mn-based interlayers with greater thickness after annealing. However, additional moisture uptake was induced on the surface of the low-k dielectric, degrading electrical reliability. By contrast, plasma treating with NH3 gas was less effective with regard to forming a Mn-based interlayer, but produced a Si–N/C–N layer on the low-k surface, yielding improved barrier characteristics.

  18. Effects of substrate pretreatments on diamond synthesis for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} based ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibuya, Y. [Prefectural Industrial Research Inst., Shizuoka (Japan); Takaya, M. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Tsudanuma 2-chome, Narashino-shi, 275 (Japan)

    1998-07-08

    Diamond synthesis for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramics after various substrate pretreatments has been carried out by the microwave-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method using a mixture of methane and hydrogen gases. Four types of pretreatments for various substrates were performed as follows: scratching with diamond powder (I), applying O{sub 2}-C{sub 2}H{sub 2} combustion flames (II), polishing with alumina (III), and platinum vapor deposition (IV). The products deposited on the substrate were examined with micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). It was found that the application of O{sub 2}-C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flames as a pretreatment of the substrate in diamond synthesis was suitable, because a higher density of diamond nucleation could be obtained, and a film-like diamond could be formed on the surface in a shorter time than without applying them. The diamond could be synthesized on the surface for all four types of substrate pretreatments performed in the present study. The effects of the substrate pretreatments on the surface morphology of grown diamond were that a film-like diamond for (I) or (II), a particle-like diamond for (III) and a particle and/or a film-like diamond for (IV) were formed on the surface. The surface morphology of grown diamond depended very much on the substrate temperature under deposition. (orig.) 18 refs.

  19. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, fed with dried air (or oxygen-enriched dried air), has been used for the degradation of lignin in wheat straw to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis and to get more fermentable sugars. A fixed bed reactor was used combined...... with a CO2 detector and an online technique for O3 measurement in the fed and exhaust gas allowing continuous measurement of the consumption of O3. This rendered it possible for us to determine the progress of the pretreatment in real time (online analysis). The process time can be adjusted to produce wheat...... straw with desired lignin content because of the online analysis. The O3 consumption of wheat straw and its polymeric components, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a mixture of these, dry as well as with 50% water, were studied. Furthermore, the process parameters dry matter content...

  20. Structural changes of corn stover lignin during acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Geoffrey; Gaspar, Armindo Ribeiro; Higgins, Don; Xu, Hui

    2012-09-01

    In this study, raw corn stover was subjected to dilute acid pretreatments over a range of severities under conditions similar to those identified by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their techno-economic analysis of biochemical conversion of corn stover to ethanol. The pretreated corn stover then underwent enzymatic hydrolysis with yields above 70 % at moderate enzyme loading conditions. The enzyme exhausted lignin residues were characterized by ³¹P NMR spectroscopy and functional moieties quantified and correlated to enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Results from this study indicated that both xylan solubilization and lignin degradation are important for improving the enzyme accessibility and digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover. At lower pretreatment temperatures, there is a good correlation between xylan solubilization and cellulose accessibility. At higher pretreatment temperatures, lignin degradation correlated better with cellulose accessibility, represented by the increase in phenolic groups. During acid pretreatment, the ratio of syringyl/guaiacyl functional groups also gradually changed from less than 1 to greater than 1 with the increase in pretreatment temperature. This implies that more syringyl units are released from lignin depolymerization of aryl ether linkages than guaiacyl units. The condensed phenolic units are also correlated with the increase in pretreatment temperature up to 180 °C, beyond which point condensation reactions may overtake the hydrolysis of aryl ether linkages as the dominant reactions of lignin, thus leading to decreased cellulose accessibility.

  1. 40 CFR 406.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.26 Section 406.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.26 Pretreatment...

  2. 40 CFR 406.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.34 Section 406.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 406.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that...

  3. 40 CFR 406.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.44 Section 406.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 406.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that...

  4. 40 CFR 406.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 406.16 Section 406.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.16 Pretreatment...

  5. Environmentally Friendly Pretreatment for Department of Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    Develop an environmentally friendly pretreatment system for multi-material Department of Defense applications ― Free of hexavalent chromium (Cr6...Zn phosphate and chrome wash primer •Two Zirconium pretreatment variations passed the 336 hr and 1000 hr B-117 outlined per MIL-DTL-53022 or MIL

  6. Pretreatment of Biomass by Aqueous Ammonia for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Gupta, Rajesh; Lee, Y. Y.

    The methods of pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using aqueous ammonia are described. The main effect of ammonia treatment of biomass is delignification without significantly affecting the carbohydrate contents. It is a very effective pretreatment method especially for substrates that have low lignin contents such as agricultural residues and herbaceous feedstock. The ammonia-based pretreatment is well suited for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) because the treated biomass retains cellulose as well as hemicellulose. It has been demonstrated that overall ethanol yield above 75% of the theoretical maximum on the basis of total carbohydrate is achievable from corn stover pretreated with aqueous ammonia by way of SSCF. There are two different types of pretreatment methods based on aqueous ammonia: (1) high severity, low contact time process (ammonia recycle percolation; ARP), (2) low severity, high treatment time process (soaking in aqueous ammonia; SAA). Both of these methods are described and discussed for their features and effectiveness.

  7. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma pretreatment on hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fangmin; Long, Zhouyang; Liu, Sa; Qin, Zhenglong

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was used as a pretreatment method for downstream hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The degree of polymerization (DP) of MCC decreased after it was pretreated by DBD plasma under a carrier gas of air/argon. The effectiveness of depolymerization was found to be influenced by the crystallinity of MCC when under the pretreatment of DBD plasma. With the addition of tert-butyl alcohol in the treated MCC water suspension solution, depolymerization effectiveness of MCC was inhibited. When MCC was pretreated by DBD plasma for 30 min, the total reducing sugar concentration (TRSC) and liquefaction yield (LY) of pretreated-MCC (PMCC) increased by 82.98% and 34.18% respectively compared with those for raw MCC.

  8. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  9. Enhancement of Lignin Biopolymer Isolation from Hybrid Poplar by Organosolv Pretreatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant renewable resource that has the potential to displace petroleum in the production of biomaterials and biofuels. In the present study, the fractionation of different lignin biopolymers from hybrid poplar based on organosolv pretreatments using 80% aqueous methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol at 220°C for 30 min was investigated. The isolated lignin fractions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, high-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC, 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results showed that the lignin fraction obtained with aqueous ethanol (EOL possessed the highest yield and the strongest thermal stability compared with other lignin fractions. In addition, other lignin fractions were almost absent of neutral sugars (1.16–1.46% though lignin preparation extracted with 1-butanol (BOL was incongruent (7.53%. 2D HSQC spectra analysis revealed that the four lignin fractions mainly consisted of β-O-4′ linkages combined with small amounts of β-β′ and β-5′ linkages. Furthermore, substitution of Cα in β-O-4′ substructures had occurred due to the effects of dissolvent during the autocatalyzed alcohol organosolv pretreatments. Therefore, aqueous ethanol was found to be the most promising alcoholic organic solvent compared with other alcohols to be used in noncatalyzed processes for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in biorefinery.

  10. A comprehensive review on pre-treatment strategy for lignocellulosic food industry waste: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose is a generic term used to describe plant biomass. It is the most abundant renewable carbon resource in the world and is mainly composed of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. Most of the food and food processing industry waste are lignocellulosic in nature with a global estimate of up to 1.3 billion tons/year. Lignocellulose, on hydrolysis, releases reducing sugars which is used for the production of bioethanol, biogas, organic acids, enzymes and biosorbents. However, structural conformation, high lignin content and crystalline cellulose hinder its use for value addition. Pre-treatment strategies facilitate the exposure of more cellulose and hemicelluloses for enzymatic hydrolysis. The present article confers about the structure of lignocellulose and how it influences enzymatic degradation emphasising the need for pre-treatments along with a comprehensive analysis and categorisation of the same. Finally, this article concludes with a detailed discussion on microbial/enzymatic inhibitors that arise post pre-treatment and strategies to eliminate them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis, pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of different fractions of Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Forestry residues consisting of softwood are a major lignocellulosic resource for production of liquid biofuels. Scots pine, a commercially important forest tree, was fractionated into seven fractions of chips: juvenile heartwood, mature heartwood, juvenile sapwood, mature sapwood, bark, top parts, and knotwood. The different fractions were characterized analytically with regard to chemical composition and susceptibility to dilute-acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification. Results All fractions were characterized by a high glucan content (38-43%) and a high content of other carbohydrates (11-14% mannan, 2-4% galactan) that generate easily convertible hexose sugars, and by a low content of inorganic material (0.2-0.9% ash). The lignin content was relatively uniform (27-32%) and the syringyl-guaiacyl ratio of the different fractions were within the range 0.021-0.025. The knotwood had a high content of extractives (9%) compared to the other fractions. The effects of pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification were relatively similar, but without pretreatment the bark fraction was considerably more susceptible to enzymatic saccharification. Conclusions Since sawn timber is a main product from softwood species such as Scots pine, it is an important issue whether different parts of the tree are equally suitable for bioconversion processes. The investigation shows that bioconversion of Scots pine is facilitated by that most of the different fractions exhibit relatively similar properties with regard to chemical composition and susceptibility to techniques used for bioconversion of woody biomass. PMID:24641769

  12. Size effects on acid bisulfite pretreatment efficiency: multiple product yields in spent liquor and enzymatic digestibility of pretreated solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalan Liu; Jinwu Wang; Michael P. Wolcott

    2017-01-01

    Currently, feedstock size effects on chemical pretreatment performance were not clear due to the complexity of the pretreatment process and multiple evaluation standards such as the sugar recovery in spent liquor or enzymatic digestibility. In this study, we evaluated the size effects by various ways: the sugar recovery and coproduct yields in spent liquor, the...

  13. Low temperature lignocellulose pretreatment: effects and interactions of pretreatment pH are critical for maximizing enzymatic monosaccharide yields from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Johansen, Katja S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The recent development of improved enzymes and pentose-using yeast for cellulosic ethanol processes calls for new attention to the lignocellulose pretreatment step. This study assessed the influence of pretreatment pH, temperature, and time, and their interactions on the enzymatic...... alkaline pretreatments. Alkaline pretreatments also solubilized most of the lignin. Conclusions: Pretreatment pH exerted significant effects and factor interactions on the enzymatic glucose and xylose releases. Quite extreme pH values were necessary with mild thermal pretreatment strategies (T...... glucose and xylose yields from mildly pretreated wheat straw in multivariate experimental designs of acid and alkaline pretreatments. Results: The pretreatment pH was the most significant factor affecting both the enzymatic glucose and xylose yields after mild thermal pretreatments at maximum 140 degrees...

  14. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is first indicated how to evaluate the mining resources as a function of the cost of production and the degree of certainty in the knowledge of the deposit. A table is given of the world resources (at the beginning 1977) and resources and reserves are compared. There is a concordance between requirements and possible production until 1990. The case of France is examined: known reserves, present and future prospection, present production (In 1978 2200 T of U metal will be produced from 3 French processing plants), production coming from Cogema. A total production of 2000 T in 1980 and 10.000 in 1985 is expected [fr

  15. Influence of wheat type and pretreatment on fungal growth in solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.; Zhu, Y.; As, H. van; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2001-01-01

    The respiration kinetics of Aspergillus oryzae on different varieties of whole wheat kernels were studied. Six wheat varieties were pretreated in two different ways. Five of the six substrates fermented similarly and independently of the pretreatment method. However, pretreatment affected

  16. Characterization of Cellulase Enzyme Inhibitors Formed During the Chemical Pretreatments of Rice Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Kalavathy

    Production of fuels and chemicals from a renewable and inexpensive resource such as lignocellulosic biomass is a lucrative and sustainable option for the advanced biofuel and bio-based chemical platform. Agricultural residues constitute the bulk of potential feedstock available for cellulosic fuel production. On a global scale, rice straw is the largest source of agricultural residues and is therefore an ideal crop model for biomass deconstruction studies. Lignocellulosic biofuel production involves the processes of biomass conditioning, enzymatic saccharification, microbial fermentation and ethanol distillation, and one of the major factors affecting its techno-economic feasibility is the biomass recalcitrance to enzymatic saccharification. Preconditioning of lignocellulosic biomass, using chemical, physico-chemical, mechanical and biological pretreatments, is often practiced such that biomass becomes available to downstream processing. Pretreatments, such as dilute acid and hot water, are effective means of biomass conversion. However, despite their processing importance, preconditioning biomass also results in the production of carbohydrate and lignin degradation products that are inhibitory to downstream saccharification enzymes. The saccharification enzyme cocktail is made up of endo-cellulase, exo-cellulase and beta-glucosidase enzymes, whose role is to cleave cellulose polymers into glucose monomers. Specifically, endo-cellulase and exo-cellulase enzymes cleave cellulose chains in the middle and at the end, resulting in cellobiose molecules, which are hydrolyzed into glucose by beta-glucosidase. Unfortunately, degradation compounds generated during pretreatment inhibit the saccharification enzyme cocktail. Various research groups have identified specific classes of inhibitors formed during biomass pretreatment and have studied their inhibitory effect on the saccharification cocktail. These various research groups prepared surrogate solutions in an attempt to

  17. The effect of thermal pre-treatment of titanium hydride (TiH2) powder in argon condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciska P., L.; Erryani, Aprilia; Annur, Dhyah; Kartika, Ika

    2018-04-01

    Titanium hydride (TiH2) powders are used to enhance the foaming process in the formation of a highly porous metallic material with a cellular structure. But, the low temperature of hydrogen release is one of its problems. The present study, different thermal pre-treatment temperatures were employed to investigate the decomposition behavior of TiH2 to retard or delay a hydrogen gas release process during foaming. As a foaming agent, TiH2 was subjected to various heat treatments prior at 450 and 500°C during 2 hours in argon condition. To study the formation mechanism, the thermal behavior of titanium hydride and hydrogen release are investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The morphology of pre-treated titanium hydride powders were examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) while unsure mapping and elemental composition of the pre-treated powders processed by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). To study the phase formation was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). In accordance with the results, an increase in pre-treatment temperature of TiH2 to higher degrees are changing the process of releasing hydrogen from titanium hydride powder. DTA/TGA results showed that thermal pre-treatment TiH2 at 450°C, released the hydrogen gas at 560°C in heat treatment when foaming process. Meanwhile, thermal pre-treatment in TiH2 at 500°C, released the hydrogen gas at 670°C when foaming process. There is plenty of direct evidence for the existence of oxide layers that showed by EDS analysis obtained in SEM. As oxygen is a light element and qualitative proof shows that the higher pre-treatment temperature produces more and thicker oxygen layers on the surface of the TiH2 powder particles. It might the thickness of oxide layer are different from different pre-treatment temperatures, which leading to the differences in the decomposition temperature. But from SEM result that oxidation of the powder does not

  18. Pretreatment and Anaerobic Co-digestion of Selected PHB and PLA Bioplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Benn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional petroleum-derived plastics are recalcitrant to biodegradation and can be problematic as they accumulate in the environment. In contrast, it may be possible to add novel, biodegradable bioplastics to anaerobic digesters at municipal water resource recovery facilities along with primary sludge to produce more biomethane. In this study, thermal and chemical bioplastic pretreatments were first investigated to increase the rate and extent of anaerobic digestion. Subsequently, replicate, bench-scale anaerobic co-digesters fed synthetic primary sludge with and without PHB bioplastic were maintained for over 170 days. Two polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, one poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate and one polylactic acid (PLA bioplastic were investigated. Biochemical methane potential (BMP assays were performed using both untreated bioplastic as well as bioplastic pretreated at elevated temperature (35–90°C under alkaline conditions (8pretreatment increased average BMP values up to over 100%. Average PHB lag time before methane production started decreased when pretreatment was performed. Bench-scale anaerobic co-digesters fed synthetic primary sludge with PHB bioplastic resulted in 80–98% conversion of two PHB bioplastics to biomethane and a 5% biomethane production increase at the organic loadings employed (sludge OLR = 3.6 g COD per L of reactor volume per day [g COD/LR-d]; bioplastic OLR = 0.75 g theoretical oxygen demand per L of reactor volume per day [ThOD/LR-d] compared to digesters not fed bioplastics. Anaerobic digestion or co-digestion is a feasible management option for biodegradable plastics.

  19. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  20. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  1. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  2. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  3. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  4. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  5. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  6. The structural modification of cassava starch using a saline water pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanny Frans SANGIAN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cassava has been modified successfully by using the saline water, which was abundantly available on the planet. The biomass was submerged in saline waters that salt concentrations were altered at 0, 3.5 percent (seawater and 10 percent (w/w and were kept 5 days. After recovery by washing steps, the treated solids were characterized by using XRD (X-ray diffraction , FTIR (Fourier transform infra-red, and SEM (Scanning electron microscopic. The results showed that the XRD pattern of saline water pretreatment decreased significantly. The biggest decrease of X-ray intensity occurred at around 18o. Meanwhile, the fingerprint of FTIR revealed the transmittance intensity of infra-red ray of saline water treated solid inclined for all wave constant numbers, suggesting that many hydrogen bonds were disconnected. Those findings also were enhanced by SEM pictures that showed the change of surface morphology of treated biomass. It was indicative that cassava structure was modified becoming more textured after employing saline water pretreatment. This work is an innovative finding to gradually substitute commercial ionic liquids that are very expensive with saline water for biomass pretreatment.

  7. Effects of pretreatment processes on improving the formation of ultrananocrystalline diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Li-Ju; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Lee, Chi-Young; Lin, I-Nan.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of pretreatment on the nuclei formation of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) on Si substrates were studied. Either precoating a thin layer of titanium (∼400 nm) or ultrasonication pretreatment using diamond and titanium mixed powder (D and T process) enhances the nucleation process on Si substrates markedly, and the UNCD nuclei formed and fully covered the Si substrate, when deposition was processed using the microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition process for 10 min. In contrast, during the same period, ultrasonication pretreatment using diamond powders (D process) can only form large UNCD clusters, which were scarcely distributed on Si substrates. The analyses using x-ray diffractometer, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis reveal that the titanium layer reacted with carbon species in the plasma, forming crystalline TiC phase, which facilitates the subsequent formation of UNCD nuclei. The beneficial effect of Ti layer on enhancing the nucleation of UNCD is presumably owing to high solubility and high diffusivity of carbon species in Ti materials, as compared with those of Si materials

  8. Developing Effective Separation of Feldspar and Quartz While Recycling Tailwater by HF Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqing Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hydrofluoric acid (HF pretreatment on flotation of feldspar and quartz using dodecylamine (DDA as collector was investigated by micro-flotation, zeta potential, pyrene fluorescence spectroscopy, attenuated total reflection flourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and bench scale flotation. The micro-flotation tests revealed that there was little difference in the flotation of feldspar and quartz at pH 2, using H2SO4 as pH regulator. After HF pretreatment, the floatability of feldspar significantly increased while the floatability of quartz showed no change. HF pretreatment resulted in leaching of SiO2 and enrichment of Na, K and Al on the feldspar surface. Consequently, the negative surface charge of feldspar increased at pH 2, which allowed for the flotation separation of the feasible minerals. This took place via an increased electrostatic adsorption between DDA and Na, K, Al on the feldspar surface, which effectively increased its hydrophobicity and as a result, improved the floatability of feldspar. An alternative process which exhibited effective separation of quartz and feldspar while recycling the tailwater from the flotation was proposed.

  9. Au/n-ZnO rectifying contact fabricated with hydrogen peroxide pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Q. L.; Cheung, C. K.; Ling, C. C.; Ng, A. M. C.; Djurišić, A. B.; Lu, L. W.; Chen, X. D.; Fung, S.; Beling, C. D.; Ong, H. C.

    2008-05-01

    Au contacts were deposited on n-type ZnO single crystals with and without hydrogen peroxide pretreatment for the ZnO substrate. The Au/ZnO contacts fabricated on substrates without H2O2 pretreatment were Ohmic and those with H2O2 pretreatment were rectifying. With an aim of fabricating a good quality Schottky contact, the rectifying property of the Au/ZnO contact was systemically investigated by varying the treatment temperature and duration. The best performing Schottky contact was found to have an ideality factor of 1.15 and a leakage current of ˜10-7 A cm-2. A multispectroscopic study, including scanning electron microscopy, positron annihilation spectroscopy, deep level transient spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence, showed that the H2O2 treatment removed the OH impurity and created Zn-vacancy related defects hence decreasing the conductivity of the ZnO surface layer, a condition favorable for forming good Schottky contact. However, the H2O2 treatment also resulted in a deterioration of the surface morphology, leading to an increase in the Schottky contact ideality factor and leakage current in the case of nonoptimal treatment time and temperature.

  10. Preparing Al-Mg Substrate for Thermal Spraying: Evaluation of Surface State After Different Pretreatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukauskaitė, R.; Valiulis, A. V.; Černašėjus, O.; Škamat, J.; Rębiś, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    The article deals with the pretreatment technique for preparing the surface of aluminum alloy EN AW 5754 before thermal spray. The surface after different pretreatments, including degreasing with acetone, chemical etching with acidic and alkali solutions, grit-blasting, cathodic cleaning, and some combinations of these techniques, has been studied. The investigation of pre-treated surfaces covered the topographical study (using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and 3D profilometry), the chemical analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the evaluation of surface wettability (sessile drop method), and the assessment of surface free energy. Compared with all the techniques used in present work, the cathodic cleaning and its combination with grit-blasting provide the most preferable chemistry of the surface. Due to the absence of hydroxides at the surface and, possible, due to the diffusion of magnesium to the surface of substrate, the surface wettability and the surface free energy have been significantly improved. No direct correlation between the surface topography and the surface wettability has been established.

  11. Dilute alkali pretreatment of softwood pine: A biorefinery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Ali; Karimi, Keikhosro; Shafiei, Marzieh

    2017-06-01

    Dilute alkali pretreatment was performed on softwood pine to maximize ethanol and biogas production via a biorefinery approach. Alkali pretreatments were performed with 0-2% w/v NaOH at 100-180°C for 1-5h. The liquid fraction of the pretreated substrates was subjected to anaerobic digestion. The solid fraction of the pretreatment was used for separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. High ethanol yields of 76.9‒78.0% were achieved by pretreatment with 2% (w/v) NaOH at 180°C. The highest biogas yield of 244mL/g volatile solid (at 25°C, 1bar) was achieved by the pretreatment with 1% (w/v) NaOH at 180°C. The highest gasoline equivalent (sum of ethanol and methane) of 197L per ton of pinewood and the lowest ethanol manufacturing cost of 0.75€/L was obtained after pretreatment with 1% NaOH at 180°C for 5h. The manufacturing cost of ethanol from untreated wood was 4.12€/L. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of different pretreatment methods on fermentation types and dominant bacteria for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Nan-Qi; Guo, Wan-Qian; Liu, Bing-Feng; Wang, Xing-Zu; Ding, Jie; Chen, Zhao-Bo [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, Heilongjiang (China); Wang, Xiang-Jing; Xiang, Wen-Sheng [Research Center of Life Science and Biotechnology, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2008-08-15

    In order to enrich hydrogen producing bacteria and to establish high-efficient communities of the mixed microbial cultures, inoculum needs to be pretreated before the cultivation. Four pretreatment methods including heat-shock pretreatment, acid pretreatment, alkaline pretreatment and repeated-aeration pretreatment were performed on the seed sludge which was collected from a secondary settling tank of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. In contrast to the control test without any pretreatment, the heat-shock pretreatment, acid pretreatment and repeated-aeration pretreatment completely suppressed the methanogenic activity of the seed sludge, but the alkaline pretreatment did not. Employing different pretreatment methods resulted in the change in fermentation types as butyric-acid type fermentation was achieved by the heat-shock and alkaline pretreatments, mixed-acid type fermentation was achieved by acid pretreatment and the control, and ethanol-type fermentation was observed by repeated-aeration pretreatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles revealed that pretreatment method substantially affected the species composition of microbial communities. The highest hydrogen yield of 1.96 mol/mol-glucose was observed with the repeated-aeration pretreatment method, while the lowest was obtained as the seed sludge was acidified. It is concluded that the pretreatment methods led to the difference in the initial microbial communities which might be directly responsible for different fermentation types and hydrogen yields. (author)

  13. 40 CFR 439.37 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Synthesis... achieve the pretreatment standard for ammonia (as N). (b) The pretreatment standards for cyanide are as...

  14. Non-Chromated Surface Pretreatments for Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    98001 G rum man Aircraft System s .................................................. I Attn: L. Troupia Bethpage, NY 11714-3582 Hughes Aircraft Co...1 Attn: R. lezzi 4636 Somerton Rd. Trevose, PA 19053-6783 Boeing Aerospace & Electronics

  15. Investigation of Pleurotus ostreatus pretreatment on switchgrass for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavens, Shelyn Gehle

    Fungal pretreatment using the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus on switchgrass for ethanol production was studied. In a small-scale storage study, small switchgrass bales were inoculated with fungal spawn and automatically watered to maintain moisture. Sampled at 25, 53, and 81 d, the switchgrass composition was determined and liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment was conducted. Fungal pretreatment significantly decreased the xylan and lignin content; glucan was not significantly affected by fungal loading. The glucan, xylan, and lignin contents significantly decreased with increased fungal pretreatment time. The effects of the fungal pretreatment were not highly evident after the LHW pretreatment, showing only changes based on sampling time. Although other biological activity within the bales increased cellulose degradation, the fungal pretreatment successfully reduced the switchgrass lignin and hemicellulose contents. In a laboratory-scale nutrient supplementation study, copper, manganese, glucose, or water was added to switchgrass to induce production of ligninolytic enzymes by P. ostreatus. After 40 d, ligninolytic enzyme activities and biomass composition were determined and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was conducted to determine ethanol yield. Laccase activity was similar for all supplements and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity was significantly less in copper-treated samples than in the other fungal-inoculated samples. The fungal pretreatment reduced glucan, xylan, and lignin content, while increasing extractable sugars content. The lowest lignin contents occurred in the water-fungal treated samples and produced the greatest ethanol yields. The greatest lignin contents occurred in the copper-fungal treated samples and produced the lowest ethanol yields. Manganese-fungal and glucose-fungal treated samples had similar, intermediate lignin contents and produced similar, intermediate ethanol yields. Ethanol yields from switchgrass

  16. Pretreatment of phosphoric acid of Annaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kada, R.

    1990-03-01

    The most important step in the process of uranium recovery from phosphoric acid is the pretreatment operation. In this study, the adsorption of organic matters on activated carbon was carried out in a batch process and in a fixed bed column. First, the chemical and physical characterization of phosphoric acid, activated carbon and gypsum were performed. In addition, the organic matters were qualitatively analysed and a new and original quantitative method was experimented. Next, the various operating parameters such as agitation speed, granulometry, temperature, solid/liquid ratio, initial concentration, acid flowrate, and bed height were optimized. The experimental equilibrium isotherm was compared to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson theoretical isotherms. It was noticed that the three models did not fit the experimental isotherm in the total concentration range. Thus, an original bilinear model was proposed. The influence of the operating conditions on the adsorption kinetics was also investigated. As a result of that, a new mathematical model was proposed to determine both the liquid and solid phases mass transfer and the solid phase diffusion coefficient. Finally, adsorption of organic matters on a fixed bed process allowed computation of the number of transfer units (NTU), the height of adsorption zone and the degree of saturation of activated carbon

  17. An Efficient Process for Pretreatment of Lignocelluloses in Functional Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Jia Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The complex structure of the lignocelluloses is the main obstacle in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into valuable products. Ionic liquids provide the opportunities for their efficient pretreatment for biomass. Therefore, in this work, pretreatment of corn stalk was carried out in ultrasonic-assisted ionic liquid including 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl, 1-H-3-methylimidazolium chloride [HMIM]Cl, and 1-(1-propylsulfonic-3-imidazolium chloride [HSO3-pMIM]Cl at 70°C for 2 h. We compared the pretreatments by ionic liquid with and without the addition of deionized water. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were employed to analyze the chemical characteristics of regenerated cellulose-rich materials. Results. [HMIM]Cl and [HSO3-pMIM]Cl were effective in lignin extraction to obtain cellulose-rich materials. FTIR analysis and SEM analysis indicated the effective lignin removal and the reduced crystallinity of cellulose-rich materials. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose-rich materials was performed efficiently. High yields of reducing sugar and glucose were obtained when the corn stalk was pretreated by [HMIM]Cl and [HSO3-pMIM]Cl. Conclusions. Ionic liquids provided the ideal environment for lignin extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stalk and [HMIM]Cl and [HSO3-pMIM]Cl proved the most efficient ionic liquids. This simple and environmentally acceptable method has a great potential for the preparation of bioethanol for industrial production.

  18. Time dependent pre-treatment EPID dosimetry for standard and FFF VMAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, Mark; Nijsten, Sebastiaan M J J G; Persoon, Lucas C G G; Scheib, Stefan G; Baltes, Christof; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-08-21

    Methods to calibrate Megavoltage electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) for dosimetry have been previously documented for dynamic treatments such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using flattened beams and typically using integrated fields. While these methods verify the accumulated field shape and dose, the dose rate and differential fields remain unverified. The aim of this work is to provide an accurate calibration model for time dependent pre-treatment dose verification using amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for both flattened and flattening filter free (FFF) beams. A general calibration model was created using a Varian TrueBeam accelerator, equipped with an aS1000 EPID, for each photon spectrum 6 MV, 10 MV, 6 MV-FFF, 10 MV-FFF. As planned VMAT treatments use control points (CPs) for optimization, measured images are separated into corresponding time intervals for direct comparison with predictions. The accuracy of the calibration model was determined for a range of treatment conditions. Measured and predicted CP dose images were compared using a time dependent gamma evaluation using criteria (3%, 3 mm, 0.5 sec). Time dependent pre-treatment dose verification is possible without an additional measurement device or phantom, using the on-board EPID. Sufficient data is present in trajectory log files and EPID frame headers to reliably synchronize and resample portal images. For the VMAT plans tested, significantly more deviation is observed when analysed in a time dependent manner for FFF and non-FFF plans than when analysed using only the integrated field. We show EPID-based pre-treatment dose verification can be performed on a CP basis for VMAT plans. This model can measure pre-treatment doses for both flattened and unflattened beams in a time dependent manner which highlights deviations that are missed in integrated field verifications.

  19. Combined (alkaline+ultrasonic) pretreatment effect on sewage sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Jeong, Emma; Oh, Sae-Eun; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2010-05-01

    The individual effects of alkaline (pH 8-13) and ultrasonic (3750-45,000kJ/kg TS) pretreatments on the disintegration of sewage sludge were separately tested, and then the effect of combining these two methods at different intensity levels was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). In the combined pretreatment, ultrasonic treatment was applied to the alkali-pretreated sludge. While the solubilization (SCOD/TCOD) increase was limited to 50% in individual pretreatments, it reached 70% in combined pretreatment, and the results clearly showed that preconditioning of sludge at high pH levels played a crucial role in enhancing the disintegration efficiency of the subsequent ultrasonic pretreatment. By applying regression analysis, the disintegration degree (DD) was fitted based on the actual value to a second order polynomial equation: Y=-172.44+29.82X(1)+5.30x10(-3)X(2)-7.53x10(-5)X(1)X(2)-1.10X(1)(2)-1.043x10(-7)X(2)(2), where X(1), X(2), and Y are pH, specific energy input (kJ/kg TS), and DD, respectively. In a 2D contour plot describing the tendency of DD with respect to pH and specific energy input, it was clear that DD increased as pH increased, but it seemed that DD decreased when the specific energy input exceeded about 20,000kJ/kg TS. This phenomenon tells us that there exists a certain point where additional energy input is ineffective in achieving further disintegration. A synergetic disintegration effect was also found in the combined pretreatment, with lower specific energy input in ultrasonic pretreatment yielding higher synergetic effect. Finally, in order to see the combined pretreatment effect in continuous operation, the sludge pretreated with low intensity alkaline (pH 9)/ultrasonic (7500kJ/kg TS) treatment was fed to a 3 L of anaerobic sequencing batch reactor after 70 days of control operation. CH(4) production yield significantly increased from 81.9+/-4.5mL CH(4)/g COD(added) to 127.3+/-5.0mL CH(4)/g COD(added) by pretreatment, and

  20. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Kádár, Zsófia; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2011-01-01

    (0–7 h), e.g., oxalic acid and acetovanillon. Interestingly, washing had no effect on the ethanol production with pretreatment times up to 1 h. Washing improved the glucose availability with pretreatment times of more than 2 h. One hour of ozonisation was found to be optimal for the use of washed...... carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds were found, e.g., vanillic acid, acetic acid, and formic acid. Some components had the highest concentration at the beginning of the ozonisation process (0.5, 1 h), e.g., 4-hydroxybenzladehyde, while the concentration of others increased during the entire pretreatment...

  1. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PRECONCEPTUAL CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH

    2008-08-12

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

  2. Evaluation of wet oxidation pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palonen, H.; Thomsen, A.B.; Tenkanen, M.

    2004-01-01

    The wet oxidation pretreatment (water, oxygen, elevated temperature, and pressure) of softwood (Picea abies) was investigated for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was preliminarily optimized. Six different combinations of reaction time, temperature, and pH were applied......, and the compositions of solid and liquid fractions were analyzed. The solid fraction after wet oxidation contained 58-64% cellulose, 2-16% hemicellulose, and 24-30% lignin. The pretreatment series gave information about the roles of lignin and hemicellulose in the enzymatic hydrolysis. The temperature...

  3. Comparison of aqueous ammonia and dilute acid pretreatment of bamboo fractions: Structure properties and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Donglin; Yang, Zhong; Liu, Feng; Xu, Xueru; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    The effect of two pretreatments methods, aqueous ammonia (SAA) and dilute acid (DA), on the chemical compositions, cellulose crystallinity, morphologic change, and enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo fractions (bamboo yellow, timber, green, and knot) was compared. Bamboo fractions with SAA pretreatment had better hydrolysability than those with DA pretreatment. High crystallinity index resulted in low hydrolysis yield in the conversion of SAA pretreated bamboo fractions, not DA pretreated fractions. The increase of cellulase loading had modestly positive effect in the hydrolysis of both SAA and DA pretreated bamboo fractions, while supplement of xylanase significantly increased the hydrolysis of the pretreated bamboo fractions, especially after SAA pretreatment. The results indicated that SAA pretreatment was more effective than DA pretreatment in conversion of bamboo fractions, and supplementation of xylanase was necessary in effective conversion of the SAA pretreated fractions into fermentable sugars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Review of pre-treated peat applied in treating domestic wastewaters and oily waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Coles, C.A.; Asapo, E.S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discussed recent research related to the use of peat in removing contaminants from domestic wastewater, oil-contaminated water, and soil. The review also discussed methods of pretreating peat before its application to polluted area. Pretreatment processes are needed to remove components in peat that interfere with treatment mechanisms. Polymers are added to peat in order to encourage the aggregation of the peat particles into larger colloidal particles that are easy to dewater. Phosphoric acid treatments are also applied to increase the swelling capacity of peat. Hydrogen peroxide is used to break down oil-contaminated peat in order to facilitate its subsequent decomposition. Experiments have demonstrated that peat is an effective adsorbent for many different types of oil. Studies have demonstrated that the removal rate for standard mineral and crude oils from wastewater using peat was 83 and 70 per cent. Applications of commercial peat to the surface of oily contaminated waters resulted in oil removal efficiencies of 99.998 per cent. It was concluded that peat is an effective, low-cost material for removing contaminants from domestic waste water and oil-contaminated water. The peat can also be used as a secondary energy source after the sorption process. While peat is an abundant resource in Canada, the resource is found mainly in wetlands. Effective harvesting strategies should be used to ensure the environmental sustainability of peat filtration systems. 38 refs., 1 tab

  5. Pretreatments to enhance the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.T.W.M.; Zeeman, G.

    2009-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents a rather unused source for biogas and ethanol production. Many factors, like lignin content, crystallinity of cellulose, and particle size, limit the digestibility of the hemicellulose and cellulose present in the lignocellulosic biomass. Pretreatments have as a

  6. 40 CFR 407.76 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Vegetables Subcategory § 407.76 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source...

  7. 40 CFR 407.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Fruits Subcategory § 407.64 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  8. 40 CFR 407.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Fruits Subcategory § 407.66 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source...

  9. Effects of Pretreatments in Convective Dehydration of Rosehip (Rosa eglanteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Mabellini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to experimentally determine drying curves for thin layer and bed drying of rosehip fruits, with and without pretreatments, to reduce processing times as a function of drying air operating variables, to propose dehydration kinetics of fruits and to determine its kinetic parameters for further use within drying simulation software. Fruits were pre-treated both chemically and mechanically, which included dipping the fruits in NaOH and ethyl oleate solutions; and cutting or perforating the fruit cuticle, respectively. Simulation models were then adopted to fit the kinetics drying data considering fruit volume shrinkage. These simple models minimized the calculation time during the simulation of deep-bed driers. Results show that pre-treatments reduced processing times up to 57%, and evaluated models satisfactorily predicted the drying of rosehip fruit. Effective mass diffusion coefficients were up to 4-fold greater when fruit was submitted to mechanical pretreatments.

  10. Pretreatment Characteristics of Waste Oak Wood by Ammonia Percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Seok; Kim, Hyunjoon; Lee, Jin-Suk; Lee, Joon-Pyo; Park, Soon-Chul

    A log of waste oak wood collected from a Korean mushroom farm has been tested for ammonia percolation pretreatment. The waste log has different physical characteristics from that of virgin oak wood. The density of the waste wood was 30% lower than that of virgin oak wood. However, there is little difference in the chemical compositions between the woods. Due to the difference in physical characteristics, the optimal pretreatment conditions were also quite different. While for waste oak the optimum temperature was determined to be 130°C, for virgin oak wood the optimum pretreatment was only achieved at 170°C. Presoaking for 12 h with ammonia solution before pretreatment was helpful to increase the delignification efficiency.

  11. Tank waste pretreatment issues, alternatives and strategies for resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.C.; Appel, J.; Barton, W.B.; Orme, R.M.; Holton, L.K. Jr.

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of the Hanford Site tank waste. The overall strategy for disposing of tank waste is evolving and initial recommendations on a course of action are expected in March, 1993. Pretreatment of these wastes may be required for one or both of the following reasons: (1) resolution of tank safety issues, and (2) preparation of low level and high level waste fractions for disposal. Pretreatment is faced with several issues that must be addressed by the deployment strategies that are being formulated. These issues are identified. There is also a discussion of several pretreatment deployment strategies and how these strategies address the issues. Finally, the technology alternatives that are being considered for the pretreatment function are briefly discussed

  12. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    for subsequent enzymatic saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose, by using the temperate grass Festulolium Hykor. The method was additionally combined with hydrothermal treatment, in order to decrease the required severity of an industrial applied pretreatment method. The first part of the project...... conditions providing the best possible pretreatment effect. The parameters were biomass composition, varied by ensiling of four seasonal cuts of grass, different dry matter (DM) content at ensiling, and an addition of different lactic acid bacteria species. First of all, the study confirmed that ensiling can...... act as a method of pretreatment and improve the enzymatic cellulose convertibility of grass. Furthermore, low DM ensiling was found to improve the effects of pretreatment due to a higher production of organic acids in the silage. The effect of applied lactic acid bacteria species was, however...

  13. Bioethanol from lignocellulose - pretreatment, enzyme immobilization and hydrolysis kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Chien Tai

    , the cost of enzyme is still the bottle neck, re-using the enzyme is apossible way to reduce the input of enzyme in the process. In the point view of engineering, the prediction of enzymatic hydrolysis kinetics under different substrate loading, enzyme combination is usful for process design. Therefore...... lignocellulose is the required high cellulase enzyme dosages that increase the processing costs. One method to decrease the enzyme dosage is to re-use BG, which hydrolyze the soluble substrate cellobiose. Based on the hypothesis that immobilized BG can be re-used, how many times the enzyme could be recycled...... liquid and pretreatment time can be reduced, the influence of substrate concentration, pretreatment time and temperature were investigated and optimized. Pretreatment of barley straw by [EMIM]Ac, correlative models were constructed using 3 different pretreatment parameters (temperature, time...

  14. Synergistic Effect of Trehalose and Saccharose Pretreatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maintenance of lyophilized human red blood cell (RBC) quality. Methods: RBCs were pre-treated with trehalose and saccharose, and then lyophilized and .... different concentrations of trehalose and saccharose as described above.

  15. Optimization of microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Hongzhang; Kádár, Zsófia

    2011-01-01

    An orthogonal design (L9(34)) was used to optimize the microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production. The orthogonal analysis was done based on the results obtained from the nine pretreatments. The effect of four factors including the ratio of biomass to NaOH solution, pretreatment...... time, microwave power, and the concentration of NaOH solution with three different levels on the chemical composition, cellulose/hemicellulose recoveries and ethanol concentration was investigated. According to the orthogonal analysis, pretreatment with the ratio of biomass to liquid at 80 g kg−1......, the NaOH concentration of 10 kg m−3, the microwave power of 1000 W for 15 min was confirmed to be the optimal condition. The ethanol yield was 148.93 g kg−1 wheat straw at this condition, much higher than that from the untreated material which was only 26.78 g kg−1....

  16. New pentose dimers with bicyclic moieties from pretreated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H.; Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Tanner, David Ackland

    2017-01-01

    In lignocellulosic biorefinery processes involving enzyme catalysed reactions it is a challenge that enzyme inhibiting compounds are generated and liberated during pretreatment of the biomass. In this study the contribution to cellulase inhibition from xylooligosaccharides and newly discovered...... oligophenolic compounds from pilot scale pretreated wheat straw was assessed at two different pretreatment severities. An increase in severity of the pretreatment led to more oligophenol compounds and in turn the total overall cellulase inhibition increased. When the xylooligosaccharides were enzymatically...... degraded prior to cellulose hydrolysis, a relief in cellulase inhibition was observed, but some inhibition remained, suggesting that other components also played a role in inhibition. We propose that these components include dipentoses with bicyclic moieties and feruloylated tripentoses, because LC...

  17. Effect of Pretreatments on Seed Viability During Fruit Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    and petri dishes on moist filter paper, gave 80% germination in variety gabonensis, 20 weeks after fruiting. .... Effect of pretreatments on seed germination of fruits of Irvingia gabonensis plucked from forest ...... A review of the tariff structure and.

  18. 40 CFR 405.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy Desserts Subcategory § 405.86 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  19. Bromine pretreated chitosan for adsorption of lead (II) from water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    isotherm and maximum sorption capacity of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan sorbent was 1·755 g/kg with 85–. 90% lead .... C by applying Lagergren first ... Lead (II) ions concentrations were determined by using an .... following equation.

  20. Effects of embryo induction media and pretreatments in isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... chemical + heat and also the effects of 5 embryo induction media (NPB-99, C17, ... Key words: Hexaploid wheat, haploid, isolated microspore culture, pretreatment, ..... this method is influenced by several mentioned factors.

  1. Improving biogas production from microalgae by enzymatic pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Fabiana; Hom-Diaz, Andrea; Blanquez, Paqui; Vicent, Teresa; Ferrer, Ivet

    2016-01-01

    In this study, enzymatic pretreatment of microalgal biomass was investigated under different conditions and evaluated using biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. Cellulase, glucohydrolase and an enzyme mix composed of cellulase, glucohydrolase and xylanase were selected based on the microalgae cell wall composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and glycoprotein). All of them increased organic matter solubilisation, obtaining high values already after 6h of pretreatment with an enzyme dose of 1% for cellulase and the enzyme mix. BMP tests with pretreated microalgae showed a methane yield increase of 8 and 15% for cellulase and the enzyme mix, respectively. Prospective research should evaluate enzymatic pretreatments in continuous anaerobic reactors so as to estimate the energy balance and economic cost of the process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pretreatment of Miscanthus for hydrogen production by Thermotoga elfii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, de T.; Haas, de G.G.; Tan, G.B.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Pretreatment methods for the production of fermentable substrates from Miscanthus, a lignocellulosic biomass, were investigated. Results demonstrated an inverse relationship between lignin content and the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides. High delignification values were

  3. Effect of the pretreatment of silicone penetrant on the performance of the chromium-free chemfilm coated on AZ91D magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shiuan-Ho; Niu, Liyuan; Su, Yichang; Wang, Wenquan; Tong, Xian; Li, Guangyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper reported a new pretreatment of silicone penetrant for forming the chromium-free chemfilm (chemical conversion coating) on the surface of an AZ91D magnesium (Mg) alloy. Through applying micro current on the pretreatment solution, an uniform mask membrane was created on the surface of a Mg alloy. By using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) analyses, the chromium-free chemfilm on a Mg alloy was examined to analyze the performance during initial, middle, and final deposition periods. As a result, the pretreatment of silicone penetrant can effectively prevent the chemfilm from cracking, improve the anticorrosion ability and nucleation rate of the chromium-free chemfilm on a Mg alloy, and make the surface crystallization transform a long strip into short axis shape. - Highlights: • An AZ91D Mg alloy was pretreated by using silicone penetrant. • Surface crystallization of the chemfilm on a silicone-pretreated Mg alloy is smooth. • The pretreatment of silicone penetrant for a Mg alloy enhanced the anticorrosion ability.

  4. Effect of the pretreatment of silicone penetrant on the performance of the chromium-free chemfilm coated on AZ91D magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shiuan-Ho, E-mail: 1802186169@qq.com [College of Electronic Information and Mechatronic Engineering, Zhaoqing University, Zhaoqing Road, Duanzhou District, Zhaoqing, Guangdong, 526061 (China); Niu, Liyuan [Department of Material Engineer, Zhejiang Industry & Trade Vocational Colledge, WenZhou, 325000 (China); Su, Yichang [Department of Material Engineer, Zhejiang Industry & Trade Vocational Colledge, WenZhou, 325000 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Nanling Campus, Changchun, 130025 (China); Wang, Wenquan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Nanling Campus, Changchun, 130025 (China); Tong, Xian [Department of Material Engineer, Zhejiang Industry & Trade Vocational Colledge, WenZhou, 325000 (China); Li, Guangyu [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Nanling Campus, Changchun, 130025 (China)

    2016-03-01

    This paper reported a new pretreatment of silicone penetrant for forming the chromium-free chemfilm (chemical conversion coating) on the surface of an AZ91D magnesium (Mg) alloy. Through applying micro current on the pretreatment solution, an uniform mask membrane was created on the surface of a Mg alloy. By using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) analyses, the chromium-free chemfilm on a Mg alloy was examined to analyze the performance during initial, middle, and final deposition periods. As a result, the pretreatment of silicone penetrant can effectively prevent the chemfilm from cracking, improve the anticorrosion ability and nucleation rate of the chromium-free chemfilm on a Mg alloy, and make the surface crystallization transform a long strip into short axis shape. - Highlights: • An AZ91D Mg alloy was pretreated by using silicone penetrant. • Surface crystallization of the chemfilm on a silicone-pretreated Mg alloy is smooth. • The pretreatment of silicone penetrant for a Mg alloy enhanced the anticorrosion ability.

  5. Pretreatment seizure semiology in childhood absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sudha Kilaru; Shinnar, Shlomo; Cnaan, Avital; Dlugos, Dennis; Conry, Joan; Hirtz, Deborah G; Hu, Fengming; Liu, Chunyan; Mizrahi, Eli M; Moshé, Solomon L; Clark, Peggy; Glauser, Tracy A

    2017-08-15

    To determine seizure semiology in children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy and to evaluate associations with short-term treatment outcomes. For participants enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative-effectiveness trial, semiologic features of pretreatment seizures were analyzed as predictors of treatment outcome at the week 16 to 20 visit. Video of 1,932 electrographic absence seizures from 416 participants was evaluated. Median seizure duration was 10.2 seconds; median time between electrographic seizure onset and clinical manifestation onset was 1.5 seconds. For individual seizures and by participant, the most common semiology features were pause/stare (seizure 95.5%, participant 99.3%), motor automatisms (60.6%, 86.1%), and eye involvement (54.9%, 76.5%). The interrater agreement for motor automatisms and eye involvement was good (72%-84%). Variability of semiology features between seizures even within participants was high. Clustering analyses revealed 4 patterns (involving the presence/absence of eye involvement and motor automatisms superimposed on the nearly ubiquitous pause/stare). Most participants experienced more than one seizure cluster pattern. No individual semiologic feature was individually predictive of short-term outcome. Seizure freedom was half as likely in participants with one or more seizure having the pattern of eye involvement without motor automatisms than in participants without this pattern. Almost all absence seizures are characterized by a pause in activity or staring, but rarely is this the only feature. Semiologic features tend to cluster, resulting in identifiable absence seizure subtypes with significant intraparticipant seizure phenomenologic heterogeneity. One seizure subtype, pause/stare and eye involvement but no motor automatisms, is specifically associated with a worse treatment outcome. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLAUDIA

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... 120°C. The pretreated blending was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis for 130 h at 80 rpm and 50°C with an enzymatic load of ... pretreatment of 2.5% NaOH for 90 min, 120°C, and a hydrolysis residence time of 130 h. The removal of ...... Programa Estratégico Forestal para el estado de Durango,. México.

  7. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole slurry (Filter cake + filtrate) in SSF were also tested. Except ethanol yields, pretreatment methods were evaluated based on achieved glucose yields, amount of water used, recovery of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The highest ethanol yield obtained was 67% after fermenting the whole slurry produced by WO at 205 °C for 3 min with 12 bar of oxygen gas pressure and featured with presoaking in water. At these conditions after pre-treatment, cellulose and hemicellulose was recovered quantitatively (100%) together with 86% of the lignin. WO treatments of 2–3 min at 205–210 °C with 12 bar of oxygen gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid formation in SSF. -- Highlights: ► Wet Oxidation pretreatment on rape straw for sugar and ethanol production. ► Variables were reaction time, temperature, and oxygen gas pressure. ► Also, other configurations for increase of water and energy efficiency. ► Short Wet oxidation pretreatment (2–3 min) produced highest ethanol yield. ► After these pretreatment conditions recovery of lignin in solids was 86%.

  8. Teaching Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics?" Poster Pamphlets/Books/SPIN-UP Resources Making and Sustaining Changes in Undergraduate AAPT.org - American Association of Physics Teachers Skip to content Skip to navigation Skip to local navigation AAPT - American Association of Physics Teachers Go Sign In / Online Services Join

  9. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    constitute endorsement of the product and is given only for information. ..... point where they could significantly impact an organization's financial viability. This alternative ... putting in place internal systems and processes that enable the resource .... control over the incorporation of non-profit organizations. ..... Accounting.

  10. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Annex 1: The Scoping Study on Donor Funding for. Development Research in ... publication of the Resource Mobilization: A Practical Guide for Research .... applied the concept or technique, which validates the practical application of ... some other staff member would write up a grant application addressed to one, two, or a ...

  11. Pretreatment of wheat straw for fermentation to methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of pretreating wheat straw with gamma-ray irradiation, ammonium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide on methane yield, fermentation rate constant, and loss of feedstock constituents were evaluated using laboratory-scale batch fermentors. Results showed that methane yield increased as pretreatment alkali concentration increased, with the highest yield being 37% over untreated straw for the pretreatment consisting of sodium hydroxide dosage of 34 g OH - /kg volatile solids, at 90 0 C for 1 h. Gamma-ray irradiation had no significant effect on methane yield. Alkaline pretreatment temperatures above 100 0 C caused a decrease in methane yield. After more than 100 days of fermentation, all of the hemicellulose and more than 80% of the cellulose were degraded. The loss in cellulose and hemicellulose accounted for 100% of the volatile solids lost. No consistent effect of pretreatments on batch fermentation rates was noted. Semicontinuous fermentations of straw-manure mixtures confirmed the relative effectiveness of sodium- and ammonium-hydroxide pretreatments

  12. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Torres, M.; Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH) 2 ), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH) 2 /L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m 3 CH 4 /kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW

  13. Removal mechanism of tritium by variously pretreated silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, M.; Tachikawa, E.; Saeki, M.; Aratono, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Removal mechanisms of HTO from variously pretreated and non-pretreated silica gel columns were investigated with pulse-loading with tritiated water vapor. With non-pretreated silica gel, the HTO physisorbed on the upper part of the column comes into contact with surface hydroxyl groups while passing downward the column, so that in each equilibration a part of the tritium is incorporated into hydroxyl groups by H/T isotopic exchange reactions. With the silica gel pretreated at a temperature below 400 0 C, most of tritium in the applied HTO is easily incorporated into surface hydroxyl groups in the upper part of the column either by H/T isotopic exchange reactions or by rehydration of the dehydrated surface (siloxyl linkage). In the pretreatment above 400 0 C, essentially all the tritium is trapped by siloxyl groups of various stabilities. The ease of rehydration of siloxyl groups by applied HTO depends on their stabilities, which, in turn, depend on the pretreatment temperature. As a general trend, treatment at higher temperature promotes annealing of the constrained siloxyl groups and thus the rate of rehydration becomes slower. (author)

  14. Optimization and evaluation of alkaline potassium permanganate pretreatment of corncob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijuan; Cui, Youzhi; Cai, Rui; Liu, Xueqiang; Zhang, Cuiying; Xiao, Dongguang

    2015-03-01

    Alkaline potassium permanganate solution (APP) was applied to the pretreatment of corncob with a simple and effective optimization of APP concentration, reaction time, temperature and solid to liquid ratio (SLR). The optimized pretreatment conditions were at 2% (w/v) potassium permanganate with SLR of 1:10 treating for 6h at 50°C. This simple one-step treatment resulted in significant 94.56% of the cellulose and 81.47% of the hemicellulose recoveries and 46.79% of the lignin removal of corncob. The reducing sugar in the hydrolysate from APP-pretreated corncob was 8.39g/L after 12h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was 1.44 and 1.29 folds higher than those from raw and acid pretreated corncobs. Physical characteristics, crystallinity and structure of the pretreated corncob were analyzed and assessed by SEM, XRD and FTIR. The APP pretreatment process was novel and enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose by affecting composition and structural features. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogen–argon plasma pre-treatment for improving the anti-corrosion properties of thin Al2O3 films deposited using atomic layer deposition on steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Härkönen, Emma; Potts, Stephen E.; Kessels, Wilhelmus M.M.; Díaz, Belén; Seyeux, Antoine; Światowska, Jolanta; Maurice, Vincent; Marcus, Philippe; Radnóczi, György; Tóth, Lajos; Kariniemi, Maarit; Niinistö, Jaakko; Ritala, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    The effect of H 2 –Ar plasma pre-treatment prior to thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of Al 2 O 3 films on steel for corrosion protection was investigated. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the changes in the interface. The electrochemical properties of the samples were studied with polarization measurements, and the coating porosities were calculated from the polarization results for easier comparison of the coatings. Prior to thermal ALD the plasma pre-treatment was observed to reduce the amount of impurities at the interface and coating porosity by 1–3 orders of magnitude. The anti-corrosion properties of the PEALD coatings could also be improved by the pre-treatment. However, exposure of the pre-treatment plasma activated steel surface to oxygen plasma species in PEALD led to facile oxide layer formation in the interface. The oxide layer formed this way was thicker than the native oxide layer and appeared to be detrimental to the protective properties of the coating. The best performance for PEALD Al 2 O 3 coatings was achieved when, after the plasma pre-treatment, the surface was given time to regrow a thin protective interfacial oxide prior to exposure to the oxygen plasma. The different effects that thermal and plasma-enhanced ALD have on the substrate-coating interface were compared. The reactivity of the oxygen precursor was shown to have a significant influence on substrate surface in the early stages of film growth and thereafter also on the overall quality of the protective film. - Highlights: • Influence of H 2 –Ar plasma pre-treatment to ALD coatings on steel was studied. • The pre-treatment modified the coating–substrate interface composition and thickness. • The pre-treatment improved the barrier properties of the coatings

  16. Structural characterisation of pretreated solids from flow-through liquid hot water treatment of sugarcane bagasse in a fixed-bed reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reddy, P

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Untreated sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane bagasse pretreated with flow-through liquid hot water (LHW) treatment (170-207°C and 204-250 ml/min) in a fixed-bed reactor have been structurally characterised. Field emission gun scanning electron...

  17. Deposition of lignin droplets produced during dilute acid pretreatment of maize stems retards enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Michael J; Viamajala, Sridhar; Decker, Stephen R; Tucker, Melvin P; Himmel, Michael E; Vinzant, Todd B

    2007-01-01

    Electron microscopy of lignocellulosic biomass following high-temperature pretreatment revealed the presence of spherical formations on the surface of the residual biomass. The hypothesis that these droplet formations are composed of lignins and possible lignin carbohydrate complexes is being explored. Experiments were conducted to better understand the formation of these "lignin" droplets and the possible implications they might have on the enzymatic saccharification of pretreated biomass. It was demonstrated that these droplets are produced from corn stover during pretreatment under neutral and acidic pH at and above 130 degrees C, and that they can deposit back onto the surface of residual biomass. The deposition of droplets produced under certain pretreatment conditions (acidic pH; T > 150 degrees C) and captured onto pure cellulose was shown to have a negative effect (5-20%) on the enzymatic saccharification of this substrate. It was noted that droplet density (per unit area) was greater and droplet size more variable under conditions where the greatest impact on enzymatic cellulose conversion was observed. These results indicate that this phenomenon has the potential to adversely affect the efficiency of enzymatic conversion in a lignocellulosic biorefinery.

  18. On the changing electrochemical behaviour of boron-doped diamond surfaces with time after cathodic pre-treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R.; Andrade, Leonardo S.; Nascente, Pedro A.P.; Pizani, Paulo S.; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C.; Avaca, Luis A.

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical response of the Fe(CN) 6 4-/3- redox couple on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes immediately after a cathodic pre-treatment and as a function of time exposed to atmospheric conditions is reported here. After this pre-treatment the electrode exhibits a changing electrochemical behaviour, i.e., a loss of the reversibility for the Fe(CN) 6 4-/3- redox couple as a function of time. Raman spectra showed that neither important bulk structural differences nor significant changes in the sp 2 /sp 3 content are introduced into the BDD film by the cathodic pre-treatment indicating that H-terminated sites play an important role in the electrochemical response of the electrodes. Thus, the changing behaviour reflected by a progressive decrease of the electron transfer rate with time must be associated to a loss of superficial hydrogen due to oxidation by oxygen from the air, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Moreover, it was also found that this changing electrochemical behaviour is inversely proportional to the doping level, suggesting that the boron content has a stabilizing effect on the H-terminated surface. These results point out the necessity of doing the cathodic pre-treatment just before the electrochemical experiments are carried out in order to ensure reliable and reproducible results

  19. Bulk Cutting of Carbon Nanotubes Using Electron Beam Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Kirk J. (Inventor); Rauwald, Urs (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Schmidt, Howard K. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Gu, Zhenning (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    According to some embodiments, the present invention provides a method for attaining short carbon nanotubes utilizing electron beam irradiation, for example, of a carbon nanotube sample. The sample may be pretreated, for example by oxonation. The pretreatment may introduce defects to the sidewalls of the nanotubes. The method is shown to produces nanotubes with a distribution of lengths, with the majority of lengths shorter than 100 tun. Further, the median length of the nanotubes is between about 20 nm and about 100 nm.

  20. Investigation of the impacts of thermal pretreatment on waste activated sludge and development of a pretreatment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Gillian; Parker, Wayne

    2013-09-15

    This study investigated the impacts of high pressure thermal hydrolysis (HPTH) pretreatment on the distribution of chemical oxygen demand (COD) species in waste activated sludge (WAS). In the first phase of the project, WAS from a synthetically-fed biological reactor (BR) was fed to an aerobic digester (AD). In the second phase, WAS from the BR was pretreated by HPTH at 150 °C and 3 bars for 30 min prior to being fed to the AD. A range of physical, biochemical and biological properties were regularly measured in each process stream in both phases. The COD of the BR WAS consisted of storage products (XSTO), active heterotrophs (XH) and endogenous decay products (XE). Pretreatment did not increase the extent to which the BR WAS was aerobically digested and hence it was concluded that the unbiodegradable COD fraction, i.e. XE, was unchanged by pretreatment. However, pretreatment did increase the rate of degradation as it converted 36% of XH to readily biodegradable COD (SB) and the remaining XH to slowly biodegradable COD (XB). Furthermore, XSTO was fully converted to SB by pretreatment. Although pretreatment did not change the VSS concentration in the downstream aerobic digester, it did decrease the ISS concentration by 46 ± 11%. This reduced the total mass of solids produced by the digester by 21 ± 8%. A COD-based HPTH pretreatment model was developed and calibrated. When this model was integrated into BioWin 3.1(®), it was able to accurately simulate both the steady state performance of the overall system employed in this study as well as dynamic respirometry results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Techniques and practices for pretreatment of low and intermediate level solid and liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    An overall waste management strategy generally includes several components: pretreatment, treatment, conditioning, transport and disposal. Benefits of pretreatment are improved safety, lower radiation exposures and significantly lower costs in subsequent waste management operations. This publication reviews current practices in the pretreatment of wastes in different countries and may assist the specialist in selection of appropriate pretreatment techniques

  2. Chemical dependence - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use - resources, Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd. ...

  3. Biomass pretreatment affects Ustilago maydis in producing itaconic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klement Tobias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last years, the biotechnological production of platform chemicals for fuel components has become a major focus of interest. Although ligno-cellulosic material is considered as suitable feedstock, the almost inevitable pretreatment of this recalcitrant material may interfere with the subsequent fermentation steps. In this study, the fungus Ustilago maydis was used to produce itaconic acid as platform chemical for the synthesis of potential biofuels such as 3-methyltetrahydrofuran. No studies, however, have investigated how pretreatment of ligno-cellulosic biomass precisely influences the subsequent fermentation by U. maydis. Thus, this current study aims to first characterize U. maydis in shake flasks and then to evaluate the influence of three exemplary pretreatment methods on the cultivation and itaconic acid production of this fungus. Cellulose enzymatically hydrolysed in seawater and salt-assisted organic-acid catalysed cellulose were investigated as substrates. Lastly, hydrolysed hemicellulose from fractionated beech wood was applied as substrate. Results U. maydis was characterized on shake flask level regarding its itaconic acid production on glucose. Nitrogen limitation was shown to be a crucial condition for the production of itaconic acid. For itaconic acid concentrations above 25 g/L, a significant product inhibition was observed. Performing experiments that simulated influences of possible pretreatment methods, U. maydis was only slightly affected by high osmolarities up to 3.5 osmol/L as well as of 0.1 M oxalic acid. The production of itaconic acid was achieved on pretreated cellulose in seawater and on the hydrolysed hemicellulosic fraction of pretreated beech wood. Conclusion The fungus U. maydis is a promising producer of itaconic acid, since it grows as single cells (yeast-like in submerged cultivations and it is extremely robust in high osmotic media and real seawater. Moreover, U. maydis can grow on

  4. Technospheric Mining of Rare Earth Elements from Bauxite Residue (Red Mud): Process Optimization, Kinetic Investigation, and Microwave Pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Sable; Tam, Jason; Yang, Mingfan; Azimi, Gisele

    2017-11-10

    Some rare earth elements (REEs) are classified under critical materials, i.e., essential in use and subject to supply risk, due to their increasing demand, monopolistic supply, and environmentally unsustainable and expensive mining practices. To tackle the REE supply challenge, new initiatives have been started focusing on their extraction from alternative secondary resources. This study puts the emphasis on technospheric mining of REEs from bauxite residue (red mud) produced by the aluminum industry. Characterization results showed the bauxite residue sample contains about 0.03 wt% REEs. Systematic leaching experiments showed that concentrated HNO 3 is the most effective lixiviant. However, because of the process complexities, H 2 SO 4 was selected as the lixiviant. To further enhance the leaching efficiency, a novel process based on microwave pretreatment was employed. Results indicated that microwave pretreatment creates cracks and pores in the particles, enabling the lixiviant to diffuse further into the particles, bringing more REEs into solution, yielding of 64.2% and 78.7% for Sc and Nd, respectively, which are higher than the maximum obtained when HNO 3 was used. This novel process of "H 2 SO 4 leaching-coupled with-microwave pretreatment" proves to be a promising technique that can help realize the technological potential of REE recovery from secondary resources, particularly bauxite residue.

  5. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  6. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)

  7. Water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence

  9. Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Applications: Joint Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgeb, Matt; Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of the Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Applications project is to evaluate and test pretreatments not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders.

  10. Enhanced fermentable sugar production from kitchen waste using various pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafid, Halimatun Saadiah; Rahman, Nor'Aini Abdul; Md Shah, Umi Kalsom; Baharudin, Azhari Samsu

    2015-06-01

    The kitchen waste fraction in municipal solid waste contains high organic matter particularly carbohydrate that can contribute to fermentable sugar production for subsequent conversion to bioethanol. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of single and combination pretreatments of kitchen waste by liquid hot water, mild acid pretreatment of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and enzymatic hydrolysis (glucoamylase). The maximum total fermentable sugar produced after combination pretreatment by 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase consisted of 93.25 g/L glucose, 0.542 g/L sucrose, 0.348 g/L maltose, and 0.321 g/L fructose. The glucose released by the combination pretreatment method was 0.79 g glucose/g KW equivalent to 79% of glucose conversion. The effects of the pre-treatment on kitchen waste indicated that the highest solubilization was 40% by the combination method of 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase. The best combination pre-treatment gave concentrations of lactic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid of 11.74 g/L, 6.77 g/L, and 1.02 g/L, respectively. The decrease of aliphatic absorbance bands of polysaccharides at 2851 and 2923 cm(-1) and the increase on structures of carbonyl absorbance bands at 1600 cm(-1) reflects the progress of the kitchen waste hydrolysis to fermentable sugars. Overall, 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase treatment was the most profitable process as the minimum selling price of glucose was USD 0.101/g kitchen waste. Therefore, the combination pretreatment method was proposed to enhance the production of fermentable sugar, particularly glucose from kitchen waste as the feedstock for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Dilute Acid Pretreated Coconut Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Agustriyanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coconut husk is classified as complex lignocellulosic material that contains cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and some other extractive compounds. Cellulose from coconut husk can be used as fermentation substrate after enzymatic hydrolysis. In contrary, lignin content from the coconut husk will act as an inhibitor in this hydrolysis process. Therefore, a pretreatment process is needed to enhance the hydrolysis of cellulose. The objective of this research is to investigate the production of the glucose through dilute acid pretreatment and to obtain its optimum operating conditions. In this study, the pretreatment was done using dilute sulfuric acid in an autoclave reactor. The pretreatment condition were varied at 80°C, 100°C, 120°C and 0.9%, 1.2%, 1.5% for temperature and acid concentration respectively. The acid pretreated coconut husk was then hydrolyzed using commercial cellulase (celluclast and β-glucosidase (Novozyme 188. The hydrolysis time was 72 hours and the operating conditions were varied at several temperature and pH. From the experimental results it can be concluded that the delignification temperature variation has greater influence than the acid concentration. The optimum operating condition was obtained at pH 4 and 50°C which was pretreated at 100°C using 1.5% acid concentration. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved. (Selected Paper from International Conference on Chemical and Material Engineering (ICCME 2012Received: 28th September 2012, Revised: 2nd October 2012, Accepted: 4th October 2012[How to Cite: R. Agustriyanto, A. Fatmawati, Y. Liasari. (2012. Study of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Dilute Acid Pretreated Coconut Husk. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 137-141. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4046.137-141] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4046.137-141 ] | View in 

  12. Internet and Electronic Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    centers to form consortia and share electronic information sources. Although traditional resource sharing arrangements encouraged competition rather...outside world, through public relations and through marketing information products or services, to its own competitive advantage (Davenport 1997: 193-217... electronic information sources are a challenge for electronic information managers. Libraries and information centers are no longer “the only game in town

  13. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  14. An improved technology for decontaminating ruthenium in uranium purification cycle by hydroxylamine pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Zhanshun; Zhu Zhixuan; Zhang Pilu

    1996-01-01

    The Influences of hydroxylamine concentration, pretreatment time, acidity and the concentration of stabilizer have been studied, and the best pretreatment condition for the improvement of Ru decontamination in uranium purification cycle by hydroxylamine pretreatment has been obtained. The results show that no satisfactory result can be obtained by solely using hydroxylamine as pretreatment agent unless a small amount of hydrazine is added into the pretreatment system as stabilizer

  15. Uranium resource processing. Secondary resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.K.; Singh, H.

    2003-01-01

    This book concentrates on the processing of secondary sources for recovering uranium, a field which has gained in importance in recent years as it is environmental-friendly and economically in tune with the philosophy of sustainable development. Special mention is made of rock phosphate, copper and gold tailings, uranium scrap materials (both natural and enriched) and sea water. This volume includes related area of ore mineralogy, resource classification, processing principles involved in solubilization followed by separation and safety aspects

  16. Autohydrolysis pretreatment assessment in ethanol production from agave bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-González, Leopoldo J; Morales-Martínez, Thelma K; Rodríguez-Flores, María F; Rodríguez-De la Garza, José A; Castillo-Quiroz, David; Castro-Montoya, Agustín J; Martinez, Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the autohydrolysis pretreatment of Agave tequilana bagasse for ethanol production. The pretreatment was conducted using a one-liter high pressure Parr reactor under different severity factors (SF) at a 1:6w/v ratio (solid:liquid) and 200rpm. The solids obtained under the selected autohydrolysis conditions were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis with a commercial cellulase cocktail, and the enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results obtained from the pretreatment process showed that the glucan content in the pretreated solid was mostly preserved, and an increase in the digestibility was observed for the case with a SF of 4.13 (190°C, 30min). Enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated solids showed a yield of 74.3%, with a glucose concentration of 126g/L, resulting in 65.26g/L of ethanol after 10h of fermentation, which represent a 98.4% conversion according to the theoretical ethanol yield value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biosorption of heavy metals by pretreated biomass of aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, A.; Bajwa, R.; Manzoor, T.

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports the bio sorption potential of chemically pretreated mycelial biomass of fungus Aspergillus niger van. Tieghem for Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions from aqueous phase. Fungal biomass was pretreated with different types of alkaline/salts (NaOH, NaHCO/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, NaCl and CaCl/sub 2/), acids (HCl and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) and detergent. Pretreatment of biomass with Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and NaOH were proved to increase or maintain adsorption efficiency and capacity in comparison to untreated biomass. Pretreatment with NaHCO/sub 3/, detergent, NaCl and CaCl/sub 2/ significantly reduce (10-40%) metal sequestering efficiency of the adsorbent. Whereas, acid treatments resulted in drastic loss (80%) in metal uptake efficiency of the biomass. Amongst various pretreatments, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ could be use efficiently for the removal of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution using A. niger. (author)

  18. Cellulase digestibility of pretreated biomass is limited by cellulose accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeoh, Tina; Ishizawa, Claudia I; Davis, Mark F; Himmel, Michael E; Adney, William S; Johnson, David K

    2007-09-01

    Attempts to correlate the physical and chemical properties of biomass to its susceptibility to enzyme digestion are often inconclusive or contradictory depending on variables such as the type of substrate, the pretreatment conditions and measurement techniques. In this study, we present a direct method for measuring the key factors governing cellulose digestibility in a biomass sample by directly probing cellulase binding and activity using a purified cellobiohydrolase (Cel7A) from Trichoderma reesei. Fluorescence-labeled T. reesei Cel7A was used to assay pretreated corn stover samples and pure cellulosic substrates to identify barriers to accessibility by this important component of cellulase preparations. The results showed cellulose conversion improved when T. reesei Cel7A bound in higher concentrations, indicating that the enzyme had greater access to the substrate. Factors such as the pretreatment severity, drying after pretreatment, and cellulose crystallinity were found to directly impact enzyme accessibility. This study provides direct evidence to support the notion that the best pretreatment schemes for rendering biomass more digestible to cellobiohydrolase enzymes are those that improve access to the cellulose in biomass cell walls, as well as those able to reduce the crystallinity of cell wall cellulose.

  19. Intensification of biogas production using pretreatment based on hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pankaj N; Gogate, Parag R; Csoka, Levente; Dregelyi-Kiss, Agota; Horvath, Miklos

    2016-05-01

    The present work investigates the application of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) for the pretreatment of wheat straw with an objective of enhancing the biogas production. The hydrodynamic cavitation reactor is based on a stator and rotor assembly. The effect of three different speeds of rotor (2300, 2500, 2700 rpm), wheat straw to water ratios (0.5%, 1% and 1.5% wt/wt) and also treatment times as 2, 4 and 6 min have been investigated in the work using the design of experiments (DOE) approach. It was observed that the methane yield of 31.8 ml was obtained with untreated wheat straw whereas 77.9 ml was obtained with HC pre-treated wheat straw confirming the favourable changes during the pre-treatment. The combined pre-treatment using KOH and HC gave maximum yield of biogas as 172.3 ml. Overall, it has been established that significant enhancement in the biogas production can be obtained due to the pretreatment using HC which can also be further intensified by combination with chemical treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pretreatment of macroalgae for volatile fatty acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Nhan; Um, Youngsoon; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2013-10-01

    In this study, a novel method was proposed for the biological pretreatment of macroalgae (Laminaria japonica, Pachymeniopsis elliptica, and Enteromorpha crinita) for production of volatile fatty acid (VFA) by anaerobic fermentation. The amount of VFA produced from 40 g/L of L. japonica increased from 8.3 g/L (control) to 15.6 g/L when it was biologically pretreated with Vibrio harveyi. The biological treatment of L. japonica with Vibrio spp. was most effective likely due to the alginate lyase activity of Vibrio spp. However, a considerable effect was also observed after biological pretreatment of P. elliptica and E. crinita, which are red and green algae, respectively. Alkaline pretreatment of 40 g/L of L. japonica with 0.5 N NaOH resulted in an increase of VFA production to 12.2 g/L. These results indicate that VFA production from macroalgae can be significantly enhanced using the proposed biological pretreatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of pretreating of host oil on coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajdu, P.E.; Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The principal objective of this research was to determine if coprocessing performance (i.e., coal conversion and oil yield) could be significantly improved by pretreating the heavy resid prior to reacting it with coal. For this purpose, two petroleum vacuum resids (1000{degrees}F+), one from the Amoco Co. and another from the Citgo Co., were used as such and after they had been pretreated by catalytic hydrogenation and hydrocracking reactions. The pretreatments were aimed at improving the host oil by; (1) converting any aromatic structures in the petroleum to hydroaromatic compounds capable of donating hydrogen, (2) cracking the heavy oil to lower molecular weight material that might serve as a better solvent, (3) reducing the coking propensity of the heavy oil through the hydrogenation of polynuclear aromatic compounds, and (4) removing metals and heteroatoms that might poison a coprocessing catalyst. Highly dispersed catalysts, including fine particle Fe- and Mo-based, and dicobalt octacarbonyl, Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}, were used in this study. The untreated and pretreated resids were extensively characterized in order to determine chemical changes brought about by the pretreatments. The modified heavy oils were then coprocessed with an Illinois No. 6 coal as well as with a Wyodak coal, and compared to coprocessing with untreated resids under the same hydroliquefaction conditions. The amount of oil derived from coal was estimated by measuring the level of phenolic oxygen (derived mainly from coal) present in the oil products. Results are presented and discussed.

  2. A critical review of ionic liquids for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Reddy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids have been the subject of active research over the course of the last decade and have in the past been touted as one of the most promising technologies for revolutionising the chemical and petro-chemical industries. The sheer abundance of potential ionic liquid structures coupled with their tuneable physico-chemical properties has endeared ionic liquids to the scientific community across a broad range of disciplines with potential applications that include pharmaceuticals, electrolytes, thermal energy storage media and liquid mirror telescopes. Within the context of a biorefinery for the production of biofuels and other bio-based products from renewable resources, the unique abilities of some ionic liquids to selectively dissolve biomass components or whole native biomass have been demonstrated. This ability has sparked extensive investigations of ionic liquids for the pretreatment of different biomass types, particularly for the production of cellulosic biofuels. However, the esoteric nature of ionic liquids persists and constructing a fundamental framework for correlating ionic liquid structures with useful applications remains a significant challenge. In addition to the above, the more practical challenges of toxicity, high costs, high viscosities, low solids loading and complex recycling are key factors hindering the wide-scale uptake of ionic liquids as pretreatment solvents in a commercial biorefinery. This critical review provides insights from academic studies and the implications thereof for elevating ionic liquids from the status of �promising� to �commercialisable� in the pretreatment of biomass. It is vital that key hurdles for the commercialisation of ionic liquids in the form of high costs, high viscosities, poor water tolerance, toxicity, low solids loading and recovery/recycling be addressed.

  3. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  4. Virological failure and HIV-1 drug resistance mutations among naive and antiretroviral pre-treated patients entering the ESTHER program of Calmette Hospital in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Barennes

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In resource limited settings, patients entering an antiretroviral therapy (ART program comprise ART naive and ART pre-treated patients who may show differential virological outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective study, conducted in 2010-2012 in the HIV clinic of Calmette Hospital located in Phnom Penh (Cambodia assessed virological failure (VF rates and patterns of drug resistance of naive and pre-treated patients. Naive and ART pre-treated patients were included when a Viral Load (VL was performed during the first year of ART for naive subjects or at the first consultation for pre-treated individuals. Patients showing Virological failure (VF (>1,000 copies/ml underwent HIV DR genotyping testing. Interpretation of drug resistance mutations was done according to 2013 version 23 ANRS algorithms. RESULTS: On a total of 209 patients, 164 (78.4% were naive and 45 (21.5% were ART pre-treated. Their median initial CD4 counts were 74 cells/mm3 (IQR: 30-194 and 279 cells/mm3 (IQR: 103-455 (p<0.001, respectively. Twenty seven patients (12.9% exhibited VF (95% CI: 8.6-18.2%, including 10 naive (10/164, 6.0% and 17 pre-treated (17/45, 37.8% patients (p<0.001. Among these viremic patients, twenty-two (81.4% were sequenced in reverse transcriptase and protease coding regions. Overall, 19 (86.3% harbored ≥1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs whereas 3 (all belonging to pre-treated patients harbored wild-types viruses. The most frequent DRMs were M184V (86.3%, K103N (45.5% and thymidine analog mutations (TAMs (40.9%. Two (13.3% pre-treated patients harbored viruses that showed a multi-nucleos(tide resistance including Q151M, K65R, E33A/D, E44A/D mutations. CONCLUSION: In Cambodia, VF rates were low for naive patients but the emergence of DRMs to NNRTI and 3TC occurred relatively quickly in this subgroup. In pre-treated patients, VF rates were much higher and TAMs were relatively common. HIV genotypic assays before ART initiation and for ART pre-treated

  5. Mechanistic study on ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Govindarajan; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production. Among the different metal salts used, maximum holocellulose recovery and delignification were achieved with ultrasound assisted titanium dioxide (TiO2) pretreatment (UATP) system. At optimum conditions (1% H2O2, 4 g SCB dosage, 60 min sonication time, 2:100 M ratio of metal salt and H2O2, 75°C, 50% ultrasound amplitude and 70% ultrasound duty cycle), 94.98 ± 1.11% holocellulose recovery and 78.72 ± 0.86% delignification were observed. The pretreated SCB was subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis using 0.25% H2SO4 and maximum xylose, glucose and arabinose concentration obtained were 10.94 ± 0.35 g/L, 14.86 ± 0.12 g/L and 2.52 ± 0.27 g/L, respectively. The inhibitors production was found to be very less (0.93 ± 0.11 g/L furfural and 0.76 ± 0.62 g/L acetic acid) and the maximum theoretical yield of glucose and hemicellulose conversion attained were 85.8% and 77%, respectively. The fermentation was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and at the end of 72 h, 0.468 g bioethanol/g holocellulose was achieved. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of pretreated SCB was made and its morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compounds formed during the pretreatment were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of hydrothermal pretreatment for co-utilization C-5 and C-6 sugars of cassava alcohol residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Huisheng; Lv, Chunliu; Zhang, Minhua; Liu, Shuangyan; Liu, Jiatao; Lian, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Cassava alcohol residue was first pretreated by hydrothermal reaction. • Hydrothermal pretreatment was optimized by RSM for co-utilization of C-5 and C-6 sugars. • The maximum xylose yield and the highest enzymatic digestibility were not obtained at the same conditions. • Optimum pretreatment conditions were at 193 °C, with 11.4% solids and for 51 min. • The optimal theoretical ethanol production was 69.5 mg/g raw materials by co-utilization of C-5 and C-6 sugars. - Abstract: Hydrothermal reaction was first applied to pretreat cassava alcohol residue for realizing the co-utilization of xylose and glucose to assume fermentation ethanol. This work focused on the influence of hydrothermal pretreatment conditions on ethanol production. Hydrothermal reaction was used to explore the maximum xylose and glucose yields, in respect to reaction temperature (120–240 °C), solid-liquid ratio (0.023–0.150) and reaction time (15–120 min). The results showed that the suitable conditions were at 180–200 °C, for 45–60 min and with 10–12.5% solids. In this range, the conjunct of xylose and glucose would reach the maximum, which can make full use of hemicellulose and cellulose in cassava alcohol residue. According to the results, respond surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design was used to further optimize the three independent variables for the highest ethanol by co-utilization of xylose and glucose. RSM revealed that the effect of temperature on ethanol production was much more significant than the effect of reaction time and solid-liquid ratio, and the highest ethanol production was 70.6 mg/g that was close to the experiment value of 69.5 mg/g at 193 °C for 51 min and with 11.5% solids. Furthermore, the crystallinity and morphology of the untreated and pretreated cassava alcohol residue were investigated to assess the effect of hydrothermal pretreatment by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD

  7. Chemical and Physicochemical Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Brodeur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the recalcitrance (resistance of plant cell walls to deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass is a key step in the production of fuels and chemicals. The recalcitrance is due to the highly crystalline structure of cellulose which is embedded in a matrix of polymers-lignin and hemicellulose. The main goal of pretreatment is to overcome this recalcitrance, to separate the cellulose from the matrix polymers, and to make it more accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis. Reports have shown that pretreatment can improve sugar yields to higher than 90% theoretical yield for biomass such as wood, grasses, and corn. This paper reviews different leading pretreatment technologies along with their latest developments and highlights their advantages and disadvantages with respect to subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. The effects of different technologies on the components of biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin are also reviewed with a focus on how the treatment greatly enhances enzymatic cellulose digestibility.

  8. Chemical and physicochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Gary; Yau, Elizabeth; Badal, Kimberly; Collier, John; Ramachandran, K B; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Overcoming the recalcitrance (resistance of plant cell walls to deconstruction) of lignocellulosic biomass is a key step in the production of fuels and chemicals. The recalcitrance is due to the highly crystalline structure of cellulose which is embedded in a matrix of polymers-lignin and hemicellulose. The main goal of pretreatment is to overcome this recalcitrance, to separate the cellulose from the matrix polymers, and to make it more accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis. Reports have shown that pretreatment can improve sugar yields to higher than 90% theoretical yield for biomass such as wood, grasses, and corn. This paper reviews different leading pretreatment technologies along with their latest developments and highlights their advantages and disadvantages with respect to subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. The effects of different technologies on the components of biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) are also reviewed with a focus on how the treatment greatly enhances enzymatic cellulose digestibility.

  9. Fluid mechanics relevant to flow through pretreatment of cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault-Léger, Véronique; Lynd, Lee R

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigates fluid mechanical properties of cellulosic feedstocks relevant to flow through (FT) pretreatment for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass. The results inform identifying conditions for which FT pretreatment can be implemented in a practical context. Measurements of pressure drop across packed beds, viscous compaction and water absorption are reported for milled and not milled sugarcane bagasse, switchgrass and poplar, and important factors impacting viscous flow are deduced. Using biomass knife-milled to pass through a 2mm sieve, the observed pressure drop was highest for bagasse, intermediate for switchgrass and lowest for poplar. The highest pressure drop was associated with the presence of more fine particles, greater viscous compaction and the degree of water absorption. Using bagasse without particle size reduction, the instability of the reactor during pretreatment above 140kg/m(3) sets an upper bound on the allowable concentration for continuous stable flow. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Leachate pretreatment for enhancing organic matter conversion in landfill bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Pinjing; Qu Xian; Shao Liming; Li Guojian; Lee Duujong

    2007-01-01

    Direct recycling of leachate from refuse of high food waste content was shown to ineffectively stabilize the refuse. This work aims at evaluating the effects of three pretreatments of leachate on the refuse stabilization efficiency were investigated. Pretreatment of leachate using an anaerobic upflow filtration bioreactor (UFB) or a well-decomposed waste layer could reduce the COD and provide methanogens, both were beneficial to establish early methanogenesis status. Using an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) to pretreat the leachate could reduce its COD to 1000 mg l -1 , but the fully developed methanogenesis phase would be built up in a later stage. The organic matters in the effluent leachate inhibited both the hydrolysis/acidogenesis and the methanogenesis steps in the refuse. With the dilution and acid neutralization effects by the recycled leachate, a favorable methanogenetic environment could be produced from the column's top, which moved downward along, and finally made the breakthrough of the column

  11. Hazard Analysis for the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Robin S.; Geeting, John GH; Lawrence, Wesley E.; Young, Jonathan

    2008-07-10

    The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) is designed to perform a demonstration on an engineering scale to confirm the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility (PTF) leaching and filtration process equipment design and sludge treatment process. The system will use scaled prototypic equipment to demonstrate sludge water wash, caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, and filtration. Unit operations to be tested include pumping, solids washing, chemical reagent addition and blending, heating, cooling, leaching, filtration, and filter cleaning. In addition, the PEP will evaluate potential design changes to the ultrafiltration process system equipment to potentially enhance leaching and filtration performance as well as overall pretreatment throughput. The skid-mounted system will be installed and operated in the Processing Development Laboratory-West at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

  12. Carbohydrate degradation mechanisms and compounds from pretreated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helena

    The formation of inhibitors during pretreatment of lignocellulosic feedstocks is a persistent problem, and notably the compounds that retard enzymatic cellulose conversion represent an obstacle for achieving optimal enzymatic productivity and high glucose yields. Compounds with many chemical...... pretreated wheat straw after enzymatic treatment. It was found that formation of the oligophenolic degradation compounds were common across biomass sources as sugar cane bagasse and oil palm empty fruit bunches. These findings were in line with that the oligophenolic compounds arise from reactions involving...... functionalities are formed during biomass pretreatment, which gives possibilities for various chemical reactions to take place and hence formation of many new potential inhibitor compounds. This somehow overlooked contemplation formed the basis for the main hypothesis investigated in this work: Hypothesis 1...

  13. Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

  14. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via...... Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole...... gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid...

  15. Fungal pretreatment of straw for enhanced biogas yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xinmei; Pilar Castillo, Maria del; Schnuerer, Anna

    2013-07-01

    Among lignocellulosic materials from the agricultural sector, straw is considered to have the biggest potential as a biofuel and therefore also represents a big potential for biogas production. However, the degradation of lignocellulosic materials is somewhat restricted due to the high content of lignin that binds cellulose and hemicellulose and makes them unavailable for microbial degradation. Consequently, low methane yields are achieved. The biodegradability of the lignocellulosic material can be increased by a pretreatment. Optimally the pre-treatment should give an increase in the formation of sugars while avoiding the degradation or loss of carbohydrates and the formation of inhibitory by-products. The treatment should also be cost-effective. Different methods for pre-treatment of lignocellulosic material have been explored, for example thermal, acid, alkaline and oxidative pretreatments. However, they often have a high energy demand. Biological treatment with fungi represents an alternative method for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials that could be comparably more environmentally friendly, easier to operate and with low energy input. The fungal groups of interest for lignocellulose degradation are the wood decaying fungi, such as the white-, brown-rot and cellulose degraders. The purpose with this work was to increase the biogas potential of straw by using a pretreatment with fungi. Straw was incubated with fungi at aerobic conditions under certain periods of time. The growth and colonization of the straw by the fungi was expected to increase the availability of the lignocellulosic structure of the straw and thus positively affect the biogas potential. In addition also, the spent lignocellulosic material from the cultivation of edible fungi was investigated. We hypothesized that also growth of edible fungi could give a more accessible material and thus give higher biogas potential compared to the substrate before fungal growth.

  16. Pre-treating Seed to Enhance Germination of Desert Shrubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. K. Ostler; D. C. Anderson; D. J. Hansen

    2002-06-01

    Creosotebush [Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cav.] and white bursage [Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) W.W. Payne] seeds were subjected to pre-treatments of rinsing and soaking in water and thiourea to enhance germination in laboratory experiments. The effects of darkness, temperature, seed source, and soil moisture were also evaluated in the laboratory. The best pre-treatment from the laboratory experiments, rinsing with water for 36 hours followed by drying, was field-tested at Fort Irwin, California. Two sites and two seeding dates (early March and mid April) were determined for each site. Five mulch treatments (no mulch, straw, gravel, chemical stabilizer, and plastic) were evaluated in combination with the seed pre-treatments. Field emergence was greatly enhanced with the seed pre-treatment for white bursage during the March (18-42% increase in germination) and April seedings (16-23% increase in germination). Creosotebush showed poor germination during March (2-5%) when soil temperatures averaged 15 C, but germination increased during the April trials (6-43%) when soil temperatures averaged 23 C. The seed pre-treatment during the April trials increased germination from 16-23%. The plastic mulch treatment increased germination dramatically during both the March and April trials. The plastic mulch increased soil temperatures (8-10 C)and maintained high humidity during germination. Both the chemical stabilizer and the gravel mulches improved germination over the control while the straw mulch decreased germination. These results suggest that seed pre-treatments combined with irrigation and mulch are effective techniques to establish these two dominant Mojave Desert species from seed.

  17. Bioethanol production: Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengborg, Charlotte

    2000-05-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis process can be used to produce bioethanol from softwood, which are the dominating raw material in the Northern hemisphere. This thesis deals with the development of the process focusing on the pretreatment and the enzymatic hydrolysis stages. The influence of pretreatment conditions on sugar yield, and the effect of inhibitors on the ethanol yield, were investigated for spruce and pine. The maximum yields of hemicellulose sugars and glucose were obtained under different pretreatment conditions. This indicates that two-stage pretreatment may be preferable. The added catalysts, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and SO{sub 2}, resulted in similar total sugar yields about 40 g/100 g dry raw material. However, the fermentability of SO{sub 2}-impregnated material was better. This pretreatment resulted in the formation of inhibitors to the subsequent process steps, e.g. sugar and lignin degradation products. The glucose yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis stage was affected by various parameters such as enzyme loading, temperature, pH, residence time, substrate concentration, and agitation. To decrease the amount of fresh water used and thereby waste water produced, the sugar-rich prehydrolysate from the pretreatment step was included in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fraction, resulting in a reduction in the cellulose conversion of up to 36%. Different prehydrolysate detoxification methods, such as treatment with Ca(OH){sub 2}, laccase, and fermentation using yeast, were investigated. The latter was shown to be very efficient. The amount of fresh water used can be further reduced by recycling various process streams. This was simulated experimentally in a bench-scale process. A reduction in fresh water demand of 50% was obtained without any further negative effects on either hydrolysis or fermentation.

  18. Pre-treatment child and family characteristics as predictors of outcome in cognitive behavioural therapy for youth anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundkvist-Houndoumadi, Irene; Hougaard, Esben; Thastum, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective for children and adolescents (6-18 years) with anxiety disorders, but the non-response rate is high-a fact that may argue for the importance of studies on pre-treatment characteristics of children and their families...... that predict treatment outcome. AIMS: To provide a systematic review of clinical and demographic pre-treatment child and family predictors of treatment outcome in CBT for anxiety disorders in youth. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted based on electronic databases (PsycINFO, Embase and Pub......Med), and retrieved studies were analysed according to the box-score method of counting significant findings. RESULTS: 24 studies with a sample size ≥ 60 were located. Most studies dealt with the following predictors: child age, gender, comorbidity, symptom severity and parental psychopathology. There was some...

  19. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SWITCHGRASS AND COASTAL BERMUDA GRASS PRETREATED USING DIFFERENT CHEMICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiele Xu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of biomass feedstock and pretreatment method on the enzyme requirement during hydrolysis, swichgrass and coastal Bermuda grass pretreated using H2SO4, NaOH, and Ca(OH2 at the optimal conditions were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using two enzyme combinations: NS 50013 + NS 50010 and Cellic CTec + Cellic HTec. The enzyme loadings were optimized, and correlations between feedstock property, pretreatment strategy, and enzyme usage were evaluated. The results show that pretreatment methods resulting in greater lignin contents in the pretreated biomass were generally associated with higher enzyme requirements. More sugars could be recovered from alkaline-pretreated biomass during enzymatic hydrolysis due to the better carbohydrate preservation achieved at mild pretreatment temperatures. The cellulase enzyme, Cellic CTec, was more efficient in catalyzing the hydrolysis of coastal Bermuda grass, a feedstock more digestible than the pretreated swichgrass, following pretreatment with NaOH or Ca(OH2.

  20. Production of bio-sugar and bioethanol from coffee residue (CR) by acid-chlorite pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Choi, Yong-Soo; Lee, Dae-Seok; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, coffee residue (CR) after roasting is recognized as one of the most useful resources in the world for producing the biofuel and bio-materials. In this study, we evaluated the potential of bio-sugar and bioethanol production from acid-chlorite treated CR. Notably, CR treated three times with acid-chlorite after organic solvent extraction (OSE-3), showed the high monosaccharide content, and the efficient sugar conversion yield compared to the other pretreatment conditions. The OSE-3 (6% substrate loading, w/v) can produce bio-sugar (0.568g/g OSE-3). Also, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) produced ethanol (0.266g/g OSE-3), and showed an ethanol conversion yield of 73.8% after a 72-h reaction period. These results suggest that acid-chlorite pretreatment can improve the bio-sugar and bioethanol production of CR by removing the phenolic and brown compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dosimetric pre-treatment verification of IMRT using an EPID; clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijtveld, Mathilda van; Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Boer, Hans C.J. de; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: In our clinic a QA program for IMRT verification, fully based on dosimetric measurements with electronic portal imaging devices (EPID), has been running for over 3 years. The program includes a pre-treatment dosimetric check of all IMRT fields. During a complete treatment simulation at the linac, a portal dose image (PDI) is acquired with the EPID for each patient field and compared with a predicted PDI. In this paper, the results of this pre-treatment procedure are analysed, and intercepted errors are reported. An automated image analysis procedure is proposed to limit the number of fields that need human intervention in PDI comparison. Materials and methods: Most of our analyses are performed using the γ index with 3% local dose difference and 3 mm distance to agreement as reference values. Scalar parameters are derived from the γ values to summarize the agreement between measured and predicted 2D PDIs. Areas with all pixels having γ values larger than one are evaluated, making decisions based on clinically relevant criteria more straightforward. Results: In 270 patients, the pre-treatment checks revealed four clinically relevant errors. Calculation of statistics for a group of 75 patients showed that the patient-averaged mean γ value inside the field was 0.43 ± 0.13 (1 SD) and only 6.1 ± 6.8% of pixels had a γ value larger than one. With the proposed automated image analysis scheme, visual inspection of images can be avoided in 2/3 of the cases. Conclusion: EPIDs may be used for high accuracy and high resolution routine verification of IMRT fields to intercept clinically relevant dosimetric errors prior to the start of treatment. For the majority of fields, PDI comparison can fully rely on an automated procedure, avoiding excessive workload

  2. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Fibre Pressed Oil Palm Frond by using Sacchariseb C6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, F. S.; Yussof, H. W.; Zahari, M. A. K. M.; Rahman, R. A.; Illias, R. M.

    2017-06-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis becomes a prominent technology for conversion of cellulosic biomass to its glucose monomers that requires an action of cellulolytic enzymes in a sequential and synergistic manner. In this study, the effect of agitation speed, glucan loading, enzyme loading, temperature and reaction time on the production of glucose from fibre pressed oil palm frond (FPOPF) during enzymatic hydrolysis was screened by a half factorial design 25-1 using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The FPOPF sample was first delignified by alkaline pretreatment at 4.42 (w/v) sodium hydroxide for an hour prior to enzymatic hydrolysis using commercial cellulase enzyme, Sacchariseb C6. The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the structural of FPOPF has been evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis. Characterization of raw FPOPF comprised of 4.5 extractives, 40.7 glucan, 26.1 xylan, 26.2 lignin and 1.8 ash, whereas for pretreated FPOPF gave 0.3 extractives, 61.4 glucan, 20.4 xylan, 13.3 lignin and 1.3 ash. From this study, it was found that the best enzymatic hydrolysis condition yielded 33.01 ± 0.73 g/L of glucose when performed at 200 rpm of agitation speed, 60 FPU/mL of enzyme loading, 4 (w/w) of glucan loading, temperature at 55 □ and 72 hours of reaction time. The model obtained was significant with p-value enzymatic hydrolysis from pretreated FPOPF produce high amount of glucose that enhances it potential for industrial application. This glucose can be further used to produce high-value products.

  3. Comparison of Grinding Characteristics of Converter Steel Slag with and without Pretreatment and Grinding Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihui Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The converter steel slag cannot be widely used in building materials for its poor grindability. In this paper, the grinding characteristics of untreated and pretreated (i.e., magnetic separation steel slag were compared. Additionally, the grinding property of pretreated steel slag was also studied after adding grinding aids. The results show that the residues (i.e., oversize substance that passed a 0.9 mm square-hole screen can be considered as the hardly grinding phases (HGP and its proportion is about 1.5%. After the initial 20 min grinding, the RO phase (RO phase is a continuous solid solution which is composed of some divalent metal oxides, such as FeO, MgO, MnO, CaO, etc., calcium ferrite, and metallic iron phase made up most of the proportion of the HGP, while the metallic iron made up the most component after 70 min grinding. The D50 of untreated steel slag could only reach 32.89 μm after 50 min grinding, but that of pretreated steel slag could reach 18.16 μm after the same grinding time. The grinding efficiency of steel slag was obviously increased and the particle characteristics were improved after using grinding aids (GA, especially the particle proportions of 3–32 μm were obviously increased by 7.24%, 7.22%, and 10.63% after 40 min, 50 min, and 60 min grinding, respectively. This is mainly because of the reduction of agglomeration and this effect of GA was evidenced by SEM (scanning electron microscope images.

  4. Comparison between solid-state and powder-state alkali pretreatment on saccharification and fermentation for bioethanol production from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeasmin, Shabina; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Islam, Shah Md Asraful; Lee, Ji-Young

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of different concentrations of NaOH (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00%) for the pretreatment of rice straw in solid and powder state in enzymatic saccharification and fermentation for the production of bioethanol was evaluated. A greater amount of biomass was recovered through solid-state pretreatment (3.74 g) from 5 g of rice straw. The highest increase in the volume of rice straw powder as a result of swelling was observed with 1.00% NaOH pretreatment (48.07%), which was statistically identical to 0.75% NaOH pretreatment (32.31%). The surface of rice straw was disrupted by the 0.75% NaOH and 1.00% NaOH pretreated samples as observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, absorbance of hydroxyl groups at 1,050 cm(-1) due to the OH group of lignin was gradually decreased with the increase of NaOH concentration. The greatest amounts of glucose and ethanol were obtained in 1.00% NaOH solid-state pretreated and powder-state hydrolyzed samples (0.804 g g(-1) and 0.379 g g(-1), respectively), which was statistically similar to the use of 0.75% NaOH (0.763 g g(-1) and 0.358 g g(-1), respectively). Thus, solid-state pretreatment with 0.75% NaOH and powder-state hydrolysis appear to be suitable for fermentation and bioethanol production from rice straw.

  5. Permitting plan for project W-236B, initial pretreatment module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollefson, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System pretreatment process mission is to separate high-level and low-level waste fractions. A comprehensive review of environmental regulations has indicated that several environmental reviews, permits, and approvals are required before construction and operation of the facility. This revised document provides a summary of permit application data requirements, alternative strategies for permit completion and approval, as well as the probability of success for each alternative for the Initial Pretreatment Module resulting from recent revisions to the Tri-Party Agreement

  6. GSDO Program Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives: Final Pretreatments Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Hexavalent chrome free pretreatments should be considered for use on Ground Support Equipment (OSE) and Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EOSE). Both of the hexavalent chrome free pretreatments (Metalast TCP HF and SurTec 650C) evaluated by this project met, and in some instances exceeded, the requirements ofMIL-DTL-5541 "Chemical Conversion Coatings on Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys". For DC resistance measurements, both Metalast TCP HF and SurTec (!50C met initial requirements following assembly and in many cases continued to maintain passing readings for the duration of testing.

  7. Direct ethanol conversion of pretreated straw by Fusarium oxysporum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christakopoulos, P.; Koullas, D.P.; Kekos, D.; Koukios, E.G.; Macris, B.J. (National Technical Univ., Athens (GR). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Factors affecting the direct conversion of alkali pretreated straw to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum F3 were investigated and the alkali level used for pretreatment and the degree of delignification of straw were found to be the most important. A linear correlation between ethanol yield and both the degree of straw delignification and the alkali level was observed. At optimum delignified straw concentration (4% w/v), a maximum ethanol yield of 0.275 g ethanol g{sup -1} of straw was obtained corresponding to 67.8% of the theoretical yield. (author).

  8. Pretreatment of sawdust and its hydrolysis with immobilised enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1988-01-01

    The pretreatment of sawdust by radiation and its hydrolysis with immobilised cellulase were studied. The sawdust was irradiated with a number of different irradiation doses and crushed with two kinds of crusher; pulveriser and ball mill. In ball-mill crushing, the crushing time to get a fine powder was reduced by radiation treatment and the conversion yield of cellulose to glucose in the enzyme hydrolysis was increased. It was found that sawdust pretreated by radiation and subsequent crushing was efficiently hydrolysed by immobilised cellulase which itself was obtained by a radiation polymerisation technique. (author)

  9. TWRS tank waste pretreatment process development hot test siting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, G.F.; Banning, D.L.; Dodd, D.A.; Smith, D.A.; Stevens, P.F.; Hansen, R.I.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report is the sixth in a series that have assessed the hot testing requirements for TWRS pretreatment process development and identified the hot testing support requirements. This report, based on the previous work, identifies specific hot test work packages, matches those packages to specific hot cell facilities, and provides recommendations of specific facilities to be employed for the pretreatment hot test work. Also identified are serious limitations in the tank waste sample retrieval and handling infrastructure. Recommendations are provided for staged development of 500 mL, 3 L, 25 L and 4000 L sample recovery systems and specific actions to provide those capabilities

  10. Development and application of free pretreatment container steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Han, B.; Wei, B.; Wang, S. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Due to economic and environmental advantages pre-treatment containers have good big development prospects, which can avoid shot blasting processes, and decrease the noise and dust pollution. By analyzing requirements of the container steel surface quality, target oxide scale structure of free pretreatment container steel has been determined. Trial process was carried out, and test results showed that the oxide scale achieved the desired objects, oxide scale with outer thin Fe3O4 layer and inner eutectoid α-Fe+Fe3O4. Salt spray test, second adhesion test, and modeling performance basically corroborated the container feasibility.

  11. Study on the Pretreating Approaches for the Potato Straws

    OpenAIRE

    An Yumin; Wang Jukui; Huang Ye; Xu Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to pretreat the potato straws. Specifically, potato straws are handled using various kinds of chemical solutions, including HCI, H2SO4, NaOH and NaOH+H2O2, under different concentrations. For each kind of solution, particular indicators, such as the cellulose content as well as scarification ratio of the treated straws, are studied in the paper. Based on orthogonal experiments, the best pretreatment effect is obtained by using the solution of 4% NaOH under temp...

  12. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  13. Mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

  14. Electron beam-cured coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Naoyuki

    1976-01-01

    The method for hardening coatings by the irradiation with electron beams is reviewed. The report is divided into seven parts, namely 1) general description and characteristics of electron beam-cured coating, 2) radiation sources of curing, 3) hardening conditions and reaction behaviour, 4) uses and advantages, 5) latest trends of the industry, 6) practice in the field of construction materials, and 7) economy. The primary characteristics of the electron beam hardening is that graft reaction takes place between base resin and coating to produce strong adhesive coating without any pretreatment. A variety of base resins are developed. High class esters of acrylic acid monomers and methacrylic acid monomers are mainly used as dilutants recently. At present, scanning type accelerators are used, but the practical application of the system producing electron beam of curtain type is expected. The dose rate dependence, the repetitive irradiation and the irradiation atmosphere are briefly described. The filed patent applications on the electron beam hardening were analyzed by the officer of Japan Patent Agency. The production lines for coatings by the electron beam hardening in the world are listed. In the electron beam-cured coating, fifty percent of given energy is consumed effectively for the electron beam hardening, and the solvents discharged from ovens and polluting atmosphere are not used, because the paints of high solid type is used. The running costs of the electron beam process are one sixth of the thermal oven process. (Iwakiri, K.)

  15. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  16. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Occurrence and elimination of in-plane misoriented crystals in AlN epilayers on sapphire via pre-treatment control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hu; Xiong Hui; Wu Zhi-Hao; Yu Chen-Hui; Tian Yu; Dai Jiang-Nan; Fang Yan-Yan; Zhang Jian-Bao; Chen Chang-Qing

    2014-01-01

    AlN epilayers are grown directly on sapphire (0001) substrates each of which has a low temperature AlN nucleation layer. The effects of pretreatments of sapphire substrates, including exposures to NH 3 /H 2 and to H 2 only ambients at different temperatures, before the growth of AlN epilayers is investigated. In-plane misoriented crystals occur in N-polar AlN epilayers each with pretreatment in a H 2 only ambient, and are characterized by six 60°-apart peaks with splits in each peak in (101-bar 2) phi scan and two sets of hexagonal diffraction patterns taken along the [0001] zone axis in electron diffraction. These misoriented crystals can be eliminated in AlN epilayers by the pretreatment of sapphire substrates in the NH 3 /H 2 ambient. AlN epilayers by the pretreatment of sapphire substrates in the NH 3 /H 2 ambient are Al-polar. Our results show the pretreatments and the nucleation layers are responsible for the polarities of the AlN epilayers. We ascribe these results to the different strain relaxation mechanisms induced by the lattice mismatch of AlN and sapphire. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  18. The effect of lignin removal by alkaline peroxide pretreatment on the susceptibility of corn stover to purified cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Michael J; Vinzant, Todd B; Himmel, Michael E; Decker, Stephen R

    2009-05-01

    Pretreatment of corn stover with alkaline peroxide (AP) at pH 11.5 resulted in reduction of lignin content in the residual solids as a function of increasing batch temperature. Scanning electron microscopy of these materials revealed notably more textured surfaces on the plant cell walls as a result of the delignifying pretreatment. As expected, digestion of the delignified samples with commercial cellulase preparations showed an inverse relationship between the content of lignin present in the residual solids after pretreatment and the extent of both glucan and xylan conversion achievable. Digestions with purified enzymes revealed that decreased lignin content in the pretreated solids did not significantly impact the extent of glucan conversion achievable by cellulases alone. Not until purified xylanolytic activities were included with the cellulases were significant improvements in glucan conversion realized. In addition, an inverse relationship was observed between lignin content after pretreatment and the extent of xylan conversion achievable in a 24-h period with the xylanolytic enzymes in the absence of the cellulases. This observation, coupled with the direct relationship between enzymatic xylan and glucan conversion observed in a number of cases, suggests that the presence of lignins may not directly occlude cellulose present in lignocelluloses but rather impact cellulase action indirectly by its association with xylan.

  19. Use of spectroscopic and imaging techniques to evaluate pretreated sugarcane bagasse as a substrate for cellulase production under solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Bertucci Neto, Victor; Couri, Sonia; Crestana, Silvio; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

    2014-03-01

    The enzymatic cocktail of cellulases is one of the most costly inputs affecting the economic viability of the biochemical route for biomass conversion into biofuels and other chemicals. Here, the influence of liquid hot water, dilute acid, alkali, and combined acid/alkali pretreatments on sugarcane bagasse (SCB) used for cellulase production was investigated by means of spectroscopic and imaging techniques. Chemical composition and structural characteristics, such as crystallinity (determined by X-ray diffraction), functional groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), and microstructure (scanning electron microscopy), were used to correlate SCB pretreatments with enzymatic biosynthesis by a strain of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger under solid-state fermentation. The combined acid/alkali pretreatment resulted in a SCB with higher cellulose content (86.7%). However, the high crystallinity (74%) of the resulting biomass was detrimental to microbial uptake and enzyme production. SCB pretreated with liquid hot water yielded the highest filter paper cellulase (FPase), carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), and xylanase activities (0.4, 14.9, and 26.1 U g(-1), respectively). The results showed that a suitable pretreatment for SCB to be used as a substrate for cellulase production should avoid severe conditions in order to preserve amorphous cellulose and to enhance the physical properties that assist microbial access.

  20. Factors affecting seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic date palm residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Chuanji; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Frankaer, Christian Grundahl

    2017-01-01

    Seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is an innovative process at research stage. With respect to process optimization, factors affecting seawater-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic date palm residues were studied for the first time in this paper. Pretreatment temperature (180...... °C–210 °C), salinity of seawater (0 ppt–50 ppt), and catalysts (H2SO4, Na2CO3, and NaOH) were investigated. The results showed that pretreatment temperature exerted the largest influence on seawater-based pretreatment in terms of the enzymatic digestibility and fermentability of pretreated solids...